WorldWideScience

Sample records for vid miljoehistoriskt moete

  1. MOET Utility in Beef Production Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Theodor Paraschivescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the reason of beef production for human food security and the necessity of special dairy and beefbreeds in order to balance the milk and the meat production in cattle farming. That is a difficult target for manycountries since they don’t dispose of large natural pastures to extensively feed the beef cattle herds. At the same timemany European countries breed only dual purpose cattle breeds. So the idea of intensive farming with beef breeds orcrosses is developed. To speed up this kind of programs Open MOET (Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Farmtechnology is proposed and it is completed with the needed facilities for production and preservation of embryos.Concerning the MOET Farm which confers directly pure bred beef calves, emphases is put on veterinary quarantineand heifer receptors conditioning. Concerning embryo conservation the direct transfer (DT technique isrecommended. Modalities of integrating dairy farms and beef cattle farms are finally discussed as recommendedstrategy for Romanian Agriculture.

  2. Mildeu de la Vid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daníes L. Carlos Alberto

    1941-02-01

    Full Text Available Esta es una de las enfermedades de la vid que más importancia tienen desde hace cincuenta años. En tanto que la filoxera, el Oidium y la Pudrición Negra, han dejado de inspirar serias inquietudes entre los agricultores, el Mildeu, continúa siendo el principal peligro en las regiones vitícolas. El ataque de 1915, en Francia, redujo la cosecha de 40 a 50 millones de hectolitros, que es la producción promedia, a 17 millones. Los híbridos de resistencia parcial, han sufrido pérdidas notables, lo cual les ha hecho perder el prestigio que tenían como fuertes productores. Los órganos de reproducción del parásito que causa el Mildeu de la vid, emiten unos filamentos que penetran por los estomas de los órganos; se desarrollan en el interior de los órganos verdes, donde alteran sus tejidos; envían, luego, al exterior, fructificaciones que aparecen bajo la forma de una borra blanca; estas fructificaciones, llevan semillas que se dispersan como granos y germinan en el agua para continuar la evolución. La acción del parásito sobre los tejidos, da a los órganos de la vid caracteres que permiten conocer fácilmente la enfermedad, al examen microscópico. El Mildeu sólo ataca los órganos jóvenes, aún verdes; los sarmientos lignificados y los órganos de más edad, lo mismo que las partes subterráneas, no son atacados. Los distintos estados del desarrollo del parásito han recibido diversos nombres en viticultura: la penetración de los filamentos al órgano, lleva el nombre de: "diseminación"; viene, luego, la llamada "incubación", en la cual el desarrollo de los filamentos, en el interior de los tejidos, no provoca manifestaciones exteriores visibles. La primera manifestación exterior de la enfermedad, es llamada: "aparición" o, más frecuentemente: "invasión". Este último término es más usado, aunque, etimológicamente, es impropio. Los viticultores, no pueden señalar la invasión del Mildeu, sino cuando éste hace su

  3. Wat iedere journalist moet weten van marktonderzoek : Doorvragen bij wie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, Edith|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073351385

    Een gouden regel in de journalis-tiek vormen de vijf W’s (en een H). Een goede onderzoeksjournalist zal altijd vragen: wie, waarom, wat, waar, wanneer en hoe. Het zijn prima basisvragen, maar wanneer een journalist een item voorbereidt en daarbij gebruik maakt van marktonderzoek, moet er nog even

  4. Baltika Moetänav = Baltika Fashion Street

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Veerenni 24 asuvast Baltika Moetänava sisearhitektuursest lahendusest. Autorid: Maire Milder, Ott Kangur, Ülo-Tarmo Stöör, Maris Kerge, Kaur-Lembit Stöör, Pärtel Eelma, Pekka Porkanen, Lauri Eltermaa

  5. Biobed moet waswater van vuile veldspuit reinigen : bij Proefboerderij Vredepeel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zevenbergen, G.J.; PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente

    2009-01-01

    Om het afvalwater dat bij het schoonmaken van de veldspuit vrijkomt te reinigen, staat op het proefbedrijf PPO Vredepeel een biobed. Zo’n eenvoudig en goedkoop aan te leggen bed moet de gewasbeschermingsmiddelen in het water afbreken. De verwachtingen zijn hooggespannen

  6. Women, "Star Trek," and the early development of fannish vidding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Coppa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the practices and aesthetics of vidding were structured by the relationship of Star Trek's female fans to that particular televisual text. Star Trek fandom was the crucible within which vidding developed because Star Trek's narrative impelled female fans to take on two positions often framed as contradictory in mainstream culture: the desiring body, and the controlling voice of technology. To make a vid, to edit footage to subtext-revealing music, is to unite these positions: to put technology at the service of desire. Although the conflict between desire and control was particularly thematized in Star Trek, most famously through the divided character of Spock, the practices of vidding are now applied to other visual texts. This essay examines the early history of vidding and demonstrates, through the close reading of particular vids made for Star Trek and Quantum Leap, how vidding heals the wounds created by the displacement and fragmentation of women on television.

  7. Techniek moet rijtaak ondersteunen : interview met Fred Wegman, directeur SWOV, over verkeersveiligheid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohm, R.

    2010-01-01

    Het gaat nog steeds goed, maar het kan altijd beter. Helaas is de problematiek ingewikkelder geworden en zijn er geen snelle oplossingen met veel effect meer voorhanden. Daarom moet het karakter van de aanpak van verkeersonveiligheid veranderen. (Author/publisher)

  8. Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET in camels: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binoy S. Vettical

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unlike in other domestic animal species like cattle, reproductive biotechnologies like Artificial Insemination (AI and Embryo Transfer (ET are not well developed and thus are not being used as routine breeding procedures in camels. One of the important objectives of this manuscript is to focus on analyzing the present status of Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer (MOET in camels and its future perspectives. Camels are induced ovulators, thus require hormonal treatment to induce ovulation and control the follicular cycles, which is the main reason why protocols used in other domestic animal species cannot be directly used in this species. The review suggests that the best method for super stimulation of ovaries in camels is use of a combination of Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH at any stage after elimination of dominant follicle if any or at the early stage of the follicular wave and ovulation of the developed multiple follicles can be achieved by mating donors. The review highlights that a better pregnancy rate is achieved with recipients who ovulate 24 h after the donor.

  9. Women, "Star Trek," and the early development of fannish vidding

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Coppa

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that the practices and aesthetics of vidding were structured by the relationship of Star Trek's female fans to that particular televisual text. Star Trek fandom was the crucible within which vidding developed because Star Trek's narrative impelled female fans to take on two positions often framed as contradictory in mainstream culture: the desiring body, and the controlling voice of technology. To make a vid, to edit footage to subtext-revealing music, is to unite these posi...

  10. 'n Lied moet klink om gehoor te word ... : Faktore wat die resepsie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    17 Apr 2013 ... The Authors. Licensee: AOSIS. OpenJournals. This work is licensed under the. Creative Commons. Attribution License. 'n Lied moet klink om gehoor te word ... : Faktore wat die resepsie van kerkliedere kan beïnvloed. A hymn must be sung to be heard ... : Aspects that could influence the reception of hymns.

  11. Soigner des jeux vidéo / soigner par les jeux vidéo

    OpenAIRE

    Gaon, Thomas; Stora, Michel

    2012-01-01

    La problématique de l’addiction aux jeux vidéo pose la question de leurs effets performatifs. La notion d’addiction, ici fortement critiquée, se révèle être avant tout un enjeu doctrinal pour la psychologie clinique. Cette généalogie détaillée du concept remet en cause la notion même d’addiction et privilégie un usage excessif d’un genre particulier de jeux, les jeux de rôle massivement multi-joueurs. Ces deux regards croisés sur les jeux vidéo révèlent ainsi la dimension transitionnelle de c...

  12. Streaming Scholarship: Using Fan Vids to Teach "Harry Potter"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Sarah Fiona

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Harry Potter fan vids can be used in the classroom as works of secondary criticism about J. K. Rowling's primary text. It makes two claims: the first is that vids can be read as criticism of a particular text (in this case Harry Potter) alongside other critical essays on that text; the second is that the practice of…

  13. Règle d'installation vidéosurveillance

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Ce référentiel définit les exigences techniques minimales applicables aux systèmes de vidéosurveillance, avec des caméras implantées à l’intérieur ou l’extérieur. Il donne des recommandations pour concevoir, installer et maintenir des systèmes de vidéosurveillance dans des applications de sécurité. Pour une vidéosurveillance efficace, on pourra appliquer la méthodologie proposée : comment réaliser l’analyse de risque ? Quel rôle attribuer au système de vidéosurveillance ? quel système mettre en place, avec quelles fonctions et quelles caractéristiques techniques ? comment réaliser l’installation ? comment assurer la maintenance du système ? Cette nouvelle édition a notamment pour objectifs de : compléter les rôles de la vidéosurveillance (gestion d'activité) ; clarifier la définition des objectifs de prise de vue ; inclure l'utilisation d'une cible normalisée pour la réception de l'installation ; mettre à disposition un outil d'aide pour les petits systèmes ;...

  14. Nytt instrument vid CERN ger enorma datamängder

    CERN Multimedia

    Björck, Ingela

    2004-01-01

    "Upp till 100 gånger per sekund kommer det att skapas bilder av partikelkollisioner, bilder som var och en har innehåller 20 gånger mer data än det bästa en avancerad digitalkamera kan producera. Detta ska ske vid ett nytt instrument som just nu nu byggs vid CERN i Schweiz. Hur denna enorma datamängd ska analyseras är en utmaning för bland andra lundaforskaren Oxana Smirnova" (1 page)

  15. Le marché des jeux vidéo

    OpenAIRE

    Trémel, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Basé sur les travaux menés par l’auteur sur la pratique des jeux vidéo depuis une dizaine d’années, l’article se situe dans une perspective de sociologie critique et expose les logiques développées dans les jeux vidéo les plus pratiqués, et comment celles‑ci répondent aux attentes d’un « public cible ». En déconstruisant certains artefacts statistiques conçus pour modifier l’image sociale de ces produits, le propos révèle quelles sont les intentions des industriels du loisir et comment ils pe...

  16. Vids: Version 2.0 Alpha Visualization Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-25

    number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) April 2018 2. REPORT TYPE Contractor Report 3. DATES...prior publication (Zage and Zage 2010) and patent (Trossbach and Pino 2015) work. Vids projects raw text data into a 3-D environment and allows users to...requirement for both Windows and Linux support. The project explored different rendering methods, examined processor and memory performance limits of

  17. The two-source illusion: How vidding practices changed Jonathan McIntosh's political remix videos [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Leduc

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In an interview with Henry Jenkins, Jonathan McIntosh named fannish vidding as a key influence on two of his more recent video remixes. I took a more detailed look at precisely how these two videos intertwine vidding practices with those of political remix video (PRV, and to what effect.

  18. Download… Une courte histoire de la dématérialisation des jeux vidéo

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchet, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Dans les années 2000, la dématérialisation des logiciels de jeux s’est très largement développée en bouleversant les circuits de distribution de l’industrie vidéoludique et en modifiant en profondeur les habitudes de consommation et d’achat des joueurs de jeux vidéo. Accompagnant un mouvement général de distribution numérique des biens culturels (fichiers musicaux, vidéo à la demande, livre numérique…), la dématérialisation des jeux vidéo nous interroge sur la restructuration du secteur vidéo...

  19. VID22 is required for transcriptional activation of the PSD2 gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Non; Miyoshi, Takuya; Yamaguchi, Takanori; Nakazono, Toshimitsu; Tani, Motohiro; Kuge, Osamu

    2015-12-15

    Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is synthesized through decarboxylation of phosphatidylserine (PS), catalysed by PS decarboxylase 1 (Psd1p) and 2 (Psd2p) and the cytidine 5'-diphosphate (CDP)-ethanolamine (CDP-Etn) pathway. PSD1 null (psd1Δ) and PSD2 null (psd2Δ) mutants are viable in a synthetic minimal medium, but a psd1Δ psd2Δ double mutant exhibits Etn auxotrophy, which is incorporated into PE through the CDP-Etn pathway. We have previously shown that psd1Δ is synthetic lethal with deletion of VID22 (vid22Δ) [Kuroda et al. (2011) Mol. Microbiol. 80: , 248-265]. In the present study, we found that vid22Δ mutant exhibits Etn auxotrophy under PSD1-depressed conditions. Deletion of VID22 in wild-type and PSD1-depressed cells caused partial defects in PE formation through decarboxylation of PS. The enzyme activity of PS decarboxylase in an extract of vid22Δ cells was ∼70% of that in wild-type cells and similar to that in psd2Δ cells and the PS decarboxylase activity remaining in the PSD1-depressed cells became almost negligible with deletion of VID22. Thus, the vid22Δ mutation was suggested to cause a defect in the Psd2p activity. Furthermore, vid22Δ cells were shown to be defective in expression of the PSD2 gene tagged with 6×HA, the defect being ameliorated by replacement of the native promoter of the PSD2 gene with a CYC1 promoter. In addition, an α-galactosidase reporter assay revealed that the activity of the promoter of the PSD2 gene in vid22Δ cells was ∼5% of that in wild-type cells. These results showed that VID22 is required for transcriptional activation of the PSD2 gene. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  20. Intermodaal railvervoer moet innoveren : Vergelijking van de voordelen van schaalvergroting of omloopversnelling in de innovatieprojecten Marathon, Spider, Twin hub en Spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreutzberger, E.D.

    2016-01-01

    Innovatie van intermodaal railvervoer moet ertoe bijdragen dat het vervoersaandeel van intermodaal vervoer sterk groeit naar niveaus die Europa en zeehavens ambiëren. Marathon, Spider/Twin hub en Spectrum zijn drie concepten die een redelijk brede range van innovatierichtingen vertegenwoordigen,

  1. Ikea Loves Wood : Kommunikation vid en CSR-relaterad kris 

    OpenAIRE

    Rehn, Rebecca; Ederyd, Hedvig

    2014-01-01

    Alltfler företag drabbas av kriser som kan härledas till ett oetiskt förfarande. Därmed blir det intressant att undersöka kopplingen mellan Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) och kriskommunikation. Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka hur ett fallföretag har kommunicerat vid en kris relaterad till CSR. Studien avser att undersöka hur Ikea kommunicerat vid en konfrontationssituation relaterad till anklagelser om urskogsskövling i Karelen, Ryssland. En kvalitativ studie har genomf...

  2. Managing Obstetric Emergencies and Trauma (MOET structured skills training in Armenia, utilising models and reality based scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israelyan Musheg

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality rates in Western Europe have fallen significantly over the last 50 years. Maternal mortality now averages 10 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births but in some of the Newly Independent States of the former Soviet Union, the ratio is nearly 4 times higher. The availability of skilled attendants to prevent, detect and manage major obstetric complications may be the single most important factor in preventing maternal deaths. A modern, multidisciplinary, scenario and model based training programme has been established in the UK (Managing Obstetric Emergencies and Trauma (MOET and allows specialist obstetricians to learn or revise the undertaking of procedures using models, and to have their skills tested in scenarios. Methods Given the success of the MOET course in the UK, the organisers were keen to evaluate it in another setting (Armenia. Pre-course knowledge and practice questionnaires were administered. In an exploratory analysis, post-course results were compared to pre-course answers obtained by the same interviewer. Results All candidates showed an improvement in post-course scores. The range was far narrower afterwards (167–188 than before (85–129.5. In the individual score analysis only two scenarios showed a non-significant change (cord prolapse and breech delivery. Conclusion This paper demonstrates the reliability of the model based scenarios, with a highly significant improvement in obstetric emergency management. However, clinical audit will be required to measure the full impact of training by longer term follow up. Audit of delays, specific obstetric complications, referrals and near misses may all be amenable to review.

  3. Download… Une courte histoire de la dématérialisation des jeux vidéo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Blanchet

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Dans les années 2000, la dématérialisation des logiciels de jeux s’est très largement développée en bouleversant les circuits de distribution de l’industrie vidéoludique et en modifiant en profondeur les habitudes de consommation et d’achat des joueurs de jeux vidéo. Accompagnant un mouvement général de distribution numérique des biens culturels (fichiers musicaux, vidéo à la demande, livre numérique…, la dématérialisation des jeux vidéo nous interroge sur la restructuration du secteur vidéoludique, les nouveaux modes de consommation et les potentialités en termes de créativité et d’innovation du côté des studios de développement.In the 2000s, dematerialization of video game softwares fundamentally changes consumer habits and games industry’s distribution channels. As an expression of cultural industries digitalization (music, video on demand, digital book ..., dematerialization gives us the opportunity to analyze how the game industry is restructuring, producing new consumption patterns and creating new production spaces of creativity and innovation for game developers.

  4. Electricity network must become smart and stay clean. Growing interest in power quality; Elektriciteitsnet moet slim worden en schoon blijven. Groeiende aandacht voor power quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollebregt, R.

    2012-11-15

    Many energy efficient techniques affect the quality of electricity supplied to lighting systems. LED, heat pumps and PV inverters can cause unwanted voltages, currents and frequencies. The installation sector needs to design and install equipment such that the quality of the voltage is maintained or improves. Already, operators install heavier grids in districts using heat pumps [Dutch] Veel energie-efficiente technieken beinvloeden ongewild de kwaliteit van de elektriciteit die het lichtnet levert. Led-licht, warmtepompen en pv-omvormers kunnen ongewenste spanningen, stromen en frequenties veroorzaken. De installatiewereld moet installaties goed ontwerpen en aanleggen opdat de spanningskwaliteit intact blijft of verbetert. Zo leggen netbeheerders bijvoorbeeld al zwaardere netten aan in warmtepompwijken.

  5. Los decaimientos de la vid en Castilla y León: aislamiento, caracterización y métodos de control de las enfermedades de la madera de la vid (Vitis Vinifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Cobos Román, Rebeca

    2008-01-01

    Los decaimientos de la vid son un conjunto de enfermedades producidas por hongos que provocan la podredumbre de la madera y consecuentemente la pérdida de vigor o incluso la muerte prematura de la planta. El objetivo de este trabajo fue el estudio de estas enfermedades, y sus hongos asociados, en Castilla y León. Para ello, durante los años 2003-2007, se realizó un seguimiento en 18 parcelas de vid de 6 denominaciones de origen de Castilla y León, tomando muestras de cada una de ellas para ...

  6. Marknadsföring av utbildning : Motsvarar studierna marknadsföringen vid utbildningsprogrammet för automationsteknik & it?

    OpenAIRE

    Hotanen, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Arbetet handlar om en marknadsföringsundersökning jag gjorde i yrkeshögskolan Novia vid campus Raseborg. Jag undersökte om studierna motsvarar det som lovats i rekryteringsmarknadsföringen. Som målgrupp hade jag utbildningsprogrammet i automationsteknik och it. I teoridelen beskrivs tjänstemarknadsföring och olika marknadsföringskanaler. Jag gjorde också en kvalitativ intervju med utbildningsprogrammets linjechef, samt en enkätundersökning med de nuvarande studerandena vid utbildningsprog...

  7. Kritiska framgångsfaktorer vid implementering av affärssystem : beaktas de i e-handelsföretag?

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, Nafiz

    2010-01-01

    Syfte: Analysera och diskutera huruvida teori om kritiska framgångsfaktorer vid implementering av affärssystem för fysiska företag beaktas i e-handelsföretag. Identifiera framgångsfaktorer för implementeringen av affärssystem i e-handelsföretag. Forskningsfråga: Beaktas samma kritiska framgångsfaktorer vid implementering av ett affärssystem i stora fysiska företag som små e-handelsföretag? Metod: En kvalitativ metod antogs vilket innebar att en fallstudie genomförts som omfattat två responden...

  8. Enhancement of malate-production and increase in sensitivity to dimethyl succinate by mutation of the VID24 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoro, Hiroaki; Kotaka, Atsushi; Matsumura, Kengo; Tsutsumi, Hiroko; Hata, Yoji

    2016-06-01

    Malate in sake (a Japanese alcoholic beverage) is an important component for taste that is produced by yeasts during alcoholic fermentation. To date, many researchers have developed methods for breeding high-malate-producing yeasts; however, genes responsible for the high-acidity phenotype are not known. We determined the mutated gene involved in high malate production in yeast, isolated as a sensitive mutant to dimethyl succinate. In the comparative whole genome analysis between high-malate-producing strain and its parent strain, one of the non-synonymous substitutions was identified in the VID24 gene. The mutation of VID24 resulted in enhancement of malate-productivity and sensitivity to dimethyl succinate. The mutation appeared to lead to a deficiency in Vid24p function. Furthermore, disruption of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase (Mdh2p) gene in the VID24 mutant inhibited the high-malate-producing phenotype. Vid24p is known as a component of the multisubunit ubiquitin ligase and participates in the degradation of gluconeogenic enzymes such as Mdh2p. We suggest that the enhancement of malate-productivity results from an accumulation of Mdh2p due to the loss of Vid24p function. These findings propose a novel mechanism for the regulation of organic acid production in yeast cells by the component of ubiquitin ligase, Vid24p. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Verkligt värde vid första redovisningstillfället?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Frank; Nilsson, Sven-Arne

    2007-01-01

    I en första artikel av två diskuterar Frank Thinggaard och Sven-Arne Nilsson en rapport från IASB som föreslår verkligt värde istället för anskaffningsvärde vid första redovisningstillfället. Där rapporten står för nytänkande undersöker de om denär i linje med en rapport om förbättrad föreställni...

  10. Prof. dr Zvonimir Dévidé (prigodom 65. godišnjice života)

    OpenAIRE

    Papeš, Dražena; Jelaska, Sibila

    1986-01-01

    Zvonimir Dévidé, Ph. D. habil., Professor of cell biology and plant physiology at the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics of the University of Zagreb, was born on 6.8.1921 in Lenart, Slovenske Gorice (North-eastern Slovenia). Having completed his studies at the Philosophical Faculty in Zagreb and in Vienna (where his academic advisor was prof. dr. Lothar Geitler) he started to work in 1948 as asistant in the Botanic Institute of the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics of the U...

  11. The influence of hurricanes upon the quiet depositional conditions in the Lower Emsian La Vid shales of Colle (NW Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, Jan H.

    1976-01-01

    The author supposes that the fossil content of thin carbonate units in the Upper La Vid shales (Lower Devonian) of Colle was influenced by heavy storms like hurricanes. Apart from microplankton (Cramer, 1964) no fossils are found in the shales. Together with the very well developed fissility of the

  12. Die wese, doel en belangrikheid van liggaamlike opvoeding in 'n moderne kulturele samelewing en die prinsipiële grondbeginsels waarop dit moet berus*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. van der Merwe

    1963-03-01

    Full Text Available Om dat die begrip Liggaamlike Opvoeding in die alledaagsc taalgebruik ligtclik assosieer word o.a. m et sulke begrippe soos sport, liggaamsoefeninge, in Engels m et physical culture; in Duits m et kórpcrerziehung; in Grieks met gym nastiek en andcr moontlike m isleidende begrippe in aanverw ante tale, en om dat in die alledaagse spreek- taal daar wanopvattings ook kan bestaan i.v.m. so ’n begrip soos kultuur, wil ons dan ten einde m isverstand uit die weg te ruim , vir eers kortliks nagaan w at presies onder die begrippe K ultuur en Liggaamlike Opvoeding verstaan moet word voordat ’n poging aangewend w ord om bogenoemde onderwerp te ondersoek.

  13. Latvijas uzņēmumu mārketinga aktivitātes interneta vidē.

    OpenAIRE

    Zujevs, Armands

    2015-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir „Latvijas uzņēmumu mārketinga aktivitātes interneta vidē.” Darba mērķis ir, pamatojoties uz teorijā sniegtajām atziņām par interneta mārketingu, kā arī uz interneta lietotāju aptaujas rezultātiem un ekspertu viedokli, novērtēt Latvijas uzņēmumu mārketinga aktivitātes interneta vidē un izstrādāt priekšlikumus to pilnveidošanai. Darba izstrādē ir veikta literatūras analīze, patērētāju anketēšana un nozares ekspertu intervijas. Lai izprastu interneta mārketinga darbība...

  14. Variaciones interanuales de la precipitación de verano y el rendimiento del cultivo de la vid en Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Andrés Agosta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La producción de vid es la fuente económica agroindustrial principal en Cuyo (28°S-36°S / 65°W-70°W, siendo la región de más elevado desarrollo vitivinícola del país. Uno de los factores climáticos de mayor impacto en la producción de vid es la destrucción del cultivo por granizo, como resultado de la convección severa desarrollada en época estival. La violencia con que se desarrollan las tormentas estivales de granizo genera un impacto importante en el rendimiento de los viñedos afectados, logrando la disminución parcial o total de parcelas enteras. Durante el período 1979-2008, la precipitación de verano presenta fluctuaciones de la escala 7-8 años al igual que la producción total de vid y ambas se encuentran inversamente correlacionadas intradecádicamente. Asimismo, veranos húmedos (secos pueden presentar mayor (menor probabilidad de ocurrencia de daños por granizo en la temporada actual que se pueden asociar a menor (mayor producción de vid en la temporada del año siguiente debido a cambios en la disponibilidad de yemas fértiles. También una fracción de la variación de la producción de vid en el verano actual puede estar asociada a cambios en la precipitación de ese verano por daño directo (intensidad de la precipitación o indirecto (anegamiento relativamente prolongado ya que la desfoliación y asfixia radicular parecen afectar el rendimiento de las plantas. La clara dependencia climática de cultivo muestra que la producción total anual de vid está modulada por las variaciones de la precipitación en escalas decádicas, la cual está vinculada a factores de escala global del sistema climático. Se derivan potenciales resultados para el pronóstico de la producción de vid bajo futuros escenarios de cambio climático para la región.The grape production is the main economic source in the agro-industry of Cuyo (28°S-36°S / 65°W- 70°W, becoming the most developed region for wine production in Argentina

  15. La Vidéo Participative : essai de cadrage du concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Colin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Dans la boite à outils des « développeurs », la vidéo (regagne en crédibilité pour appuyer l’ensemble des processus communicationnels au sein des projets. Son utilisation participative se développe, en accord avec les méthodes et principes admis dans les paradigmes dominants du domaine de la coopération. Le concept de « Vidéo Participative » est néanmoins manié avec peu de précision. Cet article cherche à en donner les origines, ainsi qu’une définition, avant de proposer une typologie d’approches et les principaux critères permettant de les caractériser.Participatory Video: framing of the conceptAmong the tools available to projects managers and designers, the video has regained a certain credibility regarding the support that it may bring to the various communicational processes required to carry out a successful project. In this context, video is now increasingly used in a participative way in accordance with the recent evolution of the methods, principles and theoretical frameworks of the North-South cooperation field. Nevertheless, the concept of “participatory video” is still handled with little accuracy. Thereby, this article aims at defining it precisely, explaining its origins and proposing a typology of the various models, criteria and approaches that can be used to characterize it properly.La « Vídeo Participativa »: esbozo de definición del conceptoEntre los instrumentos que implican una técnica, el vídeo vuelve a ganar credibilidad en la medida en que reafirma los procesos de comunicación en el seno de los proyectos. Su utilización participativa se desarrolla en acuerdo con los métodos y principios admitidos por los paradigmas dominantes del ámbito de la comunicación. El concepto de « Vídeo Participativa » debe ser sin embargo utilizado de manera precisa. Se trata en este artículo de explicar sus orígenes y también de formular una definición ya que son dos requisitos

  16. El vino y la vid en la construcción social: un caso boyacense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Aldemar Gómez Sierra

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Las actividades agrícolas productivas que identifican las culturas campesinas, están inscritas en una compleja diversidad simbólica, consolidada en elementos religiosos, políticos, económicos, tecnológicos y ambientales. Históricamente, el cultivo de la vid y el consumo del vino se han enriquecido de tradiciones religiosas, distinción de clases, necesidades psicológicas de beber alcohol y experimentar placer, desenlaces políticos, estrategias económicas, negocios atractivos y climas favorables. La emergente viticultura del Valle del Sol en Boyacá, no es ajena a dicha complejidad. Los campesinos que la incorporan, poseen un patrimonio social expresado en religiosidad, sensibilidad al comercio y cambios tecnológicos; Además, son capitalistas rurales, consumidores de cerveza y estrategas de la economía doméstica. Este artículo muestra indicadores para la comprensión de una producción cultural centrada en la viticultura.

  17. A VidEo-Based Intelligent Recognition and Decision System for the Phacoemulsification Cataract Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The phacoemulsification surgery is one of the most advanced surgeries to treat cataract. However, the conventional surgeries are always with low automatic level of operation and over reliance on the ability of surgeons. Alternatively, one imaginative scene is to use video processing and pattern recognition technologies to automatically detect the cataract grade and intelligently control the release of the ultrasonic energy while operating. Unlike cataract grading in the diagnosis system with static images, complicated background, unexpected noise, and varied information are always introduced in dynamic videos of the surgery. Here we develop a VidEo-Based Intelligent Recognitionand Decision (VEBIRD system, which breaks new ground by providing a generic framework for automatically tracking the operation process and classifying the cataract grade in microscope videos of the phacoemulsification cataract surgery. VEBIRD comprises a robust eye (iris detector with randomized Hough transform to precisely locate the eye in the noise background, an effective probe tracker with Tracking-Learning-Detection to thereafter track the operation probe in the dynamic process, and an intelligent decider with discriminative learning to finally recognize the cataract grade in the complicated video. Experiments with a variety of real microscope videos of phacoemulsification verify VEBIRD’s effectiveness.

  18. IDENTIFICACION DE GENES RELACIONADOS CON EL DESARROLLO Y CRECIMIENTO DE BAYAS APIRENAS DE VID MEDIANTE GENOMICA FUNCIONAL

    OpenAIRE

    HINRICHSEN RAMIREZ, PATRICIO VICENTE

    2013-01-01

    En nuestro país existe una apremiante necesidad por impulsar el mejoramiento genético de la vid para la obtención de nuevas variedades de uva de mesa, ya que en la actualidad el negocio exportador depende en gran medida de genética extranjera. Lo anterior no sólo se debe a las dificultades que implica el acceso a las mejores variedades, protegidas por leyes de propiedad intelectual, sino también porque éstas no siempre se ajustan a nuestras condiciones agro-ecológicas, ni fueron d...

  19. US moet nog ver vorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning

    2006-01-01

    Sprogpolitik består ikke udelukkende i valg af undervisningssprog, heller ikke på et universitet. Når rektor på universitetet i Stellenbosch, Chris Brink, i sin nye bog, The taaldebat at Stellenbosch, kun diskuterer undervisningssproget, foreligger der en så stor grad af forenkling, at en stor de...

  20. Heidebeheer moet anders voor reptielen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stumpel, T.

    2005-01-01

    Reptielen zijn in Nederland voor hun voortbestaan grotendeels afhankelijk van heide. Ze zijn bedreigd en hun leefgebied staat voortdurend onder druk. Voor de reptielen betekent dit: een ander heidebeheer. Deze bijdrage geeft aan welke overwegingen daarbij aan de orde zijn

  1. Les médiations sociales, culturelles et technologiques dans la production et l’appropriation des intergiciels de l’industrie du jeu vidéo au Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Charrieras, Damien

    2011-01-01

    Le secteur industriel des intergiciels de jeux vidéo (game middleware) est très lié au développement des industries du jeu vidéo dans lequel le Canada est très actif et dont l’importance économique ne cesse de croître. Dans son étude du rôle des industries de l’intergiciel dans la filière de production d’un jeu vidéo l’auteur s'est penché sur la circulation des intergiciels de jeux vidéo pour explorer les multiples relations existantes entre les sociétés d’intergiciel, les entreprises de déve...

  2. Regulation of Hxt3 and Hxt7 turnover converges on the Vid30 complex and requires inactivation of the Ras/cAMP/PKA pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Snowdon

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells adjust their intracellular protein complement as a mechanism to adapt to changing environmental signals. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the hexose transporters Hxt3 and Hxt7 are expressed and function on the plasma membrane in high and low glucose abundance, respectively. By contrast, Hxt3 is endocytosed and degraded in the vacuole when cells are starved of glucose and Hxt7 in response to rapamycin treatment or when nitrogen is limiting. Yeast uses several signaling pathways, including the TORC1 and Ras/cAMP/Protein Kinase A (PKA pathways, to adapt to nutrient changes in the environment. The multi-protein Vid30 complex (Vid30c, an E3 ubiquitin ligase required for the degradation of FBPase, assists in this adaptation process in a mechanism that is poorly understood. Here we show the endocytosis and the subsequent degradation of both Hxt3 and Hxt7, in response to different nutrient signals, is dependent on components of the Vid30c. Additionally, we define the signaling events required for the turnover of Hxt3 and Hxt7 by showing that Hxt3 turnover requires Ras2 and PKA inactivation, whereas Hxt7 turnover requires TORC1 and Ras2 inactivation. Further investigation led us to identify Rim15, a kinase that is inhibited by both the TORC1 and Ras/cAMP/PKA pathways, as a key downstream effector in signaling both turnover events. Finally, we show that the turnover of both Hxt3 and Hxt7 is dependent on the essential E3 ubiquitin ligase, Rsp5, indicating that the role of the Vid30c might be indirect of Hxt ubiquitylation.

  3. Revelando el origen de la variedad de vid ‘Bonarda’ cultivada en Argentina a través del empleo de marcadores moleculares microsatélites

    OpenAIRE

    De Rosas, María Inés; Martínez, Liliana

    2009-01-01

    ‘Bonarda’ es una variedad de vid que en Argentina se cultiva principalmente en las provincias de Mendoza y San Juan, representa el segundo cepaje tinto en superficie nacional cultivada y es considerada con gran potencial para la elaboración de vinos tintos de alta calidad. Existe incertidumbre respecto a su origen en el país. La descripción ampelográfica de la ‘Bonarda’ cultivada en Argentina remarca gra...

  4. Rescate de embriones para la obtención de vitroplantas de vid (Vitis vinífera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Hernández Rendón

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Embryos rescue for the obtaining of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. vitroplants Resumen: Este trabajo es la primera fase de un macroproyecto sobre la optimización de un protocolo para la obtención de metabolitos secundarios de interés comercial mediante la utilización de suspensiones celulares de Vid (Vitis vinífera L.. Se investigó el rescate de embriones como alternativa para la obtención de vitroplantas de vid (Vitis vinífera L.. El material vegetal utilizado se obtuvo de frutos de vid variedad Red Globe comerciales. Las semillas se desinfectaron sumergiéndolas en 5 g/l de ácido dicloroisocianúrico (NaDCC por 15 min y luego en 2 g/l de Benomyl® por 15 min, con una efectividad del 92%. Se realizaron diferentes tratamientos para la obtención de plántulas utilizando semillas como explantes, las cuales se cultivaron en el medio Murashige Skoog suplementado con diferentes concentraciones de ácido indolacético (AIA en combinación con ácido giberélico (AG3 y kinetina (K sin obtener respuesta favorable para la germinación. Como alternativa, se extrajeron semillas inmaduras de frutos de la planta y se colocaron en el mismo medio  pero suplementado con 100 mg/l de polivinilpirrolidona (PVP, 0.35 mg/l de AG3 y 1.75 mg/l de AIA por un mes. Posteriormente, se abrieron las semillas y se realizó el rescate de embriones, sembrándolos bajo condiciones de oscuridad por ocho días en los medios de cultivo Murashige Skoog 1 y 2 modificados, encontrando la formación de vitroplantas en un 40% al mes de cultivo.   Abstract: This work is the first phase of a macroproyect about the optimization of a protocol for the obtaining of secondary metabolites of commercial interest by means of the use of cellular suspensions of Vitis vinífera L. The embryos rescue was investigated as alternative for the obtaining of grapevine (Vitis vinífera L. vitroplants. The vegetable material used was obtained from commercial fruits of

  5. Vad är den främst avgörande faktorn vid privatkundens val av marginalbank? : en studie om hur demografiska skillnader påverkar privatkunders val av marginalbank samt se hur deras val kan användas vid segmentering

    OpenAIRE

    Lindh, Jenni; Persson, Frida

    2012-01-01

    Syfte: Syftet med detta examensarbete är att förklara vad som är den främst avgörande faktorn vid privatkundens val av marginalbank, genom att jämföra med demografiska variabler samt hur deras val kan användas vid segmentering. Dessutom vill vi titta på vilka typer av banker privatkunder har. Metod: För att nå fram till resultat för analysen har ett positivistiskt angreppssätt och en deduktiv ansats använts. Det empiriska materialet är baserat på en enkätundersökning gjord på personer i Hässl...

  6. Mätosäkerhet vid kalibrering av referensutrustning för blodtrycksmätning : En modell för framtagning av mätosäkerhet för referensmanometer WA 767

    OpenAIRE

    Patzauer, Rebecka; Wessel, Elin

    2016-01-01

    Avdelningen för Medicinsk teknik på Akademiska sjukhuset har uppdaterat befintliga kalibreringsprotokoll för Welch Allyn 767 som används som referensmanometer vid kalibrering av blodtrycksmätare. I protokollet ska det enligt ISO 9001 och ISO 13485 ingå att vid varje kalibreringspunkt ange mätosäkerheten.  Rutiner kring detta var inte definierade. En modell för att ta fram mätosäkerhet utformades utifrån standardiserade metoder från “Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement” och a...

  7. Les utilités du jeu vidéo sérieux : finalités, discours et mises en corrélation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Armand Amato

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Les jeux vidéo sérieux offrent aujourd’hui une grande diversité de catégories et d’usages. Ils prétendent changer notre rapport au monde comme au jeu. Pour surmonter les paradoxes provenant de l’opposition entre activité ludique et activité sérieuse, il est préférable d’étudier ces nouveaux produits en termes d’utilité. La méthode de la recherche présentée ici a consisté à prendre en considération le point de vue et les intérêts particuliers de ceux qui les produisent – les émetteurs –, et de ceux qui les pratiquent – les récepteurs. Le résultat obtenu est que leurs finalités respectives sont surtout convergentes et complémentaires dans le cas de la formation et du soin, alors qu’elles divergent et changent de nature dans le domaine de la communication journalistique, politique et surtout publicitaire. Il se trouve que cette réalité est masquée par le discours des promoteurs des jeux sérieux qui tiennent des propos très globalisants. Pour dépasser la rhétorique des acteurs d’un secteur en pleine expansion, une nouvelle définition du jeu vidéo sérieux est finalement proposée. Elle se fonde sur l’instrumentalisation du jeu vidéo et conclut sur l’idée que tous les jeux sérieux cherchent à mettre en corrélation effective le jeu et la réalité.

  8. Estimación de la huella energética en agroecosistemas cultivados con vid y ajo en Mendoza, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Santoni, Leonardo; Hidalgo, Verónica P.; Filippini, María Flavia; Gennari, Alejandro J.

    2015-01-01

    A nivel mundial, los cultivos de mayor importancia como maíz, trigo, soja y girasol presentan una huella energétic aconocida. En Mendoza, Argentina, aún no han sido estudiados los principales cultivos de importancia socio-económica para la región, como la vid (Vitis vinifera L.), especie perenne y el ajo (Allium sativum L.), especie anual, manejados en agroecosistemas convencionales. La presencia de indicadores energéticos como Eficiencia (EE), Balance (BE) y Productividad (PE), permiten obte...

  9. El ensamble carábidológico: un indicador de sustentabilidad en los agroecosistemas de vid de la costa de Berisso, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Paleologos, María Fernanda; Cicchino, Armando; Sarandón, Santiago Javier

    2015-01-01

    Existen estudios que han señalado una relación positiva entre la diversidad de la vegetación, la complejidad del hábitat y los procesos del ecosistema. La familia Carabidae (Coleoptera) ha demostrado ser buena indicadora del grado de disturbio, de ciertas condiciones ambientales y de factores antrópicos. Se analizó el ensamble de carábidos (dominancia relativa y composición) en una parcela de vid y sus ambientes seminaturales (monte ribereño y canal colector de agua) de la zona de Berisso, Bu...

  10. Il testo skovorodiano Ubuždešsja, viděša slavu ego. Un trattato catechetico-liturgico sulla festa della Trasfigurazione?

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Grazia Bartolini

    2015-01-01

    Skovoroda’s text Ubuždešsja, viděša slavu ego (hereafter uv) was published for the first time in 1894 in the collection of Skovoroda’s works edited by Dmytro Bahalij, who defined them as an introduction to the Catechism classes held by the writer at Kharkiv College. uv bears no date, but its graphic, morphological and phonetic features can place it between the late 1750s-early-1760s. After a comprehensive linguistic revision, uv was included in Skovoroda’s last work Dialog, imja emu Potop zmi...

  11. Apprendre ensemble en classe via des jeux vidéo populaires : le modèle du LAN pédagogique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuelle Ducrocq-Henry

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available La thèse intitulée « Les tribus ludiques» expose le modèle du LAN pédagogique (LP découlant d’une étude des compétitions de jeu vidéo en réseau local (LAN parties. Incarnant un rite de passage quasi tribal chez les 12-25 ans, les LAN semblent favoriser socialisation et apprentissage. Un LP permet aux enseignants d’initier des expériences réseautiques similaires et formatrices en classe, tenues simultanément dans les mondes réels et virtuels, en détournant le scénario de jeux vidéo multijoueurs populaires, pour en faire des simulateurs propices à l’enseignement de disciplines diverses. Sa procédure simple et abordable révèle le potentiel du Serious Gaming en éducation.

  12. Moetähestik / Anne Metsis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Metsis, Anne, 1958-

    2016-01-01

    Moeterminite tähendusi: A- 2015. a. veebruarinumbris, B- märtsinumbris, C- aprillinumbris, D-mainumbris, E ja F juuninumbris, G juulinumbris, H - augustinumbris, I & J - septembrinumbris, K - oktoobrinumbris, L - novembrinumbris, M - detsembrinumbris; N - 2016. a. jaanuarinumbris, O - veebruarinumbris, P - märtsinumbris, R- aprillinumbris, S-mainumbris, T - juuninumbris, U - juulinumbris, V - augustinumbris, Õ, Ä, Ö, Ü - septembrinumbris

  13. Cybersecurity: Nederland moet inzetten op internationale cybersamenwerking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, F.; Marácz, L.

    2012-01-01

    Het digitale domein is, naast land, de lucht, de zee en de ruimte, inmiddels het vijfde domein voor militair optreden geworden omdat dit domein en de toepassing van digitale middelen als wapen overal ter wereld sterk in ontwikkeling zijn. Allerlei vormen van digitale oorlogsvoering zijn een reëel

  14. Pro-poor toerisme moet kleur bekennen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosselaer, van de F.F.H.; Duim, van der V.R.

    2010-01-01

    Pro-por toerisme is een benadering in wetenschap en ontwikkelingssamenwerking die zich expliciet richt op de vraag 'hoe kan toerisme bijdragen aan armoedebestrijding?'. De benadering bestaat nu tien jaar, een mooi moment voor bezinning, ook nu in Nederland, en andere Westerse landen, wederom de zin

  15. 'Gezonde en duurzame keus moet makkelijker worden'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijzer, G.

    2011-01-01

    De Britse conservatieve premier David Cameron ziet het helemaal zitten, nudging. Als reclamemakers consumenten kunnen beïnvloeden bepaalde chips te kopen, dan kun je de niet-rationeel kiezende consument net zo goed een zetje geven in de richting van gezonde en duurzame aankopen. Wageningen UR

  16. Die Dokter se Vrou Moet Anders Wees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    26 Jan 1974 ... burden on the head of the family, and in more sophisticated circumstances, on ... to the frightening point of a population explosion, and it is, and always has ... under control, while with the aid of advanced tech- nology we spew ...

  17. Le producteur de jeux vidéo comme interface. Un exemple d’application de la narratologie de Greimas à l’analyse de la production de jeux video 

    OpenAIRE

    Charrieras, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Malgré le développement des recherches sur les industries créatives en général et sur l’industrie du jeu vidéo en particulier, les modalités de production au sein des groupes de projet des studios de développement de jeux vidéo demeurent encore peu connues. De quelles manières des travailleurs parfois très spécialisés dans leur domaine peuvent communiquer de façon à atteindre à un certain consensus lors du processus de production ? À l’aide de la théorie de la narrativité élaborée par Greimas...

  18. Élaboration et validation de l’échelle de la perception et du sentiment d’auto-efficacité en vidéocommunication (ÉPAV .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Giroux

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available L’article présente le processus d’élaboration et de validation de l’échelle de la perception et du sentiment d’auto-efficacité des apprenants vis-à-vis de la vidéocommunication (ÉPAV. Basée sur la théorie sociocognitive de Bandura (1977, 1982, 1997/2007, cette échelle permet d’évaluer deux dimensions: la perception générale de la vidéocommunication et celle que l’individu a de son propre niveau de compétence dans ce contexte. Les résultats soutiennent la structure bidimensionnelle ainsi que la cohérence interne de l’ÉPAV. Des corrélations avec des mesures de la motivation et de l’expérience en vidéocommunication ainsi qu’avec des mesures de l’attention en appuient la validité.

  19. Rekryteringsprocessen vid Svenska Spel

    OpenAIRE

    Mejman, Viktor; Steineck, Erik

    2009-01-01

    In  the  constantly  changing working  life  of  today, where  emphasis  on  human  capital  grows stronger,  the  importance  of  recruiting  and  retaining  good  staff  increases.  Successful recruitment  requires  a  first-rate  recruitment  process.  In  literature  on  recruitment recommendations for successful recruitment are presented.   The  aim  of  this  study  is  to  describe  similarities  and  differences  between  these recommendations and Svenska Spel’s recruitment practice o...

  20. Description et usages d’un nouveau dispositif de vidéo-cours : l’encre numérique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Trestini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente un nouveau design de vidéo-cours pour l’enseignement universitaire : « l’encre numérique ». Il rend compte de son impact sur l’apprentissage et décrit le profil cognitif des étudiants pour qui ce dispositif semble produire les meilleurs résultats. Le dispositif étudié est constitué d’un Tablet PC associé à un cahier de textes en ligne. Le Tablet PC permet de vidéoprojeter ce que l’enseignant avait coutume d’écrire auparavant au tableau et le cahier de textes de restituer, en ligne, l’ensemble des traces du cours (visuelles, sonores, textuelles. L’étude du dispositif s’appuie sur les résultats des étudiants aux examens, la fréquence de consultation des ressources, ainsi que sur la manière dont elles sont consultées. Cette étude met en évidence certaines caractéristiques et affordances du dispositif qui semblent avoir un effet bénéfique sur les apprentissages et ce, en fonction du profil cognitif de l’étudiant.This paper presents a new design of video courses for university teaching. It is called "digital ink". It shows its impact on student learning and describes the cognitive profile of students for which this device seems to produce the best results. The device which is studied consists of a Tablet PC combined with a work agenda on line. The Tablet PC enables one to project what the teacher traditionally wrote on the board. That is to say; explanatory notes, equations and hand-written diagrams. The teacher has a writing tool (digital light pen which allows cursive script (handwriting on a computer. All written records produced by the teacher during the course, accompanied by verbal comments are recorded. The study of this device is based on student performance on exams, how often they consulted the videos as well as the manner of consulting them. This study shows the impact of this new device on student learning according to their cognitive profile.

  1. Franšīzes izmantošana Latvijas uzņēmējdarbības vidē

    OpenAIRE

    Berdinska, Zane

    2014-01-01

    Franšīze, kā uzņēmējdarbības veids Latvijā nav padziļināti izpētīta, nav izdota pilnvērtīga literatūra, kas skaidrotu franšīzes būtību un likumdošanā ir robi, kas ietekmē franšīzes izplatību Latvijā. Darba mērķis - izpētīt un izanalizēt franšīzes būtību, noskaidrot uzņēmējdarbības veida priekšrocības un trūkumus, izplatību Latvijas uzņēmējdarbības vidē un sniegt priekšlikumus franšīzes attīstības veicināšanai. Bakalaura darba uzdevumi: izpētīt informāciju par franšīzes vēsturi, izanali...

  2. Objektorientēta pirmkoda vienībtestēšana ar MS Team Test ietvaru MS Visual Studio 2005 vidē

    OpenAIRE

    Sondore, Justīne

    2007-01-01

    Šī darba mērķis ir iepazīties ar vienībtestēšanu, tās vietu programatūras izstrādē un biežāk pielietotajām tehnikām, kā arī iepazīt un novērtēt Microsoft Team Test ietvara piedāvātās vienībtestēšanas iespējas Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 vidē. Tiek apskatītas objektorientēta pirmkoda vienībtestēšanas problēmas — vides sagatavošana testu darbināšanai, aizbāžņu pielietošana un to praktiska realizācija ar NMock ietvaru. Praktiski ir daļēji realizēti vienībtesti eksistējošā sistēmā TPAIS kā arī a...

  3. Il testo skovorodiano Ubuždešsja, viděša slavu ego. Un trattato catechetico-liturgico sulla festa della Trasfigurazione?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Bartolini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Skovoroda’s text Ubuždešsja, viděša slavu ego (hereafter uv was published for the first time in 1894 in the collection of Skovoroda’s works edited by Dmytro Bahalij, who defined them as an introduction to the Catechism classes held by the writer at Kharkiv College. uv bears no date, but its graphic, morphological and phonetic features can place it between the late 1750s-early-1760s. After a comprehensive linguistic revision, uv was included in Skovoroda’s last work Dialog, imja emu Potop zmiin (1791 as its concluding section (O Preobraženii. Although uv’s rhetorical function remains open to discussion, in my article I try to demonstrate that the liturgical function of its biblical quotations suggests that it might have been conceived as a catechetical instruction (malaja instrukcija on the liturgical feast of the Transfiguration. Furthermore, I also attempt a comparative analysis between the biblical quotations incorporated within uv and those preeminent in the Byzantine and Ruthenian sermons dedicated to the feast of the Transfiguration. What emerges from my analysis is the presence of common “quotational patterns” pointing to a shared Byzantino-Slavic tradition in the field of “sacred rhetoric”.

  4. Frančaizinga izmantošana Latvijas Republikas mazajā un vidējā biznesā

    OpenAIRE

    Žuks, Vadims

    2017-01-01

    Diplomdarba tēma ir frančaizinga veikšanas problēmas Latvijas mazajā un vidējā biznesā. Darbā tiek izskatīti frančaizinga veikšanas teorētiskie pamati, tiek analizēta Latvijas frančaizinga biznesa likumdošanas bāze un francāizinga modeļa ieviešanas īpatnības, ka arī konkrēta frančaizinga biznesa uzsākšanas un darbības uzlabošanas pasākumi. Diplomdarbs izpildīts uz 82 lappusēm. Darbs satur 8 attēlus, 12 tabulas un 3 pielikumus. Darba atslēgas vārdi ir: frančaizinga bizness, biznesa veikšanas p...

  5. Le sens de l’écart : la narration déconstruite dans les vidéos de Willie Doherty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Morisson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Dans les œuvres vidéographiques de l’artiste nord-irlandais Willie Doherty, les éléments narratifs entretiennent une relation complexe avec les images filmiques. Témoin de la guerre civile, récepteur méfiant des images du conflit, Doherty n’a de cesse de rappeler que la mémoire individuelle du traumatisme est erratique et le statut de victime problématique. La déconstruction du récit, l’instabilité de la focalisation, ainsi que l’écart, voire l’incompatibilité, entre l’image et le texte qui l’accompagne aboutissent à une réflexion sur les dissensions historiques. La voix off devient alors un facteur d’incertitude.In his video works, all tightly focused on the Northern-Irish conflict, Willie Doherty probes the perpetrator-victim dyad and denounces the truncated visual representation of the conflict by deconstructing the relation between image and sound. The texts uttered by the voice-over raise political issues relevant to post-conflict Ireland, whether it be victimhood, national trauma or the construction of collective memory. Multiple open-ended interwoven narratives accompany images without closing their interpretation.

  6. Producción de ácido indol-3-acético por Pseudomonas veronii R4 y formación de raíces en hojas de vid “Thompson seedless” in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Peñafiel Jaramillo; Alexandra Elizabeth Barrera Álvarez; Emma Danielly Torres Navarrete; Hayron Fabricio Canchignia Martínez; Humberto Prieto-Encalada; Jaime Morante Carriel

    2016-01-01

    Rizobacterias con actividad antagonista son empleadas a problemas patológicos y promueven el desarrollo de tejido radicular de especies vegetales El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la capacidad en síntesis de ácido indol-3-acetico (AIA) y la formación de raíces en hojas de vid “Thompson Seedless”, por el empleo de Pseudomonas veronii R4 in vitro. La bacteria, fue incubada en medio mínimo M9 y se verificó la producción de AIA a 24, 48 y 72 h de muestreo, los sobrenadantes fueron analizandos p...

  7. Caracterización de daños producidos por Meloidogyne Spp. (Nemata: Tylenchida en la vid en Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Vanina Dagatti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue comparar y establecer relaciones entre los diferentes indicadores de crecimiento entre plantas de vid con dos niveles de infestación (alto y leve de Meloidogyne spp. El estudio se realizó en un viñedo cv Merlot, situado en Agrelo, Mendoza, donde se escogieron 2 parcelas, con y sin nematodos, con diferentes niveles de crecimiento vegetativo. Los indicadores a evaluar fueron: peso y número de racimos por planta, peso de poda, cantidad de entrenudos y área foliar de hojas y feminelas. El grado de infestación de nematodos de cada parcela se determinó mediante la técnica flotación - centrifugación. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó la prueba de wilcoxon (Mann Whitney U y el test de student. Además, mediante un análisis de regresión lineal, se comprobó si existía relación entre los indicadores evaluados y la densidad de población de Meloidogyne spp. expresado en número de estados juveniles (J2 presentes en el suelo. Los resultados indicaron que la parcela con menor densidad poblacional de juveniles de Meloidogyne spp., presentó mayor peso promedio de madera de poda, así como también un área foliar de hojas y feminelas superior. Con respecto al peso promedio de racimos por planta, dicha parcela también superó a aquella con alta concentración de nematodos.

  8. Portāla YouTube patēriņa paradumi un lietošanas motivācija vidusskolas vecuma jauniešu vidū

    OpenAIRE

    Krastiņa, Lāsma

    2016-01-01

    Bakalaura darba „Portāla Youtube patēriņa paradumi un lietošanas motivācija vidusskolas vecuma jauniešu vidū” mērķis ir veicot padziļinātās intervijas un anketēšanu noskaidrot kādām darbībām portāls Youtube galvenokārt tiek izmantots un kādi ir tā izmantošanas paradumi un motivācija Latvijas vidusskolas vecuma jauniešu vidū. Darbs sastāv no 7 nodaļām. Teorētisko daļu sastāda nodaļas par Web 2.0, portālu Youtube, lietojuma un apmierinātības teoriju, bērnu un jauniešu interneta lietojumu. Metod...

  9. Jouer pour apprendre : est-ce bien sérieux ? Réflexions théoriques sur les relations entre jeu (vidéo et apprentissage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Berry

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose une réflexion théorique sur les relations entre jeu (vidéo et éducation. A partir d’une revue de la littérature et sur la base d’une recherche consacrée à l’étude des joueurs de « jeux de rôles en ligne massivement multijoueurs », ce texte met en avant la complexité dans les sciences de l’éducation à penser le jeu comme espace d’apprentissage et propose quelques éléments théoriques pour aborder cette problématique.

  10. Hvis Blended Learning er svaret, hvad er så spørgsmålet - et læringsperspektiv på FlexVid i regi af UCN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    in the process prepared as blended learning. The importance of clarity in training organization unfolded and explained with existing knowledge in the field. The article also puts perspective on progression during training and development of students' knowledge development skills. It points to other forms......This chapter intends to develop some questions to the base of education and learning activities in FlexVid to expand reflection basis. The article focuses on the framework and basic assumptions that may affect the training organization and thereby the didactic opportunities and challenges...... of articulation of adult pedagogick using the concepts of andragogic, paragogogic and herutagogic, as these terms appear "in line" with the learning intentions behind flexible education....

  11. La necrosis bacteriana de la vid, causada por xylophilus ampelinus. Detección serológica, distribución en Aragón y sensibilidad varietal.

    OpenAIRE

    CAMBRA ALVAREZ, MIGUEL

    2011-01-01

    La necrosis bacteriana de la vid, causada por la bacteria de cuarentena Xylophilus ampelinus, es una enfermedad de difícil control químico y que ha causado en España importantes pérdidas económicas. Actualmente, es endémica en distintas zonas de Aragón y Galicia y se han identificado focos aislados en La Rioja. Ante la carencia de métodos sensibles y específicos de detección de esta bacteria que se puedan utilizar para el análisis rutinario, se ha puesto a punto un método de ex...

  12. Kinky sex till salu : En semiotisk analys om hur sexualiserat våld används vid framställningen av kvinnor i sex stycken reklambilder

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksson, Elin

    2018-01-01

    Forskning visar på en lång historia av sexualisering och objektifiering av kvinnor i reklam. Vad forskning inte fokuserat på är sexualiserat våld i reklambilder. Den här studien är en sammanfogning av forskningsfälten genus och våld i reklam. Vad studien vill ta reda på är om sexualiserat våld används vid framställningen av kvinnor i reklambilderna samt den manliga blickens perspektiv. Studien använder sig av kvalitativ semiotisk analys för att undersöka om sexualiserat våld existerar i sex s...

  13. Efecto del agua aplicada en las relaciones hídricas y productividad de la vid 'Crimson Seedless' Effect of applied water on water relations and productivity of 'Crimson Seedless' table grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Ferreyra

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio fue dirigido para evaluar la relación agua-rendimiento en vid de mesa cv. Crimson y establecer valores críticos para las mediciones del estado hídrico de las plantas. Los estudios de campo se desarrollaron durante tres años, en el Valle de Aconcagua, Chile, a 32º47'S y 70º42'O, en un suelo de textura franco arcillosa. Se proporcionaron a las plantas diferentes cantidades de agua de riego entre 40 y 100% de la evapotranspiración del cultivo (Etc. El potencial hídrico xilemático medido a mediodía (psixmin y la conductancia estomática estuvieron estrechamente relacionados con el déficit de agua impuesto y el rendimiento obtenido. Los rendimientos de la vid disminuyeron respecto al agua aplicada en el rango de los tratamientos estudiados. Sesenta por ciento de restricción de la Etc redujo 22% del rendimiento. Cuando la planta mantuvo psixmin mayor que -0,75 MPa entre cuaja y pinta, la producción y los calibres fueron mayores.This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between water and production in 'Crimson Seedless' table grapes, and to establish threshold values for plants water status. Field experiments were carried out, during a three-year period, in the Aconcagua Valley, Chile, at 32º47'S and 70º42'W, in a clay-loamy textured soil. Different irrigation water amounts were applied, between 40 and 100% crop evapotranspiration (Etc. Stem water potential measured at midday (psixmin and stomatal conductance were closely related to water shortage and yield obtained. Table grape yields decreased in comparison with applied water within the range of studied treatments. Sixty per cent Etc restriction decreased yields in 22%. When plants maintained psixmin greater than -0.75 MPa, between berry set and veraison, yield and berry size were high.

  14. Relationship between Root Growth of 'Thompson Seedless' Grapevines and Soil Temperature Relación entre el Crecimiento Radical de Vid 'Thompson Seedless' y la Temperatura del Suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Callejas R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of characterizing the growth of the root system of table grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless and its relationship with soil temperature, research was carried out during the 2004-2005 growing season in vineyards in the Copiapó and Huasco Valleys. Four plants were chosen and rhizotrons were used to measure the growth of the root system. Measurements were performed once a week from September 2004 to September 2005, estimating the intensity of root growth and its annual distribution in the ranges of 0 to 40, 40 to 80 and 80 to 120 cm of soil depth. Temperature sensors were installed in four plants at 25, 50, 75 and 100 cm of soil depth, and the temperature was registered every 1 h. The thermal diffusivity of the soil was calculated based on the annual mean temperature and annual thermal amplitude values. Root growth occurred throughout the year, presenting lower intensity in July (winter. Root systems presented different patterns in the distribution of growth intensity in the three soil depths, with variations in the order of five times in maximum annual growth intensity among sites. High thermal diffusivity in soils favored root growth.Con el objetivo de caracterizar el crecimiento del sistema radical de la vid (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless y su relación con la temperatura del suelo, durante la temporada 2004-2005 se llevó a cabo un estudio en parronales ubicados en los valles de Copiapó y Huasco. Se instalaron cuatro cámaras de observación de raíces o rizotrones en plantas homogéneas, en plena producción, pie franco, sanas, y ubicadas en diferentes localidades de la región. Las mediciones del crecimiento de las raíces se efectuaron semanalmente, desde septiembre de 2004 hasta completar 1 año, estimándose la intensidad de crecimiento radical anual y su distribución en los rangos de 0 a 40, 40 a 80 y 80 a 120 cm de profundidad. Adicionalmente, se instalaron sensores de temperatura a 25, 50, 75 y

  15. Economia funerària a la segona edat del ferro de les illes Balears. L’ús diacrític del sacrifici de bòvids en el santuari i les necròpolis de l’àrea de Son Real (Mallorca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Hernández-Gasch

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available L’aparició d’un objecte excepcional fet d’os de bòvid anomenat tap en emplaçaments rituals de la segona edat del ferro va permetre fa uns anys postular una hipòtesi anomenada d’”economia funerària”. Les dades procedents d’assentaments suggereixen que la cabana ramadera va canviar en la seva composició, disminuint la quantitat de bòvids en favor dels ovicàprids. El perfil de sacrifici també va canviar orientant l’ús d’aquests animals domèstics cap a l’obtenció de productes secundaris i la força de treball. Les recents troballes de la necròpolis de Son Real i del Santuari de la Punta des Patró a Mallorca apunten vers un ritual de comensalitat, on presumiblement els sectors més rics de la societat haurien consumit carn de bòvid en els rituals funeraris o l’haurien emprada com a ofrena, en contraposició als grups menys rics que només haurien tingut accés a la carn de suid o ovicàprid.

  16. Simulering av muskelaktivitet vid pedalbromsning

    OpenAIRE

    Ejdepalm, Erik; Westerdahl, Walter

    2009-01-01

    En muskeloskeletal kroppsmodell har undersökts med avseende på maximal muskelbelastning genom biomekanisk simulering i programmet AnyBody. En kroppsmodell har låtits interagera med ett reglage i form av en bromspedal från en Saab 9-3 och muskelbelastningen till följd av att pedalen trampas ned har minimerats. De parametrar hos pedalen som har varierats är initialvinkeln och returfjäderns fjäderkonstant. Den sits på vilken kroppsmodellen sitter har flyttats vertikalt och horisontellt i förhåll...

  17. Findability och informationskompetens vid webbnavigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    needed. But the information is not equally available, even if it is published and freely available on the Web. Each Web page, or other information object, has a degree of findability. The degree of the findability depends on the relationships between object, system and the Web. Six sub concepts......The article discusses the relationship between users, information objects, information systems and the Web, combined with the concepts findability and information literacy. An important aspect in all information literacy definitions is the ability to effectively gain access to the information...... are identified: the object's characteristics, accessibility, internal navigation, internal search, reachability and web prestige. Both information literacy and findability are defined as query independent aspects of the search, working on a structural level....

  18. The Use of Video in Knowledge Transfer of Teacher-Led Psychosocial Interventions: Feeling Competent to Adopt a Different Role in the Classroom / L’utilisation de la vidéo dans le transfert de connaissances dans les interventions psychosociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Beauregard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Because they propose a form of modeling, videos have been recognised to be useful to transfer knowledge about practices requiring teachers to adopt a different role. This paper describes the results of a satisfaction survey with 98 teachers, school administrators and professionals regarding their appreciation of training videos showing teacher-led psychosocial interventions. The association between teachers’ appreciation of the video and their desire to implement the intervention are explored in terms of authenticity, vicarious learning and self-efficacy, in an attempt to further comprehend how the use of video supports different aspects of modeling (skills - know-how, attitudes - know-how to be. The authors suggest that training videos featuring teachers leading psychosocial interventions support knowledge transfer because learners can relate to successful peers and can think of themselves as competent to replicate the intervention and comfortable to adopt a different role in the classroom. Parce qu’elles proposent une forme de modelage, les vidéos ont été reconnues comme utiles pour le transfert de connaissances au sujet des pratiques exigeant que les enseignants jouent un rôle différent. Cet article décrit les résultats d’une enquête sur la satisfaction réalisée auprès de 98 enseignants, administrateurs et professionnels scolaires quant à leur appréciation des vidéos de formation montrant des interventions psychosociales menées par des enseignants. Le lien entre l’appréciation de la vidéo par les enseignants et leur désir de mettre en pratique l’intervention est exploré en matière d’authenticité, d’apprentissage par procuration et d’auto-efficacité, pour tenter de mieux comprendre comment l’usage de la vidéo appuie différents aspects du modelage (aptitudes, savoir-faire, attitudes, savoir-être. Les auteurs suggèrent que les vidéos de formation montrant des enseignants menant des interventions

  19. Slow Food moet niet anti-technologisch worden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Veel gemaksvoedsel in de supermarkt staat op gespannen voet met de beginselen van 'lekker, puur en eerlijk'. Maar, zegt hoogleraar voedseltechnologie Tiny van Boekel, dat neemt niet weg dat de voedselindustrie een revolutionaire bijdrage heeft geleverd aan de beschikbaarheid van voldoende,

  20. Onderscheid moet er zijn : pleziervaren in Nederland, een cultuurgeschiedenis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulakker, Eerde Hendrik Geert Taeke Maria

    2012-01-01

    Two questions set the course for my research into the Dutch pleasure boating. 1. How could an elite pastime like water sport develop into mass recreation? 2. How do the economical, cultural and nautical elite with their historical claim to "good taste", manage to make themselves distinguishable

  1. Microcanon : wat je beslist moet weten over microbiologie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.; Doorn, van J.; Oost, van der J.; Reijnders, W.; Willemsen, P.T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Micro-organismen zijn onmisbaar voor het leven op aarde. De organismen zijn zo klein dat we ze niet zien, maar ze zijn des te belangrijk. Deze kleine organismen kunnen een positieve of negatieve invloed hebben. Soms klein, soms groot. De Microcanon geeft daarvan een goed beeld in zo'n zestig

  2. Finance forte: Toekomstige CFO moet multi-functioneel zijn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, Monique; Steens, H.B.A.

    2011-01-01

    The article summarizes the interview with BS (by Monique Harmsen) on EY's Global DNA of the CFO survey amongst 530 senior financial professionals regarding the 'DNA of the CFO' (competencies, industry and functional back grounds and education).

  3. Pierre Moscovici:"Nieuwe belasting multinationals moet voor verkiezingen"

    OpenAIRE

    Roels, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Pierre Moscovici, the European Commissioner for economy and taxation, met in Brussels with representatives of the S&D fraction in de European Parliament, and of the European Trade Unions. All want the Member States to approve a novel temporary tax on big internet multinationals such as Apple, fB, Google, Amazon; and this before the EP elections of 2019. The number of customers and income from advertisements will be used as tax base. Paul Tang, MEP for the PvdA (NL), is leading the campaign a...

  4. Fatsoen moet je doen. Over regels voor integer wetenschappelijk handelen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Glopper, K.

    2016-01-01

    Discussions of scientific integrity of research in discourse studies (taalbeheersing) should not be limited to experimental research only, for rules for scientific conduct apply to all sorts of research: experimental and observational, quantitative and qualitative, empirical and theoretical.

  5. Vidējā pirmsskolas vecuma bērnu iztēles attīstības sekmēšana zīmēšanā

    OpenAIRE

    Stricka, Ilona

    2017-01-01

    Darba nosaukums: Vidējā pirmsskolas vecuma bērnu iztēles attīstības sekmēšana zīmēšanā. Darba autore: Ilona Stricka. Darba zinātniskā vadītāja: dr. paed., lekt. Antra Randoha. Darbs sastāv no ievada, 2 daļām, literatūras un avotu saraksta, pielikuma. Darba pirmajā daļā autore iepazīstina ar iztēles jēdziena skaidrojumu dažādu pedagogu un psihologu teorētiskajām atziņām. Zīmēšanas būtību, veidiem un iztēles sekmēšanas pedagoģiski psiholoģiskiem nosacījumiem zīmēšanas procesā. Otrajā daļā au...

  6. Caracterización morfológica de variedades de vid para producción de Pisco bajo condiciones de la zona media del valle de Ica, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cáceres

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio consiste en la caracterización morfológica de las ocho variedades de uvas pisqueras “Torontel, Italia, Mollar, Quebranta, Negra criolla, Albilla, Moscatel y Uvina” cultivadas en el CITEagroindustrial. Se utilizó la lista de descriptores de la Organización Internacional de la Viña y del Vino para variedades de vid y especies de Vitis versión 2009. Algunos de los caracteres ampelográficos como el color y forma de las bayas del estado fenológico de maduración es info rmación generalizada; sin embargo, al evaluar los 56 descriptores en otros estados fenológicos se observan diferencias. Por lo tanto, la descripción de las variedades que se muestran aportan una mayor precisión a la caracterización y sirven de guía a los p roductores de Pisco y productores de uvas para la sencilla y correcta identificación en campo de sus plantas, ya que existe confusión en la identificación de las distintas variedades, como la homonimia y la identificación incorrecta de variedades .

  7. Bērnu iztēles sekmēšana zīmēšanā vidējā pirmsskolas vecumā

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovska, Santa

    2017-01-01

    Darba autors: Santa Pavlovska Darba temats: Bērnu iztēles sekmēšana zīmēšanā vidējā pirmsskolas vecumā. Darba veids: Kvalifikācijas darbs Studiju programma: Pirmā līmeņa profesionālās augstākās izglītības studiju programma Darba zinātniskais vadītājs: Dr. paed. Antra Randoha Darba struktūra: ievads, divas nodaļas, tabulas (3), attēli (8), secinājumi, literatūras un avotu saraksts (26). Darba apjoms 35 lpp. Atslēgas vārdi: iztēle, pirmsskolas vecums, 5-6 gadīgi bērni, zīmēšana. Pētījuma mērķis...

  8. Smēķēšanas dūmu ķīmiskā sastāva un izplatības mainības novērtējums iekštelpu vidē

    OpenAIRE

    Vesere, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Maģistra darbā „Smēķēšanas dūmu ķīmiskā sastāva un izplatības mainības novērtējums iekštelpu vidē” raksturota iekštelpu gaisa kvalitāte, “slimās ēkas sindroms”, to veicinošie faktori, smēķēšanas process un tā ietekme uz veselību. Smēķēšanas laikā radušos dūmu sastāvā ir vairāk nekā 5000 ķīmisku vielu, kuras izplatās telpā un rada piesārņojumu, kas kaitīgs ir ne tikai aktīvajam, bet arī pasīvajām smēķētājam. Pētījums veikts, lai novērtētu šo dūmu ķīmisko sastāvu un vielu noturību iekštelpu vid...

  9. Les dérives addictives des jeux vidéos multijoueurs en ligne : rôle du médecin généraliste dans le dépistage et l'orientation de la prise en charge

    OpenAIRE

    Moritz , Céline

    2011-01-01

    Non disponible / Not available; Le jeu vidéo est devenu le premier loisir des Français avec 28 millions de joueurs réguliers en France. En 1997, un nouveau type de jeu très addictogène apparaît, c'est le MMORPG (massively multiplayer role-playing game ). Le joueur y incarne un avatar qu'il a modelé suivant l'image de son « moi-idéal » et qui évolue dans un univers virtuel tenace et envahissant. Pour les personnalités fragiles, ces mondes virtuels sont des refuges à une réalité difficile ou un...

  10. Une méthodologie pour décrire des déroulements de séances de classe à partir de vidéo dans des recherches sur les pratiques d’enseignants de mathématiques au collège et au lycée

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, Aline

    2017-01-01

    1. Introduction 1.1. Type de recherches concernées et vidéo Notre intérêt premier de chercheur en didactique des mathématiques est l’apprentissage des élèves en mathématiques (au collège et au lycée), en relation avec l’enseignement dispensé en classe. La démarche globale qui est suivie donne une place centrale aux contenus mathématiques précis, autour desquels s’organisent les différentes recherches. Nous allons précisément dégager systématiquement ici ce qui relève spécifiquement de notre c...

  11. Dubbelboende vid beskattningen av fysiska personer

    OpenAIRE

    Frände, Joakim

    2013-01-01

    Dual residence in the taxation of individuals Each country has the right to determine on which grounds and to what extent it exercises its tax authority. In the case of individuals a country usually bases its right to levy taxes on the connection between the country and the individual, or the country and the income or wealth in question. This thesis deals with the connection that exists between the country and the individual. Under domestic tax law systems a separation is usually made in...

  12. Effekten av massagebehanling vid hypertoni : en litteraturstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Anna; Leopoldson, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim is to create a review that examines different forms of massage therapy and their effects on hypertension. Method: Literature review of 10 scientific articles on the subject of massage and its effects on blood pressure. The literature searches were made with PubMed and Cinahl using the keywords "massage therapy", "effects" and "blood pressure". Results: The articles showed that massage had a positive effect in lowering blood pressure. This could be explained by greater extent of r...

  13. Potassium and Phosphorus in Muscat Rosada Grape Yield in Elqui Valley Soil Fósforo y Potasio en la Producción de Vid Moscatel Rosada, en Suelo del Valle de Elqui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sierra B

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of P and K on grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. var. Muscat Rosada were evaluated four years, considering the same levels of N. The experiment was conducted at the Vicuña Experimental Station (30° S; 70°44´ W of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA. The soil is alluvial antropic miscellaneous (Entisols. Three fertilization treatments were established: 1 N 160 + P2O5 200 + K2O 300; 2 N 160 + P2O5 0 + K2O 300; and 3 N 160 + P2O5 200 + K2O 0. At the beginning of the experiment, grape vines received all the phosphate fertilizers, 200 kg ha-1 of P2O5 as triple superphosphate in Treatments 1 and 3. Nitrogen was applied as urea for four years. The applications were initiated when the vine buds measured 20 cm. The K was applied to the soils of Treatments 1 and 2, at a dosage of 200 kg ha-1 K2O, using potassium sulphate. Between berry set and 30 d before harvest, 100 kg ha-1 K2O were applied as potassium sulphate by fertigation. Significant effects of the P fertilization were observed by the second year, with increased cluster numbers per plant. K also increased grape fruit yield by the third year. This response was obtained with less than 5 mg kg-1 of P available in the soil and less than 145 mg kg-1 of exchangeable K in the soil. The initially low content of available K and P suggests a high probability of response to the application of both elements.En el Campo Experimental del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, ubicado en la localidad de Vicuña (30° S; 70°44´ O, se evaluó durante cuatro años el efecto de la aplicación de P y K, considerando un mismo nivel de aplicación de N en vid (Vitis vinifera L. var. Moscatel Rosada. El suelo corresponde al tipo misceláneo antrópico coluvial (Entisols. Se establecieron tres tratamientos de fertilización: 1 N 160 + P2O5 200 + K2O 300; 2 N 160 + P2O5 0 + K2O 300; y 3 N 160 + P2O5 200 + K(20 0. El parrón recibió toda la fertilización fosfatada aplicada al

  14. Cut to the Chase: Editing Time and Space through Closed-Circuit Television Surveillance La fin des courses poursuites pour les policiers britanniques ? Le rôle de la vidéosurveillance dans le changement des représentations spatio-temporelles dans les courses poursuites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Neyland

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The UK is said to have the largest number of CCTV cameras of any European nation. These cameras have been involved in a variety of changes in UK police practices. Such changes range from new evidential practices in court cases, through access to new materials, to new questions posed regarding invasions of privacy. One unexplored area of police practices, which this paper will argue have undergone significant changes since the introduction of CCTV cameras, is police accountability. This paper will draw on recent controversies in the UK regarding police car chases to investigate the ways in which CCTV cameras have led to new and complex questions of police accountability.Le Royaume-Uni est souvent présenté comme le pays ayant le plus grand nombre de caméras en Europe. Ces caméras ont joué un rôle dans bien des changements intervenus au sein des pratiques de la police britannique, depuis la production de nouveaux types de preuves devant les tribunaux, en passant par l’accès à de nouveaux matériaux et à de nouvelles informations, jusqu’à la mise en lumière de nouvelles questions touchant aux violations de la vie privée. Un des aspects peu explorés parmi ces nouvelles pratiques policières concerne la question de la responsabilité et le fait, pour la police, de rendre des comptes. Cet article porte précisément sur les changements significatifs provoqués par l’introduction de caméras de vidéosurveillance dans la façon d’accomplir les activités policières. À partir du cas de controverses récentes au Royaume-Uni autour de courses poursuites dans lesquelles sont engagés des véhicules de police, il s’intéressera aux façons dont la présence et l’usage de caméras de vidéosurveillance ont amené des questions à la fois nouvelles et complexes, concernant la justification des actions de police.

  15. Agresijas un vecāku audzināšanas stila saistība jauniešiem no profesionālās vidējās izglītības iestādēm

    OpenAIRE

    Stikāne, Austra

    2012-01-01

    Pētījuma jautājumi ir vai pastāv saistība starp agresijas rādītājiem un vecāku audzināšanas stilu profesionālās vidējās izglītības iestāžu audzēkņiem, kuri ikdienā dzīvo ar vecākiem un audzēkņiem, kuri ikdienā nedzīvo ģimenē, kā arī vai pastāv atšķirības agresijas skalās starp jauniešiem, kuri dzīvo ar vecākiem ikdienā un jauniešiem, kuri ikdienā nedzīvo ar vecākiem. Pētījumā piedalījās 95 respondenti (55 studenti, kuri ikdienā dzīvo ar vecākiem, 40 studenti, kuri ikdienā nedzīvo ģimenē)...

  16. Didaktisko spēļu izmantošana apkārtnes mācību stundās skolēniem ar vidēji smagiem garīgās attīstības traucējumiem

    OpenAIRE

    Zarecka, Tatjana

    2007-01-01

    Diplomarba tēma ir „Didaktisko spēļu izmantošana apkārtnes mācību stundās skolēniem ar vidēji smagiem un smagiem garīgās attīstības traucējumiem”. Pētījuma mērķis: Diplomdarbā teoretiskajā daļā tiek apskatītās pedagoģiskās atziņas par didaktiskajām spēlēm: pedagogus F.Frēbeļa, M.Montesori, K.Ušinska, J.Tihejevas, A.Sorokinas, A.Bondarenko, O.Svenne, I.Kapostas darbu apskats; tiek analizēts terminu „spēle” un „rotaļa” salidzinājums; tiek apskatīta didaktisko spēļu klasifikācija; tiek a...

  17. Optimización de los medios de propagación y enraizamiento in vitro de las variedades “criollas” de vid para elaborar pisco Optimization of media for in vitro propagation and rooting of creole grapevine varieties utilized for pisco making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio González

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Los protocolos y medios disponibles para la propagación y enraizamiento in vitro de la vid no han sido ajustados todavía a las variedades “criollas” con las que se elabora el pisco. En este trabajo se exploró el uso de medios para la propagación de las variedades Quebranta, Negra Criolla, Albilla, Italia y Torontel, así como para el enraizamiento de las variedades Quebranta, Albilla y Torontel, a partir de los medios estándares reportados en la literatura científica. Para ello, se pusieron a prueba 11 variantes del medio estándar de propagación de vid (medio Murashige y Skoog 1X, 3% de sucrosa, 1 mg/L de benzilaminopurina y 0,8% de agar en las que se combinaron reducciones en la fuerza del medio con reducciones en la concentración de hormona. Para el enraizamiento posterior, se probaron el ácido naftalen acético y el ácido indol acético a 5 concentraciones distintas por cada hormona. Los resultados mostraron que el mejor medio para la propagación de las variedades Quebranta, Albilla e Italia es el estándar; las variedades Negra Criolla y Torontel tuvieron mejor desempeño con una reducción de la concentración de benzilaminopurina a 0,25 y 0,5 mg/L, respectivamente. El mejor enraizamiento en la variedad Quebranta ocurrió con 80 μg/L de ácido naftalen acético y 2 mg/L de ácido indol acético; las variedades Albilla y Torontel tuvieron una mejor respuesta al ácido indol acético a concentraciones de 2 y 1 mg/L, respectivamente.The protocols and culture media available for in vitro propagation and rooting of grapevine have not yet been adjusted to the creole varieties used for pisco making. In this paper we explored the use of culture media for the propagation of varieties Quebranta, Negra Criolla, Albilla, Italia and Torontel and for rooting varieties of Quebranta, Albilla and Torontel based on known standard culture media.To address this issue, 11 media derived from the standard propagation medium for grapevine (1X

  18. Dorstige glastuinbouw moet op elke druppel water letten (interview met Wim Voogt)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, J.; Voogt, W.

    2010-01-01

    Hoge kwaliteit water wordt schaarser. Dat dwingt de glastuinbouw zorgvuldig met de teeltfactor water om te gaan en minder afhankelijk van oppervlaktewater te worden. Hemelwater blijft de belangrijkste bron maar 100% dekking is te duur. Omgekeerde osmose blijft de meest aantrekkelijke techniek om

  19. 'As ek dáárdie nektar wil eet, dan moet ek steke verdra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even as the article exposes common homophobic stereotypes, it emerges that the lesbian characters' experiences are complex and multi-faceted. The exposure to stereotypes results in a profound sense of alienation, which the characters attempt to overcome by undertaking journeys. As they struggle to deal with pain and ...

  20. Een instrument (leren) bespelen? : Hoe oud je ook bent: oefenen moet je toch!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linda Hendriks

    2016-01-01

    Met een consortium van muziekdocenten die zich gespecialiseerd hebben in ouderen en muziek voerde het lectoraat Lifelong Learning in Music van 2010-2012 onderzoek uit naar het leren bespelen van een instrument op oudere leeftijd. Maar hoe is het om voor het eerst een instrument te leren bespelen in

  1. Een instrument (leren) bespelen?: Hoe oud je ook bent: oefenen moet je toch!

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriks, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Met een consortium van muziekdocenten die zich gespecialiseerd hebben in ouderen en muziek voerde het lectoraat Lifelong Learning in Music van 2010-2012 onderzoek uit naar het leren bespelen van een instrument op oudere leeftijd. Maar hoe is het om voor het eerst een instrument te leren bespelen in de drukste levensfase in combinatie met kinderen en werk. Linda Hendriks leerde klarinet te spelen in deze levensfase en reflecteerde op de uitkomsten van eerder onderzoek naar muziekbeoefening doo...

  2. Hendrik-Jan de tuinman moet eruit! : mobbing, een zaak van het hele bedrijf?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, H.; Nossent, S.; Hark, T. ter

    2005-01-01

    Wat begint als een geintje met een persoon ontaardt in pesten, intimideren of 'mobbing' door een groep collega's. Hoe voorkom je dat het zover komt? In dit artikel geven deskundigen hier, naar aanleiding van een rollenspel, hun mening over. Als belangrijkste tips komen naar voren: snel ingrijpen,

  3. Moet ons die Belydenis van belhar (1986 as 'n nuwe Belydenisskrif aanvaar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.J. van Niekerk

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Can� we� accept� the� Confession� of Belhar� (1986� as� a� new� doctrinal confession? The possibility exists that the Dutch Refonned Church� (DRC� could stop the process of� church� unity� in� its� own family� due� to� its� refusal� to� accept The Confession 1986 (Confession of� Belhar as afourth refonned confession.� In this� article� the� question� of� acceptance� is� examined from four perspectives and� it� is� concluded� that� it should be� accepted� if� the DRC wants� to� gain credibility.� First� the� nature,� characteristics� and� history� of confessions oblige the Church� in difficult situations� to adopt new confessions.� Secondly the history of� the DRC and its family makes� it� imperative� to� overcome� the gulf between� believers from� the� same� tradition� through� the� "language� of confession".� Thirdly� the main� contents of� the� confession� is biblically sound while absolutism� of� different kinds� is� avoided.� Lastly� it� is� argued� that� the confession� satisfies� the� requirement� for� both� contextual� relevance� and universal applicability.

  4. Eestlased teevad igavast Laumast moetööstuse tipptegijat / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2005-01-01

    Eesti investeerimisfirma Alta Capital omandas 2004. aasta kevadel enamuse Läti kanga- ja pesutootja AS-i Lauma aktsiatest. Ettevõtte arengust ja tulevikuplaanidest. Lisa: Pesumood muutub erootilisemaks. Diagrammid: Lauma

  5. Preventie van congenitale syfilis ; een inventariserend onderzoek naar de vraag of de screening moet worden voortgezet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruteke P; Postma MJ; Jager JC; Loeber JG; van de Laar MJW; Conyn-van Spaendonck MAE

    1991-01-01

    This study summarizes clinical, laboratory and epidemiological aspects of syphilis and congenital syphilis. An outline is given of an economic evaluation of the programme for the prevention of congenital syphilis. figures available in the Netherlands were used in a previousluy published model for

  6. Psalm 44: Die God wat nooit sluimer of slaap nie � moet wakker word!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L P Mar�

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In Psalm 44, the author accuses Yahweh of sleeping. This is an extremely serious accusation, especially in the light of Psalm 121:4 which explicitly states that Yahweh, in contrast with the gods of the other nations, never sleeps. Why does the author make this accusation? The Psalm begins with Yahweh being praised for showing his goodness in delivering his people and bringing them to the Promised Land. No mention is made of Yahweh sleeping here! It is exactly this contrast between what Yahweh has done in the past and the current situation of his people that results� in� the accusation against God. The aim of this article is to show that believers today have similar experiences where God acts differently from what� is expected of Him and that Psalm 44 should be� utilized� by� the Church� to teach� its� people that, they too, can bring their lament and accusations against God to God, when they feel forsaken by Him.

  7. Blow capacity of an air curtain; Hoe hard denkt u dat een luchtgrodijn moet blazen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremers, B.E. [Biddle, Kootstertille (Netherlands)

    2003-03-01

    In winter, the heat capacity of a conventional air curtain can often be increased by adjusting the speed of its outlet velocity. This article demonstrates that for various reasons, it is better to adjust the width of the outlet if you need to boost the heat level rather than the outlet velocity. It also describes the benefits of this CA (Constant Air Velocity) Technology in the interests of energy conservation and comfort. [Dutch] In de winter wordt de warmtecapaciteit van een conventioneel luchtgordijn vaak verhoogd door de uitblaassnelheid aan te passen. Dit artikel toont aan dat het om meerdere redenen beter is om bij een hogere warmtebehoefte de uitblaasbreedte aan te passen in plaats van de uitblaassnelheid. Daarnaast beschrijft het de voordelen van deze CA-technologie (Constant Air velocity) wat betreft energieverbruik en comfort.

  8. BIBLIJSKI I TEOLOŠKO-DUHOVNI VID RADA

    OpenAIRE

    Zečević, Jure

    2007-01-01

    Čovjekov rad se kao viševrsna i višedimenzionalna stvarnost može cjelovitije sagledati tek objedinjavanjem različitih vidova pod kojima je proučavan i motren. Ovom radu nije prvenstveni cilj dati prikaz neke cjelovite i sustavne teologije i duhovnosti rada, nego teološki istražiti pojedina danas raspravljana i stoga relevantna pitanja biblijske i duhovne dimenzije rada, odnosa molitve i rada, među ostalim i pod vidom praktične primjene u okolnostima suvremenog načina živo...

  9. Materials in flue gas condensation plants; Materialval vid roekgaskondensering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Barbara; Nordling Magnus

    2003-02-01

    This project is the first part of a larger project. In the part reported here, materials for flue gas condensers have been investigated by contact with plant owners and suppliers and by a literature review of reported failures. If it is decided to continue with another part of the project, a number of materials will be long term tested on site. The project is complementary to an earlier project, which investigated the operating experiences from flue gas condensers in biomass fired cogeneration plants. In the project materials (steel and polymeric) suitable for long term testing in existing plants are discussed. It is proposed that testing in the second part of the project is made with material coupons in one plant fired with only biomass and one plant where biomass is co fired with other fuels. In the biomass fired plant a number of steel materials should be tested. In the co fired plant, with its harsher operating conditions, the same steel materials plus a number of polymeric materials should be tested. Materials suitable for testing are summarised in the report.

  10. Kundundersökning i restaurangen vid Hotel Red & Green

    OpenAIRE

    Vikstrand, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Lärdomsprovets syfte är att undersöka kundnöjdheten på Hotel Red & Green i Närpes. Undersökningen är begränsad till restaurangdelen. Därmed omfattar undersökningen inte frågor som berör inkvarteringen. Eftersom detta är en primärundersökning inom företaget så undersöks i huvudsak kundnöjdheten på allmän nivå. Den teoretiska referensramen behandlar först case företaget Hotel Red & Green och dess verksamhet. Därefter förklaras servicens betydelse för ett tjänsteföretag. Där klargörs vad en kund...

  11. PPO Glastuinbouw en LEI helpen biologische ketenprojecten op weg: "vernieuwing moet wel uit de biologische hoek komen"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staalduinen, van Jan; Poot, E.H.; Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O.

    2006-01-01

    Het biologische marktsegment is vanwege de hogere kostprijs van het geteelde product een natuurlijke kraamkamer voor productinnovatie. De zoektocht naar tastbaar onderscheid en aansprekende verkoopconcepten vereist multidisciplinaire samenwerking van teelt- en marktonderzoek. LEI en PPO Glastuinbouw

  12. Werknemer moet explosie niet óm de oren krijgen, maar ertussen : risicobeheersing begint op de werkvloer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, P. van; Beek, C. van

    1999-01-01

    Nederland kent zo'n 4500 bedrijven die op grote schaal met gevaarlijke stoffen werken, de majeure-risicobedrijven. Een van de risicofactoren bij deze bedrijven is explosiegevaar. Het veiligheidsbeleid is in de eerste plaats gericht op bescherming van de eigen werknemers en apparatuur, op de

  13. Soms moet er iets gebeuren voor er iets gebeurt : verkenning van mogelijkheden om de haalbaarheid van de verkeersveiligheidsdoelstellingen te vergroten.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, L.T. Eenink, R.G. Weijermars, W.A.M. Knapper, A. & Schagen, I.N.L.G. van

    2015-01-01

    Achieving the road safety targets : exploring the opportunities for increasing the feasibility. Recent SWOV outlooks indicate that it is uncertain, respectively unlikely that the targets for traffic fatalities (a maximum of 500 in 2020) and serious road injuries (a maximum of 10,600 in 2020) will be

  14. Zo moet het gegaan zijn : De noodzaak van alternatieve verklaringen en bekritiseerbare analyses bij zoekzaken binnen de opsporing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, B.W.; Gosliga, S.P.; Bijsterbosch, G.

    2011-01-01

    Recente justitiële dwalingen in onder andere de zaak Ina Post, de Schiedammer parkmoord, de Puttense moordzaak en de zaak Lucia de Berk laten zien dat het werk van een opsporingsteam vatbaar is voor het fenomeen tunnelvisie: het gevaar dat te veel wordt vastgehouden aan één scenario/hypothese. Een

  15. Gestational Hypertension and Preeclampsia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It's been added to your dashboard . '; $("#video-display").html(data); $("title").append(_vidTitle + " | March of Dimes"); $("#main.container > em").append(_vidTitle); $("#vidTitle").html(_vidTitle); $("#vidDesc").html(_vidDesc); $("#vidDuration").html(convert_time(_ ...

  16. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It's been added to your dashboard . '; $("#video-display").html(data); $("title").append(_vidTitle + " | March of Dimes"); $("#main.container > em").append(_vidTitle); $("#vidTitle").html(_vidTitle); $("#vidDesc").html(_vidDesc); $("#vidDuration").html(convert_time(_ ...

  17. Cesarean Section: Recovering After Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It's been added to your dashboard . '; $("#video-display").html(data); $("title").append(_vidTitle + " | March of Dimes"); $("#main.container > em").append(_vidTitle); $("#vidTitle").html(_vidTitle); $("#vidDesc").html(_vidDesc); $("#vidDuration").html(convert_time(_ ...

  18. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It's been added to your dashboard . '; $("#video-display").html(data); $("title").append(_vidTitle + " | March of Dimes"); $("#main.container > em").append(_vidTitle); $("#vidTitle").html(_vidTitle); $("#vidDesc").html(_vidDesc); $("#vidDuration").html(convert_time(_ ...

  19. At Least 39 Weeks

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It's been added to your dashboard . '; $("#video-display").html(data); $("title").append(_vidTitle + " | March of Dimes"); $("#main.container > em").append(_vidTitle); $("#vidTitle").html(_vidTitle); $("#vidDesc").html(_vidDesc); $("#vidDuration").html(convert_time(_ ...

  20. At Least 39 Weeks

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vidDesc").html(_vidDesc); $("#vidDuration").html(convert_time(_vidDuration)); var _videoId = queryString["id"]; relatedVidsDefer(_videoId).done(relatedVidsDetailsDefer, [mostPlayedVidsDefer(). ...

  1. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vidDesc").html(_vidDesc); $("#vidDuration").html(convert_time(_vidDuration)); var _videoId = queryString["id"]; relatedVidsDefer(_videoId).done(relatedVidsDetailsDefer, [mostPlayedVidsDefer(). ...

  2. Gestational Hypertension and Preeclampsia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vidDesc").html(_vidDesc); $("#vidDuration").html(convert_time(_vidDuration)); var _videoId = queryString["id"]; relatedVidsDefer(_videoId).done(relatedVidsDetailsDefer, [mostPlayedVidsDefer(). ...

  3. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vidDesc").html(_vidDesc); $("#vidDuration").html(convert_time(_vidDuration)); var _videoId = queryString["id"]; relatedVidsDefer(_videoId).done(relatedVidsDetailsDefer, [mostPlayedVidsDefer(). ...

  4. Cesarean Section: Recovering After Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vidDesc").html(_vidDesc); $("#vidDuration").html(convert_time(_vidDuration)); var _videoId = queryString["id"]; relatedVidsDefer(_videoId).done(relatedVidsDetailsDefer, [mostPlayedVidsDefer(). ...

  5. Views on quality assurance at Finnish and Swedish nuclear power plants and at Halden Reactor; Syn paa kvalitetssaekring vid finlaendska och svenska kaernkraftverk samt vid Haldenreaktorn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammar, L.; Lidh, B. [ES-konsult (Sweden); Wahlstroem, B.; Reiman, T. [VTT Automation (Finland)

    2001-06-01

    The paper reports on a study within the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research, NKS on quality systems at nuclear installations in Finland, Norway and Sweden. In the study a total of 74 people at the NPPs in Barsebaeck, Forsmark, Loviisa, Olkiluoto, Oskarshamn and Ringhals, and at the research reactor in Halden were interviewed in the period 30 August to 13 December 2000 concerning their views in regard of quality and quality systems. The study was concluded with a seminar held in the Ringhals nuclear power plant in Januar 2001. The study covered a number of aspects in regard of quality management, including the quality concept, quality systems, topical quality issues and approaches, rules and procedures, competency and training, the process approach to quality management, the promotion of quality consciousness and future prospects. The study reflects the significant progress made in the management of quality in nuclear power in the Nordic countries since the early phase in the seventies. The most distinctive characteristic of today's approach to quality is seen in that responsibility for the quality is assumed directly in conjunction with the working processes. It could be noted that the work patterns at the nuclear installations have been largely modified during the recent years as a result of persistent endeavours to continuously improve the quality of operation. Challenges were seen in currently reduced revenues due to descending electricity prices and the likely prospect of further increased regulatory safety requirements. The report is aimed for those working with quality issues at the nuclear power plants as well as for those interested in quality management in general or in the safety aspects of nuclear power in particular. (au)

  6. Global Swindle or Global Warming. How technology can deal with it; Global Swindle of Global Warming. Hoe moet de techniek hiermee omgaan?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiler, W. [Kropman Installatietechniek, Breda (Netherlands)

    2008-02-15

    Some people are still not convinced that human-caused global warming is taking place. The media tend to pay attention to both proponents and opponents of their points of view. The impression is that the subject is still widely open to debate. One of the best-known contributions is Al Gore's film 'An Inconvenient Truth'. Channel 4 Television in the United Kingdom countered Gore's arguments with the documentary 'The Great Global Warming Swindle' (TGGWS), a production which went on to enjoy worldwide media exposure. Both Al Gore and the makers of TGGWS play on the viewer's emotions. The Climate Portal, the Dutch website of the Platform for Communication on Climate Change (PCCC), examines the arguments presented in TGGWS in the light of current knowledge on climate change. It is also clear from the recently published Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC, that not one of the arguments of TGGWS is scientifically valid. The makers of the film created arguments by manipulating graphs and making selective use of the data. [Dutch] Voor sommige mensen is het nog steeds niet aannemelijk dat we te maken hebben met de effecten van 'Global Warming'. In de media worden voor- en tegenstanders aan het woord gelaten. Hierdoor ontstaat een beeld dat er nog veel discussie over dit onderwerp mogelijk is. Het meest bekend is AI Gore's 'An Inconvenient truth', maar als antwoord daarop heeft het Engelse Channel 4 de documentaire 'The Great Global Warming Swindle' (TGGWS), ook een wereldtournee door de media gemaakt. Zowel Al Gore als de makers van deze documentaire spelen in op de emoties van het publiek. Op het klimaatportaal, de site van het Platform Communication on Climate Change (PCCC) worden de beweringen in TGGWS in de context van de kennis over klimaatverandering geplaatst. Daaruit blijkt, zoals onder andere in het recent verschenen vierde Assessment Report van het IPCC te lezen is, dat geen van de in de TGGWS gebruikte argumenten wetenschappelijk correct zijn. De makers van de film hebben argumenten gefabriceerd door bewerking van grafieken en het selectief omgaan met gegevens.

  7. ’n Lied moet klink om gehoor te word ... : Faktore wat die resepsie van kerkliedere kan beïnvloed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsabé Kloppers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A hymn must be sung to be heard ... : Aspects that could influence the reception of hymns and psalms. The most recent official hymnal in Afrikaans, Liedboek van die Kerk, was taken into use in 2001. Some hymns and psalms were immediately sung with enthusiasm whereas others remained unused, which is true especially for many of the metrical psalms. The most prominent reason for not singing some hymns or psalms is that they are unknown – text as well as tune. It is, however, often assumed that the reason why hymns and psalms are unknown is primarily because their tunes would be too difficult to sing. The role of the text and other aspects are not taken into account sufficiently. In this article, these one-sided views regarding the tunes are challenged, and it is argued that there could be many other reasons why hymns and psalms are not used.

  8. ‘Je moet onder aan de ladder beginnen’: distinctie en hiërarchie binnen de klassieke en hedendaagse muziek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, L.; van den Haak, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the distinctive and hierarchical dynamics of a typical field of avant-garde art: contemporary classical music. Researchers on cultural taste and distinction often ignore this genre due to its small following, whereas literature on avant-garde does not focus on consumers. By

  9. La vidéo, un instrument de paix au Liban | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 févr. 2011 ... Il est vite apparu que la culture fruitière allait être plus profitable que la garde ... Liban et l'exploitation a déclassé la fruiticulture comme activité lucrative. .... visant à soutenir l'élaboration et la mise à l'essai de 24 innovations.

  10. Découpage automatique de la vidéo en plans | Maredj | Revue d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revue d'Information Scientifique et Technique ... Temporal segmentation is a necessary first step to indexing digital video for browsing and retrieval. ... This paper describes an original approach for temporal segmentation algorithm of video based on Kolmogorve-Smirnov statistical test and using double thresholds to detect ...

  11. Changes in control room at Swedish nuclear power plants; Kontrollrumsfoeraendringar vid svenska kaernkraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kecklund, Lena [MTO Psykologi, Huddinge (Sweden)

    2005-09-15

    The Swedish nuclear power plants were commissioned during a period between 1972 and 1985 and the instrumentation and control equipment are basically from that period. For several years there have been plans made for changes in all the nuclear power plants and to a certain extent the changes in control equipment and monitoring rooms have also been implemented. The object of this project was to make a comprehensive review of the changes in control room design implemented in the Swedish nuclear power plants and to describe how the MTO- (Man-Technology-Organisation) and (Man-Machine-Interface) -issues have been integrated in the process. The survey is intended to give an overall picture of the changes in control room design and man-machine-interface made in the Swedish control rooms, in order to get a deeper knowledge of the change management process and its results as well as of the management of MTO-issues in these projects. The units included in this survey are: Oskarhamn reactor 2 and 3; Ringhals reactor 2, 3 and 4; Forsmark reactor 1, 2 and 3. The Oskarshamn 1 unit has not been included in this report as it has recently undergone an extensive modernisation program as well as a detailed inspection by the SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate). At Ringhals 2 the modernisation work is carried out at present and the unit is also subjected to extensive inspection activities carried out by SKI and is therefore not part of this survey. This report also includes a short description of relevant standards and requirements. Then follows a presentation of the results of the plant survey, presented as case studies for three companies OKG, Ringhals and FKA. Control room changes are summarized as well as the results on specific MTO issues which has been surveyed. In all the power companies there is a joint way of working with projects concerning plant modifications. This process is described for each company separately. In the concluding of the report the strengths and improvement areas defined in the survey are summarised.

  12. Production of fuel pellets made of biomass. Saett vid framstaellning av pelleterat braensle av biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeffner, E; Miller, A; Thrap-Olsen, O

    1986-11-17

    The pellets consists of dewatered peat mixed with milled biomass into a workable compound. The compound is led to a storage tank through which hot air from a heat exchanger is blown. The pre-dried compound then passes a pellet press. The pellets are moved to a heat insulated dryer with a perforated bottom through which hot gas is blown and when the pellets have a sufficient percentage of moisture they are cooled by blowing cool gas through the drier, thus producing durable pellets. (L.F.).

  13. Hereditär hjärnblödning. Demens vid cystatin C amyloidos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blöndal, H; Guomundsson, G; Benedikz, Eirikur

    1990-01-01

    Nineteen cases of hereditary cystatin C amyloidosis with cerebral haemorrhage are described. The first haemorrhage occurred between the ages of 20 and 41 years and the period of survival varied from 10 days to 23 years after the first insult. Progressive dementia was a striking clinical symptom...... in 17 of the patients and in two cases dementia was the first sign. At the last examination severe dementia and pronounced pathological EEG were established in the majority of the patients. Infiltration of amyloid substance positive for anti-cystatin C was found in the proximity of the blood vessels...... the name Hereditary Cystatin C Amyloidosis (HCCA)....

  14. Projet Vidéo-voix en Zambie | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Driving vaccine innovations to improve lives and livelihoods. Five world-class research teams are working to develop vaccines for neglected livestock diseases in the Global South. View moreDriving vaccine innovations to improve lives and livelihoods ...

  15. Vidět mysl v druhém těle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 68, Sppl. 1 (2013), s. 100-111 ISSN 0046-385X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP401/12/P544 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : mind * body * expression * intersubjectivty Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  16. BIM som Informationsbärare in i Förvaltningen : En studie vid Forsmarks Kraftgrupp

    OpenAIRE

    Svens, Therése

    2013-01-01

    BIM, Building Information Modeling, börjar vinna mark inom byggbranschen i Sverige och är en vedertagen process i vart och vartannat byggprojekt. Forsmarks Kraftgrupp står inför både upprustningar av sina anläggningar och nyproduktion av bland annat kontor, verkstad och hotell. BIM framstår nu som en lukrativ metod för att dra ner på projektkostnaderna, men även för att få ytterligare ordning och struktur på den enorma mängd dokumentation som ackumulerat under de dryga trettio åren av drift. ...

  17. Environmental impact at primary production of biofuels; Miljoeeffekter vid primaerproduktion av biobraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstedt, Johan; Westerberg, Lars; Tonderski, Karin (Linkoepings Univ, Linkoeping (Sweden). Dept. of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Div. of Ecology)

    2009-02-15

    Sweden has a policy objective that the forest and agricultural production of renewable energy must increase. Several of the traditionally cultivated annual crops can be used to biofuels, such as wheat, oilseed rape and sugar beet, but other crops are also interesting. Apart from an increase in Salix cultivation we discuss the cultivation of plants we have not cultivated, such as hemp, poplar and aspen, and intensive cultivation of spruce. Reed canary grass and grassland with several species are other candidates. The old reproductive systems environment are well known but what the new ones mean for the environment is poorly known. In this report, the state of knowledge regarding environmental impacts of primary bio-fuel production in Sweden is compiled. Based on the assumption that the reference crop is a plowed field the crops that can be grown on agricultural land are discussed. For the forest soil analyzed GROT (Tree-branches and -tops), root harvesting and intensive farmed spruce. The environmental impacts treated are carbon sinks in soil, compaction (with accompanying erosion problems), nutrient leaching, pesticides, landscape diversity, and biodiversity. One conclusion of the study is that it generally that there are many positive environmental effects of converting agricultural land to perennial crops for bioenergy, at least to some degree. On the other hand, increased collection of primary bio-energy from forests has mainly negative environmental impacts. The size of the effects are strongly linked to how much and where to grow and harvest, so a study of scale problems should be urgently implemented. This applies to both nutrient leaching and on the biological and landscape diversity. Use of ecosystem- and geographic models can be effective tools to generate different scenarios. The greatest potential of all crops, however, appears to be for aquatic systems with harvest of blue-green algae and bacteria, which probably would have mainly positive effects on the eutrophied lakes from which they were harvested. No such studies exist, however. Studies of techno-economic character are need in this area

  18. vid113_0401r -- Video groundtruthing collected from RV Tatoosh during August 2005.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A custom built camera sled outfitted with video equipment (and other devices) was deployed from the NOAA research vessel Tatoosh during August 2005. Video data from...

  19. Granskning av 3D-printingens möjligheter vid utformning av byggnader

    OpenAIRE

    Blom, Martina; Landstedt, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: There is today limitations of what is possible to design and in fact produce. In industrial construction the focus is on standardization which impedes an individual design form, which can be considered an architectural quality. The potential of 3Dprinting is growing, which is benefitting design freedom. The goal was to evaluate how 3D-printing in Sweden today could increase architects possibilities at the design process and be production adapted. Method: In a case study at Tengbom ...

  20. Sjuksköterskors upplevelse vid vård av patienter med substansbrukssyndrom

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Johansson; Frida, Zetterman

    2016-01-01

    Bakgrund Tidigare forskning visar att sjuksköterskor har förutfattade meningar om patienter med en stigmatiserande diagnos. Sjuksköterskor stigmatiserar och har negativa attityder som påverkar deras vård av dessa patienter. Individer med substansbrukssyndrom är en grupp som är särskilt utsatt för stigmatisering i samhället. Dessa individer påträffas inom samtliga specialiteter inom vården. Denna studie fokuserar därför på sjuksköterskors upplevelse av patienter med substansbrukssyndrom. Syfte...

  1. Vid na himkombinat v Maardu so stenõ Hudozhestvennoi galerei / A. Orshanskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Orshanskaja, A.

    1999-01-01

    Eesti akvarellistide ühingu vabariiklikust näitusest Narva kunstigaleriis : akvarelle aastatest 1960 - 1999 eri põlvkondade 43 kunstnikult. Esinevad ka 6 Narva kunstnikku : Igor Gordin, Vera Lantsova, Anne Pärtel, Jelena Sabinina, Tatjana Sonina, Irina Sopina.

  2. Environmental impact by toxic compounds from waste treatment; Miljoepaaverkan fraan toxiska aemnen vid hantering av avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefblad, Gun; Bisaillon, Mattias; Sundberg, Johan (Profu AB (Sweden))

    2010-07-01

    The study deals with emissions of toxic compounds from waste treatment to the environment with the aim of improving the state of knowledge and to find a way of describing the environmental impact from these substances. Toxicity is one of a number of environmental aspects necessary to address in the planning of waste treatment and in the daily waste treatment routines in order to fulfill the environmental objective A Non-Toxic Environment and other environmental requirements. The study includes waste to incineration, composting and anaerobic digestion. A comparison between methods were made for biological household waste. According to our study, the compounds of importance for waste treatment are metals and persistent organic compounds. These tend to bioaccumulate and enrich in food chains. The substances are important for the environmental objective A Non-Toxic Environment. In a first step the compounds chosen in this study may be suggested for describing toxicity from waste treatment: As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, dioxin, PCB, the phthalate DEHP and the brominated flame retardant HBCDD. Other substances may be added to the list in a next step from up-dated and quality-assured characterisation factors or from other requirements or preferences. There is a limited knowledge on toxic compounds in waste flows and in different environmental compartments. More data are available for metals than for organic substances. There is also a limited knowledge on the fate of the compounds during the waste treatment processes. Most information is found for incineration. During composting and anaerobic digestion the metals will mainly be emitted to the environment by use of the compost and the anaerobic digestion residue. Organic substances will to some extent be degraded during the processes. However, there are gaps of knowledge to fill for the further work on estimating toxic emissions. There is mainly a need for more extensive data on toxic compounds in waste and their variations. A test was made to use a weighted index for toxicity - such as used for climate impact, acidification, etc. in system analyses for waste treatment. The result was not useful due to the limited availability of characterisation factors for the chosen substances. In stead, the toxic impact was assessed by other comparisons, from a local and a national perspective. No acute effects on human health and on the environment are expected to occur from waste processes or from the use of compost and anaerobic digestion residue. The conclusion is that emissions of toxic substances from waste treatment will contribute to the present fugitive levels of pollutants in the environment. The toxic impact is proposed to be quantified as the total emission of metals and persistent organic pollutants, without consideration to the way emissions are made; to air, water and soil. Emissions, even though they are small, contribute to present levels of pollution with the risk of further elevated concentrations and further dispersion in nutrient chains. In all environ metal work it is essential to reduce emissions of toxic persistent compounds. Many activities in society contribute to the total levels. Waste treatment is an unavoidable activity in the society. By massive actions to limit the use and to con tol the emissions of toxic compounds, a cleaner waste is expected to be the result. In addition, measures such as more effective source separation and separation of hazardous waste will make a more optimised treatment of different types of waste possible

  3. Effect of phosphorus addition in combustion of biomass fuels; Effekter av fosfortillsats vid foerbraenning av biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Alejandro; Skoglund, Nils; Eriksson, Gunnar; Bostroem, Dan; Oehman, Marcus

    2010-11-15

    The results from this project show that phosphorous-rich additives could be of interest to reduce fouling and high temperature corrosion without causing increase in slagging and/or bed agglomeration tendency for typical biofuels. General results in this series of experiments show that in order to achieve a good potassium-binding effect the calcium and magnesium content should be low in the phosphorous-rich fuel and additive. If the content of Ca and Mg is high in the final fuel mixture (including both P-fuel/additive and the bulk fuel) the K-binding effect is reduced and more P needs to be added. Of course, this also means that the additive of choice (fuel or chemical) should have a low content of calcium and magnesium. It is therefore probable that the best results will be obtained when using a fuel mix where the final blend has a molar ratio of P/(K+Na+2/3Ca+2/3Mg) approaching 1. For instance, using monoammonium phosphate, this would be equivalent to a cost (autumn 2009) of about 9-14, 10-15 and 30-40 SEK in P-additive cost per MWh of added fuel to achieve this molar ratio for typical logging residue, salix and wheat straw biofuels.

  4. District Heating at Power Failures - Final Report; Fjaerrvaerme vid Elavbrott - Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauenburg, Patrick; Johansson, Per-Olof

    2008-11-15

    Our society is vulnerable to prolonged power cuts. In cold weather interrupted heating is one of the most serious threats. District heating is available at most locations in Sweden and if heat can be transferred to the connected buildings at a power failure, it is of great importance for securing energy supply. In this work it was found that there are good opportunities for upholding heat supply at a power failure through self-circulation in connected radiator system, which has previously been overlooked. Self Circulation occurs when there is a sufficiently large temperature difference between forward and return line in the radiator system. The control and circulation in radiator systems will fail, but if the district heating water can continue to pass through the heat exchangers of the radiator systems self-circulation can occur. A prerequisite for self-circulation in the individual buildings to work is therefore to district heating network can operate at a power failure. District heating supply must have back to maintain the production and distribution of district heating, which is not always the case. Our studies show that there is every reason to this. Moreover there are customers that have their own reserve aggregates, such as hospitals, which are dependent on the district heating network function. In an extensive power failure, it may be desirable to establish a smaller grid, separate from backbone, using local electricity generation. The establishment of such a network requires there is local production which can start to loose voltage networks and has necessary control equipment for the frequency approach. In Malmoe, it is now possible to establish a such a network with the help of local production units. A prerequisite is that there are consumption of heating. It is not unusual for power plants (which produce both electricity and heat) is dependent on the pipe system for cooling the production of electricity. One can from the results also argue that every district should have cogeneration for a security of supply. The results show that the vast majority of buildings can be self-circulation in a power failure equivalent to 40-80 percent of the warming effect. Hot water systems covered primarily not of this, even if some hot water production can be possible. Self-circulation works better the higher the ambient temperature is. However, most buildings, possibly after some modifications, have at least 50 percent of the warming impact at a very low ambient temperature, which means that you normally do for several days before a possible evacuation becomes necessary. The studies have enabled a number of recommendations have been compiled. The recommendations are designed to increase opportunities for self-circulation of different systems and is addressed to all parties concerned, i.e. from authorities and district heating companies to manufacturers, building owners, operators and residents, and includes both preparatory steps and these actions can be taken when a power failure has been occurred. Finally, we note that there should be a value in the form of the presented results are a selling point for the district and the societal costs of example, reserve units and possible evacuations can be reduced

  5. Long term effects of ash fertilization of reed canary grass; Laangtidseffekter av askgoedsling vid roerflensodling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmborg, Cecilia; Lindvall, Eva

    2011-03-15

    Reed canary grass (RCG) is a bio-energy crop with large potential. It is a 1.5 . 2.5 m tall grass that is harvested in spring when it is grown as a fuel. At spring harvest it yields 3 . 10 ton field dried material per ha and year. One disadvantage when reed canary grass is used as a fuel is the high ash content, 5-10 %. This means that large quantities of ash have to be deposited which is expensive, about 1000 SEK/ton. However, since reed canary grass ash contains reasonable amounts of plant nutrients like phosphorous (P), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) it could be recycled as fertilizer in agriculture. The ash can be used without any pretreatment since, in agriculture, plant availability is desirable. The aim of this project, was to evaluate a field experiment, where ash was used as a fertilizer in reed canary grass. The experiment was established at the SLU research station in Umea, Sweden in the spring 2002. Three different fertilizer treatments were applied: Treatment A was fertilized with an ash produced by combustion of RCG together with municipal wastes (paper, plastic, leather), treatment B, an ash from combustion of RCG, and for treatment C commercial fertilizers were used. In total, 100 kg ha-1 of nitrogen (N), 15 kg ha-1 of phosphorous (P) and 80 kg ha-1 of potassium (K), were applied each year in all treatments. The amount of ash in treatment A and B was calculated from the chemical analysis of the ashes to be equal to the required amount of P, while K and N were supplied also by commercial fertilizers. [Table 1. Composition of the ashes] Literature study: There is a lack of knowledge about fertilization with reed canary grass ash, since few experiments have been conducted. The composition of reed canary grass is dependent of harvest date and the soil substrate. The amount of ash and the amount of harmful substances such as potassium and chloride generally decreases over winter, giving an increased fuel quality from spring harvest compared to autumn harvest. The main component of the ash is silica and silica concentrations are higher when reed canary grass is grown on clay soil than on peat soil. In an earlier project within the department of agricultural research for northern Sweden, SLU Umea, reed canary grass growing on peat soil was fertilized with ash from cocombustion of reed canary grass and sorted municipal waste. This ash was beneficial for the growth of the grass and did not give increased heavy metal contents. However the experiment only lasted two years so no conclusions could be drawn about long-term effects. Crop yields and elemental composition of the crop: The yields varied very much from year to year. The first two production years, 2004 and 2005 the yield was at expected levels, 6000-7000 kg dry matter per ha and year. After that, 2006-2009 the yields have been lower than expected, 1500 - 4000 kg dry matter per ha and year. The reason for this is not known, but it could be related to climate or pests. There were no significant differences in yield between the treatments. Samples from each plot from the last harvest and stored samples from 2004 were analyzed for nutrient and heavy metal content. There were only minor significant differences between the treatments: The ash and the potassium and calcium concentrations 2009 in grass from treatment A, ash from co-combustion of reed canary grass and waste, was slightly higher than in the NPK fertilized control. The magnesium concentration in 2009 was slightly higher in grass fertilized with reed canary grass ash than in the control grass. Element balances and soil concentrations of elements: Because of the low yield levels the amounts of P and K applied were much higher than the removal with harvests (Table 2). This resulted in an increase in plant available P and K in the top soil between 2003 and 2008 (Table 3). However, in the subsoil there was a decrease especially in plant available P. The only significant differences in soil nutrients between the treatments 2008 were for Ca, where treatment A had higher concentrations and Mg where treatment A and B had higher concentrations than the control. Only treatment A had an increased pH compared to the control. This is probably because reed canary grass ash is rich in silica oxide which is acidic. [Table 2. Balance between supplied and removed amounts of nutritional elements and heavy metals during the experimental period. The removed amount per hectare has been calculated from the average between analyzes from 2004 and 2009, and dry matter yield per year. The only heavy metal content available for the fertilizers was Cd content in the phosphate.] [Table 3. pH-value and content of plant nutrients 2003 (per treatment) and 2008 (per plot) in topsoil and subsoil. Analysis of plant available nutrients by extraction with ammonium lactate.] In treatment A, the amounts of heavy metals applied greatly exceeded the limits for sewage sludge set by Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.

  6. Corrosion risks with polyethylene pipes in district cooling systems; Korrosionsrisker vid anvaendning av polyetenroer i fjaerrkylesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinka, Tor-Gunnar; Almquist, Joergen; Gubner, Rolf [Swedish Corrosion Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    Field exposures of carbon steel and stainless steel test cylinders have been made in the district cooling system at Affaersverken Energi AB, Karlskrona, Sweden, as well as determinations of the amount of dissolved oxygen in the district cooling water. In the district cooling system tubes of polyethylene, carbon steel and stainless steel SS 2343 according to Swedish standard SS 14 23 43 are used. Karlskrona's drinking water, without deaeration, is used in the district cooling system. The polyethylene tubes with pressure number PN 10 are placed underground. The content of dissolved oxygen was very low in Karlskrona both before and after a period of 19 days with elevated oxygen content. During these 19 days the content of dissolved oxygen in the system increased without any apparent cause. The highest recorded oxygen content was 3.4 mg O{sub 2}/l. There are no obvious explanations for the increase of oxygen in the system. However, transport of oxygen into the system through the polyethylene tubes can be excluded as the source of the entering oxygen. The corrosion rate that was determined for freely exposed carbon steel in the district heating water in Karlskrona was low, 5 {mu}m/year. The corrosion attack was of a uniform nature (general corrosion) and there were no local corrosion attacks on the carbon steel cylinders. On connecting the carbon steel with stainless steel SS 23 43 with an area ratio of 1:1 the corrosion rate of the carbon steel increased by 2-3 times as compared to free exposure without electrical connection. On the stainless steel SS 2343 there was no corrosion damage either on the freely exposed stainless steel or on stainless steel that was connected to carbon steel. There were no signs of pitting corrosion or crevice corrosion on the stainless steel cylinders. The main corrosion risk for carbon steel at an elevated content of dissolved oxygen is bimetallic corrosion (galvanic corrosion) between carbon steel and copper and copper alloys, or between carbon steel and stainless steel. Calculations show that the amount of oxygen gas that is transported through the walls of polyethylene tubes in air is very small. This amount of oxygen causes a slow corrosion on carbon steel. For polyethylene tubes in soil the oxygen transport through the tubes will be considerably lower than for tubes in air. Recommendations state that the area of carbon steel should be at least 10 % of the area of the polythene tubes if the polyethylene tubes are placed outdoors or indoors in air and not in soil. The reason is that the carbon steel tubes should use up the oxygen that is transported through the tubes. The most important reason for reducing the oxygen content in the system is the risk of bimetallic corrosion on the carbon steel. Another purpose for recommending a certain minimum area of carbon steel in the system is that any oxygen from unforeseen air intakes, from system starts and major additions of makeup water to the system with un-degassed water should be consumed, without causing significant corrosion on the carbon steel. For district cooling systems with polyethylene tubes placed in soil it is recommended that the area of carbon steel should be at least 5 % of the polyethylene tube area, to take care of unintentional intakes of air and system starts and major toppings with un-degassed water. It is recommended that the risks of accidental intakes of oxygen into the district cooling system should be considered. With the present use of soil-placed polyethylene tubes in district cooling systems the risks connected with accidental oxygen intakes are judged to be greater than the risk of oxygen diffusion through the polyethylene tubes. Furthermore, it is recommended that the risks of bimetallic corrosion should be taken in account at the design of district heating systems. The current use of soil-placed polyethylene tubes in district cooling systems with large quantities of carbon steel in the system is not considered to cause any risk of corrosion. The amount of oxygen that is transported through the polyethylene tubes is very small.

  7. Rötning av avloppsslam vid 35, 55 och 60 °C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjerstadius, Hamse; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Stålhandske, Liselotte

    The study evaluated effect of anaerobic digestion (35, 55 and 60 °C ) at different minimum exposure times as well as from pasteurization on hygienization of pathogens, biogas production and removal of pharmaceutical substances and PAH.......The study evaluated effect of anaerobic digestion (35, 55 and 60 °C ) at different minimum exposure times as well as from pasteurization on hygienization of pathogens, biogas production and removal of pharmaceutical substances and PAH....

  8. Bird Survey in Storruns windfarm in Jaemtland; Faagelundersoekning vid Storruns vindkraftanlaeggning Jaemtland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkdalen, Ulla; Falkdalen Lindahl, Lars; Nygaard, Torgeir

    2013-08-15

    A survey of the bird populations in Oldfjaellen in Jaemtland county, Sweden, was initiated in 2003 prior to the construction of a wind-farm on two adjacent hills, Storrun and Froesoerun by the lake Oevre Oldsjoen. After a gap in the surveys in 2004, comprehensive studies were continued during 2005 - 2008, prior to the construction. The construction-work started during autumn 2008, and the turbines were erected during 2009. Power production was started during the autumn of 2009. The post-construction bird studies were carried out in 2010 and 2011. This report summarizes all the studies that were performed before and after the construction of the wind-farm. Many of the separate studies were made using a BACI method (Before-After-Control-Impact) enabling comparisons of the situation before and after development, using a control area. In addition, a study of collision rates and scavenger removal rates is reported. As expected, the movement and migration of birds over Storrun was of rather limited magnitude. Although the majority of observations during the investigated periods spring and autumn are assumed to be migrating birds, larger flocks of birds are rare in the area. Ca. 20 % of all the birds that passed through or near the wind-farm area flew in heights comparable to the rotor-swept zone. However, more than 40 % of the raptors and waders passed through in that zone, which implies a collision risk. These two groups of birds have shown to be particularly prone to collisions with rotor blades in other studies.

  9. Dubbel bosättning : Bostadens betydelse vid flytt från Sverige

    OpenAIRE

    Månsson, Robin

    2011-01-01

    The Swedish tax on income for persons who are unlimited liable to tax is based on his domicile and double taxation treaties between Sweden and other countries are based on his residence. In order to determine a person’s tax liability, the dwelling or home is of vital importance to determine where a person has his domicile and residence. For a person who has moved from Sweden, to be unlimited tax liable here, there must be an essential link. This link can be through previous residence in Swede...

  10. Automatisation of moisture content measurement in biofuel deliveries; Automatiserad fukthaltsmaetning vid braenslemottagning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulin, Robert; Hessling, Krister; Karlsson, Mikael; Tryzell, Robert (Bestwood AB, Sundbyberg (Sweden))

    2008-06-15

    Measurement of moisture content in biofuel is normally made through manual sampling near the surface of truck deliveries or in the bulk of fuel deliveries that is distributed on e.g. a storage area. Moisture content is usually performed trough gravimetric determination at lab using oven drying for 24 hours. Precision is approximately a standard deviation of 2 %-units. However, there are several reasons to replace this method by an automatic procedure that measures moisture content in the bulk of the cargo. Except for obtaining more representative samples in the bulk, are speed and the measurement cost important characteristics. The purpose of this project was to develop a well-functioning prototype of a system that is automatic in the sense that manual sampling and sample preparation is replaced by a Near Infra Red (NIR) based system. The intended users of such a system would be both buyers of biofuel and suppliers who would benefit from better knowledge of the quality of the product that they are about to deliver. This project was initiated in the late autumn of 2006. A complete hardware set-up including a NIR spectrophotometer, light probe and a crane was installed in June 2007 in Eskilstuna, Sweden, and shown to members of the reference group at Vaermeforsk. The reliability of reference data obtained through gravimetric measurement was unfortunately not as good as expected on beforehand. This problem was due to the difficulty of obtaining representative samples near the surface of the truck cargo. It delayed the validation phase of this project significantly. An evaluation of the NIR based system reveals a good accuracy and precision that is far better than that of the traditional method for delivery control. A major reason for the superior precision is that the sampling error is reduced. Further, the NIR based system delivers real-time moisture data with a speed that is difficult to reach at lab because of restrictions in manual labour and limitations in equipment capacity. This project has therefore fulfilled all goals that were initially set up. (author)

  11. L’interface cerveau-ordinateur: futur des jeux vidéo?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton

    2017-01-01

    Brain-computer interfacing: the future of video games? Communication activity in the brain goes with changes in electrical activity (voltage differences) and oxygen flow. These changes can be measured and located: that makes it possible to translate them to appropriate commands to devices, robots or

  12. Materials in flue gas condensation plants. Stage 2; Materialval vid roekgaskondensering. Etapp 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordling, Magnus; Bergman, Gunnar; Baeck, Gustaf; Jacobsson, Karin; Pahverk, Helen; Roemhild, Stefanie

    2004-12-01

    The corrosion resistance of some metallic and polymeric materials has been investigated in the flue gas scrubbers/condensers in the power plants at Igelsta using waste wood and Brista using bio fuel in the boilers. The materials were exposed inside the inlet part of the condenser and inside the flue gas duct after the condenser. In Brista, the polymeric materials were also exposed to the hot flue gases inside the duct before the condenser. The temperature of the gases before and after the condenser in Brista was 140 deg C and 50-60 deg C, respectively. In Igelsta, the flue gas temperature after the condenser was 45 deg C. The metallic coupons in the condenser were located in the spray-zone, both in Igelsta and Brista. That was true also for the polymeric material in Brista. In both plants, the wash-solution had a pH of 7-8, a temperature of 30 deg C, and a low content of chloride. The metallic materials investigated were stainless steels of the following grades: 17-12-2.5, 2205, SAF2507 and 254SMO. The major part of the polymeric materials investigated consisted of FRP laminates, which were made with different combinations of resin type of surface veil and type of chopped strand mat (CSM). Laminates with a new type of vinyl ester resin, Atlac E-Nova FW 1045, a new type of a stress-corrosion-resistant glass-fibre called Arcotex, and two types of surface reinforcement of carbon fibre have been compared to laminates of common type. Laminates with a special reinforcement of the type 3-D fabric were also included as well as five polypropylene materials (PP) with varying degree of stabilisation, two glass-flake materials applied on carbon steel and a butyl rubber. The corrosion resistance of the materials was evaluated after seven a months exposure at the different positions in the plants. The stainless steel materials were evaluated with respect to uniform corrosion, pitting and crevice attack. The corrosion resistance of the polymeric materials was evaluated with different methods and techniques which varied depending on the type of material. The FRP and the glass-flake materials were evaluated using visual inspection, microscopic investigation of polished and dye-stained cross sections, determination of mass loss and thickness changes. The laminates were also subjected to mechanical testing. The PP materials were evaluated by so-called OIT determinations (Oxidation Induction Time) and the rubber material by determination of changes in elongation at break. The results showed that for all steel materials the uniform corrosion was very low in all positions. The corrosion rate was between 0.2 and 0.4 {mu}m/year, which suggests that they would perform well from a uniform corrosion resistance point of view. The only clear difference among the steels was that the weld of SAF2507 showed a higher frequency of pits than that in the weld of the other steels. It however ought to be pointed out that the metallic materials that were exposed in the inlet of the condenser, were not exposed in the probably most aggressive region, the so called wet-dry zone. If so, a difference regarding the degree of corrosion attack on the different materials might would have been the case. The results related to polymeric materials showed among other things that the new glass-fibre type, Arcotex, is not suitable to be used for laminates in the environments studied, because of a too low osmosis resistance which gave rise to damage in the form of microdelaminations and blistering. The new resin Atlac E-Nova FW 1045 showed a markedly less corrosion resistance to hot flue gases compared to the conventional ones based on Atlac 590 and Derakane 470. Compared to surface veil reinforcement made of glass and carbon fibre, the use of a woven fabric of carbon fibre in the surface layer seemed to generally improve the resistance of the laminate to the studied environments with respect to the retention of the mechanical properties. The glass-flake materials showed good corrosion resistance in all positions. The PP-materials showed good resistance to corrosion, but the stabiliser was consumed to varying extents depending on partly the temperature of exposure, partly on unknown factors. The butyl rubber showed good corrosion resistance, but also signs of ageing. When comparing metallic and polymeric materials, it can be concluded that all steels have performed well, but most polymeric materials have shown certain damage of varying degree and importance. The long-term corrosion resistance of the polymeric materials is, compared to metals, more complex to evaluate and assess. In particular, that is true when data is available only for one single exposure time. To predict how different forms of attack develop in time, corrosion analyses at different exposure times are required. [abstract truncated

  13. Financial Control and Safety. An investigation on how financial and safety aspects are integrated in the decision making at the Swedish nuclear power plants; Ekonomistyrning och saekerhet. En utredning om hur ekonomi- och saekerhetsaspekter integreras vid beslutsfattandet vid kaernkraftverken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaernild, Ola [OV Konsult i Vaesteraas AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    The alleged inter-relationship between economy and nuclear safety has been investigated. Through interviews and review of instructions and other documents, information on how management at Swedish nuclear power plants integrates financial control and safety management has been compiled. Owners of nuclear power plants have well founded expectations on that the plants are profitable and that the operations are rationalized in order to reduce costs. This could allegedly threaten the nuclear safety. However, it is not to be expected that there are any obvious relationships between expenditures and safety. The quality of the safety management has to be judged in terms of how well safety requirements are met irrespective of the associated costs. The owners have imposed clear financial objectives on the nuclear power plants. At the same time they have also established policies for nuclear safety. The nuclear power plants have systems for operations management, which basically comprise separate parts for operations planning and quality management. Financial control and safety management are included in the operations planning and quality management respectively. The quality management impose restrictions to be adhered to in the operations planning. This means that from a formal point of view, the safety management is superior to the operations planning. There are examples of simple as well as advanced approaches to financial management at the nuclear power plants. In all cases the methods used are reasonably well adapted to the needs. Typical for all plants is the focus on long-term aspects. Investments are for example analysed in a plant life-time perspective. With regard to safety, profitability calculations are not required to the same extent for safety related investments as for other investments. A number of factors, which tend to warrant that safety aspects are given the appropriate attention in the decision making, have been identified. Examples of such factors are the involvement of cross functional teams and external parties in the decision process, detailed and unambiguous instructions in the quality system and follow-up by organizational entities, which are independent of the line organization. In 2003 concerns related to the prioritization of financial control at the expense of safety were expressed at one nuclear power plant and management took action on this. There now appears to be a unanimous opinion at all Swedish nuclear power plants that safety really has a higher priority than financial control and that this is well reflected in company policies and in the systems for operations management. Above reference has only been made to the formal operations management. A common remark has been that the adherence to the quality system depends on the safety culture. In order to safeguard that the safety culture remains unaffected by any changes related the norms and values concerning economy, the safety culture should to a large extent be based on safety related institutional activities. Authority review of the financial control at the nuclear power plants should focus on that the quality system really is superior to the operations management. In addition, when reviewing the safety culture, the existence of stabilizing institutional safety related activities should be checked.

  14. Territorialisation à distance par caméra vidéo : Perception de la vidéosurveillance au quartier des Pâquis à Genève

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Klauser

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Drawing upon two public opinion surveys conducted in Geneva in 2015 and 2016, the paper explores how video surveillance was lived and perceived by the residents of the monitored Pâquis area, as well as by the population at large. This study shows that the delegation of control to systems and individuals that are both spatially and socially detached from the monitored areas also results in a kind of `mental distance' that characterizes the relation between the monitored individuals and the system: People quickly forget about the cameras and withdraw from any conscious attempt to imagine what might be going on behind their back. The system thus gradually loses its relevance in people's everyday life. This, in turn, limits the symbolic power of the cameras to enduringly revitalize, and thus to properly re-territorialize, the monitored areas.

  15. Practical consequences of the Water Framework Directive implementation for combustion plants. New water cleaning technologies and methods for improvement of effluent discharges; Praktiska konsekvenser foer foerbraenningsanlaeggningar vid infoerandet av Vattendirektivet. Nya reningstekniker och foerbaettringsaatgaerder vid utslaepp till vatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axby, Fredrik; Hansson, Christina [Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    As a consequence of the growing impact on water resources the Water Framework Directive was legislated in 2000. The directive should ensure that a 'good water status' and entail a coordinated legislation striving for a long-term protection of all water resources. Stakeholders should be able to participate in the preparations of river basin management plans and programs of measures. District based water authorities will administrate the implementation and are mandated to decide upon regional environmental quality standards and promulgate fees for water use and discharges. The Directive contains a list of 33 prioritized substances that should be reduced or phased out. Discharges from combustion plants contain twelve, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals. PAH and heavy metals impacts growth and vital functions as respiration and photosynthesis of water living organisms and induces cancer in humans. NOEC-values (NO Effect Concentration) state manageable substance concentrations for an organism. Flue gas condensate contains concentrations of some of the substances which impact exceeds the critical state level. Extended sewage treatment could thus be needed. Sludge, wash and soot water contains elevated levels of heavy metals. This water is normally treated by municipal sewage treatment. Further treatment at plant site could be relevant. Presence of PAH and heavy metals in leach water depends on the precipitation. Additional flowing-independent water treatment could be relevant. It is very uncertain how plant owners will be affected. Licenses could be reviewed and standards could be raised for sensitive recipients; new limits for prioritized substances and standards for other types of discharges and water fees could be added. Respites could be given if costs exceed the benefits. Location, ecotoxicological risk assessments and precautionary measures could become more relevant in an EIA. Pricing of water could take place by using a system of emissions trading. Plant owners could make an impact by participating in development of environmental quality standards plans and programs by representation in public consultations and cooperative groups. Methods for improvement to meet the new standards are presented in the categories fuel, combustion, flue gas- and flue gas condensate treatment. The prioritized substances shouldn't be introduced or generated in the system to avoid costly investments of advanced technologies. Heavy metals are reduced by the choice of fuel and complete combustion generates less PAH. Both of the substances could be reduced by the separation of particles. An example of an appropriateness assessment according to a model considering the overall plant conditions including technological, economic and organizational aspects is demonstrated. For a 'standard plant' the best choice of fuel would be wood chips combined with stable combustion. Given the prerequisites of the model, the most appropriate flue gas treatment were a bag filter without chemical dosing and the most appropriate flue gas condensate-, slug-, wash-, and soot water treatment would be sand- or lamella filter with pH-adjustment, together with leach water treatment by sedimentation and sand filter. If another type of plant would be considered, other methods would be more optimal Hence, the model should be used in a 'plant specific' manner and then be a useful tool in negotiations with authorities if/when measures will be taken to reach the standards of the Water Framework Directive.

  16. Emissions of volatile hydrocarbons (VOC) during drying of sawdust; Utslaepp av laettflyktiga kolvaeten vid torkning av biobraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granstroem, Karin

    2001-08-01

    In the project 'Emissions of volatile hydrocarbons (VOC) during drying of sawdust' the identity, amount and composition of monoterpenes found in the drying medium of a fluidized bed drier drying sawdust from Norwegian spruce and Scotch pine has been determined. The energy efficiency of the drier has also been measured. The aim of this project was to reduce both emissions and energy required for drying, to minimize environmental and health hazards, and make drying more competitive. This would help our primary target group - small scale saw mills - to make use of the sawdust produced as a by- product by making pellets and briquettes. If the VOC remains in the sawdust its energy content will improve and therefore also its value as a fuel. The sawdust was dried to different moisture levels in a spouted bed drier at atmospheric pressure, using either recirculating or not recirculating drying medium with temperatures 140, 170 or 200 deg C. The emissions of VOC were measured using a flame ionization detector (FID) and the nature of the emissions analyzed with a gas chromatograph with mass spectrometric detector (GC-MS). The GC-MS data is reported as emitted substance per oven dry weight (odw). Experiments show that terpenes do not leave the sawdust in great amounts until it is dried to a moisture content (water/total weight) below 10%. When sawdust is dried to a predetermined moisture level, the terpene emissions increase when warmer incoming drying medium is used. The monoterpenes found in greatest amount are a-pinene, b-pinene, 3-carene, limonene and myrcene. y-terpinene was detected in emissions from pine but not from spruce. The relative amounts of different monoterpenes did not vary significantly with post-drying moisture content, but drying medium of higher temperature caused an increase in the relative amount of less volatile monoterpenes. The FID data is reported as concentration of VOC in the drying medium, and as weight VOC per odw. The concentration of VOC increases when the temperature of the gas that enters the drying tower is increased. A mass balance shows that the concentration VOC is proportional to emitted VOC per odw. The concentration VOC is fairly constant at different moisture contents of outgoing sawdust when the drying medium is recirculated, but VOC per odw shows an increase in emissions at lower sawdust moisture contents. The energy efficiency was highest for the tests with high temperature of incoming drying medium. As the sawdust was dried to less moisture content the energy efficiency dropped regardless of the temperature of incoming drying medium. When the drying medium was not recirculated the energy efficiency was poor. An important conclusion is that driers with a spouted bed should use recirculating drying medium, since it is clearly superior to not recirculating drying medium. Another important conclusion is that to minimize emissions from the drier the temperature of incoming drying medium should be kept low and the moisture content of the sawdust above 10%.

  17. Mapping of the image quality in myocardial scintigraphy: A national study; Kartlaeggning av bildkvalitet vid myokardscintigrafi: en nationell studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlson, Maria; Gustafsson, Agnetha (Radiofysikavd., Universitetssjukhuset, Linkoeping (SE)); Gretarsdottir, Jakobina (Diagnostik, Sahlgrenska Universitetssjukhuset, Goeteborg (SE)); Olsson, Eva (Fysiologiska kliniken, Universitetssjukhuset, Linkoeping (SE)); Johansson, Lena (Klinisk Fysiologi, Sahlgrenska Universitetssjukhuset, Goeteborg (SE))

    2008-04-15

    The aim of this study was to make a survey over the physical parameters and how they affect the image quality and the final diagnosis for myocardial perfusion SPECT in Sweden. Another aim was to evaluate the need for standardized acquisition and processing protocols for myocardial perfusion SPECT. All thirty nuclear medicine departments in Sweden that perform myocardial perfusion SPECT participated in the study. A thorax heart phantom was used to simulate two patients. All studies were acquired and processed with the parameters used clinically in each hospital respectively. A quantitative and a qualitative evaluation were performed. At each hospital, the local nuclear medicine physician interpreted the images as if they were true patient images. There are great differences in the acquiring and processing parameters used in myocardial perfusion SPECT studies in Sweden. The image quality varies greatly for the different hospital but was approved for the majority of the hospitals. Images from two hospitals were considered to be too poor to be diagnosed. The interpretations of the local nuclear medicine physicians differ but the majority has reported an adequate diagnosis. One third of the hospitals have reported false positive defects. All steps in the chain from the acquisition to the evaluation of the medicine physician must be performed with high quality. The determinative factors are the noise reduction filter, the orientation of the slices in the heart and the judgement of the local medicine physician. The acquiring and processing parameters proposed by EANM should be used. The hospitals are also recommended to investigate in the time and resources available, in order to educate all staff involved in the evaluation of myocardial studies

  18. Additive for reducing operational problems in waste fired grate boilers; Additiv foer att minska driftproblem vid rostfoerbraenning av avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Davidsson, Kent; Hermansson, Sven; Liske, Jesper; Larsson, Erik; Jonsson, Torbjoern; Zhao, Dongmei

    2013-09-01

    The combustion of waste implies a risk for deposits and corrosion in different parts of the combustion facility. In recent years, research and tests have been performed in order to find ways to mitigate these problems in waste-fired plants. Most waste-fired plants in Sweden are grates whereas most of the research has been carried out in fluidized bed plants. The purpose of this project is to examine whether co-firing of sewage sludge and waste can reduce deposition and corrosion also in grate-fired boilers as has been shown in fludised beds. The objective is to determine the deposit growth and its composition as well as describing the initial corrosion attack. Representing sulphur-rich waste, elementary sulphur is also added to the waste and thereby compared with sludge as an additive. The target groups for this project are plant owners, researchers, consultants and authorities. Tests were performed in a 15 MWth waste-fired boiler with moving grate at Gaerstadverket, Tekniska Verken (Linkoeping). The boiler produces saturated steam of 17 bars and 207 deg C, and the normal fuel mixture contains of household and industry waste. The results show that co-firing with as heigh as 20 weight-% SLF (25 energy-%) was possible from an operational point of view, but the deposit rate increased especially at the two warmest positions. Generally the deposit rate was highest in the position closest to the boiler and decreased further downstream. During the tests a lot higher amount of SLF than normal was used (recommended mix is 5-10 % of SLF) this to be able to see effects of the different measures. Up to 23 weight-% of the rather moist sewage sludge was possible to fire when co-firing waste and SLF, without addition of oil. By adding sludge the deposit rate decreased but the increase upon adding SLF to ordinary waste was not totally eliminated. In the tests 'Avfall and SLF' the deposits were rich in chlorine. High concentrations of metal chlorides were found in the interface between the steel and the metal oxide. This weakens the adhesion of the oxide to the steel surface and thus increases the corrosion rate. By addition of sewage sludge or sulphur the initial corrosion was decreased on both the low-alloyed steel T22 and the stainless steel 304L; sewage sludge being a little better than sulphur. Qualitatively, the corrosion attack firing SLF was similar to that firing ordinary waste, but the attack was stronger. At material temperatures of 500 deg C and 420 deg C - corresponding to superheaters - alkali chloride corrosion dominated, while at 280 deg C - corresponding to furnace walls - a melt of KCl/ZnCl2 is likely to have accelerated the corrosion. This difference between different material temperatures was especially pronounced in the 'Avfall and the SLF' cases. Higher zinc content in the fuel can therefore increase risk of corrosion. The higher content of iron, lead, copper and zink in the ash from the SLF case corresponds to the content of SLF compared with ordinary waste. Comparing the present tests with similar tests in fludised beds, grate firing resulted in higher deposit rate on the exposed test rings. This can at least partly be attributed to the lack of empty pass in the present grate boiler and to some differences in fuel composition: more chlorine and less sulphur in the waste used in this project. However, the effect of adding sludge was similar but not as strong as in the fluidised bed tests. To summarise, the results show that co-firing SLF with sludge can be advantageous also in a grate-fired boiler. Because of the high heating value of SLF, this combination also makes it possible to add a high fraction of moist sewage sludge.

  19. Attitudes and participation at establishment of wind power offshore; Attityder och delaktighet vid etablering av vindkraft till havs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldo, Aasa (Inst. of Sociology, Lunds Univ., Lund (Sweden)), e-mail: Asa.Waldo@soc.lu.se; Mikael Klintman (Research Policy Inst., Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden))

    2010-04-15

    Wind power has previously been regarded as small-scale in character, as it has often been built as small groups of windmills. In recent years, wind power projects on a larger scale have been developed and established, making wind power more significant for the local community and its inhabitants. The present report is based on a study of views expressed by locals as regards offshore wind power. The report aims at examining the coordination between different stakeholders; decision-makers, communities and entrepreneurs concerning two wind power projects: Lillgrund in The Sound (Oeresund), and Utgrunden II in the Kalmar Strait (Kalmarsund). The report is intended to provide an understanding of attitudes and perceptions of risks and possibilities of various local stakeholders in these two cases. Conceptual tools are borrowed from our own studies as well as other researchers' previous studies of attitudes, values, and forms of public participation. Since the study objective has been to seek the stakeholders' own formulations of problems and opportunities concerning the projects, we have used a qualitative research design. Three types of techniques have been used to gather information: document analysis, field observations and in-depth interviews. Positive as well as negative attitudes towards the two wind power projects have been analyzed in both regions. The positive attitude is mainly based on ethical values, and for some also on material values (projects can create jobs and economic growth in the local community). The negative attitude is partly based on aesthetic values and a combination of substantive and ethical values (wind power is seen as unprofitable and inefficient). The analysis shows that there is need for increased knowledge, both through the provision of facts about economic and technical conditions of wind power and, by better understanding of local stakeholders' conceptions of wind power projects. Criticism of wind power is largely based on a view that it could not be an effective way to produce energy, and that it could not possibly bear its own costs. Thus, wind power entrepreneurs should clearly show environmental benefits, profitability and efficiency in a specific project draft. Moreover, negative emotions towards wind power projects are closely associated with aesthetic values. How people perceive the relative weight between opportunities and risks of the wind power establishment should be taken as a central part of the dialogue related to wind energy projects. It is crucial that the risks experienced by various stakeholders are identified and get substantial room in the planning and decision-making process, even if the entrepreneurs or authorities do not share these risk perceptions. In the local context, views of opportunities may function as a counter-weight to the negative effects that may be associated with the wind power project. It is highly preferable that these opportunities be identified in dialogue with the local community, and elucidated by the entrepreneurs and authorities. In this study, as well as in previous studies, it has been evident that limited potential for the local society to participate in the planning and decision process often overshadows the final result, in this case the physical wind power plant. The two projects studied were based on central political decisions. Given the increased role that wind power is supposed to play in Swedish energy supply, it is perhaps inevitable that some decisions are taken centrally. Yet, this entails limitations concerning the possibilities of participating and influencing the planning and decision-making process. Moreover, the high, political level of certain decisions is a challenge for entrepreneurs in creating public participation in such parts of the issue that people find meaningful to engage in. However, the possibility of using municipal veto against wind power projects is one main principle where influence can be exercised on a local level. This principle creates pressure on central authorities to secure support for the national objectives of wind power expansion, and on the entrepreneurs to get support for specific projects in the local community. Our analysis shows the importance of people knowing about a plant early in the process - and indeed to be part of some decision making - to create legitimacy for the process, and ultimately legitimacy for the specific wind farm. In order to create participation it is important to have a dialogue where all participants take part in the discussion with an open mind to new facts and perspectives, and that all experiences and concerns are treated with respect. In this report we have stressed the economic part as being a potential for active, local involvement in wind energy issues. From this study however, we want to emphasize the importance of distinguishing between different forms of economic participation.

  20. Patientstråldosjämförelse vid konventionell urografi och lågdos CT-urografi

    OpenAIRE

    Gohil, Jignasa; Bertell, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Röntgensjuksköterskans huvudområde är radiografi som innefattar bland annat användning av joniserande strålning. CT undersökningar av urinvägssystemen och dess funktion ökar. CT ger en högre stråldos till patienter, jämfört med konventionell röntgen, vilket kan medföra olika sorters skador hos den som bestrålats. ALARAprincipen skall användas för att minska joniserande strålning så mycket som möjligt. Studien är utförd på Höglandsjukhuset i Eksjö där de har implementerat lågdosprotokoll på CT...

  1. La vidéo et les soulèvements populaires en Égypte | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 janv. 2013 ... Je suis informaticienne et je suis d'avis que tout le battage médiatique – on a parlé de « révolution Facebook » et de « révolution Twitter » – a parfois réduit le mouvement à quelque chose de beaucoup moins important que ce qu'il était en réalité et continue d'être. Cela m'a mise en colère et a motivé mes ...

  2. vid113_0401p -- Point coverage of sediment types from video collected from the Delta submersible vehicle.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Delta submersible vehicle, outfitted with video equipment (and other devices), was deployed from theR/V Auriga during September 2001 to monitor seafloor...

  3. vid119_0601d -- Line coverage of sediment types from video collected from the Delta submersible vehicle.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Delta submersible vehicle, outfitted with video equipment (and other devices), was deployed from the R/V Auriga during September 2001 to monitor seafloor...

  4. vid119_0601c-- Point coverage of sediment types from video collected from the Delta submersible vehicle.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Delta submersible vehicle, outfitted with video equipment (and other devices), was deployed from the R/V Auriga during September 2001 to monitor seafloor...

  5. Vem gynnas av föräldraskap? : Ett vinjettexperiment vid Linköpings universitet

    OpenAIRE

    Fahlström, Zara; Askestad, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Tidigare forskning indikerar att föräldraskap är av betydelse för en individs karriärsutveckling. Stöd finns för löneskillnader, i både Sverige och USA, mellan personer som har barn och personer som inte har barn. Mammor har en lägre löneutveckling än kvinnor utan barn, medan det inte är tydligt om pappor får en bättre eller sämre karriärutveckling än män utan barn. Forskning indikerar att det orsakas av individers attityd, uppfattning och beteende gentemot individer med fa...

  6. Emissions from residential combustion of different solid fuels. Roekgasemissioner vid anvaendning av olika fasta braenslen i smaaskaliga system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudling, L

    1983-01-01

    The emission from different types of solid fuels during combustion in residential furnaces and stoves has been investigated. The following fules were investigated: wood pellets, peat-bark pellets, wood chips, wood logs,wood-briquets, peat briquets, lignite briquets, fuel oil. Three different 20-25 kW boilers were used and one stove and one fire place. The flue gases were analysed for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, particulates, tar and fluoranthen.

  7. Evaluation of biomass fuel sampling in heat and power plants; Utvaerdering av mekanisk och manuell provtagning av biobraensle vid energiverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werkelin, R [Norrkoeping Energi AB (Sweden); Ryk, L [SGS Solid Fuels AB (Sweden)

    1996-06-01

    This report describes bias-test of manual and mechanical sampling systems of bio-fuels at 6 Swedish plants. Two parallel series of 30 samples each were taken at each plant. One series of samples was taken by the normal procedure. The samples of the other series were taken by a reference method. Either by stopped belt and taking a full cut using a sampling frame or by manual increment division of a whole truck-load was used with the assistance of a pay-loader. The rectangular pile formed was divided in 120 squares. Some of the sampling systems gave biased samples. This was due to drawing too small increments, having too small openings of the sampling tools and making errors in sample preparation. Determination of moisture was more accurate than determination of ash content. Ash is more heterogeneously distributed in biofuels than moisture. Ash bearing components as clay or stone segregate easily. Although the project has not been able to show that mechanical sampling gives a more representative moisture sampling than manual sampling, it is recommended to invest in mechanical sampling if possible. The reason for this is to reduce the risk of human error and for safety reasons. 14 refs, figs, tabs, photos

  8. Reduced bed temperature at thermo-chemical conversion of difficult fuels; Saenkt baeddtemperatur vid termokemisk omvandling av svaara braenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklasson, Fredrik; Haraldsson, Conny; Johansson, Andreas; Claesson, Frida; Baefver, Linda; Ryde, Daniel

    2010-05-15

    This work investigates the prospect of reducing the concentrations of alkali chlorides in the flue gas by lowering the temperature in the bottom zone of a fluidized bed (FB) furnace below the often used 850 deg C. The directive of a retention time of at least two seconds above 850 deg C is fulfilled by the raise of the flue gas temperature that follows the combustion of unburned gases at the point of injection of secondary and tertiary air, above the bottom bed zone. The aim of the present experiments is to determine the dependency between the temperature and the amount of alkali metals leaving the bottom bed for some selected waste and biomass fuels. The results are intended for plant owners as well as boiler manufacturers. The experiments were performed in an FB-reactor, which was externally heated to specific temperatures between 550 and 850 deg C. The reactor is made of a quartz glass tube with an inner diameter of 60 mm and a length of 1.2 m. The fluidized bed rests upon a porous plate of sintered quartz. The bed material used was 180 gram purified sea sand with particle sizes between 0.1 and 0.3 mm. The fluidizing gas was a mixture of nitrogen and air, introduced in the bottom of the reactor by mass flow controllers. At the outlet of the reactor, the flue gas was divided between conventional gas analyzers and an ICP-MS instrument. The gas flow to the ICP-MS instrument was cooled before a slip stream was sucked out via a capillary to a nebulizer from which the sample gas was led to the ICP-MS instrument. The function of the nebulizer is normally to form an aerosol of liquids, but here it was used solely as a pump. In addition, a known flow of krypton was added into the nebulizer to be used as an internal standard. The novel technique to measure the amount of alkali metals on-line from a batch fired FB-reactor has been shown to work in practice and to provide interesting results, which so far is qualitative only. Further development and calibration work is needed to obtain reliable quantitative results. Under pyrolysis (in nitrogen), a strong coupling was found between temperature and measured concentrations of alkali and zinc in the flue gas, especially between 750 and 850 deg C. These findings imply that reactors for gasification (or pyrolysis) of waste and biofuels will benefit from being operated at temperatures below 850 deg C to reduce the alkali content in the product gas. On the other hand, there could be other advantages of operating a gasifier at higher temperatures. The influence of the reactor temperature on the release of alkali metals was found to be less pronounced during combustion as compared to pyrolysis. The reason for this could be that oxygen takes part in the reaction scheme controlling the release of the alkali metals, but it could also be a consequence of locally higher temperatures in the fuel particle while burning. The tests showed that a larger fraction of zinc was released during devolatilisation, compared to the alkali metals of which typically less than 10 % was found to be released during devolatilisation. Some additional tests where HCl was added to the fluidizing gas showed, as expected, that the presence of HCl increases the release of alkali metals from the bottom ash. Agglomeration temperatures were determined for two bed sand samples that had been extracted under operating bed temperatures of 870 and 750 deg C in a commercial waste fired FB-boiler. While sand samples were heated in order to find the agglomeration temperature, considerably more alkali metals were released from the sand sampled at 750 deg C. The agglomeration temperature was somewhat lower for this sand, but it was still considerably higher than normal operating bed temperature of the boiler. The present lab-scale study shows that the release of alkali metals and zinc into the flue gas from waste is reduced, or at least considerably decelerated, by a lowered fuel conversion temperature. However, the atmosphere and bed material of a full scale waste fired power plant cannot be fully reproduced in lab scale. The differences will affect the release of alkali metals. Nevertheless, present study gives an indication that a reduced temperature of the bed may be beneficial. The experiments also showed that reducing atmosphere in the bed preferably should be avoided, at least at a bed temperature of 850 deg C

  9. Seriality and Transmediality in the Fan Multiverse: Flexible and Multiple Narrative Structures in Fan Fiction, Art, and Vids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kustritz, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores new forms of serial structure found in transmedia story worlds, with particular attention to the innovations of amateur transmedia works. Although the term transmedia has most often been associated only with corporate media at the center, taking amateur works as the

  10. Seriality and Transmediality in the Fan Multiverse : Flexible and Multiple Narrative Structures in Fan Fiction, Art, and Vids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kustritz, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores new forms of serial structure found in transmedia story worlds, with particular attention to the innovations of amateur transmedia works. Although the term transmedia has most often been associated only with corporate media at the center, taking amateur works as the

  11. Evaporative and sorptive cooling. Possibilities and limitations in air treatment.; Evaporativ och sorptiv kylning. Moejligheter och begraensningar vid luftbehandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, T. [Chalmers Univ. of Techn., Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Building Services Engineering

    2001-10-01

    A primary demand for a good indoor climate in a building is that temperature and humidity are maintained at comfortable levels, regardless of the prevailing outdoor climate. Some buildings often have a heat surplus for a great part of the year due to internal activities, even in climates with moderate ambient temperatures. This heat surplus has to be removed in order to fulfil the specified requirements on the indoor climate. The focus in this report is on possibilities and limitations using evaporative and desiccant cooling to satisfy the cooling demands in such buildings. Today the most common technical solution is to use a compressor refrigeration system for air-conditioning. As a result of the greenhouse effect and the ozone depletion debate, the prerequisites for compressor refrigeration systems have been changed. Evaporative cooling is an interesting alternative to conventional compressor refrigeration systems. However, the use of evaporative cooling presupposes all-air systems. The use of such a system will also, to a large extent, be limited by ambient conditions as well as the settled demands on the indoor climate. High outdoor humidity levels have great influence on the supply-air temperature achievable, i.e., cooling loads possible to meet. One way to considerably reduce the influence of these limitations is to use desiccant cooling, i.e., to dehumidify the ambient air before the evaporative stages. In this report, a general methodology to describe possibilities and limitations for evaporative and desiccant cooling, is presented. The major advantage of this methodology is that it may give rise to an increased understanding of these processes and, hence, be a guide to a proper dimensioning.

  12. Experimental greenhouse at the Stockholm County Council school of horticulture at Saebyholm. Foersoeksvaexthuset vid Saebyholmsskolan, Bro, Stockholms laen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryxell, R

    1986-07-24

    The aim of the experiment was to construct a tight, highly insulated, low energy and light intensive greenhouse in which demanding cultures could be cultivated troughout the year. Furthermore the house should have an open floorspace without blocking or shading structures, and be equipped with an airflow and ventilation system which makes airing unnecessary during the cold season. A day to night energy storage system should replace conventional heating. The house is erected on a concrete strip foundation in which heating coils are located. Furthermore, on the top of the cantilever are two layers of transparent plastic foil. Between the layers, removable insulating porous polystyrene balls will be filled or removed as outdoor temperature and light vary. The climate air passes the evaporators of three heat pumps and is then blown through an air/water heat exchanger and an electric radiator. The heat exchanger is supplied with hot water from a water tank heated by the heat pumps. When needed the air will be reheated in the heat exchanger and radiator. The heat evolved when the air is in the heat pump evaporators is stored in the water tank, in a salt storage and in the concrete floor with its heating coils. At night when outdoor temperature is low heat is transferred from the heat storage to the greenhouse. When inside temperature or humidity becomes too high, outdoor air is added. From the two experimental periods 1982-1984 it is concluded that after certain modifications of the equipment it would be possible to grow Swedish garden produce all the year round without excessive heating costs.

  13. Co teď můžeme vidět na staveništi tokamaku ITER?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řípa, Milan

    Listopad (2017) ISSN 2464-7888 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : fusion * ITER site * Assembly Hall,Radio Frequency Building * Tritium Building * Tokamak Building * Diagnostic Building * Magnet Power Conversion Building * 400 kV Switchyard * Cryoplant * Coils Winding Facility Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) https://www.3pol.cz/cz/rubriky/jaderna-fyzika-a-energetika/2084-co-ted-muzeme-videt-na-stavenisti-tokamaku-iter

  14. Fouling and slagging problems at recovered wood fuel combustion; Orsaker till askrelaterade driftproblem vid eldning av returtraeflis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Christer; Hoegberg, Jan [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    CHP-plants that use a large portion of sorted wood waste fuel can face ash-related problems. By analysing the circumstances about these problems, the goal is to find causes for the problems and measures that can be taken. This knowledge can then be utilised in plants where it is desired to increase the portion of sorted wood waste fuel. For the measurements, a deposit probe is a good tool to use since the result is independent of many boiler-specific factors. Compared with forest residues, sorted wood waste causes a more problematic ash. The risk of troublesome fouling and corrosion seems to increase with increased admixture of sorted wood waste fuel. Plugging of the grate is associated with melts that are formed from metallic contamination in the fuel. These melts obstruct the air holes. The melts that have been seen during the project have had a content of aluminium, brass and zinc. In order to solve these problems, the construction and cooling of the grate and quality assurance of the fuel are important aspects. One problem that was found in all of the studied boilers (grates as well as fluidized beds) is growth of fouling on surfaces for heat transfer. Measurements with deposit probe show that the initial growth rate on superheaters are approximately 3 - 5 times higher when sorted wood waste is used than if forest residues is used. Even if this growth rate can not be extrapolated to a complete operating season, the relative difference between the fuels remains. The extent of the problem depends on the dimensioning of the boiler. The fouling tends to have a light outer layer that can be disadvantageous for the absorption of heat radiation. Haendeloe P11 needs for example to be stopped for cleaning with an interval of 2 - 3 months because of lost heat absorption in the furnace and the convection path. The most obvious ash related problem that was found in Haendeloe P11 when 100 % sorted wood waste fuel was used was corrosion on the walls of the lower parts of the furnace. The corrosion has forced an exchange of large parts of the panel walls. More or less severe corrosion on the superheaters is reported from all of the boilers that were studied in the project. Since most of them use sorted wood waste mixed with some other fuel, it is difficult to make conclusions about the specific role of the sorted wood waste fuel for this corrosion. Long-term measurements with a deposit probe in Haendeloe P11 shows that the deposit growth rate varies with a factor five from day to day, although the load is relatively constant. In addition to the typical components in wood fuel ash such as calcium, potassium and sulphur, also zinc, lead, and in some cases titanium are concentrated in the deposits. Zinc is common in the deposits from the grate furnaces and the CFB within the concentration interval 5 - 20 % (also higher contents occur). The zinc content was lower in the deposits from the CFB. Lead and titanium was found to a higher extent in the fluidized bed boilers.

  15. Mobilo lietotņu datu drošība iOS vidē

    OpenAIRE

    Mõisja, Maksim

    2015-01-01

    Maģistra darba pamatā ir autora novērota problēma, ka daudzi viedtālruņu lietotāji glabā dažādus sensitīvus datus savos telefonos, nedomājot, ka tas nav droši. Autors ir izpētījis, kā iOS sistēma nodrošina lietotāja datu drošību, aprakstījis ievainojamības, kuras var ietekmēt gan izstrā-dātājus, gan lietotājus, ir apskatījis veidus, kā lietotājs un lietotnes izstrādātājs var realizēt datu drošību. Darba autors ir veicis iOS lietotņu analīzi, kuras rezultātā tika atrastas vairākas, kas, pēc au...

  16. Företagsrekonstruktion : En rättslig analys av franchiseförhållandet vid en rekonstruktion

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Anna; Ohlsson, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    A company reconstruction is an alternative procedure, for companies in payment difficulty, to receivership. Those in any kind of relationship with the ailing company ends up in a dif- ficult situation at a company reconstruction, as in any case when someone is in financial difficulties. Not only is there a risk for the providers not to get paid, the costumers are also at risk if the reconstruction company does not fulfil their agreement. These kinds of rela- tionships are controlled by a cont...

  17. Vid, viñedos y vino en Sefarad : cultivo elaboración y comercio de un vino diferenciador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Rivera Medina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Las comunidades hebreas peninsulares, a lo largo de la Edad Media, desarrollaron un complejo sistema de cultivo, elaboración y comercio del vino acorde con prescripciones religiosas ligadas al concepto de pureza. De ahí, que vista su importancia pretendemos analizar su función como bebida en las festividades religiosas y celebraciones; la jurisprudencia relativa a la propiedad, el cultivo y la elaboración del vino judío; y finalmente, mostrar cómo las comunidades sefardíes o sus individuos acceden a la tierra, cómo se trabajan estos viñedos y se genera una industria subsidiaria, a pesar de las diversas restricciones que se imponen desde una sociedad mayoristamente cristiana.The Hebrew communities of the Iberian peninsula, along the Middle Ages, developed a complex system for the cultivation, elaboration and trade of the wine, in agreement with religious prescriptions tied to the concept of purity. In reason to its importance, we will analyze its function like drink in the religious festivities and other celebrations; the jurisprudence relative to the property, cultivation and elaboration of the Jewish wine; and, finally, we will show how the sefardíes communities or their individuals consent to the earth, how these vineyards are worked and a subsidiary industry is generated, in spite of the diverse restrictions that are imposed from a society of Christian majority.

  18. Image repair-theory vid livsmedelskris : Textanalys av Findus kriskommunikation kring hästköttsskandalen

    OpenAIRE

    Hallström, Jenny; Georgenson, Maria

    2013-01-01

    This study intends to use a text analysis and analyze Findus crisis communication, on their website, about the horse meat scandal in February and March 2013. The main focus is to examine if Findus crisis communication can be connected to Beniot’s image repair strategies and the rhetorical appeal forms, in five press releases and four blog posts, and also if they are different depending on the media format. The results show that Findus usually used three of the five image repair strategies and...

  19. Why and how to make a REACH registration of combustion ash; Moejligheter vid REACH-registrering av energiaskor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevgren, Linnea; Wik, Ola

    2009-10-15

    The new chemical regulation, REACH (1997/2006/EC), Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of Chemicals, took effect the 1st of June 2007. The background to this report was the introduction of REACH and the difficulties to understand the implications for ash. The most important consequence of REACH is that all chemical substances that are manufactured, handled and used above one tonne per annum per legal entity shall be registered according to this regulation. The registration includes specifying the chemical, physical, toxicity and ecotoxicity properties of the substance and risk assessing the identified areas of use. The report describes the use of ash in connection to the waste legislation and its planned end-of-waste-criteria, the chemical legislation and the Construction Products Directive. The target audience of this report is companies producing ashes and having a use or seeing a use for its ash. The report describes how to make a REACH registration of ash independent if a company did or did not pre-register ash during 2008. It describes how to change from one ash registration into another if the pre-registration was done for one type of ash but the company changes opinion during the sameness check, i.e. changing SIEF (Appendix A). Taking part in REACH registration projects during 2009-2010 can be advantageous since knowledge and financing are shared. Ash can be REACH registered also in the future but it is important to know that the registration have to be done prior the production and marketing starts. If ash is consider to be a waste the handling is covered by the community and national waste legislation. In Sweden ashes are by and large being regarded as waste, and recycling is risk assessed and permits are given case by case. End-of-waste criteria for different waste material are being elaborated within the EU. Such criteria will among other details cover chemical safety. When a material fulfils the end-of-waste criteria such material will have the possibility to leave the waste legislation and be covered by the chemical legislation in becoming a product or an article. It is not know in detail how far the chemical legislation will reach for material having end-of-waste criteria. Currently, end-of-waste criteria have not yet been initiated for ashes. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (Naturvaardsverket) is currently elaborating end-of-waste criteria for the use of material in construction works. Recovering waste is according to REACH identical with manufacturing. A chemical substance, preparation/mixture or article manufactured from waste, i.e. via a recovering operation will have to follow chemical legislation. The enterprise responsible for the recovering operation is the legal entity responsible to follow REACH for the manufactured material. One example of recovering ash into a chemical substance is the manufacturing of cement when ash is the raw material. It is the responsibility of the cement plant to have its substance or product REACH-registered before manufactured and provided to a third party. The waste legislation, instead of the chemical legislation, applies when the waste recovering operation does not results in manufacturing of a substance, preparation or article provided to a third party and the waste has a use at the end of its life cycle. This is identified as late recovery. The waste legislation applies during the life cycle of the waste in such cases. Examples in Sweden are ashes used in landfill sealing and covering layers and in roads or soil stabilization. Use of ashes in constructions is covered by the Constructions Product Directive (2008/98/EC), CPD, irrespective if it is identified as a waste or a chemical product. The CPD harmonizes only testing and CE-marking of construction products. Chemical safety requirements originate from national legislation which in many cases is based on chemical regulation. Standardized testing methods to measure emitted hazardous substances from construction products were initiated in 2006 on the EU level. The proposed method s are similar to leaching methods used today in characterization of waste properties for landfill. The report describes pros and cons with REACH registration of ashes. It is believed that uses of ashes will more easily be available if the ashes are registered according to REACH. The reason is that a REACH registration generates extensive information about properties and emissions during uses and that safety instructions will be available to guarantee that emissions will not be higher than what man and nature can sustain. The fee for a joint submission of a REACH registration is 23,250 Euro per legal entity if the company put more than 1,000 tonnes of the dry substance on the market per year.

  20. Bag filters at biofuelled plants, reliability and economy of operation; Slangfilter vid bioeldade anlaeggningar, tillfoerlitlighet och driftsekonomi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindau, Leif [SYCON Energikonsult, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    The background to this work is the increased requirements on dust emission control for smaller (2-50 MW) biofuel plants in Sweden, where established technology consisting of multi cyclones cannot meet the emission demands, and where the specific cost of the large scale established technology (electrostatic precipitators) quickly increases with decreased plant size. Operational experience of bag filters on Swedish biofuel plants down to a size of 2 MW has been collected. The operational experience is remarkably uniform and positive and availability is high. Bag life, being the most important operational cost factor, is between two and eleven years. Most frequent material used is aramide, but also PPS is employed and the experience of both materials is good. The cost relation between bag filter (including an upstream skimmer) and electrostatic precipitator has been studied based on supplier quotations. Bag filter always has the lowest first cost. At one year bag life, the total cost of a bag filter is less than that for an electrostatic precipitator for plants smaller than 15 MW, and at more than one year's bag life, the bag filter has the lowest total cost for plants up to 50 MW. For plants smaller than 5-10 MW, the difference in total cost is very high. With some simple means for quality assurance of new bags, premature failure rate can be reduced. Following up cleaning interval and/or emission during operation time, gives information about the development of bag condition and necessary bag change can be foreseen. Since bag filters are more prone to damage by fire than electrostatic precipitators, the process of damage due to entrained sparks has been analysed based on practical observations and a thermal calculation. This consideration shows that this damage mode can be eliminated by an upstream skimmer having moderate but reliable performance. The result is well in coherence with the practical operational experience found that with an adequate skimmer upstream, the failure becomes much less probable.

  1. Radioactive discharges and environmental monitoring at the Swedish nuclear facilities 2001; Utslaepps- och omgivningskontroll vid de kaerntekniska anlaeggningarna 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandwall, Johanna

    2002-11-01

    This report contains an evaluation of the discharge and environmental programme for the Swedish nuclear facilities. It also contains the work on quality control performed by SSI. This is done as random sampling of discharge water and environmental samples.

  2. Varumärket IKEA : en studie om identitet och image vid företagets etablering i Karlstad

    OpenAIRE

    Almqvist, Jessica; Reinholdsson, Åsa

    2007-01-01

    IKEA är i nuläget ett av Sveriges och världens starkaste varumärken och under sommaren 2007 kommer IKEA att etablera sig i Karlstad. För att ett varumärke ska kunna anses vara starkt krävs det att företagets identitet och image stämmer överens. Identitet är de signaler som företaget sänder ut till kunden och image är den uppfattning som uppstår i kundens medvetande om själva företaget. Intresset i nuläget var att se till vad IKEA har för identitet och vad boende i Karlstad med omnejd har för ...

  3. Energy and water saving measures at the Arloev sugar mill. Final report; Energi- och vattenbesparande aatgaerder vid Arloevs Sockerbruk. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wamsler, M. [AAF-Processdesign AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2001-10-01

    The project comprised several, mutually dependent, sub-projects; mapping, investigation of ways to reduce water consumption, membrane tests aiming to find ways to recover sugar, and pinch analysis to evaluate the possibilities for improved process integration. This final report deals with the overall project results. Identified savings opportunities and savings potentials are presented. The presented measures represent an overall optimisation based on the results of all the project parts. Already during the project, measures have been implemented that are calculated to save 65 000 m{sup 3} water annually, corresponding to 10 % of the total water consumption. This saving is in level with the goals for the project. In the table below, these and additional measures are presented with a total savings potential at approximately 200 000 m{sup 3} /year water. The project will then achieve a saving of just below 35 % of present water consumption. Also in the membrane study the results surpassed the expectations. It was found that with nano filtering a sugar concentration of more than 10 %(W) could be reached in the retentate at a flux 50al/m{sup 2}h. The total sugar losses were less than 5 %, i.e. 95 % should be possible to recover. In total, a savings potential of more than 300 tonnes sugar per year is indicated. The Energy savings in the project are calculated to 7,4 GWh/year, of which 0,2 GWh/year by reduced water consumption, 0,6 GWh/year by water recovery, 1,4 GWh/year by membrane technology and 5,2aGWh/year as a result of process integration. This should be compared to the target 2,5 GWh/year. Hence, the results are almost three times the expected. The savings in monetary terms are estimated at just under SEK 5 million per year. The investment is roughly estimated at between SEK 5 and 6 million, of which SEK 4 million for the membrane equipment and SEK 0,5 million for a process water buffer tank. The remaining investment costs cover heat exchangers, control equipment and piping. This means that the total package will have a payback time of approximately one year. The environmental benefits of this project are mainly a result of the reduced energy consumption. This leads to a 1 600 tonne reduction of carbon dioxide emissions annually from reduced natural gas firing. Furthermore, the results indicate possibilities for a profitable reduction of oxygen depleting substances by over 300 tonnes sugar annually. In addition, the reduction of water consumption by 200 000 cubic meters per year results in reduced electricity and chemicals consumption in both water and sewage treatment plants.

  4. Fly ashes from co-combustion as a filler material in concrete production; Anvaendning av energiaskor som fillermaterial vid betongtillverkning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundblom, Hillevi

    2004-01-01

    The Swedish concrete producers have decided to work towards a common goal to limit the production of concrete with naturally rounded aggregate. A consequence is when use of a substitute, crushed aggregate, the demand of filler material increases. During the last years ashes form the CFB boiler in Perstorp has been utilised as a filler material, with success, in concrete production at Sydsten, Malmoe, Sweden. To examine the potential of using Swedish fly ashes as a filler material in concrete production, have different Swedish fly ashes above been studied to see if they fit the requirements for a filler material. The fly ashes studied in the project can be divided into four different groups, considering fuel mix and boiler type; 1. Bio and sludge fired CFB/BFB boiler from the paper industry, 2. Bio and peat fired CFB/BFB boiler, 3. Pulverized peat/coal firing furnace, 4.Bio and peat fired grate-fired boiler. From Sydsten experiences of using Swedish fly ashes two demands have emerged concerning the chemical composition of the ashes. The total amount of chloride in the concrete should not be higher than 0,1% and the LOI, (Loss Of Ignition) must be less than 10 %. The different ash analyses showed that the fluidised bed boilers and pulverized firing furnaces, in this study, passed all the chemical requirements but the grate fire boilers had difficulties to fulfil the requirement of LOI. The ashes chosen to be studied in further rheological investigations in different fresh concrete mixtures were, Category 1 (Hallstavik's and Hyltebruk's papermill), Category 2 (Vaesteraas Vaermeverk och Vaertaverket) and from Category 3 (Vattenfall Vaerme Uppsala). The results presented an increased water consumption of ashes from paper mills comparing with the other ashes, a probable reason could be the shape of the ash grains. The experiments also showed that all ashes contributed to the final strength of the hardened concrete, the paper mill ashes also contributed to the initial strength development. During mixture of the fresh concrete with an ash quantity of 60 kg/m{sup 3}, it different degrees of loss of consistency was observed during the first hour after mixing. When decreasing the amount of ash to 30 kg/km{sup 3}, it was only the paper mill ashes that could not maintain the consistency during the first hour. The mechanisms that are dominating in the interaction between ash and cement during the hardening of the fresh concrete are complex. The reasons why certain ashes create a greater loss of consistency than others are not fully understood. It is necessary to continue research in this issue for simplifying the choices when using ashes in different concrete application. This project resulted in full-scale demonstration. Sydsten in Malmoe delivered concrete with ash from the pulverized peat-firing furnace in Uppsala as a filler material to a concrete casting in Lund. The concreting was very successful. The concrete did not loose the consistency as noted in the laboratory experiments. The concrete also demonstrated an excellent workability. The overall conclusion is, some of the Swedish fly ashes are very suitable to use as a filler material in concrete. A full-scale demonstration and delivery to customer has already been made in south of Sweden (Sydsten). There is also potential to find methods to refine ashes, which today don't fulfil the requirements of consistency for example sieving, to reduce the quantity of LOI.

  5. Jeux vidéo éducatifs et motivation: application à l'enseignement du jazz

    OpenAIRE

    Denis , Guillaume

    2006-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis introduces what we believe to be the first musical educational video game: Pads'n'Swing. Indeed, even though video game have been raising concerns for years, their integration in the very fabric of society and the ever increasing breadth of their use pave the way to positive applications such as serious games, which rely on players' interaction and social networking and the design and simulation of virtual worlds. Building upon this approach, we suggest to put fun at the for...

  6. You need to do everything with tact. Climatic change and the relation between science and the government; Je moet alles met beleid doen. Klimaatverandering en de relatie tussen wetenschap en overheid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregman, B.

    2011-12-15

    The author discusses the challenges in the field of climate change and climate science by means of a number of central themes in the relation between science and government: dealing with uncertainties, communication, knowledge management, the credibility of climate science and the role of social media [Dutch] De auteur bespreekt de uitdagingen m.b.t. klimaatbeleid en de klimaatwetenschap aan de hand van thema’s die centraal staan in de relatie tussen wetenschap en overheid: het omgaan met onzekerheden, communicatie, kennismanagement, de geloofwaardigheid van de klimaatwetenschap en de rol van sociale media.

  7. Towards Self-Healing Organic Electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostra, Antoon

    2016-01-01

    Om broeikasgassen te verminderen moet de energieconsumptie van onder andere verlichting verminderd worden en moet de duurzame energieopbrengst verhoogd worden. Organische lichtgevende diodes (OLEDs) en organische zonnecellen (OSCs) zijn twee technologische toevoegingen aan de huidige op kristallijne

  8. Aspekte van mikrostrukturele ver-skeidenheid en inkonsekwentheid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ties en konsekwent moet wees. Gemotiveerde afwykings van die verstekstruktuur moet aan die gebruiker verklaar word. In hierdie artikel word aandag gegee aan verskillende tipes mikrostruk-turele modelle wat in die metaleksikografie ontwikkel ...

  9. precise relationship between the Canadians and the rest of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'n Baie sterk en .goed gefundeerde organisasie strukture vir 'n weermag word vereis, dog dit moet ook uiters ... uiterstes. Skepe is kompleks en kan vir lang tye op see bly opereer, dog hulle moet van tyd tot tyd terugkeer na ... waarderings, veral tydens mobile operasies. Die rekenaar moet benut word deur bevelvoerders op.

  10. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YML064C, YLR377C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available d or autophagy-mediated degradation depending on growth conditions; interacts with Vid30p Rows with this pre...er proteasome-mediated or autophagy-mediated degradation depending on growth conditions; interacts with Vid3

  11. Characterization of Vertical Impact Device Acceleration Pulses Using Parametric Assessment: Phase IV Dual Impact Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-04

    support contractor , Infoscitex, conducted a series of tests to identify the performance capabilities of the Vertical Impact Device (VID) and the Warrior...Impact Response: Test Series 1 Data Summary for Carriage Test Cell VID Carriage Programmer Drop Ht . (in) Mean Velocity Change (m/s) Mean...Table 6. VID Impact Response: Test Series 1 Data Summary for Seat Pan Test Cell VID Carriage Programmer Drop Ht . (in) Mean Velocity

  12. Helhetsorienterad utvärdering av kollektivtrafikåtgärder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiselius, Lena Winslott; Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Leleur, Steen

    Under hösten 2008 och våren 2009 har forskare vid Avd. Trafik och väg vid Lunds Tekniska Högskola, DTU Transport vid Danmarks Tekniska Universitet samt National-ekonomiska institutionen vid Lunds Universitet genomfört ett forskningsprojekt med syfte att studera tillämpningen av en sammansatt...... (helhetsorienterad) analys av kollektiv-trafikåtgärder....

  13. Weight reduction, energy loss and gaseous emissions for different collection systems for food waste from households; Viktreducering, energifoerlust och gasemissioner vid olika insamlingssystem av matavfall fraan hushaall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternald, Olle [and others

    2010-09-15

    This project investigates the weight reduction of biodegradable household waste for different types of collections systems. The report is based on empirical experiments simulating the path taken by biodegradable waste through the different systems, from kitchen to final treatment. Data from the empirical experiments have been coordinated with existing data covering the quantities of bio waste collection received by final treatment facilities. This project has resulted in updated data, which reflects the quantities of the biodegradable waste generated at household level. Through this data, it has been possible to calculate the effectiveness of the different systems for collecting biodegradable waste, including their effectiveness as a source for biogas and soil conditioner. The results regarding waste weight reduction show that systems that use paper bags give a substantial weight reduction in both the kitchen (12%) as well as in the garbage disposal container, resulting in an average total weight reduction of 27%. For the bio-plastic bag, there is a small, measurable weight reduction of 7% in the kitchen. One-family household containers also show a reduction but for multiple households contains (typically used for apartment blocks) the reduction was much smaller. The average total weight reduction for bio-plastic systems was 10%. The corresponding value for total weight reduction for plastic bags in an optical system was 2%-4%, with an average of 2%. The largest share of the reduction consists of water, but some carbon is also emitted. Another conclusion of the report it that a larger share of the biodegradable waste generated by the Swedish households is collected than previously assumed. The data for generated (collected) biodegradable waste material shows higher levels and larger differences between the different collection systems than the data for the received (weighted) material at the treatment facilities. The data shows the effectiveness of each system and is significant for the biogas extraction levels and soil conditioner qualities. It is desirable that a large share of the biodegradable household waste is collected, both from an environmental perspective as well as in order to meet the Swedish national targets for biodegradable waste collection. Correlating existing data with data from the empirical experiments shows that 185 kg of biodegradable waste is collected from households using a paper bag-based system and 122 kg from household using a plastic bag-based system. This is equivalent to a 50% higher collection level for paper bag systems compared with plastic bag systems. The equivalent amount of bio waste is reduced in the combustible waste. Based on these numbers, the paper bag based systems offers 39% more methane per connected household than an optical plastic bag based system. Per kilogram incoming wet material, the there is a 23% methane advantage for the paper-based system. However, there is no significant difference in methane content per collected amount of bio waste between the methods. The data sample for bioplastic bags is too small in order to be included in the comparison. The carbon dioxide emissions show that a decomposition process of biodegradable waste is occurring in all types of collection systems. The nitrous oxide emissions are most likely negligible from an environmental perspective, although the results are not statistically verified. No measurable emission levels of methane can be detected, which is very encouraging from an environmental perspective

  14. vid118_0503c -- Point coverage of sediment types from video collected on AR-06/07 McArthurII research cruise.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Canadian ROPOS remotely operated vehicle (ROV) outfitted with video equipment (and other devices) was deployed from the NOAA Ship McAurthurII during May-June...

  15. Calibrations and evaluation of the quality assurance during 1999 at the National Laboratory for ionising radiation; Kalibrerings- och normalieverksamheten vid Riksmaetplats 06 under 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grindborg, Jan-Erik; Israelsson, Karl-Erik; Kylloenen, Jan-Erik; Samuelson, Goeran

    2000-06-01

    The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute is the National Laboratory for the dosimetric quantities kerma, absorbed dose and dose equivalent. The activity is based on established calibration procedures and a quality assurance program for the used standards. This report gives a brief summary of the calibrations performed during 1999 and a more detailed description and analysis of the quality assurance during this year. The report makes it easier to draw conclusions about the long-term stability and possible malfunctions.

  16. Med ergonomi i fokus : En studie om ergonomi i designprocessen vid framtagning av nya produkter på IKEA of Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Stenberg Gleisner, AnnaKlara

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines the presence of ergonomics in the design process at IKEA of Sweden. It also attempts to describe how IKEA of Sweden can implement more ergonomics in their development process of new products. The study is based on interviews with employees at IKEA of Sweden and with an employee at the design bureau Veryday.  The thesis also includes a design process that has been conducted using a given brief by IKEA of Sweden with a predetermined way of production. The purpose of the des...

  17. Offshore wind power - Possibilities and shortcomings in the planning and design; Vindkraft till havs - Moejligheter och brister vid planering och projektering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, Daniel

    2010-02-15

    The purpose of this report is to examine how the planning preparedness offshore unfolds. Planning conditions of municipalities have been investigated through interviews with municipal planners and representatives of the wind power stakeholders. At the same time, the problems and deficiencies that impede the expansion of offshore wind power have been identified. In the report, based on the survey of the state of planning, as well as the shortcomings of current systems, the Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning presents opportunities for improvements. With these proposals the Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning opens up for an increased cooperation with the aim to facilitate a future expansion of offshore wind power. The report primarily addresses central government agencies and authorities, county councils, as well as planners or other officers of the national, regional and municipal levels

  18. Identifiering av immateriella tillgångar vid rörelseförvärv : Har branschtillhörigheten någon betydelse?

    OpenAIRE

    Barhanko, Daniella; Lindholm, Linus; Örtenvik, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Bakgrund: Identifiering av immateriella tillgångar har visat sig vara ett problemfyllt område både för företagen och andra utövare. Tidigare studier har visat på att en stor del av köpeskillingen fördelats till goodwill vilket delvis kan vara ett resultat av immateriella tillgångar inte identifieras i tillräcklig utsträckning. Det har även påpekats att det finns ett stort svängrum inom regelverket som tillåter mycket individuella bedömningar.   Syfte: Syftet är att undersöka om det finns skil...

  19. Influence of sulphur addition on emissions of organic substances during combustion; Inverkan av formen av svaveladditiv paa emissionerna av kolmonoxid och organiska aemnen vid foerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik; Jonsson, Claes; Almark, Matts; Berg, Magnus; Streibel, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2008-02-15

    Reduction of emissions of carbon monoxide and organic substances by injecting either ammonium sulphate or elemental sulphur and the importance of the point of injection has been investigated in full scale in a grate-fired bark boiler. The effect was monitored downstream of the economizer and air preheater, immediately upstream of the electrostatic precipitator. Concentrations determined in the comprehensive monitoring program include principally carbon monoxide, TOC and several organic substances, including PAH, PCDD/F and polychlorinated benzenes (PCBz). Additionally, the gaseous PAH were determined on-line using a novel mass spectrometer, REMPI-TOF MS, that measures specifically the 2- to 4-ring PAH's. All concentrations of substances of interest here fluctuate in concert and peak simultaneously. The relationship between the concentrations is not straightforward: there appears to be a threshold in carbon monoxide concentration. Below this threshold, the concentration of organics is low and above it concentrations increase rapidly with increasing carbon monoxide concentration. It has been confirmed that using sulphur additives not only reduces the concentration of carbon monoxide, but also that of organic substances in the flue gases. These additives do not only reduce the mean level of concentrations, but also dampen the fluctuations in these concentrations. Any measure leading to a reduction in carbon monoxide will also decrease the concentration of most organics, under the conditions prevalent in this boiler. Both additives tested are equally effective per kg of pure sulphur. The point of injection, in the fuel or above the grate, is not important. The PCDD/F concentration in the flue gases is very low even without additives, and the effect of sulphur on these emissions is therefore difficult to observe. Here, the effect is masked by the variation of data. The PAH concentration is lowered by an injection of sulphur additives. The variation in data is though rather large, which may be caused by variation in particle content in the gas samples

  20. Radioactive discharges and environmental monitoring at the Swedish nuclear facilities 2002-2004; Utslaepps- och omgivningskontroll vid de kaerntekniska anlaeggningarna 2002-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luening, Maria

    2005-11-15

    According to Swedish regulations the effective dose to an individual in the critical group, from one year of releases of radioactive substances to air and water from all facilities located in the same geographically delimited area, shall not exceed 0.1 mSv. The effective dose, which concerns the dose from external radiation and the committed effective dose from internal radiation, shall be integrated over a period of 50 years. When calculating the dose to individuals in the critical group, both children and adults shall be taken into consideration. If the calculated dose exceeds 0.01 mSv per calendar year, realistic calculations of radiation doses shall be conducted for the most affected area. SSI has not defined any radionuclide specific discharge limits. Limitation of releases is being implemented through the restriction of dose to the critical group members. For each nuclear facility, e.g. each reactor, and for each radionuclide that may be released, specific release-to-dose factors have been calculated. The factors have been calculated for hypothetical critical groups, and take into consideration local dispersion conditions in air and in the environment, local settlements, local production of food-stuffs as well as moderately conservative assumptions on diet and contribution of locally produced food-stuff to the diet of the group. For nuclear power reactors, release-to-dose factors (mSv/Bq) have been calculated for 97 radionuclides that may be discharged to the marine environment and 159 radionuclides that may be emitted to air. Discharges shall be controlled through the measurement of representative samples for each release pathway. The analyses shall include nuclide-specific measurements of gamma and alpha-emitting radioactive substances as well as, where relevant, strontium-90 and tritium. The discharges of radioactive substances from the Swedish NPPs result in very low doses well below the limits issued by SSI. Even so, the concentration of radionuclides in the discharges is relatively high compared to the similar facilities abroad. The main reasons are that the Swedish NPPs are situated at the seaside of the Baltic and Kattegatt Sea respectively, and that the radionuclides are released into a larger water volume and thus disperse easily. The environmental monitoring programme is issued by the SSI and specify type of sampling, sample treatment, radionuclides considered, reporting, etc. The site-specific monitoring programmes vary depending on the facility and are divided in a terrestrial and an aquatic part. The selection of environmental samples (biota and sediments) has been conducted in order to be highly representative of the area around the facility and to, preferably, be similar for all facilities. Also some of the species have been selected because they are part of the human food chain. Every year a basic programme involving spring and autumn sampling is conducted. Furthermore, certain samples are taken on a monthly and quarterly basis. In addition to the basic programme, extended sampling is also conducted every fourth year at most of the facilities. The extended programme focuses exclusively on samples taken in the marine environment. The environmental samples consist of local flora and fauna e.g. algae, fish, shellfish, mosses, game and sediment as well as local food products (grain, milk etc.). The samples are collected from either rope or plexiglass surfaces that are placed in the discharge water stream or outlet from the NPPs. These samples are collected monthly by manually scraping off the diatomic algae from the rope or plexiglass. The algae that are sampled are generally good bio accumulators for radionuclides. This quality together with the monthly sampling in the near vicinity of the outlet point makes diatomic algae a good bio indicator for the amount og discharges radionuclides and also take into consideration their variation in time. A selection of data from the environmental sampling programme for the years 2002-2004 for the Swedish NPPs, Studsvik and Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, are given in Annex D. Apart from these tables some more data and graphs are given for Oskarshamn, Studsvik, Forsmark and Ringhals. This is due to the fact that during the time period 2002-2004 an extended sampling has taken place. The data from environment samples shows that the discharges give low but measurable concentrations of radionuclides in samples taken in the marine vicinity of the outlet. The concentrations of radionuclides are very low. Measurements of e.g. Co-60 shows varying low concentrations for the time interval 1983-2004 and no long-time trend can be discerned. SSI undertakes a number of checks of the measurements performed by the operator, concerning gamma emitters, alpha emitters, tritium and strontium-90. Pooled and stabilised annual samples from each monitored waste water stream shall be sent to the SSI within three months after the end of the discharge year. In addition a number of randomly chosen monthly samples of waste water are analysed by SSI. The annual samples are measured concerning gamma emitters and tritium by the SSI and the results are compared with the data submitted by the operators. These measurements are conducted at the SSI laboratories. Control measurements of Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides are performed on a case by case basis at independent external laboratories. Aerosol filters shall be sent to the SSI for control measurements on request. Normally, this exercise is performed once a year, and the filters are subjected to gamma-spectrometric analyses. Environmental measurements are checked by the SSI. A total number of up to 50 samples, obtained as sub-samples of the material analysed by the operator or the laboratory contracted by the operator, is analysed annually. All tables and all graphs have captions in both Swedish and English.

  1. How much Nitrous Oxide is produced in cultivation of biofuels on arable land in Sweden?; Hur mycket lustgas blir det vid odling av biobraenslen paa aakermark i Sverige?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasimir Klemedtsson, Aasa (Univ. of Goeteborg, Dept. of Earth Sciences, Goeteborg (Sweden). Physical Geography)

    2010-03-15

    Several methods that can be used to estimate the emission of nitrous oxide from arable land are discussed, all of them with their pros and cons. 1 The base for all estimation methods is field measurements, well executed with a technique designed for the production of high quality data. Published field data of good quality were collected from areas in north Europe and America, both from grain and rape crops and unfertilised grasslands where natural background emission is assumed. The compilation shows that grasslands emit in average 0.3 +- 0.1 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year. In crop systems where a high amount of nitrogen is repeatedly added to the soil, the soil N store will contribute to N{sub 2}O emission coming years. This is one reason why emission is higher for unfertilised arable land (where nitrogen have been added previous years) compared to unfertilised grassland, 1 +- 0.1 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year. Fertilised arable lands have higher emission, in average around 3 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year. In comparison, field measurements in Sweden have shown lower emission, 0.6 and 2 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year from clay and sandy soil respectively. 2 The IPCC method is the best known, where the emission from arable land is estimated as a function of added nitrogen. In reality there is no correlation between a low N-addition and the emission of nitrous oxide since the N-addition needs to be high to have influence on the nitrous oxide emission..25 or the new factor 1% of added N has been used in many LCA's as an estimator for nitrous oxide and the uncertainty span of 0,3 and 3% is seldom used. The method underestimates the size of nitrous oxide emission in many systems and cannot estimate a true emission from individual fields. 3 Globally there is a connection between the increase in reactive nitrogen and the increase of atmospheric nitrous oxide, which is the base for a method suggested by Crutzen et al. Nitrous oxide emission has been estimated to be 3-5% of both biological nitrogen fixation and fertiliser production. 4 The complexity of nitrous oxide production has caused attempts to include other influencing factors as well. Two statistical methods and the process model PnET-N-DNDC has been taken as examples. Important for these estimations of emission is the amount of available soil nitrogen and the freezing of soil. Nitrous oxide estimation by these methods results in higher emissions than shown by Swedish field data. 5 Stating and motivating a realistic size of the nitrous oxide emission from agriculture and forestry is important. Therefore field measurements and development of the process model Coup are performed. Coup computes processes in the soil and plant system and has, up to now, mostly been used to understand the processes. From now on it can also be used as a tool for assessing nitrous oxide emission from both forest and agricultural land. Since Swedish field data point to lower emission than the estimation methods provide, we are looking for a method better adapted for the estimation of emissions from Swedish agriculture. We must pinpoint clearly which circumstances lead to the high emissions we want to avoid and, in contrast, which ones give low emissions. For this more field data is of need and process based model calculations to give good answers. If everyone uses a method that shows lower emissions without proving the matter of fact, the total nitrous oxide emission from cropping systems in Europe will be underestimated. The use of the IPCC emission factor often results in lower nitrous oxide emission than 3 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year. Moreover, with the IPCC method fertilised effective cropping systems having a low emission will not get credit since fertiliser addition is the only factor on which emission is calculated. And in a near future the growing agricultural production of food, feed and energy needs a minimum of nitrous oxide emission, which will be ever-increasingly important. I suggest using local data or estimation methods validated on local data for emission assessment from bio-energy cropping systems. If no local data or process model a re available I suggest the use of a method that calculates emissions around the European average value 3 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year

  2. Measurements, characterizing and reduction of dust during combustion of energy grain; Maetning, karaktaerisering och reduktion av stoft vid eldning av spannmaal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennbaeck, Marie; Johansson, Linda; Claesson, Frida; Johansson, Mathias

    2008-07-01

    There is a potential for cereal grain for combustion use in Sweden, as well as for other agricultural fuels with similar qualities. Today, grain is combusted mainly in small-scale appliances. As all fast growing crops, the ash content is higher compared to wood fuels, resulting in a higher emission of particles. There are no limits for particle emission from appliances smaller than 500 kW in Sweden today. Nevertheless, it is important to consider these emissions because dust from small scale combustion of biofuels is one of the larger sources of particles to air in Sweden and in Europe today. Lately, is has been observed that the ultra fine particles (< 0.1 mum) is a cause of increased mortality. During large-scale combustion, the flue gas is cleaned from particles by electrostatic or fabric filters. During small-scale combustion primary measures is preferred by economical reasons. Particles can be reduced by design of the appliances or control of the combustion process. It might also be possible to reduce particles by use of additives that ties the volatile matters to the bottom ash and/or causes them leave as gas instead of particles. The aim of this project is to characterize and reduce particle emissions from combustion of cereal grain by use of additives. Limestone and kaolin were tested in a burner for oat grain. Particle emission was measured as total dust, as mass size distributed and as number size distributed. Fuel, bottom ash and dust were characterized chemically. In the flue gas carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxide, sulphur dioxide and hydrogen chloride was measured. Equilibrium calculations were performed for combustion with and without additives. The combustion was not negatively influenced by the additives. The results confirm that lime stone reduces emissions of acidifying and corrosive gases such as sulphur dioxide and hydrogen chloride. Both lime stone and kaolin increase the ash fusion temperature. Results from this project show that lime stone can reduce total dust, provided the lime is supplied in a proper way, and that the design and control is suited for additives. How the lime should be supplied, and what is the best design and control is still to be investigated. Kaolin can be used to reduce particles. In this project a supply to the fuel of 2 % kaolin lead to a 31 % reduction of particles, and supply of 4 % lead to a 57 % reduction of particles

  3. Electrical and control equipment in nuclear power plants. Problems when replacing aging equipment; El och kontrollutrustning i kaernkraftverk - Problematik vid utbyte av aaldrad utrustning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordling, Anna; Haakansson, Goeran

    2012-11-01

    Interoperability between different technical systems is more complicated when old and new technology meet, such as between analog and digital technology. New electrical and I and C equipment is selected with consideration to simplify and improve the compatibility and interoperability. The original construction of nuclear power plants with electricity and I and C equipment had more natural interfaces. Generally experienced guidance, to the management of interoperability and interfaces, feels insufficient. Skills transfer programs are identified as a major need, as more and more important personnel are retiring and important information is lost with them. Lack of appropriate skills directly affects the ability to produce accurate and complete requirements specification. Failure modes of newer electrical and I and C equipment are perceived as more complex than the older equipment. When choosing equipment, attempts are made to minimize unnecessary features, to reduce the number of potential failure modes. There is a lack of consistent understanding of the meaning of robustness in electrical technology and I and C technology, in the nuclear plant engineering departments. The overall picture is that the robustness has worsened since the facilities were built. The Swedish nuclear power plants have an internal organizational structure with separated client and support organization. This splits the nuclear organization into two distinct parts which threaten to separate the two entities focus. Engineering departments at the Swedish nuclear power plants express a need for increased expertise in the client organization (blocks). Competence requested is for example, system knowledge to facilitate and enhance the quality of the initial analysis performed in the blocks. Suppliers receive more recently larger turnkey projects, both to minimize costs but also to minimize the interfaces and co-function problems. This, however, heightens demands for knowledge transfer between suppliers and the construction, as the facility staff even after the supplier's commitment must be familiar with how the new components and systems operate. Part of this is that higher demands should be made on suppliers, concerning the documentation and to provide knowledge of new failure modes and protection features of the new equipment. Cooperation between nuclear power plants, where the purchase to a larger degree is coordinated is increasing, and this gives the plants a greater opportunity to make greater demands on suppliers.

  4. Sealing layer of fly ashes and sewage sludge and vegetation establishment in treatment of mine tailings impoundments; Flygaska och roetslam som taetskikt vid efterbehandling av sandmagasin med vegetationsetablering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria; Neuschuetz, Clara [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany; Isaksson, Karl-Erik [Boliden Mineral AB (Sweden)

    2006-02-15

    Each year the Swedish mining industry produces 25 Mtonnes of mine tailings that are disposed of in extensive natural impoundments. As this sand, containing more or less sulphide-rich minerals, is penetrated by oxygen and water, it starts weathering resulting in formation of acidic and metal-rich drainage water. To prevent oxygen penetration the mine tailings can be covered with a sealing layer covered with a protective cover that facilitates establishment of vegetation. The aim of this study has been to examine the function of fly ash and sewage sludge in sealing layers at impoundments of pyrite rich mine tailings, and the ability of different plant species, which are suitable for establishment in these areas, to penetrate the sealing layer with their roots and what impact they have on the drainage water. Experiments have been performed in field and greenhouse environment, with sealing layers consisting of fly ash and sewage sludge mixtures, covered with protective covers of sewage sludge or till. Plant establishment has been studied in a survey of naturally established plants at sewage sludge disposal sites close to mining areas, and by sowing and planting of selected plants, for instance fast growing grass species and fibre hemp at the test plots in field and in greenhouse experiments. Large scale application of ashes, sewage sludge and an ash/sludge mixture have been performed in field at three test plots with the size of 0.3-1 ha. Leakage of nutrients and metals from sealing layers has been studied in field and greenhouse tests. In addition, the ability of plant roots to penetrate sealing layers made of different ash/sludge mixtures have been examined in greenhouse experiments. This investigation is a cooperation between Stockholm University and Boliden Mineral AB, and the field experiments have been performed at the mine tailings impoundments at Gillervattnet, Boliden. Other collaborating participants are Skellefteaa Kraft and Munksund, who have produced the ashes that have been used, and Stockholm Vatten AB, who has produced the sewage sludge. The main conclusions from this study are: It is practically possible to construct a sealing layer of fly ash upon mine tailings, and to establish plants by sowing in a protective cover of sewage sludge. Transferral of plantlets into the sludge is, however, problematic. Addition of sewage sludge to ash-containing sealing layers has several drawbacks. When sewage sludge freezes it is not possible to mix with ashes and thereby form a satisfactory sealing layer, with the method used in this study. Such sealing layer can thus not be constructed winter-time, which is the time when large amounts of ashes are produced and the mine tailings are firm enough to work upon. Furthermore, addition of sewage sludge to sealing layers increases the risk of root penetration and do not seem to have as great impact on the sealing layer permeability as has earlier been considered. Concentrations of many elements are higher in drainage water from mine waste covered with fly ash compared to drainage water from mine waste covered with sludge or mixtures of ash and sludge. Sewage sludge thus seems to have a preventive effect on metal leakage caused by the ash. Sealing layers made of fly ash have good resistance to root penetration due to high density and high degree of packing. Moreover, many ashes are toxic to plant roots as a result of high pH and alkalinity, and high levels of toxic substances, such as heavy metals. Addition of sewage sludge increases the risk of root penetration, since the sludge contains plant nutrients, for instance nitrogen, as well as it may decrease the density and possible toxicity of the ash sealing layer. The energy crop Reed Canary-grass generally reduces the leakage of nutrient elements from sewage sludge and fly ash, partly by decreasing the amount of drainage water, but also by changing the conditions in the substrate, for instance by changing the pH and redox potential. If the alkalinity is not too high the plant roots have an ability to decrease the pH in the plant substrate. Different plant species have varying ability to penetrate sealing layers. Roots of Reed Canary-grass may pulverize a hardened ash layer, probably by decreasing pH and taking up water and thereby desiccating the layer. Colt's-foot and birch are plant species with lower ability to penetrate ash-containing sealing layers. By time as the ashes become aged they seem to become penetrated by roots more easily, possibly due to a decreased pH. The conclusion from this work so far is that even though sewage sludge should not be mixed with ash in the sealing layer, due to practical difficulties and increased risk of root penetration, the presence of sewage sludge has a decreasing effect on metal levels in the drainage water. Establishment of vegetation should be performed through sowing, and plant species with low ability to penetrate sealing layers of fly ash with their roots should be chosen. Root penetration is most efficiently prevented by thorough packing of the ash layer, which also results in a low permeability, and by using ashes with high pH and high levels of toxic substances.

  5. Estimación de potencial hídrico en vid por medio de medidas termográficas y espectrales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DI FILIPPO, M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El potencial hídrico foliar (ΨL es una variable frecuentemente utilizada para medir el estado hídrico de los cultivos. Su medición con cámara de presión, es lenta, lo que impide tomar un gran número de muestras. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar métodos alternativos para estimar el ΨL mediante sensores remotos. Uno de los métodos evaluados fue el de la reflectancia espectral. Esta técnica requiere de análisis estadísticos para poder estimar las variables de interés. Se probaron dos análisis, el cálculo de índices a partir de los valores del espectro y el análisis de Mínimos Cuadrados Parciales (PLS. El otro método probado fue la termografía que registra las temperaturas de la canopia (TC, las cuales se relacionan con su estado hídrico. Los datos termométricos sirvieron para construir dos modelos de regresión que estimaron ΨL. Uno de los modelos fue una regresión simple con TC vs. ΨL; el otro fue una regresión múltiple construida junto con el “índice normalizado de vegetación” (NDVI = ((R900-R680/( R900-R680 y con el “índice hídrico” (WI = (R900/R970. El ensayo se llevó a cabo en un viñedo de la variedad Malbec, en Mendoza, Argentina. La reflectancia se midió durante la mañana y el ΨL al mediodía, paralelamente a la toma de imágenes termográficas. Por PLS, usando las reflectancias entre 325 y 1075 nm se pudo predecir el ΨL. Por regresión se obtuvieron las ecuaciones ΨL = -1,21659 + 0,445078 * TC; R2 =0,19, p = 0,0000 y ΨL = 1,83399 – 0,613766 * NDVI + 0,0447517 * TC -1,45787 * WI, R2 = 0,36, p = 0,0000. Al mapear mediante krigeado los ΨL observados y los estimados por los tres procedimientos, para analizar las similitudes en distribución espacial, se observó una apreciable semejanza entre ellos, a pesar de los bajos coeficientes de regresión encontrados. Aparentemente, los planos incluyen información espacial ausente en las regresiones. Se halló una mayor semejanza entre el ΨL observado y el estimado por PLS, comparado con los otros métodos.

  6. SCR at bio fuels combustion - phase 2. Measures to extend catalyst life time; SCR vid biobraensleeldning - etapp 2. Aatgaerder foer att foerlaenga katalysatorns livslaengd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Christer; Bodin, Henrik; Sahlqvist, Aasa [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Khodayari, Raziyeh; Odenbrand, Ingemar [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering II

    2000-07-01

    In this project phase, the deactivation of catalysts during combustion of bio fuels, and different methods of regeneration have been investigated. The overall purpose is to improve the economic and technical possibilities to use SCR at bio fuels combustion. The two different methods for regeneration are washing with water and so called sulphation (treatment with sulphur dioxide). The results from wood fired FB-boilers show that the catalyst lose 25% (average) of the relative activity during a normal heat production season. The tendency is that a boiler with short residence time between final combustion and catalyst and/or high flame temperatures gives a faster deactivation. Such unfavourable conditions arise in FB-boilers with a large part of the combustion in freeboard/cyclone. The alkali content of the fuel (wood fuel) is of minor importance for the deactivation rate compared with the combustion conditions. The flue gas temperature within the interval 250 - 375 deg C is not an important parameter for the deactivation in the time interval 3 000 - 6 000 h. The 'new' honeycomb catalysts that were tested during phase two, BiotypA-C, evidently show different deactivation trends. The highly active BiotypC e.g. increases its activity during the first thousand hours. Calculations indicate that BiotypC at 315 deg C requires the smallest volume of catalyst over ten years of operation in order to maintain given performance. Practical consequences for downstream equipment also need to be carefully checked. Sulphation with SO{sub 2} works in the laboratory as a regeneration method for all of the tested samples. The sulphatised samples deactivation are almost comparable to a fresh sample when exposed to flue gas. About 80 % of the lost activity can be regained only by using sulphation. Plate-type catalysts gets a somewhat lower increase in activity compared to honeycomb-types, probably related to chemical rather than geometric design. High SO{sub 2}-concentration gives a quicker sulphation, but not a greater increase in activity after long time. The recommendation is to sulphatise with 500 ppm SO{sub 2} during at least 16 hours at high flue gas temperature. Since ammonium salts may give problems on downstream equipment (e.g. air preheaters) it is recommended that the ammonia dosage is closed during the sulphation. A simple model is presented for calculation of optimal procedure according to local conditions. The experiments with water washing show that the main part (65 - 80 %) of the potassium on the catalyst is washed out during 45 minutes in water. Also sulphur is washed out and must be replaced by sulphation. Some vanadium is lost (depending on type of catalyst) by washing in sulphuric acid, but not to a significant extent in water. The combination of water washing and sulphation gives about 75 - 120 % activity relative fresh samples depending on type of catalyst. Water washing combined with sulphation gives approximately 6 % higher activity at 300 deg C compared to sulphation alone, approximately 10% higher at 375 deg C (honeycomb {approx} 60% k/k{sub 0}). The advantage of washing increase by increased potassium content in the catalyst.

  7. Environmental aspects on LCF-life of Ni-base superalloys during long term operation; Miljoeinverkan paa LCF-egenskaper vid laanga drifttider hos superlegeringar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moverare, Johan; Leijon, Gunnar; Palmert, Frans

    2012-02-15

    The applicability of fine grain polycrystalline nickel base superalloys in gas or steam turbine applications is often limited by their susceptibility to fast intergranular cracking during fatigue in combination with extended hold times at high temperatures and high tensile stresses. This effect is further enhanced in corrosive environments even at moderate temperatures such as 400-600 deg In this study the negative effect of SO{sub 2} + water vapour on the low cycle fatigue resistance of three different nickel based superalloys (Nimonic 901, Inconel 718 and 718 plus) has been studied at 450 deg and 550 deg. A negative effect was found on both the crack initiation and crack propagation process. The effect increases with increasing temperature and is likely to be influenced by both the chemical composition and the grain size of the material. The negative effect of water vapour + SO{sub 2} is manifested by a decreased resistance to cyclic plastic deformation and a transition from transcrystalline to intercrystalline fracture behaviour. In Nimonic 901 this negative effect increases with the degree of plastic deformation. For lower mechanical strain amplitudes where the number of cycles and the total exposure time is increased the environmental impact is reduced. Similar trends can also be noticed for the other alloys. The surface corrosion in air and in SO{sub 2} + water vapour are found to be rather similar in this study and it is therefore concluded that the surface scale can remain adherent and protective if the strains on the oxide scale are low. However, for LCF tests with higher strain ranges, the oxide scale will rupture preferably at the grain boundaries and intergranular microcracks will initiate which promotes inward diffusion of embritteling elements such as oxygen and sulphur. Inconel 718 seems to be more sensitive to SO{sub 2} + water vapour than Nimonic 901 when tested at 450. The overall resistance to LCF is however still higher in Inconel 718 for the test conditions investigated in this study, this is due to the exceptionally good resistance to low cycle fatigue that this alloy has from the start (as seen for the tests in air)

  8. Videosorveglianza come supporto interattivo / La vidéosurveillance comme support intéractif / Video surveillance as an interactive support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dischi Franco

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Video surveillance is not and cannot be considered a system of image acquistions “end in itself”.The acquired audio-visual “product”, in addition to surveillance and security, provides a useful source of information in case of storage and automatic analysis of data in urban planning to optimise land resources and means of support, for example environmental monitoring to protect habitat, land and ecosystem.These are behavioural precognitive models of video analysis, for a perceptive context of the situation of danger.

  9. Exposure conditions, lung function and airway symptoms in industrial production of wood pellets. A pilot project; Exponeringsfoerhaallanden, lungfunktion och luftvaegsbesaer vid industriell produktion av traepellets. Ett pilotprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edman, Katja; Loefstedt, Haakan; Berg, Peter; Bryngelsson, I.L.; Fedeli, Cecilia; Selden, Anders [Oerebro Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Yrkes- och miljoemedicinska kliniken; Eriksson, Kaare [Umeaa Univ. Hospital (Sweden); Holmstroem, Mats; Rask- Andersen, Anna [Uppsala Univ. Hospital (Sweden)

    2002-02-01

    The production of wood pellets is a relatively new branch of the Swedish wood industry and has increased during the last years. A pilot study was performed to investigate the prevalence of airway symptoms, lung function and exposure among all 39 men employed in industrial production of wood pellets at six companies. The study included a questionnaire, medical examination, registration of nasal-PEF (peak expiratory flow) during a week, allergy screening (Phadiatop) and lung function (spirometry) before and after work shift. The results were compared with different reference data from other Swedish studies. Exposure measurements of monoterpenes and wood dust on filter and with a data logger (DataRAM) were also performed. The study group reported a higher frequency of cough without phlegm, awakening due to breathlessness and current asthma medication compared with reference data. For five of the six participants with physician-diagnosed asthma the disease debuted before the current employment and the results did not indicate an unusual asthma morbidity. Spirometry showed lower lung function before work shift than expected. However no difference over work shift was observed. A negative and non-significant correlation was seen between time with current work task and lung function. The study group reported a higher frequency of nasal symptoms mostly blockage, sneezing and dryness compared with reference data. The registrations of nasal-PEF did not show any differences between work and spare time. The prevalence of positive Phadiatop (23 %) did not differ from reference data. No association between exposure (wood dust and monoterpenes) and acute effects on lung function was observed. The wood dust exposure (0.16-19 mg/m{sup 3}) was high and 11 of 24 measurements exceeded the present Swedish occupational exposure limit of 2 mg/m{sup 3}. Peak exposures could be identified, e.g. at cleaning of engines with compressed air, with the DataRAM. The exposure to monoterpenes (0.64 and 24 mg/m{sup 3}) was low compared with the present Swedish limit of 150 mg/m{sup 3}. The monoterpene exposure does not seem to be a health or exposure problem in industrial production of wood pellets but wood dust exposure can effect the airways negatively. In this study the levels of wood dust were high and the study group reported more airway symptoms than expected. However the effect on lung function was small, but steps to reduce wood dust exposure should be done.

  10. Results from measurements of natural radiation in and from filters in some water treatment plants; Maetningar av naturlig radioaktivitet i och fraan filter vid naagra vattenverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergren, Inger; Aakerblom, Gustav [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden); Ek, Britt-Marie [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Large water treatment plants often process surface water where the concentration of natural radionuclides is so low that treatment of the water produces no radiation dose or waste problem. The level of natural radionuclides in ground water is higher than in surface water and often so high that mitigation is needed to clean the water. Specific treatment of the filters and filter masses is needed in some cases because the natural radionuclides precipitate in the filters. The radiation doses received by personnel at the ground water treatment plants are often low because of the relatively short time the workers spend inside the treatment plant. The results presented here indicate no need for extra action to insure radiation protection with regard to radioactivity inside the treatment plant or during processing of the filters and waste. A comprehensive discussion of the problems associated with the concentrating of natural radionuclides in water filters is presented in this report.

  11. Measurements of emissions during waste wood combustion to identify refurbishment needs; Maetning av emissioner vid foerbraenning av RT-flis foer att identifiera eventuella ombyggnadsaatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindau, Leif

    2003-01-01

    The background to this project is the new EU directive 2000/76/EG regarding incineration of waste. This directive may have an effect on emission limits for Swedish plants firing waste wood. It may lead to needs of refurbishment in e.g. the area of flue gas cleaning equipment. In order to produce a basis to evaluate the need for such upgrading, measurement of metals, HCI, SO{sub 2} , CO, TOC and dioxin have been carried out on three plants firing wood waste: a grate boiler (Handeloeverket P11), one circulating fluid bed boiler (Aaterbruket in Lomma), and a bubbling fluidised bed boiler (Johannes in Gaevle, firing 50% waste wood). The measurements have mainly been carried out after boiler, equivalent to upstream flue gas cleaning. The results are that the demands of the EU directive on most points can be managed with existing equipment if this consists of electrostatic precipitator or bag filter with good performance and flue gas condensor. Without flue gas condensor, there is a need for other measures for 1-10 and for grate boilers, SO{sub 2} as well. The requirements in the directive for TOC is weaker than the demand on CO, and correspondingly, the demand on CO is driving. The level of dioxin from the boiler (upstream filter) exceeds allowed emission, and is in the range of 0,1-2 ng TE/Nm{sup 3} tg, 6 % O{sub 2} . Existing equipment will meet the emission limit for the lower levels (0,1-0,3) , but not safely for the higher levels (1,5-2). Correspondingly, there may be a need for equipment upgrading, e.g. in the form of activated carbon injection upstream flue gas filter.

  12. Combustion tests in a solid fuel boiler to clarify the emissions when co-firing refuse; Proveldning i fastbraenslepanna foer att kartlaegga emissioner vid inblandning av olika avfallsfraktioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Elisabet; Lundborg, Rickard; Wrangensten, Lars

    2002-04-01

    In this Vaermeforsk-project tests have been performed in a 60 MW moving grate steam boiler at Tekniska Verken in Linkoeping. The boiler plant has an electrostatic filter for dust reduction and also a flue gas condensing plant with heat recovery. Vaermeforsk has financed the project. During the tests the following fuel fractions have been injected into the reference fuel, a mix of recovered wood chips (70 %) and bark (30 %): Paper/plastic/wood fuel (10 % and 25 % injection on an energy basis); Meat powder (10 % and 25 % injection on an energy basis); Napkin waste (10 % injection on an energy basis); Leather waste (10 % injection on an energy basis). The highest lower heating value was noted for meat powder, approx. 24 MJ/kg with a moisture content of 3,4 %. The heating values for the other fuel fractions were on the same level or just beneath the corresponding heating value for the reference fuel. The highest chlorine content was found in the paper/plastic/wood fraction respectively the leather waste fraction with 1,2 and 1,4 % (weight) of chlorine. The meat powder had the highest nitrogen content but all the fuel mixes had a quite high content of nitrogen with values over 1 % (weight). Analyses of sulphur in the fuels showed that leather waste had the lowest content just over 0, 1 %, considered as a low sulphur level for fuels in general. However, there are problems to get balance between in- and output for sulphur and chlorine based on fuel analysis. Difficulties to take representative fuel samples, especially when it comes to chlorine, can be an explanation. Video camera recordings and flue gas analysis in the furnace showed that the injection of refuse fractions seems to improve the combustion conditions with better local combustion of CO and hydrocarbons. The results from the emission measurements in the chimney can be summarised as follows (emission values at 11 % O{sub 2}): the lowest CO emission was noted with 25 % meat powder injection (<50 mg/nm{sup 3}); The highest HCI emission, before the flue gas condensing plant, was noted for the reference fuel (approx. 245 Mg/nm{sup 3}); The highest SO{sub 2} emission, in the upper furnace, was also noted for the reference fuel (over 50 mg/nm{sup 3}). Levels after the condensing plant could not be measured. 25 % meat powder injection gave the highest NO{sub x}-emission (approx. 50 mg/MJ). The high heavy metal content in ash could not bee correlated to the content in the fuel fractions. The unburnt carbon content in bottom ash is remarkably lower for 25 % meat powder injection into reference fuel. The conclusion is that the operation parameters for the oiler are optimized for this specific fuel fraction and the amount injected. Tests with a fouling probe near the first superheater showed that at a temperature of 400 deg C 10% napkin waste gave most fouling. This is interesting as the lowest HCl-emission level was noted for napkins, maybe depending on that the chlorine is present in the depositions. The project results point in the direction that co-combustion of different refuse fractions will be possible within the existing environmental legislation and maybe also within the new EU directive 2000/76/EG. Although flue gas condensation is necessary to get acceptable emissions of HCl and SO{sub 2}. Further general research is thus needed and several R and D project areas are listed in the report. Deeper studies of the combustion process in furnace are important in future project.

  13. Reed canary grass tried as a fuel in commercial district heating plants in Denmark; Provfoerbraenning av energigraeset roerflen vid tvaa kommersiella halmeldade anlaeggningar i Danmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burvall, J [Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, Enheten foer Biomassa, Biobraenslen och Fibergroedor, Umeaa (Sweden)

    1992-03-01

    In two different types of district heating combustion plants in Denmark, normally using straw as fuel, the energy grass Reed canary grass (summer harvested) has been tested as a new fuel. The combustion plant in Ringsted burns the fuel as whole bales with the so called `cigar method`. In Nykoebing the fuel is burned on a rust as unpacked bales using a straw divider to divide the bales. The heating effect of the combustion plants is 4.5 MW and 4.0 MW, respectively. For both plants, there was no handling or technical problem observed in the test with Reed canary grass compared to straw. The analysis of the emission to air shows high average values for CO- and NO{sub x} during the test period which is unacceptable according to Swedish limit values for emissions. For combustion plants with a heating effect over 10 MW, the limit values for NO{sub x} is 100-200 mg/MJ. For smaller plants there are no limits values today but in the future demands for limitation of NO{sub x} emission may come. For both plants, the O{sub 2}-content in fumes varied a lot, with a high mean value, about 10%. The content of chlorine in straw and energy grass can reach high levels. Most of the chlorine binds up in the ash (KCl), and therefore the emission of HCl are low. The emission to air of SO{sub x}, which is 100 mg/MJ, is below the limit value for smaller plants. The variation of moisture and the low density are the properties of grass and straw that mainly causes problems in the combustion and gives high emission levels. Today it seems to be necessary to press the material into fuel briquetts or fuel pellets to get a better combustion, that can meet environmental demands. (7 figs., 17 tabs.).

  14. Reed canary grass tried as a fuel in commercial district heating plants in Denmark. Provfoerbraenning av energigraeset roerflen vid tvaa kommersiella halmeldade anlaeggningar i Danmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burvall, J [Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, Enheten foer Biomassa, Biobraenslen och Fibergroedor, Umeaa (Sweden)

    1992-03-01

    In two different types of district heating combustion plants in Denmark, normally using straw as fuel, the energy grass Reed canary grass (summer harvested) has been tested as a new fuel. The combustion plant in Ringsted burns the fuel as whole bales with the so called 'cigar method'. In Nykoebing the fuel is burned on a rust as unpacked bales using a straw divider to divide the bales. The heating effect of the combustion plants is 4.5 MW and 4.0 MW, respectively. For both plants, there was no handling or technical problem observed in the test with Reed canary grass compared to straw. The analysis of the emission to air shows high average values for CO- and NO[sub x] during the test period which is unacceptable according to Swedish limit values for emissions. For combustion plants with a heating effect over 10 MW, the limit values for NO[sub x] is 100-200 mg/MJ. For smaller plants there are no limits values today but in the future demands for limitation of NO[sub x] emission may come. For both plants, the O[sub 2]-content in fumes varied a lot, with a high mean value, about 10%. The content of chlorine in straw and energy grass can reach high levels. Most of the chlorine binds up in the ash (KCl), and therefore the emission of HCl are low. The emission to air of SO[sub x], which is 100 mg/MJ, is below the limit value for smaller plants. The variation of moisture and the low density are the properties of grass and straw that mainly causes problems in the combustion and gives high emission levels. Today it seems to be necessary to press the material into fuel briquetts or fuel pellets to get a better combustion, that can meet environmental demands. (7 figs., 17 tabs.).

  15. Alkali and chlorine in biomass - a problem in connection with power generation. Alkali och klor i biomassa - ett problem vid elgenerering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaerdenaes, S

    1991-06-04

    The literature survey gives a summary of the macronutrients and the variations in different biomass. Especially alkali is discussed. The work gives an account of difficult biomass fuels which will rather be used in hot water boilers than in gas turbines of power generation. The amount of alkali and chlorine increases from hardwood < softwood < salix < straw from Phalaris arundineral (harvested during summer). The range of variation was 10-25 between the assortments. The fraction division is the most important factor for the variation. Alkaline content also depend on age, soil fertility and storage methods. Seasonal aspects and local depositions are less important. However, great care should be taken with fuel from coastal areas because of chlorine depositions. Gasification of biomass to produce gas for combined cycle operation poses special problems. The alkali content of logging residues have to be cleaned up to approximately 99 % in the example. When the process gas is originated from straw or salix the separation have to be even more efficient. The method used for the separation could be based on wet or dry technic hotgas cleanup has not yet been tested in large scale but seems to be a promising method to attain high degree of separation and power efficiency. Difficulties of power generation make straw fuels less interesting. The content of alkali and chlorine can be considerably decreased by changing the way of fertilization and cultivation period. If everything turns out well, this would give a complementary for gasification or steam generation. To the greates part this fuels will however be used in pure heat production. (author).

  16. Study of the chemistry of sulfur- and nitrogen oxides at fluidized bed combustion. Final report; Studier avseende svavel- och kvaeveoxidernas kemi vid fluidiserad foerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindqvist, O [Chalmers Univ. of Technology and Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

    1995-12-01

    Research has been carried out concerning chemistry of nitrogen and sulfur oxides, with relevance to fluidized bed combustion. Studies of the heterogeneous decomposition reactions of NO and N{sub 2}O molecules have also been carried out. The effect of O{sub 2} on the heterogeneous reactions has been investigated and the results indicate that NO can deteriorate only in the reducing zones of a FBC. The formation of NO and N{sub 2}O as well as the question of what parameters affect this formation have been studied in a series of combustion experiments. In addition, it has also been demonstrated that the volatiles and the char are about equally important for the NO and N{sub 2}O formation. Quantum chemical calculations have been used to study the surface processes of the nitrogen oxides. Investigations of the desulfurization reactions at high percentages of CO{sub 2} with special regard to the PFBC technique have been made. In addition, the same reaction has been studied with e.g. spectroscopic methods at normal CO{sub 2} percentages, but with varying amounts of O{sub 2} and CO. CaSO{sub 3} has been demonstrated to be an intermediary and CaS as being one of the products. An important part of the project activities is the analytical work which primarily supports the full scale experiments on the 12 MW{sub th} CTH FBC boiler. As a link between the CTH boiler and our analytical laboratory, a chemical engineer also has been employed. In this activity is also included the development of sampling and analytical methods, e.g. NH{sub 3} and HCN sampling in the combustor. Time has also been allocated to measuring corrosive alkali metals (Na and K) in flue gases from a PFBC plant. 29 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  17. Effects of Non Process Elements in the chemical recovery system of paper mills; Effekter av PFG foer integrerade pappersbruk vid indunstning och foerbraenning av bioslam i sodapannan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlbom, Johan [AaF Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Wadsborn, Rickard [STFI-Packforsk AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    Effluent treatment of pulp and paper mills generates a biological sludge that according to Swedish implementation of EU-directives from 2005 has to be taken care of by incineration or by production of soil for agriculture or ground cover. An alternative way to take care of the sludge is incineration in the recovery boiler. This method is used in two Finish and two Swedish pulp mills with good results. The purpose of this project is to investigate the consequences for integrated pulp and paper mills when the biological sludge is incinerated in the recovery boiler. The biological sludge contents Non Process Elements, NPE, which increase the risks of incrustations in the system and increase the need of make up lime. This study comprises the following NPE: aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, chloride, potassium, manganese, magnesium, iron, copper, barium and calcium. The simulation program WinGEMS 5.0 (Pacific Simulation) was used in the study to predict the levels of NPE in the recovery system of the Kraft mills. Three different pulp and paper mills were selected for the study, Billerud Skaerblacka, ASSI Domaen Froevi and SCA Obbola. The mills are different concerning raw materials, process, degree of own produced pulp and paper products. All three the mills have effluent treatment and use the method of activated sludge that generates a surplus of biological sludge. The results of the study proved that for Skaerblacka mill the method is applicable. For Obbola the prerequisites are somewhat more complicated, the effluent treatment generates considerably higher amount of sludge per ton pulp produced due to the treatment technique and use of waste paper (40 %) for the paper machine. The high input of aluminum with the sludge will give troublesome incrustations of sodium-aluminum-silicate on the heat surfaces in the evaporation plant. To eliminate the aluminum from the system magnesium can be added to the black liquor which will precipitate as the double salt hydrotalcite in the green liquor and be rejected by the green liquor dregs. For Froevi mill the situation is somewhat more favorable compared to Obbola but a smaller amount of magnesium has still to be added to avoid incrustations of sodium-aluminum-silicate in the evaporation plant. The need of make-up lime will increase due to the content of phosphorus in the biological sludge which otherwise will be build up in the lime. The increased need of make up lime was estimated to 2 kg/ADt for Skaerblacka and Froevi while Obbola will need about 2-3 kg/ADt. Experience from mills that employ incineration of biological sludge in the recovery boiler shows that NO{sub x} in the flue gas has not increased. For Skaerblacka and Froevi the increase of nitrogen by the biological sludge will be moderate and will probably not give any increased formation of NO{sub x} in the flue gas. For Obbola the amount of nitrogen by the sludge will be higher which increases the risks of having higher levels of NO{sub x} in the flue gas. The other NPEs as chlorides, potassium, calcium, manganese, iron, cupper, barium and calcium will not give any problems for the recovery system. The study proves that it is possible for an integrated pulp and paper mill to evaporate and incinerate the biological sludge in the recovery boiler. Disadvantages as increased need of make up lime and also the necessity of adding magnesium when using this method should be compared with benefits and drawbacks with other methods that are available. Costs of the methods must be calculated based on the actual pulp and paper mill.

  18. Evaluation of pine bark for treatment of water from biomass fueled plants; Utvaerdering av bark foer rening av vatten vid biobraensleeldade anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Christina; Hansson, Helen; Hansson, Soeren [Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    In Sweden, large amounts of pine bark are produced as a by-product from the pulp and forest industry. This makes pine bark available in large volumes to a relative low price. Pine bark has shown good absorption effect for organics pollutants, such as oil, in water and pine bark is used commercially as an oil absorbent. In a study the pine bark has also shown to have good absorption effects on heavy metals in water, in laboratory conditions. This indicates that pine bark also could be used as a natural absorbent for heavy metals in flue gas condensate and for leachate from biomass fuel storage. For the latter purpose the bark could be used as a combined heavy metal and oil absorber. In this project the pine barks ability to absorb heavy metals from flue gas condensate has been studied. The tests were performed using an untreated flue gas condensate, which was purified by using a basket filter with commercially available pine bark (trademark EcoBark) as absorbent. The bark filter has the same function as a tube reactor, which would imply that the absorption of heavy metals should be better than the laboratory tests. However, the results from the flue gas condensate tests showed much lower absorption of heavy metals than the laboratory tests. The only significant absorption levels were found for iron and mercury, which showed a reduction ratio of about 25 %. Other metals, such as lead, cadmium, copper, nickel, vanadium and zinc had a reduction ratio of about 10 %, which is quite low compared to the 98 % reduction for lead and about 80 % for copper and zinc that was achieved in the former laboratory tests. The most probable reason that the pine bark had a very low absorbent effect in the flue gas condensate is that the concentration of potassium and calcium restrains the ion exchange capacity of the pine bark. It is also likely that iron mainly is absorbed by the bark, while other metals only are separated as particles. Another possible reason for the rather poor absorption results in the flue gas condensate tests could be that iron affects the absorption of other metals. The water temperature could also have some influence on the results while the laboratory tests were performed at a considerably lower water temperature, 22 C. The flue gas condensate tests also included measurements of COD upstream and downstream the bark filter. The analyses shows that the COD concentration in the condensate upstream the filter is very low, 20-25 mg/litre, while the COD concentration downstream the filter is considerably higher, in the range 40 - 220 mg/litre. The COD before the filter probably originates from the small amount of char particles in the flue gas condensate and the increase of COD after the bark filter comes from humus that has been dissolved from the bark. The heavy metal absorption that has been analysed in the test with flue gas condensate should be comparable with heavy metal absorption from leachate from bio fuel storage, even if the water temperature in the latter case is lower.

  19. Growth and energy yield when cultivating various energy crops on farming soil. Tillvaext och energiutbyte vid odling av olika energigroedor paa jordbruksmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoerner, L.

    1988-03-01

    In four fields in the south of Sweden different energy crops were tested. In all trials sugar beet, barley, alfalfa, corn, sunflower and quickgrowing species of Salix (energy forest) were grown. In some of the trials broome-grass, potatoes and winter wheat were tested. One trial also included marrow-stem kale, Jerusalem artichoke and a hybride of J artichoke and sunflower. The purpose of the experiment was to illustrate the effect of increasing N-fertilizing and the effect of growing the crops in different climatic conditions. The yield varies between the crops. Some of the crops were harvested in different stages of development. The largest yields were noticed for sugar beet, corn, potatoes and energy forest. For these crops the yield was 11.5-14.5 tons of dry matter per hectare. The yield of potatoes was very large but it is figures for only one place with very good conditions. Barley, sunflower and alfalfa produced 8-10 tons of dry matter per hectare. The smaller yield depends on a short vegetation season for these crops. The year of establishment the energy forest produced about four tons of dry matter in the form of stem wood. When fully established the production has been 12-15 tons of dry matter per hectare and annum. The analysis of plant material indicates small divergences in the content of carbon and heat value.

  20. Handling of crisis situations in the electric power system; Krishantering i elsystemet. Elnaetbolags, kommuners och hushaalls uppfattningar om roller och ansvarsfoerdelning vid elavbrott

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palm, Jenny (Linkoepnig Univ., Linkoeping (SE). Dept. of Technology and Social Change)

    2007-12-15

    In this report municipalities, grid companies and electricity users' relations and responsibilities are discussed in connection to the actors experience during two storms named Per and Gudrun. Special focus is on households' action space, that is possibilities and constrains to uphold every day routines during outages. The material consists of case studies in Oestergoetland, involving a survey to households, interviews and participating observations. The theoretical perspective used is Karl Poppers' three worlds related to everyday life. World 1 is the physical and material world; World 2 consists of people's perception and ideas and World 3 is the cultural and social world. In world 1 is the importance of information and communication as well as spare power supply capacity discussed. Municipalities and grid companies emphasise Internet as an important communication tool. For the users the phone was the most important tool used during black-outs. One problem was however to get in contact with the energy company because of the overload on the companies' switchboard. Both the municipalities and the energy companies meant that they had enough spare power supply capacity. Around one third of the households said they had a portable generator to use during long lasting power outages. In relation to World 2 most households said that 12-24 hours power outages was acceptable, then the problems start for the households and they try to inform themselves of how long the outage will last. But some households never felt the need to contact anyone and they expressed a trust to the grid companies' competence to deal with the problems causing the outage. All actors state that the municipalities have a social responsibility to their citizens and must ensure that they do not suffer during outages. The grid companies' responsibilities according to the actors are to prevent power outages, repair damages and give the customers economical compensations. The households' responsibility for emergency management was fuzzier for the actors. Both municipalities and grid companies expected the customers to have some preparedness. The household meant that they lacked any responsibility to be prepared for an outage even if they need to be prepared to survive during the power loss. When it comes to economical compensation the grid companies meant that the compensation should cover the extra costs that the households had during an outage. The household thought that the compensation paid should cover the suffering that the households experienced due to not having electricity. On top of that the households felt they should have compensation for their expenses. World 3 consist of regulation and social networks. The networks between municipalities and grid companies differ. Some municipalities totally lacked cooperation and coordination with the grid companies, while others had established personal contacts and deep relations. Through the networks the municipalities could influence how the companies prioritize when they repaired the grid. The municipalities with well developed networks also had more knowledge and were better informed than municipalities lacking contacts. The households where not represented in any networks. The municipalities and companies instead developed different tools to inform the households such as Internet. The household used their networks consisting of neighbours and friends to be informed during black-outs. Neighbours' knowledge of each other is an important aspect of the emergency management in the rural areas. Municipalities' involvement in networks also influence if the municipality had priority lists or not. Municipalities engaged in networks with the energy companies had made priority lists. Municipalities without such involvement lacked priority lists and thought that it was not possible to make prioritizations between users

  1. Tvorba aplikace pro zobrazování 3D objektů pro prostorové vidění

    OpenAIRE

    Kubiš, František

    2010-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá způsobem jak vytvořit stereoskopickou projekci a stereoskopický obraz na počítači, co jej ovlivňuje a jak jej dále vylepšit. Je zde popsáno několik běžně používaných zobrazovacích technologií a jsou zde teoreticky popsány knihovny využité při návrhu a implementaci práce. Poslední část se zabývá návrhem, implementací a testováním aplikace pro světla typu DigitalSpot od firmy ROBE lighting s.r.o.. This thesis is objected to problem, how to create a stereoscopic projectio...

  2. Human dimensions in energy consumption. Scientific research front from a national and international perspective; Maenskliga dimensioner vid energianvaendning. Vetenskaplig forskningsfront ur nationellt och internationellt perspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketola, Anna

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this report is to make an inventory of earlier studies of energy consumption in buildings where consideration has been taken to behaviour related and among all socio-cultural aspects. The literature study is focused on publications from 1980s and 1990s, and mainly concentrated to socio-cultural analyses. The report catches the national and international scientific discussion that have been conducted, and the debate of today within this field.

  3. Biological recipient control at the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. Annual report for 2011; Biologisk recipientkontroll vid Oskarshamns kaernkraftverk. Aarsrapport foer 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Jan; Franzen, Fredrik; Lingman, Anna

    2012-07-01

    Potential ecosystem effects caused by the effluent cooling water from the Simpevarp nuclear power plant, close to Oskarshamn on the Swedish coast of the Baltic Proper, are monitored in yearly surveys using gillnets and fyke nets. Fishing is undertaken at several sites in a coastal gradient starting at the location of the emitted cooling water, and in a reference area 100 km north of the recipient. Soft bottom macro fauna and macro vegetation are monitored both in the gradient and in the reference area. Fish mortality due to entrapment in the cooling water system and commercial landings are monitored to assess the effects on the local fishery. The water used for cooling is normally heated by 10-12 deg C when passing through the power plant. In sheltered parts of the recipient bay of Hamnefjaerden, the surface water was 4-6 deg C warmer in April-November 2011 than in the reference area comparable reference areas and the emitted water occasionally exceeded 30 deg C in the summer. Fish losses in the cooling water rinsing system were dominated by Baltic herring. Effects on abundances at the population level are estimated to be small, but local effects cannot be ruled out. Perch (Perca fluviatilis), roach (Rutilus rutilus) and silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna) dominated the catches in the surveys with gillnets in Hamnefjaerden, as well as in the archipelago surrounding the power plant. Perch abundances increased in these areas. Catches of roach decreased close to the power plant, but also in the reference area. Perch in the gillnet catches were younger and grew faster close to the power plant than in the reference area. Abnormal gonads, previously observed at high frequencies in perch and roach in Hamnefjaerden, were rare in the 2011 sampling. The abundance of young of the year perch in the recipient did not change over time. The size of the perch fry however, increased in Hamnefjaerden, as well as in the local reference area. The catch and size structure of yellow eel (Anguilla anguilla) did not change over time in the recipient since the 1980s. The prevalence of swim bladder parasites (Anguillicoloides sp.) has been 50-60% since the parasite was established in Hamnefjaerden in the late 1980's. Gillnet surveys are performed in the spring on the open coast at the power plant to study effects on Baltic herring and other marine species, normally appearing at low water temperatures. Problems due to an increasing population of grey seals forced a change in fishing methodology in 2011, and the pelagic nets were replaced with a series of demersal nets. The abundances of the long term dominants Baltic herring (Clupea harengus), sea scorpions (Myoxocephalus scorpius) and cod (Gadus morhua) have shown large periodic variations since the survey was established in the early 1970's. Cod alone has shown a long term decrease, probably reflecting the general situation in the Baltic Sea. Silver eel (Anguilla anguilla) catches decreased in the local fishery, but increased in the reference area until silver eel fishing stopped in this area in 2001. The long term development is however believed to reflect the general trends of eel in the Baltic region. Abundance and species richness in soft bottom macro fauna increased strongly in shallow sites between 1962-2011, in Simpevarp as well as in the reference area. The number of species increased also on deeper sites, but the total abundance did not change significantly. The abundance of the introduced polychaete Marenzelleria sp. increased rapidly in recent years and is now among the dominants in both areas. The trend is reflective of the general changes in the Baltic Sea. Vegetation on hard bottoms is monitored on three sites in the coastal gradient of cooling water. The algal communities are considered to have good ecological status and the studied sites are among the richest in the region. The Fucus vesiculosus cover decreased however, in recent years due to the wearing of ice. Fucus increased its distribution in deeper parts in two sites south of the power plant. The cover of filamentous green algae increased over the last decade and the cover of red algae in 5-6 m depth decreased in recent years.

  4. Optimization of lime addition in a dry air pollution control device; Optimerad rening av HCl och SO{sub 2} med minskade kalktillsatser vid torr roeasrening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikstroem-Blomqvist, Evalena; Samuelsson, Jessica; Ohlsson, Anna

    2006-12-15

    The focus of this project is to optimize the absorption of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulphuric acid (SO{sub 2}) in a dry air pollution control device system connected to a waste combustor. A significant amount of absorbent are generally added into the processes to achieve an efficient cleaning of the flue gas. Reduced absorbent consumption has double benefits on the operative expenses due to decreased purchase and landfilling costs. The objective was to study the affect of flue gas temperature and moisture, (relative humidity, RH), on the efficiency of HCl and SO{sub 2} absorption on hydrated lime. Additionally, the efficiency of a pre-treated hydrated lime with larger specific surface and pore volume was investigated. The measuring campaign was conducted on the 20 MW fluidized bed waste incinerator own by Boraas Energi och Miljoe AB in Sweden. Results from 26 experimental days with normal hydrated lime showed a positive correlation between the efficiency of the lime and RH in the flue gas. Four levels of RH between 3.28% to 4.84% were tested. The levels were adjusted by lowering the flue gas temperature and/or by adding water to the waste fuel. The smallest effect where achieved by solely adding water to the waste fuel. RH increased solely to 3.62% and the amount of lime consumption was reduced with only 5% compare to normal condition. By lowering the flue gas temperature 10 deg C to 143 deg C, RH increased to 4.06% and the amount of lime added was reduced with 13%. The largest impact was found when both the flue gas temperature and the moisture content were changed. At those process conditions RH reach 4.84 % and the usage of lime were reduced with 26%. Additional 12 experimental days were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of a pretreated hydrated lime with larger specific surface and pore volume. The results showed that the surface enlarged absorbent was almost twice as effective as the normal hydrated lime. Moreover, the results indicated an equal dependency of variation in RH (valid within temperature window between 145-165 deg C) for the surface enlarged absorbent as for the one identified for normal hydrate lime. Results that showed additional potential to reduce in the amount of surfaced enlarged absorbent needed by optimizing the processes further. The annual operative expenses of the studied waste combustor can be reduced by 700,000 SEK (100,000 USD) by increasing the RH to 4.5% and thus reduce the amount of added normal hydrate lime with 20%. Furthermore, the annual cost can be reduced with additionally 700,000 SEK by using an absorbent with higher specific surface and pore volume. Evaluation of an on-line FTIR-system measuring the levels of HCl and SO{sub 2} in the raw gas of the waste incinerator showed the 80% of the HCl was detected in the gas-phase and 20% were capture on the particles. Reverse results were obtained for SO{sub 2}. However, the levels of SO{sub 2} in the flue gas were rather low, which may have affected the results.

  5. Carbon and nitrogen pools in soil and vegetation at afforestation of a cutover peatland; Kol- och kvaevefoerraad i mark och vegetation vid beskogning av en avslutad torvtaekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Torbjoern; Lundin, Lars

    2006-02-15

    There are a number of land-use alternatives for cutover peat areas after finished peat cutting. One land-use alternative is afforestation. In this investigation it was studied how drainage, soil treatments including fertilization, and plantation affected the carbon storage 20 years later. The studied area is located on the mire Flakmossen in the county of Vaermland, SW Sweden. Peat was harvested on 34 hectare of this mire up to 1945. The major part of the cutover area was abandoned until 1982 when after-use activities started. The depth of the remaining peat varied between a few decimeters up to about two meters. Prior to any soil measures, determination of peatland conditions was carried out. Important to this investigation was, a priori, the carbon store, i.e. remaining peat thickness was crucial. Therefore, peat depth was thoroughly investigated on 14 hectares of the cutover area in summer 1983. The remaining peat was also sampled at different depths within 18 plots of the whole cutover peat area. These samples were analyzed on i.a. concentrations of carbon and nitrogen. As bulk density also was determined, the amounts of carbon and nitrogen in the remaining peat could be estimated. A very good correlation was found between peat depth and the carbon pool in the peat. After-use activities included two afforestation projects that in the beginning of the 1980's were set up on the abandoned peat cutover area. One project was a conventional pine plantation on 19 hectares, where the effects of different drain spacings and PK-fertilizer doses were studied. The other project was an intensively managed forest experiment carried out on 14 hectares. This area was first drained and then fertilized with on average 23 tonnes of wood fly ash, 0.4 tonnes of raw phosphate and 0.25 tonnes of superphosphate per hectares. The applied fertilizers and the uppermost 30-40 cm of the peat were then mixed by a tractor-drawn rotovator in one meter wide strips. In these strips, on the 97 established plots, six different tree species were planted. In autumn 2003, twenty years after the establishment of the intensively managed forest experiment, peat depth was measured in totally 49 plots on the two afforestation experimental areas. Peat was sampled from up to 6 depths on 30 plots and analyzed on bulk density, and concentrations of carbon and nitrogen. On 48 plots the tree biomass were estimated by measurement of breast height diameter on trees within ca 100 m2 sample plots. The carbon concentration in the tree biomass was assumed to be 50 % of dry weight, while nitrogen concentration was assumed to vary between 0.2 and 0.8 % of dry weight, depending on tree compartment and tree species. At the intense cultivation area, the peat depth was on average 8 cm smaller in autumn 2003 compared to the depth in summer 1983. If the humus layer with an accumulation of on average 4.6 cm during the 20 years until autumn 2003 would be included, the depth of organic material was only 3 cm smaller in 2003. The carbon pool in the peat had decreased by on average 2.4 kg C/m{sup 2}. With the humus layer included the decrease was only 0.5 kg C/m{sup 2}. The total tree biomass (above and under ground) contained on average 5.4 kg C/m{sup 2}. During the 20 years, since the establishment of the intense cultivation area, the total carbon pool (soil + biomass) had increased with, on average, 10 % or 4.9 kg C/m{sup 2}. However, the variation was large between the plots within this area. Some plots showed a negative carbon balance, but most plots showed a net accumulation of carbon during these 20 years. The values for the nitrogen pools in peat and biomass are more uncertain, but the total nitrogen pool (soil + biomass) might have increased somewhat 20 years after the plantation. This investigation shows that already 20 years after drainage and an extensive soil treatment including fertilization and rotovation, and planting on an abandoned peat cutover area, the carbon balance can be positive, i.e. a net accumulation of carbon was achieved within the area. Thus, afforestation of abandoned peat harvested areas can be one after-use activity to increase the carbon pool in these ecosystems in a long term perspective.

  6. Human Reliability Analysis. Applicability of the HRA-concept in maintenance shutdown; Analys av maensklig tillfoerlitlighet. HRA-begreppets tillaempbarhet vid revisionsavstaellning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obenius, Aino (MTO Psykologi AB, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-08-15

    Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) is performed for Swedish nuclear power plants in order to make predictions and improvements of system safety. The analysis of the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents contributed to broaden the approach to nuclear power plant safety. A system perspective focusing on the interaction between aspects of Man, Technology and Organization (MTO) emerged in addition to the development of Human Factors knowledge. To take the human influence on the technical system into consideration when performing PSAs, a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is performed. PSA is performed for different stages and plant operating states, and the current state of Swedish analyses is Low power and Shutdown (LPSD), also called Shutdown PSA (SPSA). The purpose of this master's thesis is to describe methods and basic models used when analysing human reliability for the LPSD state. The following questions are at issue: 1. How can the LPSD state be characterised and defined? 2. What is important to take into consideration when performing a LPSD HRA? 3. How can human behaviour be modelled for a LPSD risk analysis? 4. According to available empirical material, how are the questions above treated in performed analysis of human operation during LPSD? 5. How does the result of the questions above affect the way methods for analysis of LPSD could and/or should be developed? The procedure of this project has mainly consisted of literature studies of available theory for modelling of human behaviour and risk analysis of the LPSD state. This study regards analysis of planned outages when maintenance, fuel change, tests and inspections are performed. The outage period is characterised by planned maintenance activities performed in rotating 3-shifts, around the clock, as well as many of the persons performing work tasks on the plant being external contractors. The working conditions are characterised by stress due to heat, radiation and physically demanding or monotonous work tasks. Errors and mistakes during this plant operating state may have severe consequences, both on the immediate work, as well as on the future power production. The human influence on the technical system is of great importance when analysing the LPSD condition. This should also affect the basis and performance of the analysis, to make as a realistic analysis as possible. When analysing human operation during LPSD, a holistic perspective should be used. A way to take the human abilities and performance variability into consideration is important. The study of performed analysis of human reliability for the LPSD condition shows, that the normative and/or descriptive approach and the linear cause-effect model are used. The main objective of HRAs performed within SPSAs is the quantification of human interaction and error frequency. Modelling of human behaviour in complex, sociotechnical systems differs in theory and practice. A reason may be that models as the one for functional resonance, not yet are applicable for practising analysts, due to a lack of well tried methods and the fact that analysis of the LPSD condition is performed in the PSA concept, which defines the type of results sought from the HRA, i.e. probabilities for human error. LPSD analysis methods need to be further evaluated, validated and developed. The basis for the analysis should, instead of PSA, be a holistic analysis according to how Man, Technology and Organization affect the system and plant safety. To achieve this, further activities could be to perform an in-depth study of existing analysis of the LPSD condition, to develop specifications of requirement for LPSD analysis, to further validate the HRA work process as well as to further develop practically applicable methods for human performance and variability analysis in sociotechnical systems

  7. Viděno vlastníma očima. Nález neznámého konceptu autobiografie Pavla Janáka

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hnídková, Vendula

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2008), s. 237-242, 273 ISSN 0049-5123 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : Pavel Janák * Czech architecture of the 20th century * autobiography Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  8. Study of application of option B at integrated leakage tests on Swedish reactor containments; Utredning om tillaempning av option B vid integrala taethetsprover paa svenska reaktorinneslutningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Roger [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Reactor Technology

    2004-12-15

    The task of the reactor containment is to protect the environment from radioactive release from the nuclear power plant. The containment is a passive component and one can therefore not verify its success criteria during normal operation. To verify the integrity of the containment one has to perform integrated leakage tests (type A tests). These tests are performed in accordance with either option A or B in the American regulation Appendix J 10 CFR 50. The choice of option is up to the licensee. Option A does not consider the leakage history of the containment. The test interval is fixed and set to three tests equally distributed over ten years. The test pressure shall be at least half of the design basis accident pressure (DBA-pressure). Option B does take the leakage history into consideration and is therefore performance-based. The test interval can be chosen to a maximum of ten years. The test pressure shall be the DBA-pressure. In Sweden the type A tests are performed in accordance with option A. The purpose of this investigation is to investigate whether option B can be used in Sweden without any significant risk impact. Performance of a type A test with half of the design pressure can result in an undetected leak. If a leak is of such characteristic that it does not show any leakage behaviour until it is exposed to a certain level of pressure where it can open itself, the leak can be missed during a test with too low pressure. On the other hand, option B demands a higher test pressure which contributes to the risk during the performance of the type A test. The advantage of a more correct result from the type A test is considered to be greater than the disadvantage of a high test-pressure. Hence, Type A test shall be performed with the realistic DBA-pressure. The work has included a literature study, telephone interviews, local meetings and analyses of existing PSA results and reports in the subject. An investigation of the On-Line Monitoring (OLM) method is also performed. A modification of an existing PSA level 2 study of Ringhals 1 has also contributed with material of importance to this project. The investigation shows that OLM is a well known method internationally. Sweden has also used OLM equipment in test purpose. The method that is used in Sweden is called the SEXTEN model and is exactly the same model that is used in France. The method is surprisingly accurate and can detect leakage areas less than 5 mm{sup 2}. This is a method that is recommended for both option A and B. The Swedish containments have been found with several leakages the last couple of years. Half of these leakages has been found by visual inspections of the containments and does therefore not contribute with any argument against an implementation of option B in Sweden. The other half consists of damages that have occurred due to deviations in the construction. These types of damages can possible be used as an argument against the implementing of option B in Sweden. However, with the knowledge of the nature and location of these types of leakages it is likely that they can be detected by other methods than type-A tests. This means that there is not any strong argument against the implementation of option B. The PSA-studies resulted in a range of the maximum allowed equivalent leakage area for the containment of Ringhals 1. The maximum allowed equivalent leakage area, that would release more than 0.07 % of the cesium content from the core in case of a severe accident (limit in accordance with requirement by the Swedish government from 1986), is between 63 to 174 mm{sup 2}. The acceptance criteria for a type A test corresponds to an equivalent leakage area in the order of 2-3 mm{sup 2}. Therefore one can say that the marginal is great compared to the decision of the Swedish government 1986-02-27. The conclusion of this investigation is that there are positive arguments for the implementation of option B in Sweden, possibly together with tougher restrictions for the maximum allowed test interval and with better and more effective inspections during the time between the ordinary type A tests. The OLM method is recommended to be used in reactor containments without respect to the choice of a leakage testing option. The benefit of the OLM method is too great to not be used in the work of leakage detection.

  9. Employer branding. : - En fallstudie vid Sandvik AB om uppfattningar av begreppet employer branding och hur detta tillämpas idag och i framtiden.

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Employer branding är ett begrepp som är aktuellt bland företagen just nu och allt fler väljer att satsa på employer branding som marknadsföringsstrategi. Den här studien handlar om employer branding på Sandvik och begreppet employer branding.Syftet med denna fallstudie av en global koncern är att förklara och beskriva begreppet employerbranding, samt hur man arbetar med detta och vilka framtidsvisioner man har på Sandvik.Studien genomfördes med hjälp av kvalitativa intervjuer med ett antal ny...

  10. O tom, co vidíme v mlze. Fenomenologická esej o nepředstavitelnosti nelidského

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nitsche, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 7 (2014), s. 604-612 ISSN 0046-385X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22586S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : phenomenological topology * imagination * unrepresentability * non-human Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  11. Internprissättning och omkarakterisering : En studie av möjligheten att omkarakterisera gränsöverskridande transaktioner vid inkomstbeskattningen

    OpenAIRE

    Burmeister, Jari

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the compilation thesis has been to compare the ability to recharacterize cross-border transactions under the OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines, 2010 version (OECD Guidelines), and OECDs new guidance from the BEPS project 2015 (Final Report) with the possibility to reclassify legal transactions in accordance with Swedish domestic law. The latter is an interpretation of the Swedish Supreme Administrative Court’s (SAC) case law on the taxation of transactions based of their true im...

  12. Survey of development work and problems with different collection techniques of food waste; Kartlaeggning av utvecklingsarbete samt problem vid olika insamlingstekniker foer matavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksson, Gunilla

    2010-07-01

    In accordance with Sweden's environmental objectives it has been decided that, by 2010, 35 per cent of all food waste shall be recovered through biological treatment. In order to get there, the problems regarding collection methods needs to be solved. There are several different collection systems to choose between, but at the present time there is no complete list of the methods and techniques available on the market. Lists of advantages and disadvantages with each system, of potential improvements, and of completed or ongoing development projects are also missing, and creating difficulties for municipalities and businesses which are planning on introducing a system. The goal with this study is to provide a survey of technical problems with different systems and to identify previous studies as well as new innovations within collection techniques. The expectation is that this work eventually will lead to improved collection systems. The study will cover existing collection techniques in households, large-scale kitchens, restaurants and grocery stores in Sweden. The study will only cover the so called hard parameters, i.e. primarily technical issues. The target group is on the one hand municipalities planning on starting collection of food waste and on the other hand all actors in the area, such as innovators, producers and suppliers as well as Waste Refinery's organizations. Soft issues such as issues regarding information and quality are not included. The system limits of this project span between the recycling equipment of homes and businesses to the food waste's treatment at the biological treatment plant. The methods that have been used in this project are: questionnaire survey to 133 municipalities that today are recycling food waste, telephone interviews with a number of biological treatment plants and innovators in the business, and Internet searching for relevant reports and studies in the field. The results show that the paper bag and the bioplastic bag both have shortcomings. Many of the shortcomings are related to the supplier/producer. Other problems such as misplaced waste, problems with mould, fly-maggots/flies etc. can be solved with information. Problems as corrosion on the collection vehicles and metallic substance in the plant have also been observed. A common problem when it comes to stores is how to best treat packaged material. Today there are treatment plants that treat certain packaged food waste, but a solution for glass is still missing. An issue which is not directly linked to the producer or the supplier is the issue of standardization of sorting equipment in kitchens. Many kitchens have own sorting equipment under the sink where the bags rarely fit. This leads to the bags being used in the wrong way. An important project would therefore be to gather the waste industry and kitchen suppliers to try to come up with a solution to this. There are a lot of technical problems in the process as arise when the biogas plant will digest the food waste as not are a homogenous material. The plants inquire for more effective technology for pretreatment the food waste and this could be a new research working. All that somehow affects the quality of digestate and compost are of interest to Waste Refinery, since quality issues are and will continue to be main issues within biological treatment

  13. vid116_0501n -- Point coverage of sediment observations from video collected during 2005 R/V Tatoosh camera sled survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A custom built camera sled outfitted with video equipment (and other devices) was deployed from the NOAA research vessel Tatoosh during August 2005. Video data from...

  14. vid116_0501s -- Point coverage of sediment observations from video collected during 2005 R/V Tatoosh camera sled survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A custom built camera sled outfitted with video equipment (and other devices) was deployed from the NOAA research vessel Tatoosh during August 2005. Video data from...

  15. vid116_0501c -- Point coverage of sediment observations from video collected during 2005 R/V Tatoosh camera sled survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A custom built camera sled outfitted with video equipment (and other devices) was deployed from the NOAA research vessel Tatoosh during August 2005. Video data from...

  16. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - vid120_0602a - Point coverage of locations of video imagery depicting sediment types at various locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A custom built camera sled outfitted with video equipment (and other devices) was deployed from the NOAA research vessel Tatoosh during September 2006. Video data...

  17. vid116_0501d -- Point coverage of sediment observations from video collected during 2005 R/V Tatoosh camera sled survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A custom built camera sled outfitted with video equipment (and other devices) was deployed from the NOAA research vesselTatoosh during August 2005. Video data from...

  18. Radiation doses from the use of peat-fuel in heating power plants; Straaldoser vid anvaendning av torvbraensle i stora anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moere, Hans; Hubbard, Lynn Marie

    2003-02-01

    The radiation doses and the need for radiological protection arising from the use of peat-fuel that contain naturally occurring radionuclides and 137 Cs are assessed. Dose calculations for the worst case are performed for two reference ashes, one containing normal concentrations of radionuclides and the other containing high concentrations. The concentrations of radionuclides in the normally active ash reflect the median value of U and Th in energy producing peat bogs. The concentrations in the highly active ash were chosen in such a way that not more than 5 percent of the peat bogs would exceed the values. The doses have been estimated for workers and the general public for different exposure pathways. These are 1) harvesting and handling of peat, 2) releases from heating plants, 3) land filling, 4) landscaping and 5) handling of ashes. Under normal circumstances the resulting doses from the normally active ash are insignificant (<0.01 mSv/year). For the highly active ash the doses are below 0.1 mSv/year under the assumptions made in the investigation. For the general public the doses are also insignificant for the highly active ash except for the influence of a landfill. The dose estimates of the influence from leached water from a landfill are very uncertain due to that too few measurements of environmental samples have been carried out. At today's production of 3.5 TWh per year the peat-ash can amount to between 30,000 and 60,000 tons per year. Today the Swedish Geological Survey limits the dose from peat-use informally. They advise against the harvesting of peat with a uranium content exceeding 200 ppm in an ashed peat sample, which corresponds to 2,470 Bq/kg of 238 U. The resulting doses are estimated to be about half of those estimated for the highly active ash. Thus 10 percent of otherwise suitable peat land is not harvested.

  19. Produktutveckling miljöteknik : Framtagning av produkt som varnar vid förskämning av mjölk

    OpenAIRE

    Edström, Evelina; Hillström, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the thesis, industrial product design PPU304, is to develop a new product that will reduce food waste of dairy products in households. The main objective is that the product will be able to measure and signal when the milk has expired.The thesis is a start to find the solution to some of the food waste in households which is a major environmental issue in today's society. The goal is to develop a flexible expiration date that can reduce food wastage. With today's sensor technology ...

  20. Safety against releases in severe accidents. Annual report 1996. Project plan 1997; Saekerhet mot utslaepp vid reaktorhaverier. Aarsrapport 1996. Plans 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The work scope of the RAK-2 project is divided into three sub-projects: RAK-2.1 Severe Accident Phenomenology; RAK-2.2 Computerised Accident Management; RAK-2.3 Reactors In Nordic Surroundings. The work in subproject 1 progresses roughly according to budget and time schedule. Some adjustments in the technical work scope were made during 1996. Main tasks of RAK-2.1 in 1996: Complete recriticality studies for Nordic BWRs; Investigate phenomena related to late phase melt progression; Issue and NKS Final Technical Report on KTH experiments. Main tasks of RAK-2.2 in 1996: CAMS would be further developed with signal validation, tracking simulation, state identification and PSA and risk monitoring applications; Carry out a feasibility study for development of a PWR version of CAMS in collaboration with EdF, France; Use CAMS in the Halden Man-Machine laboratory to perform human factor studies. Main tasks of RAK-2.3 in 1996: Collect and report data from the British reactor types AGR, MAGNOX and PWR; Make a report on accidents in nuclear ships; Put the collected data together in a common data base covering neighbour reactors treated in SIK-3 and RAK-2.3; Update the data in the former SIK-3 report if needed. The work in project 2 progresses according to plans. The data collection of British reactors with in sub-project 3 has been delayed significantly due to difficulty of obtaining information from some of the British utilities, but the problems are expected to be solved by the end of 1997. (EG).

  1. Användande av diffusionsspärr vid tilläggsisolering av äldre byggnader med trästomme

    OpenAIRE

    Revekrans, Robin

    2014-01-01

    In the current situation a big part of the settlements that exist in Sweden is in need of renovation and energy efficiency in order to survive. Therefore, also many of the older houses with a wooden structure are in a need of energy efficiency, which can be done in a variety of ways, including adding insulation. This project deals with whether the use of a diffusion barrier or a vapor barrier affects a wall structure by adding insulation to an older house with a timber frame. The insulation m...

  2. Framework for detailed studies on the construction and operation of repositories for spent nuclear fuel; Ramprogram foer detaljundersoekningar vid uppfoerande och drift av slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    This report presents a programme for the detailed investigations planned to be applied during construction and operation of the repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. The report is part of SKB's application according to the Nuclear Activities Act. The detailed investigations shall provide relevant data on and site-descriptive models for the bedrock, soil deposits and eco-system of the site in order to facilitate a step-wise design and construction of the final repository. This shall be implemented in a manner that all demands on long-term safety are fulfilled, including accurate documentation of the construction work, and so that assessments of the environmental impact of the repository can be made. For the operational phase, the detailed investigations should also provide support to the deposition process with related decisions, thereby enabling fulfilment of the design premises for the siting and construction of deposition tunnels and deposition holes, as well as for deposition of canisters, and for the subsequent backfilling and closure of the repository. The Observational Method will be applied during the construction of the repository. This method entails establishing in advance acceptable limits of behaviour regarding selected geoscientific parameters and preparing a plan with measures to keep the outcome within these limits. Predictions of expected rock properties are established for each tunnel section. The outcome after excavation is compared with the acceptable range of outcomes. Information from detailed characterization will be of essential importance for application of the Observational Method and for adapting the repository to the prevailing rock properties. SKB has for the past several decades developed methods for site characterisation, applying both above- and underground investigation techniques. Experiences from this work, put into practice during the site investigations, has resulted in a solid knowledge and understanding of the bedrock conditions at Forsmark. The detailed investigations will employ, apart from established and earlier practiced methods, also further refined and newly developed techniques and methods for investigations and modelling. The report describes the present status for investigation and modelling methodology and techniques and also provides an overview of currently planned method developments. The report also presents a proposed scenario for how the detailed investigations, in light of presently available knowledge and techniques, should be conducted. Starting points for the investigation programme in this context are the reference design of the facility and remaining uncertainties associated with the site descriptive model and underground design. The scenario high-lights those investigations which, more or less as a matter of routine work, will be performed closely coordinated with the progression of the underground excavation work. The investigations related to the development of the deposition areas will primarily be linked to the sequences pilot drilling followed by excavation of deposition tunnels, and pilot drilling with subsequent full-face drilling of deposition holes. Continuous supervision of the fulfilment of design premises and documentation of the facility are in this context important issues. Information acquired during the construction process will also provide the substantial basis for the assessment of the long-term safety of the final repository. Further, it is emphasised in the report that supplementary investigations will be performed, if the information in any respect is regarded as insufficient. Such investigations may as well be performed from the ground surface. The final repository will in different ways have an impact on the surrounding environment. Monitoring of such changes is therefore an important and integral part of the detailed investigations. Until the construction work for the final repository is initiated, the detailed investigation programme will be modified and made more circumstantial, including results of planned developments . These updates will be accounted for in ensuing versions of the programme

  3. Why the potent greenhouse gas laughing gas is formed in agriculture and forestry; Varfoer den starka vaexthusgasen lustgas bildas vid odling i jord- och skogsbruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-12-15

    Natural activities such as agriculture and forestry, influence the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This is a survey of why nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is produced in soil and how much is leaving the soil in different plantations. Mostly small amounts but sometimes high emissions of nitrous oxide occur, which is produced by soil fungi and bacteria converting nitrogen compounds. Denitrification is the process most often producing the greatest amounts of nitrous oxide but nitrification having a need for oxygen can be decisive since this process produces the nitrate needed in denitrification. Nitrous oxide is formed at occasions with oxygen shortage which can arise inside soil clods with high biological activity consuming the oxygen, or if the oxygen diffusion into the soil is slow since it is soaking wet or the soil pores have been compacted by for example tractor driving. Some techniques for measuring nitrous oxide leaving the soil to the air are described. To escape the tough work of measuring simple estimation methods are desired, and there are a few developed, but no one is reliable. The atmospheric nitrous oxide increase can be connected to the increased fixation of the air dinitrogen gas (N{sub 2}) into reactive nitrogen which is possible to use for living cells. Most nitrogen is fixed biologically in leguminous plants or in the manufacturing of fertilisers. Reactive nitrogen is decisive for plant photosynthesis function, but in most natural ecosystems available nitrogen is scarce so photosynthesis and plant production often increase when nitrogen is added. An increased production of bioenergy crops will increase the demand of more reactive nitrogen in addition to the nitrogen used in existing food production. Most of the soil nitrogen is tied to dead and living organic material and will not be available until the organic material is decomposed and the nitrogen is liberated. The plant community and competition between organisms of the available nitrogen can determine the nitrous oxide emission. This is one explanation why forest soils often present lower emissions than agricultural land. Another explanation of the lower emission from forests is that in Sweden and the rest of the world the most fertile soils are cultivated, while remaining forests in stony and less fertile areas suffer from nitrogen deficits. As long as the forest is growing, absorbing the nitrogen, the risk for nitrous oxide emission is low, but after clear cutting the risk increases. But there are forests where the nitrous oxide emission is high most of the time, such as fertile soils like drained fens with, typically, birch, raspberry and nettles. Biomass for energy use is sometimes specified as carbon dioxide neutral, since equal amounts of carbon dioxide is taken up by the photosynthesis as is released in the combustion or decomposition. But harvesting and manufacturing needs energy, often fossil, which adds carbon dioxide. Moreover, the cropping results in emission of nitrous oxide, which is a strong greenhouse gas with a long lifetime in the atmosphere. In the debate it has been claimed that, for climate reasons, the emission of nitrous oxide makes the exchange of oil for bioenergy meaningless. It can be concluded that biofuels almost always have a 'cost' of nitrous oxide and there is no climate neutral biofuel, but there are better and worse. In agriculture and forestry alike, the nitrous oxide production is influenced by management both in the short and the long run. As an example, addition of large amounts of nitrogen-fertilisers or manure increases the N{sub 2}O-emission when the available nitrogen exceeds the crop uptake capacity. But there are cropping systems as well where a low nitrous oxide emission has been measured in spite of an expected high emission. To get a minimum of nitrous oxide there is need for a tight connection between nitrogen liberation and plant uptake where minimal amounts are left to nitrification and denitrification. A naked soil, fallow, causes more nitrous oxide than having a crop on the land, and the more fertile the soil the higher the risk for the production of nitrous oxide. It is a challenge for both science and agricultural industry to develop agricultural methods that effectively catch the nitrogen in soil organic matter while enabling plants to yield a good harvest and yet minimize nitrous oxide production. Relating nitrous oxide to production of biomass this implies that forest products too, carry a 'cost' of nitrous oxide in spite of a low soil emission since the growth is smaller than in agriculture. Every change in agriculture and forestry production performed can have effects on the size of nitrous oxide emission, at the spot or in the surroundings or even in other countries. System analyses are needed to study the effects obtained. The EU commission has stated sustainability criterions that must be met if the biofuel is to be included in the class of renewable energy.

  4. Abatement Technologies for Volatile Organic Compounds in Emissions from Biofuel Driers; Reningsteknik foer organiska aemnen i utslaepp till luft vid biobraensletorkning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Karin; Ehrstedt, Thomas [Sycon Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    This report is a part of a program at Vaermeforsk called Drying of Biofuels and deals with abatement technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOC) in biofuel drier emissions. The report gives an account of the amount of organic matter in wood and in drying gases and also of different abatement technologies for VOC. Processes from about 20 contractors are briefly described. The conclusions from this work are that thermal or catalytic oxidizing technologies in connection with regenerative heat recovery seems to be the most suitable technique for this application. Both technologies should give a degree of purification above 95 %. The purification cost for a typical case has been estimated to about 22 SEK per kg removed organic matter in both cases. The investment cost is higher for the catalytic oxidizer (6-20 MSEK for a 60.000 Nm{sup 3} /h catalytic plant compared to 4-6,5 MSEK for a thermal plant) but the fuel cost is lower. Condensation is a usable technique but it suffers from bad degree of purification. By using a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) the degree of purification can be enhanced but it will still be lower than for the oxidizers. Adsorption and absorption are not suitable for gases at high temperatures containing several different organic compounds at low concentrations, which is the case in biofuel drying. This means high purification costs and low degree of purification. Other technologies that have been found less suitable are biological purification and membrane technology. World-wide there are a few reference plants based on thermal oxidizing in connection with biofuel drying. Otherwise the experiences are very limited. According to this, tests in pilot plant scale are recommended before investment in a full-scale plant for biofuel driers.

  5. vid119_0601b-- Point coverage of sediment types from video collected on AR-06/07 McArthurII research cruise.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Canadian ROPOS remotely operated vehicle (ROV) outfitted with video equipment (and other devices) was deployed from the NOAA Ship McAurthurII during May-June...

  6. vid113_0401q -- Point coverage of sediment types from video collected on AR-04-04 McArthurII research cruise.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Phantom DH2+2 remotely operated vehicle (ROV) outfitted with video equipment (and other devices) was deployed from the NOAA Ship McAurthurII (AR04-04) in an...

  7. Mechanical pre-treatment for enzymatically enhanced energy efficient TMP; Mekanisk foerbehandling av flis foer effektiv enzymatisk paaverkan vid energieffektiv TMP tillverkning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viforr, Silvia

    2008-11-15

    Thermomechanical pulp (TMP) processes are high energy demanding. This together with the high energy prices of nowadays results in significant costs, why less energy demanding processes are wished. This project has evaluated the potential for energy reductions in a TMP process by a mechanical pre-treatment of the wood chips combined with an enzymatic modification based on a cellulase mixture. The structure of the wood was opened up by the mechanical pre-treatment making it easier for the enzymes to penetrate into the pre-treated wood material. The enzymatic treatment was then run at optimum standard conditions. The EU project - Ecotarget 2004-2008 (www.ecotarget.com) have studied different types of enzymes that could be used for pre-treatment of wood chips in order to save energy during TMP processes. Based on these studies cellulose enzyme was recommended to be used at pre-treatment experiment performed by the Vaermeforsk project. Due to the fact that the Ecotarget-project has also been run during 2008 with activities involving enzymes, the steering board of the Vaermeforsk project took the decision to co-ordinate the experiments from both of the projects. This co-operation increased the funds and also the number of experiments for both of the projects. The experimental results from this project showed that energy reductions at a given tensile index could be achieved if gently mechanical pre-treated wood chips were enzymatically treated. An intensive mechanical pre-treatment gave negative effects on both fibre length and tear index while the light scattering coefficient was promoted, probably due to the fibre shortening. Enzymatic modification of mechanically pre-treated chips showed a favourable modification of the fibres, even regarding the fibre shortening, if compared to mechanical pre-treated chips only. The effects of cellulases was however not as expected, why a high amount of cellulases was used. Other types of enzymes which could attack the primary wall of the wood cell should be tested in mechanical pre-treatment of wood chips for energy savings in TMP processes. Such enzymes could be xylanases, pectinases or proteases. New equipments that could pre-treat wood chips more gently may also be desired

  8. Measurement of particles at wood combustion - comparison of measurements in chimney and dilution tunnel; Partikelmaetning vid vedeldning - Jaemfoerelse mellan provtagning i skorsten och spaedtunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryde, Daniel; Johansson, Linda

    2007-07-01

    According to the European standard EN 303-5, particle emissions are measured during testing of wood fired boilers. However, it is possible to measure these emissions using any established method. This may contribute to uncertainties when comparing data from boilers measured with different methods. In this project, particle emission measurements in hot gases in chimney (Swedish method) and in a dilution tunnel (Norwegian method) are compared.The value of the ratio between particulate emissions (PM) measured in the dilution tunnel and PM measured in the chimney varied between 2 and 10, while the specific CO emission was 4 - 140 g/kg dry wood supplied. The more unfavourable combustion conditions, the larger difference between the measurement methods was seen. Furthermore, different measurements at the same case were more scattered at poor combustion conditions. Consequently, it is very important to consider if particle emission data have been measured in the chimney or in a dilution tunnel when using emission data from domestic wood combustion

  9. Effect of raw material particle-size distribution on combustion characteristics of stem wood pellets; Paaverkan av partikelfraktionsfoerdelningen paa utbraenningshastigheten hos traepellets vid nyttjande av olika soenderdelningsmetoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Israelsson, Samuel; Henriksson, Gunnar; Boman, Christoffer; Oehman, Marcus

    2007-01-15

    The objective of the project was to determine the effect of raw material particle-size distribution on combustion characteristics of stem wood pellets. Several well defined pellet qualities were produced from raw materials (stem wood of pine and spruce) which had both different particle-size distributions and were produced with different milling equipments (hammer mill/refiner). The pellets were produced in a traditional (bench-scale) pellet mill and in a laboratory pellet mill/press. The combustion characteristics of the individual pellets were determined in a laboratory scale oven. Char yield, -shrinkage, -density and the micro pore volume of the produced char were also determined. Differences in total conversion times of approximately 5 % at experimental condition relevant for typical pellets equipment were determined for the different pellet qualities. The underlying reasons for the obtained differences in the combustion characteristics between the different pellet qualities are discussed in the report

  10. Influence of sulphur addition on emissions of organic substances during combustion; Inverkan av formen av svaveladditiv paa emissionerna av kolmonoxid och organiska aemnen vid foerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik; Jonsson, Claes; Almark, Matts; Berg, Magnus; Streibel, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2008-02-15

    Reduction of emissions of carbon monoxide and organic substances by injecting either ammonium sulphate or elemental sulphur and the importance of the point of injection has been investigated in full scale in a grate-fired bark boiler. The effect was monitored downstream of the economizer and air preheater, immediately upstream of the electrostatic precipitator. Concentrations determined in the comprehensive monitoring program include principally carbon monoxide, TOC and several organic substances, including PAH, PCDD/F and polychlorinated benzenes (PCBz). Additionally, the gaseous PAH were determined on-line using a novel mass spectrometer, REMPI-TOF MS, that measures specifically the 2- to 4-ring PAH's. All concentrations of substances of interest here fluctuate in concert and peak simultaneously. The relationship between the concentrations is not straightforward: there appears to be a threshold in carbon monoxide concentration. Below this threshold, the concentration of organics is low and above it concentrations increase rapidly with increasing carbon monoxide concentration. It has been confirmed that using sulphur additives not only reduces the concentration of carbon monoxide, but also that of organic substances in the flue gases. These additives do not only reduce the mean level of concentrations, but also dampen the fluctuations in these concentrations. Any measure leading to a reduction in carbon monoxide will also decrease the concentration of most organics, under the conditions prevalent in this boiler. Both additives tested are equally effective per kg of pure sulphur. The point of injection, in the fuel or above the grate, is not important. The PCDD/F concentration in the flue gases is very low even without additives, and the effect of sulphur on these emissions is therefore difficult to observe. Here, the effect is masked by the variation of data. The PAH concentration is lowered by an injection of sulphur additives. The variation in data is though rather large, which may be caused by variation in particle content in the gas samples

  11. vid119_0601a-- Point coverage of sediment types from video collected on AR-06/07 McArthurII research cruise.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Canadian ROPOS remotely operated vehicle (ROV) outfitted with video equipment (and other devices) was deployed fromthe NOAA Ship McAurthurII during May-June 2006...

  12. Biological recipient control at the Ringhals nuclear power plant. Annual report for 2011; Biologisk recipientkontroll vid Ringhals kaernkraftverk. Aarsrapport foer 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Maria; Gustavsson, Frida; Fagerholm, Bjoern

    2012-07-01

    The cooling system of the Ringhals nuclear power plant affects the fish community in two steps. In the first step, seawater is used to cool the system in the nuclear power plant. Fish eggs, larvae and small juveniles are carried by the incoming water and are exposed to risk of damage or mortality. In the second step the heated water is released back into the sea, where the fish is affected by the increase in temperature. Reactor 1 and reactor 3 at Ringhals nuclear power plant produced electricity during the major part of the year 2011, with exceptions for the annual audits, and shorter stops in production. Reactor 2 only operated between January and April, due to a fire which led to a shutdown and a thorough remediation work during the rest of the year. Reactor 4 was producing electricity from January to June, but was later shutdown due to a prolonged annual audit until November. Fish eggs and fish larvae are sampled in the incoming cooling water using a modified Bongo net to monitor losses of eggs and larvae in the nuclear power plant. The abundance of shorthorn sculpin larvae (Myoxocephalus scorpius) has decreased since the sampling period started, although it is still the most abundant larvae. Also the abundance of rock gunnel larvae (Pholis gunnellus) has decreased over the years. To sample juvenile fish a modified Isaacs-Kidd midwater-trawl is used. This sampling is mainly focused on glass eels (Anguilla anguilla). The abundance of glass eels have declined strongly since the beginning of the 1980's, but a minor increase was observed in 2011. The decline of the glass eel abundance is most probably due to a general decrease in recruitment and not to a local effect caused by the nuclear power plant. The effects of the heated water released into the sea are monitored by fykenet surveys in the recipient as well as in a reference area. These two areas are monitored in two seasons to compare differences between the two areas in naturally cold and warm water of the two seasons. There was a different development in the diversity of fish between the two areas in the cold season, where the recipient showed a decreasing trend in diversity and the reference area was stable with no trend. This is possibly an effect of the warm water emissions. Species which prefer warm water have been observed to concentrate in the recipient area. Eel and shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) are good examples, showing either stable or increasing catches in the area. Species which prefer cold water, as cod (Gadus morhua), shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) and eelpout (Zoarches viviparous) were less abundant in the recipient. No new findings for Swedish water of marine alien species were made in a scuba diving survey in four shallow areas near the outlet of cooling water from Ringhals (Ringhals udde, Baatafjorden, Norra Horta and Vendelsoe). Four species already established on the Swedish west coast were found however, the japanese oyster (Crassostrea gigas), two species of red algae Dasya baillouviana, Bonnemaisonia hamifera and one brown algae, the japanese wireweed (Sargassum muticum)

  13. Study of the productivity evolution in the operation of CLAB[CLAB=Central Storage Facility for Spent Fuel]; Undersoekning av produktivitetsutveckling vid driften av CLAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, H. [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-07-01

    SKB shall every year, on behalf of the power companies, send SKI a cost calculation for spent fuel handling and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. SKI has tried to investigate the future impact which the growth of money in the Nuclear Waste Fund might give in relation to the change of consumer price index, CPI. The long term yield of the Fund has been related to the change of CPI, as the bigger part of the fund money has been invested in real interest rate bonds. The cost development has been studied by SKI with an index named 'KBS-3-index', which is a basket of weighted factor price indexes made out of the SKB programme. Since 1986 and up to 1998, the KBS-3-index has increased about 14% more than CPI. If this discrepancy should continue during the whole period when Fund money should be available, the Fund would be insufficient. But the difference between KBS-3-index and CPI might be eliminated due to a future productivity development. At the moment, SKI has no knowledge about future productivity development in the SKB programme. A closer analysis of the facilities operated by SKB is therefore important. Nearest to study is the productivity at the operation of CLAB, Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel. The work in CLAB is receiving and storing of spent nuclear fuel and core components and reloading from normal to compact cassettes. The consumption of all production factors can be measured in money. Here the total production factors are defined as the sum of the annual operation costs and the sum of annuities for reinvestments during the year. The development for total productivity is slightly increasing. Normal for a new business is that the productivity rises sharply in the beginning. Here the productivity is slightly decreasing in the beginning, and then rising, sinking and at last a sharp rising. Project compact storing was finished in 1992, and relocation to compact cassettes started in 1993. This is said to be the reason for the large decrease in total productivity at that time. The bad productivity in 1997 is said to depend on failure of the gearbox in the cassette handling machine. Productivity increases with increased production, is the general experience from industry. The high productivity in 1998 coincides with a big production the same year. For the period 1993 - 1999 the work productivity is equal with that of industry. In the later years the upward trend is rather clear. The reason for the increased productivity in the end is better technology and bigger production. CLAB is lacking competition. However, the free power market has depressed the power prices. From that it can be expected that CLAB is experiencing a pressure to get costs down and continue to increase the productivity. Suitable measures are operation follow up, competition for parts of the works and benchmarking. The operation of the encapsulation plant and the deep repository and the decommissioning service operation could be compared with the operation of CLAB.

  14. Vidění nás klame: Problematika pravdy a reality v současné dokumentární tvorbě

    OpenAIRE

    Radostová, Kristýna

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines the issue of depicting reality and truth in contemporary documentary. Documentaries are often considered to be a mirror to the real world, but this is not always the case. Filmmakers can manipulate their work in a manner that changes the story to be more interesting for viewers. This thesis introduces a documentary discourse, provides contexts of documentary history in the 20th Century and looks more closely at issues of depicting reality and truth. This is shown through ...

  15. Uncertainties in estimating the {sup 90}Sr and actinides inventory in SFR 1; Osaekerheter vid uppskattning av Sr-90 och aktinidinventariet i SFR 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemansson, Tor [ALARA Engineering AB, Skultuna (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The uncertainty in estimation of the activity accumulated in different cleaning filters, originating in the Swedish BWR-, PWR-reactors and CLAB - the Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel - has been analyzed to be 10 - 14%, depending on the methods used for measuring the activity at the power plants. Other waste or scrap contribute with approx. 1.5% of the total amount of actinides and {sup 90}Sr. The uncertainty in this fraction is about 20%. The uncertainties are surprisingly small, and explain the good agreement between estimates made with different methods.

  16. Long term effects on wet stored calcium rich fly ash with bearing on ground improvement work; Laangtidspaaverkan av kalkrika flygaskor vid vaatlagring foer anvaendning inom markstabilisering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerlund, Johan; Jansing, Christiane

    2012-02-15

    Generation of electricity and heat by means of thermal power demands a product that can be ignited. This combustible material is usually coal, oil, gas, biomass and waste. If using solid fuels as coal, biomass and waste a by product known as ash is formed in the process; FA, (FA) and bottom ash. Roughly 600 Mt ashes are annually produced throughout the world and 70 weight % of these ashes are FA, 25 weight % bottom ashes and 5 weight % slag. 41 weight % of all ashes are annually reused in some form. Given the environmental impact of combustion i.e. CO{sub 2} emissions, a widened use of biomass fuels and co-combustion is expected in the near future. This will however create new problems when reusing ashes and FA in particular. The reuse of FA within the concrete industry stand for a total of about 25 % but the reuse of non-coal derived FA in the concrete industry is prohibited. Non-coal derived FA usually has higher amounts of calcium oxide, which acts expansively in concrete. Less than 20 % of biomass or co-combustion FA are reused today in Europe. A new standard, the EN 450, is however under construction. This standard will deal with the reuse of noncoal derived FA within the cement and concrete industry. In Sweden, coal is very seldom used as a fuel. More common is the use of biomass, peat and waste. It means that the FA are all non-coal derived and thus derived from reuse within the cement and concrete industry. Beside their non-coal origin, the main part of the FA is produced during November- March. This means that it might be hard to find available FA all year around, making the reuse of FA less attractive. Hence, FA must be stored prior to use. Little research have been made on the storage of calcium rich FA from biomass and co-combustion. Storing FA in a cheap way requires an addition of water to prevent from dusting when stockpiled outdoors. Addition of water in calcium rich FA will however cause an hardening of the material, thus causing detrimental effects within the FA

  17. Altered functional brain connectivity in patients with visually induced dizziness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelique Van Ombergen

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: We found alterations in the visual and vestibular cortical network in VID patients that could underlie the typical VID symptoms such as a worsening of their vestibular symptoms when being exposed to challenging visual stimuli. These preliminary findings provide the first insights into the underlying functional brain connectivity in VID patients. Future studies should extend these findings by employing larger sample sizes, by investigating specific task-based paradigms in these patients and by exploring the implications for treatment.

  18. "Gelijkheid verwekt geen oorlog; er gaan veel makke schapen in één hok."

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. (Menno) Popijus

    2017-01-01

    Voor het University Support Centre (USC) is onderzoek verricht naar de blauwdruk voor het service concept voor de dienst kantoorruimte, die zowel toepasbaar moet zijn op alle gebouwen op de campus, als gebouw-specifiek moet kunnen worden toegepast. Door de blauwdruk is het mogelijk de

  19. Het beperkte recht : een analyse van zijn theoretische constructie, zijn plaats in het systeem van het vermogensrecht en zijn mogelijke inhoud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollema, Anne Fleur

    2013-01-01

    Het beperkte recht moet niet worden voorgesteld als een afsplitsing van een deel van de eigendom. Het beperkte recht moet veeleer als een last worden beschouwd die de eigenaar op de eigendom legt en voor de beperkte gerechtigde een nieuw, eigensoortig recht schept dat daarvoor nog niet bestond. Deze

  20. Restorative dentistry done digitally : Implementation and evaluation of some digital tools in contemporary implant dentistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepke, Ulf

    2018-01-01

    De restauratieve tandarts staat voor een dilemma. Hij/zij moet op de hoogte zijn van de nieuwste ontwikkelingen om moderne zorg te kunnen bieden, maar moet ook kunnen herkennen welke van de vele innovaties overbodig zijn. In dit proefschrift staat de rol van digitale productie en behandelingen

  1. Kontekstualisering as hermeneutiese vraagstuk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alles moet benut en desnoods uitgebuit word. Die absolute mens staan as dominant teenoor die aarde en die menswêreld. Weten- skaplikes wat bang begin word dat ons nou die aarde gaan 'opgebruik', stel al hoe meer 'n nuwe paradigma voor vir aardbenutting. Die mensbewussyn moet dan nie teenoor alles staan nie, ...

  2. Land van skedels. Nicola Hanekom. Pretoria: Protea Boekhuis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tema is, soos te verwagte in 'n stuk wat werk met historiese materiaal, die tema van onthou. Reeds in die “skrywersnota” stel Nicola Hanekom dat “[o]ns moet altyd onthou om te onthou. Ons vergeet dit soms. Ons moet die dier binne ons in toom hou en probeer luister na die engele in die chaos”. Die gevaar van vergeet is.

  3. Erratum: Report on the summit on the future ofacademic medicine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prescribed forms should be completed. 8. The ethical rules should be complied with at all times. 7. Die voorgeskrewe vorms moet voltooi word. 8. Die etiese reels moet te alle tye nagekom word. Erratum: Report on the summit on the future ofacademic medicine in SA. Please npte that this repon, which was published on ...

  4. Lean Six Sigma blijkt het ideale middel om betere zorg te krijgen tegen lagere kosten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, A.; Does, R.

    2008-01-01

    Er moet bezuinigd worden. De zorgsector weet er alles van. Steeds vaker wordt er voor een bepaalde behandeling door de mensen die de touwtjes van de zorgbeurs in handen hebben, een vaste som neergeteld voor een bepaalde behandeling. ‘Alstublieft. En daar moet u het dan maar voor doen’. Het houdt in

  5. PHEIFFER SE TAALPOLITIEK JC Steyn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sigself maak tog nie Chomsky se teorie oor n aangebore taalaanleg en die konsekwensie daarvan nl. dat elke taal opgebou moet wees volgens dieselfde grondprinsipes, ongeldig nie? Taalpolitieke oortuigingskrag het hierdie argument nog minder. Sal jy in alle erns vir mense kan se: "Ons moet aanhou om die taal te praat ...

  6. Genetic gain in dairy cattle populations is increased using sexed semen in commercial herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten Kargo; Andersen, Jakob Voergaard; Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl

    2011-01-01

    Using stochastic simulation, the effect of using sexed semen to cow dams (CD) in a dairy cattle breeding scheme, with or without use of multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) to bull dams (BD), on annual genetic gain at the population level was examined. Three levels of sexed semen were...... combined with three levels of MOET: no sexed semen, sexed semen to the best CD and sexed semen to all heifers, combined with no MOET, MOET on all BD and MOET randomly on 20% of the BD. In total, nine scenarios were compared. The simulated population was monitored for 30 years and included 450 herds...... with 100 cows each. Each year 50 young bulls (YB), 10 active sires and 215 BD were selected on best linear unbiased prediction estimated breeding values by truncation selection across the simulated population, and the YB were tested within the population. Use of sexed semen alone gave a positive increase...

  7. Stratégies vidéo-ludiques d’habitation par un pygmée d’un monde démesuré : Congo Inc. Le testament de Bismarck d’In Koli Jean Bofane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoé Courtois

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Congo Inc., In Koli Jean Bofane’s novel, the video game theme contributes to a hybrid diegetic process that switches between the story of IRL and in game adventures of Isookanga, a young pygmy. The novel plays – in the mechanical meaning of the word – between these two sides of diegesis, which enables us to consider the tension between reality and video game : if reality is uninhabitable for the pygmy, and made disproportionate by a certain “globalisation”, the transition to data superimposes upon it the reign of information, which shapes, at last, an inhabitable imago mundi allowing, in addition, an action on reality. What is more, from a linguistic point of view, the video game produces what we could call a language of globalisation, that is to say a language spoken at the global scale regardless of socio-cultural and linguistic belongings. The gamers’ language, in this French speaking novel, is thus under the double influence of its playing field (the world and of the game itself which is conditioned by its coding, speed and performativity requirements. Henceforth, it is precisely in these diegetic and linguistic spaces under tension, and through the video game that a poetic way of inhabitablebiting the world rebuilds itself, together with a new measure of the world.

  8. Simulering av energieffektiviserande åtgärder för små- och flerbostadshus : Möjligheter för JM:s hustyper att uppnå passivhuskonceptet vid nybyggnation

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsson, Niklas

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate how energy efficiently some of JM’s residential buildings can become in standard production. What kind of measures are needed to achieve the level of energy demand that is included in BBR12 (Boverkets Byggregler)? What measures are needed for achieving a lower demand so that the buildings could be classified as passive houses? The investigation has included a single family house and two different types of apartment blocks. The simulation programs En...

  9. Pre-study of dynamic loads on the internals caused by a large pipe break in a BWR; Foerstudie av stroemningsinducerade laster paa interndelar vid brott i huvudcirkulationskretsarna i BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcinkiewicz, Jerzy; Lindgren, Anders [Det Norske Veritas Nuclear Technology AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    Det Norske Veritas Nuclear Technology has performed a literature study of dynamic load on a BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) internals caused by a large pipe break. The goal of the study was to improve the knowledge about the physics of phenomena occurring in the RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel) after pipe break in the main circulation system and also to make a review of calculation methods, models and computer programs including their capabilities when calculating the dynamic loads. The report presents description of relevant parts of a BWR, initial and boundary conditions, and phenomena determining the loads - rapid depressurization and propagation of pressure wave (including none-equilibrium). Furthermore, the report generally describes possible methodologies for calculating the dynamic loads on internals after the pipe break and the experiences from calculations the dynamic loads with different methods (computer programs) including comparisons with experimental data. Fluid-Structure Interaction methodology and its importance for calculation of dynamic loads on reactor internals is discussed based on experimental data. A very intensive research program for studying and calculating the dynamic loads on internals after pipe breaks has been performed in USA and Germany during the seventies and the eighties. Several computer programs have been developed and a number of large-scale experiments have been performed to calibrate the calculation methods. In spite of the fact that all experiments were performed for PWR several experiences should be valid also for BWR. These experiences, connected mainly to capabilities of computer programs calculating dynamic loads, are discussed in the report.

  10. Adaption of the radiation dose for computed tomography of the body - back-ground for the dose adaption programme OmnimAs; Straaldosreglering vid kroppsdatortomografi - bakgrund till dosregleringsprogrammet OmnimAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, Ulf; Kristiansson, Mattias [Trelleborg Hospital (Sweden); Leitz, Wolfram [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden); Paahlstorp, Per-Aake [Siemens Medical Solutions, Solna (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    When performing computed tomography examinations the exposure factors are hardly ever adapted to the patient's size. One reason for that might be the lack of simple methods. In this report the computer programme OmnimAs is described which is calculating how the exposure factors should be varied together with the patient's perimeter (which easily can be measured with a measuring tape). The first approximation is to calculate the exposure values giving the same noise levels in the image irrespective the patient's size. A clinical evaluation has shown that this relationship has to be modified. One chapter is describing the physical background behind the programme. Results calculated with OmnimAs are in good agreement with a number of published studies. Clinical experiences are showing the usability of OmnimAs. Finally the correlation between several parameters and image quality/dose is discussed and how this correlation can be made use of for optimising CT-examinations.

  11. De la parole aux vidéos: oralité, écriture et oralité médiatique dans la production culturelle amazigh (berbère)

    OpenAIRE

    D. Merolla

    2005-01-01

    This article presents new directions in Tamazight/Berber artistic productions.The development of theatre, films and videos in Tamazight are set in the framework of the historical and literary background in the Maghreb and in the lands of Amazigh Diaspora.It also includes the interview with the video-maker and director Agouram Salout.

  12. Dig protection and deep installation as risk reducing measures when laying 10 bar PE piping; Graevskydd ock djupfoerlaeggning som riskreducerande aatgaerder vid foerlaeggning av 10 bars PE-roersystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Linda [SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Boraas (Sweden)

    2011-07-15

    The development of polyethylene pipes enables gas distribution with a pressure up to 10 bars. According to current Swedish legislation, the safety distance is the same for gas conduit with 10 bars as for pipe conduits made of steel with a pressure of 80 bars. To be able to reduce the safety distance, actions must be taken to ensure the safety in general, and for the excavator operators in particular, who are usually closest to the conduits when an accident may happen. Excavator operators react on visual impression or a feeling that something deviates from the normal or the expected conditions. The visual impression could be mixed soils or filling materials used around the pipes indicating that excavation activities have occurred before. Marker tape laid in the right manner seems to warn some excavator operators, but far from all. The incident frequency varies considerably between different excavator operators. The excavator operators often blame the network map or incorrect marking. Network owners deny this reason. Excavating incidents mostly occurs across the conduits and most often with smaller excavators than 17 tonnes. During 2010, three excavation related incidents involving natural gas pipelines and 26 involving town gas, were reported to Energigas Sverige. During 2009, the corresponding figures were instead seven incidents with natural gas and 17 with town gas and during 2008 there were six incidences related to natural gas pipelines and only two involved town gas. None of the reported incidents during the three years have led to either injury or death. Heavy concrete plates were used earlier which demanded machines and took much longer to install, but the new polyethylene plates can be installed by hand. Tests performed together with Gas de France and others showed that, if an excavator hits a concrete plate, it is not certain that the digging is stopped. The investigations showed that the digging was stopped immediately when protective polyethylene plates were used. The tests also showed that the new plates could resist digging forces at least as good as the concrete ones. This is most likely due the ductility of polyethylene and the brittleness of concrete. Since the polyethylene plates only have been in use for four years, it is still too early to tell whether they will affect the incident statistics or not.

  13. Evaluation of a new vine trellis system called Ramé / Evaluación de un nuevo sistema de conducción de la Vid denominado Ramé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Bergas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available You should leave 10 mm of space above the abstract and 15 mm after the abstract. The heading Abstract should be typed in bold 9-point Arial. The body of the abstract should be typed in normal 9-point Times in a single paragraph, immediately following the heading. The text should be set to 1.15 line spacing. The abstract should be centred across the page, indented 15 mm from the left and right page margins and justified. It should not normally exceed 200 words. Under this problematic context, several growers in our area proposed alternatives to conduction systems. An innovation was the system of divided canopy “Ramé”, developed by the local viticulture Luis Alberto Ramero. This system was attempted to combine high yield with high quality grape, machanize harvest and good cinditions of canopy microclimate. It's a system of vertical shoot position, with its canopy divided into two planes. These systems are characterized, in our region, by a low foliar surface exposed per hectare, a relatively low productivity (in the case of the VSP or difficulty to mechanize the harvest (in the case of the Parral. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ecophysiology of Rame system, determining if it behaves differently when it is planted with one or two plants by post (Rame single and double. Also the two modalities of Rame were compared with the trellis in VSP. Since this latter system is not included in the statistical, but planted design on the side of the test, the comparison kept a descriptive character. For the Rame we established an experimental trial with statistical design, with two treatments in trellis-training system. A treatment consisted in planting one vine per post, called simple Rame (RS and two vines per post, called double Rame (RD, leaving in this way different number of plants per unit area (1600 plantas / has and 3200 plantas / has respectively. Nevertheless, regardless of the number of plants per hectare, Rame system maintain high values of anthocyanins (1, 2 mg/Kg of grapes and IPT (43 with high production (152 qq / has. This fact, added to that the system has potential for mechanization, converts Rame in a trellis system with high potential for vine growth in the viticulture regions. The trellis VSP behaved less productive (86 qq / has, and at the same time obtained lower values of qualitative components such as anthocyanins (1.04 mg/Kg of grapes and IPT (35.

  14. Bonus systems and their effects on safety: an interview-based pilot study at the Swedish nuclear power plants; Bonussystem och dess inverkan paa saekerheten: en intervjubaserad pilotstudie vid de svenska kaernkraftverken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torbioern, Ingemar; Mattson, Malin [Inst. of Psychology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-03-15

    The aim of this pilot study has been to describe and analyse potential effects on safety-related behaviour and risks associated with the bonus systems currently used at Swedish nuclear plants. To this end and in order to establish a frame of reference several theories on motivation were consulted regarding the relevance of monetary rewards. In addition empirical evidence on effects upon behaviours in general and safety behaviours in particular was taken into consideration, as well as a systems and a rationalist perspective on organisations. The resulting frame of reference was used for a descriptive mapping of the bonus systems and for the formulation of a semi-structured interview schedule intended to capture the experiences of those concerned by the systems. A total of 15 interviews were performed with staff of different functions and organisational positions. Results of the study do not indicate any negative effects on safety-related behaviours. Rather they indicate that safety-behaviours may be promoted insofar as bonus rewards are linked to performance goals concerning safety. All of the bonus-systems may be characterised as low in incentive intensity, i.e. produce small effects on motivation and performance. Still, as the systems differ in design and in the way they are perceived, they also represent different challenges in order to function more efficiently as parameters

  15. När David förlorade mot Goliat : En studie om hur ett varumärke påverkas vid förlusten av en tvist

    OpenAIRE

    Ekberg, Emma; Blomqvist, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    I november 2015 avgjordes en tvist mellan havredrycksproducenten Oatly och branschorganisationen Svensk Mjölk i Marknadsdomstolen. Svensk Mjölk stämde Oatly eftersom de ansåg att deras marknadsföring var vilseledande. Stämningen ledde till att Oatly dömdes till förbud för marknadsföring som antyder att havremjölk är ett bättre val än komjölk. Denna studies syfte är att undersöka hur tvisten påverkat Oatlys lojala kunders varumärkesuppfattning utifrån begreppet brand image. För att undersöka d...

  16. Contents of a regulatory strategy for assessing future human actions in the safety evaluation of a repository for spent fuels; Innehaallet i en strategi foer myndighetsbedoemning av framtida maenskligt handlande vid vaerdering av saekerheten for slutfoervar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmot, R.D.; Wickham, S.M.; Galson, D.A. [Galson Sciences Ltd., Oakham (United Kingdom)

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this report is to discuss issues that should be considered in the development of a regulatory strategy for assessing future human actions in any forthcoming license application for a deep repository for spent fuel in Sweden and for sites of other repositories. The report comprises an outline of key issues concerning the treatment of future human actions in safety assessment, reviews of regulatory developments, recent safety assessments and supporting studies, and international initiatives on the treatment of future human actions in safety assessment, and the principal elements of a regulatory strategy. Performance assessments (PAs) are generally accepted as providing illustrations of system performance under given sets of assumptions. The results of PAs are clearer and easier to understand if certain large uncertainties are accounted for by determining performance under several different sets of assumptions or scenarios, each of which defines a possible evolution of the disposal system. A number of assumptions can be made that would restrict the scope of an assessment without reducing the credibility of the corresponding safety case. Reducing speculation about technological development, by assuming that the techniques used in future human activities are similar to those currently in use in the region or at similar sites, will simplify the assessment. A distinction is generally made between inadvertent and intentional intrusion, with intentional activities excluded because society cannot protect future populations from their own actions if they understand the potential consequences. A division of human activities into 'recent and ongoing' and 'future' activities considers not only the timing of the activities but also the degree of control or influence that can be imposed on them. Recent and ongoing human activities are those that affect an area beyond the immediate vicinity of the disposal facility and which neither the proponent nor the regulator can influence. Examples include anthropogenic climate change and activities that have recently taken place in the vicinity of the disposal site, such as groundwater abstraction. Future human activities are those that may take place in the vicinity of the disposal system at some time in the future and which may affect the performance of the disposal system by by-passing or affecting the characteristics of the engineered and natural barriers. Institutional controls can prevent or reduce the likelihood of any disruptive activities. It may be inappropriate to treat recent and ongoing human activities in the same way as future human activities. Scenarios that include the occurrence of future human activities are conditional and are used to illustrate the potential behaviour of the system. Scenarios including recent and ongoing human activities are not conditional and may provide a better estimate of system performance than those that exclude such activities. The focus of assessments of future human actions should be on longer-term doses received by groups of people who might anyway be considered in the Reference Scenario In particular, human intrusion assessments should include groups considered in assessments of groundwater releases who may receive additional doses from new pathways arising from future human actions, and groups consuming foodstuffs contaminated by radionuclides brought to the surface during or subsequent to an intrusion and dispersed into, the biosphere. Members of a drilling crew that intrude into a repository do not fulfil the definition of a potentially exposed group because any intrusion would be an isolated activity not occurring on a day-to-day basis. The dose received by one individual from a specific short-term event cannot be compared with a regulatory criteria expressed as an average annual dose. The following outline strategy is proposed as a basis for consultation on the treatment of future human actions. Assessments must include calculations of disposal system performance without any disruptive future human actions. These calculations should include the effects of any recent and ongoing human activities that might affect the performance of the disposal system. Additional calculations should illustrate the potential effects of disruptive human actions. Assessments of future human actions should be based on present-day conditions in the region of the disposal site and similar sites. Site-specific definitions of the region considered and the period examined for defining rates and frequencies should be provided by the proponent. Assessments should consider the long-term effects of disruption through the formation of new pathways and the dispersal of radioactive material in the biosphere. The proponent should develop and justify the scenarios analysed in an assessment. (abstract truncated)

  17. Sweden's primary production and supplies of food - Possible consequences of a lack of fossil energy; Sveriges primaerproduktion och foersoerjning av livsmedel - Moejliga konsekvenser vid en brist paa fossil energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baky, Andras; Widerberg, Anna; Landquist, Birgit; Norberg, Ida; Berlin, Johanna; Engstroem, Jonas; Svanaeng, Karin; Lorentzon, Katarina; Cronholm, Lars-Aake; Pettersson, Ola

    2013-07-01

    This report provides an insight into what may be the consequences for Sweden's food supply if the ability to import sufficient quantities of fossil energy decreases. The situation described is an imaginary situation that arose quickly and unexpectedly by political unrest or natural disaster. There has thus been no preparation for the situation. The length of the crisis is set to a period of 3-5 years. During that time, there is assumed no technological development or other structural change, that will change conditions compared to the current situation. If the crisis becomes more prolonged it will however gradually force major changes. Today's food supply in Sweden and much of the world depends on a constant supply of fossil energy. In the production of food is used, for example, large amounts of diesel, heating oil and mineral fertilizers. This applies to primary production of vegetables and animal breeding but also to a high degree of for user-industries , which ensures that the raw materials become finished food products for consumers. Between the different stages there are transport's in many directions that depend on fossil energy. Three different scenarios are termed low deprivation, lack of resources and high deprivation. They represent different failure scenarios where the availability of fossil energy is assumed to decrease. The three levels are tentatively set as a decrease of 25%, 50% and 75% compared with current levels. These percentages are set as initial discussion-levels from which calculations have been made of how the different stages of production will be affected.

  18. Digitala hjälpmedel i integrationsprocessen : En studie om hur Uppsala kommun använder digitala hjälpmedel vid etableringen av nyanlända

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlquist, Olivia; Crondahl, Olle

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis has studied how digital tools can be used in the process of integrating immigrants. The purpose of the study has been to examine how the municipality of Uppsala and Arbetsförmedlingen in Uppsala incorporate the use of digital tools in the process of integrating immigrants and how these actors and immigrants perceive digital tools in such context. Furthermore, this thesis has discussed in which steps in the process of integrating immigrants digital tools are a resource or ...

  19. Separation of submicron particles from biofuel combustion with flue gas condensation or wet condensing electrostatic precipitator. Analysis of possibilities; Avskiljning av submikrona partiklar vid biobraenslefoerbraenning med roekgaskondensering eller kondenserande vaata elfilter. Analys av moejligheterna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennbaeck, Marie; Gustavsson, Lennart [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    Dust particles in flue gas larger than 1 {mu}m are well separated by conventional techniques, while submicron particles are poorly separated. As the use of biofuels with high ash content is increasing, as well as knowledge about negative health effects from inhalation of submicron particles, the interest for reduction of emissions of submicron particles will probably increase. The aim of this project is to investigate possible techniques for separation of submicron particles during flue gas condensation through modification of conventional technique, or with available techniques not usually used with combustion of biofuels, e.g. a wet electrostatic precipitator. Mechanisms for separation of dust particles are briefly described. Cyclones separates particles larger than about 1 {mu}m. Fabric filters separates all particles sizes, but the efficiency reduces as the size reduces. In flue gas condensers and scrubbers the speed and size of water droplets are important for the reduction efficiency. Dry electrostatic precipitators work for all particle sizes, but with reduced efficiency for sizes between 0.1 and 3 {mu}m. Wet electrostatic precipitators separates submicron particles much better. One reason for this is that the potential between the electrodes can be higher. Among conventional flue gas condensers and scrubbers there are two types that, properly designed, can separate submicron particles, namely 'type venturi scrubbers', i.e. a scrubber where a high flue gas velocity is used to form many, small water droplets by friction forces in a nozzle, and 'type scrubber with nozzles', i.e. a scrubber where nozzles supply droplets to the flue gas. For a scrubber with nozzles, the falling velocity of the droplets must be lower and the size smaller than is common today. Also the wet electrostatic precipitator separates submicron particles with high efficiency. They are used today mainly for problematic particles, e.g. sticky or corrosive ones, or for particles with high resistivity. The wet electrostatic precipitator can be designed condensing, and in doing this the latent heat of condensation can be recovered. Ongoing and published R and D show that basic studies concerning larger biofuel plants are in progress. On smaller appliances (from single house-scale up to three MW), there are some studies published and several ongoing. The published studies from smaller appliances have targeted high degree of separation, high availability and good economy without pre-separation of dust. It may be possible to use experience from small scale appliances to larger plants in the sphere of interest of Vaermeforsk. The literature survey shows that it is theoretically possible to separate submicron particles using flue gas condensation, or using a wet electrostatic precipitator. A next step is to investigate the economy and to apply and evaluate technique. Simultaneously, the knowledge about formation and reduction mechanism of dust from biofuels has to increase, in order to reduce the need for secondary cleaning of flue gas. The ongoing studies should be followed up.

  20. Evaluation of ionizing radiation applied to quarantine control of the false grape mite; Evaluacion de la radiacion ionizante como tratamiento de control cuarentenario de la falsa aranita de la vid (Brevipalpus chilensis Baker)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadue D, Yael; Vargas O, Claudio Andres

    1994-12-31

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate effect of three dosages of ionizing radiation in combination with cold storage (0-2{sup 0} C), and the effect of cold storage without irradiation, establishing time curves for eclosion of eggs and mortality of juvenile and adult stages, and adult oviposture. An experimental Cs-137 Brookhaven Portable Cesium Development Irradiator (BPCDI N. 3) at the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, located in the La Reina Commune of Santiago, Chile, was used at dosages of 0.500, 1.000, and 1,500 Gy (with a dosage rate of 28.95 Gy/min), combined with pretreatment cold (0-2{sup 0} C) during 24 h, and 15 days of cold storage postirradiation, to simulate the duration of a grape shipment to the U.S., onto 1-4 and 1-4 and {>=} 4 day-old eggs, juveniles and adult stages. The initial stages of development were more susceptible to radiation when combined with cold storage. The mortality of both egg development stages, juveniles and adults, with dosages from 500-1.500; 1.000-1.500; and 1500 Gy, respectively, satisfied the probity 9 (99.9968%) quarantine security level requirement. The few survivors from treated juveniles and adults were unable to continue their cycle, and did not present quarantine risk. All dosages used produced 100% mortality. Apparently, cold storage has a synergic effect when used in combination with radiation. Cold storage of stages not irradiated somewhat the population dynamics. (author). 58 refs, 24 figs, 12 tabs.

  1. The estimated additional costs for combustion of agro fuel and the potential of farmers to influence fuel quality; Identifiering av energiverkens merkostnader vid foerbraenning av aakerbraenslen samt lantbrukarens moejlighet att paaverka braenslekvaliteten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myringer, Aase; Petersen, Martin; Olsson, Johanna; Roennbaeck, Marie; Bubholz, Monika; Forsberg, Maya

    2009-05-15

    The main objectives of this study were to identify and calculate the additional costs to energy plants of combustion of agro fuels instead of wood chips, and to determine the potential farmers have to influence fuel quality and thus identify parameters that could be used for pricing in the future. The overall aim is to increase the volume of agro fuels produced. Four agro fuels were considered in this study: willow, straw, husks and reed canary grass. These four were selected because data were available on their combustion at energy plants and because they are representative of different categories of agro fuels: short rotation coppice, crop by-products, seeds and grass. Data were obtained through literature surveys, telephone interviews with farmers, researchers, advisors and contractors, and visits to six energy plants. Combustion properties for each crop and data on combustion were compared. Measures that could be taken by farmers to improve fuel quality today and perhaps in the future were estimated. Although information and experience proved to be lacking in this area, it was possible to identify some potential measures, which are listed below for each fuel. To promote expansion of the agro fuel market, issues concerning business contacts and forms of organisation were examined. The choices and preferences of farmers as regards sale and delivery are influenced by a number of different factors, which were investigated here by studies of the literature and interviews with farmers. There was little documentary evidence available on combustion of agro fuels. Short-term trials have been carried out on small amounts of a number of crop species without specific documentation of emissions, maintenance costs, ash handling, etc. The additional costs to energy plants for combustion of agro fuels compared with wood chips were investigated on visits to energy plants by collecting data directly and by interviewing plant personnel. The additional costs were then calculated for each fuel and type of boiler, but the specific conditions prevailing in any individual plant will obviously affect the actual costs. General conclusions were: Additional costs for an outage caused by the agro fuel depend on whether there is an accumulator to cover some of the load, and on the other types of boilers and equipment available. Additional costs for ash handling depend on the technical system and business agreements concerning ash handling, which differed between the energy plants visited. Additional costs arising when a boiler and/or fuel is new can be reduced by hard work and experience. In one example (Saatenaes), feeding a new boiler with new straw with a moisture content of 20-22% caused problems with fuel feeding, more frequent soot blowing, etc. Through persistent efforts and feedback on straw quality to farmers, these problems have been eliminated. In two cases, 100% agro fuel was combusted during part load periods. In one case full load could not be achieved because of low bulk density and resulting limitations of the feeding system, and in the other case high load was known to cause problems with fouling and dust production. Using agro fuels during part load was not considered an additional cost. At the two combined heat and power plants (CHP-plants) visited, the upper limit for willow in the fuel mix was set at 15%, since additional costs caused by increased fouling are expected beyond this level (based on experience). This study has mainly focused on the cost for a plant to change from forestry fuels to agro fuels. However, a more common issue is to co-combust a cheaper fuel. This is especially true for larger boilers mainly due to the fact that the fuel availability is more uncertain if large quantities of agro fuels shall be used, and that problems like increased deposit or corrosion rate shall be avoided. Therefore this investigation has looked both at cases with combustion of 100 % agro crops (Jordbro, Kvaenum, Graestorp and Saatenaes) and at cases with co-combustion (Enkoeping and Eskilstuna). Co-combustion of agro fuels with another fuel can reduce the problems that might arise due to the fuel properties of the agro fuels, and has therefore an influence on the rate of extra costs. To increase the market for agro fuels, there is a need for: Information to farmers about existing crops and potential buyers. Initiatives from the energy companies are desirable. Tangible information to suppliers on the structure of the whole chain and the need to grow and deliver consistent amounts. Contract forms that give farmers an acceptable risk. A dialogue between farmers and the energy companies concerning the quality changes that can be achieved by decisions at harvest, storage, transport and price-setting, etc

  2. Improved combustion performance of waste-fired FB-boilers -The influence of the dynamics of the bed on the air-/fuel interaction; Foerbaettrad foerbraenningsprestanda vid avfallsfoerbraenning i FB-pannor -Baeddynamikens inverkan paa luft-/braensleomblandningen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Johanna (Hoegskolan i Boraas (Sweden)); Pallares, David; Thunman, Henrik; Johnsson, Filip (Chalmers (Sweden)); Andersson, Bengt-Aake (E.on/Hoegskolan i Boraas (Sweden)); Victoren, Anders (Metso Power AB (Sweden)); Johansson, Andreas (SP, Boraas (Sweden))

    2010-07-01

    One of the key benefits of fluidized bed combustion is that the bed - through mixing of fuel and air and accumulated heat - facilitates combustion at low stoichiometry and with low emissions. Even so, it is not unusual that waste-fired FB-boilers are operated at 6-8% oxygen that corresponds to 30-40% higher flows of gas than theoretically needed. In addition to that and in comparison to grate furnaces, FB-boiler can cause high pressure drop losses because of the fluidization of the bottom bed, which in turn are associated with high costs for power (fans). This work aims therefore at increasing the knowledge for how the dynamics of the bed affects the air and fuel mixture. Methods to explain and characterize the phenomenon have been derived within this work showing: - Distribution of air in a bed for various cases and the influence of pressure drop, bed height and fluidization velocity - A semi-empiric method to calculate an even bubble distribution - The relation between fluidization and fuel distribution for various fluidization flows and fuels - Dispersion rates for various fuels - Volatilization rates for waste in relation to biomass The result can be useful when optimizing units, for instance through finding as low pressure drops as possible with an even bubble distribution, low risk for sintering and unwanted emissions. The work has thereby reached its ultimate goal of increasing the generic knowledge about waste combustion in FB-boiler

  3. Guidelines for methodological choices when calculating impacts on the Swedish environmental objectives from changing the energy use; Vaegledning till metodval vid beraekning av paaverkan fraan foeraendrad energianvaendning paa de svenska miljoemaalen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, Rebecka; Gode, Jenny; Axelsson, Ulrik

    2009-01-15

    The guidelines in this report have been developed by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, within a project financed by the Environmental Objectives Council, the Swedish Energy Agency and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. The idea originated from an earlier project for the Swedish Energy Agency and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, where the potential of a business model for energy efficiency (Energy Performance Contracting, EPC) to contribute to fulfil the national environmental objectives was studied. When environmental impacts from the studied EPC projects was to be calculated, it was evident how many difficult methodological choices one is faced with when trying to follow up the environmental impacts from projects changing the energy use. A second project was then performed to further analyse the issues involved. The result is this guideline report. The guidelines are on the first hand directed at companies and municipalities performing projects with effects on the energy use, that want to calculate impacts from these on the Swedish environmental objectives. The guidelines can also be useful for county administrations, central authorities and other actors with interest in the issues. A starting point for the recommendations is the Swedish environmental objectives, with focus on those of special interest in relation to energy use and airborne emissions. These are Reduced climate impact, Clean air, Natural acidification only, Zero eutrophication and A good built environment. The environmental objectives are mainly concentrated on what affects the Swedish environment. However, not only emissions in Sweden cause such effects, but also emissions in other countries can be transported by air and fall down and cause impacts in Sweden. Thus, the guidelines focus on Sweden, but include to a certain extent also emissions in other countries. Another starting point is that the guidelines are developed to follow up effects from individual projects or measures. This differs in fundamental aspects from follow up of effects within a geographic unit (for example a municipality) or of environmental impacts from an organisation on a yearly basis. When following up environmental impacts from something other than a project perspective, the recommendations given are not doubtlessly applicable, since what are the most correct methodological choices differ depending on the starting point. The report is called guidelines, and not handbook or manual. This is because of the fact that there are many aspects to consider in the topical methodological choices, and the recommendations are to be considered as approximations. The aim of the report is therefore also to function as a knowledge survey in the area of environmental assessment of energy use, with in-depth background information of the recommendations and references to supplementary literature. The guidelines cover stationary energy use (hence, transport is not covered), with primary energy and life cycle perspectives to embrace total environmental impacts and facilitate comparisons between energy carriers. However, comparisons should always be made with caution, since there are several aspects to consider in conversions between energy carriers. Such aspects are how impacts are transferred between local, national and international levels, between Sweden and other countries, or between different environmental objectives. Weighting between such aspects are very difficult, and measures that reduce impacts in general are therefore preferable, when this is possible

  4. Impact assessment of the effect of natural values of interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Oskarshamn. Laxemar; Konsekvensbedoemning av paaverkan paa naturvaerden vid mellanlagring, inkapsling och slutfoervaring av anvaent kaernbraensle i Oskarshamn. Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Magnus (Ekologigruppen AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2011-03-15

    The report describes the natural environment and its natural values in Laxemar Simpevarp, the final disposal facility's impacts on the natural environment and measures that can be taken to reduce these. Both terrestrial and aquatic environments are described. Impact on the natural environments of groundwater reduction is not discussed here but described in a separate report, together with consequences of radiation. The report shall serve as a basis for the Environmental Impact Assessment for the application according to the Environment Act.

  5. Diez portainjertos de vid: Efectos sobre el crecimiento, la producción y la composición de la uva del cv. Sauvignon blanc en la denominación de origen rueda (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuste Jesus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the behaviour of different grapevine rootstocks is basic to achieve a good adaptation of vine to its growing area. With the objective of knowing the agronomic and qualitative response of cv. Sauvignon Blanc to the use of several rootstocks, a trial was established in 2006 in the D.O. Rueda. The vines are vertical trellised, with bilateral Royat cordon pruning, and the vine spacing is 2.60 m × 1.25 m. The row orientation is NNW (N-25°. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with 4 replications and elemental plot of 60 vines. Over the period 2010–2014 it has been developed the study of the following 10 rootstocks (treatments: 110R, 101-14M, 420A, 3309C, 41B, 161-49C, 196-17C, Fercal, Gravesac and RGM. The rootstocks 420A and 41B showed a production higher than 50% with respect to 196-17C and 161-49C, and higher to 100% than RGM, due to the number of clusters per vine and, in greater amount, to the cluster weight. Fercal and Gravesac showed an increase of pruning wood weight of 24% with respect to 196-17C and 161-49C, and 90% with respect to RGM, mainly due to the shoot weight. The sugar concentration increased with 101-14M, 196-17C and Fercal, and became reduced with 161-49C, 41B and RGM. The pH of must was reduced with Fercal whereas the titratable acidity increased, which also showed increase with Gravesac and 161-49C. The tartaric acid hardly increased slightly with Fercal and 161-49C, whereas the malic acid increased with Gravesac and Fercal, and was reduced with 41B, 3309C, RGM and 101-14M. The potassium concentration increased with 196-17C, Gravesac and Fercal, and was reduced with 41B, 161-49C, 420A and 3309C. The effects observed show alternatives for rootstock election according to the growing conditions and objectives of the vineyard.

  6. Radiation protection actions at Swedish nuclear power plants 1994-2002 and some reflections about the near future; Straalskydd vid svenska kaernkraftverk under perioden 1994-2002, samt reflexioner om kommande utveckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erixon, Stig; Godaas, Tommy; Hofvander, Peter; Lund, Ingmar; Malmqvist, Lars; Thimgren, Ingela; Oelander-Guer, Hanna

    2003-12-01

    This report provides a summary of radiation protection experiences over the years 1994-2002 in the Swedish nuclear power industry. Actions to reduce radiation levels in reactor systems, occupational exposure results and some reflections about the near future are presented.

  7. Adaption of the radiation dose for computed tomography of the body - back-ground for the dose adaption programme OmnimAs; Straaldosreglering vid kroppsdatortomografi - bakgrund till dosregleringsprogrammet OmnimAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, Ulf; Kristiansson, Mattias [Trelleborg Hospital (Sweden); Leitz, Wolfram [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden); Paahlstorp, Per-Aake [Siemens Medical Solutions, Solna (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    When performing computed tomography examinations the exposure factors are hardly ever adapted to the patient's size. One reason for that might be the lack of simple methods. In this report the computer programme OmnimAs is described which is calculating how the exposure factors should be varied together with the patient's perimeter (which easily can be measured with a measuring tape). The first approximation is to calculate the exposure values giving the same noise levels in the image irrespective the patient's size. A clinical evaluation has shown that this relationship has to be modified. One chapter is describing the physical background behind the programme. Results calculated with OmnimAs are in good agreement with a number of published studies. Clinical experiences are showing the usability of OmnimAs. Finally the correlation between several parameters and image quality/dose is discussed and how this correlation can be made use of for optimising CT-examinations.

  8. Reed canary grass as an energy crop. Experiences from full-scale tests at BTC, Umeaa during the period 2000-2004; Roerflen som energigroeda. Erfarenheter fraan fullskalefoersoek vid Biobraensletekniskt Centrum (BTC) i Umeaa under aaren 2000-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Sylvia; Oerberg, Haakan; Kalen, Gunnar; Thyrel, Mikael

    2006-07-01

    In the years 2000-2004, reed canary grass (RCG) has been cultivated, harvested, stored, upgraded, and combusted at Umeaa Biofuel Technology Center (BTC), SLU Roebaecksdalen, Umeaa. The entire chain from the field to hot water has been handled by personnel at BTC. Data and experiences from the different handling stages have been continuously collected. In this time period, RCG has been harvested each spring. The mean harvest level on SLU properties has been approximately 4 ton DM/ha and the dry matter content at harvest has been on average 11-12 %. Winter and harvest losses has been determined to approximately 44 %, by a comparison of harvest levels in spring and harvest levels in sample squares in late fall. An alternate method of cutting in late fall, where the crop is left in the field until spring, has been tested. With this method, the risk for cutting of green shoots is eliminated and the isolating effect of the cut ley is decreasing the frost depth in the field. Three different techniques of baling have been tested: large and small square baling, and round baling. Round baling is most suitable for the conditions at BTC, because of the low availability of large square baling equipment in the area. Otherwise large square baling is more time efficient. Thus, the low weight of round baling equipment is advantageous and gives rise to less ground damages. On BTC, the RCG bales are stored outside on an asphalt area, covered with ensilage plastic on a layer of pallets. This handling procedure is working satisfactory with relatively low material losses, but when larger quantities are stored inside storage is to prefer. The economy of RCG cultivation is, as for all agricultural crops, dependent of subsidies within EU's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Subsidies can be received for RCG cultivation on ordinary farmland and on fallow farmland. An extra energy crop subsidy can be received for RCG cultivation on ordinary farmland if the energy crop is utilised as energy feedstock. In comparison to other agricultural crops, RCG cultivation only to receive subsidies but without harvesting is probably the most economically competitive alternative to RCG production for energy purposes. To reach the same profitability as that alternative, the fuel price for RCG feedstock at farmgate has to be at least 62-79 SEK/MWh (ordinary farmland) and 75-107 SEK/MWh (fallow farmland) when the harvest level is 9-4 ton DM/ha (storage costs excluded). Large scale storage of RCG, at for instance a pellet production site, has to be estimated from a point of view where the warehouse also have other uses ( i.e. storage of other feedstock and pellets). Storage in a newly built warehouse where RCG storage is assumed to use half of the storage time amounts to a cost of approximately 35 SEK/MWh. Both briquette and pellet production of RCG have been performed at BTC. Briquettes are produced continuously and constitute an essential part of the fuel required for the commercial boiler. Pelletizing has been performed within different projects with an acceptable result, but fine tuning of the technique is desirable to increase the production capacity. Combustion of RCG pellets and briquettes is working well if the boilers are adapted to ash rich fuels. Due to the large amounts of ashes, an automatic ash handling equipment with high capacity is needed. It is also important that the dwell time for RCG fuel in the combustion chamber is long enough to ensure a complete combustion and to avoid high levels of uncombusted material in the ashes. Compared to wood pellet combustion, emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} are higher in RCG combustion due to a higher amount of nitrogen and sulphur in RCG feedstock

  9. Nuclear Energy, Geothermal Energy and the Environment. Reports to the Energy Commission's Expertgroup for Safety and Environment. Kaernenergi, geotermisk energi och miljoe. Underlagsrapporter till rapport om miljoeeffekter och risker vid utnyttjandet av energi fraan Expertgruppen foer saekerhet och miljoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This volume contains reports on uranium mining, working conditions in the different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, risks at storage of spent fuel elements, environmental impact of future reactor technology, effects of waste heat disposal and risks at geothermal energy extraction in Sweden. These reports have been use by the expert group to produce their final paper.

  10. Les jeux vidéo dans la société française : des années 1970 au début des années 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuy Fromy, Serge

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is to study video games in France. Thirty years of existence, this new leisure appeared commercially in the mid-1970s in the United States, became a real industry in the same way as film or music.Its emergence and development go hand in hand with the beginnings and the development of computing leisure and public computers with the game is one of the elements determinant of their success.We will thus examine everything that relates to this industry, its economy (market players, tra...

  11. Acceptance-criteria for the bedrock for deep geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Proceedings from a seminar at Gothenburg University; Acceptanskriterier foer berggrunden vid djup geologisk slutfoervaring av anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The seminar was directed to Nordic participants, and discussed disposal in the Nordic crystalline bedrock. Criteria for the bedrock should include: It should give durable mechanical protection for the engineered barriers; give a stable and favorable chemical environment for these barriers; have a low turnover of ground water in the near field; be easy to characterize; give favorable recipient-conditions; not have valuable minerals in workable quantities. These general criteria raise several questions coupled to the safety analysis: e.g. the need for geological, hydrological and geochemical parameters. Which data are missing, which are most difficult to find? What should the site characterization program look like to focus on factors that are of the highest importance according to the safety analysis. The demands on the conditions at a site need to be translated into quantitative criteria, which should be expressed as values that can be measured at the site or deduced from such measurements. These questions were discussed at the seminar, and 21 contributions from Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish participants are reported in these proceedings under the chapters: Coupling to the safety analysis; Methodology and criteria for site selection in a regional geoscientific perspective; Rock as a building material - prognosis and result; Geoscientific criteria for the bedrock at the repository - Mechanical protection; Geoscientific criteria for the bedrock at the repository - Low ground water turnover, chemically favorable and stable environment in the near field; Geoscientific criteria for the bedrock at the repository - Demands on the bedrock concerning the migration of radionuclides.

  12. Ienākumu nevienlīdzība starp vīriešiem un sievietēm jauniešu vidū Latvijā un Itālijā

    OpenAIRE

    Cīrule, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Darba mērķi skaistās ar ienākumu un dzimumu nevienlīdzības teorētiskā pamatojuma apguvi, gūt uz statistiskas datiem balstītu priekšstatu par ienākumu nevienlīdzību dzimumu starpā jauniešu vecuma grupā Latvijā un Itālijā, kā arī individuāla pētījuma veikšanu. Bakalaura darbs sastāv no trim daļām, kurās tiek pētīta ienākumu plaisa starp vīriešiem un sievietēm Latvijā un Itālijā, kā arī meklēti iespējamie problēmas skaidrojumi un risinājumi. Pirmajā daļā tiek apkopoti pieejamie teorētiskās lite...

  13. Enzymatic pretreatment of wood chips for energy reductions in TMP production. A method for ranking of enzymes; Enzymatisk foerbehandling av flis foer energibesparing vid TMP tillverkning. Metod foer rankning av enzymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viforr, Silvia

    2010-11-15

    The production of thermomechanical pulp (TMP) demands high levels of energy. This, together with current expensive energy prices of nowadays results in significant costs, which is the reason why there is a demand for processes that require less energy. One way of reducing energy consumption in TMP refining could be to pretreat the wood chips with enzymes before the subsequent refining step. However, enzymes molecules are relatively large, which limits the impregnation process, and so the pores in the fibre walls are not large enough to fit the size of the enzymes. By mechanically pretreating wood chips in a screw feeder and press equipment, this opens the wood structure significantly which increases enzyme penetration. If enzymes are used for reducing energy consumption in TMP processes, it is necessary to optimise the enzymatic effect during the pretreatment of wood chips. It is very expensive to evaluate completely the effect of enzymes in large scale refining. Thus there is a need for other relevant methods for rapidly and effectively evaluating the energy saving effects when it comes to refining enzymatic pretreated wood chips. The aim of this project was to find a method for ranking of enzymes for pretreatment of chips for energy savings at TMP production. This method was to be independent of the type of enzyme used and of the type of pretreated wood chips involved. In order to asses the method for ranking enzymes being used in the pretreatment of chips to reduce energy input during refining, a comparison between the method and a mill trial was carried out in the mill trial. A known chemical pretreatment was used; here it was sulphonation of the wood chips before refining with low sulphite levels. Further, a laboratory wing refiner was used as an evaluation equipment. The trial started with the running conditions for a wing refiner that the best correspond with industrial refining. An evaluation was made on the effect of enzymatic pretreatment on energy savings during refining, when an industrial enzyme was used, here a pectinase. An assessment of the method used in the mill trial showed that the method for ranking enzymes in the pretreatment of wood chips could benefit from using a wing as the laboratory refiner. The enzymatic pretreatment of wood chips with pectinases indicated a positive result when it come to the effect of the enzymes on reduction in energy consumption during TMP production. A wing refiner can be used as a tool for evaluation and ranking enzymes, when pretreating chips for reducing energy consumption. A survey of enzymes that are effective in the pretreatment of wood chips in order to reduce the energy input at TMP production is recommended to be done. The experimental costs for mapping the enzymes suitable for pretreatment of wood chips at TMP production using the evaluation method developed in this work may be significantly reduced

  14. Cubierta vegetal frente a laboreo en dos zonas con distinta disponibilidad hídrica: influencia sobre producción, vigor, calidad y estado hídrico de la vid

    OpenAIRE

    Díez Bueno, Nuria

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la influencia de una cubierta vegetal frente al laboreo convencional en dos tipos de suelo con diferente dotación hídrica (suelo de pendiente con riego y suelo de vaguada sin riego) y su influencia sobre el estado hídrico de la planta, la producción, el vigor y la calidad. El presente trabajo final de carrera se realizó en una parcela de viñedo plantado en 1980 de la variedad Tempranillo injertado sobre patrón 41B, de conducción en espaldera, de c...

  15. Bio energy production in birch and hybrid aspen after addition of residue based fertilizers - establishment of fertilization trials; Bioenergiproduktion hos bjoerk och hybridasp vid tillfoersel av restproduktbaserade goedselmedel - etablering av goedslingsfoersoek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar (EkoBalans Fenix AB, Malmoe (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    Sewage sludge and wood ashes could be used as fertilizers in order to increase forest tree production. In southern Sweden forest growth normally increases with approximately 10 % after ash recycling due to increased N and/or P availability. P is added with the ashes and the pH-increasing effect of the wood ash can lead to increased N net mineralization. Other positive effects of wood ash recycling are improved nutrient sustainability and less acid run-off water. Possible negative effects are heavy metal accumulation, if the content of one or more heavy metals of the recycled ash exceeds the heavy metal content of the harvested biomass, and nitrate leaching if the vegetation cannot take up nitrified N. It is important to evaluate the sustainability of fertilization systems based on residues such as sludge and wood ash. Wood ash does not contain N and the P concentration often is too low for the ashes to function as an NP fertilizer. Thus N and sometimes P must be added. Sludge is an interesting alternative. The main purpose of the project is to study sustainable production of forest bio energy in intensively cultivated birch and hybrid aspen stands. Another purpose is to establish experiments that can be used for long term studies and as demonstration objects. In the first few years the goal is to study the short term effects of residue based fertilization compared to conventional NPK fertilization on tree nutrient uptake, nutrient leaching, sustainability and economy. In the long term the goal is to design appropriate fertilization strategies in a residue based fertilization system for the intensive cultivation of birch and hybrid aspen without negative side effects such as large scale nutrient leaching. Four field experiments were established in 2008 and one additional experiment in hybrid aspen will be established in the spring of 2009. Elevated bud N and P concentrations after fertilization with both Ashes+N and NPK means good possibilities for future growth increases. But, tree growth response should be studied before any conclusions can be drawn regarding biomass production in the experiments. The similarities in plant response to Ashes+N and NPK suggests that Ashes+N can be used as a P and K resource in the fertilization of young stands of birch and hybrid aspen. If the Ashes+N treatment results in increased N availability due to the pH increase, possibly the N dose could be lowered in order to decrease the risks for N leaching without negative effects on tree N uptake. Tools for the prediction of N mineralization need to be developed. The energy harvest for fertilized birch and hybrid aspen appear to be at least as high as for fertilized Norway spruce. Intensive cultivation including fertilization of young stands appears to be energy efficient: the energy input is a small fraction of the increase in energy harvest. Residue based fertilization appears to be more energy efficient than fertilization with NPK. If production systems other than the ones currently applied are more efficient in terms of sustainable energy production it is important to review the funding of research and development within the field. Which species or species mixtures are most efficient under which soil and climatic condition? Management programs and harvesting techniques need to be developed. More studies on fertilization response and energy harvest in deciduous species with and without the use of residue based fertilizers are needed in order to develop guidelines for the sustainable production of forest bio energy. Empirical studies should be combined with modeling studies in order to improve the understanding of the systems and predictability of management measures. Residue based fertilization appears to be attractive both environmentally and economically, but it is important that such systems are evaluated closely in terms of growth response, nutrient leaching, carbon and metal balances, etc. in comparison with conventional fertilization

  16. Influence of vegetation and sewage sludge on sealing layer of fly ashes in post-treatment of mine tailings impoundments; Inverkan av vegetation och roetslam paa taetskikt av flygaska vid efterbehandling av sandmagasin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria; Neuschuetz, Clara (Inst. of Bothany, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)); Isaksson, Karl-Erik (Boliden Mineral AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    Mining industry produces 25 Mton mine tailings yearly that are deposited in impoundments in the nature. When this sand, containing sulphur rich minerals, reacts with oxygen and water it starts to weather and acidic metal rich water is formed. To prevent this, the sand can be covered with a sealing layer and a protective cover layer with vegetation. As sealing and cover materials fly ashes and sewage sludge can be used. The aim of this investigation was to find out: 1) how sealing layer of fly ashes with and without sewage sludge, and a cover with sewage sludge can be placed practically on mine tailings in a cold climate. 2) how such a cover should be constructed to minimize the risk of root penetration and leakage of nutrients and metals 3) which vegetation that is most suitable This was investigated in field- and greenhouse tests with a sealing layer of fly ash and/or sewage sludge with a cover layer of sewage sludge in which different plant species were established. The practical application was performed in 0.3-1 ha plots at a mine tailings impoundments at Boliden. The ability of plant roots to penetrate a sealing layer was investigated, as well as the effect of simulated root exudates on the penetration resistance in hardened ash. Leakage of nutrients and metals from cover layer of sewage sludge, in some cases with sealing layers beneath, was investigated in field and greenhouse lysimeters. Various plant species were compared on their ability to affect metal and nutrient leakage as well as root penetration and shattering of the hardened ashes. The project was a cooperation between Stockholm University and Boliden Mineral AB, and the field tests were performed at the impoundment Gillervattnet in Boliden and in Garpenberg. Cooperating were also Iggesund Paperboard, Skellefteaa Kraft, Stora Enso Fors, Umeaa Energi and Vattenfall, all producers of ashes that were used, as well as Stockholm Vatten AB, which produced the sewage sludge. The most important conclusions are that: It is possible to apply a sealing layer of ashes on mine tailings independent of season due to the quick hardening process of the ashes. Sewage sludge can, on the other hand, only be applied when the tailings are frozen. The application leads to a rise in the ground water level in the tailings Covering of mine tailings with sewage sludge and fly ash decreases the metal leakage. The higher proportion of sewage sludge in the cover layer the more N and P and less metals is released. The leakage decreases with time. Plant establishment in general decreases the leakage of metals and nutrients, especially by decreasing the amount of leakage water. Because of great amounts of nitrate in sewage sludge plants with a high uptake of nitrate is to prefer to decrease the nitrogen leakage. Some plant species can loosen up the surface of hardened fly ash, and in that way influence the sealing layer structure. This may lead to increased breaking down of secondary minerals, which can be important for the stability of the sealing layer. It is possible that excretion of sacharids from plant roots can increase shattering of ash, and that such exudation increases in the presence of ash. Estimation of the resistance needed to avoid root penetration were made to approx2,5 MPa. Addition of sewage sludge increases the risk of root penetration of a sealing layer. Since roots can affect a thin sealing layer a thickness of approximately 0.5 meter is recommended

  17. Bed agglomeration risk related to combustion of cultivated fuels (wheat straw, red canary grass, industrial hemp) in commercial bed materials; Baeddagglomereringsrisk vid foerbraenning av odlade braenslen (hampa, roerflen, halm) i kommersiella baeddmaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhardsson, Thomas; Oehman, Marcus; Geyter, Sigrid de; Oehrstroem, Anna

    2006-12-15

    The market of forest products is expanding and thus resulting in more expensive biomass fuels. Therefore research within the combustion industry for alternative fuels is needed, for example cultivated fuels. Combustion and gasification research on these cultivated fuels are limited. The objectives of this work was to increase the general knowledge of silicon rich cultivated fuels by study the agglomeration characteristics for wheat straw, reed canary grass and industrial hemp in combination with commercial bed materials. Controlled fluidized bed agglomeration tests was conducted in a 5 kW, bench-scale, bubbling fluidized bed reactor. The tendencies of agglomeration were determined with the three cultivated fuels in combination with various minerals present in natural sand (quarts, plagioclase and potassium feldspar) and an alternative bed material (olivine). During the experiments bed samples and formed agglomerates were collected for further analyses with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and with X-ray microanalysis (EDS). Wheat straw had the highest agglomeration tendency of the studied fuels followed by reed canary grass and industrial hemp. No significant layer formation was found around the different bed particles. Instead, the ash forming matter were found as individual ash sticky (partial melted) particles in the bed. The bed material mineralogical composition had no influence of the agglomeration process because of the non layer formation propensities of the used silicon rich fuels.

  18. A study of working conditions at biogas extraction, garbage sorting, and handling of hazardous wastes; En studie av arbetsmiljoen vid deponigasutvinning, sortering av avfall och hantering av miljoefarligt avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez de Davila, E

    1992-09-01

    Work environments at landfill gas plants were studied. In the pump station and compressor station, equipment is installed which gives an alarm at high concentration of methane, dangerous temperatures and pressure variation in the landfill gas. Risk for gas collection exists in enclosed spaces such as gas wells and leachate wells. The report proposes measures to improve the personnel`s safety at all work situations in these locations. The strong odour from waste constitutes a problem for compactor drivers and workers laying gas pipes or digging gas wells. Several organic compounds such as methanethiol, dimethyl sulphide, ethyl butanoate etc. with a very low odour threshold are formed by degradation of waste and these compounds are strong-smelling. Several suggestions on how to improve the working conditions at the biocells are given in this report. The highest concentrations of dust were measured during tipping of waste into a receiving bunker or on the unloading platform. This report suggests how to reduce exposure to organic dust, bacteria and endotoxins. During recent years, several landfills has started to use leachate for irrigation of energy forests. As leachate contains microorganisms, the spreading of aerosols should be limited so that personnel is not exposed to leachate mists during spray irrigation. In this study, the occupational accidents and diseases that has occurred in the landfills were compiled. An increase of the frequency of injuries has been observed in recent years (1986-1990). Sprains and dislocations were the most common type of occupational injuries among all reported accidents. Musculoskeletal diseases dominated among the registered occupational diseases. 21 refs.

  19. A study of working conditions at biogas extraction, garbage sorting, and handling of hazardous wastes. En studie av arbetsmiljoen vid deponigasutvinning, sortering av avfall och hantering av miljoefarligt avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez de Davila, E

    1992-01-01

    Work environments at landfill gas plants were studied. In the pump station and compressor station, equipment is installed which gives an alarm at high concentration of methane, dangerous temperatures and pressure variation in the landfill gas. Risk for gas collection exists in enclosed spaces such as gas wells and leachate wells. The report proposes measures to improve the personnel's safety at all work situations in these locations. The strong odour from waste constitutes a problem for compactor drivers and workers laying gas pipes or digging gas wells. Several organic compounds such as methanethiol, dimethyl sulphide, ethyl butanoate etc. with a very low odour threshold are formed by degradation of waste and these compounds are strong-smelling. Several suggestions on how to improve the working conditions at the biocells are given in this report. The highest concentrations of dust were measured during tipping of waste into a receiving bunker or on the unloading platform. This report suggests how to reduce exposure to organic dust, bacteria and endotoxins. During recent years, several landfills has started to use leachate for irrigation of energy forests. As leachate contains microorganisms, the spreading of aerosols should be limited so that personnel is not exposed to leachate mists during spray irrigation. In this study, the occupational accidents and diseases that has occurred in the landfills were compiled. An increase of the frequency of injuries has been observed in recent years (1986-1990). Sprains and dislocations were the most common type of occupational injuries among all reported accidents. Musculoskeletal diseases dominated among the registered occupational diseases. 21 refs.

  20. Svensk yttrandefrihet i ett EU-perspektiv : - Hur svenska medborgare kan komma att få ett svagare meddelarskydd och ensamansvar ioch med EG-rättens konflikt med svensk grundlag vid grundlagsregleringen 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Boode, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    AbstractTitle: Swedish freedom of speech compared to european freedom of speechNumber of pages: 57Author: Gabriella BoodeTutor: Göran SvenssonCourse: Media and Communication Studies CPeriod: Spring 2009University: Division of Media and Communication, Department of Information Science,Uppsala UniversityPurpose/Aim: The purpose with the dissertation is to see if there has been a limitation inSwedish freedom of speech since parts of the European union laws is superiour to theSwedish constitution...

  1. Turbulence and heat transfer in condensate in drying cylinders at high g-forces. Phase 2; Turbulens och vaermeoeverfoering i kondensat i torkcylindrar vid hoega g-krafter. Fas 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenstroem, Stig; Ingvarsson, David [Lund Inst. of Tech. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-02-15

    During paper drying a condensate layer is formed on the inside surface of the rotating cylinder which acts as resistance for heat transfer through the cylinder. The heat transfer resistance in the condensate layer is mainly dependant on the layer thickness and the turbulence in the layer. Consequently the resistance increases with higher cylinder speeds due to increased centrifugal forces and thus reduced turbulence in the layer. In order to minimize the influence of condensate on the heat transfer process the cylinder used in Phase 1 has been equipped with axial grooves. The aim of the project has been to study the water movement in the cylinder and to investigate how the drying capacity is influenced by condensate accumulating in the grooves rather than moving along the smooth surface of a paper dryer cylinder. This knowledge should be considered preferably before construction of cylinders for new machines. For existing machines with smooth cylinders the importance of axial vertical flanges for improved heat transfer has been investigated. In addition the capacity of stationary siphons has been evaluated. The results are of importance for the manufacturers of paper machines as well as the producing newsprint and printing paper companies. According to the results from the experiments the water flows mainly in the grooves, assuming that the number of grooves and that the dimensions of the grooves are adjusted to the water load. Then the surfaces between the grooves can be considered as completely dry unlike in a smooth cylinder where the surfaces more or less are covered with a thin layer of condensate. Furthermore the centrifugal force helps the water to flow down into the grooves. Consequently a high water flow will rely on a high cylinder speed in order to keep the water flowing into the axial grooves. The computer simulations show that the drying capacity increases with up to 46 % in dryer cylinders provided with axial grooves compared to smooth cylinders, assuming that the condensate will flow down into the grooves as the results from the experiments indicate. Moreover the heat transfer process is hardly affected by the design of the grooves, because the heat flow through the surfaces between the grooves determines the overall heat transfer through the cylinder. If the drying capacity on the other hand is maintained at the same level the steam pressures can be reduced. Compared with an expansion from 60 bar and 450 C to 2.7 bar this results in an increased power production by 13 % if the pressurised steam is allowed to expand to a lower pressure in the turbine. Existing smooth cylinders should be equipped with flanges resulting in an increased drying capacity of 25 %. The experiments with a stationary siphon indicate that the area of the siphon inlet should be the same as the area of the subsequent tube. Furthermore the recovered dynamic pressure is proved to be dependant on the cylinder speed squared. In Phase 2 of the project proposals to improve the heat transfer in new and existing cylinder dryers have been presented. The conclusion is that the goals in Phase 2 of the project have been reached.

  2. Evaluation of a new SNCR intermixing technique applied on a waste incinerator at Uppsala Energi (System ROTAMIX{sup TM}); Utvaerdering av ny SNCR inblandningsteknik vid avfallspanna hos Uppsala Energi (System ROTAMIX{sup TM})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moberg, G [Mobotec AB (Sweden); Sollenberg, H; Westas, H [Uppsala Energi AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-04-01

    A good intermixing of reductants in the exhaust gas is essential for good combustion and high NO{sub x} reduction. Good intermixing cuts down on the levels of reducing chemicals required for NO{sub x} reduction. Conventional SNCR is built on intermixing of reductants through a series of lances which are mounted to cover several cross sectional areas of the furnace. System ROTAMIX{sup TM} is a technique based on premixing the SNCR chemicals with air before entering the furnace by rotation. As a consequence, fewer numbers of mixing nozzles are needed. As a result; The investment cost can be kept down. Also the creation of unwanted byproducts are reduced. The reason for this is that a homogeneous mixture of gases inside the furnace results in more even temperature distribution through the cross-section of the furnace. Increasing the effectiveness of the reductants, so reducing the levels of chemicals required and so reducing the unwanted by-products. Furthermore; System ROTAMIX reduces levels of NO{sub x} by a further 50% over existing SNCR technology system; An increase in efficiency carried by needed lower levels of excess air; The actual levels of NO{sub x} are down to as low as 120-125 mg/MJ without the need for any addition, reducing chemical with Rotating Over Fire Air (ROFA). 4 figs, 9 tabs, 18 appendices

  3. Results from a full scale application of ashes and other residuals in the final cover construction of the Tveta landfill; Utvaerdering av fullskaleanvaendning av askor och andra restprodukter vid sluttaeckning av Tveta Aatervinningsanlaeggning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tham, Gustav (Telge AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden)); Andreas, Lale (Luleaa Univ. of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden))

    2008-06-15

    In 2000 Telge Aatervinning - a waste management and recycling company - started investigating ashes from incineration of industrial and biowaste waste. The company was given a permit from the Swedish Environmental Court to cover four hectares of the house hold waste landfill area. In 2006 the company received an unlimited permit to cover the remaining part of the landfill when the works end some thirty years later. Ashes were used the first time in 1966 for testing. Literature studies indicated the ashes can have a low hydraulic conductivity under certain conditions. In 1999 collaboration started with the Division of Waste Science and Technology at Luleaa University of Technology. Residuals from household and industrial waste were subject to investigation. Initially, biowaste incineration products were subject to testing and were later extended to other waste products, e.g. sludge, contaminated soils, foundry, and compost material. Several different sub-fractions of ashes were included in the investigation e.g. bottom and fly ash, various slag products after up-grading including dewatering, separation and sifting. Subsequently, a complete covering system of a landfill consists of residuals. Six test areas were outlined in order to give a good representation for cover construction in flat and steep areas with different compositions of liner material. The results show that in all areas the hydraulic conductivity construction yields less then 50 liters per square meters and years and can be less the than 5 liters in a repository for hazardous waste if required. In accordance with literature data the field observations show the liner material constructed only by ash material under certain conditions can form a monolithic structure due to very slow processes thus indicating small pore volumes that unable water air to interact with other media. The concept of using ash can be related to natural analogues of volcanic ashes and has been used in old defence walls and other buildings thousand years back. The last part of the report brings a number of topics for future research and a discussion about problems to with the authorities to use residuals for covering landfills

  4. Turbulence and heat transfer in condensate in drying cylinders at high g-forces. Phase 1; Turbulens och vaermeoeverfoering i kondensat i torkcylindrar vid hoega g-krafter. Fas 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenstroem, Stig; Ingvarsson, David [Lund Inst. of Tech. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2005-09-01

    Drying of paper is performed by bringing the paper into contact with a hot cylinder surface so that the water in the web is evaporated. The energy needed to heat the drying cylinder is supplied with condensing steam creating a condensate layer on the inside surface of the cylinder. For fast paper machines, the condensate layer will be close to stagnant, thus constituting a significant resistance for the heat transfer process from the steam to the paper. The traditional technique to improve the heat transfer has been to install turbulence bars on the inside surface of the cylinder but at machine speeds of up to 2000 m/min this technique is not sufficiently efficient. The goal in the project has been to study the condensate behaviour in drying cylinders at high centrifugal forces and explore different methods to improve the heat transfer in the condensate for both new and existing fast paper machines so that the capacity in the dryer section can be maintained at a high level. The results are of importance for the manufacturers of paper machines as well as the producing newsprint and printing paper companies. The project has been divided in the following parts: - Literature survey of techniques to increase the heat transfer in condensate and the removal of condensate with siphons. - Develop knowledge about the condensate behaviour in rotating cylinders at high g-forces with and without spoiler bars. This has been accomplished by designing a new cylinder where the condensate velocity relative to the cylinder could be measured at centrifugal forces corresponding to the levels today reached at fast paper machines. Such data have previously not been reported in the literature. - Present solutions for the design of the inside surface of the drying cylinder so that high heat transfer rates can be accomplished in fast paper machines. Solutions should be presented both for existing as well as new paper machines. The results in the project show that at centrifugal forces of over 40g, the condensate layer is stagnant in both smooth and cylinders equipped with spoiler bars. For new machines improved heat transfer can be accomplished by providing the cylinders with axial grooves while for existing cylinders the inner surface of the cylinder should be provided with flanges. Assuming that all the condensate is collected in the grooves, the calculations show that the drying capacity for a cylinder with grooves could be increased with up to 60 % compared with a smooth cylinder with 1 mm of condensate and with 22% compared with a cylinder equipped with spoiler bars. Recommendations for improved heat transfer have been presented for both new and existing machines. New data for the condensate flow at high centrifugal forces has been presented in the project.

  5. Emission of hydrocarbons and NO{sub x} at low levels of excess air in CFB; Emissioner av kolvaeten och NO{sub x} vid laaga luftoeverskott i CFB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, R [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1995-06-01

    Low NO{sub x} operation at low excess air levels heighten the risk of increasing the level of hazardous and polluting emissions from the boiler. These emissions are mainly of two types, greenhouse gases and the mutageneous compounds. The aim of this project has been to show which types of emissions and their correlation you can expect when firing a CFB at low excess air levels. Results: The NO{sub x} emission decreases asymptotically with increased CO-level. High load gives higher NO{sub x} -emissions. There is no significant difference in average NO{sub x} value between wood fuel and RDF-mix. The total hydrocarbon (THC) emission level increases exponentially with increased CO{sub l}evel. There was no significant difference between wood and RDF-mix. Measurements of NO{sub x}, O2, CO (dry gas) and THC were made each second. The measurements of light hydrocarbons (VOC) showed only methane and ethene, both with a good correlation to CO. Below 1000 ppm of CO there is practically no ethene. Above 1000-2000 ppm of CO there is a rapidly increasing emission of ethene. The emission levels at given CO-level are influenced by the furnace temperature. The POM, PNA and Ames test analysis showed good correlation with CO and THC. The results indicate an emission increase at about 200-500 ppm of CO and 10-20 ppm of THC. Dioxin was measured on three occasions with RDF-mix as fuel. The measurements showed an increase of dioxin emission at increased THC-emission. The supply of ammonia, into the flue gas before the cyclones, gave no significant change in hydrocarbon or CO-emission levels. CO, THC and Ames Test are probably good indicators of environmental hazardous compounds. The amount of mutageneous compounds are in general only increased when a certain level of CO is reached. 6 refs, 45 figs, 5 tabs, 7 appendices

  6. Environmental monitoring at the nuclear power plants and Studsvik 1994. Results from measurements of radionuclide concentrations in environmental samples; Omgivningskontroll vid kaernkraftverken och Studsvik 1994. Resultat fraan maetningar av radionuklidhalter i miljoeprover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengtson, P.; Larsson, C.M.; Luening, M.

    1996-04-01

    As expected, marine samples from the vicinity of the power plants show detectable radionuclide concentrations, caused by the discharges from the plants. Very low concentrations are noted in the terrestrial samples. At several locations, the effects of the Chernobyl disaster still dominate. 12 refs, tabs.

  7. České vězeňství viděné optikou veřejného mínění

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselský, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2009), s. 3-12 ISSN 1214-438X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : prison system * imprisonment * public opinion Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://www.cvvm.cas.cz

  8. Estudio de la interacción entre el hongo formado de micorrizas arbusculares "Glomus intraradices" Schenck y Smith y el hongo patógeno "Armillaria mellea (Vahl:fr)" P.Kuhn en vid

    OpenAIRE

    Nogales García, Amaia Miren

    2009-01-01

    El síndrome de replante es consecuencia de una explotación continua y repetida del terreno en el que los problemas de estrés, principalmente de origen patogénico, juegan un papel importante. En los viñedos españoles, el hongo Armillaria mellea que produce la podredumbre blanca de raíz, está considerado como una de sus principales causas. Existen pocas medidas de control disponibles, puesto que no hay portainjertos comerciales que confieran resistencia frente a A. mellea, y la fumigación del s...

  9. Flue gas wells to minimize dust and acidic components in small-scale burning of field fuel, further development; Roekgasbrunn foer minimering av stoft och sura komponenter vid smaaskalig foerbraenning av aakerbraenslen, vidareutveckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yngvesson, Johan; Roennbaeck, Marie; Arkeloev, Olof

    2011-01-15

    Agricultural derived solid fuels are more problematic to combust in small-scale heating plants than conventional wood fuels. Their high content of ash, chlorine and sulphur leads to increased emissions of dust, sulphur dioxide and hydrogen chloride in the flue gases. By transporting the flue gases to a flue gas well where it condenses, and separates dust and sour components, enables a cost effective flue gas purification for small-scale heating plants (50 kW - 10 MW) of agricultural derived solid fuels. This project have studied two heating plants using flue gas wells with the aim to add to the knowledge about how a flue gas wells may look like and to quantify how much emissions of dust, chlorine and sulphur in the flue gases are reduced. The project also aimed to summon regulations and laws regarding the handling of the condensate that develop in the flue gas well. In the project measures were conducted on two different heating plants with mounted flue gas wells: a 60 kW biofuels boiler combusting grains and red canary grass and a 1 MW batch fired boiler combusting wheat straw. Measurements on flue gases were conducted with and without water injection in the flue gases. The flue gas wells reduced dust emissions of up to 80 %. The best reduction was achieved at the 60 kW heating plant when firing red canary grass. Firing grains in the same plant lead to 7 % reduction of the dust emissions. In the 1 MW heating plant firing wheat straw the flue gas well accomplished 40 % reduction of dust emissions. The boiler ability to achieve complete combustion, hence minimize the content of volatile and semi-volatile components in the flue gas, is largely affecting the flue gas well ability to reduce dust emissions. This did not, however, affect the reduction of dust in the flue. Chlorine emissions was reduced by up to 88 % by a flue gas well. Water injection made a big difference on reduction of chlorine emission from grain combustion. Sulphur emissions was reduced by 50 %, from wheat straw combustion, by a flue gas well. No reduction of sulphur was achieved from grains combustion in the 60 kW heating plant and water injection had little or no effect on the reduction rate. As the condensate was very acetic and potentially erosive an ejector fan was used to cool down the flue gases enough to enable acid resilient plastic pipes to be used for the flue gas canal. The well was drained of condensate continuously and the piping must be sweeped with regular intervals to prevent blockage of the flue gas. Plants below 20 MW is excluded from national regulations on activity emission regarding flue gas condensate. The Swedish Environmental Code does however place the responsibility for preventing harm to nature upon the practicer. The possibilities of managing the condensate from the flue gas well are spillage to a manure reservoir for spreading it as fertilization on farmland, or spillage directly to receiving waters. The later method require neutralization of the pH, commonly by using sodium hydroxide, but possibly also limestone

  10. Effects of Fluidization Velocity and Bed Particle Size on Bed Defluidization during Biomass Combustion in FB boilers; Effekten av fluidiseringshastighet och kornstorlek paa agglomereringsrisk vid biobraensleeldning i FB-pannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Morgan; Oehman, Marcus [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Applied Physics and Electronics; Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    Studies on the effect of bed particle size and fluidization velocity on the agglomeration/defluidization risk during biomass combustion in BFB/CFB plants have not previously been published. Therefore, the objective of this project has been to determine the influence of these two parameters on the risk for agglomeration in typical biofuel fired fluidized beds. The study has also resulted in information on how variations in the coating characteristics of the bed particles are depending on the fuel ash content and the particle size of the bed material. Furthermore, the conditions at large scale commercial plants have been surveyed with respect to the choice of bed material, fluidization velocity, bed sand consumption etc. Bed materials have been sampled from seven full-scale boilers, four CFB and three BFB. The samples have been sieved to achieve sieve curves, analyzed with respect to the coating characteristics, and studied by experiments in a bench-scale fluidized bed. It could be concluded from the analyses that there are no significant differences in the coating thickness or the coating composition between fine and coarse particles in the bed samples. The bench-scale agglomeration experiments showed that increased fluidization velocity results in bed agglomeration at a higher temperature. This effect was stronger at relatively low fluidization velocities. The fluidization velocity has probably no significant effect on the risk for agglomeration at normal gas velocities in a commercial CFB boiler. Though, it could have an influence on the agglomeration in for example the recycling part of a CFB, where the gas velocity is relatively low. Also in BFB-boilers the fluidization velocity is often low enough to have a significant effect on the risk for agglomeration. By the experiments in this project it has not been possible to determine if the bed particle size has an influence on the agglomeration. Further studies with modified methods are required to find out if the bed particle size has an effect on the risk for agglomeration. The interviews with people at commercial plants have shown that the BFB boilers Idbaecken and Alloeverket have experience of particle size influence on the agglomeration in large-scale plants. Fine sand seems to agglomerate easier than coarse sand. In practice there is also an indirect effect since the bed particle size has a significant influence on the choice of fluidization velocity. The experiments also indicate that the fuel has an effect on the risk for agglomeration, coal and peat in the fuel mix increase the defluidization temperature while forestry residues and short rotation forestry seem to have the opposite effect.

  11. Vad utgör en god arbetsmilljö? : En jämförelse mellan arbetsgivare och anställda vid kommunala bolag i Umeå

    OpenAIRE

    Åström, Lovisa

    2017-01-01

    What constitutes a good working environment? - A comparison between employers and employees of municipal companies in Umeå Lovisa Åström Abstract The knowledge of the work environment´s importance has grown bigger by the years, especially the value of the psychosocial environment. According to the Swedish work environment law all workplaces today must attain a systematic working environment. However not all employers understand the importance of this working method. The purpose of this study...

  12. Čínské vidění světa – ideologické pozadí tributárních vztahů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubý, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 2 (2017), s. 27-36 ISSN 0029-5302 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-21829S Institutional support: RVO:68378009 Keywords : Imperial China * diplomacy * tributary relations * Chinese world order Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  13. V ropě vidím kritický neuralgický bod západní civilizace : rozhovor s Václavem Cílkem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bojar, T.; Cílek, Václav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 302 (2008), s. 18-20 ISSN 1213-1911 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : oil * petroleum * energy * civilization Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.novyprostor.cz/casopis/pdf/302.pdf

  14. Influencia del manejo del suelo y las coberturas vegetales en el microclima de la canopia de la vid, la composición de la uva y el vino

    OpenAIRE

    Nazrala, Jorge José Bautista

    2008-01-01

    Para determinar la influencia del manejo del suelo sobre la composición de la uva y el vino se estableció un experimento en un viñedo de Cabernet Sauvignon conducido en doble cordón de pitones en espaldero alto. Se aplicaron tres tratamientos: TR-suelo sin maleza; CVP-cobertura de suelo espontánea y control del desarrollo vegetativo por desbrozado y CA-cobertura de flora espontánea y control del desarrol...

  15. Optimal integration of energy at the Combined Energy Plant in Norrkoeping -Integration of steam, hot water and district heat to biogas plants; Optimal integrering av energianvaendningen vid energikombinatet i Norrkoeping -Integrering av aanga, hetvatten och fjaerrvaerme till biogasanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjaminsson, Johan; Goldschmidt, Barbara; Uddgren, Roger

    2010-09-15

    The background of this report is to investigate and highlight the benefits of establishing a biogas plant nearby a combined energy plant where steam and district heat is available. By using heat from the combined energy plant, more biogas can be produced as vehicle fuel instead of being used as fuel to heat the digester, the biogas upgrading plant or the dryer. The project's objective is to analyze where it is interesting with integration of heat to the biogas plant and to compare alternative technologies and possible integration options. The stakeholders of the study are industries with access to organic matter for biogas production and heat producers who can deliver thermal energy into biogas plants. The project was implemented by collection of information from the Haendeloe combined energy plant outside Norrkoeping where there is a cogeneration plant, an ethanol plant and a biogas plant. Case studies for the study have been carried out with proposals regarding how heat flows from the power plant and ethanol plant can be further integrated with the biogas plant. As case studies, both the current design of the biogas plant, as well as a fictional case in which half of all distillery residues was digested, have been evaluated. The case studies show that in today's biogas plant it is not economical to replace the existing biogas upgrading unit with water absorption to chemical absorption. The upgrading cost with water absorption at today's smaller facility is 0.11 kr/kWh and in order to obtain the same total cost of chemical absorption a steam price of 0.15 kr/kWh is required. For large gas flows, chemical absorption is an advantage since the technology is more suitable for upscaling in comparison with water absorption that must be delivered in multiple lines. Nevertheless, a possibility to recover waste heat from chemical absorption is necessary if the technology shall be competitive. If waste heat from both water absorption and chemical absorption may be recovered, both technologies have a biogas upgrading cost of 0.05 kr/kWh for large gas flows. When no waste heat can be recovered, the biogas upgrading cost of water absorption and chemical absorption is 0.07 and 0.10 kr/ kWh respectively. For the realization of large biogas plants, it is essential to find mechanisms for dealing with bio-manure. The report has studied a system with concentration of pellets by mechanical dewatering, evaporation, drying, and pelleting. The study shows that the concentration costs 1800 - 2100 kr/tonnes of pellets, depending on the design of the drying plant. The energy price for pellets has to be around 0.40 to 0.50 kr/kWh if the concentration shall not be a cost, according to case studies. The nutrient content of biomanure pellets with today's fertilizer prices corresponds to almost 1300 kr/tonne. Drying of distillery residues with today's system, in comparison with using half of the distillerys residues to biogas production, has been compared in the report. The sensitivity analysis shows that the two concepts with today's conditions give equivalent results

  16. Påverkar jordbruk flödet av akvatiska insekter till land? : Effekter av jordbruk på akvatiskt tillflöde till land vid norrländska bäckar

    OpenAIRE

    Fältström, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Streams and riparian zone are closely linked by reciprocal flows of energy and nutrients. A large part of the transportation from water to land is in form of emerged aquatic insects. Conversion of land from forest to agriculture can greatly affect aquatic ecosystems, and due to the close link, also affect the adjacent terrestral zone. Investigating how the presence of agriculture in the surrounding area affects amounts of emergent aquatic insects gives an indication on how agriculture, in tur...

  17. The influence of particle shape on the combustion properties and emission of nitrogen oxides when using pulverized biofuels; Partikelformens betydelse foer foerbraenningsegenskaper och utslaepp av kvaeveoxider (NO{sub x}) vid anvaendning av biobraenslepulver 970701-991231

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastberg, Susanne; Nilsson, Calle [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden

    2000-08-01

    The objectives of the project are: 1. to make a detailed fuel characterisation of wood- and reed canary-grass powder with respect to particle size distribution and particle shape, 2. to compare the result from this characterisation with a more quick and simple field method, 3. to perform studies of how the powder characteristics influences combustion performance and emissions and to define critical parameters using a 150 kW powder burner, and 4. to make more detailed flame studies by simulations. This report gives the result from the project covering 970701-991231 and includes the installation and function verification of the 150 kW powder burner using wood and reed canary grass powder. It also includes a performance test using wood powder utilising experimental design and parameter study. In addition characterisation of powder fuel from various mills by sieving, laser diffraction and image analysis is reported. The results shows that after some minor modifications the burner performed well, the ignition of the powder was easy and a stable combustion was achieved. Optimisation with wood powder showed stable, low emission levels at an air excess of 4-5 % (mean values CO 30-40 ppm, HC 2-3 ppm, NO 40-50 mg/MJ). These emissions were obtained using a low level of secondary air and high primary and tertiary air levels. Three different industrial mills were tested for reed canary-grass. A preliminary combustion test was performed, however not showing the same stable emission levels as for wood powder. Mean CO and HC were low but peaks were noted for CO. The combustion chamber became covered with porous slag products due to the ash composition and high ash content of the fuel. For powder characterisation the techniques sieving, laser diffraction and image analysis were used on different powder qualities obtained using lab mills as well as industrial mills. Valving experiments were also performed. Principal component analysis was used for evaluation of the results from image analysis. The results using the three different characterisation methods show that there are certain differences in the powder obtained from the various mills. Also the valving tendency showed wide variation between the different powder fuels. In general, powder from a knife mill gave the best handling characteristics.

  18. Particle size distribution of ashes and the behaviour of metals when firing Salix in a circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFB); Askans partikelfraktionsfoerdelning och metallernas beteende vid eldning av Salix i en CFB-panna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfiris, G; Johansson, A [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Valmari, T; Kauppinen, E; Pyykoenen, J; Lyyraenen, J [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    This project is part of the Ash Recovery Programme aimed at establishing the environmental, technical and financial preconditions for returning wood ash to the forest. The programme is funded jointly by NUTEK, Sydkraft and Vattenfall. This report summarises the results of the experimental and modelling work to study the behaviour of the metals (especially Cd and K), after burning Salix in a 3-12 MW Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler. The purpose of the study was to determine, using the experimental data, where cadmium and potassium condense, on what size particles they condense, and the decisive parameters governing these processes. Measurements of the fly ash particle size distribution carried out with a Berner Low Pressure Impactor (BLPI), coupled to a pre-cyclone. Samples were collected from three points: in the convection path at 650 deg C, after the convection path but before the secondary cyclone (160 deg C), and after the bag house (150 deg C). Wet chemical sampling was made for Cd, K, Zn and Pb, with three types of sampling equipment: collection of both particles and gas, collection of particles only, and analysis of the gas phase only. Analysis was made of samples from two places in the convection path (650 deg C and 250 deg C). Samples of bed material, bottom ash and fly ash have been subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and in addition a few fly ash particles, sampled after the convection path, were subjected to energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Based on experimental results, modelling work was carried out with an equilibrium model and with a general aerosol computer model ABC (Aerosol Behaviour in Combustion)

  19. Lādētu daļiņu kustības magnētiskā laukā 3D modelēšana OpenFOAM vidē

    OpenAIRE

    Venčels, Juris

    2013-01-01

    Darbā tiek aplūkota aprēķinu programmas izveide un tās funkcionalitāte elektriskā un magnētiskā lauka modelēšanai trijās dimensijās, izmantojot magnētiskā vektorpotenciāla “A, V-A” formulējumu. Programma veidota uz atvērtā koda bibliotēkas OpenFOAM bāzes. Rezultāti salīdzināti ar programmas FEMM aksiāl-simetriskajiem aprēķiniem. Programma nodrošina multi-reģionu aprēķinus, iespēju vienlaicīgi modelēt dažādus procesus, uzdot fizikālu lielumu atkarību no citiem lielumiem. Programma modelē el...

  20. Silver Games : étude des facteurs humains dans le développement de jeux vidéos adaptés aux personnes âgées

    OpenAIRE

    Legouverneur, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    For many years, research in the field of aging has focused on understanding this complex phenomenon and identifying solutions to medical, economic, psychological or sociological issues linked to it. In this context, the aim of this thesis was to identify factors that facilitate the use of video games as a medium for cognitive stimulation in older adults. To answer this question, two studies were carried out: the first one focused on exploring the gameplay of the Nintendo Wii, and the second o...

  1. Follow-up for the years 2000-2002 of productivity studies for the operation of CLAB; Uppfoeljning foer aaren 2000-2002 av undersoekning av produktivitetsutvecklingen vid driften av CLAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, Haakan [AaF-Energi and Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    SKB hands every year over, on behalf of the power companies, to SKI a cost calculation for spent fuel handling and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. SKI has tried to investigate the future impact which the growth of money in the Nuclear Waste Fund might give in relation to the change of consumer price index, CPI. The long term yield of the Fund has been related to the change of CPI, as the bigger part of the fund money has been invested in real interest rate bonds, issued by the Swedish state. The cost development has been studied with an index named 'KBS-3-index', which is a basket of weighted factor price indexes based on the SKB programme. Since 1986 and up to 2002, the KBS-3-index has increased about 102%, but CPI only about 70%. If this discrepancy should continue during the whole period when Fund money should be available, the Fund would be insufficient. But the difference between KBS-3-index and CPI might be eliminated due to a future productivity development. At the moment, SKI has no knowledge about future productivity development in the SKB programme. A closer analysis of the productivity and efficiency development in the facilities operated by SKB is therefore applicable. Nearest to study is the productivity at the operation of CLAB, Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel. The work in CLAB is receiving and storing of spent nuclear fuel and core components. The consumption of all production factors can be measured in economical means. Here the total production factors are defined as the sum of the annual operation costs and the sum of annuities for reinvestments during the year. The development of total productivity is increasing slightly, but decreasing in the end. Normal for a new business is that the productivity is rising sharply in the beginning. Here the productivity is slightly decreasing in the beginning, and then rising, decreasing, rising and finally decreasing. The project 'compact storing' was finished in 1992, and the relocation to compact cassettes started in 1993. This is said to be the reason for the large decrease in total productivity that time. The relatively low productivity in 1997 is said to depend on failure of the gearbox in the cassette handling machine. Productivity increases with increased production, is the general experience from industry. The high productivity in 1998 coincides with a big production the same year. The compact storing terminated in 2002. That is the reason for the decrease in productivity then. The reason for the increased productivity up to 2002 is better technology and larger production. CLAB is lacking competition. However, the free power market has depressed the power prices. Analogous it can be expected that CLAB is experiencing a pressure to get the costs down and continue the efforts to increase the productivity. Suitable measures are review of operations, the opening to competition for parts of the works and benchmarking. An important task for CLAB is to decrease the residual heat and radiation from the fuel. From that point of view, the productivity is increasing all the time. That depends on the costs which are rather constant, but the amount of fuel stored is increasing until time for placing it in the repository. The operation of the encapsulation plant and the deep repository as well as the decommissioning service operation could be compared with the operation of CLAB.

  2. Construction Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    Detta pilotprojekt utgör första steget i etableringen av ett samarbete mellan avdelningen för Byggnadsekonomi, vid Lunds Tekniska Högskola, och sektionen for Planlægning og Ledelse af Byggeprocesser, vid Danmarks Tekniska Universitet. Dessa båda avdelningar är varandras ämnesmässiga motsvarighete...

  3. Blended learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staugaard, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Forsøg på at indkredse begrebet blended learning i forbindelse med forberedelsen af projekt FlexVid.......Forsøg på at indkredse begrebet blended learning i forbindelse med forberedelsen af projekt FlexVid....

  4. Flexvidere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle; Lolle, Elisabeth Lauridsen; Jensen, Charlotte Heigaard

    ”FlexVidere” har som arbejdstitel haft ”FlexVid Bog 2”, fordi det er en opfølgning på den tekstantologi, vi udsendte i første fase af projekt FlexVid, et forsknings og udviklingsprojekt om fleksible arbejdsformer i videregående uddannelser med udstrakt anvendelse af digitale medier. Udgivelsen fr...

  5. Characterization of Vertical Impact Device Acceleration Pulses Using Parametric Assessment: Phase II Accelerated Free-Fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    support contractor , Infoscitex, conducted a series of tests to identify the performance capabilities of the Vertical Impact Device (VID). The VID is a...C. Table 3. AFD Evaluation with Red IMPAC Programmer: Data Summary Showing Means and Standard Deviations Test Cell Drop Ht . (in) Mean Peak

  6. Jak se vidíme, jak nás vidí a jací jsme: porovnání českého národního auto- a heterostereotypu s posuzováním reálných Čechů v kontextu pětifaktorového modelu osobnosti

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hřebíčková, Martina; Kouřilová, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2012), s. 1-17 ISSN 0009-062X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : national auto - and heterostereotypes * accuracy of national stereotypes * five-factor model of personality Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.244, year: 2012

  7. Migrering av en webbsida från Joomla! till WordPress.

    OpenAIRE

    Konu, Tommi

    2013-01-01

    Denna rapport bygger på examensarbetet för Högskoleexamen i Medieteknik vid Umeå Universitet.Examensarbetet har utförts med VK Effekt på uppdrag av Västerbottens-Kuriren. Denna rapport kommer att behandla en migrering mellan systemen Joomla! och WordPress.Rapportens syfte är att kortfattat berätta om vilka valmöjligheter som finns vid en migrering, samtdemonstrera och visa en av vägarna som kan tas vid en migrering av en hemsida mellan olika CMS. This report is based on the thesis for the...

  8. Wêreldmededingendheid en die tegnologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. I. Pistorius

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Afgesien van die interne uitdagings wat die Heropbou- en Ontwikkelingsprogram (HOP aan Suid-Afrika bied, moet die land ook tred hou met die veranderende globale omgewing, spesifiek die toenemende belangrikheid van ekonomiese sekuriteit as komponent van nasionale sekuriteit. Die konsep van mededingendheid vergestalt die doelwit wat nagestreef moet word ten einde die ontluikende globale ekonomiese stryd aan te durf. As ’n belangrike drywer van ekonomiese welvaart is tegnologie een van die belangrikste sleutels tot internasionale mededingendheid. Tegnologiese innovasie is die proses wat as hefboom hiervoor gebruik moet word. Dit is egter nodig dat tegnologie, en spesifiek die proses van tegnologiese innovasie, formeel en gestruktureerd bestuur moet word, sowel op nasionale as firmavlak. Op nasionale vlak is die voorsiene Nasionale Innovasiestelsel beslis ’n stap in die regte rigting.

  9. Builenbrand geeft opbrengst- en kwaliteitsverlies bij snijmais

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, van der C.

    1994-01-01

    In sterk aangetaste maos moet de voederwaarde met in-vitro-onderzoek worden vastgesteld. Door het lagere drogestofgehalte van aangetaste planten zijn de verliezen in de kuil groter dan bij een gezond gewas.

  10. Effect of high doses of equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... Key words: Equine chorionic gonadotrophin, follicular, ovulation, pregnancy, estrus synchronization, goat. ... This requires that the management practices take into account .... MOET, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer; PASW®, predictive analytics software; PMSG, pregnant mare serum gonadotropin.

  11. Slechts enkeling winkelt bewust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeusen, M.J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Negen op de tien mensen winkelen zonder nadenken. Slechts een kleine minderheid is actief op zoek naar informatie over duurzaamheid en dierenwelzijn. Eten moet vooral lekker, gezond, makkelijk en betaalbaar zijn, blijkt uit onderzoek van het LEI

  12. 07 Meyer 03.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    29 Jul 2010 ... geboorteplaas, moet die roman gelees word teen die agtergrond van die ontwikkeling van die plaasroman. ..... traumatic memory into narrative memory”. Die gevangenskap ..... Journal of Loss and Trauma,. 11: 321–35. Wylde ...

  13. AKSIE: BEESVLEISPRODUKSIE TOT DIE JAAR 2OO3

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    comminuted meats"' . Komponente van die lyfde kwart sal verbruikers- waarde kry. o verpakking en aanbieding sal meer gesofistikeerd moet wees om doeltreffende rakleeftyd en higiene te verseker en die verbruiker meer geleentheid tot ondersoek ...

  14. Praktijkervaringen met milieuvriendelijke maatregelen in de pluimveehouderij

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinholt, J.

    1993-01-01

    Het vinden van een balans tussen een beter milieu en een bedrijfszekere en rendabele pluimveehouderij is geen eenvoudige zaak. Dat hiervoor weleens enig leergeld betaald moet worden, moge blijken uit de ervaringen die zijn opgedaan op het pluimveeproefbedrijf te Beekbergen.

  15. Designing health care services using systems thinking : a theory, a method and their application in the Dutch community pharmacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broesamle, Timothy Cameron

    2013-01-01

    Het aanbieden van een zorgservice is complex. Zorgservices moeten functioneren in meervoudig veranderende omstandigheden. Er moet rekening worden gehouden met belemmeringen die bestaan door betrokkenheid van verschillende organisaties, zij moeten voldoen aan zorgstandaarden die zorgprofessionals

  16. Bloedzuigers in pluimveestallen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mul, M.F.; Mullens, B.A.; Koenraadt, S.

    2010-01-01

    De ornithonyssus sylviarum (noordelijke vogelmijt) vormt in de ons omringende landen een net zo groot probleem als de bloedluis (dermanyssus gallinae). Informatie over deze parasieten moet er toe leiden dat eigenaren van pluimvee ze beter gaan herkennen.

  17. Expertiseontwikkeling in een regionale projectgroep ‘begeleiding startende leraren’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dengerink, J.; Swennen, J.M.H.

    2015-01-01

    De tekst moet de volgende onderdelen bevatten: Onderzoeksdoel - Theoretisch kader - Onderzoeksmethode - (Beoogde) resultaten en/of onderbouwde conclusies - Wetenschappelijke betekenis van de bijdrage. Dit onderzoek gaat over de expertiseontwikkeling binnen een professionele leergemeenschap, in het

  18. Die naslaanpotensiaal van lemmakandidate vir ʼn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Afrikaans-woordeboek in die gedrukte medium plaas welbekende tradisionele beperkinge op die leksikograaf, waarvan die vernaamste dié op ruimte is. Gegee die konteks, teikengebruiker, gebruikersituasie en funksie van die woordeboek moet ...

  19. Longitudinale studie naar de aanwezigheid van legionella en amoeben in drinkwaterinstallaties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalk JAC; Redeker S; Docters van Leeuwen AE; Lodder WJ; de Roda Husman AM; LZO; cib

    2012-01-01

    In Nederland wordt bij prioritaire instellingen met collectieve leidingwaterinstallaties, zoals ziekenhuizen en verzorgingstehuizen, twee keer per jaar gecontroleerd of legionella in de waterleidingen aanwezig is. De concentratie legionellabacteriën in het water moet wettelijk lager zijn dan 100

  20. Verslag uit de jungle is ook jungle van papier : interview door Geertje Dekkers met Andreas Weber en Lambert Schomaker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    In de archieven van Naturalis in Leiden ligt een goudmijn te wachten op historici. Maar de 17 duizend pagina's aantekeningen van 19de-eeuwse wetenschappelijke avonturiers vormen een te grote kluif voor menselijke onderzoekers. Beeldherkenning moet uitkomst bieden.

  1. Roheline revolutsioon - ökosiki tagasitulek : well fashioned eco style in the UK

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Loodussõbralikust moest, ökoloogilistest materjalidest, jätkusuutlikest tootmismeetoditest moetööstuses, rõivaste taaskasutamisest. Briti ökodisainerite loomingu näitusest "Well Fashioned: Eco Fashion in the UK" Londonis

  2. Slimme monitor bindt strijd aan met bloedluis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mul, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Bloedluis of vogelmijt is een serieus probleem in de pluimveehouderij. De huidige bestrijdingsmiddelen bieden geen totaaloplossing. Binnen het project ‘Beheersen Bloedluisproblematiek’ wordt nu een slimme monitor ontwikkeld die pluimveehouders moet helpen om de bloedluisproblematiek op hun bedrijf

  3. Nederlands pensioenstelsel verre van af

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.

    2008-01-01

    Het Nederlandse pensioenstelsel wordt verblijd met een nieuw type pensioeninstelling, de API (Algemene Pensioeninstelling). In optimale vrijheid moet deze kunnen functioneren met een toezichtregime dat aansluit op zowel dat van verzekeraars als dat van pensioenfondsen. Het pensioenstelsel is daarmee

  4. Wel vocht afvoeren maar geen warmte: Wageningen UR-kassen in Bleiswijk gaan 'nauwkeurig kieren'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Uit onderzoek blijkt dat het kasklimaat ook bij gesloten schermen goed kan worden gestuurd. Voorwaarde is dat een teler de schermen en ramen op een kier kan zetten. Daarbij moet hij die kieren wel heel nauwkeurig kunnen instellen

  5. Bedrijven willen best aan bioplastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolck, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    Bioplastic kan een volwaardig alternatief voor conventioneel plastic zijn. Dan moet nog wel het gat tussen fundamenteel onderzoek en het gebruiksproduct gedicht worden. De vraag naar toegepast onderzoek en ontwikkelwerk is groot.

  6. TIG- en plasmalassen : VM 81

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.G. Essers

    2010-01-01

    Voor u ligt de voorlichtingspublicatie "TIG- en plasmalassen". Deze voorlichtingspublicatie is bedoeld voor allen die te maken hebben of te maken krijgen met toepassing van de betreffende verbindingstechnieken. Daarbij moet worden gedacht aan bijvoorbeeld constructeurs,

  7. Kwaliteitskosten door niet nuchter afleveren van vleesvarkens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskes, J.

    1998-01-01

    Voor het maken en verkopen van kwaliteitsham moet de vleeskwaliteit van het karkas na het slachten goed zijn. De vleesvarkenshouder speelt een belangrijke rol in het vormen van de juiste omstandigheden voor het verkrijgen van de gewenste vleeskwaliteit.

  8. 'Wees zuinig op vruchtbare grond'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hack-ten Broeke, M.J.D.

    2011-01-01

    In Zuid-Europa neemt de hoeveelheid organische stof in de grond af en dreigt verwoestijning. Noordwest-Europese landen kennen weer andere bodembedreigingen. ‘Europa moet zuinig zijn op haar goede landbouwgronden’, meent Mirjam Hack, onderzoeker bij Alterra.

  9. Rapport van het onderzoek naar de kosten, verbonden aan het bewaren van consumptie-aardappelen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anonymous,

    1941-01-01

    Het doel van deit rapport is vast te stellen hoe het verloop van den prijs van consumptie-aardappelen gedurende den winter en het voorjaar moet zijn om de gemaakte kosten en het verlies aan product goed te maken.

  10. Psychiatrie heeft kleinschaliger aanpak nodig : GGZ IS TEN ONDER GEGAAN AAN MARKTWERKING EN VERZUILING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bak, Maarten; Rasenberg, Tomy; Wijnands, Charles; Delespaul, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Door allerlei ontwikkelingen is de psychiatrie op een dood spoor beland. Een andere aanpak met kleinschalige ambulante teams, dicht bij de leefwereld van de patiënt en nauw verbonden aan de huisartsenpraktijk, moet soelaas bieden

  11. Obese kweekvissen krijgen zwemtraining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorde, ter M.; Palstra, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Vis moet zwemmen, is het adagiumvan visfysioloog Arjan Palstra, maar kweekvissen doen dat te weinig. Dus dwingt hij ze in zijn lab in Yerseke. Ze knappen ervan op en –belangrijk voor de kwekers – ze groeien harder.

  12. Bacterie beschermt zalmeitje tegen schimmel (interview met I. de Bruijn en Y. Liu)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaker, R.; Bruijn, de I.; Liu, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Een bacterie die leeft op zalmeitjes, beschermt zijn gastheer tegen een schadelijke schimmelsoort. Dit ontdekten ecologen van Wageningen Universiteit en het NIOO. De vinding moet ervoor zorgen dat minder eitjes sterven tijdens de zalmkweek.

  13. De ethiek van Erich Fromm, een humanistisch appèl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santing, Eppinus Cornelis

    1984-01-01

    De probleemstelling die aan deze studie ten grondslag ligt. kan worden weergegeven met behulp van de volgende vragen: a. Welke opvattingen heeft Fromm omtrent ethiek ontwikkeld? b. Welke betekenis moet aan deze opvattingen worden toegekend? ... Zie: Inleiding

  14. Kennisagenda Geo-informatie: GISsen met beleid

    OpenAIRE

    Dessing, N.; Lips, F.; Hoogenboom, J.; Vullings, L.A.E.

    2009-01-01

    LNV wil méér geo-informatie inzetten bij de ontwikkeling en uitvoering van beleid en beleidsnota’s ruimer voorzien van kaartmateriaal. Dit betekent dat geo-informatie vaker moet worden benut om lokale knelpunten, mogelijkheden en de gevolgen van alternatieve oplossingen inzichtelijk te maken. Om dit te bereiken moet de beschikbaarheid van adequate data en gebruikersvriendelijke en nieuwe GIS-technieken aanmerkelijk verbeteren.

  15. Die owerheidsinmenging met betrekking tot kerklike tughandelinge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Roeleveld

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Volgens art 29 NGB is die merktekens van die ware kerk die suiwere prediking van die Evangelie, die suiwere bediening van die Sakramente en die gebruik van die kerklike tug. Art. 32 NGB spreek uit dat die Kerkorde nie mag afwyk van wat Christus ingestel het nie. Menslike vindinge en wette om die gewetens te bind en te dwing, moet daarom verwerp word. Die ekskommunikasie of die ban moet toegepas word volgens die Woord van God.

  16. Baltika kvartal = Baltika Quarter / Maris Kerge, Kadri Kerge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kerge, Maris

    2010-01-01

    Rekonstrueeritud Baltika tööstushoonest: Moetänavast ja AS Baltika büroodest. Projekteerija, sisearhitektuur büroode osas: Studio 3 (4 arhitekti), büroo Kolm Pluss Üks (9 arhitekti). Sisearhitektuur Moetänava osas: Pekka Porkanen, Maris Kerge, Ott Kangur, Maire Milder, Lembit-Kaur Stöör, Ülo-Tarmo Stöör, Lauri Eltermaa, Pärtel Eelma. Projekt: 2007-2009, valmis: 2009

  17. Target Tracking Onboard an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle: Determining Optimal Towed Array Heading in an Anisotropic Noise Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    The geometry depicted in Figure 2-1 and defined in (9) governs the relationship between the two coordinate systems. We obtain the three-dimensional...node = ’ Unicorn ’ else if (v_id == 4) node = ’Macrura

  18. Commercial vehicle route tracking using video detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-31

    Interstate commercial vehicle traffic is a major factor in the life of any road surface. The ability to track : these vehicles and their routes through the state can provide valuable information to planning : activities. We propose a method using vid...

  19. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YLR347C, YLR377C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gy-mediated degradation depending on growth conditions; interacts with Vid30p Rows with this prey as prey (4...r autophagy-mediated degradation depending on growth conditions; interacts with V

  20. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YNL189W, YLR377C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available phagy-mediated degradation depending on growth conditions; interacts with Vid30p Rows with this prey as prey...ated or autophagy-mediated degradation depending on growth conditions; interacts

  1. Des filets à nuages sur la crête d'El Tofo | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    adaptation aux changements climatiques que le CRDI subventionne. Entretien avec…propose des entrevues vidéos avec des chercheurs participant à des projets portant sur l'adaptation aux changements climati.

  2. Evaluation of the combined use of some radiolabeled chemotherapeutic agents and immunomodulator in imaging and treatment of experimentally induced tumor in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, E.T.E

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate how to label ancitabine and vidarabine with the Auger emitter 125 I and the effect of labeled drugs on tumor bearing mice. It was also conducted to investigate the possible effects of levamisole and dexamethasone as immunomodulators on the biodistribution and therapeutic effect of the labeled drugs. Furthermore, the hematological effect of immunomodulators and labeled drugs were also studied.Ancitabine(ANC) was labeled by electrophilic substitution with % labeling yield about 97,5. To obtain this yield, 10μg iodogen, for 5 minutes at temperature about 75 degree C were required at Ph 7 using phosphate buffer. Vidarabine (Vid) was labeled by the same techniques at Ph 7, with % labeling yield about 90 %. To obtain this yield, 200 μg iodogen, for 10 minutes at temperature about 75 degree C were required. Both 125 I-ANC and 125 I-Vid were stable for 48 hr post labeling without significant change in % labeling yield. The labeled drugs were investigated by electrophoresis analysis and thin layer chromatography using chloroform: ethanol: ammonia (90:10:0.5), respectively. Labeled drugs show opposite behavior on the two chromatograms. 125 I-ANC and 125 I-Vid were distributed rapidly in normal mice to different tissues, especially those of high proliferation rate such as stomach and excreted rapidly in urine.Biodistribution of 125 I-ANC and 125 I-Vid in tumor bearing mice showed increase in the uptake of radioactivity in tumor site with time. Also, the rate of decline of activity was rapid in most organs compared to tumor sites. The increase of uptake in thyroid, with time, reflect the in-vivo deiodination of the 125 I-ANC and 125 I-Vid by liver. The uptake of 125 I-ANC and 125 I-Vid may be sufficient to be used in imaging of tumor. Both DEX and LMS produced significant increase in the uptake of 125 I-ANC or 125 I-Vid in tumor sites and significant decrease in some other tissues. 125 I-ANC or 125 I-Vid produced toxic effect to

  3. Svag analys ger allt för långtgående konsekvenser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Frank; Nilsson, Sven-Arne

    2007-01-01

    I IASB:s diskussionsrapport om möjliga värderingsgrunder vid första redovisningstillfället föreslås att tillgångar och skulder värderas till verkligt värde. I Balans 3/2007 redogjorde Frank Thinggaard och Sven-Arne Nilsson för kriterierna och tillvägagångssättet vid prövningen av relevans. I denn...

  4. Experiences of health care providers managing sexual assault victims in the emergency unit Part 1: Background and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Skhosana

    2009-09-01

      Opsomming: Die doel van hierdie studie was om die ervaringe van gesondheidsorgverskaffers wat slagoffers van seksuele aanranding in die ongevalle-eenheid van 'n gemeenskapshospitaal in die Nkangala-distrik in die provinsie van Mpumalanga hanteer, te verken en te beskryf. ’n Kwalitatiewe fenomenologiese ontwerp  is  toegepas. Doelbewuste  steekproefneming is gebruik  om  deelnemers te  selekteer uit die groep gesondheidsorgverskaffers wat in die ongevalle-eenheid werksaam was en meer as vier slagoffers  van seksuele aanranding hanteer het. Data is by wyse van  individuele onderhoude ingesamel en volgens die Tesch-metode van data-analise deur die navorser en die  onafhanklike medekodeerder geanaliseer. Hoofkategorieë, subkategorieë en temas is geïdentifiseer. Deelnemers het uitdrukking gegee aan hulle emosies, uitdagings, die houding en gedrag van polisiebeamptes, teenstrydighede in riglyne en behoefte-identifikasie. Aanbevelings  is dat multidissiplinêre spanlede betrokke moet wees by gemeenskapsaktiwiteite en dat die gemeenskap moet deelneem aan sake wat verband hou met seksuele aanranding. Die regering moet duidelike riglyne ontwikkel wat op landelike en stedelike Suid-Afrika van toepassing is. Gesondheidsorgwetenskappe moet  daarop gerig wees om meer forensiese verpleeg-kundiges op te  lei. Alle toepaslike departemente moet saamwerk om die komplikasies te verlig wat deur voorvalle van seksuele aanranding veroorsaak word.

  5. Particle dispersion at road building using fly ash - model review, investigation of influence of humidity content for dust emission and fly ash particle characterisation; Partikelspriding vid byggnation av vaeg med aska - modelloeversikt, undersoekning av fuktighetsgradens betydelse foer damning och karaktaerisering av partiklar fraan flygaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Mats; Wik, Ola; Frogner-Kockum, Paul

    2009-03-15

    Ashes from incineration may have very good properties, such as building materials in roads. This use assumes that the ashes do not have serious environmental and health effects. Since ash might generate large amounts of dust in handling the issue on the extent of dusting and dust properties has proved to be important to assess the risks of environmental impacts during use. Inhalable particles in the ambient air are a problem that has attracted much attention and is regarded as one of the most serious health related air pollutants. The present project has aimed to: describe appropriate models for calculating the emission and dispersion of dust in the air during the construction of ash containing roads, evaluate a new method to examine the importance of moisture for dusting from fly ash and investigate the properties of fly ash, making it possible to identify ash in samples of airborne particles. The target audience is ash manufacturers, contractors and consultants with a need for knowledge of ash dusting. Project modules have included: a literature review to identify appropriate modelling tools to describe the emission and dispersion of dust from road building with ash a method study in which a piece of equipment called Duster, have been evaluated for assessing the significance of the ash humidity to dusting, and an electron microscope study where morphology and composition of some ashes, cement and Merit have been studied to find ways to identify ash particles in dust samples. The results show that there is a lack of overall model tools that can describe the emissions from all the management operations of ashes at road building and that existing models sometimes lack key variables. Also, because of high silt content of ashes, some models are deemed inferior compared to when used for ordinary mineral material. Furthermore, attempts with the Duster shows that the method works, but with limited precision, and that dusting from the ash samples was reduced significantly at moisture contents above about 15%. The particle characterization study showed that ash specific chemical signal elements are preferred in the characterization. Important signal elements of ash can be S, Hg, Cd, and the ratio Mg/Al, but elements most appropriate might vary between specific types of ash and applications. The project has brought new knowledge about the possibilities to characterize ash particles and on the moisture needed to avoid dusting from ash. A method to try dusting from ash surfaces has been evaluated in laboratory and the project has also shown available, but in some respects inadequate, models for emission and dispersion of dust from handling of ash

  6. House owners' views on investing in district heating - a study of applied sales strategies and the customers choice at conversion from electric heating; Smaahusaegarnas syn paa att koepa fjaerrvaerme - en studie av tillaempade foersaeljningsstrategier och kunders val vid konvertering fraan direktverkande el

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sernhed, Kerstin; Pyrko, Jurek [Div. of Efficient Energy Systems, Dept. of Energy Sciences, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)

    2006-07-15

    This report presents results from the project 'Converting direct resistive electric heating into district heating - customer related aspects'. The main objective of this study was to investigate how specific households within one housing area (Sandsbro in Vaexjoe with 110 one-family houses) experienced the conversion process, in order to understand the reasons behind 'yes' or 'no' responses to the utility's offer. A qualitative approach with semi-structured in-depth interviews with a specially selected sample of households from 10 converted and 13 not converted houses was chosen as the main method. The investigation led to the following conclusions and recommendations: Household reactions to the terms of sale and conversion: Many households felt that the decisions were rushed - there is a need for better planning, especially for the older households. The information provided was evaluated as detailed and sufficient. The 'demonstration villa' was a good idea but the installation should be done more professionally - aesthetics are very important here. Home visits were the only personal contact and should be conducted in all houses in order to answer questions and explain problems. Co-ordination of excavation should be better in order to limit the time the ground is open. A few of the households undertook some of the works themselves to reduce costs but the compensation was often considered as too low to motivate customers. Household opinions on the product and/or service: Almost all households felt that the thermal comfort was better than before - more stable indoor temperature, no problems with overheated radiators or smell of burning dust. On the other hand, hot water comfort was worse - longer waiting time for hot water and too low water temperature during summer. Aesthetics were considered very important and could be crucial for the decision to convert the heating system. Many of the interviewed households were uncertain how to adjust and take care of the system - there is a notable need for information here. Household understanding of the economic terms of the district heating conversion: It was clear that many of the interviewed households did not have a view about the change of energy costs after conversion. It was also difficult for them to make a profitability analysis before the decision. However, the offer was considered to be very favourable in this specific case. It is important that the offer and investment comes at the right time for the households - regardless of the price. One argument raised against district heating conversion was fear of monopoly and high energy costs. All households, even those not converted, were convinced that the investment would be paid back in the future because of an increased property value following conversion. Household reasons to say 'no' to district heating conversion: The household has recently invested in a new heating system or in a secondary system, Negative views about aesthetics of the waterborne system, It's too labour intensive to convert, Wrong facts or misunderstanding. Household reasons to say 'yes' to district heating conversion: Improved thermal comfort, Convenience, Low investment costs, Expectations about lower energy costs, Few alternatives to direct resistive space heating, Better than electricity from an environmental point of view. Statistical analysis proved that variables such as 'age', 'type of household' and 'energy use level' could, to some extent, be related to the decision to convert from electric radiators to district heating.

  7. A szociális és szolidáris gazdaság csírái a magyarországi vidéki térségekben (Seeds of Social and Solidarity Economy in Hungarian Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Fekete

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The social and solidarity economy (SSE is an emerging sector of the European economies. It’s importance is demonstrated by millions of employees and significant share of GDP. In recognition of its perceptivity, ministries dedicated to SSE have been established in many countries. However, there is a lively debate about on the definition of SSE itself. Opinions on the role of employment, the relations to governments and attitudes to competitiveness differ from each other. In the first part of my paper a clarification of the conceptual issues will be summarized. After that we may follow our investigations on SSE in two directions. First, we will see the special appearance of the SSE in rural areas and then the situation in Hungary will be presented. As an intersection of this two lines, SSE initiatives in the Hungarian rural areas will be discussed. We can speak about the role of the social land programs, the cooperatives, the LEADER groups and the “START” public work in building SSE in the Hungarian rural space.

  8. Reports in the area sensor technology: Part 2: Dynamic deviations which may appear via the sensing lines in measurement of reactor pressure and level; Rapporter inom omraadet sensorteknik, Del 2: Dynamiska avvikelser som kan uppstaa via impulsledningarna vid maetning av reaktortryck och nivaa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergdahl, Bengt-Goeran [GSE Power Systems AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    The sensors are part of the safety system in a nuclear power plant. They are the first link in a chain of components, which affect the safety system. It is therefore of great importance that the sensors fulfil tough requirements on reliability and response time. In practice, the dynamic qualities of the sensors in a BWR are seldom, or never, tested. The static qualities, on the other hand, are controlled every year when the transmitters are calibrated. This is done during the regular outage of the power plant. It is common that several sensors are connected to the same sensing line. This is true especially in old reactors, where only a few pressure taps are available in the reactor pressure vessel. This is a troublesome disadvantage in the design, since a failure in one sensing line will affect all components, which are connected to that sensing line ('Common Cause Failure'). This report focuses on deviations in the measurement system connected to the sensing lines. The deviations are illustrated by examples from Swedish and foreign BWRs. The sensing lines are mechanically passive components. They can reduce a system's response time even if there are now deviations in the static presentation. This report mentions cases in nuclear power plants, where the time constant of the sensing line has changed from 0.1 seconds, which is a normal response time, to 5 seconds. This has happened because of a gradual blockage of the sensing line. Today, signal analysis is the only way to examine the dynamic qualities of sensing lines. Filtrations can be unveiled by measuring and analysing the transmitter signal, regardless the location of the filtration: in the sensing line, in the transmitter or in other instrumentation components. A practical case is presented where pulsation dampers with so-called needles were used at Ringhals 1 in Sweden. Their influence on the response time for the measurement signal corresponds to a time constant = 0.55 s. By eliminating the needles the demand on the response time was fulfilled. The report presents how blocking of the sensing lines can be supervised. Examples are given from the Muehleberg NPP (KKM). Examples are shown with a flow measurement transmitter, which has pulsation dampers. For this presentation, results with GSE's database for sensor tests, SensBase, are used. SensBase stores new results every year. In this way, the influence of component ageing can also be detected. Because of the use of SensBase, the Swiss nuclear power inspectorate has approved less frequent calibration of the transmitters. The report also presents pressure oscillations that take place in the sensing line and not in the real measured process. The water in the sensing line together with the transmitter membrane form a dynamic system with water as mass, elasticity in the transmitter membrane as spring constant and reactor pressure fluctuations as driving force. The problem with oscillations in the measurement system is illustrated with examples from Ringhals 1 and KKM. Another example from KKM shows how the oscillation in a level transmitter of the type Barton Cell affected a large number of transmitters, which were all connected to the common sensing lines. It was possible to identify the deviating transmitter by experiments with isolation valve closures in the sensing lines during power operation. After the transmitter had been changed to one with a smaller volume and smaller displacement, the oscillations disappeared. Finally, the report also shows that mechanical vibrations in the sensing lines contribute to the signal noise around 10 Hz. This is shown by means of laboratory tests at KKM. At this plant, transmitters have also been replaced because of deviating noise in the frequency interval 2-20 Hz. After the transmitter had been replaced, the noise disappeared. The results from KKM show that it can never be excluded that ageing may increase the transmitter's sensitivity to vibrations of the sensing line.

  9. Greenhouse gases during storage and after application of digested and non-digested dairy cattle slurry including ammonia emissions and barley yield; Vaexthusgaser fraan roetad och oroetad noetflytgoedsel vid lagring och efter spridning, samt bestaemning av ammoniakavgaang och skoerd i vaarkorn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodhe, Lena; Ascue, Johnny; Tersmeden, Marianne; Willen, Agnes; Nordberg, Aake; Salomon, Eva; Sundberg, Martin

    2013-07-01

    Given that the manure-based biogas production is likely to increase in the coming years , it's important to find a proper handling of digested manure that have low emissions of both climate gases methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O ) as ammonia (NH{sub 3}) , which indirectly contributes to emissions of N{sub 2}O. The project have; Quantified GHG emissions, from undigested and digested manure during storage in winter and summer, and during land application in autumn and spring. Examined the effect on GHG emissions of covering digested manure during storage in winter and summer, and quantified NH{sub 3} emissions, yield and apparent nitrogen (N) recovery in spring barley.

  10. Communication non verbale et dysfonctionnement exécutif post-traumatique : étude multimodale de corpus conversationnels vidéoscopés de 17 patients traumatisés crâniens graves, de 17 interlocuteurs fixes et de 34 témoi

    OpenAIRE

    Sainson, Claire

    2012-01-01

    L’altération des fonctions exécutives, consécutive à un traumatisme crânien grave, engendre d’importantes perturbations de l’utilisation du langage en contexte. Ces dysfonctionnements interactionnels bouleversent de façon durable l’équilibre familial et tiennent assurément une part importante dans le pronostic de réinsertion socio-familiale voire professionnelle. L’objectif général de cette étude est l’amélioration de l’évaluation des troubles, en considérant un aspect systématiquement néglig...

  11. Monitoring of test roads with MSWI bottom ash in the sub-base. Measurements with falling weight deflectometer on test structures in Malmoe and Umeaa. Analyses of ground water and leachate along test structures in Umeaa; Uppfoeljning av slaggrusprovvaegar. Fallviktsmaetning paa provstraeckor paa Toerringevaegen i Malmoe och Daavamyran i Umeaa. Grundvatten- och lakvattenanalyser paa provstraeckor vid Daavamyran i Umeaa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arm, Maria; Larsson, Lennart; Tiberg, Charlotta; Lind, Bo; Arvidslund, Ola

    2008-12-15

    A number of test roads and test areas with processed municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash, here called MSWI gravel, have been built in Sweden during the last 10-15 years. The main purpose of the projects reported here was to take advantage of the existing test roads to increase the knowledge of the long-term strength and environmental impact of MSWI gravel, when it is used as a road material. Two test roads with MSWI gravel in the sub-base were monitored through falling weight deflectometer (FWD) measurements and, for one of the roads, by means of sampling and analyses of groundwater and leachate within and along the road. The first road, constructed in 1998, is named Toerringevaegen and is situated outside Malmoe in the south of Sweden. The second road, Daava test road, was constructed in 2001 and is situated outside Umeaa in the north of Sweden. The roads were monitored regarding strength from 2004 to 2008 and Daava test road was also monitored regarding environmental impact from 2006 to 2008. For both roads, comparison was made over time and between the test sections with MSWI gravel and reference sections with crushed rock. Comparison was also made with results from previous studies on these test roads, resulting in a uniquely long monitoring period. The results from Toerringevaegen show that the road section with MSWI gravel in the sub-base retains its strength after several years. The three measurements performed at the Daava road revealed an initially decreasing strength and then a stabilisation. As in previous studies, the strength of the MSWI gravel was found to be about 70% of that of the crushed rock, which has to be taken into account in the design phase. It was concluded that regarding the strength properties MSWI gravel is suitable as sub-base material if the road is properly designed. It can also be used as a filling material, in embankments and as a capping layer. This confirms the conclusions from previous studies. The results from the leachate analyses showed increased cumulative leaching of calcium and sulphate from both sections at the Daava test road, which was surprising. Furthermore, most compounds leached in greater amount from the reference section than from the test section. There was a significant decrease in the leaching of copper, TOC, chloride and sodium over time from the test section, while the decrease of chromium leaching was not as significant. During the first years after construction, the test section leached greater amount of organic compounds analysed than the reference section did, but the concentrations in the leachates decreased significantly and after five-six years they were comparable with those of the reference section. During the last years, the concentrations of organic acids in the leachates from the reference section were higher than in the leachates from the test section. The reason for this is unknown. When results from previous laboratory leaching tests on the MSWI gravel used were compared with the newly proposed maximum values for waste to be used in construction works (general use) and with current limit values for waste disposed in landfills for inert waste, it was clear that chloride, sulphate and copper and initially to some extent chromium were critical compounds. However, all compounds with proposed or fixed limit values were not analysed in the previous study. Comparison between the leachates from the test section and results from previous laboratory leaching of the MSWI gravel showed significantly different patterns. This should be taken into account in the assessment of potential use

  12. Analysis reports on the ecotoxicological evaluation of discharges of spent water at the cogeneration/central heating plants Alloeverket, Borgaas, Haendeloeverket, Moelnlycke, Saevenaes and Aelmhult; Analysrapporter avseende ekotoxikologisk bedoemning av utslaepp av utgaaende vatten vid Alloeverket, Borgaas, Haendeloeverket, Moelnlycke, Saevenaes och Aelmhult

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Jonas; Axby, Fredrik; Persson, Maarten; Rossander, Annelie; Schultz, Emma; Svaerd, Sara [Carl Bro AB, Kristianstad (Sweden)

    2007-04-15

    The discharges to water at six biofuelled Swedish cogeneration/district heating plants are evaluated in light of the EU Water Framework Directive concerning ecotoxicological impacts. Ecotoxicological data for the 33 prioritized substances are also reviewed.

  13. A video-game group intervention: Experiences and perceptions of adults with chronic stroke and their therapists: Intervention de groupe à l'aide de jeux vidéo : Expériences et perceptions d'adultes en phase chronique d'un accident vasculaire cérébral et de leurs ergothérapeutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Debbie; Givon, Noa; Avrech Bar, Michal

    2018-04-01

    Ongoing physical activity is important for maintaining the functional level of individuals with chronic stroke. Video games in a group setting might be a cost-effective way for providing mobility and preventing physical inactivity. This study explores the experiences and perceptions of individuals with chronic stroke who participated in a novel community-based video-game group intervention and their therapists. A qualitative study, nested in a randomized controlled trial, was conducted using semistructured interviews with eight individuals with chronic stroke (four men and four women) ages 29 to 69 and a focus group of their three occupational therapists, following a video-game intervention. Data were analyzed using content analysis. Three main categories were identified by the study participants: (a) using video games, (b) the group/team experience, and (c) intervention outcomes/evolving understandings following the intervention. Playing video games was perceived not as treatment but as a motivating tool to facilitate whole-body movement. Therefore, this intervention might be suitable to be used in the community for ongoing intervention.

  14. House owners' views on investing in district heating - a study of applied sales strategies and the customers choice at conversion from electric heating; Smaahusaegarnas syn paa att koepa fjaerrvaerme - en studie av tillaempade foersaeljningsstrategier och kunders val vid konvertering fraan direktverkande el

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sernhed, Kerstin; Pyrko, Jurek [Div. of Efficient Energy Systems, Dept. of Energy Sciences, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)

    2006-07-15

    This report presents results from the project 'Converting direct resistive electric heating into district heating - customer related aspects'. The main objective of this study was to investigate how specific households within one housing area (Sandsbro in Vaexjoe with 110 one-family houses) experienced the conversion process, in order to understand the reasons behind 'yes' or 'no' responses to the utility's offer. A qualitative approach with semi-structured in-depth interviews with a specially selected sample of households from 10 converted and 13 not converted houses was chosen as the main method. The investigation led to the following conclusions and recommendations: Household reactions to the terms of sale and conversion: Many households felt that the decisions were rushed - there is a need for better planning, especially for the older households. The information provided was evaluated as detailed and sufficient. The 'demonstration villa' was a good idea but the installation should be done more professionally - aesthetics are very important here. Home visits were the only personal contact and should be conducted in all houses in order to answer questions and explain problems. Co-ordination of excavation should be better in order to limit the time the ground is open. A few of the households undertook some of the works themselves to reduce costs but the compensation was often considered as too low to motivate customers. Household opinions on the product and/or service: Almost all households felt that the thermal comfort was better than before - more stable indoor temperature, no problems with overheated radiators or smell of burning dust. On the other hand, hot water comfort was worse - longer waiting time for hot water and too low water temperature during summer. Aesthetics were considered very important and could be crucial for the decision to convert the heating system. Many of the interviewed households were uncertain how to adjust and take care of the system - there is a notable need for information here. Household understanding of the economic terms of the district heating conversion: It was clear that many of the interviewed households did not have a view about the change of energy costs after conversion. It was also difficult for them to make a profitability analysis before the decision. However, the offer was considered to be very favourable in this specific case. It is important that the offer and investment comes at the right time for the households - regardless of the price. One argument raised against district heating conversion was fear of monopoly and high energy costs. All households, even those not converted, were convinced that the investment would be paid back in the future because of an increased property value following conversion. Household reasons to say 'no' to district heating conversion: The household has recently invested in a new heating system or in a secondary system, Negative views about aesthetics of the waterborne system, It's too labour intensive to convert, Wrong facts or misunderstanding. Household reasons to say 'yes' to district heating conversion: Improved thermal comfort, Convenience, Low investment costs, Expectations about lower energy costs, Few alternatives to direct resistive space heating, Better than electricity from an environmental point of view. Statistical analysis proved that variables such as 'age', 'type of household' and 'energy use level' could, to some extent, be related to the decision to convert from electric radiators to district heating.

  15. Operators tool to control fibre quality in the production of CTMP/TMP in an energy efficient way. New view shows a potential to reduce energy input; Operatoersverktyg foer styrning av fiberkvalitet vid tillverkning av CTMP/TMP paa ett energieffektivt saett. Ny syn visar paa potential foer energibesparing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferritsius, Olof; Johansson, Ola; Ferritsius, Rita

    2011-10-15

    The main objective of the project was to provide operators in the two factories the opportunity to more actively identify causes of variations in energy efficiency in the production of TMP and CTMP. To achieve this, it was done in collaboration with the Umeaa Inst. of Design at Umeaa Univ., new types of operator interfaces that clearly demonstrate when changes are about to occur in the process variables respectively quality variables. In addition, a method was developed to calculate the energy efficiency on-line with regard to quality.

  16. Vederbörliga justeringar vid internprissättningsfrågor : Analys av om gällande rätt är tillfredställande för lösning av tvister som uppkommer till följd av justeringar av internprissättningar

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsen, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    Today adjustments on the pricing of internal transactions between multinational enterprises can lead to economic double taxation for the involved companies. This circumstance will result in an obstacle for private enterprising on the international market. Rules regarding corresponding adjustments and the mutual agreement procedure, that is used to eliminate economic double taxation, are today not sufficient tools to achieve this purpose. Consequently, changes regarding these rules should be i...

  17. Environmental monitoring at the nuclear power plants and Studsvik 1992-1993. Results from measurements of radionuclide contents of environmental samples, and from random checks by SSI; Omgivningskontroll vid kaernkraftverken och Studsvik 1992-1993. Resultat fraan maetning av radionuklidhalter i miljoeprover, samt SSIs stickprovsmaetningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengtson, P.; Larsson, C.M.; Simenstad, P.; Suomela, J.

    1995-09-01

    Marine samples from the vicinity of the plants show elevated radionuclide concentrations, caused by discharges from the plants. Very low concentrations are noted in terrestrial samples. At several locations, the effects of the Chernobyl disaster still dominates. Control samples measured by SSI have confirmed the measurements performed by the operators. 8 refs, 6 tabs, 46 figs.

  18. Stand growth 20 years after planting on Flakmossen - the significance of drainage and fertilization in an afforestation trial on a peat harvesting field in the province of Vaermland, West Central Sweden; Skogstillvaexten ca 20 aar efter plantering paa Flakmossen - dikningens och goedslingens betydelse vid beskogning paa en avslutad torvtaekt i Vaermland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehto, Bjoern

    2005-04-15

    This study was performed in an afforestation experiment established 1982 on an abandoned peat harvesting area, Flakmossen, in the province of Vaermland, SW Sweden. The experimental design include planting with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), in combination with various drainage intensities (20, 30, and 40 m between ditches), and fertilizer doses 0, 100, and 200 g PK per seedling applied at the date of planting. The aim of this study was to achieve more knowledge about the conditions on afforestation of peat harvesting areas, especially regarding drainage intensity and fertilization requirements, by means of determining the stand growth and yield in the Flakmossen trial. The forest growth did not differ significantly between the drainage intensities tested when the same amount of phosphor and potassium fertilizer was added. Thus, shorter distances between ditches than 40 m can not be recommended. When no fertilization was carried out seedling survival was very low, and the growth of survived seedlings was poor. The largest diameter and height growth were observed in the areas where the highest dose of phosphorus and potassium (200 g/seedling) was given. The results indicate that the average site growth capacity during a rotation period is 7-8 m{sup 3}/ha/yr. This is about 40 % higher than the average for all forest land in the province. The results indicate that afforestation of peat harvesting areas should be considered as effective land use.

  19. Kierkegaard se, drei grossen ideen” en die ini- siasie van henry van eeden (sewe dae b y die silbersteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Venter

    1977-03-01

    Full Text Available Die doel van Henry se verblyf by die Silbersteins word vroeg in Sewe dae verwoord as Jock tydens die eerste aandbyeenkoms sê dat Henry „van sekere gevestigde idees” (p. 16 ontslae moet raak. Ook mrs. Silberstein beskou dit as noodsaaklik dat sy on­ skuld vemietig moet word (p. 22. Op die oggendwandeling van die tweede dag herhaal Jock sy stelling van die vorige aand en voeg daaraan toe dat daar baie dinge is wat Henry ,,sal moet leer en verleer” (p. 28. Vir die modeme mens, wat „van die vrug van kennis geëet” het, is daar „geen illussies meer nie” (p. 32.

  20. Die partypolitiek en die toekoms van die Afrikaanse volkskultuur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Treurnicht

    1970-03-01

    Full Text Available Reeds in 1853 het die Zuid Afrikaan hom soos volg uitgelaat: „Dis ’n dwaling wat ons reeds meermale bestry het dat ons as Britse onderdane verplig sou wees, om die Britse nasionaliteit ons s’n te maak. Die Kolonis van Hollandse oorsprong kan geen Engelsman word nie, en moet ook geen Nederlander wil wees nie. Wanneer hy weet om sy standpunt te waardeer, dan sal hy as verligte kolonis die grondtrekke van die Engelse volkskarakter met dié van die Nederlandse harmonies leer verenig en daardeur word wat hy as Kapenaar moet word.”

  1. Assessment of PCM in building climate systems; Beoordeling PCM in gebouwklimatisering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, H. [Verwol Klimatplafonds, Delft (Netherlands)

    2005-09-01

    Insight is given into the impact of phase change materials on the indoor climate in two different types of public buildings (circus tent and a theatre) [Dutch] Organisatoren van 'een dag van autarkische systemen' vragen zich af of deze technische bijeenkomst in een geisoleerde (mobiele) circustent of een monumentaal (statisch) theater moet worden gehouden en of deze dag 's zomers of 's winters moet plaatshebben. De beantwoording vraagt om inzicht in de dimensionering van het vermogen en de capaciteit en het jaarlijks energiegebruik met en zonder PCM (phase change materials)

  2. Die toekoms en ons roeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. du Toit

    1954-03-01

    Full Text Available Om te weet wat ons roeping in die toekoms sal wees, moet ons eers besef wat in ons eie tyd aan die gang is en langs watter lyne die dinge beweeg. Dit is ons plig om te let op die tekens van die tye in die lig van die profetiese Woord. En dan wil ons dadelik beklemtoon dat ons in Suid-Afrika nie in die waan moet lewe dat ons hier onbekommerd en onaangetas deur die wêreldgebeure ons roeping en bestemming kan uitwerk nie.

  3. Vitellointestinal Duct Anomalies in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadian, Yogender Singh; Verma, Anjali; Rattan, Kamal Nain; Kajal, Pardeep

    2016-01-01

    Vitellointestinal duct (VID) or omphalomesenteric duct anomalies are secondary to the persistence of the embryonic vitelline duct, which normally obliterates by weeks 5-9 of intrauterine life. This is a retrospective analysis of a total of 16 patients of symptomatic remnants of vitellointestinal duct from period of Jan 2009 to May 2013. Male to female ratio (M:F) was 4.3:1 and mean age of presentation was 2 months and their mode of presentation was: patent VID in 9 (56.25%) patients, umbilical cyst in 2(12.25%), umbilical granuloma in 2 (12.25%), and Meckel diverticulum as content of hernia sac in obstructed umbilical hernia in 1 (6.25%) patient. Two patients with umbilical fistula had severe electrolyte disturbance and died without surgical intervention. Persistent VID may have varied presentations in infancy. High output umbilical fistula and excessive bowel prolapse demand urgent surgical intervention to avoid morbidity and mortality.

  4. Characterization and Modeling of SiC Integrated Circuits for Harsh Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kimoto, Daiki

    2017-01-01

    Elektronik för extrema miljöer, som kan användas vid hög temperatur, hög strålning och omgivning med frätande gaser, har varit starkt önskvärd vid utforskning av rymden och övervakning av kärnreaktorer. Kiselkarbid (SiC) är en av kandidaterna inom material för extrema miljöer på grund av sin höga temperatur- och höga strålnings-tolerans. Syftet med denna avhandling är att karakterisera 4H-SiC MOSFETar vid hög temperatur och att konstruera SPICE modeller för 4H-SiC MOSFETar. MOSFET-transistore...

  5. Utveckling av examination av examensarbeten på kandidatnivå

    OpenAIRE

    Trofast, Tobias; Haugum, Dag; Lundberg, Jonas; Nygren, Victoria; Nyström, Tommie; Svensson, Gary; Thunborg, Maria; Törnqvist, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Detta paper beskriver arbetet med att utveckla en modell för utveckling av examination av examensarbeten på kandidatnivå (UEX) vid Institutionen för Teknik och Naturvetenskap, Linköpings Universitet under läsåret 2010-2011. Modellen har utvecklats och testats vid utbildningsprogrammet Grafisk Design och Kommunikation (GDK), men med syfte att kunna appliceras även på andra kandidatprograms examensarbete. Det projektet prövat är om man kan höja kvaliteten på examensarbeten och effektiviteten i ...

  6. ¿Es posible mejorar la eficiencia en el uso del agua de un viñedo mediante un acolchado orgánico del suelo?

    OpenAIRE

    López Urrea, R.; Montoro, A; Martínez, L.; Mañas, F.; Sánchez, J.M.; Intrigliolo, D.S

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto que un acolchado orgánico del suelo (restos de poda) puede tener sobre la evapotranspiración del cultivo (ETc) de la vid con el fin de mejorar la eficiencia en el uso del agua. El estudio se realizó durante la campaña de 2015 en la finca “Las Tiesas”, Albacete (España). Las medidas se llevaron a cabo en un lisímetro monolítico de pesada ubicado en el centro de una parcela de vid (Vitis vinífera L., cv. Tempranillo) de 1 ha de su...

  7. De duurzame controller neemt leiding in een traditie naar maatschappelijk verantwoord ondernemen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.

    2015-01-01

    Steeds meer dringt het besef door dat er geen andere weg meer is dan duurzaam ondernemen. Organisaties die dit inzien streven naar meer dan al- leen nanciële winstmaximalisatie: er moet ook winst worden gecreëerd voor de mens, samenleving en milieu. Als de MVO-ambities meer zijn dan window-dressing,

  8. Organisatiecultuur en performance management : pas op voor het Pavlov-effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieboer, Stephanie

    Dit artikel bespreekt de relatie tussen organisatiecultuur en performance management. De auteurs stellen dat gedrag niet op zichzelf staat, maar wordt gevormd door onderliggende waarden en overtuigingen. Om performance management in de praktijk succesvol te laten zijn, moet het worden opgenomen in

  9. Geef SBS-voetzoekers geen kans: Philip Wallage reageert op Pheijffer en Hoogenboom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallage, P.

    2009-01-01

    Marcel Pheijffer en Bob Hoogenboom betoogden in het meinummer dat compliance vooral niet moet ontaarden in het exact naleven van wetten en regels, omdat creative compliance onvermijdelijk leidt tot schijnzekerheden en calculerend gedrag. Het betoog klopt, maar de negatieve conclusie dat we de luxe

  10. Kennisagenda Geo-informatie: GISsen met beleid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessing, N.; Lips, F.; Hoogenboom, J.; Vullings, L.A.E.

    2009-01-01

    LNV wil méér geo-informatie inzetten bij de ontwikkeling en uitvoering van beleid en beleidsnota’s ruimer voorzien van kaartmateriaal. Dit betekent dat geo-informatie vaker moet worden benut om lokale knelpunten, mogelijkheden en de gevolgen van alternatieve oplossingen inzichtelijk te maken. Om dit

  11. Die ballade van Robbie de Wee en ander verhale. Deon Meyer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gulde geleentheid om daaruit munt te slaan (330). Dinge loop egter lelik skeef wanneer 'n sogenaamde “groupie” in. Robbie se hotelkamer sterf. Gevolglik moet Len, die eerstepersoonsverteller, skarrel om van die lyk ontslae te raak, en die leser word teen wil en dank. 'n medepligtige in hierdie makabere opruimingstaak.

  12. Wat werkt? Een verkenning van de praktische en wetenschappelijke kennis over informatievisualisaties.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carel Kuitenbrouwer; Dr. Yaël de Haan; Dr. Piet Bakker

    2013-01-01

    Voordat een visualisatie tot stand komt, is daar een complex proces aan vooraf gegaan. Doel en doelgroepen worden vastgesteld (‘hoe bereiken we welk effect bij wie?’) terwijl daarnaast de relatie tussen de data en de uiteindelijke visualisatie gedefinieerd moet worden (‘hoe laten we wat zien?’). De

  13. На Модной улице Baltika можно купить новинки эстонских брендов / Ксения Репсон

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Репсон, Ксения

    2009-01-01

    Kontsern Baltika Grupp avas vanas tehasehoones Veerenni tänaval kaupluse Moetänav, kus müüakse firma kõigi kaubamärkide tooteid ja on avatud ka ReUse Republik kauplus. Tutvustatakse kaubamärkide Monton, Mosaic, Ivo Nikkolo ja Baltman uudistoodangut

  14. Этой осенью юбка "нокаутирует" брюки / Светлана Карабут

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Карабут, Светлана

    2009-01-01

    Firma Baltika Grupp kaubamärkide Monton, Mosaic, Ivo Nikkolo ja Baltman uute sügiskollektsioonide tutvustus. Baltika toodangut müüakse uues kaupluses Moetänav, mis avati endises tehasehoones Veerenni tänaval. Samas on koha leidnud ka ReUse Republic kauplus

  15. Kodumaine mood kolib kaubanduskeskustesse / Karilin Engelbrecht

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Engelbrecht, Karilin

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Stockmanni kaubamajas müüakse kuu aja jooksul eesti moekunstnike rõivakollektsioone. Projekti juhib Oksana Tandit. Kristiine keskuse Moetäikal müüvad eesti disainerid taaskasutatud riideid ning ReUse Republicu disainilaadal vanadest laoülejääkidest õmmeldud rõivaid

  16. Professionaliteitsopvatting en inclusief onderwijs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbert Vonck; Jos Bergkamp

    2005-01-01

    Het denken over inclusief onderwijs gaat over de vormgeving van onderwijs op een zodanige manier dat alle leerlingen daarbinnen een plaats kunnen vinden. Voordat die stap echter kan worden genomen, moet er gekeken worden naar welk 'mandaat' leerkrachten daarbij van de samenleving nodig hebben. Dit

  17. Die verband tussen gemeentebouprosesse en missionale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    17 Feb 2011 ... crowd but who is making the biggest impact on society'. Ook. McManus ... including softening the message to not offend or challenge the ungodly .... vermaning in gedagte, dat daar gewaak moet word teen ..... Arnold, J., 1992, The Big Book on Small Groups, Intervarsity Press, Downers Grove, IL. Barna, G.

  18. Die binding van die konfessie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Coetzee

    1970-05-01

    Full Text Available Ons moet waak teen twee uiterstes. Aan die een kant het die dogma as onversoenlike vyand die dogmatisme en aan die ander kant die antidogmatisme — dit hou enersyds die gevaar in van verabsolutering (oorskatting, en ander- syds die gevaar van relativisme (onderskatting.

  19. Strategisch beheer C2000 : kiezen voor slagkracht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonck, Klooster & Associates (VKA); Het Expertice Centrum (HEC); WODC

    2011-01-01

    De invoering van C2000 heeft ertoe geleid dat er één landelijk systeem wordt gebruikt voor (groeps)communicatie voor en door de hulpdiensten. Daarnaast kent C2000 nog vele andere gebruikers zoals Defensieonderdelen, Douane, Kustwacht etc. C2000 moet in zowel de normale dag/dagelijkse

  20. Nog steeds geslote eredienste? Deel2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gronde berus nie. Verwysende na Johannes 17:21 sê hy dat die kerk altyd die een- heid moet soek en bewaar omdat ons almal lede van dieselfde liggaam is. ...... Munchen: Kai ser. Oosthuizen, A J G [1960] 1978b. Ons kerk, in Van Wyk 1978:31-34. Pannenberg, W 1958. Christlicher Glaube und menschliche Freiheit.

  1. n kommunikasiestrategie vir kleinboeront- wikkeling1/a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ian

    WIKKELING1/A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY FOR. SMALL FARMER DEVELOPMENT1. H.C. Viljoen2, J. Laubscher3 and G.J.O. Marincowitz4. UITTREKSEL. Enige doeltreffende voorligting- en inligtingstelsel moet op die behoeftes en idioom van die boer berus. Aangesien die inligtingsbehoeftes van die kommersiële ...

  2. Abraham Kuyper en volksideologie onder die Afrikaners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Smit

    1989-05-01

    Full Text Available Om die waarheid te sê, Kuyper is lank nie meer gewild in Gereformeerde geledere in Suid-Afrika nie. Deels moet dit gewyt word aan die assosiasie van apartheidsideologie met Kuyper se idee van skeppingsordeninge (’n idee wat ook verbind kan word met Hitler se regverdiging van sy uitwissingsoperasies.

  3. Zonder kunst heeft cultuur te weinig waarde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gerwen, R.C.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Cultuur is hoe mensen hun leefwereld vorm geven: architectuur en stadsplanning, maar ook de Kalverstraat, het niet vegen van de stoep, de manier waarop we auto's stallen, de media: alles wat de publieke ruimte vorm geeft. De politiek zegt dat cultuur zichzelf moet terugverdienen, en dat doet ze ook:

  4. Slim bewegen tussen haven en stad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duin, Ron

    2017-01-01

    Wat moet de havenstad Rotterdam gaan doen met alle toekomstige kansen en bedreigingen? Welke disruptieve veranderingen zijn bij uitstek geschikt voor de haven- en stadsontwikkeling en welke ontwikkelingen zien wij op ons afkomen? Op welke manier kunnen we daar op inspelen met het onderzoek en het

  5. Meer of minder licht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, A. van der; Steentjes, A.

    2000-01-01

    Interview Wout van Bommel, informatie over DYNO onderzoek van Alferdinck en Hogema bij TNO Technische Menskunde De natuur heeft 'recht op duisternis', zegt de milieubeweging, en daarom moet de verlichting op wegen worden teruggedrongen. De overheid wil dat ook, want de kosten moeten omlaag.

  6. Innovatiescan Nederlandse zorg: Een inventarisatie van innovatiemanagement in de Nederlandse zorgsector

    OpenAIRE

    Nauta, Frans; Crombach, Marica

    2011-01-01

    Het moet slimmer en beter in de zorg. Alleen op die manier blijft hoogwaardige zorg betaalbaar in een vergrijzend Nederland. In dit onderzoek is gekeken hoe professioneel Nederlandse zorgorganisaties innoveren. Er zijn 100 interviews in 37 zorgorganisaties gehouden, variërend van jeugdzorg tot thuiszorg en van verslavingszorg tot eerstelijnszorg. Al deze interviews zijn op locatie uitgevoerd.

  7. Innovatiescan Nederlandse zorg : Een inventarisatie van innovatiemanagement in de Nederlandse zorgsector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frans Nauta; Marica Crombach

    2011-01-01

    Het moet slimmer en beter in de zorg. Alleen op die manier blijft hoogwaardige zorg betaalbaar in een vergrijzend Nederland. In dit onderzoek is gekeken hoe professioneel Nederlandse zorgorganisaties innoveren. Er zijn 100 interviews in 37 zorgorganisaties gehouden, variërend van jeugdzorg tot

  8. n eietydse homiletiese hermeneutiek

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    sogenaamde Esprit beweging, en in sy belangstelling in die tekste van. Emmanuel Mounier (Kearney 2004:137-138). Ricoeur se benadering is dat in die verstaan van beide geskiedenis en fiksie daar na die teks self gegaan moet word om die plot as gids te neem ten einde die ervaring onderliggend daaraan te verstaan.

  9. Tussen tekst en lezer. Een historische inleiding in de bijbelse hermeneutiek 1: De vroege kerk - Schleiermacher. Amsterdam: VU University Press, 2009. xxv + 453pp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwiep, A.W.

    2017-01-01

    De bijbel is weer helemaal terug in het publieke domein, getuige allerlei discussies in de media over schepping en evolutie, over religie en geweld, over vrijheid van godsdienst en vrijheid van meningsuiting. De vraag hoe de bijbel in dergelijke debatten geïnterpreteerd moet worden – kun je van de

  10. Tussen tekst en lezer. Een historische inleiding in de bijbelse hermeneutiek 1: De vroege kerk - Schleiermacher

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwiep, A.W.

    2009-01-01

    De bijbel is weer helemaal terug in het publieke domein, getuige allerlei discussies in de media over schepping en evolutie, over religie en geweld, over vrijheid van godsdienst en vrijheid van meningsuiting. De vraag hoe de bijbel in dergelijke debatten geïnterpreteerd moet worden – kun je van de

  11. De zin en onzin van fair value in de jaarrekening : de zoektocht naar natuurlijke breuklijnen in het historische kostprijsoppervlak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeven, R.L. ter

    2006-01-01

    Ter Hoeven stelt dat fair value in de regelgeving van de International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) is ingevoerd zonder een onderliggende theoretische onderbouwing. Dit heeft geleid tot inconsistenties in de wijze waarop de fair value moet worden bepaald. “Het is onbegrijpelijk dat pas

  12. Kwantificeren mondgevoel geeft betere sturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stieger, M.A.; Visschers, R.; Beekmans, F.

    2006-01-01

    Dranken met een verlaagd suiker- of vetgehalte verliezen vaak aan mondgevoel, waardoor de consument ze minder graag drinkt. Onderzocht moet worden welke vervangende ingrediënten een mondgevoel creëren dat de consument wél bevalt. Dat kan met sensorisch onderzoek, maar dat is tijdrovend, duur en niet

  13. Vormgeven aan loopbanen - De Talent Development Company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katinka Klop; Marlo Kengen

    2010-01-01

    Tijden van economische crisis vragen om nieuwe, creatieve vormen van personeelsvoorziening. Hoe behouden we ervaren vakmensen? En tegelijkertijd: Hoe winnen we jonge mensen voor onze sector? Hoe ontwikkelen we vakmensen in crisistijd? STAN heeft een concept ontwikkeld dat oplossingen moet bieden

  14. Nasionale beplanning en kodrdinering van veekundige

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    en riglyne aanvaa.r word, is dit duidelik dat diereproduksie in die toekoms nog aansienlik sal moet ontwikkel as .... die Streek dus prim€r'n gemeenskap dien en 'n bepaalde gebied ontwikkel, bedien die Instituut 'n bedryf of 'n vak en .... :Projek. Entiteit+Studieveld+Plan. :Subprojek. Entiteit + Studieveld + Plon + Aksie : Faset.

  15. Superplasticiteit bij Cern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Q.H.C.; Snippe, Corijn

    2008-01-01

    Op CERN, het Europees onderzoekscentrum voor subatomaire fysica in Genève, wordt dit jaar een nieuwe deeltjesversneller, de Large Hadron Collider (LHC), in werking gesteld die nieuwe inzichten moet bieden over hoe de kleinste deeltjes der materie zich gedragen. Om hierachter te komen, is op plaatsen

  16. A deterministic simulation study of embryo marker-assisted selection for age at first calving in Nellore ( Bos indicus) beef cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosa, A.J.M.; Bijma, P.; Oliveira, H.N.; Lobo, R.B.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    We used deterministic simulation of four alternative multiple ovulation and embryo manipulation (MOET) closed nucleus schemes to investigate the benefits of using marker-assisted selection (MAS) of Nellore (Bos indicus) beef cattle embryos prior to transplantation to reduce the age at first calving

  17. Rapportage Kennisbasis Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken: programma 406 in 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grift, R.E.; Beek, van F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Ten behoeve van het WOT programma 406 (Wettelijke Taken Visserijonderzoek) is financiering uit de zogenaamde Kennisbasis beschikbaar voor het ontwikkelen van kennis nodig voor het uitvoeren van de wettelijke taken in dit programma. Het Kennisbasis programma moet in een kennisbehoefte voor het

  18. Toegankelijkheid van applicaties en content op internet voor consumenten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooren, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Het principe dat consumenten toegang moeten hebben tot hun eigen keuze aan applicaties en content op internet is al jaren gevestigd. Tegelijkertijd ontstaat regelmatig discussie over de vraag hoe die toegankelijkheid in de praktijk moet worden gewaarborgd en of hij al dan niet wordt belemmerd. Dit

  19. Welzijnsrichtlijn vleeskuikens : 20 lux bij vleeskuikens : het kan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harn, van J.

    2009-01-01

    De lichtsterkte op ooghoogte van de kuikens moet op 80 procent van het vloeroppervlak minimaal 20 lux bedragen, volgens de EU-welzijnsrichtlijn voor vleeskuikens. Momenteel worden vleeskuikens gehouden bij lichtsterktes die lager zijn vanwege de vrees voor stress en onrust bij de kuikens. Uit

  20. Gym tussen wens en werkelijkheid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Lars B. Borghouts

    2009-01-01

    Wat wensen wij te bereiken met de Lichamelijke Opvoeding, en welke effecten bereiken wij daad- werkelijk? Om duidelijk te maken aan politici, beleidsmakers en schooldirecties waarom het bewegingsonderwijs een belangrijke plaats ver- dient in het onderwijs, moet je dit scherp kunnen neerzetten. Een

  1. Van graf tot wieg ; de rol van fintech door de generaties heen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, A. de; Bakas, A.

    2015-01-01

    Als financiële dienstverlener moet je rekening houden met mensen van alle leeftijden en uit alle lagen van de bevolking. Van de hulpbehoevende senior tot de nieuwsgierige kleuter. We vroegen 2 experts wat verschillende levensfasen typeert, hoe deze persona’s tegen technologie aankijken en hoe

  2. EVA geen FDA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folbert, J.P.; Dagevos, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    De oprichting van een Europese Voedselautoriteit die in 2002 operationeel moet zijn. Velen zien hierin een evenbeeld van de Amerikaanse FDA (Food and Drug Administration). Deze instantie werkt echter niet zo ideaal als vaak wordt voorgesteld. Het belangrijkste verschil tussen beide instanties is de

  3. Inventarisatie bodemfauna op projectlocatie Vogelsand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, K.; Ende, van den D.

    2015-01-01

    Vogelbescherming Nederland heeft het voornemen om, samen met andere partijen, een vogeleiland aan te laten leggen nabij Den Oever in de Waddenzee. Omdat de Waddenzee een beschermd natuurgebied is dat deel uitmaakt van het Europese Natura 2000 netwerk, moet hiervoor een NB-wet vergunning aangevraagd

  4. HOE WORD ONS WEER 'N BIDDENDE GEMEENTE?* 1. Die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    moet bid. Sedert die laaste oorlog is dit duidelik dat die mensheid begin het om teen sy grense aan te stoot. Dis nie meer so dat die gebeure van die wêreldgeskiedenis elke keer net 'n deel van die aarde of sekere kultuurkringe in beroering bring nie. Agter die wat in beroering gebring is, was daar nie meer ander bekende ...

  5. Fenotipiese- en genetiese parameters by 'n kommerslele kudde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vagmassa te verhoog. Beramings van genetiese korrelasies moet egter met groot versigtigheid behandel en gelnterpreteer word omdat dit slegs. 'n verhouding tussen waardes verteenwoordig wat ook self met aansienlike onsekerheid beraam is. Gevolglik laat die akku- label 4 Fenotipiese- en genetiese korrelasies tussen.

  6. Kognitiewe Raamteorie: 'n ontledingsraamwerk vir tydsbelewing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taal word as 'n kommunikasieraam beskryf waarbinne 'n spreker en 'n aangesprokene hulle aandag op 'n gemeenskaplike tema moet fokus sodat diskoers sonder misverstand kan plaasvind. Die diskoers tussen gespreksgenote word beskryf as 'n spektrum van taalhandelinge waarin die gespreksgenote versamelings ...

  7. Development and introduction of a decision support system. A case study of an econometric corporate financial model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Gerhard Johan Otto Dorus

    1982-01-01

    De ontwikg.j.o.d.dikkerskeling van een ondernemingsmodel is ter hand genomen om het inzicht in de toekomstige ontwikkeling van de financiele gang van zaken van de onderneming te verbeteren. Voorts moet het model de bedrijfsleiding een middel verschaffen om beslissingen over de inzet van

  8. Aanvoer koper en zink erg hoog op melkveebedrijven

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, E.A.A.; Verkaik, J.C.; Middelkoop, van J.C.

    2006-01-01

    De Europese kaderrichtlijn Water bepaalt dat de kwaliteit van het oppervlaktewater in 2015 zodanig verbeterd moet zijn, dat dit geen problemen meer oplevert voor het waterleven en voor het gebruik als drinkwater. Voor Nederland betekent dit onder andere dat de uitspoeling van koper en zink uit de

  9. Chinese growth held in check

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, J.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Botden, N.P.G.

    2003-01-01

    China heeft een enorm potentieel voor groenten en fruitproductie. De bedrijfs- en marktstructuur zijn weinig efficiënt. De kwaliteit van de productieketen voldoet niet aan internationale normen en er is schaarste aan grond en water. Deze problemen moet worden opgelost voordat China een belangrijke

  10. EWCP : Electronic Warfare Control Processor ; Een belangrijke bijdrage aan een geïntegreerd Combat Systeem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mühren, H.R.

    1996-01-01

    In het algemeen kan worden gesteld dat de luchtdreiging waartegen een fregat of een verband van schepen zich moet kunnen verdedigen, primair bestaat uit anti ship missiles. Dit betekent dat de technologische ontwikkeling van deze geleide wapens in belangrijke mate de eisen bepaalt, die moeten worden

  11. Ontwikkeling financiële functie: wat is de controller van de toekomst? : over vakbekwaamheid en kletsvakken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Gert; de Graaf, Frank Jan

    2016-01-01

    De VRC gaat de komende jaren actief aan de slag met de rol en taken van de controller in het veranderende werkveld. Na het NBA /VRC-rapport over de financieel professional van de toekomst moet er concreet worden nagedacht over nieuwe eisen voor het beroep.

  12. Hoe veranderen we de wereld? Of: Zandkastelen bouwen in de regen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, Scott|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370529529

    2013-01-01

    Bundel met essays van Alain Badiou, Margaret Atwood, John Gray, Rory Stewart, Parag Khanna, Evgeny Morozov, Rory Sutherland, Agnes Heller, Roger Scruton, Daniel Pick en de winnaar van de Nexus Connect-essaywedstrijd, Scott Douglas. Het mandaat om de wereld te veranderen moet worden teruggegeven aan

  13. Confessions of a bridge builder. The design studio as a place of seduction : Interview with Arie Willem Bijl, Atelier IJmeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ir. Bart de Zwart

    2010-01-01

    Veel ruimtelijke vraagstukken, zoals volkshuisvesting en wateropslag, worden steeds vaker op regionaal niveau aangepakt. Planning en beleidsontwikkeling nemen echter veel tijd in beslag. Dit komt deels door gebrek aan ervaring, maar ook door het toenemend aantal partijen waarmee rekening moet worden

  14. Meten van dampen en aërosolen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.; Ravensberg, L.; Hemmen, J. van

    1993-01-01

    Het op de juiste wijze meten van aerosol-damp mengsels in de ademzone via persoonlijke bemonsteringsapparatuur is bijzonder moeilijk. Enerzijds dient de afvangsteffectiviteit voor het aerosolgedeelte te voldoen aan de definities voor bijvoorbeeld de inhaleerbare fractie, anderzijds moet de damp

  15. Vrijheid, gelijkheid en eenzaamheid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstee, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    Ik ben geboren en getogen en ik heb geleefd en gewerkt in en vanuit ' de Verlichtingsdenkbeelden. De Franse revolutie in haar ontwikkeling heeft te veel onplezierige aspecten om haar straks zonder reserve te herdenken. Men moet ernstig hopen, dat onze wereld zich nog tijdig van deze eenzijdigheid,

  16. Verder met inclusie en diversiteit : resultaten en actiepunten Onderwijsconferentie Hogeschool van Amsterdam 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diepen, Mieke; Essen, Erik; Hogenstijn, Maarten; Veraa, Fiona

    ‘Hartstikke leuk om een dagje onder collega’s te zijn en te praten over onderwijs, maar wat heb ik erverder aan? Morgen moet ik gewoon weer aan het werk’. Deze houding over de onderwijsconferentie, en misschien wel conferenties in het algemeen, zal velen bekend in de oren klinken. Het is vaak lastig

  17. De zogenaamde vitamine K deficientie van de pasgeborene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorm, Johannes Marius van

    1976-01-01

    Veel obstetrici en kind.erartsen dienen pasgeborenen vitamine K toe om het risico van bloedingen in de neonatale periode te verkleinen. De basis voor deze benadering is de veronderstelling dat de oorzaak van de bloedingsneiging moet worden gezocht in een lage plasmaspiegel van de vier van vitamine K

  18. Positie van het vak informatica in havo/vwo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaneveld, Bert; Perrenet, Jacob; van Diepen, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    De vraag van dit artikel is: hoe moet het verder met het vak informatica in de bovenbouw van havo en van vwo? Deze vraag is relevant om een aantal redenen. Enerzijds gaat het om een tamelijk marginaal vak; slechts ongeveer 60% van de scholen biedt informatica aan. Anderzijds is er een discussie op

  19. Primary English Language Education Policy in Vietnam: Insights from Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa Thi Mai

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of English in primary education curricula is a phenomenon occurring in many non-English-speaking countries in Asia, including Vietnam. Recently, the Ministry of Education and Training (MOET) in Vietnam issued guidelines for the piloting of an English as a foreign language (EFL) primary curriculum in which English is taught as a…

  20. 15 Resensie Fourie 03 WEB.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    regverdige kans te gee en die gaping in die resepsie van sy werk te vul. Teen hierdie agtergrond en die doelstelling van die versameling moet dit egter gestel word dat die mederedakteurskap van Brink se eggenote Szczurek 'n mens ietwat onge- maklik laat voel––juis omdat die bundel uitdruklik ingaan teen die ingeteelde ...

  1. DIE SAW SE ROL IN SWA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wei die verdediging van die landsgrense teen 'n vyand wat die orde, gesag, vrede, stabiliteit en welvaart in Suidwes-Afrika en die Republiek van. Suid-Afrika wil vernietig. Hierdie oorlog moet nie ge'lsoleerd gesien word nie, maar in perspektief geplaas word teen die agtergrond van 'n nag groter konflik, naamlik die van die ...

  2. Case note: EHRM (Grand Chamber) (zaaknr. 16354/06, LJN BX9103: Mouvement Raëlien Suisse/Zwitserland: verbod verspreiding posters is niet in strijd met de vrijheid van meningsuiting)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommering, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Mensenrechten. Vrijheid van meningsuiting. Weigering van vergunning voor het ophangen van posters van organisatie die contact met buitenaardse wezens nastreeft. Uiting is eerder commercieel dan politiek van aard wegens ‘bekerende’ werking. Vanwege vermelding website moet ook inhoud daarvan worden

  3. Sinus floor elevation surgery for enabling dental implant placement : approaches to reduce morbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rickert, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Na het verliezen van tanden en kiezen in de bovenkaak, slinkt de kaakwal en zakt de neusbijholte (sinus maxillaris) vaak uit. Daarom moet vaak een bottransplantaat worden aangebracht, voordat een implantaat kan worden geplaatst. Botopbouw in de vorm van een sinusbodemelevatie biedt veelal uitkomst

  4. Tweede externe audit van de Basisregistratie Kadaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, M.H.; Meijer, M.; Knotters, M.

    2015-01-01

    De kadasterwet stelt dat er elke drie jaar een audit moet plaatsvinden op de kwaliteit van de authentieke gegevens van de Basisregistratie Kadaster In 2015 heeft Alterra voor de tweede maal deze audit uitgevoerd d.m.v. interviews en literatuurstudie. Dit rapport bevat de bevindingen en aanbevelingen

  5. Much ado about unicorns and digital divides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. Dr. Jan Steyaert

    2002-01-01

    Deze tekst beschrijft de globale digitale kloof. Daarbij wordt opgemerkt dat we ons niet mogen laten verleiden door de simpliciteit van het meetbare, t.w. het al dan niet hebben van een computer met internettoegang. De digitale kloof kent immers meerdere dimensies, waarvan bezit maar een is. Zo moet

  6. enkele fasette van die problematiek van die akademikus by die skryf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Om verskeie redes het dit van die allergrootste belong geword dot 'n his- tories korrekte, wetenskaplike weerga- we van bogenoemde gebeure opge- teken moet word. Die sluier, in sommige gevalle am logiese redes toegepas, moes eenvoudig gelig word am gebeure wat die gewone man op stroot in Suid-Afrika dikwels ...

  7. Drogen van mest onder het rooster geeft hoge kosten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellen, H.H.; Haar, van der J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Voor de vleeskuikenouderdieren is in de Uitvoeringsregeling ammoniak en veehouderij (Uav) een systeem opgenomen waarbij de mest onder het rooster wordt belucht. De gebruikte lucht moet daarbij aan bepaalde eisen voldoen. Dit heeft onder andere gevolgen voor de energiekosten. In dit artikel wordt

  8. Reverse logistics in de groot-witgoedsector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, de M.B.M.; Flapper, S.D.P.; Krikke, H.R.; Vermeulen, W.S.; Goor, van A.R.; Flapper, S.D.P.

    2000-01-01

    Voor de witgoedsector is op 1 juni 1998 het besluit in werkinggetreden voor afgedankte groot-witgoedapparaten en op 1 januari 1999 voor kleine witgoedapparaten. Dit houdt in dat vanaf 1 januari 1999 de inzamelings-en verwijderingsstructuur voor de grote apparaten effectief moet zijn en vanaf 1

  9. die doel en wese van opvoedende onderwys en die implikasies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oaar moet onderskei word tussen die doelstellings van opvoedende onderwys en die einddoel wat bereik word deur die nastrewing van hierdie doelstellings. Gunter praat van die naderliggende doelstellings (1981, b1.105). \\/at die enddoel van opvoedende onderwys bet ref, gaan die meeste opvoedkundi ges akkoord dat ...

  10. Time-Driven Activity Based Costing in de zorg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wil van Erp; Ruben Opgelder; Michiel van der Ven

    2013-01-01

    Het wel of niet toepassen van marktwerking in de zorg leidt in Nederland tot veel discussie. De felheid van dit debat is mede ingegeven door de algemeen onderschreven opvatting dat zorg ons dierbaar is en voor iedereen toegankelijk moet zijn. Maar de vergrijzing en de daarmee samenhangende groei van

  11. Optimization of Tax Sovereignty and Free Movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, Sjoerd

    2011-01-01

    De fiscale beleidsvrijheid van EU-landen is de afgelopen jaren flink ingeperkt en met dit onderzoek wordt duidelijk gemaakt hoe moet worden beoordeeld of de wetgever binnen de grenzen van het EU-recht is gebleven. Daarnaast wordt onderzocht in hoeverre de soms forse kritiek op het Europese Hof

  12. Evaluation of Closed Adult Nucleus Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer and Conventional Progeny Testing Breeding Schemes for Milk Production from Crossbred Cattle in the Tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosgey, I.S.; Kahi, A.K.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The potential benefits of closed adult nucleus multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) and conventional progeny testing (CNS) schemes, and the logistics of their integration into large-scale continuous production of crossbred cattle were studied by deterministic simulation. The latter was

  13. Tendering by municipalities of wind turbines; Aanbesteding door gemeenten van windmolens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    This manual provides municipalities answers to the questions of how the municipality must do the tendering for wind turbines and what choices they have [Dutch] Deze handleiding biedt gemeenten antwoorden op de vragen hoe de gemeente moet aanbesteden en welke keuzes zij daarin heeft.

  14. Kaderrichtlijn water: strengere spuinormen staan voor de deur (interview met Ellen Beerling)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kierkels, T.; Beerling, E.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Geen teler loost voor de lol. Spui kost geld aan water en meststoffen. Maar het gebeurt wel zeer regelmatig, om problemen op te lossen of voor de zekerheid. Gevolg: veel meststoffen en gewasbeschermingsmiddelen in de wateren rond kassengebieden. In 2027 moet dat afgelopen zijn, op grond van de

  15. Critique of art : Walter Benjamin and Theodor W. Adorno on art criticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijster, Thijs Erik

    2012-01-01

    Kunstkritiek vervult een cruciale rol als medium tussen het kunstwerk en de maatschappelijke werkelijkheid. Dat concludeert promovendus Thijs Lijster. Daarbij moet kunstkritiek, in navolging van Walter Benjamin en Theodor Adorno, niet in de eerste plaats opgevat worden als het beoordelen van

  16. Maatschappelijk belang van fietspad 10; fietverbinding door een Habitatrichtlijngebied, tussen de Haagse agglomeratie en de Vallei Meijendel via de Waasdorpervlakte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossen, C.M.; Regt, de W.J.; Langers, F.

    2004-01-01

    Provincie Zuid-Holland wil fietspad 10 aanleggen van de rand van de Haagse agglomeratie door de vlakte van Waalsdorp (een Habitatrichtlijngebied) naar de vallei Meijendel. Het maatschappelijk belang van dit fietspad moet worden aangetoond. De Haagse regio heeft een fors fietstekort. De kwaliteit van

  17. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In mei 1999 is een werkgroep gestart met de opdracht om "vanuit de bestaande situatie een voorstel te doen voor een effectief en efficient surveillancesysteem voor SOA dat inzicht geeft in de prevalentie en de incidentie van SOA in Nederland. Het systeem moet te gebruiken zijn voor directe

  18. MENSWAARDIGHEID NA TIEN JAAR VAN REGSTAATLIKHEID IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    rasionele mens daarvoor moet hê. Outonomie is gevolglik die grondslag van die waardigheid van die menslike natuur en van iedere rasionele skepsel. 11. Bekende Angelsaksiese regsfilosowe onderskryf 'n soortgelyke benadering. Volgens Ronald. Dworkin, wat deels vir John Rawls aanhaal, is die gelyke respek wat aan ...

  19. Het rendement van de detectiemethode voor Cryptosporidium en Giardia in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets FM; Medema GJ; Schijven JF; MGB

    2004-01-01

    Nederlandse waterleidingbedrijven zijn verplicht om te berekenen of als gevolg van consumptie van drinkwater infectie met Cryptosporidium of Giardia kan optreden. De kans hierop moet kleiner dan een infectie per 10000 personen per jaar zijn. De berekening (risicoanalyse) wordt gebaseerd op de

  20. Antibiotica helpen niet bij endodontische pijn. Wat wel?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, S.; Aps, J.K.M.; Boxum, S.C.; De Bruyne, M.A.A.; Jacobs, R.; van der Meer, W.J.; Nienhuijs, M.E.L.

    2018-01-01

    De beleving van pijn wordt door meerdere factoren beïnvloed. Bij de bestrijding van pijn van endodontische oorsprong moet dus rekening worden gehouden met meerdere factoren. Denk aan de drie pijlers: voorlichting, behandeling en nazorg. Een professionele houding is zeer belangrijk. Schrijf in geen

  1. Pijn tijdens of na de wortelkanaalbehandeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, P.R.

    2012-01-01

    Een wortelkanaalbehandeling kan pijn veroorzaken tijdens en/of na de behandeling. Tijdens de behandeling moet dan onderscheid worden gemaakt tussen pijn bij een pulpitis en pijn bij een necrotische pulpa. In beide gevallen kan die pijn effectief worden bestreden, afhankelijk van de toestand waarin

  2. TNO en Aedes over voordelen regisserend opdrachtgeverschap bij planmatig onderhoud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, S.

    2016-01-01

    Regisserend opdrachtgeverschap is voor corporaties een goede manier om met planmatig onderhoud om te gaan. Dat stellen Stefan Arts van TNO en Maarten Georgius van Aedes, die onderzoek deden naar dat nieuwe opdrachtgeverschap. Hoe het moet, staat helder op papier. Maar de praktijk is weerbarstig, zo

  3. Het ontwikkelen van een web performance en security analyse applicatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Hawker

    2017-01-01

    Doelstelling van de opdracht is om vier security en performance aspecten van een website te meten of bepalen. Dit wordt gedaan met behulp van een site crawler. De resultaten van de metingen inclusief de trends van vorige scans worden aan de gebruiker gepresenteerd. Als laatst moet er rekening met de

  4. De Balanced Scorecard, van theorie naar praktijk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo

    2004-01-01

    Meten is weten en wat men meet is wat men krijgt. Ofwel, wat gemeten wordt, is waar aandacht aan geschonken wordt. Dit zijn veelgehoorde statements en zij geven het belang aan van het meten van prestaties en van het meten van de juiste factoren. Hoe moet dit meten in de praktijk worden gebracht? Aan

  5. 'Spelen' met scherm nodig voor gewenst klimaat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, J.A.; Esmeijer, M.H.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Reijnders, C.E.; Ruijs, M.N.A.

    2006-01-01

    Schermen heeft directe invloed op de temperatuur, instraling en luchtvochtigheid in de kas. Dat heeft dus ook gevolgen voor de groei van het gewas. Ook voor het energieverbruik heeft schermen consequentieverlies. Wanneer moet het scherm dicht en wat is het effect van kieren?

  6. DNA Profiling and the Law in South Africa | de Wet | Potchefstroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA-getuienis is tans van wesenlike belang in die arsenaal van getuienis wat in strafsake gebruik word. Ten einde die optimale gebruik van DNA-getuienis in strafregtelike verrigtinge te verseker, is dit noodsaaklik dat regslui met die wetenskaplike basis en die aanbieding van sodanige getuienis vertroud moet wees, sowel ...

  7. Privacy een grondrecht, maar ook handelswaar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsthoorn, P.

    2015-01-01

    Snoeihard uit journalist Brenno de Winter zijn commentaar op sprekers over privacy tijdens het NLIGF congres 2015. Hij zet Bart Schermer, adviseur van bedrijven en organisaties in de hoek. Die heeft net betoogd dat privacy geen juk (‘korvee’) mag vormen maar inzet moet zijn van innovatie door

  8. Bouwen en natuur: Europese natuurwaarden op het ruimelijk ordeningsspoor; achtergronddocument bij Natuurbalans 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmeyer, M.E.A.; Kistenkas, F.H.

    2006-01-01

    Wie wil gaan bouwen moet tegenwoordig op voorhand en in redelijkheid (de zgn. rechterlijke OVIR-toets) rekening houden met aanwezige wettelijk beschermde natuurwaarden. Voor Natura 2000-gebieden zal dan al de habitattoets een rol moeten spelen en voor wat betreft de soortenbescherming zal al

  9. Een nieuw voersysteem voor versgras : Netwerk: Vers en veilig in de pens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipsen, A.P.; Duinkerken, van G.

    2006-01-01

    De melkveehouders binnen het netwerk 'Vers en veilig in de pens' staan voor het voeren van vers gras, willen dat graag blijven doen, maar willen liever niet twee maal per dag hoeven te voeren. Daarvoor moet het gras wel langer vers blijven. Nu kan het met een halve dag al warm worden door broei. Het

  10. Kwaliteit biogas-CO2 voor toepassing in de glastuinbouw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van C.J.; Meinen, E.; Dueck, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Een lijst van specificaties voor vloeibaar CO2 uit biogas moet voorkomen dat fytotoxische componenten vanuit het biogas meekomen met de CO2 stroom en een risico vormen voor de gewassen in glastuinbouw. Op basis van eerder uitgevoerde metingen in afgassen van vergistingsinstallaties is een lijst

  11. Regenvastheid van zwavel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de P.F.; Scholten-Grit, G.; Anbergen, R.H.N.; Heijne, B.

    2004-01-01

    Binnen de biologische fruitteelt is het aantal gewasbeschermingsmiddelen dat toegepast mag worden zeer beperkt. De meest belangrijke ziekte waar tegen bestreden moet worden, is schurft (Venturia inaequalis). Het middel zwavel is het meest toegepaste fungicide dat op dit moment wordt ingezet op

  12. Ervaringen met ICT-onderzoek in het HBO.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, H.; Teeuw, W.J.; Tangelder, R.; Griffioen, P.; Krose, B.; Schouten, B.

    2011-01-01

    In dit artikel wordt het belang aangegeven van onderzoeksvaardigheden in het HBO. Met de komst van de lectoraten en de nieuwe positionering van het HBO is het belangrijk om een antwoord te vinden hoe het onderzoek binnen het HBO vormgegeven moet worden. Hierbij wordt gekeken naar de bruikbaarheid

  13. Consumers' perception of the functional and symbolic performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    se ondevredenheid met hulle toerusting word dus, vanuit 'n teoretiese oopgunt, deur 'n kombi-nasie van beide funksionele en simboliese werksverrigtingdimensies bepaal. Bemarkers, vervaardigers en kleinhandelaars moet in gedagte hou dat verbruikers nie tussen die funksionele en simboliese werksverrigtingdimensies ...

  14. Bioaccumulatie in schelpdieren t.b.v. het Nader Onderzoek Haringvliet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek-van Nieuwenhuizen, van M.

    2008-01-01

    In 2008 is een beperkt Nader Onderzoek uitgevoerd m.b.t. de waterbodem van het Haringvliet met als doel een beslissing te kunnen ondersteunen of de waterbodem gesaneerd moet worden. Onderdeel van dit onderzoek is het inschatten van de ecologische risico’s aan de hand van bioaccumulatie van stoffen

  15. Uitwerking Richtsnoer 'Enuresis nocturna' voor kinderen met hardnekkige klachten [Further development of 'Enuresis nocturna' guidelines for children with persistent problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirasing, R.A.; Leerdam, F.J.M. van; Sukhai, R.N.; Capelle, J.W. van; Froeling, F.M.J.A.; Vijverberg, M.A.W.

    2004-01-01

    Om een kind met hardnekkige klachten van enuresis nocturna droog te krijgen, is het van belang om na te gaan welke factoren een rol spelen bij het bedplassen en waarom eerdere behandeling is mislukt. Het gebruik van een mictielijst is hierbij onmisbaar. De behandeling moet op maat worden gegeven. De

  16. Een goede keeper heeft alt?d geluk : Sport en het belang van kennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tissen, R.J.; Wieldraaijer, E.

    2004-01-01

    Wat hebben sport en kennis met elkaar te maken! Alles. De tijd dat een beetje talent en veel karakter verstonden om de top te bereiken, ligt achter ons. Wie nu in de prijzen wil vallen moet naast aanleg en werklust ook nieuwsgierig zijn, steeds weer op zoek zijn naar nieuwe kennis. Kennis dus van

  17. Old School Hacking Treft Smartphones : Hoe operators hun netwerk kunnen beveiligen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, F.; Hartog, T; Muller, F.; Veugen, P.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Smartphones en tablets zijn vatbaar voor allerhande virussen en mal-ware infecties. Meestal is het de taak van de gebruiker om zich daaryegen te beschermen. Hij moet pincodes instellen, firewalls opzetten en virussscanners installeren, Cybercriminaliteit is echter niet een probleem van de

  18. Rectificatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1980-01-01

    In het artikel van TH. W. J. GADELLA, Variatie bij de klimop-ereprijs (Veronica hederifolia L. s.l.) op het eiland Texel, Gorteria 10 (2/3), p. 29-40, is een storende fout geslopen. In het onderschrift bij fig. 6 op p. 36 zijn de namen van de „Kleinarten” verwisseld. Het onderschrift moet luiden:

  19. Tshto novogo?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Moeteemalisi uudiseid Eestist: eesti olümpialaste riietus, autoriks Jaana Varkki (Monton); moetööstuse auhind "Suur Kuldnõel 2003" sai Merike Päärole; Kanal 2 moesaade "Glamorama"; avati Ivo Nikkolo moekauplus; Sangari uus kollektsioon uue disaineriga; Klementi uus logo; reklaamikonkursi Cresta Awards finaalis Montoni veebisait www.montonfashion.com

  20. Water quality standards for uranium : Proposal for new standards according to the Water Framework Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herwijnen R; Verbruggen EMJ; MSP; M&V

    2014-01-01

    Nieuwe waterkwaliteitsnormen voor uranium
    In de Regeling Monitoring Kaderrichtlijn Water (KRW) staat aan welke eisen het oppervlaktewater in Nederland moet voldoen, onder andere voor uranium. Uranium wordt op veel locaties aangetroffen in concentraties boven de huidige norm. Deze norm is echter

  1. The seed hunter in het spoor van Vavilov (interview met C. Kik)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanderink, R.; Kik, C.

    2013-01-01

    Er moet voor een veredelaar een grote variatie aan plantmateriaal aanwezig zijn om uit te kunnen putten zodat onze gewassen, die vaak bestaan uit monoculturen, voor de toekomst veiliggesteld worden. Het vinden van die variatie is het werk van seed hunters of zadenverzamelaars. Eén van die seed

  2. Evangelisch Commando, onze omgamg met de buitenkerkelijke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Of J. en E. dus interkerklik is, bly 'n vraag! Die gedeelte oor die „Oorzaken van buitenkerklijkheid is prikkelend en interessant. Die vraag is net of dit nie nog dieper gesoek moet word, nl. in die herontwaking van die Heidendom wat sig sins die Renaissance hardnekkig deur sit met die outonomie van die mens in die sentrum.

  3. aarde beteken die einde van tradisionele metafisiese taal oor God?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    7 Jun 2011 ... (2009:4) aan dat die eietydse 'populist meander culture' die onvanpastheid van 'n skeidslyn tussen hoofstroom- en charismatiese kerklike groeperinge blootlê. Albei verteenwoordig geïnstitusionaliseerde religie. Die lyn moet eerder tussen geïnstitusionaliseerde religie en spiritualiteit op die markplein ...

  4. Weet wat je uitsluit!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhartz, B.E.

    2017-01-01

    In de uitspraak van Gerechtshof Arnhem-Leeuwarden van 10 november 2016 was er sprake van een uitsluitingsclausule waarin werd gesteld dat het verkregene niet moet vallen in een gemeenschap waarin de dochter was gehuwd ten tijde van het overlijden van erflater. Daarmee werd niet uitgesloten dat het

  5. Ethische aspecten van big data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. (Niek) van Antwerpen; Klaas Jan Mollema

    2017-01-01

    Big data heeft niet alleen geleid tot uitdagende technische vraagstukken, ook gaat het gepaard met allerlei nieuwe ethische en morele kwesties. Om verantwoord met big data om te gaan, moet ook over deze kwesties worden nagedacht. Want slecht datagebruik kan nadelige gevolgen hebben voor

  6. Milieukwaliteitsplan Regionaal Orgaan Amsterdam; hoofdlijnenrapport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borch, ter M.; Coenen, E.; Frederiks, N.; Haas, de W.; Harmsen, T.; Jonker, G.; Kersten, G.; Klundert, van de B.; Loeven, L.; Steinhaus, R.; Timmermans, W.; Tjallingii, S.; Veer, van 't K.; Vink, S.; Wiersinga, W.; Witte, T.

    1995-01-01

    Het Milieukwaliteitsplan van het Regionaal Orgaan Amsterdam (ROA) speelt in op de nieuwe bestuurlijke verhoudingen in het ROA-gebied. Het geeft geen vaste doelstellingen waaraan iedere gemeente moet voldoen, maar is een instrumenteel en faciliërend kader voor uitwisseling van kennis en ervaringen,

  7. Onderzoekers foerageren ook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacquiere, T.

    2012-01-01

    Het is mei. Tenzij het regent, zijn de bijen de hele lange dag aan het zoeken en binnenhalen van nectar, stuifmeel, propolis, water. Dat foerageren gebeurt om te voorzien in de behoeften van het hele bijenvolk op dít moment: als het heet is moet er meteen water worden gehaald om het volk te koelen.

  8. Een methodologische studie over de behandeling van hypertensie met de stereoisometer van à methyldopa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Westerman-van der Horst

    1975-01-01

    textabstractHypertensie is in verreweg de meeste gevallen een chronische ziekte en de medicamenteuze behandeling ervan moet in het algemeen voor de duur van het leven worden voortgezet. Behandeling is gewenst omdat - zoals uit de statistieken van levensverzekerings-maatschappijen is gebleken -

  9. De optimale datum voor het afsluiten van een lening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommeren, Bernard; Allers, Maarten; Vellekoop, Michel

    Wie een lening moet afsluiten kan dat direct doen, of afwachten in de hoop dat de rente zal dalen vóór het moment dat de lening echt nodig is. Maar als de rente niet daalt maar stijgt, wordt de lening duurder. Dus wat is wijsheid?

  10. High Tech Campus Eindhoven, Netwerk van ontmoetingsmogelijkheden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doevendans, C.H.

    2005-01-01

    Eindhoven wil zichzelf als brainport op de kaart zetten, als centrum van de Nederlandse kenniseconomie. Stond Eindhoven van oudsher vooral bekend als de Philips company town, in het postindustriële tijdperk moet het een innovatieve netwerkstad worden. Een brandpunt van innovatieve cultuur en

  11. DIE NORMERING VAN AFRIKAANSE BYBELTAAL C.J. Conradie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    die Afrikaanse spreektaal weergee maat terselfdertyd verhewe Bybeltaal wees-. Die Bybel moet sy "Oosterse koLoriet" behou maar terselfdertyd ver- staanbaar wees. Die volgende skema sal die samehang van die normeringsfaktore wat hieronder behandel word, oorsigtelik maak. C.R.A., Kerke, vertalings- kommissies.

  12. Seksist, linnast ja moest / Mervi Lill

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lill, Mervi

    2008-01-01

    USA 1998. aastal ekraanile jõudnud menusari "Seks ja linn" on mõjutanud sarja populaarsuse kasvuga kogu moetööstust ja muutunud globaalseks moekuulutajaks. Sarja stilist on Patricia Field, kes tegev ka 2008.a. kevadel esilinastuva mängufilmi "Sex and The City. The Movie" juures

  13. Marx voor de 21e eeuw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, M.M.; van der Velden, S.

    2008-01-01

    Karl Marx werd 190 jaar geleden geboren en is 125 jaar dood. Zo'n man uit de voorvorige eeuw heeft die ons eigenlijk nog wel iets te zeggen? Zijn zijn denkbeelden niet totaal verouderd? Ik denk persoonlijk dat het antwoord krachtig NEE moet luiden. Marx is niet verouderd, integendeel.

  14. 'Slobo, breng ons de salade'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B.

    2008-01-01

    Wie in 1991 het nieuws uit de Balkan goed volgde, moet de naam Vukovar nog bekend in de oren klinken. De stad is gelegen in het uiterste oosten van Kroatië aan de Servische grens, waar het riviertje de Vuka met de daar ongeveer zeshonderd meter brede majestueuze Donau samenvloeit. Vukovar werd van

  15. Filosofie van het kijken: Tevreden koe maalt niet om haar psyche.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, Mieke; Steenhuis, Peter Henk

    2008-01-01

    Museumbezoekers blijven negen seconden voor een schilderij staan. Veel te kort om er recht aan te doen. Maar als je langer wilt kijken, hoe moet je dat doen? In samenspraak met Peter Henk Steenhuis onderricht filosofe Mieke Boon over de filosofie van het kijken. Vandaag: de koeien van Willem Maris

  16. BOEKBESPREKING. PROF. DR. B. J. DE KLERK, ZDte /?oomse Get ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    geen bydrae tot oplossing gelewer nie, maar baie daartoe bygedra om sake te vertroebel. Rome is kragtens sy middeleeuse ontwikkeling veels te veel 'n koninkryk ,,van hierdie wéreld " en daarom veels te veel 'n staat binne in 'n staat en moet hy noodgedwonge 'n ander trou ver kondig as die teenoor die regering van die ...

  17. Pentateugtradisies in die boek Hosea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    om te bepaal of die verwysing na 'n gebeure te doen het met die verre verlede of met die .... Hosea 2:1-2 JHWH se trou aan sy beloftes. ... dat huile na Egipte sal terugkeer. Die presiese bedoeiing van die woorde 'huile sal terugkeer na Egipte' is omstre- de. Kommentatore soos Rudolph meen dat dit verstaan moet word as ...

  18. Dynamische inlichtingenanalyse met MARVEL - De casus FARC : een cyclus naar vrede?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logtens, T.W.A.; Huijsman, W.P.; Schrijver, P.

    2016-01-01

    De diversiteit aan methoden en middelen waarover een commandant beschikt is de afgelopen jaren sterk toegenomen. Om deze middelen effectief in te kunnen zetten moet hij zoveel mogelijk inzicht hebben in alle factoren en actoren van invloed, waarvoor de werkmethode Intelligence Preparation of the

  19. Netwerkbeveiliging terug naar de bron : OSI model brengt uitkomst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, H.J.M.; Wolthuis, R.

    2007-01-01

    In de toekomst vervagen de netwerkgrenzen onontkoombaar. Grote bedrijven hebben hiertoe al concrete stappen gezet. Daarom moet opnieuw worden nagedacht over de toegangscontrole van bedrijfsnetwerken, niet alleen om de beheerslast van onder meer firewalls in toom te kunnen houden, maar ook om nieuwe

  20. voorgeskiedenis tot die stigting van 'n unieverdedigingsmag

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gesien nie en toe die wetsontwerp op 23 Februa- rie 1912 deur Smuts in sy hoedanigheid as Mi- nister van Verdediging ingedien is, het Beyers heelwat kritiek daarop gehad. Beyers het be- weer dat dit op vergaderings geblyk het dat die volk wou he Engeland moet steeds die verdedi- ging waarneem aangesien die Unie ...