Sample records for victory divided command

  1. Does Trump's election victory divide US stock market into winners and losers?


    Bouoiyour, Jamal; Selmi, Refk


    Many analysts, who had anticipated a great market anxiety resulting in market-wide stock price losses over the event of a Trump presidential victory, remain puzzling through why the market rebounded since the next election day. Whatever the reason, investors appear to be digesting Trump's win speedier than expected. The present paper examines, at sectoral level, the behavior of a variety of US stock price indices (Dow Jones Industrial Average, S&P 500 and Nasdaq Composite) surrounding the ann...

  2. Incomplete Victory: General Allenby and Mission Command in Palestine, 1917-1918 (United States)


    Arab revolt. The British and French according to the Sykes - Picot agreement planned to dismantle the Ottoman Empire—the “Sick Man of Europe”—and...carve it up as they saw fit after the war.83 An agreement was one thing, but victory in Palestine would bring with it a clear British hegemony in the

  3. 'The Danger of Divided Command': British civil and military disputes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Westminster, as well as to that of the Commander-in-Chiefat the Horse Guards. When Lt-Gen Lord Chelmsford ... that they should assist by making diversionary raids across the border into Zululand.2°. Bulwer refused ..... armed intervention has now got beyond the power of colonial or civil forces to cope with'. He therefore ...

  4. Beyond Hearts and Minds: How The Operational Commander Must Understand Islamic War-Fighting Doctrine to Secure Victory in the Long War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vartanian, James M


    This paper examines the need for the operational commander to fully understand the religious, military and political doctrine of Islam's Prophet Muhammad if success is to be realized in the long war...

  5. Beyond Hearts and Minds: How The Operational Commander Must Understand Islamic War-Fighting Doctrine to Secure Victory in the Long War (United States)


    understand its precepts . Therefore, it is the premise of this paper, that it is absolutely essential for the operational commander to fully...grounded in a religion whose ‘divine’ precepts transcend time and space, and are thus believed to be immutable, Islam’s war doctrines are considered... Buddhists [Zoroastrians and other pagans]. (Historically, the latter two groups have been treated even worse by Islamic conquerors, although as a

  6. Victory Junction Gang Camp (United States)

    Shell, Ryan


    This article describes the Victory Junction Gang Camp, a not-for-profit, NASCAR-themed camp for children with chronic medical conditions that serves 24 different disease groups. The mission of the camp is to give children life-changing camping experiences that are exciting, fun, and empowering in a safe and medically sound environment. While doing…

  7. Agility Into Victory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhlin, Jonas Alastair

    This paper will investigate how the three core concepts of command and control agility can increase the chance for a successful outcome in military operations and what elements that should be strengthen within a military organization in order to achieve an agile approach to command and control....... This paper argues the concept was framed and tested during WWII in Burma and the Far East Asia campaign and that an agile approach to command and control is highly relevant for modern military organizations wishing to improve their warfighting capabilities....

  8. Substitute for Victory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus


    measurements have resulted in problematic strategic dialogues between the political decision-makers and the military commands. Larsen makes use of three cases to reach this conclusion, namely the Vietnam War, The first Gulf War, and the war in Afghanistan. In each case he investigates how performance......Why have performance measurements been introduced to the domain of war a number of times in the last century? Have performance measurements reappeared because they possess distinct analytical potentials with regard to strategic decision-making and the planning and execution of military campaigns...... to the battlefield. Political decision makers have used performance measurements to show the progress and success of wars to the media and to the general public. Performance measurements have been used by military commands to improve military operations and to evade political interference. These uses of performance...

  9. Modular open RF architecture: extending VICTORY to RF systems (United States)

    Melber, Adam; Dirner, Jason; Johnson, Michael


    Radio frequency products spanning multiple functions have become increasingly critical to the warfighter. Military use of the electromagnetic spectrum now includes communications, electronic warfare (EW), intelligence, and mission command systems. Due to the urgent needs of counterinsurgency operations, various quick reaction capabilities (QRCs) have been fielded to enhance warfighter capability. Although these QRCs were highly successfully in their respective missions, they were designed independently resulting in significant challenges when integrated on a common platform. This paper discusses how the Modular Open RF Architecture (MORA) addresses these challenges by defining an open architecture for multifunction missions that decomposes monolithic radio systems into high-level components with welldefined functions and interfaces. The functional decomposition maximizes hardware sharing while minimizing added complexity and cost due to modularization. MORA achieves significant size, weight and power (SWaP) savings by allowing hardware such as power amplifiers and antennas to be shared across systems. By separating signal conditioning from the processing that implements the actual radio application, MORA exposes previously inaccessible architecture points, providing system integrators with the flexibility to insert third-party capabilities to address technical challenges and emerging requirements. MORA leverages the Vehicular Integration for Command, Control, Communication, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR)/EW Interoperability (VICTORY) framework. This paper concludes by discussing how MORA, VICTORY and other standards such as OpenVPX are being leveraged by the U.S. Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command (RDECOM) Communications Electronics Research, Development, and Engineering Center (CERDEC) to define a converged architecture enabling rapid technology insertion, interoperability and reduced SWaP.

  10. Victory in Counterinsurgency: Adaptation and Innovation (United States)


    response supported the counterinsurgency strategy. Attempts to defeat the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia ( FARC ) were unsuccessful until appears that the Colombian government will defeat the FARC and establish a sustainable political outcome. When ultimately threatened by collapse...achieving victory over the FARC . Moreover, this case demonstrates an important contrast in the negative, non-intended consequences regarding the use

  11. The Law of War and the Operational Commander (United States)


    Every member of the military is bound by oath to discharge his or her duties in accordance with the law of war. This paper examines the influence of... the law of war on the operational commander and includes legal planning considerations for campaigns. It does not list all laws of armed conflict or...history clearly indicate that operational commanders who have adhered to the law of war emerged victorious in their respective campaigns. Analysis of these

  12. Dividing Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Marcus


    the periphery of the network—security studies and international political economy in particular—but communication is also divided along the lines of geography and policy/theory. The article concludes that divisions notwithstanding, IR communication remains centered around American, general, and theoretical IR...... than 20,000 articles published in 59 IR journals to construct a network among IR journals and finds a discipline with a center consisting of pedigreed IR journals, albeit closely related to political science. Divisions are identifiable as specialty areas that form clusters of specialized journals along...

  13. Africa Command: U.S. Strategic Interests and the Role of the U.S. Military in Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ploch, Lauren


    .... military involvement on the continent has been divided among three commands: U.S. European Command (EUCOM), U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM), and U.S. Pacific Command (PACOM). The new command's area of responsibility...

  14. Copyright case a victory for science publishing (United States)

    Cole, Stephen

    An important victory for the financial health and future of scientific journals was won July 23 when Judge Pierre Leval of the Federal District Court in New York handed down his decision on the copyright infringement suit, American Geophysical Union, et al. v. Texaco Inc. Leval ruled that profit-making companies cannot photocopy copyrighted journal articles without permission and without compensating the copyright holder.The class action suit was brought in 1985 by AGU and six other scientific publishers on behalf of 8500 publishers worldwide who make their titles available for legal copying under licenses granted by the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. This licensing system was designed in cooperation with major corporations to facilitate compliance with the 1976 Copyright Act. Although more than 200 companies now use the center, some corporations, such as Texaco, have not. The suit was initiated to force compliance with copyright law. The current decision is very important because it establishes legal precedents on the “fair use” issue.

  15. The Challenges of Adopting a Culture of Mission Command in the US Army (United States)


    August 20, 2014, EBSCO Host. Bond, Brian. The Pursuit of Victory: From Napoleon to Saddam Hussein. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Builder...August 2, 2014, EBSCO Host. Megargee, Geoffrey P. Inside Hitler’s High Command. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 2000. Murray, Nicholas

  16. Commander’s Critical Information Requirements (CCIR): Reality Versus Perception (United States)


    early in his life. The sport of football enabled him to practice decision making under the stress of victory or defeat 70 in games filled with...Executive Officer of Combat Command A, 4th Armored Division, during WWII, Mail Interview, 14 October 1992, and BG 49 Albin F. Irzyk (Retired), Commander of...79. Ibid, 149. 80. Weigley, 173. 81. Ibid, 177-178. 82. Ibid, 178. 83. BG Albin F. Irzyk (Retired), "The "Name Enough" Division," Armor Magazine, Vol

  17. Buoyed by Divestment Victories, Activists Protest CIA Recruiting. (United States)

    Greene, Elizabeth


    Inspired by victories in the South African divestment movement and fueled by the Iran-Contra affair, student activists are intensifying the perennial crusade to ban Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) recruiters from campuses, but other students dislike the interference and the CIA says that job-seekers are increasing. (MSE)

  18. The Operational Commander’s Will. An Intangible Element in Victory. (United States)


    Japanese.7 Solving the problem of intelligence and communication required materiel, resources, training, and time. With commitments in Europe and the...Through his direct leadership, he outlined organizational purpose and established unit standards. Perhaps the most poignant example of General Slim’s...Libraries Press, 1928. Longman Dictionary of Psycology and Psychistry. New York: Longman Inc., 1984. Marshall, S.L.A. Men Against Fire: The Problems of

  19. A Victorious Defeat: Mission Command Failure of the 1857-1858 Utah Expedition (United States)


    across Canada, Mexico, and California. Satisfied that the Mormons had found the isolation they were seeking, Young made the somewhat prophetic statement...for the ‘American Dream ’ are clamoring for the government to protect them from the abuses of the Mormon’s leadership in Utah.”52 Brigham Young...years, we will ask no odds of them.”69 Prophetic or not, the coincidence is uncanny that almost to the day a rider arrived in the valley with reports

  20. Transition I efficiency and victory in volleyball matches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Ugrinowitsch


    Full Text Available The present study investigated the correlation between Transition Iwith victory in volleyball matches. The 2002 South-American Youth Men's Championship was recorded and the Transition I was analyzed and classified as negative, null or positive. Results of the efficiency in Transition I was calculated using t test for independent samples and compared to the efficiency between teams during each set and matches. Spearman correlation assessed the relationship between efficiency in each set and results of the matches with the final ranking in the championship. The results showed that the winning teams exhibited higher efficiency in Transition I, as well as a positive relationship of higher efficiency in Transition I with all of their results. The higher efficiency in Transition I is related to victory in volleyball matches.

  1. "Dark Victory" (prognosis negative): The beginnings of neurology on screen. (United States)

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M


    In "Dark Victory," released in theaters in 1939, the diagnosis and management of a progressive brain tumor was a central part of the screenplay, and this film marked the beginnings of the depiction of neurologic disease in cinema. Bette Davis' cinematic portrayal of a young woman dying from a brain tumor is close to the reality of denial, bargaining, a hope for a cure, and final acceptance. "Dark Victory" includes part of a neurologic examination (funduscopy, testing of strength, testing of stereognosis, and tendon reflexes). The film also alludes to decisions on what to tell the patient (better say nothing) and shows an implausible clinical course (an abrupt peaceful ending). The film is unusual in depicting the presentation of a brain tumor, but the cinematic portrayal of the vicissitudes of living with a brain tumor is often close to reality. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. David�s initial Philistine victories according to Josephus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Begg


    Full Text Available The Bible twice relates, in Samuel 5:17-25/1 Chronicles 14:8-17, David�s initial pair of victories over the Philistines. This essay focuses on a third version of David�s triumphs, i.e. that of Josephus in his Ant 7.70-77, comprising this in detail with its two Biblical parallels (as represented by MT, Codex Vaticanus and the LucianictAntiochene MSS of the LXX, the Targums, and the Vulgate.

  3. Continental Divide Trail (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was created to show the proximity of the Continental Divide to the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail in New Mexico. This work was done as part...

  4. 70 years of Great Victory: triumph and “white” spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V M Kozmenko


    Full Text Available Analysis of key problems of the Great Soviet people's Victory over Nazi Germany was and still is very important. Special research focus is made on not investigated problems of start, run and end of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945. In particular, the paper analyzes so called «white» spots of World War II in the scientific literature. The article addresses such issues as repression of commanders of the Red Army; contradictions of military theory on the eve of World War II, designed to justify the offensive nature of the impending war; treatment of non-aggression pact with Germany, August 23, 1939; suddenness of the German attack on the USSR despite numerous intelligence reports; enormous loss of life and others. In this context, the author emphasizes the fact that though the seventh decade after The Great Patriotic War had already finished, the number of «white spots» in its history has not diminished. In the article these spots have been analyzed basing on a specific factual material.

  5. The Crux of the Fight: General Joseph Lawton Collins’ Command Style. (United States)


    attended by knowledge, blooms through application to produce a leader.”General Eduard C. Meyer, Chief of Staff, Army (1979-1983). 80 United defend by conducting a limited attack oriented on desperate enemy elements, as opposed to doggedly following the intent of a higher order. Harold ...II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Winton, Harold R. Corps Commanders of the Bulge: Six American Generals and Victory in the Ardennes

  6. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, A.C.W.(L.)


    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful,

  7. The Open Access Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfeng Xia


    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to review various aspects of the open access divide regarding the difference between those academics who support free sharing of data and scholarly output and those academics who do not. It provides a structured description by adopting the Ws doctrines emphasizing such questions as who, what, when, where and why for information-gathering. Using measurable variables to define a common expression of the open access divide, this study collects aggregated data from existing open access as well as non-open access publications including journal articles and extensive reports. The definition of the open access divide is integrated into the discussion of scholarship on a larger scale.

  8. Specters of War in Pyongyang: The Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in North Korea


    Suzy Kim


    While North Korea accused South Korea of starting a “civil war” (naeran) during the Korean War, it has now moved away from such depictions to paint the war as an American war of imperialist aggression against Korea that was victoriously thwarted under the leadership of Kim Il Sung. In this regard, it may be more than a coincidence that the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in Pyongyang was built in the early 1970s, just as the Vietnam War drew to a close with a Vietnamese victory. T...

  9. Operational Encirclement: Quick Decisive Victory or a Bridge Too Far (United States)


    the establishment of an efficient and effective command and control infrastructure, and an ability to properly read the events on the battlefield...encirclement include: the development of a flexible campaign plan, the establishment of an efficient and effective command and control infrastructure, and an...defended Bocage confronting the Americans in the western zone and the Panzer laden positions facing the British in the eastern Falling behind time-lines

  10. A dividing issue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard; Sandøe, Peter


    Why are organised shoots involving birds that are farm-reared and subsequently released a dividing issue in several countries? As a contribution to answering this question the paper reports a national survey of landowners (n = 1207), hunters (n = 1130) and the general public (n = 1001) in Denmark....... While there was broad agreement across all three groups that recreational hunting of naturally occurring “surplus” wildlife is acceptable, the release of farm-reared game birds for shooting was a dividing issue, both within the groups and between them. The majority of participants (51%) in the survey...... representing the general public were against the practice; a majority of hunters (61%) were in favour of it; and landowner approval rates lay between these two poles. Respondents with a “mutualist” or “distanced” wildlife value orientation according to the definitions by Teel et al. (2005) consistently...

  11. Facebook's gender divide


    Garcia, David; Kassa, Yonas Mitike; Cuevas, Angel; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban; Rahwan, Iyad; Cuevas, Ruben


    Online social media are information resources that can have a transformative power in society. While the Web was envisioned as an equalizing force that allows everyone to access information, the digital divide prevents large amounts of people from being present online. Online social media in particular are prone to gender inequality, an important issue given the link between social media use and employment. Understanding gender inequality in social media is a challenging task due to the neces...

  12. Detonation command and control (United States)

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Echave, John A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves


    The detonation of one or more explosive charges and propellant charges by a detonator in response to a fire control signal from a command and control system comprised of a command center and instrumentation center with a communications link there between. The fire control signal is selectively provided to the detonator from the instrumentation center if plural detonation control switches at the command center are in a fire authorization status, and instruments, and one or more interlocks, if included, are in a ready for firing status. The instrumentation and command centers are desirably mobile, such as being respective vehicles.

  13. Detonation command and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Echave, John A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves


    The detonation of one or more explosive charges and propellant charges by a detonator in response to a fire control signal from a command and control system comprised of a command center and instrumentation center with a communications link therebetween. The fire control signal is selectively provided to the detonator from the instrumentation center if plural detonation control switches at the command center are in a fire authorization status, and instruments, and one or more interlocks, if included, are in a ready for firing status. The instrumentation and command centers are desirably mobile, such as being respective vehicles.

  14. Detonation command and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, Jonathan Lee; Seitz, Gerald J.; Echave, John A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves


    The detonation of one or more explosive charges and propellant charges by a detonator in response to a fire control signal from a command and control system comprised of a command center and instrumentation center with a communications link therebetween. The fire control signal is selectively provided to the detonator from the instrumentation center if plural detonation control switches at the command center are in a fire authorization status, and instruments, and one or more interlocks, if included, are in a ready for firing status. The instrumentation and command centers are desirably mobile, such as being respective vehicles.

  15. Melting the Divide (United States)

    Gibson, S. M.


    Presenting Quaternary Environmental Change to students who fall into Widening Participation criteria at the University of Cambridge, gives a unique opportunity to present academic debate in an approachable and entertaining way. Literally by discussing the melting of our ice caps, melts the divide Cambridge has between its reputation and the reality for the brightest, underprivileged, students. There is a balance between presenting cutting edge research with the need to come across as accessible (and importantly valuable to "learning"). Climate change over the Quaternary lends itself well to this aim. By lecturing groups of potential students through the entire Quaternary in an hour, stopping to discuss how our ancestors interacted with past Interglacials and what are the mechanisms driving change (in generalized terms), you are able to introduce cutting edge research (such as the latest NEEM ice core) to the students. This shows the evolution and importance of higher education and academic research. The lecture leads well onto group discussions (termed "supervisions" in Cambridge), to explore their opinions on the concern for present Anthropogenic Climate Change in relation to Past Climate Change after being presented with images that our ancestors "made it". Here discussion thrives off students saying obvious things (or sarcastic comments!) which quickly can lead into a deep technical discussion on their terms. Such discussions give the students a zest for higher education, simply throwing Ruddiman's (2003) "The Anthroprocene Started Several Thousand Years Ago" at them, questions in a second their concept of Anthropogenic Climate Change. Supervisions lend themselves well to bright, articulate, students and by offering these experiences to students of Widening Participation criteria we quickly melt the divide between the reputation of Cambridge ( and higher education as a whole) and the day to day practice. Higher education is not for the privileged, but a free and

  16. Divide and Pacify

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    unemployment benefits and many others onto early retirement and disability pensions. From a narrow economic viewpoint, these policies often appeared to be immensely costly or irresponsibly populist. Yet a more inclusive social-scientific perspective can shed new light on these seemingly irrational policies......, hundreds of thousands of people suddenly became disabled and retired or simply vanished from the labor market. … Pieter Vanhuysse, in his lucid and brilliantly argued slim book Divide and Pacify, shows how the second oddity goes a long way toward explaining the first one. By connecting two puzzles he...... about political economy as an art of analysis. Vanhuysse presents theory, methodology and empirical analysis with equal force, blends them into a powerful and very interesting narrative…. Highly recommended" – European Sociological Review "Pieter Vanhuysse has written a fascinating book on the phenomena...

  17. Joint Mission Command Implementation (United States)


    1 AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY JOINT MISSION COMMAND IMPLEMENTATION by Michael Dane Acord, COL, US Army A Research Report Submitted to...assigned to the Air War College, Air University, Maxwell Air Force Base (AFB), AL. Following the Army Command and General Staff College and School...holds a Bachelor’s Degree in Biology and two Masters Degrees, a Masters in Management from Troy University and a Master of Military Arts and Sciences

  18. Understanding Command and Control (United States)


    UNDERSTANDING COMMAND AND CONTROL David S. Alberts Richard E. Hayes THE FUTURE OF COMMAND AND CONTROL Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...comprehensive C2 Conceptual Reference Model. We benefited greatly from participating in that activity. 1 The members of SAS-050 included: Dr. David Alberts...Sinclair (US), M.Sc. Mink Spaans (NL), Ms. Kristi Sugarman (US), LTC (Ret) Klaus Titze (GE), Mr. Rick van der Kleij (NL) W vi We were also fortunate to

  19. Why do bacteria divide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vic eNorris


    Full Text Available The problem of not only how but also why cells divide can be tackled using recent ideas. One idea from the origins of life – Life as independent of its constituents – is that a living entity like a cell is a particular pattern of connectivity between its constituents. This means that if the growing cell were just to get bigger the average connectivity between its constituents per unit mass – its cellular connectivity – would decrease and the cell would lose its identity. The solution is division which restores connectivity. The corollary is that the cell senses decreasing cellular connectivity and uses this information to trigger division. A second idea from phenotypic diversity – Life on the Scales of Equilibria – is that a bacterium must find strategies that allow it to both survive and grow. This means that it has learnt to reconcile the opposing constraints that these strategies impose. The solution is that the cell cycle generates daughter cells with different phenotypes based on sufficiently complex equilibrium and non-equilibrium cellular compounds and structures appropriate for survival and growth, respectively, alias `hyperstructures'. The corollary is that the cell senses both the quantity of equilibrium material and the intensity of use of non-equilibrium material and then uses this information to trigger the cell cycle. A third idea from artificial intelligence – Competitive Coherence – is that a cell selects the active subset of elements that actively determine its phenotype from a much larger set of available elements. This means that the selection of an active subset of a specific size and composition must be done so as to generate both a coherent cell state, in which the cell’s contents work together harmoniously, and a coherent sequence of cell states, each coherent with respect to itself and to an unpredictable environment. The solution is the use of a range of mechanisms ranging from hyperstructure dynamics

  20. Improving Relative Combat Power Estimation: The Road to Victory (United States)


    Case Studies and Theory Development: The Method of Structured, Focused Comparison,” in Diplomacy : New Approaches in History, Theory, and Policy, ed... Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986), 83. 53Clausewitz, 84. 54Paret, 74. 55Norman L. Durham, “The Command and...Theory Development: The Method of Structured, Focused Comparison/” In Diplomacy : New Approaches in History, Theory, and Policy, edited by Paul

  1. First Report of the Virus Diseases in Victory Onion (Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Jin Park


    Full Text Available In 2005, a survey was conducted to identify virus diseases on victory onion, Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum grown in Ulleung island located in the East Sea. A total of 61 samples were collected from victory onion in the neighborhood of Seonginbong. The identification of viruses from the samples were carried out by electron microscopy and RT-PCR using primers species specific to GCLV, LYSV, SLV, OYDV and genus specific to Allexivirus, respectively. From sixty-one samples, filamentous rod particles (600-900 nm were detected from four victory onion samples in EM, three samples containing SLV and one sample containing both SLV and Allexivirus in RT-PCR analysis, respectively. Victory onions naturally infected by the viruses were asymptomatic apparently. The viruses detected by RT-PCR were further characterized by the nucleotide sequence analysis of the coat protein region. Three isolates of SLV showed approximately 99% identities in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences, suggesting that they were likely to be the same strain. On the other hand, they showed approximately 75.7~83.7% identities in the nucleotide and 89.2~97.0% in amino acid sequences compared with the previously reported SLV isolates in Allium. The CP gene of the Allexivirus showed approximately 99.2% nucleotide identities and 98.8% amino acid identities with Garlic virus A. However, there was relatively low homology ranging from 60.6% to 81.5% compared with other Allexiviruses (GarV-C, GarV-E, GarV-X, GMbMV, and Shal-X. These data suggested that two viruses, SLV and GarV-A identified from victory onion, are named SLV-Ulleungdo and GarV-A-Ulleungdo, respectively. This is the first report of viruses infecting victory onion.

  2. Brexit : Eurosceptic Victory In British Referendum In Term Of Britain Membership Of European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Munzilin


    Full Text Available On June 23, 2016, eurosceptic group won a British referendum on Britain's motion of leaving the European Union. This paper will explore the factors related to the victory of  eurosceptic group  in the historic referendum. This paper uses theory of voting behaviour and strategy of campaign to answer the research of this paper. Eurosceptic group victory in this referendum couldn’t be separated from eurosceptic's success in influencing the mindset of Britishsociety as the voter in this referendum. By using the concept of the campaign strategy, the writer will examine various forms of brexit campaign strategy that used to influence voters behaviour.

  3. Cost efficient command management (United States)

    Brandt, Theresa; Murphy, C. W.; Kuntz, Jon; Barlett, Tom


    The design and implementation of a command management system (CMS) for a NASA control center, is described. The technology innovations implemented in the CMS provide the infrastructure required for operations cost reduction and future development cost reduction through increased operational efficiency and reuse in future missions. The command management design facilitates error-free operations which enables the automation of the routine control center functions and allows for the distribution of scheduling responsibility to the instrument teams. The reusable system was developed using object oriented methodologies.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    who first saw active service in the Ashanti. Campaign. (1873-74), was employed as an instructor of musketry prior to his promotion to. Captain in October 1878. In the following year he was present at the Battle of Ulundi and took part in the expedition against Sekukuni (1879). During the First Anglo-Boer War he commanded.

  5. Deep Blue Beats Kasparov in a Rematch A Victory for Machine over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 7. Deep Blue Beats Kasparov in a Rematch A Victory for Machine over Man. K S R Anjaneyulu. Research News Volume 2 Issue 7 July 1997 pp 89-90. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. 36 CFR 7.31 - Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial. 7.31 Section 7.31 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... International Peace Memorial. Snowmobiles. After consideration of existing special situations, i.e., depth of...

  7. The digital divide: philosophical reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedyulina Marina Anatolevna


    Full Text Available The problem of digital divide itself is interesting for philosophical reflection as it lies at the crossroads of interests of social and political philosophy, philosophy of technology and epistemology, and these are just some of them. Due to the constant development of information technologies and the introduction of new technologies the digital divide is a dynamic problem. The main aim of this work is to analyse the conceptual and descriptive aspects of the problem of the digital divide, to get a more complete picture of the phenomenon. The digital divide is a complex problem that has social, political, cultural and ethical aspects.

  8. Command and motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Hvidtved, Johan; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh


    Motivated employees are crucial to organizations, but external interventions such as command systems and financial incentives may decrease motivation. If these external interventions are perceived to be controlling, they are expected to crowd out intrinsic motivation, and this may also apply...... to other types of autonomous motivation such as public service motivation. The perception of external interventions is thus expected to be vital. This article investigates how the perception of a specific command system (obligatory student plans) is associated with intrinsic motivation and public service...... motivation. Using a dataset with 3,230 school teachers in Denmark, a structural equation model shows that the perception of obligatory student plans as controlling is negatively associated with all of the investigated types of employee motivation, supporting that motivation crowding can occur....

  9. DNA repair mechanisms in dividing and non-dividing cells. (United States)

    Iyama, Teruaki; Wilson, David M


    DNA damage created by endogenous or exogenous genotoxic agents can exist in multiple forms, and if allowed to persist, can promote genome instability and directly lead to various human diseases, particularly cancer, neurological abnormalities, immunodeficiency and premature aging. To avoid such deleterious outcomes, cells have evolved an array of DNA repair pathways, which carry out what is typically a multiple-step process to resolve specific DNA lesions and maintain genome integrity. To fully appreciate the biological contributions of the different DNA repair systems, one must keep in mind the cellular context within which they operate. For example, the human body is composed of non-dividing and dividing cell types, including, in the brain, neurons and glial cells. We describe herein the molecular mechanisms of the different DNA repair pathways, and review their roles in non-dividing and dividing cells, with an eye toward how these pathways may regulate the development of neurological disease. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. The Philippine-American war: A Model for Declaring Victory in Iraq. (United States)


    Atkinson, Crusade : The Untold Story of the Persian Gulf War (New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1993), 1-10. 3 J. Boone Bartholomees, "Theory of Victory...I am not ashamed to tell you, gentlemen, that I went down on my knees and prayed Almighty God for light and guidance more than one night. And one...R. Jungle of Snakes. New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2009. Atkinson, Rick. Crusade - The Untold Story of the Persian Gulf War. New York: Houghton

  11. Victories are not Enough: Limitations of the German Way of War (United States)


    war. The exploits, the victories of German operational leaders such as Erwin Rommel, Heinz Guderian , and Eric von Manstein have been traditional...Militargeschichliches Forschungsamt, Colonel (Dr.) Karl- Heinz Frieser, and some of his staff for their assistance. In addition, I must also thank a good former...German officer corps after World War II to find the roots of this legend. From Guderian to von Manstein, a common theme exists that many of the "Lost

  12. [Cytogenetic variation of Ungernia victoris cell lines during cultivation on culture media of different composition]. (United States)

    Bublik, E N; Adonin, V I; Kunakh, V A


    Chromosome numbers of U. victoris cell lines obtained from the same bulb and cultured for a long time on different agar-solidified and liquid nutrient media differed significantly. The components of the nutrient media including phytohormones did not influence the ratio of cells with different ploidy levels in various lines while transfer of the calluses to the liquid media resulted in the increase of diploid metaphase frequencies.

  13. Evaluation of the Pulmonary Toxicity of Ambient Particulate Matter from Camp Victory, Iraq (United States)


    Lewis, R. S. Thomas, and G. D. Chapman. 2012. Biological responses in rats exposed to cigarette smoke and Middle East sand (dust). Inhal. Toxicol. 24...Toxicol. 21: 327–336. Esmaeil, N., M. Gharagozloo, A. Rezaei, and G. Grunig. 2014. Dust events, pulmonary dis- eases and immune system . Am. J. DOI: 10.1080/15287394.2015.1072611 EVALUATION OF THE PULMONARY TOXICITY OF AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER FROM CAMP VICTORY, IRAQ K. L. Porter1, F. H. Y

  14. Specters of War in Pyongyang: The Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy Kim


    Full Text Available While North Korea accused South Korea of starting a “civil war” (naeran during the Korean War, it has now moved away from such depictions to paint the war as an American war of imperialist aggression against Korea that was victoriously thwarted under the leadership of Kim Il Sung. In this regard, it may be more than a coincidence that the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in Pyongyang was built in the early 1970s, just as the Vietnam War drew to a close with a Vietnamese victory. This article examines the memorialization of the Korean War in North Korea at two pivotal historical points—the end of the Vietnam War in the 1970s and the end of the Cold War in the 1990s—with a particular focus on contemporary exhibitions at the war museum in Pyongyang. Rather than offering a simple comparison of divergent narratives about the war, the article seeks to illustrate that North Korea’s conception of history and its account of the war are staunchly modernist, with tragic consequences.

  15. Understanding the consequences of victory amongst sport spectators: The mediating role of BIRGing. (United States)

    Bernache-Assollant, Iouri; Chantal, Yves; Bouchet, Patrick; Lacassagne, Marie-Françoise


    Prior work on the relationships between team identification and spectators' reactions to one's team victory has largely neglected the potential effects of mediating variables. In this research, we proposed that the process of Basking in Reflected Glory [BIRGing - the tendency to reduce the distance between oneself and one's team; Cialdini, R. B., Bordon, R. J., Thorne, A., Walker, M. R., Freeman, S., & Sloan, L. R. (1976). Basking in reflected glory: Three (football) field studies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 366-375] would lead spectators to almost take ownership of victories and share its benefits, thereby impacting their sense of national belonging in a positive manner. To this end, participants (N = 73) were asked to watch an edited video clip showing a victory of the French national rugby team playing against South Africa. As expected, results revealed that BIRGing mediated the relationship between team identification and one's sense of national belonging. In closing, a number of implications are discussed along with future research avenues pertaining to the sport spectatorship literature.

  16. Expanding the Lessons Learned Program to Include Corps Support Command Commanders and Theater Army Area Command Commanders (United States)


    INTRODUCTION The Oral History Program’s purpose is to supplement oFficial histories , to isolate successful command, leadership and managerial...of -the program is to capture the experience of senior leaders in the areas of command, leadership , and management . The individual is interviewed...used to gain insight into command and management techniques and to further research in military history . In June of 1984, the Chief of Staff, General

  17. Innovation for integrated command environments (United States)

    Perry, Amie A.; McKneely, Jennifer A.


    Command environments have rarely been able to easily accommodate rapid changes in technology and mission. Yet, command personnel, by their selection criteria, experience, and very nature, tend to be extremely adaptive and flexible, and able to learn new missions and address new challenges fairly easily. Instead, the hardware and software components of the systems do no provide the needed flexibility and scalability for command personnel. How do we solve this problem? In order to even dream of keeping pace with a rapidly changing world, we must begin to think differently about the command environment and its systems. What is the correct definition of the integrated command environment system? What types of tasks must be performed in this environment, and how might they change in the next five to twenty-five years? How should the command environment be developed, maintained, and evolved to provide needed flexibility and scalability? The issues and concepts to be considered as new Integrated Command/Control Environments (ICEs) are designed following a human-centered process. A futuristic model, the Dream Integrated Command Environment (DICE) will be described which demonstrates specific ICE innovations. The major paradigm shift required to be able to think differently about this problem is to center the DICE around the command personnel from its inception. Conference participants may not agree with every concept or idea presented, but will hopefully come away with a clear understanding that to radically improve future systems, designers must focus on the end users.

  18. Dividing Fractions: A Pedagogical Technique (United States)

    Lewis, Robert


    When dividing one fraction by a second fraction, invert, that is, flip the second fraction, then multiply it by the first fraction. To multiply fractions, simply multiply across the denominators, and multiply across the numerators to get the resultant fraction. So by inverting the division of fractions it is turned into an easy multiplication of…

  19. Dividing Attention Increases Operational Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleen McCrink


    Full Text Available When adding or subtracting two quantities, adults often compute an estimated outcome that is larger or smaller, respectively, than the actual outcome, a bias referred to as “operational momentum”. The effects of attention on operational momentum were investigated. Participants viewed a display in which two arrays of objects were added, or one array was subtracted from another array, and judged whether a subsequent outcome (probe array contained the correct or incorrect number of objects. In a baseline condition, only the arrays to be added or subtracted were viewed. In divided attention conditions, participants simultaneously viewed a sequence of colors or shapes, and judged which color (a non-spatial judgment or shape (a spatial judgment was repeated. Operational momentum occurred in all conditions, but was higher in divided attention conditions than in the baseline condition, primarily for addition problems. This pattern suggests that dividing attention, rather than decreasing operational momentum by decreasing attentional shifts, actually increased operational momentum. These results are consistent with a heightened use of arithmetic heuristics under conditions of divided attention.

  20. Identification of Brigade Command Competencies (United States)


    that may exist. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Brigade Command, competency model , army leadership , leadership development, leadership training, command...that focused on leadership , commandership, competency modeling , and training was completed. To support this research base with experiential...climate, creating an ethical climate, modeling the Army Values and Warrior Ethos, decision making ability, managing risk, critical thinking skills

  1. Aerosol Optical Properties over Beijing during the World Athletics Championships and Victory Day Military Parade in August and September 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zheng


    Full Text Available A special period in Beijing from 6 August to 17 September 2015, during which the World Athletics Championships and Victory Day military parade took place, and which involved measures to restrict traffic and reduce factory emissions, was selected to analyze the aerosol optical properties and the impact of meteorological conditions on pollution levels. The study was based on AERONET observational and retrieval data, particulate matter measurements (TEOM 1405, meteorological data, and then the HYSPLIT model was used to analyze the pollution sources. The study period was divided into three sub-periods according to the different stages of implementation of the control measures, and the main conclusions can be summarized as follows. During the period in which the restrictive measures were applied, the air quality improved significantly, with the average value of the AOD being 0.34 ± 0.20, about 69% less than before. Meanwhile, the average Ångström exponent was about 9.5% higher than before, with an average value of 1.38 ± 0.25, indicating that the main pollutants were fine particles. Single scattering albedo decreased as wavelength increased, being higher than in the other two stages (mean value of 0.944 ± 0.045. This showed that the strong scattering capacity and absorption aerosol optical depth was at its lowest, at about 0.008 ± 0.009. The peaks of aerosol volume concentration in the fine and coarse mode were significantly reduced. Meteorological conditions also had a certain effect on the aerosol optical properties, with the blowing of clean and dry wind and the occurrence of precipitation contributing to the overall improvement in air quality.

  2. Bridging the Health Data Divide. (United States)

    Celi, Leo Anthony; Davidzon, Guido; Johnson, Alistair Ew; Komorowski, Matthieu; Marshall, Dominic C; Nair, Sunil S; Phillips, Colin T; Pollard, Tom J; Raffa, Jesse D; Salciccioli, Justin D; Salgueiro, Francisco Muge; Stone, David J


    Fundamental quality, safety, and cost problems have not been resolved by the increasing digitization of health care. This digitization has progressed alongside the presence of a persistent divide between clinicians, the domain experts, and the technical experts, such as data scientists. The disconnect between clinicians and data scientists translates into a waste of research and health care resources, slow uptake of innovations, and poorer outcomes than are desirable and achievable. The divide can be narrowed by creating a culture of collaboration between these two disciplines, exemplified by events such as datathons. However, in order to more fully and meaningfully bridge the divide, the infrastructure of medical education, publication, and funding processes must evolve to support and enhance a learning health care system. ©Leo Anthony Celi, Guido Davidzon, Alistair EW Johnson, Matthieu Komorowski, Dominic C Marshall, Sunil S Nair, Colin T Phillips, Tom J Pollard, Jesse D Raffa, Justin D Salciccioli, Francisco Muge Salgueiro, David J Stone. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (, 20.12.2016.

  3. Divided by the Market, Divided by the State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike; Starke, Peter


    of the individual differences, the analysis also shows, for the first time, that both high inequality and strongly redistributive policies divide public opinion along the lines of socioeconomic position. Put differently, while market inequality may be associated with less cohesive attitudes, a highly redistributive...... welfare state does not seem to foster agreement among the public, either. These findings have important policy implications for advanced welfare states, including a renewed emphasis on ‘predistribution’ (i.e., policies that influence the primary distribution of income) in order to avoid the scenario...

  4. Is There a Substitute for Victory? Acceptance of Defeat in War (United States)


    war (moral exhaustion). As with defeat, the loss of will may be total or a matter of degree. For example, Saddam Hussein’s Iraq lost its will to... Ludendorff had lost his will to continue the war and called for an armistice.31 The German people too were at a breaking point. The allied naval...St ra te gy Re se ar ch Pr oj ec t IS THERE A SUBSTITUTE FOR VICTORY? ACCEPTANCE OF DEFEAT IN WAR BY COLONEL STEVEN E. LANDIS United States Army

  5. Simulating the Commander's Decision Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kovalchik, Joseph G; Labin, Jonathan W; Rosenlof, Eric R


    ... * Commander Federate simulates the human decision process by employing -- A fuzzy expert system to set warfare priorities either by time or event and provides inter-warfare area conflict resolution...

  6. Garrison Command Skills for Success (United States)


    Leadership” in Leadership: Theory and Practice, third edition, by Peter G. Northouse (Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage) 2006, pp. 206-210 11. From Garrison Commander briefing received via personal e-mail, Oct. 3, 2007.

  7. Identification of Company Command Competencies (United States)


    45 Virtual role plays ( VRPs ) could be used to measure many of the company command competencies identified in this project. In a VRP , the user...could play the role of a Company Commander who must deal with myriad crises, challenges, and potential opportunities. In a web- enabled VRP , the be concerned about. Future research should create VRPs or other engaging assessments to determine proficiency levels on the identified company

  8. Company Command: The Bottom Line (United States)


    34 Separation from the Militar. -Alcohol and Drug Abuse -Unsatisfactory Performance -Overweight Problem - Homosexuality -Civil Conviction -Acts or Patterns of...cases-such as drug abusers, homosexuals , and thieves. New company commanders often choose administra- tive elimination proceedings over court-martial...opportunity goal is to create a command cli- mate that nurtures fair treatment for all soldiers. 98 Personnel and Administration Shortly after you

  9. Command Process Modeling & Risk Analysis (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila


    Commanding Errors may be caused by a variety of root causes. It's important to understand the relative significance of each of these causes for making institutional investment decisions. One of these causes is the lack of standardized processes and procedures for command and control. We mitigate this problem by building periodic tables and models corresponding to key functions within it. These models include simulation analysis and probabilistic risk assessment models.

  10. The USSR Victory in World War II and the Emergence of the Independent Republic of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa M. Efimova


    Full Text Available Victorious ending of the World War 2 on May, 9, 1945, stroke a crushing blow on the military axis Berlin - Rome - Tokyo. The USSR played a decisive role both on European and Asian fronts. Fulfilling its allied duty the Soviet Union entered the war in the Far East on 9 August, 1945 and defeated the Japanese army in Manchuria. This act became a great contribution to liberation of Asian peoples from the Japanese occupation. On the 17 August 1945 the Republic of Indonesia declared its independence. The recognition on the side of international community as well as diplomatic support became\\e vital for the survival of the newly emerged Republic.The Soviet victory together with the allied nations in the Second World War, the new status of the USSR as a superpower, its constant anticolonial stance stimulated former colonies to appeal to the Soviet Union for backing and support. One of the first was the Republic of Indonesia, to which the USSR rendered all kind of help and encourages. The present article which is a result of the study of newly available documents from several recently opened Soviet archives shows the Soviet backing of Indonesia in the UN, its diplomatic recognition, in strengthening of Indonesian status as a sovereign state on the international arena as a whole.

  11. The Double Love Commandment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Viljoen


    Full Text Available The Gospel of Matthew was written during a period of dispute between the Matthean community and their fellow Jews, with the Pharisees playing a leading role. The Matthean community was heir to the same scriptures as its opponents. They continued to have a firm commitment to the Torah, but they developed a distinctive understanding of it based on Jesus’ teaching. The formation of this community is investigated in this article, considering the Mediterranean perspectives of group-oriented societies prevalent in the first century. Such a group provided a sense of self and an interactive support system, where love functioned to bind the group together. The subordinates showed their undivided loyalty towards their superiors because of the favours they received from them, whilst they supported and cared for other members within the group as they care for themselves. Reading the double love commandment of Matthew 22:34−40 from this perspective reveals significant aspects of the community’s identity with regard to their commitment to God and their view of their neighbours. Die Dubbele Liefdesgebod. Die Matteusevangelie is gedurende ’n periode van konfliktussen die Matteusgemeenskap en mede-Jode geskryf met die Fariseërs in ’n leidende rol. Die Matteusgemeenskap het van dieselfde geskrifte as hulle opponente gebruik gemaak. Hulle was steeds aan die Torah lojaal, maar het ’n unieke interpretasie daarvan gehuldig, gebaseer op die onderrig van Jesus. In hierdie artikel word die vorming van die Matteusgemeenskap ondersoek met inagneming van die Mediterreense beskouing van die groepgeoriënteerde gemeenskappe wat tipies van die eerste eeu was. So ’n groep het aan individue ’n bewustheid van eie waarde verskaf te midde van ’n interaktiewe ondersteuningsisteem waarin liefde as samebindende faktor gefunksioneer het. Ondergeskiktes het onverdeelde lojaliteit teenoor hulle meerderes betoon vanweë die gunste wat hulle van die meerderes geniet het

  12. The Double Love Commandment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Viljoen


    Full Text Available The Gospel of Matthew was written during a period of dispute between the Matthean community and their fellow Jews, with the Pharisees playing a leading role. The Matthean community was heir to the same scriptures as its opponents. They continued to have a firm commitment to the Torah, but they developed a distinctive understanding of it based on Jesus’ teaching. The formation of this community is investigated in this article, considering the Mediterranean perspectives of group-oriented societies prevalent in the first century. Such a group provided a sense of self and an interactive support system, where love functioned to bind the group together. The subordinates showed their undivided loyalty towards their superiors because of the favours they received from them, whilst they supported and cared for other members within the group as they care for themselves. Reading the double love commandment of Matthew 22:34−40 from this perspective reveals significant aspects of the community’s identity with regard to their commitment to God and their view of their neighbours.Die Dubbele Liefdesgebod. Die Matteusevangelie is gedurende ’n periode van konfliktussen die Matteusgemeenskap en mede-Jode geskryf met die Fariseërs in ’n leidende rol. Die Matteusgemeenskap het van dieselfde geskrifte as hulle opponente gebruik gemaak. Hulle was steeds aan die Torah lojaal, maar het ’n unieke interpretasie daarvan gehuldig, gebaseer op die onderrig van Jesus. In hierdie artikel word die vorming van die Matteusgemeenskap ondersoek met inagneming van die Mediterreense beskouing van die groepgeoriënteerde gemeenskappe wat tipies van die eerste eeu was. So ’n groep het aan individue ’n bewustheid van eie waarde verskaf te midde van ’n interaktiewe ondersteuningsisteem waarin liefde as samebindende faktor gefunksioneer het. Ondergeskiktes het onverdeelde lojaliteit teenoor hulle meerderes betoon vanweë die gunste wat hulle van die meerderes geniet het

  13. Strategic Global Climate Command? (United States)

    Long, J. C. S.


    Researchers have been exploring geoengineering because Anthropogenic GHG emissions could drive the globe towards unihabitability for people, wildlife and vegetation. Potential global deployment of these technologies is inherently strategic. For example, solar radiation management to reflect more sunlight might be strategically useful during a period of time where the population completes an effort to cease emissions and carbon removal technologies might then be strategically deployed to move the atmospheric concentrations back to a safer level. Consequently, deployment of these global technologies requires the ability to think and act strategically on the part of the planet's governments. Such capacity most definitely does not exist today but it behooves scientists and engineers to be involved in thinking through how global command might develop because the way they do the research could support the development of a capacity to deploy intervention rationally -- or irrationally. Internationalizing research would get countries used to working together. Organizing the research in a step-wise manner where at each step scientists become skilled at explaining what they have learned, the quality of the information they have, what they don't know and what more they can do to reduce or handle uncertainty, etc. Such a process can increase societal confidence in being able to make wise decisions about deployment. Global capacity will also be enhanced if the sceintific establishment reinvents misssion driven research so that the programs will identify the systemic issues invovled in any proposed technology and systematically address them with research while still encouraging individual creativity. Geoengineering will diverge from climate science in that geoengineering research needs to design interventions for some publically desirable goal and investigates whether a proposed intervention will acheive desired outcomes. The effort must be a systems-engineering design problem

  14. The future in the past: Victory, defeat, and grand strategy in the US, UK, France and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooft, P.A.


    This book argues that victory and defeat in war shape the post-war grand strategies of states, specifically their use of military force and diplomacy. It focuses on the experiences of the belligerent states of the Second World War, and in particular on those of the United States, the United Kingdom,

  15. Crossroads - Bridging the Digital Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cobb


    Full Text Available It’s so good to be in Cambridge, it feels almost like home. Let me start by stating that in the past year ITMB, a successful map publisher in British Columbia, Canada published more paper map titles than at any time in their history. Similarly, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS recently announced that they have ceased producing paper from their aerial photography archive and will only produce digital copies. I believe that both of these facts speak to the future of maps and digital data. It means there will be paper maps well into the future and there will be an increasing array of digital data - some of it reformatted, as in the USGS case, and most of it will be born digital. When asked to speak about GIS and its role in libraries I often find myself in a conundrum - am I here to slay the dragon, or to pet the dragon. The role of technology in libraries is not one that has been embraced by everyone, and often the technology itself seems to have been force-fed upon us. The library profession is not one that has historically been a proponent of change and the very nature of GIS is change. In one sense, we have been given the choice of becoming paper museums or, at the very least, making GIS technology available in our collections. Today, I would like to review the many ways that GIS is, or will, affect our collections. I will divide the presentation into a general overview of GIS in libraries, how it affects our acquisitions or collection development policies, its effect on cataloging, on reference services, staffing, and our web services. Then I will shift the focus a little and discuss the current situation at the Harvard Map Collection, the future role of legacy collections, and a look to the future.

  16. The ergonomics of command and control


    Stanton, NA; Baber, C


    Since its inception, just after the Second World War, ergonomics research has paid special attention to the issues surrounding human control of systems. Command and Control environments continue to represent a challenging domain for Ergonomics research. We take a broad view of Command and Control research, to include C2 (Command and Control), C3 (Command, Control and Communication), and C4 (Command, Control, Communication and Computers) as well as human supervisory control paradigms. This spe...

  17. Issues in Afloat Command Control: The Computer-Commander Interface (United States)


    Officer on watch, who all along had been more than a little worried, was becoming gravely uneasy. The lights of that distant steamer were looking " queer ...T.T.T., p. 3-4, 21-36, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1927. 10. Lawson, J.S., A Unified Theory of Command Control, paper presented at Military operations

  18. Ready...Set... Command! Rethinking Training for Squadron Commanders (United States)


    current environment and develop future outcomes.53 Squadron commanders must learn how to harness critical thinking and promote its benefits through the...building a culture of innovation, critical thinking , and strategic alignment. 40 Gen Stephen R... critical . Critical Thinking 44 David Magellan Horth and Jonathan Vehar, “Innovation

  19. The Unspoken Consequence of Command, Control Communications Technology: Enhanced Micromanagement by Risk-Averse Commanders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carozza, John


    .... However, along with its benefits, this command, control and communications (C3) network includes the dangerous consequence of eroding the autonomy of tactical command through enhanced micromanagement by risk-averse operational commanders...

  20. Apollo 11 Command Service Module (United States)


    A close-up view of the Apollo 11 command service module ready to be mated with the spacecraft LEM adapter of the third stage. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  1. Experiences as Deputy Commander Air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freek Meulman


    In the period January 2007-February 2008 I was sent out to Afghanistan as Deputy Commander Air/Director Air Coordination Element. I worked at the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) X Headquarters in Kabul. ISAF is a United Nations (UN) mandated mission led by the North Atlantic Treaty

  2. 32 CFR 724.405 - Commandant of the Marine Corps or the Commander, Naval Military Personnel Command. (United States)


    ..., Naval Military Personnel Command. 724.405 Section 724.405 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Principal Elements of the Navy Department Discharge Review System § 724.405 Commandant of the Marine Corps or the Commander, Naval Military...

  3. Applying the Combatant Command Construct to the DHS Command Structure (United States)


    Furthermore, this type of cooperation does nothing to cure the organizational myopathy or component protectionism that exists within DHS. The...organizations and their past and present challenges in the joint effort. These shared challenges include unity of command, service protectionism , mission...DRO). Even industry is not immune from this confusion. If a shipping company has questions regarding import, export , or tariffs, they would have

  4. Command Decision-Making: Experience Counts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolgast, Kelly A


    Decision-making is the mainstay of military leadership and command. Due to the changed nature of the current military environment, military commanders can no longer rely solely on the traditional Military Decision-making Process (MDMP...

  5. Command and Control in Littoral Operations (United States)


    littoral environment, a co-equal command model is likely to fail as the interests of the CATF and CLF diverge. A capable commander leading an...headquarters with the JFMCC or JTF commander would also reduce turnaround time. Finally, the integrated staff model enhances cooperation and...successful accomplishment of his mission.” 25 Giving overall command of the Amphibious Force to an officer who is physically present and leading

  6. Justas, fiestas y protagonismos: Alegrías y placeres en El Victorial de Gutierre Díaz de Games = Jousting, Festivities and Prominence: Joy and Pleasures in Gutierre Díaz de Games’s El Victorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Rábade Obradó


    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende analizar cómo se reflejan dos emociones básicas, la alegría y el placer, en una crónica del siglo XV, concretamente El Victorial de Gutierre Díaz de Games. Como se trata de una biografía caballeresca, en sus páginas se plasma una visión particular de las dos citadas emociones. Así, la crónica ofrece un elenco de aquellas circunstancias en las que se suponía que los caballeros estaban en situación de experimentar el placer y la alegría. Esas circunstancias van desde las fiestas cortesanas hasta las victorias en batallas, sin olvidar el amor y la amistad.The purpose of this article is to analyze how two basic emotions like joy and pleasure were expressed in a fifteenth-century chronicle, namely El Victorial by Gutierre Díaz de Games. Since the chronicle is a chivalric biography, its pages highlight a particular vision of joy and pleasure. Consequently, the chronicle offers a variety of circumstances in which knights were meant to experience pleasure and happiness. These circumstances range from court festivities to victories in battles, as well as those involving love and friendship.

  7. Company Command: The Bottom Line (United States)


    PHILOSOPHY-After you publish your command philosophy (your overall modus operandi ), publish your training philosophy. It will estab- lish your guidelines... killer for the soldier and damages unit mo- rale. A good first sergeant will handle PLDC preparation for Vou. 126 Trraii ig Develop, where necessary. serial numbers. Sub-hand receipt all weapons to your unit armorer. En- sure no soldier in your unit can draw a weapon from the arms room unless he

  8. On Preparing for Squadron Command (United States)


    Management Control System (AINCS) Briefing 19, Records Management Briefing 20. PCS Funding e.nd PCS Policy Changes Briefing 21. Channels for Assignment...Parsonnel (Dr) S.1 A3signment Policy Changes 2. Civilian Performance Appraisals and Awards 3, Enllisted Retention and Recruitment Programs 4, Family...3. Officer Force Manangement 14. Quality Control (QC) for Enlisted Personnel on Assignment 10. Rated Officer Retention 11. Squadron Commander

  9. Windows Command Line Administration Instant Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, John Paul


    The perfect companion to any book on Windows Server 2008 or Windows 7, and the quickest way to access critical information. Focusing just on the essentials of command-line interface (CLI), Windows Command-Line Administration Instant Reference easily shows how to quickly perform day-to-day tasks of Windows administration without ever touching the graphical user interface (GUI). Specifically designed for busy administrators, Windows Command-Line Administration Instant Reference replaces many tedious GUI steps with just one command at the command-line, while concise, easy to access answers provid

  10. Fast frequency divider circuit using combinational logic (United States)

    Helinski, Ryan


    The various technologies presented herein relate to performing on-chip frequency division of an operating frequency of a ring oscillator (RO). Per the various embodiments herein, a conflict between RO size versus operational frequency can be addressed by dividing the output frequency of the RO to a frequency that can be measured on-chip. A frequency divider circuit (comprising NOR gates and latches, for example) can be utilized in conjunction with the RO on the chip. In an embodiment, the frequency divider circuit can include a pair of latches coupled to the RO to facilitate dividing the oscillating frequency of the RO by 2. In another embodiment, the frequency divider circuit can include four latches (operating in pairs) coupled to the RO to facilitate dividing the oscillating frequency of the RO by 4. A plurality of ROs can be MUXed to the plurality of ROs by a single oscillation-counting circuit.

  11. Thrill of victory or agony of defeat? Perceivers fail to utilize information in facial movements. (United States)

    Aviezer, Hillel; Messinger, Daniel S; Zangvil, Shiri; Mattson, Whitney I; Gangi, Devon N; Todorov, Alexander


    Although the distinction between positive and negative facial expressions is assumed to be clear and robust, recent research with intense real-life faces has shown that viewers are unable to reliably differentiate the valence of such expressions (Aviezer, Trope, & Todorov, 2012). Yet, the fact that viewers fail to distinguish these expressions does not in itself testify that the faces are physically identical. In Experiment 1, the muscular activity of victorious and defeated faces was analyzed. Higher numbers of individually coded facial actions--particularly smiling and mouth opening--were more common among winners than losers, indicating an objective difference in facial activity. In Experiment 2, we asked whether supplying participants with valid or invalid information about objective facial activity and valence would alter their ratings. Notwithstanding these manipulations, valence ratings were virtually identical in all groups, and participants failed to differentiate between positive and negative faces. While objective differences between intense positive and negative faces are detectable, human viewers do not utilize these differences in determining valence. These results suggest a surprising dissociation between information present in expressions and information used by perceivers. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Face-body integration of intense emotional expressions of victory and defeat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    Full Text Available Human facial expressions can be recognized rapidly and effortlessly. However, for intense emotions from real life, positive and negative facial expressions are difficult to discriminate and the judgment of facial expressions is biased towards simultaneously perceived body expressions. This study employed event-related potentials (ERPs to investigate the neural dynamics involved in the integration of emotional signals from facial and body expressions of victory and defeat. Emotional expressions of professional players were used to create pictures of face-body compounds, with either matched or mismatched emotional expressions in faces and bodies. Behavioral results showed that congruent emotional information of face and body facilitated the recognition of facial expressions. ERP data revealed larger P1 amplitudes for incongruent compared to congruent stimuli. Also, a main effect of body valence on the P1 was observed, with enhanced amplitudes for the stimuli with losing compared to winning bodies. The main effect of body expression was also observed in N170 and N2, with winning bodies producing larger N170/N2 amplitudes. In the later stage, a significant interaction of congruence by body valence was found on the P3 component. Winning bodies elicited lager P3 amplitudes than losing bodies did when face and body conveyed congruent emotional signals. Beyond the knowledge based on prototypical facial and body expressions, the results of this study facilitate us to understand the complexity of emotion evaluation and categorization out of laboratory.

  13. Implementing the Victory Access Control Framework in a Military Ground Vehicle (United States)


    or the Department of the Army ( DoA ). The opinions of the authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States...Government or the DoA , and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. ABSTRACT The Vehicular Integration for Command, Control

  14. New Media and the Digital Divide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Wright, James D.


    During the 1990s, researchers and policy makers began discussing the presence of a so-called ‘digital divide,’ a distinction of people who do and do not have access to information and communication technologies. The concept of the digital divide stems from a comparative perspective of social and

  15. Social Welfare Implications of the Digital Divide (United States)

    Kim, Eunjin; Lee, Byungtae; Menon, Nirup M.


    The Internet plays a critical role in informing individuals about society, politics, business, and the environment. So much so that it has been said that the digital divide makes the segment of society on the ''right side'' of the divide (the digitally endowed group) better off and that on the ''wrong side'' (the digitally challenged group) worse…

  16. 10 commandments of smile esthetics


    Andre Wilson Machado


    The search for esthetic treatment has persisted in the routine of dental professionals. Following this trend, dental patients have sought treatment with the primary aim of improving smile esthetics. The aim of this article is to present a protocol to assess patient's smile: The 10 Commandments of smile esthetics. Pacientes em busca de tratamentos estéticos são uma constante na rotina de todos os profissionais que oferecem este tipo de serviço. Seguindo esta tendência, os pacientes odontoló...

  17. Victory Gin Lane. Starvation and Beverages in Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Caponi


    Full Text Available Gin is an ubiquitous presence in the domestic and urban scenery of Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949. For a population mercilessly hungered, it represents a handy and cheap commodity item providing a fluid opportunity for social aggregation. Victory Gin, served “in handless chine mugs” (53, is part of the workers’ staple diet at the Ministry of Truth, and is sold “at ten cents the large nip” from the small bar (actually, “a mere hole in the wall”, 51 in the canteen; served with cloves, it is the “speciality” (79 of that disreputable place which is the Chestnut Tree Café, where Winston Smith once spotted three fallen-out-of-favor members of the Inner Party – Jones, Aaronson and Rutherford – drink it silently after their release from Oceania prison camps (79. As is typical of the fate of spirits in literature, gin also serves as self-medication and can fuel a kind of inner escapism. It is to make the world “look more cheerful” that Winston gulps it down “like a dose of medicine”, and only after the “shock” of swallowing it can he squeeze himself into his alcove and begin his diary (7; gin clears out Winston’s stomach (53, and is the ultima ratio against that prescient “dull ache” in his belly (105; 106 that originates after bumping into “the girl with dark hair” (later: Julia one evening outside Mr. Charrington’s shop.

  18. Blossom Point Satellite Tracking and Command Station (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The Blossom Point Satellite Command and Tracking Facility (BP) provides engineering and operational support to several complex space systems for the Navy...

  19. Digital divide in Serbia from demographic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Slavoljub M.


    Full Text Available Digital divide is a term that defines differences and inequality between various groups of population considering opportunities and abilities for access and use of information and communication technologies (ICT, particularly the Internet. Digital divide can be viewed from regional and global aspect, so there are significant differences between regions in a country and between countries, considering the use of ICT. On the global level, there are the countries where a great part of the population has access to ICT and countries where that is not the case. Serbia as a country that is in transition period belongs to the second group of countries. In addition, digital divide exists on a country level, because in south-east region of Serbia relatively small number of people has access to ICT comparing to the other regions. The paper just treats problem of digital divide on the example of Republic of Serbia, with specific view to demographic aspect of the problem.

  20. Environmental Aesthetics. Crossing Divides and Breaking Ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenthen, M.; Keulartz, J.


    Environmental aesthetics crosses several commonly recognized divides: between analytic and continental philosophy, Eastern and Western traditions, universalizing and historicizing approaches, and theoretical and practical concerns. This volume sets out to show how these,perspectives can be brought

  1. Divide and Recombine for Large Complex Data (United States)


    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Divide and Recombine (D& R ) statistical approach was developed for analyzing ‘big data’ where the computational very high. The analyst divides data into subsets by a D& R division technique, applying analytic methods to each subset independently, without...communication. Outputs of each analytic method are recombined by a D& R recombination procedure, which allows extensive parallel computation. DeltaRho

  2. Quick, Decisive Victory: Defining Maxim or Illusory Concept within Army Doctrine (United States)


    object can only be attained by fighting. Colonel Naylor wrote: I wish to stress this point: that warfare means fighting, and that war is never won by...have argued that the Coalition forces should have pursued the Republican Guard to destroy them. The difficulty lies in translating these efforts into...D.C.: GPO, January 1993) 1-7. 2 Martin Van Creveld, Command In War, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985), 63. 3 General P. Segur , Cost* de

  3. Command and Control of Special Operations Forces Missions in the US Northern Command Area of Responsibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGregor, Ottis W., III


    The need for a well thought out, planned, and rehearsed command and control organization to conduct special operations in the US Northern Command Area of Responsibility is vital to success in defending the Homeland...

  4. Capturing a Commander's decision making style (United States)

    Santos, Eugene; Nguyen, Hien; Russell, Jacob; Kim, Keumjoo; Veenhuis, Luke; Boparai, Ramnjit; Stautland, Thomas Kristoffer


    A Commander's decision making style represents how he weighs his choices and evaluates possible solutions with regards to his goals. Specifically, in the naval warfare domain, it relates the way he processes a large amount of information in dynamic, uncertain environments, allocates resources, and chooses appropriate actions to pursue. In this paper, we describe an approach to capture a Commander's decision style by creating a cognitive model that captures his decisionmaking process and evaluate this model using a set of scenarios using an online naval warfare simulation game. In this model, we use the Commander's past behaviors and generalize Commander's actions across multiple problems and multiple decision making sequences in order to recommend actions to a Commander in a manner that he may have taken. Our approach builds upon the Double Transition Model to represent the Commander's focus and beliefs to estimate his cognitive state. Each cognitive state reflects a stage in a Commander's decision making process, each action reflects the tasks that he has taken to move himself closer to a final decision, and the reward reflects how close he is to achieving his goal. We then use inverse reinforcement learning to compute a reward for each of the Commander's actions. These rewards and cognitive states are used to compare between different styles of decision making. We construct a set of scenarios in the game where rational, intuitive and spontaneous decision making styles will be evaluated.

  5. XTCE. XML Telemetry and Command Exchange Tutorial (United States)

    Rice, Kevin; Kizzort, Brad; Simon, Jerry


    An XML Telemetry Command Exchange (XTCE) tutoral oriented towards packets or minor frames is shown. The contents include: 1) The Basics; 2) Describing Telemetry; 3) Describing the Telemetry Format; 4) Commanding; 5) Forgotten Elements; 6) Implementing XTCE; and 7) GovSat.

  6. Precede-and-command revisited revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, Cornelius


    Basing his argumentation on an analysis of condition C effects, Bruening (2014) proposes to replace the familiar notion of c-command underlying dependency relations with a precede-and-command condition, which defines dependency relations as precedence relations within a local domain (phase). In this

  7. 32 CFR 700.702 - Responsibility and authority of commanders. (United States)


    ... responsibility throughout their commands. (c) Subject to orders of higher authority, and subject to the... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibility and authority of commanders. 700... Commanders In Chief and Other Commanders Titles and Duties of Commanders § 700.702 Responsibility and...

  8. Classical command of quantum systems. (United States)

    Reichardt, Ben W; Unger, Falk; Vazirani, Umesh


    Quantum computation and cryptography both involve scenarios in which a user interacts with an imperfectly modelled or 'untrusted' system. It is therefore of fundamental and practical interest to devise tests that reveal whether the system is behaving as instructed. In 1969, Clauser, Horne, Shimony and Holt proposed an experimental test that can be passed by a quantum-mechanical system but not by a system restricted to classical physics. Here we extend this test to enable the characterization of a large quantum system. We describe a scheme that can be used to determine the initial state and to classically command the system to evolve according to desired dynamics. The bipartite system is treated as two black boxes, with no assumptions about their inner workings except that they obey quantum physics. The scheme works even if the system is explicitly designed to undermine it; any misbehaviour is detected. Among its applications, our scheme makes it possible to test whether a claimed quantum computer is truly quantum. It also advances towards a goal of quantum cryptography: namely, the use of 'untrusted' devices to establish a shared random key, with security based on the validity of quantum physics.

  9. Digital divide research, achievements and shortcomings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.


    From the end of the 1990s onwards the digital divide, commonly defined as the gap between those who have and do not have access to computers and the Internet, has been a central issue on the scholarly and political agenda of new media development. This article makes an inventory of 5 years of

  10. Democratisation and Conflict in Ethnically Divided Societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorrath, Judith; Krebs, Lutz


    This article reviews three important factors in the academic debate on ethnic civil wars: the role of ethnicity in causing and structuring violence, the spread of ethnic civil wars once they have started, and the influence of democratic transitions in divided societies. The review displays the range

  11. Divide and Multiply: Baptist Diversity in Appalachia. (United States)

    Dorgan, Howard


    Baptists' propensity for splitting apart arises from the faith's avowed love of theological argument. Gives an overview of Baptist denominations, and identifies the main issues that divide them: atonement, predestination, the nature and origins of good and evil, worship practices, church governance, gender issues, and other social and cultural…

  12. Bridging the digital divide with mobile services

    CERN Document Server

    Yelton, Andromeda


    In this issue of Library Technology Reports, Andromeda Yelton shows how libraries can build on the breadth of this population to help bridge the digital divide and provide even greater access to information. Yelton breaks down the demographics of mobile internet users, provides examples of how different libraries are reaching out to these populations, and suggests what the future may hold for this trend.

  13. Project DIVIDE Instrument Development. Technical Report # 0810 (United States)

    Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne; Jung, Eunju; Geller, Josh; Yovanoff, Paul


    In this technical report, we describe the development of cognitive diagnostic test items that form the basis of the diagnostic system for Project DIVIDE (Dynamic Instruction Via Individually Designed Environments). The construct underlying the diagnostic test is division of fractions. We include a description of the process we used to identify the…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    claim both common ancestry and a common cultural tradition”(p. 218). ... foundation. Among several other reasons that results to ethno- religious divide in Nigeria is the amalgamation event which is the hand work of the European imperial powers under the ... ethnicity is said to be rooted in the very set up of Nigeria,but it got.

  15. Conquering the digital divide: Botswana and South Korea digital divide status and interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonofo C. Sedimo


    Objectives: Bridging the digital divide and narrowing the intra-national divide brings about global information and communication technology (ICT usage that translates into changing work patterns and eventually transformed economies. This article outlines the different interventions implemented in Botswana to bridge the divide. The South Korean experience in bridging the divide is discussed so as to serve as lessons on how to effectively bridge the divide to Botswana’s initiatives. Method: Using a mix of exploratory and empirical study, this article presents the findings on the status of ICT uptake in Botswana and investigates the level of the digital divide in the country. Results: The results of the study show that the digital divide is much more evident in Botswana than in South Korea. South Korea has put in place robust strategic initiatives towards reducing the digital divide and this has largely transcended into its transformation into a full-fledged knowledge society. Conclusion: This article is timely as it unearths the different pointers that may be utilised in policy formation and what interventions need to be taken at both the individual and national level to bridge the digital divide.

  16. Conquering the digital divide: Botswana and South Korea digital divide status and interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonofo C. Sedimo


    Full Text Available Background: Botswana is putting in place initiatives towards establishing itself as a knowledgebased economy. Transformation from a resource-based to a knowledge-based economy is partly hinged on innovation, research and development capability, knowledge channels, and the funding of research and development activities.Objectives: Bridging the digital divide and narrowing the intra-national divide brings about global information and communication technology (ICT usage that translates into changing work patterns and eventually transformed economies. This article outlines the different interventions implemented in Botswana to bridge the divide. The South Korean experience in bridging the divide is discussed so as to serve as lessons on how to effectively bridge the divide to Botswana’s initiatives.Method: Using a mix of exploratory and empirical study, this article presents the findings on the status of ICT uptake in Botswana and investigates the level of the digital divide in the country.Results: The results of the study show that the digital divide is much more evident in Botswana than in South Korea. South Korea has put in place robust strategic initiatives towards reducing the digital divide and this has largely transcended into its transformation into a full-fledged knowledge society.Conclusion: This article is timely as it unearths the different pointers that may be utilised in policy formation and what interventions need to be taken at both the individual and national level to bridge the digital divide.

  17. Development and Validation of Nigerian Army Commanding Officers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The factors depicted eight core functions of the commanding officer namely: general, command and training, administration, welfare, security, communication, liaison, and miscellaneous. The commanding officers' job description index constituted psychological constructs, which had implications for appointment, training and ...

  18. Disruptive Effects of Net-Centricity on Command and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bay, John S


    .... The military command hierarchy must therefore get accustomed to issuing orders to "nobody in particular," and commanders will lack an individual subordinate with whom to attribute the responsibility...

  19. Analyzing Broadband Divide in the Farming Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Pedersen, Jens Myrup


    , upstream and downstream connection. The main constraint is that farms are naturally located in rural areas where the required access broadband data rates are not available. This paper studies the broadband divide in relation to the Danish agricultural sector. Results show how there is an important......Agriculture industry has been evolving for centuries. Currently, the technological development of Internet oriented farming tools allows to increase the productivity and efficiency of this sector. Many of the already available tools and applications require high bandwidth in both directions...... difference between the broadband availability for farms and the rest of the households/buildings the country. This divide may be slowing down the potential technological development of the farming industry, in order to keep their competitiveness in the market. Therefore, broadband development in rural areas...


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Qvale, Einar Bjørn


    their efficiency are always of interest. Recently, two independent studies have proposed recuperated gas turbines to be configured with the turbine expansion divided, in order to obtain higher efficiency. The idea is to operate the system with a gas generator and a power turbine, and use the gas from the gas......Recuperated gas turbines are currently drawing an increased attention due to the recent commercialization of micro gas turbines with recuperation. This system may reach a high efficiency even for the small units of less than 100 kW. In order to improve the economics of the plants, ways to improve...... divided expansion can be advantageous under certain circumstances. But, in order for todays micro gas turbines to be competitive, the thermodynamic efficiencies will have to be rather high. This requires that all component efficiencies including the recuperator effectiveness will have to be high...

  1. Command History. United States Military Assistance Command, Vietnam 1968. Volume 2 (United States)


    immediate release. After selection the following actions were directed: 1. Perform a complete physical aid dental check of the selectees by US medical...imurnisations and emergency medical and dental care. In the event of death or injury of a cor- respondent, SPD took action to notify the sponsoring agency. In...difficlt dMcIsion--how to escape from a quandary which de•nes it victory after enormous sacrifices and an all-out commitmnent o0 the North Vietnamese " resina

  2. Introduction to the Bash Command Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Milligan


    Full Text Available This lesson uses a Unix shell, which is a command-line interpreter that provides a user interface for the Unix operating system and for Unix-like systems. This lesson will cover a small number of basic commands. By the end of this tutorial you will be able to navigate through your file system and find files, open them, perform basic data manipulation tasks such as combining and copying files, as well as both reading them and making relatively simple edits. These commands constitute the building blocks upon which more complex commands can be constructed to fit your research data or project. Readers wanting a reference guide that goes beyond this lesson are recommended to read Deborah S. Ray and Eric J. Ray, Unix and Linux: Visual Quickstart Guide, 4th edition (2009.

  3. Spacecraft command and control using expert systems (United States)

    Norcross, Scott; Grieser, William H.


    This paper describes a product called the Intelligent Mission Toolkit (IMT), which was created to meet the changing demands of the spacecraft command and control market. IMT is a command and control system built upon an expert system. Its primary functions are to send commands to the spacecraft and process telemetry data received from the spacecraft. It also controls the ground equipment used to support the system, such as encryption gear, and telemetry front-end equipment. Add-on modules allow IMT to control antennas and antenna interface equipment. The design philosophy for IMT is to utilize available commercial products wherever possible. IMT utilizes Gensym's G2 Real-time Expert System as the core of the system. G2 is responsible for overall system control, spacecraft commanding control, and spacecraft telemetry analysis and display. Other commercial products incorporated into IMT include the SYBASE relational database management system and Loral Test and Integration Systems' System 500 for telemetry front-end processing.

  4. Using an integrated methods approach to analyse the emergent properties of military command and control. (United States)

    Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Stewart, Rebecca; Jenkins, Daniel; Wells, Linda; Salmon, Paul; Baber, Chris


    This paper applies the event analysis for systemic teamwork (EAST) method to an example of military command and control. EAST offers a way to describe system level emergent properties that arise from the complex interactions of system components (human and technical). These are described using an integrated methods approach and modelled using Task, Social and Propositional networks. The current article is divided into three parts: a brief description of the military command and control context, a brief description of the EAST method, and a more in depth presentation of the analysis outcomes. The emergent properties of the military scenario relate to the degree of system reconfigurability, systems level situational awareness and the role of mediating technology. The findings are compared with similar analyses undertaken in civilian domains, in which the latest developments in command and control, under the aegis of Network Enabled Capability (NEC), are already in place.

  5. Schema for Spacecraft-Command Dictionary (United States)

    Laubach, Sharon; Garcia, Celina; Maxwell, Scott; Wright, Jesse


    An Extensible Markup Language (XML) schema was developed as a means of defining and describing a structure for capturing spacecraft command- definition and tracking information in a single location in a form readable by both engineers and software used to generate software for flight and ground systems. A structure defined within this schema is then used as the basis for creating an XML file that contains command definitions.

  6. Functions within the Naval Air Training Command (United States)


    number. For X = N: Chief of Naval Air Training (CNATRA) Staff W: Training Air Wing ( TRAWING ) A: Naval Air Station (NAS) 3; Training Squadron...Provide assistance as required to TRAWING commands in preparation and execution of budget within the framework of guidance provided by CNATRA and...higher authority, WOO-69 Establish monetary controls as required to effectively monitor budget execution for TRAWING commands. WOO-70 Maintain

  7. A Week Is a Long Time in Politics: The Health Implications of Jeremy Corbyn's UK Labour Party Leadership Victory. (United States)

    Scott-Samuel, Alex; Bambra, Clare


    For more than 30 years, socialism within the UK Labour Party - which was in government from 1997 to 2010 and is currently the main UK parliamentary opposition - has been in decline. Despite its origins as a party of and for the working class, Labour has become at best a social democratic party with strong neoliberal leanings. However, in the recent leadership election that followed Labour's general election defeat in May 2015, the socialist Jeremy Corbyn confounded all expectations by winning Labour's leadership with a substantial majority. We describe the political context of Corbyn's controversial victory and discuss its potential short- and medium-term impact on England's troubled National Health Service and on the public health. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. The hero in victory and loss [Hrdina ve vítězství a prohře

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald N. Roberson


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Every game and competition contains the suspense caused by the possibilities of winning or losing. Adding to this, most cultures incorporate the concept of a hero and its significance in the life of the citizens. OBJECTIVE: The objective and purpose of this paper is to explain the importance of the concept of hero. This includes a discussion of the "agon motive", that is the principle distinguished by interpersonal rivalry and by the process of the acceptance of challenges. METHODS: Our methodology is a historical, rhetorical, and philosophical perspective outlining the history of the concept of hero. Further argument focuses on important concepts of agon, rivalization, and perfectionism. RESULTS: Our results and findings call attention to the differences between army agon and sport agon and their possible transformations. First, we discuss the distinction between reaching for victory by "rivalization" and "perfectionism". Rivalization means antagonizing or encountering another person in order to win in competition. Perfectionism implies who is the best person during the competition. Second, we distinguish the phenomenon of a fair victory from the phenomenon of "victory at any costs". Such adoration of victory over other values like health or respectable competition is not a sign of being a hero. Third, we show how this has resulted in a contemporary image of a one dimensional carnal hero whose main goal is to achieve victory. And, fourth, we discuss how the archetype of a hero has changed from Homer's hero who connects physical force with intellect and compassion, to a person who lives in only a physical dimension in order to achieve victory. CONCLUSIONS: Hence, it is important to evoke the values of losing and to highlight the meaning of loss which can spread the goal of competition into the context of one's life.[VÝCHODISKA: Každá hra a soutěž obsahuje nejistotu z možností výhry a prohry. Většina kultur za

  9. 32 CFR 536.3 - Command and organizational relationships. (United States)


    ... potentially compensable events (PCEs) occurring within the command's geographic area of responsibility, in other areas for which the command is assigned claims responsibility, and during the course of the... supervision of the senior JA of each command in the area of responsibility of a command claims service so...

  10. SOA approach to battle command: simulation interoperability (United States)

    Mayott, Gregory; Self, Mid; Miller, Gordon J.; McDonnell, Joseph S.


    NVESD is developing a Sensor Data and Management Services (SDMS) Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) that provides an innovative approach to achieve seamless application functionality across simulation and battle command systems. In 2010, CERDEC will conduct a SDMS Battle Command demonstration that will highlight the SDMS SOA capability to couple simulation applications to existing Battle Command systems. The demonstration will leverage RDECOM MATREX simulation tools and TRADOC Maneuver Support Battle Laboratory Virtual Base Defense Operations Center facilities. The battle command systems are those specific to the operation of a base defense operations center in support of force protection missions. The SDMS SOA consists of four components that will be discussed. An Asset Management Service (AMS) will automatically discover the existence, state, and interface definition required to interact with a named asset (sensor or a sensor platform, a process such as level-1 fusion, or an interface to a sensor or other network endpoint). A Streaming Video Service (SVS) will automatically discover the existence, state, and interfaces required to interact with a named video stream, and abstract the consumers of the video stream from the originating device. A Task Manager Service (TMS) will be used to automatically discover the existence of a named mission task, and will interpret, translate and transmit a mission command for the blue force unit(s) described in a mission order. JC3IEDM data objects, and software development kit (SDK), will be utilized as the basic data object definition for implemented web services.

  11. Bridging the transatlantic divide in privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Kift


    Full Text Available In the context of the US National Security Agency surveillance scandal, the transatlantic privacy divide has come back to the fore. In the United States, the right to privacy is primarily understood as a right to physical privacy, thus the protection from unwarranted government searches and seizures. In Germany on the other hand, it is also understood as a right to spiritual privacy, thus the right of citizens to develop into autonomous moral agents. The following article will discuss the different constitutional assumptions that underlie American and German attitudes towards privacy, namely privacy as an aspect of liberty or as an aspect of dignity. As data flows defy jurisdictional boundaries, however, policymakers across the Atlantic are faced with a conundrum: how can German and American privacy cultures be reconciled?

  12. Robot Task Commander with Extensible Programming Environment (United States)

    Hart, Stephen W (Inventor); Yamokoski, John D. (Inventor); Wightman, Brian J (Inventor); Dinh, Duy Paul (Inventor); Gooding, Dustin R (Inventor)


    A system for developing distributed robot application-level software includes a robot having an associated control module which controls motion of the robot in response to a commanded task, and a robot task commander (RTC) in networked communication with the control module over a network transport layer (NTL). The RTC includes a script engine(s) and a GUI, with a processor and a centralized library of library blocks constructed from an interpretive computer programming code and having input and output connections. The GUI provides access to a Visual Programming Language (VPL) environment and a text editor. In executing a method, the VPL is opened, a task for the robot is built from the code library blocks, and data is assigned to input and output connections identifying input and output data for each block. A task sequence(s) is sent to the control module(s) over the NTL to command execution of the task.

  13. Linux command line and shell scripting bible

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Richard


    Talk directly to your system for a faster workflow with automation capability Linux Command Line and Shell Scripting Bible is your essential Linux guide. With detailed instruction and abundant examples, this book teaches you how to bypass the graphical interface and communicate directly with your computer, saving time and expanding capability. This third edition incorporates thirty pages of new functional examples that are fully updated to align with the latest Linux features. Beginning with command line fundamentals, the book moves into shell scripting and shows you the practical application

  14. Communication for command and control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, D J


    Communication for Command and Control Systems provides a thorough exposition of the basic theoretical and practical features involved in the design of communication networks for command and control systems. This book focuses primarily on the practical side of computer-controlled communication. This text concentrates on the communication sides of the subject by surveying the means of transferring data between the various processing points and by appraising their potential advantages and possible defects in implementation. In this respect, this book should prove useful for the practicing enginee

  15. The Gender Digital Divide in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Antonio


    Full Text Available Empirical studies clearly show that women in the developing world have significantly lower technology participation rates than men; a result of entrenched socio-cultural attitudes about the role of women in society. However, as studies are beginning to show, when those women are able to engage with Internet technology, a wide range of personal, family and community benefits become possible. The key to these benefits is on-line education, the access to which sets up a positive feedback loop. This review gives an overview of the digital divide, before focusing specifically on the challenges women in developing countries face in accessing the Internet. Current gender disparities in Internet use will be outlined and the barriers that potentially hinder women’s access and participation in the online world will be considered. We will then look at the potential opportunities for women’s participation in a global digital society along with a consideration of current initiatives that have been developed to mitigate gender inequity in developing countries. We will also consider a promising avenue for future research.

  16. Quantitative Measurement of the Digital Divide (United States)

    Cottrell, Roger


    Bandwidth and the Internet infrastructure are the life-blood of the world's knowledge economy, but they are often scarcest where most needed. Measuring the numbers of users of the Internet infrastructure is not easy in developing countries because many people share accounts, use corporate and academic networks, or visit the rapidly growing number of cyber cafes, telecentres and business services. Also measuring the number of users does not take into account the level of use. One valuable indicator for measuring the Internet infrastructure is the international Internet performance of a country or region. One of the major aims of the PingER project is to provide an historical archive of extensive, publicly accessible, up-to-date, measurements, analyses and reports of multiple Internet performance indicators (such as delay, loss, throughput, reachability, and jitter) between sites, countries and regions of the world. This talk will briefly describe the PingER project and then compare and contrast the Internet performance and its trends within and between countries and regions of the world. By means of extensive case studies it will also identify which regions need the greatest attention, together with their major issues and possible approaches to reducing the divide.

  17. The Digital Divide and urban older adults. (United States)

    Cresci, M Kay; Yarandi, Hossein N; Morrell, Roger W


    Computers and the Internet offer older adults opportunities and resources for independent living. However, many urban older adults do not use computers. This study examined the demographic, health, and social activities of urban older adults to determine variables that might predict the use and nonuse of computers in this population. A secondary data analysis was performed using the 2001 Detroit City-Wide Needs Assessment of Older Adults (n = 1410) data set. Logistic regression was used to explore potential differences in predictor variables between computer users and nonusers. Overall, computer users were younger (27%), had a higher level of education, were more likely to be employed, had an annual income greater than $20,000, and were healthier and more active than nonusers. They also were more likely to have memberships in community organizations and do volunteer work. Preferred computer activities included conducting Internet searches, playing games, writing, and communicating with family members and friends. The results suggest significant differences in demographic and health-related characteristics between computer users and nonusers among urban older adults. Although about a quarter of participants in this study used computers, the Digital Divide continues to exist in urban settings for scores of others.

  18. Bridging the divide between science and journalism. (United States)

    Van Eperen, Laura; Marincola, Francesco M; Strohm, Jennifer


    There are countless reasons nearly every scientist should learn how to communicate effectively with the media, including increased understanding of critical research findings to attract or sustain funding and build new professional partnerships that will further propel forward research. But where do scientists begin? Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism offers practical tips for any scientist looking to work with the media.Given the traditional and internet-based sources for medical research and healthcare-related news now available, it is imperative that scientists know how to communicate their latest findings through the appropriate channels. The credible media channels are managed by working journalists, so learning how to package vast, technical research in a form that is appetizing and "bite-sized" in order to get their attention, is an art. Reducing years of research into a headline can be extremely difficult and certainly doesn't come naturally to every scientist, so this article provides suggestions on how to work with the media to communicate your findings.

  19. Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincola Francesco M


    Full Text Available Abstract There are countless reasons nearly every scientist should learn how to communicate effectively with the media, including increased understanding of critical research findings to attract or sustain funding and build new professional partnerships that will further propel forward research. But where do scientists begin? Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism offers practical tips for any scientist looking to work with the media. Given the traditional and internet-based sources for medical research and healthcare-related news now available, it is imperative that scientists know how to communicate their latest findings through the appropriate channels. The credible media channels are managed by working journalists, so learning how to package vast, technical research in a form that is appetizing and "bite-sized" in order to get their attention, is an art. Reducing years of research into a headline can be extremely difficult and certainly doesn't come naturally to every scientist, so this article provides suggestions on how to work with the media to communicate your findings.

  20. The private-public law divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Idamarie Leth; Kronborg, Annette; Gyldenløve Jeppesen-De Boer, Christina


    In a Scandinavian perspective, the family and the individual have changed places during the 20th Century. Today, the law takes its starting point in the individual - not in the family. A consequence of this development is that it is no longer legally possible to relate the good family to a partic......In a Scandinavian perspective, the family and the individual have changed places during the 20th Century. Today, the law takes its starting point in the individual - not in the family. A consequence of this development is that it is no longer legally possible to relate the good family...... to a particular societal institution. Marriage as an institution has been individualized and the goodness of the family has to relate to the well-being of the individuals instead. This article shows that within this historical development the private-public law divide has not been seriously challenged...... that the historical development neccessitates a re-thinking of the distinction between child welfare law and family law. It shows how the distinction is nationally and institutionally embedded. Further, that the distinction has only been superficially adressed by the CRC Committee....

  1. Joint Force Cyberspace Component Command: Establishing Cyberspace Operations Unity of Effort for the Joint Force Commander (United States)


    strengths, the United States and DoD knowledge of cyberspace combined with the United States technical prowess and spirit of entrepreneurship provide us...similar to “command of the sea,” translating it to “command of the air.”45 The first to utter this concept, according to David MacIsaac, was British...called for his commanders to “inflict maximum damage on [the] enemy by employing strong attrition tactics,” which, as Morison notes, translated to

  2. Smart command recognizer (SCR) - For development, test, and implementation of speech commands (United States)

    Simpson, Carol A.; Bunnell, John W.; Krones, Robert R.


    The SCR, a rapid prototyping system for the development, testing, and implementation of speech commands in a flight simulator or test aircraft, is described. A single unit performs all functions needed during these three phases of system development, while the use of common software and speech command data structure files greatly reduces the preparation time for successive development phases. As a smart peripheral to a simulation or flight host computer, the SCR interprets the pilot's spoken input and passes command codes to the simulation or flight computer.

  3. [Biological activity of Ungernia victoris extract in the Escherichia coli CaCl2-transformation system in the presence of calcium channel modulators]. (United States)

    Miriuta, A Iu; Pererva, T P


    Furosemid and verapamil appear to have an effect on the yield of E. coli plasmid transformants according to their properties as calcium channel regulators in eukaryotes. It means that furosemid stimulates and verapamil inhibits transforming DNA penetration into competent cell. PHB/Ca2+ polyP complex does not function only as a channel for transforming DNA penetration but appears to be one of the targets for transformation blocking U. victoris extract.

  4. iTOUGH2 Command Reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finsterle, Stefan


    iTOUGH2 is a program for parameter estimation, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty propagation analysis. It is based on the TOUGH2 simulator for non-isothermal multiphase flow in fractured and porous media. This report contains a detailed description of all iTOUGH2 commands.

  5. Commandants' Managerial Capacity and Workers Productivity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the commandant's managerial capacity as if relates to workers productivity with a view to determining whether their calling to the education terrain has been justified and to correct certain areas in need of improvement in the Nigeria Police Education set up. In doing this, the study took ...

  6. Air Command and Control in Small Wars (United States)


    doctrinally established for all types of operations. The Air Force doctrine of centralized control and decentralized execution drives the makeup of C2...organizations were able to provide “continuous combined control of operations” within the operational command posts.77 The beauty of this organizational

  7. Interface Concepts for Command & Control Tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delft, J.H. van; Passenier, P.O.


    This paper addresses new interface concepts for information visualisation and manipulation in Command and Control. These concepts focus on the use of multiple views on the tactical situation to enhance situational awareness and to improve situation assessment. Topics covered include the application

  8. Command, control and communications | Shaw | Scientia Militaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 3 (1980) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Command, control and communications.

  9. On Cyber Warfare Command and Control Systems (United States)


    network defense management system are sometimes used to describe systems that are used for the remote management of firewalls, intrusion detection...different. Certainly, the remote management of firewalls and intrusion detection systems, etc. should be part of a cyber warfare command and control

  10. Command-And-Control or Taxation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, Christina; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard


    an ineffective command-and-control (CAC) tool, whereas Denmark has chosen the effective tool of taxation. One main explanation for this variation in policy choice is the variation in institutional setups, namely the corporatist route in Denmark versus the pluralistic route in California....



    Apollo 11 commander Neil Armstrong is going through flight training in the lunar module simulator situated in the flight crew training building at KSC. Armstrong will pilot the lunar module to a moon landing on July 20, following launch from KSC on July 16.

  12. CSS Teams -- Effective Practice of Mission Command (United States)


    their supporting Standard Army Information Management System and further enhance the practice of mission command. As one Soldier commented, “ VSAT is...communications up and running] and get combat ready faster. During lulls, they can order what they’ll need during the fight. 17 We’re using VSAT

  13. Intelligence: A Personal, Inherent, Function of Command (United States)


    intelligence in general, and DSE !RT STORN in particular-" If one measure6 tbe. ’gap t .r ren comm~anders and intelligence ofticers by what is ~un ii p...intelligence process, or "cycle," is not a rigid procedural checklist , blindly adhered to under all circum- stances; it is simply a description of sequential

  14. Leadership in Command Under the Sea (United States)


    America,” 133 70 Heifetz , Leadership without easy answers, 14 71 Navy Personnel Command, “Community Status Brief,”, 1973. Heifetz , R. A. Leadership without easy answers. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1994. Hinkle, David Randall, Harry Harrison Caldwell

  15. "Enlivening and - Dividing": An Aporia of Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Christian Hönes


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Verdana;} In 1798, Karl August Böttiger paid a nocturnal visit to the Gallery of Antiques in Dresden, illuminating the statues with a torch. At first glance, this seems to be yet another example of a popular practice for visiting galleries c.1800. Illuminating the sculptures by torchlight was a popular means of enlivening the objects, set in motion by the light flickering on their surfaces. The collections were thus meant to become a place where cold, white stone comes to life, and where the beholder becomes part of a revived antiquity.This was precisely what Böttiger intended, too. But to him, the effect of the torchlight appeared to be, as he wrote, “enlivening and – dividing!” The torchlight highlighted not only the beauty of the sculptures but also their modern restorations. Böttiger apparently failed to experience the living presence of the antique celebrated by many of his contemporaries (e.g. Goethe, Moritz.This essay focuses on the consequence of such a perception of sculptures as historically multi-layered objects. Böttiger’s experience resulted in a problematic situation. In trying to view the sculptures as contemporaries, he hoped to become ancient himself. But this operation failed in the moment when the sculptures themselves appeared to be anachronistic, impure palimpsests. In consequence, galleries may not only be the place were art history as chronological Stilgeschichte was born. They may also be the site where this perception changed into the experience of a more chaotic shape of time.

  16. Defense Headquarters: Geographic Combatant Commands Rely on Subordinate Commands for Mission Management and Execution (United States)


    its mission to manage the detention facility at Guantanamo Bay , Cuba to Joint Task Force Guantanamo (JTF-GTMO). However, the extent to which each...unified commands, and joint task forces. For example, U.S. Southern Command has delegated its mission to manage the detention facility at Guantanamo Bay ...facility located at Naval Station Guantanamo Bay , Cuba. • Joint Task Force Bravo, located at Soto Cano Air Base in Honduras, supports regional security

  17. Victorián de Villava, fiscal de Charcas: Reforma de España y nueva moral Imperial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available En las postrimerías del siglo XVIII aparecieron en el seno de la Ilustración hispana distintas propuestas para la reforma y reconfiguración política de la monarquía. La figura de Victorián de Villava, fiscal de la audiencia de Charcas entre 1791 y su muerte en 1802, es especialmente relevante para el estudio de la formación en la Ilustración de España de un pensamiento que trataba de compatibilizar la modernidad y la cultura católica. A través de sus numerosos escritos, Villava fomentó una nueva moral imperial, en la que la colonización comercial se establecía, frente a la pura conquista militar, como aspecto central del gobierno colonial. Así, sus Apuntes para una reforma de España (1797 insertaban la reforma del gobierno americano en un proyecto integral de reforma de la monarquía, y en su Discurso sobre la mita del Potosí (1793 atisbaba el argumento que instaba a reconsiderar el modelo de civilización hispana, y que años más tarde sería reconfigurado en las Cortes de Cádiz para promover la abolición de la mita.

  18. The Victory of Anti-Hitler States in the Second World War. The Lend-lease Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N P Parkhitko


    Full Text Available The article is focused on the economic aspect of military cooperation between the USSR and the western Allies (first of all, with the USA and Great Britain during the period of the WW II. The statistic data of the military equipment, sent to the USSR by the Allies through Lend-Lease is compared to the statistics of the Soviet domestic military production during the Great Patriotic War. Also the material and human losses of the USSR and the Allies are compared. As the result of the comparison the crucial military, political and economical input of the USSR in the Victory of Anti-Hitler states in the Second World War is advocated. The goal is also to eliminate the pseudo-historic attempts of denigrating the role of the Soviet Union in the Second World War and even its struggle in the period of the Great Patriotic War. Such attempts are being intensified in the last decades especially in the western countries and their message, in the opinion of the author, is to downplay the role of our country on the international arena as it tends to be in the political conjuncture of the early XXI century.

  19. Death is Swallowed Up in Victory: Scenes of Death in Early Christian Art and the Emergence of Crucifixion Iconography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Harley McGowan


    Full Text Available Christianity, and the instrument of Jesus’ death, the cross, remains the pivotal, and universally recognised, symbol of the Christian Church. Yet pictorial representations of the death of Jesus are conspicuously rare in the earliest Christian art. Moreover, the earliest surviving images  of Jesus’ Crucifixion do not depict  him dead on the cross, but defiantly alive – a visual interpretation of the event that incorporates both the means of his execution and his subsequent victory over death in the Resurrection. This article examines the iconography of a small ivory plaque, carved in Rome in the early fifth century, whereon the Crucifixion is juxtaposed with the suicide of Jesus’ betrayer, Judas Iscariot (Matthew 27 3:5 to effect a powerful visual interpretation of Jesus’ death. As the earliest surviving visual narration of Jesus’ Crucifixion and Resurrection, the ivory will be shown to preserve critical information regarding the interpretation of Christ’s death in the early Christian church - incorporating symbols and visual motifs from pagan funerary sculpture, while illustrating the development of a specifically Christian visual language for the representation of Jesus’ death.

  20. Death is swallowed up in victory : scenes of death in early Christian art and the emergence of crucifixion iconography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGowan, Felicity Harley


    Full Text Available Christianity, and the instrument of Jesus’ death, the cross, remains the pivotal, and universally recognised, symbol of the Christian Church. Yet pictorial representations of the death of Jesus are conspicuously rare in the earliest Christian art. Moreover, the earliest surviving images of Jesus’ Crucifixion do not depict him dead on the cross, but defiantly alive – a visual interpretation of the event that incorporates both the means of his execution and his subsequent victory over death in the Resurrection. This article examines the iconography of a small ivory plaque, carved in Rome in the early fifth century, whereon the Crucifixion is juxtaposed with the suicide of Jesus’ betrayer, Judas Iscariot (Matthew 27 3:5 to effect a powerful visual interpretation of Jesus’ death. As the earliest surviving visual narration of Jesus’ Crucifixion and Resurrection, the ivory will be shown to preserve critical information regarding the interpretation of Christ’s death in the early Christian church - incorporating symbols and visual motifs from pagan funerary sculpture, while illustrating the development of a specifically Christian visual language for the representation of Jesus’ death.

  1. Digital Divide and Social Media: Connectivity Doesn’t End the Digital Divide, Skills Do


    Radovanovic, Danica


    Whether we like it or not, we live in a very unequal and stratified world. We live in societies in which inequality is ignored in education, science, and in the social media. As Internet technologies are rapidly evolving and new digital divides on the Internet emerge, we must move beyond, at some point, a singular concern over Internet access and technological infrastructure issues. We must tackle socio-cultural differences, we must focus on Internet skills, literacies and social media usage.

  2. Intelligent Tutoring System for Teaching Battlefield Command Reasoning Skills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Domeshek, Eric


    .... Achieving expert levels of proficiency in high-level command reasoning skills-whether for battlefield commanders or for executives in industry-requires extensive practice, coaching, and feedback...

  3. U.S. Africa Command: Shaping Africa for the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sholley, Hans


    .... It is argued the current Unified Command Plan is ill designed to address the complexities of the continent of Africa and that a proposed United States Africa Command would be better positioned...

  4. Development of a generic activities model of command and control


    Stanton, NA; Baber, C; Walker, GH; Houghton, RJ; McMaster, R; Stewart, R.; D.; Harris; Jenkins, DP; Young, MS; Salmon, PM


    This paper reports on five different models of command and control. Four different models are reviewed: a process model, a contextual control model, a decision ladder model and a functional model. Further to this, command and control activities are analysed in three distinct domains: armed forces, emergency services and civilian services. From this analysis, taxonomies of command and control activities are developed that give rise to an activities model of command and control. This model w...

  5. 76 FR 1975 - Disestablishment of United States Joint Forces Command (United States)


    ... Memorandum of January 6, 2011--Disestablishment of United States Joint Forces Command #0; #0; #0... of United States Joint Forces Command Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense Pursuant to my... States Joint Forces Command, effective on a date to be determined by the Secretary of Defense. I direct...

  6. Commande adaptive d'une machine asynchrone


    Slama-Belkhodja, I.; De Fornel, B.


    Cat article décrit une stratégie de commande adaptive indirecte à Placement de Pôles (PP), appliquée à la commande en vitesse d'une machine asynchrone alimentée par un ensemble hacheur-filtre-onduleur de tension. L'algorithme des Moindres Carrés Récursifs (MCR) est utilisé pour l'identification des modèles de comportement type entrées/sorties. Un intérêt particulier est porté à la mise en oeuvre de cet algorithme et à la discussion de ses résultats, tenant compte des erreurs de modélisation e...

  7. Metadata Analysis at the Command-Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Phillips


    Full Text Available Over the past few years the University of North Texas Libraries' Digital Projects Unit (DPU has developed a set of metadata analysis tools, processes, and methodologies aimed at helping to focus limited quality control resources on the areas of the collection where they might have the most benefit. The key to this work lies in its simplicity: records harvested from OAI-PMH-enabled digital repositories are transformed into a format that makes them easily parsable using traditional Unix/Linux-based command-line tools. This article describes the overall methodology, introduces two simple open-source tools developed to help with the aforementioned harvesting and breaking, and provides example commands to demonstrate some common metadata analysis requests. All software tools described in the article are available with an open-source license via the author's GitHub account.

  8. Tools virtualization for command and control systems (United States)

    Piszczek, Marek; Maciejewski, Marcin; Pomianek, Mateusz; Szustakowski, Mieczysław


    Information management is an inseparable part of the command process. The result is that the person making decisions at the command post interacts with data providing devices in various ways. Tools virtualization process can introduce a number of significant modifications in the design of solutions for management and command. The general idea involves replacing physical devices user interface with their digital representation (so-called Virtual instruments). A more advanced level of the systems "digitalization" is to use the mixed reality environments. In solutions using Augmented reality (AR) customized HMI is displayed to the operator when he approaches to each device. Identification of device is done by image recognition of photo codes. Visualization is achieved by (optical) see-through head mounted display (HMD). Control can be done for example by means of a handheld touch panel. Using the immersive virtual environment, the command center can be digitally reconstructed. Workstation requires only VR system (HMD) and access to information network. Operator can interact with devices in such a way as it would perform in real world (for example with the virtual hands). Because of their procedures (an analysis of central vision, eye tracking) MR systems offers another useful feature of reducing requirements for system data throughput. Due to the fact that at the moment we focus on the single device. Experiments carried out using Moverio BT-200 and SteamVR systems and the results of experimental application testing clearly indicate the ability to create a fully functional information system with the use of mixed reality technology.

  9. Coalitions: Organizational, Political, Command & Control Challenges (United States)


    assessment of their evolution with regard to advances in technology. The Command & Control (C2) structure of coalitions is detailed, including decision...assessment of the effects of technology on their evolution . Coalitions with equal and unequal partners are distinguished and their functioning...Gaulle is said to have remarked, “Dans toute association de deux hommes , il y en a toujours un qui se fait porter par l’autre.2” Throughout history

  10. Command and Control for War and Peace (United States)


    losing some of their autonomy -the time when advances in communications technology 17 Li _I COMMAND AND CONTROL FOR WAR AND PF.ACE were strengthening the...balances; Information and action, another, One of the most important-and most sen- sitive-is the balance between control and the com- mander’s autonomy ...89, 9, Cajus Bekker , Angriffshohe 4000 (1964); republished as The Ltuf•wffe War Diaries, trans, Frank Ziegler (New York: Bal- lantine Books, 1966

  11. Command Philosophy: Is It Transportable and Universal? (United States)


    Burt Nanus book, Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge. Of particular note is what Bennis and Nanus have to say about vision, even though they...16. Colonel Michael T. Plummer, "Winning in Command," Military Review, March 1987, p. 80. 17. Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus , Leaders: Strategies for...Garden City Park, NY, 1988, pp. 18-19, 173-174. BIBLIOGRAPHY Bennis , Warren; and Nanus , Burt. Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge. New York: Harper

  12. The Impact of Command Likelihood on Commitment (United States)


    Cincinnati, OH: South-Western, 1979), Appendix Table N. 4 Richard A. Lippa , Introduction to Social PsvcholoQy, (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1990), 243. 5...Huston, New York: Academic Press, 1979. Lippa , Richard A. Introdugcion To Social Psycholocrv. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1990. McNally, Jeffery A. The...command opportunities. 41 Endnotes iLeonard Wong and Richard Bullis, "Downsizing the Army: Two Types of Commitment in the Survivors," Unpub- lished

  13. Command History, 1969. Volume 2. Sanitized (United States)


    performed third and fourth echelon main- tenance. Evacuation of equipment requiring higher echelon maintenance was the reverse of supply distribution...strengths of both systems adopted (See Chapter IV). (C) The VNN Logistcal Support Command was established on 1 Oct. Although key person- rnel had been...was to be reversed . The authorization was passed down to province level againfor the drafting of titles and arranging of transfer ceremonies. (U) As

  14. Naval command and control for future UAVs


    Majewski, Stephen E.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The primary purpose of this thesis is to examine the requirements of naval command and control for future Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and to propose solutions for current limitations. Currently, UAVs co-exist as a collection of independent systems that have poor interoperability and limited functionality beyond strategic reconnaissance. As UAVs mature, they will increasingly be deployed at the unit level and employed tactically, inc...

  15. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance (United States)


    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  16. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit (United States)


    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  17. How Technology and Data Affect Mission Command (United States)


    simply transition stand- alone legacy systems to web-based platforms and integrate those pro - grams as applications on common How Technology and Data...initiative within the commander’s intent to empower ag- ile and adaptive leaders in the con - duct of unified land operations.” This first part is...synchronize actions across all war- fighting functions in time and space to support the decision cycle of the commander. Technology supports and

  18. Commanders’ Perception of Risk: Enabling Boldness (United States)


    Concerning temperament, even in the epic wars of our past, commanders who were well known to countenance high losses to accomplish the mission were...constantly recalls epic battles won at hard cost is less likely to balk at present hardships. However, this association with the past also 12 engenders...go home and write poetry . He learned the art of glass blowing because it seemed interesting and built a computer with only a magazine as his guide

  19. A Wide-Band CMOS Injection Locked Frequency Divider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acar, M.; Leenaerts, Domine; Nauta, Bram

    In this paper we propose a novel inductorless injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) that can make divisions with ratios 2,4,6 and 8 with wide locking ranges. Fabricated in a digital 0.18 μm CMOS process the divider can operate up to 15 GHz. The measured locking ranges of the divider for division

  20. Bridging the digital divide: with special reference to Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the digital divide in Africa with special reference to Nigeria. It presents the causes of digital divided such as; the general poor economic conditions in Africa; local content; telecommunications constraints; lack of investment in ICT infrastructure, etc. Benefits derivable from bridging the digital divide such ...

  1. The digital divide as a complex and dynamic phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Hacker, Kenneth


    The purpose of this article is to propose a fruitful analytical framework for data supposedly related to the concept of the socalled “digital divide.” The extent and the nature of this divide depend on the kind of access defined. Considering the possession of hardware, growing divides among

  2. A smooth multimode waveform command shaping control with selectable command length (United States)

    Masoud, Ziyad N.; Alhazza, Khaled A.


    Input and command shapers are great open-loop control strategies in reducing residual vibration in rest-to-rest maneuvers. The generation of such command usually contains multiple impulses and jerks. Multiple impulses usually degrade the performance due to actuation delay and mismatch timing while jerks reduce the life expectancy of actuator and increase maintenance. In this work, a smooth single multimode command shaping control is proposed and tested numerically and experimentally to eliminate residual vibration in rest-to-rest maneuvers. The advantages of the technique are summarized as, the proposed technique has an adjustable maneuvering time, can eliminate all vibration modes regardless of the number, the required parameters are found analytically which eliminate the need of complex or lengthy calculation needed for most multimode shaper, smooth command profile to eliminate jerks i.e. inrush current, and it is continuous with single actuation to eliminate inaccurate timing and delay. The technique performance is validated numerically and experimentally. Numerical simulations prove that the shaped commands are capable of completely eliminating residual vibrations of multimode systems. Furthermore, the proposed technique is utilized to reduce the sensitivity of the shaper to modeling errors. Unlike other shaper the proposed reduction in the sensitivity can be implemented for all modes with no added complexity.

  3. The Attack on the American Embassy during Tet, 1968: Factors That Turned a Tactical Victory into a Political Defeat (United States)


    ban on fireworks was rescinded. Brigadier General Albin F. Irzyk, Saigon Headquarters Area Commander, stated in his book Unsung Heroes: Saving...building) and a dog run. The Norodom Compound was where the day-to-day consular work, such as granting visas, was accomplished. The combined chancery and...Viet Cong guerrilla on the west side of the compound in the map room. They followed a blood trail from the dog 70 run, where the guerrilla had

  4. Leadership and Command on the Battlefield. Operation JUST CAUSE and DESERT STORM (United States)


    Ladership and Command on the Bautlkfield The command sergeant major was a key player in assisting the commander on the battlefield. Most commanders had... Ladership and Command on the Battlfield Battlefield leadership incorporates more than rehearsals, commander’s intent, briefbacks, position on the

  5. 24 Command Fire Improvement Action Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Fluor Hanford (FH) is responsible for providing support to the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (RL) in the implementation of the Hanford Emergency Preparedness (EP) program. During fiscal year 2000, a number of program improvements were identified from various sources including a major range fire (24 Command Fire). Evaluations of the emergency preparedness program have confirmed that it currently meets all requirements and that performance of personnel involved is good, however the desire to effect continuous improvement resulted in the development of this improvement program plan. This program plan defines the activities that will be performed in order to achieve the desired performance improvements.

  6. Spaceport Command and Control System Automated Testing (United States)

    Stein, Meriel


    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) launch control system for the Orion capsule and Space Launch System, the next generation manned rocket currently in development. This large system requires high quality testing that will properly measure the capabilities of the system. Automating the test procedures would save the project time and money. Therefore, the Electrical Engineering Division at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has recruited interns for the past two years to work alongside full-time engineers to develop these automated tests, as well as innovate upon the current automation process.

  7. Spaceport Command and Control System Automation Testing (United States)

    Plano, Tom


    The goal of automated testing is to create and maintain a cohesive infrastructure of robust tests that could be run independently on a software package in its entirety. To that end, the Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has brought in a large group of interns to work side-by-side with full time employees to do just this work. Thus, our job is to implement the tests that will put SCCS through its paces.

  8. Apollo command module land impact tests (United States)

    Mccullough, J. E.; Lands, J. F., Jr.


    Full-scale-model and actual spacecraft were impact tested to define the emergency land-landing capability of the Apollo command module. Structural accelerations and strains were recorded on analog instrumentation, and a summary to these data is included. The landing kinematics were obtained from high-speed photography. Photographs of the structural damage caused during the tests are included. Even though extensive damage can be expected, the crew will receive nothing more than minor injuries during the majority of the probable landing conditions.

  9. Command and Control: The Literature and Commentaries (United States)


    to apply them efficiently and eftcclivoly, or to prevent then) fronm firing on each other, At the strategic level, failure in command and control may...Collinwid (i/id Mir V21 VOper’ational decisions, about how to act. The three C Sess ions5 thatI flol lowv this one I will explot re each of HIC ies three...the career of a British Army officer, including duty as a general officer during tale First World War.] Marshall, Samuel Lyman Atweed. Men Against Fire

  10. In Search of Command and Staff Doctrine. (United States)


    something else. % R0 .6 42 In a short but ccnpelling ccmpanion dissenting opinion, Judge Lewis asked in the Socratic fashion what was A’s job after he...main theme of Nye’s superb book is that good commanders are good readers.) 15. Query whether Socrates ’ question applies: "How can a man understand of anything, when he does not know the nature of it?" Plato , "Theaetetus," The Dialogues of Plato , in 7 Great Books of the Western World 515

  11. The Battalion Commander’s Handbook 1984 (United States)


    I want my men to* *talk to their counterparts frequently even if only to chat about the weather. That way, when a problem needs to be ironed out, a...should I fail. I have seen the face of terror, felt the stinging • cold of fear; and enjoyed the sweet taste of a moment’s love. I have cried , pained...them and the company commanders. Quickly stamp out any "we-they" syndrome . * Make them pull their fair share of the load in headquarters company

  12. Command/response protocols and concurrent software (United States)

    Bynum, W. L.


    A version of the program to control the parallel jaw gripper is documented. The parallel jaw end-effector hardware and the Intel 8031 processor that is used to control the end-effector are briefly described. A general overview of the controller program is given and a complete description of the program's structure and design are contained. There are three appendices: a memory map of the on-chip RAM, a cross-reference listing of the self-scheduling routines, and a summary of the top-level and monitor commands.

  13. Data compression for command and control (United States)

    Litow, Bruce


    Software, both source and executable versions, designed using LR parser generator technology offers superior data compression characteristics both with respect to the compression ratio, which is essentially optimal, and computational resources efficiency. Ten-fold compression should make possible highly sophisticated command and control systems for use during a space mission, on route and at the target. Carrying source in compressed form on manned missions will mean that significant modifications and even redesign of large systems can be accomplished. Basic aspects of this compression scheme are described in the paper.

  14. The role of meteorological conditions and pollution control strategies in reducing air pollution in Beijing during APEC 2014 and Victory Parade 2015 (United States)

    Liang, Pengfei; Zhu, Tong; Fang, Yanhua; Li, Yingruo; Han, Yiqun; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min; Wang, Junxia


    To control severe air pollution in China, comprehensive pollution control strategies have been implemented throughout the country in recent years. To evaluate the effectiveness of these strategies, the influence of meteorological conditions on levels of air pollution needs to be determined. Using the intensive air pollution control strategies implemented during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum in 2014 (APEC 2014) and the 2015 China Victory Day Parade (Victory Parade 2015) as examples, we estimated the role of meteorological conditions and pollution control strategies in reducing air pollution levels in Beijing. Atmospheric particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) samples were collected and gaseous pollutants (SO2, NO, NOx, and O3) were measured online at a site in Peking University (PKU). To determine the influence of meteorological conditions on the levels of air pollution, we first compared the air pollutant concentrations during days with stable meteorological conditions. However, there were few days with stable meteorological conditions during the Victory Parade. As such, we were unable to estimate the level of emission reduction efforts during this period. Finally, a generalized linear regression model (GLM) based only on meteorological parameters was built to predict air pollutant concentrations, which could explain more than 70 % of the variation in air pollutant concentration levels, after incorporating the nonlinear relationships between certain meteorological parameters and the concentrations of air pollutants. Evaluation of the GLM performance revealed that the GLM, even based only on meteorological parameters, could be satisfactory to estimate the contribution of meteorological conditions in reducing air pollution and, hence, the contribution of control strategies in reducing air pollution. Using the GLM, we found that the meteorological conditions and pollution control strategies contributed 30 and 28 % to the reduction


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper describes and analyzes the course of the recent negotiations between the Colombian Government and the FARC guerrilla: its historical background that led to the first version of the agreement, its plebiscite procedure, the victory of the “No” and the proposals for modification, to the New version of the peace agreement. From a case of study method and different theoretical approaches, the document analyzes the contributions of different social movements to solidify a better peace agreement and the persistent challenges in its implementation.

  16. Command Disaggregation Attack and Mitigation in Industrial Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xun


    Full Text Available A cyber-physical attack in the industrial Internet of Things can cause severe damage to physical system. In this paper, we focus on the command disaggregation attack, wherein attackers modify disaggregated commands by intruding command aggregators like programmable logic controllers, and then maliciously manipulate the physical process. It is necessary to investigate these attacks, analyze their impact on the physical process, and seek effective detection mechanisms. We depict two different types of command disaggregation attack modes: (1 the command sequence is disordered and (2 disaggregated sub-commands are allocated to wrong actuators. We describe three attack models to implement these modes with going undetected by existing detection methods. A novel and effective framework is provided to detect command disaggregation attacks. The framework utilizes the correlations among two-tier command sequences, including commands from the output of central controller and sub-commands from the input of actuators, to detect attacks before disruptions occur. We have designed components of the framework and explain how to mine and use these correlations to detect attacks. We present two case studies to validate different levels of impact from various attack models and the effectiveness of the detection framework. Finally, we discuss how to enhance the detection framework.

  17. Command Disaggregation Attack and Mitigation in Industrial Internet of Things. (United States)

    Xun, Peng; Zhu, Pei-Dong; Hu, Yi-Fan; Cui, Peng-Shuai; Zhang, Yan


    A cyber-physical attack in the industrial Internet of Things can cause severe damage to physical system. In this paper, we focus on the command disaggregation attack, wherein attackers modify disaggregated commands by intruding command aggregators like programmable logic controllers, and then maliciously manipulate the physical process. It is necessary to investigate these attacks, analyze their impact on the physical process, and seek effective detection mechanisms. We depict two different types of command disaggregation attack modes: (1) the command sequence is disordered and (2) disaggregated sub-commands are allocated to wrong actuators. We describe three attack models to implement these modes with going undetected by existing detection methods. A novel and effective framework is provided to detect command disaggregation attacks. The framework utilizes the correlations among two-tier command sequences, including commands from the output of central controller and sub-commands from the input of actuators, to detect attacks before disruptions occur. We have designed components of the framework and explain how to mine and use these correlations to detect attacks. We present two case studies to validate different levels of impact from various attack models and the effectiveness of the detection framework. Finally, we discuss how to enhance the detection framework.

  18. An Analysis of Special Operations Command - South’s Distributive Command and Control Concept (United States)


    Special Ops aviation unit traverses Bermuda Triangle en route to new home”, News Service Release Number 03082525 (August 2003),, 2007). U.S. Army Special Operations Command. “Special Ops Aviation Unit Traverses Bermuda Triangle En Route to New Home.” News Service Release

  19. On Command: An Illustrative Study of Command and Control in the Army of Northern Virginia, 1863. (United States)


    flowing behind him, came jangling up and vaulted quickly off his horse to join Lee and Jackson. He brought electrifying news. "Fitz" Lee, one of intellectual gymnastics . It is, rather, at the heart of the question of Lee’s poor command and control, for if he was, as it seems, unsure of what

  20. Mission Command in an Age of Persistent Conflict: Historical And Theoretical Approaches to Developing Mission Command (United States)


    Egyptians, Yigal Allon, was the archetypical IDF commander who embodied the approach to operations that the Haganah and Palmach trained so expertly...2011): 288. 31 Ibid., 288. 32 Littlejohn, Theories of Human Communication, 3. 33 Franklin Fearing, “Toward a Psychological Theory of Human

  1. Snca and Bdnf gene expression in the VTA and raphe nuclei of midbrain in chronically victorious and defeated male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia N Kudryavtseva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alpha-synuclein (α-Syn is a small neuronal protein that has been found to be expressed throughout the brain. It has been shown that α-Syn regulates the homeostasis of monoamine neurotransmitters and is involved in various degenerative and affective disorders. There is indication that α-Syn may regulate expression of the brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF which plays an important role in the mood disorders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study aimed to analyze the mRNA levels of Snca and Bdnf genes in the ventral tegmental area (VTA and raphe nuclei of the midbrain in male mice that had each won or defeated 20 encounters (20-time winners and 20-time losers, respectively in daily agonistic interactions. Groups of animals that had the same winning and losing track record followed by a no-fight period for 14 days (no-fighting winners and no-fighting losers were also studied. Snca mRNA levels were increased in the raphe nuclei in the 20-time losers and in the VTA of the 20-time winners. After no-fight period Snca mRNA levels decreased in both groups. Snca mRNA levels were similar to the control level in the VTA of the 20-time losers and in the raphe nuclei of the 20-time winners. However Snca gene expression increased in these areas in the no-fighting winners and no-fighting losers in comparison with respective mRNA levels in animals before no-fight period. Bdnf mRNA levels increased in VTA of 20-time winners. Significant positive correlations were found between the mRNA levels of Snca and Bdnf genes in the raphe nuclei. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Social experience affects Snca gene expression depending on brain areas and functional activity of monoaminergic systems in chronically victorious or defeated mice. These findings may be useful for understanding the mechanisms of forming different alpha-synucleinopathies.

  2. The Anthrax Vaccine Debate: A Medical Review for Commanders (United States)


    confidence at all levels of the chain of command. The anthrax vaccine debate should not be used as a test of leadership . 5 - DoD should continue...THE ANTHRAX VACCINE DEBATE : A MEDICAL REVIEW FOR COMMANDERS by Richard A. Hersack, Col, USAF, MC, CFS The Counterproliferation Papers Future...Report Date 01APR2001 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle The Anthrax Vaccine Debate : A Medical Review for Commanders

  3. Command and Control Across Space and Cyberspace Domains (United States)


    control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) on the Expeditionary Strike Group SEVEN ( ESG 7) staff. Ashore, Parish served as...groups ( ESGs ) operate in all five domains. The strike group commander has command and control at the operational level and delegates command and...the plug” on space or cyberspace services. The ESG example is just one of many. Maj Gen Zabel used the ICBM example to highlight C2 challenges and

  4. XTCE: XML Telemetry and Command Exchange Tutorial, XTCE Version 1 (United States)

    Rice, Kevin; Kizzort, Brad


    These presentation slides are a tutorial on XML Telemetry and Command Exchange (XTCE). The goal of XTCE is to provide an industry standard mechanism for describing telemetry and command streams (particularly from satellites.) it wiill lower cost and increase validation over traditional formats, and support exchange or native format.XCTE is designed to describe bit streams, that are typical of telemetry and command in the historic space domain.

  5. A Command Language Processor for Flexible Interface Design (United States)


    33 Service Description 34 Introduction to Multiple Langauge Forms Service Functional Module Specification Contexts 35 34 35 v...framework for expressing the syntactic and semantic structure of a computer language. The CLP’s dialogue grammar has as its domain an entire terminal...collection of commands. The domain of the command language designer includes only the design of individual commands. The language designer has no

  6. Defining Command, Leadership, and Management Success Factors Within Stability Operations (United States)


    OPERATIONS So far, pure definitions of command, leadership , and management have been presented, but we have not explored at what levels these ways of getting...PKSOI Papers DEFINING COMMAND, LEADERSHIP , AND MANAGEMENT SUCCESS FACTORS WITHIN STABILITY OPERATIONS Dave Fielder Visit our website for other...00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defining Command, Leadership , and Management Success Factors Within Stability Operations 5a

  7. Commander's Decision Aid for Predictive Battlespace Awareness (CDA4PBA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calhoun, Christopher S; Fitzhugh, Elisabeth W; Klinger, David W


    ...), was to develop and demonstrate human-centered decision-making technologies to improve processes, performance, tools, and training to support a commander's predictive battlespace awareness ability...

  8. Contractor Support on the Battlefield -- Increased Reliance Requires Commander's Attention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maloney, Kathy J


    .... Department of Defense initiatives to adopt a leaner business strategy, increase efficiency, and reduce expenditures have exposed the battlefield commander to additional operational risk centered...

  9. Distress, omnipotence, and responsibility beliefs in command hallucinations. (United States)

    Ellett, Lyn; Luzon, Olga; Birchwood, Max; Abbas, Zarina; Harris, Abi; Chadwick, Paul


    Command hallucinations are considered to be one of the most distressing and disturbing symptoms of schizophrenia. Building on earlier studies, we compare key attributes in the symptomatic, affective, and cognitive profiles of people diagnosed with schizophrenia and hearing voices that do (n = 77) or do not (n = 74) give commands. The study employed a cross-sectional design, in which we assessed voice severity, distress and control (PSYRATs), anxiety and depression (HADS), beliefs about voices (BAVQ-R), and responsibility beliefs (RIQ). Clinical and demographic variables were also collected. Command hallucinations were found to be more distressing and controlling, perceived as more omnipotent and malevolent, linked to higher anxiety and depression, and resisted more than hallucinations without commands. Commanding voices were also associated with higher conviction ratings for being personally responsible for preventing harm. The findings suggest key differences in the affective and cognitive profiles of people who hear commanding voices, which have important implications for theory and psychological interventions. Command hallucinations are associated with higher distress, malevolence, and omnipotence. Command hallucinations are associated with higher responsibility beliefs for preventing harm. Responsibility beliefs are associated with voice-related distress. Future psychological interventions for command hallucinations might benefit from focussing not only on omnipotence, but also on responsibility beliefs, as is done in psychological therapies for obsessive compulsive disorder. Limitations The cross-sectional design does not assess issues of causality. We did not measure the presence or severity of delusions. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  10. 37 CFR 2.87 - Dividing an application. (United States)


    .... (1) When the International Bureau of the World Intellectual Property Organization notifies the Office... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Classification § 2.87 Dividing an application. (a... accordance with paragraph (d) of this section. (b) Fee. In the case of a request to divide out one or more...

  11. The Digital Divide and University Education Systems in Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the concept of the digital divide, how the divide can relegate Africa to the background and how a transformed tertiary educational system can help to minimise the bridge between the information-rich countries of the North and the information-poor African countries. It is argued that if the barriers to ...

  12. Digital Natives and Digital Divide: Analysing Perspective for Emerging Pedagogy (United States)

    Onye, Uriel U.; Du, Yunfei


    This paper addresses the concepts of digital natives and digital divide from the perspective of the digital outsiders (part of digital natives). It takes a critical look at the implications of available ICT in both developed and underdeveloped countries in the fight against digital divide. The major contribution to literature is by drawing…

  13. 7 CFR 800.163 - Divided-lot certificates. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Divided-lot certificates. 800.163 Section 800.163... Certificates § 800.163 Divided-lot certificates. (a) General. When shiplot grain is offered for inspection or Class X weighing as a single lot and is certificated as a single lot, the applicant may exchange the...

  14. 7 CFR 868.74 - Divided-lot certificates. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Divided-lot certificates. 868.74 Section 868.74... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Regulations Official Certificates § 868.74 Divided-lot certificates. (a) General. When commodities are offered for inspection and are certificated as a single lot...

  15. Collins named First Woman Shuttle Commander (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Just a few hours after NASA revealed that there is water ice on the Moon, U.S. First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton introduced Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Eileen Collins to a packed auditorium at Dunbar Senior High School in Washington, D.C., as the first woman who will command a NASA space shuttle mission. With students at this school, which is noted for its pre-engineering program, cheering, Clinton said that Collins' selection “is one big step forward for women and one giant step for humanity.” Clinton added, “It doesn't matter if you are a boy or a girl, you can be an astronaut or a pilot, if you get a first-rate education in math and science.”

  16. The Arecibo Remote Command Center Network (United States)

    Crawford, Fronefield; Jenet, Fredrick; Christy, Brian; Dolch, Timothy; Guerreo-Miller, Alma; Quetschke, Volker; Siemens, Xavier; Smith, Tristan L.; Stovall, Kevin; Wade, Leslie; Wade, Madeline


    The Arecibo Remote Command Center (ARCC) network is an education, research, and training program for undergraduates, graduate students, and postdocs spanning multiple institutions. ARCC members use the Arecibo 305-m radio telescope to remotely conduct pulsar survey and timing observations, and they search the data collected to find new radio pulsars using a custom pulsar candidate viewer. Timing data are used in the ongoing NANOGrav search for gravitational waves using pulsar timing arrays. The ARCC program also serves as an effective introduction for students to radio pulsar research. Currently ARCC has seven institutional members and dozens of participants. Our poster provides some general background about the ARCC program at Franklin and Marshall College and serves as a catalyst for in-person conversations and discussions about ARCC, including the benefits of joining the ARCC network and some specifics on how to join.

  17. The Arecibo Remote Command Center Program (United States)

    Crawford, Fronefield; Jenet, Fredrick; Siemens, Xavier; Dolch, Timothy; Stovall, Kevin


    The Arecibo Remote Command Center (ARCC) is a multi-institution research and education program that introduces undergraduates to the field of pulsar research. Specifically, the program trains students to work in small teams to operate several of the world's largest radio telescopes (both Arecibo and the Green Bank Telescope). Students conduct survey observations for the PALFA Galactic plane pulsar survey and conduct timing observations of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) for the NANOGrav search for gravitational waves using these telescopes. In addition, ARCC students search pulsar candidates generated from processed survey data in order to find both new radio MSPs and non-recycled pulsars. The ARCC program currently operates at four U.S. institutions and involves more than 50 undergraduate students each year. To date, ARCC students have discovered 64 new pulsars in this program.

  18. [Design of broadband power divider in microwave hyperthermia system]. (United States)

    Sun, Bing; Jiang, Guotai; Lu, Xiaofeng; Cao, Yi


    In clinical application of microwave hyperthermia, multi-applicators are often simultaneously required to irradiate the tumor because of its large volume or its deep location. Power divider separates the input microwave energy into equal, or unequal, energy to each applicator. In this paper, the design procedure for the three-section transmission-line transformer based one-to-two equal-split Wilkinson power divider is introduced. By impedance analysis on equivalent scheme, the design parameter of power divider is provided, and by simulation and optimization on Ansoft HFSS, a microstrip structure Wilkinson power divider operating frequency 2. 45 GHz is given. Measurement test results from network analyzer show that it has 25% bandwidth and good isolation in output with this structure. Besides, it is characterized by small size and easy processing. This power divider suits microwave hyperthermia.

  19. What price victory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leopold Scholtz


    Apr 1, 2017 ... the airport of Baghdad, but also to seize oilfields, dams and banned weapons. The south-east of Iraq, ..... Julian Coman: “Paras will make lightning assault on Baghdad airport” (The. Telegraph, 9.3.2003); ...... the effect of the cluster bombs was even greater, because they covered a larger area.” Khalidi told ...

  20. A cockroach for victory

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    From 1 – 5 July, CERN had the pleasure of welcoming Céline, Fanny and Ophélia, the three winners of the special EIROforum prize donated by CERN in the EU Competition for Young Scientists 2012 (EUCYS). Between visits to the installations and meetings, the young French women had a memorable week.   Fanny Risbourg, Ophélia Bolmin and Céline Lay (from left to right), alongside their CERN guide, Marc Goulette. The rules of EUCYS, organised by the EU since 1989, require all candidates to have first won a scientific prize in their own country. That’s easily said… and done for these young scientists, who have won two! After coming first in France’s Engineering Science Olympiad in 2011, they then took home the top prize in the C. Génial competition the following year. “It all started three years ago, with our travaux personnels encadrés (supervised project),” Fanny explained...

  1. Command Structure for Theater Warfare: The Quest for Unity of Command (United States)


    managership ot airpowet under the an component commander isdcnm! liom experience and history In North Attica m 1442 to I’M*. American airmen...easy decision. The Navy and Marine Corps viewed single managership of air assets difterently than the Army and the Air Force. We made some false starts...The Marine Corps contended that the ground war should determine the airstrikes and that single managership would force them to increase their staff

  2. Mission Command and Antiaccess/Area-Denial: Implications for Joint Command and Control (United States)


    ballistic missile are contributing to this perception. 5 This deployment however, still does not answer basic questions of whether the technology in...intensity AA/AD problem a centralized national priority. Mission Command is not Enough Van Creveld argues that "from Plato to NATO, the history of...such as who has the best information, who has the most robust communication capability, and at what level risk decisions are made all contribute to

  3. The Unified Command Plan and Combatant Commands: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    along with the Indian Ocean islands of Comoros, Madagascar , Mauritius, and Seychelles. U.S. Central Command maintains its traditional relationship...Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, and the waters around Central and South America extending into the Pacific to the Galapagos Island . Marine Corps Forces U.S...responsible for U.S. military relations with 54 African countries including the islands of Cape Verde, Equatorial Guinea, and Sao Tome and Principe

  4. 14 CFR 91.531 - Second in command requirements. (United States)


    ...-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.531 Second in command...-powered multiengine airplane for which two pilots are required under the type certification requirements... the qualifications for second in command prescribed in § 61.55 of this chapter. (d) No person may...

  5. U.S. Northern Command Counterterrorism Response Force Requirement (United States)


    Response ......................................................................................................... 48 Dedicated Air and Sustainment ...bombers struck near the Stade de France in Saint-Denis, followed by suicide bombings and mass shootings at cafes, restaurants , and the Bataclan Concert...deploying within the United Sates with organic command and control, air, and sustainment for a catastrophic event. Serving as the combatant command

  6. Turn-based gaming for convoy commander training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp, R.C.; Muller, T.J.; Vrijer, J.C. de


    With the increasing complexity of current-day military operations, effective education and training of military commanders is of vital importance. Commanders need to perform within a broader range of conflicts; unpredictable threats and civil-military interaction place a great demand on their

  7. The impact of new technologies on shipboard command and control


    Oats, Trey D.; Erickson, Matthew C.


    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited An investigation of how fuel cells, an integrated power system, and directed energy weapons will affect the shipboard command and control process. The focus is on the implementation of the new technologies onboard near-term and far-term destroyer variants and the resulting changes to the command and control process. Ensign, United States Naval Reserve

  8. Land impact test of the Apollo Command Module at MSC (United States)


    Technicians and engineers gather to monitor a land impact test of the Apollo Command Module (Airframe 009) in a test area at Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). In this view, the Command Module test vehicle is released from the tower to fall to the ground.

  9. Program Funding Guide for Air Force Systems Command Space Programs (United States)


    Robert O’Shaughnessy, USN. My special thanks are also due Major Lawrence J. Hildebrand, Headquarters, Air Force Systems Command/ SDSD , for providing in...and Engineering. Washington, D.C., May 1974. 14. Hildebrand, Lawrence J., MAJ USAF., Interview conducted at Air Force Systems Command, AFSC/ SDSD . 12 August 1975. C-2 I

  10. 32 CFR 761.9 - Entry Control Commanders. (United States)


    ... Guantanamo Bay Naval Defensive Sea Area and the Guantanamo Naval Airspace Reservation. (This authority delegated to Commander U.S. Naval Base, Guantanamo Bay.) (e) Commander U.S. Naval Base, Guantanamo Bay. Authorization for all persons, ships, and aircraft to enter the Guantanamo Bay Naval Defensive Sea Area and the...

  11. Apollo 9 Command/Service Modules photographed from Lunar Module (United States)


    The Apollo 9 Command/Service Modules photographed from the Lunar Module, 'Spider', on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. Docking mechanism is visible in nose of the Command Module, 'Gumdrop'. Object jutting out from the Service Module aft bulkhead is the high-gain S-Band antenna.

  12. Benefits Of Mission Command: Balance Of Philosophy And System (United States)


    entered the US Army vocabulary in Field Manual (FM) 6-0 in August 2003 under “the premise that commanders exercise C2 (command and control) over...of its kind since World War II. On September 11, 2001, terrorists used commercial airliners as bombs to attack the World Trade Center in New York

  13. 32 CFR 536.7 - Responsibilities of the Commander USARCS. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Responsibilities of the Commander USARCS. 536.7... ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.7 Responsibilities of the Commander...) geographic areas of claims responsibility. (g) Recommend action to be taken by the SA, TJAG or the U.S...

  14. The digital divide as a complex and dynamic phenomenon


    van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Hacker, Kenneth


    The purpose of this article is to propose a fruitful analytical framework for data supposedly related to the concept of the socalled “digital divide.” The extent and the nature of this divide depend on the kind of access defined. Considering the possession of hardware, growing divides among different categories of income, employment, education, age, and ethnicity can be proved to have existed in the 1980s and 1990s according to official American and Dutch statistics. If only by effects of sat...

  15. Impact of usability on efforts to bridge the digital divide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adebesin, F


    Full Text Available to Bridge the Digital Divide Funmi Adebesin Meraka Institute of the CSIR and School of Computing, UNISA P.O. Box 395 Pretoria, 0001, South Africa Paula Kotzé Meraka Institute of the CSIR and School of Computing, UNISA P.O. Box.... To address the problem, international and national initiatives are ongoing to provide access to technologies with the aim of bridging the digital divide. Many of the efforts to narrow the divide have been concerned with the provision of physical...

  16. Annan warns of 'content divide' between rich and poor

    CERN Multimedia

    Dickson, D


    "The Secretary-General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan, warned today (10 December) that a "content divide" is threatening to deprive developing countries of the full benefits offered by information and communications technologies (ICTs)" (1 page)

  17. Methane Isotopes from the WAIS Divide Ice Core, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes methane (CH4) isotope data from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide ice core, WDC05A, in Antarctica. The data include depth, gas age,...

  18. The information divide: publishing and access issues | Baker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    information as commodity\\". Some global and local developments in information access and the Open Access movement are highlighted, and the National Library of South Africa\\'s interim strategies to bridge the information and digital divide are identified ...

  19. Continental Divide of the United States - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the Continental Divide of the United States. The map layer was created by extracting Hydrologic Unit Boundary line features from an existing...

  20. Divided attention: an undesirable difficulty in memory retention. (United States)

    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Ruthruff, Eric; Pashler, Harold


    How can we improve memory retention? A large body of research has suggested that difficulty encountered during learning, such as when practice sessions are distributed rather than massed, can enhance later memory performance (see R. A. Bjork & E. L. Bjork, 1992). Here, we investigated whether divided attention during retrieval practice can also constitute a desirable difficulty. Following two initial study phases and one test phase with Swahili-English word pairs (e.g., vuvi-snake), we manipulated whether items were tested again under full or divided attention. Two days later, participants were brought back for a final cued-recall test (e.g., vuvi-?). Across three experiments (combined N = 122), we found no evidence that dividing attention while practicing retrieval enhances memory retention. This finding raises the question of why many types of difficulty during practice do improve long-term retention, but dividing attention does not.

  1. Divide-and-conquer approach for the exemplar breakpoint distance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nguyen, C Thach; Tay, Y C; Zhang, Louxin


    .... Unfortunately, the problem is NP-hard even for the breakpoint distance. This paper proposes a divide-and-conquer approach for calculating the exemplar breakpoint distance between two genomes with multiple gene families...

  2. Justifying the Classical-Quantum Divide of the Copenhagen Interpretation


    Bolotin, Arkady


    Perhaps the most significant drawback, which the Copenhagen interpretation (still the most popular interpretation of quantum theory) suffers from, is the classical-quantum divide between the large classical systems that carry out measurements and the small quantum systems that they measure. So, an "ideal" alternative interpretation of quantum theory would either eliminate this divide or justify it in some reasonable way. The present paper demonstrates that it is possible to justify the classi...

  3. The road to sustainability must bridge three great divides. (United States)

    Aronson, James; Blignaut, James N; de Groot, Rudolf S; Clewell, Andre; Lowry, Porter P; Woodworth, Paddy; Cowling, Richard M; Renison, Daniel; Farley, Joshua; Fontaine, Christelle; Tongway, David; Levy, Samuel; Milton, Suzanne J; Rangel, Orlando; Debrincat, Bev; Birkinshaw, Chris


    The world's large and rapidly growing human population is exhausting Earth's natural capital at ever-faster rates, and yet appears mostly oblivious to the fact that these resources are limited. This is dangerous for our well-being and perhaps for our survival, as documented by numerous studies over many years. Why are we not moving instead toward sustainable levels of use? We argue here that this disconnection between our knowledge and our actions is largely caused by three "great divides": an ideological divide between economists and ecologists; an economic development divide between the rich and the poor; and an information divide, which obstructs communications between scientists, public opinion, and policy makers. These divides prevent our economies from responding effectively to urgent signals of environmental and ecological stress. The restoration of natural capital (RNC) can be an important strategy in bridging all of these divides. RNC projects and programs make explicit the multiple and mutually reinforcing linkages between environmental and economic well-being, while opening up a promising policy road in the search for a sustainable and desirable future for global society. The bridge-building capacity of RNC derives from its double focus: on the ecological restoration of degraded, overexploited natural ecosystems, and on the full socio-economic and ecological interface between people and their environments.

  4. Coalition command and control: a Canadian perspective (United States)

    Charpentier, Robert; Demers, David; Gouin, Denis; McCann, Carol; Nourry, Gerard; Pigeau, Ross; Smith, Donald L.; Vezina, Guy; Walker, Robert S.


    Canada has been, and remains, committed to participating in coalition operations to promote peace and stability in the post-Cold War world. However, coalition operations challenge traditional command and control concepts, from both the technological and the human perspectives. In the short term, Canada is working closely with traditional NATO and ABCA allies to ensure that the next generation of automated C2 information systems are able to exchange information effectively through structured messages, gateways and standardized data models. Canada is also conducting R&D, and participating in collaborative experiments, to evolve the next generation of systems to permit richer, more dynamic information sharing, along the lines of the Internet and World Wide Web. However, information technology alone will not solve the problems of coalition operations. Research needs to be undertaken to understand task assignment and information flow among coalition partners at the process or operational level. Research is also required at the human level, where differences between coalition partners in culture, personal values, military expectations, religions, and societal values are proving to be less tractable than differences in message formats and communication protocols.

  5. Following a Military Defeat of ISIS in Syria and Iraq: What Happens Next after the Military Victory and the Return of Foreign Fighters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Speckhard


    Full Text Available In the struggle against ISIS and the so-called Islamic State, the United States and its allies continue to achieve significant military victories, as evidenced by the ongoing efforts to liberate the city of Mosul in Iraq. What happens next with the returning or migrating foreign fighters and with whatever remains of ISIS’ influence in the digital battle space where up to this point it has been winning? Evidence of the group inspiring, remotely recruiting and directing attacks in Europe and elsewhere, and its continued ability to attract foreign fighters to the actual battlefield makes it clear that ISIS may be losing the ground war in Syria and Iraq but winning in the other areas, especially in the digital battle space. The authors highlight the importance of creating compelling counter-narratives and products that compete with the prolific ISIS online campaigns.

  6. [The Triumph of "Stupidity" : Deep Blue`s Victory over Garri Kasparov. The Controversy about its Impact on Artficial Intelligence Research]. (United States)

    Heßler, Martina


    The competition between the chess computer Deep Blue and the former chess world champion Garri Kasparov in 1997 was a spectacle staged for the media. However, the chess game, like other games, was also a test field for artificial intelligence research. On the one hand Deep Blue's victory was called a "milestone" for AI research, on the other hand, a dead end, since the superiority of the chess computer was based on pure computing power and had nothing to do with "real" AI.The article questions the premises of these different interpretations and maps Deep Blue and its way of playing chess into the history of AI. This also requires an analysis of the underlying concepts of thinking. Finally, the essay calls for assuming different "ways of thinking" for man and computer. Instead of fundamental discussions of concepts of thinking, we should ask about the consequences of the human-machine division of labor.

  7. Variation of temporal and spatial patterns of NO2 in Beijing using mobile DOAS during the APEC in 2014 and the Victory Day Parade in 2015 (United States)

    Li, Ang; Xie, Pinhua; Wu, Fengcheng; Hu, Zhaokun; Xu, Jin; Qin, Min


    Recently Chinese cities have suffered severe haze events, especially in North China Plain (NCP). It has the characteristics of regional scale and complex components with high concentration level. In order to learn the haze formation, it is necessary to investigate temporal and spatial distribution of pollutants, emissions and pollution transport for better understanding of the impact of various sources on air quality. Control policies such as "odd-and-even license plate rule" were implemented by the Chinese government to restrict traffic and suspend factory production in Beijing and neighboring cities during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit (APEC) in 2014 and Victory Parade in 2015. We use mobile differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) and multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) to measure the variation of the spatial and temporal patterns of NO2 column densities from October 24, 2014 to December 31, 2014 and from August 25, 2015 to September 7, 2015. It is found that the NO2 column densities during the episode of control policies are significantly lower than those during other periods, and the emission flux of NO2 calculated by mobile DOAS is also lower than the results from other periods. There was a further 45.5% decline of the emission flux of NO2 in Beijing fifth ring road during the Victory Day Parade in 2015 than during APEC period. The low NO2 column densities that occur during the episode of control policies are affected by the control policies as well as meteorological conditions.

  8. Entre mythe et histoire : Le roman de Brutus et Dorothée dans le Victorial de Gutierre Díaz de Games (1436

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislaine Fournès


    Full Text Available Cet article a pour but d’étudier à partir d’une double perspective « Le roman de Brutus et Dorothée » inséré dans le Victorial de Gutierre Díaz de Games. Il s’agit, dans un premier temps, de retracer la circulation et la réception du mythe troyen dans la péninsule Ibérique, ceci afin de déterminer la part de création et d’originalité de ces pages, puis, dans un second temps, de mener à bien une analyse des motifs qui constituent ce mythe. Cette réécriture castillane de l’histoire de Brutus témoigne de la validité du mythe troyen au XVe siècle ainsi que de sa portée idéologique.Este artículo tiene como meta estudiar, según una doble perspectiva, “Le roman de Brutus et Dorothée” intercalado en El Victorial de Gutierre Díaz de Games. Se trata, en un primer tiempo, de referir la circulación y la recepción del mito troyano en la península ibérica, para luego determinar el grado de creación y de originalidad de estas páginas, y, en un segundo tiempo, de analizar los motivos que constituyen aquel mito. Esta re-escritura en castellano de la historia de Bruto atestigua la validez del mito troyano durante el siglo XV así como su alcance ideológico.

  9. Reviewing Command and Control for a Heavy Brigade: Tweaking the Design of the Forward Command Posts (United States)


    Armored Division then became the spearhead for General George Patton’s Third Army. 1 2 4 At 0500 hours on August 1st, Colonel Clarke received orders from...116Ibid. 1 1 7 1bid. 1 1 8 ibid. 1 1 9 John L. Romjue, "From Active Defense to AirLand Battle: The Development of Army Doctrine 1973-1982," Tradoc...Key to Winning," Military Review, (July 1990), 65. 162Richard P. Geier , "Battalion Command and Control", Armor 94, no.2 (September-October 1985), 9

  10. Is there a second level divide in students Internet skills?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Purushothaman, Aparna


    The concept of digital divide have moved beyond physical disparities in usage and also encompasses issues impending access like human (skills) social, cultural, and psychological barriers that affect the usage of existing available technologies apart from ownership. This paper focuses on the insu......The concept of digital divide have moved beyond physical disparities in usage and also encompasses issues impending access like human (skills) social, cultural, and psychological barriers that affect the usage of existing available technologies apart from ownership. This paper focuses...... on the insufficient level of skills which students have in making the best use of available Internet technology. Varying online skills of the students in higher education from two countrywide scenarios - Denmark and India are discussed. The paper emphasizes on the reflective and conceptual issues which the students...... face to take information from the Internet that brings a second level of divide. Through a cross-national comparison the paper hopes to contribute to the literature to learn from each other´s experiences and giving insights to researchers on digital divide. The digital divide in Internet skills...

  11. Effects of total sleep deprivation on divided attention performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Chern-Pin Chua

    Full Text Available Dividing attention across two tasks performed simultaneously usually results in impaired performance on one or both tasks. Most studies have found no difference in the dual-task cost of dividing attention in rested and sleep-deprived states. We hypothesized that, for a divided attention task that is highly cognitively-demanding, performance would show greater impairment during exposure to sleep deprivation. A group of 30 healthy males aged 21-30 years was exposed to 40 h of continuous wakefulness in a laboratory setting. Every 2 h, subjects completed a divided attention task comprising 3 blocks in which an auditory Go/No-Go task was 1 performed alone (single task; 2 performed simultaneously with a visual Go/No-Go task (dual task; and 3 performed simultaneously with both a visual Go/No-Go task and a visually-guided motor tracking task (triple task. Performance on all tasks showed substantial deterioration during exposure to sleep deprivation. A significant interaction was observed between task load and time since wake on auditory Go/No-Go task performance, with greater impairment in response times and accuracy during extended wakefulness. Our results suggest that the ability to divide attention between multiple tasks is impaired during exposure to sleep deprivation. These findings have potential implications for occupations that require multi-tasking combined with long work hours and exposure to sleep loss.

  12. Investigation on Locking and Pulling Modes in Analog Frequency Dividers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Buonomo


    Full Text Available We compare the main analytical results available to estimate the locking range, which is the key figure-of-merit of LC frequency dividers based on the injection locking phenomenon. Starting from the classical result by Adler concerning injection-locked oscillators, we elucidate the merits and the shortcomings of the different approaches to study injection-locked frequency dividers, with particular emphasis on divider-by-2. In particular, we show the potential of a perturbation approach which enables a more complete analysis of frequency dividers, making it possible to calculate not only the amplitude and the phase of the locked oscillation, but also the region where it exists and is stable, which defines the locking region. Finally, we analyze the dynamical behaviour of the dividers in the vicinity of the boundary of the locking region, showing that there exists a border region where the occurrence of the locking or the pulling operation mode is possible, depending on the initial conditions of the system.

  13. Romania's Digital Divide and the Failures of E-Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Dan ŞANDOR


    Full Text Available This paper tries to measure the level of the digital divide existing in Romania and also to verify its relationship with e-government. At the country level, Romania is one of the least digitally developed countries in Europe, but it has shown a sharp increase in recent years. At the social level, based on data from public opinion surveys, digital divide is analyzed at two levels: lack of access and lack of knowledge. The results are similar to those in other countries: digital divide appears along the same dimensions: rural/urban, age, education, wealth and, to a lesser extent, gender. E-government services, while presumed to be at an adequate level, are used only by a very small number of citizens, thus having no impact upon the digital divide. Confronted with a serious divide, and with great possibility of its increasing, Romania needs to promote policies designed to increase access and knowledge. Also, e-government is not possible, unless administrative culture and procedures change.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla M. Kolomiiets


    Full Text Available The article deals with the notion of information and digital divide on the grounds of the world processes of the information society establishment. This paper presents a research of the level of informatization of the main spheres of life activity of citizens of foreign countries, and the analysis of the experience of the leading countries in organization and implementation of a complex of measures, aimed at crossing the digital divide. Also, there have been outlined the peculiarities and problems of the development of higher education in Ukraine in the context of information and digital inequality. On the basis of the analysis of scientific literature and personal professional experience, the ways of the solution of the problem of teacher’s selection of the adequate and the most effective pedagogical technologies, forms and methods of study in the process of overcoming the information and digital divide at higher educational institutions have been determined in this article.

  15. Echocardiographic diagnosis of divided right atrium-cor triatriatum dextrum. (United States)

    Bejiqi, Ramush; Retkoceri, Ragip; Bejiqi, Hana; Zeka, Naim; Kelmendi, Myrvete


    First reported in 1868, cor triatriatum, that is, a heart with 3 atria (triatrial heart), is a congenital anomaly in which the left atrium (cor triatriatum sinistrum) or right atrium (cor triatriatum dextrum) is divided into two parts by a fold of tissue, a membrane, or a fibromuscular band. As far as division of the morphologically left atrium (cor triatriatum) is a recognized clinical and surgical entity. Division of the right atrium (prominence of the eustachian and thebesian valves) is recognized pathologically, but is rare. A partition division the right atrium was attached to the orifice of the inferior caval vei. The dividing partition is placed between the systemic venous sinus and the distal part of the right atrium, made up of the vestibule and appendage. This report describes a case of a divided right atrium, associated with a large atrial septal defect and valvular pulmonary stenosis.

  16. Selectively Distracted: Divided Attention and Memory for Important Information. (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Catherine D; Kerr, Tyson; Castel, Alan D


    Distractions and multitasking are generally detrimental to learning and memory. Nevertheless, people often study while listening to music, sitting in noisy coffee shops, or intermittently checking their e-mail. The current experiments examined how distractions and divided attention influence one's ability to selectively remember valuable information. Participants studied lists of words that ranged in value from 1 to 10 points while completing a digit-detection task, while listening to music, or without distractions. Though participants recalled fewer words following digit detection than in the other conditions, there were no significant differences between conditions in terms of selectively remembering the most valuable words. Similar results were obtained across a variety of divided-attention tasks that stressed attention and working memory to different degrees, which suggests that people may compensate for divided-attention costs by selectively attending to the most valuable items and that factors that worsen memory do not necessarily impair the ability to selectively remember important information.

  17. Dividing traffic cluster into parts by signal control (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi


    When a cluster of vehicles with various speeds moves through the series of signals, the cluster breaks down by stopping at signals and results in smaller groups of vehicles. We present the nonlinear-map model of the motion of vehicles controlled by the signals. We study the breakup of a cluster of vehicles through the series of signals. The cluster of vehicles is divided into various groups by controlling the cycle time of signals. The vehicles within each group move with the same mean velocity. The breakup of the traffic cluster depends highly on the signal control. The dependence of dividing on both cycle time and vehicular speed is clarified. Also, we investigate the effect of the irregular interval between signals on dividing.

  18. Ouroboros: A Tool for Building Generic, Hybrid, Divide& Conquer Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J R; Foster, I


    A hybrid divide and conquer algorithm is one that switches from a divide and conquer to an iterative strategy at a specified problem size. Such algorithms can provide significant performance improvements relative to alternatives that use a single strategy. However, the identification of the optimal problem size at which to switch for a particular algorithm and platform can be challenging. We describe an automated approach to this problem that first conducts experiments to explore the performance space on a particular platform and then uses the resulting performance data to construct an optimal hybrid algorithm on that platform. We implement this technique in a tool, ''Ouroboros'', that automatically constructs a high-performance hybrid algorithm from a set of registered algorithms. We present results obtained with this tool for several classical divide and conquer algorithms, including matrix multiply and sorting, and report speedups of up to six times achieved over non-hybrid algorithms.

  19. Transformer-based design techniques for oscillators and frequency dividers

    CERN Document Server

    Luong, Howard Cam


    This book provides in-depth coverage of transformer-based design techniques that enable CMOS oscillators and frequency dividers to achieve state-of-the-art performance.  Design, optimization, and measured performance of oscillators and frequency dividers for different applications are discussed in detail, focusing on not only ultra-low supply voltage but also ultra-wide frequency tuning range and locking range.  This book will be an invaluable reference for anyone working or interested in CMOS radio-frequency or mm-Wave integrated circuits and systems.

  20. Enhanced Model of Nonlinear Spiral High Voltage Divider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Panko


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the enhanced accurate DC and RF model of nonlinear spiral polysilicon voltage divider. The high resistance polysilicon divider is a sensing part of the high voltage start-up MOSFET transistor that can operate up to 700 V. This paper presents the structure of a proposed model, implemented voltage, frequency and temperature dependency, and scalability. A special attention is paid to the ability of the created model to cover the mismatch and influence of a variation of process parameters on the device characteristics. Finally, the comparison of measured data vs. simulation is presented in order to confirm the model validity and a typical application is demonstrated.

  1. Google and the digital divide the bias of online knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Segev, Elad


    Beneficial to scholars and students in the fields of media and communication, politics and technology, this book outlines the significant role of search engines in general and Google in particular in widening the digital divide between individuals, organisations and states. It uses innovative methods and research approaches to assess and illustrate the digital divide by comparing the popular search queries in Google and Yahoo in different countries as well as analysing the various biases in Google News and Google Earth. The different studies developed and presented in this book provide various

  2. Distributed Command/Control Impacts on NAS Operations Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Command and Control (C2) activities abound in the NAS, and significantly influence daily operations and overall NAS efficiency. Since C2 effects are so prominent,...

  3. Command and Control Planning and Teamwork: Exploring the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sterling, Bruce S; Lickteig, Carl W


    .... This paper examines how participant ratings of command and control planning and observer assessments of teamwork were related in a series of futuristic missions conducted by the Mounted Maneuver...

  4. Detecting malware based on expired command-and-control traffic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zou, Futai; Zhang, Siyu; Li, Linsen; Pan, Li; Li, Jianhua


    In this article, we analyze the behavioral characteristics of domain name service queries produced by programs and then design an algorithm to detect malware with expired command-and-control domains...

  5. Implementing UPDM to develop command and control systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, R


    Full Text Available Systems engineering is an established approach to develop systems, including complex sociotechnical systems such as Command and Control (C2) Systems. These systems often occur through introduction of a new technology into an existing system...

  6. Architecting Joint Command and Control System of System Capability Certifications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Acosta, Jacob; Hoesly, Scot; Huseth, Scott; Krider, Steven; Lamb, Jeremy; Martin, Calvin; Medina, Vince; Medina, Jorge; Nguyen, Michael; Patel, Jaykant


    Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C4I) systems, each originally designed to address a single warfighting function, have been assembled into an interdependent C4I System of Systems (SoS...

  7. Africa Command: Building a Foundation of Operational Interagency Cooperation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Piacenti, Chad E


    Interagency cooperation has been a recognized deficiency for many years. The National Security Act of 1947 and the Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986 helped to streamline military operations and chains of command...

  8. Gesture Commanding of a Robot with EVA Gloves Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gesture commanding can be applied and evaluated with NASA robot systems. Application of this input modality can improve the way crewmembers interact with robots...

  9. Position Command Shaping for Vibration Suppression Considering Target Position Correction (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masafumi; Ito, Kazuaki; Iwasaki, Makoto; Matsui, Nobuyuki

    This paper presents a command shaping technique based on a minimum jerk control approach considering a target position correction during motion, for the fast and precise positioning in vibratory mechatronic systems. The positioning controller is designed by a 2-degrees-of-freedom control: a feedback compensator is synthesized by H∞ control design to ensure the robust stability, while a feedforward compensator suppresses the vibration in response based on a coprime factorization expression of the plant mechanism. The command shaping, on the other hand, eliminates the corresponding vibration components of the primary and secondary modes in the position command, where the continuity of jerk component in the command can be ensured against the target position correction. The effectiveness of the proposed shaping technique has been verified by experiments using a table drive system on machine stand.

  10. What It Takes. Air Force Command of Joint Operations (United States)


    Operations Center DNA Defense Nuclear Agency DoD Department of Defense DRAT Disaster Response Assessment Team ENGR engineer EPOC (United States...USEUCOM Training Transformation in Support of C2 Transformation,” briefing, September 2003, p. 6. Command Concepts 35 Center ( EPOC ).35 Contrary to...most expectations of how the SJFHQ (CE) will work, the EPOC plans to deploy only around 20 of its staff to JTF headquarters. U.S. Pacific Command

  11. Assessment of Army Contracting Command’s Contract Management Processes (United States)


    D. M., Clouse, A., & Turner, R. (2001). CMMI , distilled. Boston: Addison- Wesley. Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM)(2009). AMCOM Fact Sheet...organizational culture at naval air systems command (Master’s Thesis ). Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School. Kraljic, P. (1983, September...J. (2008, January). Analysis of the contracting processes and ethical culture at Ogden Air Logistics Center, Hill AFB, UT (Master’s Thesis

  12. The Exercise of Control by Joint Force Commanders (United States)


    consituted a decentralization of control – from one commander to several commanders and staffs – was the development of doctrine to enable them to...joint doctrine is fulfilling this purpose with regard to control. Prussian military reformers Scharnhorst and Moltke instituted common education...from a long-standing military alliance such as NATO, US- Japan or US-ROK, this will mean significant interoperability challenges which the CJTF and

  13. Overhead cost allocation at Military Sealift Command, Pacific


    Hale, Katharine A.


    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The purpose of this thesis is to examine overhead costs and allocation methods at the Military Sealift Command (MSC). The command's overhead expenses from Fiscal Year 1988 through 1994 are reviewed and followed by a description of MSC's current method of allocating overhead to specific shipping arrangements. Possible sources of information distortion involved in indirect overhead allocation are discussed, and an alternative method of allo...

  14. Introduction to Command, Control, and Communications: A Primer (United States)


    CSSE Combat Service Support Element CSSOC Combat Service Support Operations Center CTAPS Contingency TACS Air Planning System CTE Commander Task Element...maker. b. C2 Analogy To illustrate the C2 process, Coakley uses the analogy of a head coach of a football team and compares it to that of a commander...Program Activity (DMPA) Office of Economic Adjustment (OEA) Dept. of Defense Dependent Schools (DODDS) American Forces Information Service (AFIS) Defense

  15. Measuring Command Post Operations in a Decisive Action Training Environment (United States)


    ATTP 5-0.1, Commander and Staff Officer Guide, and FM 6-0, Commander and Staff Organization. The CP Operations Checklist was developed by the WLC...the CP Operations Checklist may have resulted from not having a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for such tasks. There were significant...appreciation to U.S. Amy Research Institute’s former Senior Military Research Liaison Officer , SMA(R) Julius W. Gates. SMA(R) Gates provided

  16. Air Mobility Command Financial Reporting of Property, Plant, and Equipment. (United States)


    This is the first in a series of reports from our audit of the Property, Plant, and Equipment Accounts in the FY 1996 Financial Statements of the...Transportation Command’s $4 billion in expected revenue. In the beginning balance for FY 1996 Defense Business Operations Fund financial statements, the Air...Mobility Command reported $ 1.1 billion of Property, Plant, and Equipment. The objective of this part of the audit was to determine whether the Air

  17. Afloat surface line commanding officer leadership : a comprehensive study


    Provencher, Jerome R.


    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document This thesis explored the leadership styles of Navy commanding officers of afloat commands to determine if there were any differences in leadership styles and the effect, if any, of rank, age, commissioning source, education, ethnicity, location, and ship community type that influenced that leadership style. A review of the literature indicated that the Navy adopted the Situational Leadership Model in 1976. The Navy concurred with the philosoph...

  18. Response Styles and the Rural-Urban Divide (United States)

    Thomas, Troy D.; Abts, Koen; Vander Weyden, Patrick


    This article investigates the effect of the rural-urban divide on mean response styles (RSs) and their relationships with the sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents. It uses the Representative Indicator Response Style Means and Covariance Structure (RIRSMACS) method and data from Guyana--a developing country in the Caribbean. The…

  19. The impact of digital divide on skills development amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today library function/services are carried out with the help of ICT facilities. This has forced academic librarians to shift from manual library services to the use of ICT facilities in carrying out library functions. The paper is on the impact of digital divide on skills development amongst academic librarians in Imo State.

  20. The Credit/Non-Credit Divide: Breaking Down the Wall (United States)

    Fouts, Susan; Mallory, Judy


    Programs awarding academic credit and programs awarding continuing education credit coexist on university campuses but often do not communicate or collaborate. This article explores the components of a successful program that reaches across the credit-noncredit divide to engage and serve the community. While most theoretical models are based on a…

  1. Leadership Analysis in K-12 Case Study: "Divided Loyalties" (United States)

    Alsubaie, Merfat Ayesh


    This report mainly aims to provide a critical and in-depth analysis of the K-12 Case, "Divided Loyalty" by Holy and Tartar (2004). The case recounts how the manifestation of inadequate leadership skills in a school setting could affect negatively the performance of students.

  2. Divided dreamworlds? The cultural cold war in East and West

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, P.; Scott-Smith, G.; Segal, J.


    While the divide between capitalism and communism, embodied in the image of the Iron Curtain, seemed to be as wide and definitive as any cultural rift, Giles Scott-Smith, Joes Segal, and Peter Romijn have compiled a selection of essays on how culture contributed to the blurring of ideological

  3. Social partners divided over government plan to raise retirement age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.


    The social partners have given a divided response to the Dutch cabinet’s plans to raise the retirement age - first to 66 years in 2020 and then to 67 years in 2025. This also applies to the age at which company pension schemes will be paid out. The trade unions argue that poorly paid workers who

  4. Communication in a Divided World: Opportunities and Constraints. (United States)

    Lasswell, Harold

    Communication systems in a divided world can perpetuate tension and violence or can be instrumental in developing unity. In response to this power, communicators must focus on generating worldwide recognition of interdependence in the shaping and sharing of values. Likewise, a responsible communication policy must stimulate the invention and…

  5. Monitoring Progress Toward the Information Society : Digital Divide ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Orbicom's Digital Divide Index is a rigorous statistical tool for benchmarking access to and use of information and communication technologies (ICT), and monitoring progress toward the information society over time. ... Businesses can understand trade trends and future challenges in the ASEAN Economic community.

  6. Measuring and Bridging the Gender Digital Divide in Rural Pakistan ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Measuring and Bridging the Gender Digital Divide in Rural Pakistan. Despite that approximately 70% of Pakistan's 160 million inhabitants living in rural villages, nearly 90% of the ICT-related infrastructure is installed in urban areas. ... Sustainable Development Policy Institute. Institution Country. Pakistan. Institution Website.

  7. Geothermal resources of the Washakie and Great Divide basins, Wyoming (United States)

    Heasler, H. P.; Buelow, K. L.


    The geothermal resources of the Great Divide and Washakie Basins of southern Wyoming are described. Oil well bottomhole temperatures, thermal logs of wells, and heat flow data were interpreted within a framework of geologic and hydrologic constraints. It was concluded large areas in Wyoming are underlain by water hotter than 120 F. Isolated areas with high temperature gradients exist within each basin.

  8. Dividing Attention Lowers Children's but Increases Adults' False Memories (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Peters, Maarten; Howe, Mark L.


    The present study examined the impact of divided attention on children's and adults' neutral and negative true and false memories in a standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Children (7- and 11-year-olds; n = 126) and adults (n = 52) received 5 neutral and 5 negative Deese/Roediger-McDermott word lists; half of each group also received a…

  9. A Technique to Avoid the Marginal Artery During Divided Colostomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colostomy is a frequently performed procedure in neonates presenting with anorectal malformation and Hirschsprungs disease. A divided colostomy is more commonly performed but has a definite risk of injury to the marginal artery during the procedure, leading to stoma necrosis. This is a description of a technique which ...

  10. Loop versus divided colostomy for the management of anorectal malformations. (United States)

    Oda, Omar; Davies, Dafydd; Colapinto, Kimberly; Gerstle, J Ted


    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of loop and divided colostomies in patients with anorectal malformations (ARM). We performed a retrospective cohort study reviewing the medical records of all patients with ARM managed with diverting colostomies between 2000 and 2010 at our institution. Independent variables and outcomes of stoma complications were analyzed by parametric measures and logistic regression. One hundred forty-four patients managed with a colostomy for ARM were evaluated (37.5% females, 50.7% loop, 49.3% divided). The incidence of patients with loop and divided colostomies who developed stoma-related complications was 31.5 and 15.5%, respectively (p=0.031). The incidence of prolapse was 17.8 and 2.8%, respectively (p=0.005). Multivariable-logistic regression controlling for other significant independent variables found loop colostomies to be positively associated with the development of a stoma complication (OR 3.13, 95%CI (1.09, 8.96), p=0.033). When individual complications were evaluated, it was only stoma prolapse that was more likely in patients with loop colostomies (OR 8.75, 95%CI (1.74, 44.16), p=0.009). Because of the higher incidence of prolapse, loop colostomies were found to be associated with a higher total incidence of complications than divided stomas. The development of other complications, including urinary tract infections (UTIs) and megarectum, were independent of the type of colostomy performed. © 2014.

  11. Competing discourses on Europe: the divided case of Estonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, Jeroen


    Historical and cultural context and individual experience are likely to influence the ‘imagination of Europe’. Such discourses exist according to specific social patterns that may critically divide societies into different and competing social constructions of Europe. Is there a transnational

  12. Theories of Learning in Educational Development: Relocating the Paradigmatic Divide. (United States)

    Inglis, Alistair


    Offers a critique of a previous discussion on instructional industrialism in distance education based on instructional design. Topics include the psychological foundations of instructional design, competing paradigms in educational development, behaviorism and cognitivism, theories of learning and the paradigmatic divide, and implications for…

  13. Crossing the digital divide: the contribution of information technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crossing the digital divide: the contribution of information technology to the professional performance of ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES. African Health Sciences ... MIMCom makes possible enhanced access to the Internet and to medical literature.

  14. Crossing the digital divide: the contribution of information technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crossing the digital divide: the contribution of information technology to the professional performance of malaria researchers in Africa. ... retrieve information, obtain documents, write proposals, and prepare papers for publication; and to determine the contribution of this intervention to their professional performance.

  15. Interacting divided channel method for compound channel flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huthoff, Freek; Roos, Pieter C.; Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.


    A new method to calculate flow in compound channels is proposed: the interacting divided channel method (IDCM), based on a new parametrization of the interface stress between adjacent flow compartments, typically between the main channel and floodplain of a two-stage channel. This expression is

  16. Divide and conquer? Size adjustment with allometry and intermediate outcomes. (United States)

    Nakagawa, Shinichi; Kar, Fonti; O'Dea, Rose E; Pick, Joel L; Lagisz, Malgorzata


    Many trait measurements are size-dependent, and while we often divide these traits by size before fitting statistical models to control for the effect of size, this approach does not account for allometry and the intermediate outcome problem. We describe these problems and outline potential solutions.

  17. Tamil Nadu and the Diagonal Divide in Sex Ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh); S. Srinivasan (Sharada)


    textabstractBetween 1961 and 2001, India’s 0-6 sex ratio has steadily declined. Despite evidence to the contrary, this ratio is often characterised in terms of a diagonal divide with low 0-6 sex ratios in northern and western India and normal 0-6 sex ratios in eastern and southern India. While

  18. Reconciling Ethnic and National Identities in a Divided Society: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... as a valuable lesson for nation-state building in post-colonial multiethnic countries. In addition to the institutional design approach, the paper points to the importance of civic education, collective history, and democracy in promoting national integration in a divided society. Democracy & Development Vol.4(2) 2004: 31-48 ...

  19. Problems Related to the Abolition of Divided Real Estate Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinsberga Jolanta


    Full Text Available Legal relationship between apartment owners in residential buildings and the land owners, that is, divided real estate ownership, was created in the Republic of Latvia in 1990, within the framework of the Land Reform, restoring property rights of the former owners or their heirs or privatising apartments in multi-apartment residential buildings. The existence of such legal relationship created different lease problems and restrictions on the property rights to the owners of both the building and the land. To abolish the legal relationship related to divided real estate ownership, the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Latvia has developed a draft law Regarding the Abolition of Mandatory Divided Real Estate Ownership in Multi-Apartment Buildings (hereinafter referred to as Draft Law. Unfortunately, in the opinion of authors of this article, there are serious shortcomings to the Draft Law which must be corrected. The aim of the research is to identify the problematic issues by selecting and analysing the legislation on the abolition of the divided real estate ownership, which is related to the calculation of redemption price, payment method and consequences of non-payment, which are not regulated by the new Draft Law. The article reflects research on the determination and calculation of redemption price reglamented by the Draft Law and also analyses the Law of December 8, 1938, On the Abolition of Divided Real Estate Ownership and its practical implementation, which may significantly influence the redemption price and the method of its calculation; however, the mentioned law has been disregarded in developing the Draft Law. Thus the research has both theoretical and practical significance. For the research purposes general research methods, such as historical, analytical, inductive, deductive, logical-constructive and descriptive methods, are used. For the interpretation of legislation norms, grammatical, systemic, teleological and historical

  20. Command and Data Handling Branch Internship (United States)

    Billings, Rachel Mae


    Modular Integrated Stackable Layers (MISL) is a computer system designed for simple, fast, and cost effective flexible reconfiguration in space environments such as the ISS and Orion projects for various uses. Existing applications include wireless and wired communications, data acquisition and instrumentation, and camera systems, and potential applications include bus protocol converters and subsystem control. MISL is based on Texas Instruments (TI)' MSP430 16-bit ultra-low-power microcontroller device. The purpose of my project was to integrate the MISL system with a liquid crystal display (LCD) touchscreen. The LCD, manufactured by Crystalfontz and part number CFAF320240F-035T-TS, is a 320 by 240 RGB resistive color screen including an optional carrier board. The vast majority of the project was done with Altium Designer, a tool for printed circuit board (PCB) schematic capture, 3D design, and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) development. The new PCB was to allow the LCD to directly stack to the rest of MISL. Research was done with datasheets for the TI microcontroller and touchscreen display in order to meet desired hardware specifications. Documentation on prior MISL projects was also utilized. The initial step was to create a schematic for the LCD, power bus, and data bus connections between components. A layout was then designed with the required physical dimensions, routed traces and vias, power and ground planes, layer stacks, and other specified design rules such as plane clearance and hole size. Multiple consultation sessions were held with Hester Yim, the technical discipline lead for the Command and Data Handling Branch, and Christy Herring, the lead PCB layout designer in the Electronic Design and Manufacturing Branch in order to ensure proper configuration. At the moment, the PCB is awaiting revision by the latter-mentioned branch. Afterwards, the board will begin to undergo the manufacturing and testing process. Throughout the internship at

  1. Command and Control of Private Security Contractors: Are They a Viable Force Option for the Combatant Commander? (United States)


    operating locations, such PSDs will comply with (MNC-I) recommendations to alter routes or abort missions.”19 Though the nature of the mission serve as part of that Chain-of-Command ( CoC ) would require qualification. Using the current conflict in Iraq as an example, limiting C2...contractual CoC . These planning actions can identify which type of commanders require training as Contracting Officers and CORs and will also ensure that

  2. Indonesian Automatic Speech Recognition For Command Speech Controller Multimedia Player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien Arief Wardhany


    Full Text Available The purpose of multimedia devices development is controlling through voice. Nowdays voice that can be recognized only in English. To overcome the issue, then recognition using Indonesian language model and accousticc model and dictionary. Automatic Speech Recognizier is build using engine CMU Sphinx with modified english language to Indonesian Language database and XBMC used as the multimedia player. The experiment is using 10 volunteers testing items based on 7 commands. The volunteers is classifiedd by the genders, 5 Male & 5 female. 10 samples is taken in each command, continue with each volunteer perform 10 testing command. Each volunteer also have to try all 7 command that already provided. Based on percentage clarification table, the word “Kanan” had the most recognize with percentage 83% while “pilih” is the lowest one. The word which had the most wrong clarification is “kembali” with percentagee 67%, while the word “kanan” is the lowest one. From the result of Recognition Rate by male there are several command such as “Kembali”, “Utama”, “Atas “ and “Bawah” has the low Recognition Rate. Especially for “kembali” cannot be recognized as the command in the female voices but in male voice that command has 4% of RR this is because the command doesn’t have similar word in english near to “kembali” so the system unrecognize the command. Also for the command “Pilih” using the female voice has 80% of RR but for the male voice has only 4% of RR. This problem is mostly because of the different voice characteristic between adult male and female which male has lower voice frequencies (from 85 to 180 Hz than woman (165 to 255 Hz.The result of the experiment showed that each man had different number of recognition rate caused by the difference tone, pronunciation, and speed of speech. For further work needs to be done in order to improving the accouracy of the Indonesian Automatic Speech Recognition system

  3. New command centre of the Lech Power Works. Planning and execution of command and control technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marschall, J.


    On February 25, 1985 the Lech Electricity Works in Augsburg took into service their new control centre for the operational control of the entire maximum, high and low voltage networks. As the replacement for the now outpaced old control centre it was installed along the most modern lines under retention of the remote control substations. The total of eight combined operation process computer AEG 80-30 charaterise the scope of the network command technology, whereby in several subsectors completely new paths were trodden for the first time. So for example the design of light technology, the monitor display illumination and the graphical system Gradas which controls the medium voltage network, operation using digitizer and the operation telecommunications system. (orig.).

  4. 32 CFR 700.1026 - Authority of an officer who succeeds to command. (United States)


    ... authority and responsibility as the officer whom he or she succeeds. (b) An officer who succeeds to command... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority of an officer who succeeds to command... Precedence, Authority and Command Authority § 700.1026 Authority of an officer who succeeds to command. (a...

  5. SIW based multilayer transition and power divider in LTCC technology

    KAUST Repository

    Abuzaid, Hattan


    A multilayer transition and balanced power divider are presented for millimeter-wave system-on-package (SoP). These two components operate at Ka-band and exploit the substrate integrate waveguide (SIW) technology with its shielding characteristics and the Low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology for its high density integration. A coupling slot has been used to perform vertical integration, which can be easily optimized through its length. The measured input return loss within the bandwidth of interest (32 GHz-38 GHz) is less than -15 dB and -18 dB for the multilayer transition and the power divider, respectively. The lateral dimensions of a multilayer system, such as a feed network of an array, can be greatly reduced by employing these 3D slot-coupled components. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. The New Digital Divide For Digital BioMarkers. (United States)

    Torous, John; Rodriguez, Jorge; Powell, Adam


    As smartphone and sensors continue to become more ubiquitous across the world, digital biomarkers have emerged as a scalable and practical tool to explore disease states and advance health. But as the digital divide of access and ownership begins to fade, a new digital divide is emerging. Who are the types of people that own smartphones or smart watches, who are the types of people that download health apps or partake in digital biomarker studies, and who are the types of people that are actually active with digital biomarkers apps and sensors - the people providing the high quality and longitudinal data that this field is being founded upon? Understanding the people behind digital biomarkers, the very people this emerging field aims to help, may actually be the real challenge as well as opportunity for digital biomarkers.

  7. The UN Security Council Divided: Syria in Crisis


    Gifkins, J


    The UN Security Council has been deeply divided over how to respond to the Arab Spring crisis in Syria. Since the uprising began in Syria in March 2011 the Syrian Government has responded with extreme violence against civilians and civilian areas to suppress protests. In the face of escalating violence, the Security Council has experienced protracted deadlock. Divisions on how to interpret the situation in Syria left the Security Council unable to find consensus on issuing a non-binding Presi...

  8. Digital divide and body size disparities among Chinese adults


    Chih-Chien Huang; Scott T. Yabiku


    Background: The rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT) in China has increased people's sedentary behavior and raised a number of related issues. ICT screen-viewing activities are increasingly considered to contribute to obesity, and sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, income, age, education, and geographical location seem to magnify the digital divide. Objective: This study first examines dissimilar stages of ICT transition, and then establishes ho...

  9. Bridging the Digital Divide: Enhancing Empowerment and Social Capital


    Diane Marie Charleson


    In the contemporary world, the digital divide constitutes a significant inequality and thus poses a very real problem of social justice – this being particularly the case for those already burdened with disadvantage and marginalisation. In this paper, As part of its commitment to Social Justice the Australian Catholic University runs a Catalyst Clemente program. Catalyst-Clemente provides people experiencing multiple disadvantage with university level education by means of a program that aims...

  10. Dividing Streamline Formation Channel Confluences by Physical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarni Nur Trilita


    Full Text Available Confluence channels are often found in open channel network system and is the most important element. The incoming flow from the branch channel to the main cause various forms and cause vortex flow. Phenomenon can cause erosion of the side wall of the channel, the bed channel scour and sedimentation in the downstream confluence channel. To control these problems needed research into the current width of the branch channel. The incoming flow from the branch channel to the main channel flow bounded by a line distributors (dividing streamline. In this paper, the wide dividing streamline observed in the laboratory using a physical model of two open channels, a square that formed an angle of 30º. Observations were made with a variety of flow coming from each channel. The results obtained in the laboratory observation that the width of dividing streamline flow is influenced by the discharge ratio between the channel branch with the main channel. While the results of a comparison with previous studies showing that the observation in the laboratory is smaller than the results of previous research.

  11. Rediscovery of Chonopeltis meridionalis Fryer, 1964 (Crustacea: Branchiura) from Labeo rosae Steindachner in the River Olifants, Mpumalanga, and the taxonomic status of C. victori Avenant-Oldewage, 1991 and C. koki Van As, 1992. (United States)

    van As, Liesl L; Smit, Nico J; van As, Jo G


    Chonopeltis Thiele, 1900 presently comprises 14 species, it is endemic to Africa and its species show a high degree of host-specificity towards fish families and in some cases, individual fish species. Chonopeltis meridionalis Fryer, 1964 was originally described from Labeo rosae Steindachner collected in the River Nuanetsi in Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe, Limpopo River System. At the time of description C. meridionalis was the most southerly species of the genus. Chonopeltis victori Avenant-Oldewage, 1991 was described from the River Olifants, Mpumalanga, South Africa, which also forms part of the Limpopo River System. The host fish was Labeo rosae and Labeobarbus marequensis (A. Smith), whilst C. koki Van As, 1992 was described from Labeo cylindricus Peters, collected in the River Zambezi, Eastern Caprivi, Namibia. During surveys conducted in 2012, additional material of a species of Chonopeltis was collected from Labeo rosae in the River Olifants. Upon closer examination, the new material was identified as C. meridionalis. Further investigation revealed that C. victori and C. koki share a number of characteristics with C. meridionalis. This paper provides the first scanning electron microscopy of C. meridionalis, includes additional information on fully-mature as well as sub-adult males and females. Finally, it was concluded that C. victori and C. koki are junior synonyms of C. meridionalis.

  12. Extension to distributed annotation system: Summary and summaryplot commands. (United States)

    Chrysostomou, Charalambos; Brookes, Anthony J


    In recent years, the development of high-throughput sequencing technologies provided an effective way to generate data from entire genomes and test variants from thousands of individuals. The information acquired from analysing the data generated from high-throughput sequencing technologies provided useful insights into applications like whole-exome sequencing and targeted sequencing to discover the genetic cause of complex diseases and drug responses. The Distributed Annotation System (DAS) is one of the proposed solution developed to share and unify biological data from multiple local and remote DAS annotation servers. The researchers can use DAS to request data from federated or centralised databases and integrate them into a unified view. Furthermore, with the use of Reference DAS servers, structural and sequence data can be used to accompany annotation data, for the pursue of new knowledge for a particular feature or region. In this paper, two additional commands, summary and summary-plot commands, to the existing DAS protocol are proposed and implemented. The proposed commands were created in order to give the users the capabilities to request a summary of features for a particular region of interest. The summary command was created in order to extend the capabilities of the current DAS protocol, while the summaryplot command was created to provide a more user-friendly alternative to standard XML DAS responses. Finally, three examples are presented based on the GENCODE annotation data.

  13. Reliability Analysis and Standardization of Spacecraft Command Generation Processes (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila; Grenander, Sven; Evensen, Ken


    center dot In order to reduce commanding errors that are caused by humans, we create an approach and corresponding artifacts for standardizing the command generation process and conducting risk management during the design and assurance of such processes. center dot The literature review conducted during the standardization process revealed that very few atomic level human activities are associated with even a broad set of missions. center dot Applicable human reliability metrics for performing these atomic level tasks are available. center dot The process for building a "Periodic Table" of Command and Control Functions as well as Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) models is demonstrated. center dot The PRA models are executed using data from human reliability data banks. center dot The Periodic Table is related to the PRA models via Fault Links.

  14. Mission operations and command assurance - Automating an operations TQM task (United States)

    Welz, Linda; Kazz, Sheri; Potts, Sherrill; Witkowski, Mona; Bruno, Kristin


    A long-term program is in progress at JPL to reduce cost and risk of mission operations through defect prevention and error management. A major element of this program, Mission Operations and Command Assurance (MO&CA), provides a system level function on flight projects to instill quality in mission operations. MO&CA embodies the total quality management TQM principle of continuous process improvement (CPI) and uses CPI in applying automation to mission operations to reduce risk and costs. MO&CA has led efforts to apply and has implemented automation in areas that impact the daily flight project work environment including Incident Surprise Anomaly tracking and reporting; command data verification, tracking and reporting; and command support data usage. MO&CA's future work in automation will take into account that future mission operations systems must be designed to avoid increasing error through the introduction of automation, while adapting to the demands of smaller flight teams.

  15. Swing-Free Cranes via Input Shaping of Operator Commands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groom, Kenneth N.; Parker, Gordon G.; Robinett, Rush D.; Leban, Frank


    This paper presents an open-loop control method for suppressing payload oscillation or swing caused by operator commanded maneuvers in rotary boom cranes and the method is experimentally verified on a one-sixteenth scale model of a Hagglunds shipboard crane. The crane configuration consists of a payload mass that swings like a spherical pendulum on the end of a lift-line which is attached to a boom capable of hub rotation (slewing) and elevation (luffing). Positioning of the payload is accomplished through the hub and boom angles and the load-line length. Since the configuration of the crane affects the excitation and response of the payload, the swing control scheme must account for the varying geometry of the system. Adaptive forward path command filters are employed to remove components of the command signal which induce payload swing.

  16. Comparison between a classical command law and a new advanced recovery command law in a MCB-ARS boost (United States)

    Petit, Pierre; Saint-Eve, Frédéric; Sawicki, Jean-Paul; Aillerie, Michel


    This paper focuses on an original performed command on DC-DC boosts developed for applications in the LMOPS lab for the photovoltaic energy conversion and more specifically the Photovoltaic panels connected to HVDC smart grids. This boost, commonly named MCB-ARS (Magnetically Coupled Boost with Active Recovery Switch) presents great advantages concerning the simplicity of the command on the single constitutive switch, the global efficiency and the voltage conversion ratio. A fine analysis of the losses all over the entire converter shows that losses are not distributed uniformly in the constituting components. So a previous modification described in a previous paper consisting in the conducting assistance on the power flowing intermediate diode, performed advantageously the global efficiency. The present analysis takes into account the fact that the new configuration obtained after this important improvement looks like a classical half-bridge push-pull stage and may be controlled by a twice complementary command. In that way, a comparison has been done between a natural commutation recovery diode and an assisted switch commutation driven in a push-pull mode. As attempted, the switching command laws in charge to assume the energy transfer has been compared to the classical previous system described in anterior papers, and we demonstrate in this publication that a commutation based on a push-pull command mode within the two switches of the MCB-ARS converter is possible and increases the power transfer.

  17. The hidden dimensions of the competition effect: basal cortisol and basal testosterone jointly predict changes in salivary testosterone after social victory in men. (United States)

    Zilioli, Samuele; Watson, Neil V


    Dominance struggles appear to affect hormone concentrations in many mammalian species, such that higher concentrations of testosterone are seen in winners of competitions, compared to losers. This so-called, "competition effect" has received inconsistent empirical support, suggesting that additional psychological (e.g., mood), situational (i.e., nature of the competition) and physiological (e.g., cortisol) variables might intervene in modulating testosterone fluctuations after social contests. We investigated possible interactions between the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis in predicting transient changes in testosterone after social victory or defeat on a familiar competitive task. In particular, the present study examined the dual-hormone hypothesis - proposing that baseline cortisol potently modulates the competition effect (Mehta and Josephs, 2010) - in a sample of healthy young men engaged in head-to-head competition on a widely played commercial videogame, Tetris. We found a significant interaction between HPG and HPA axes status and the competition effect on testosterone in the randomly assigned videogame winners, such that winners with a pre-competition combination of high baseline testosterone and low baseline cortisol exhibited significantly greater post-competition testosterone concentrations. The randomly assigned videogame losers showed significantly decreased post-competition levels of testosterone. Possible biological and evolutionary mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Homeland security planning: what victory gardens and Fidel Castro can teach us in preparing for food crises in the United States. (United States)

    Endres, A Bryan; Endres, Jody M


    Two historical examples provide important insight into how federal government policies can integrate regional and local food systems to achieve food security during a time of acute crisis. During World War II, American home gardeners, through the federal government's Victory Garden program, supplied 40 percent of the nation's fresh produce, while simultaneously maintaining pre-war commodity production policies favoring large agricultural interests. The recent food crisis in Cuba, precipitated by the collapse of Soviet-bloc trade in the early 1990s, is another historical example that could inform U.S. policymakers on how to achieve food self-sufficiency through reemphasis on small farmers using sustainable practices supplemented with urban gardening. This article aims to ignite government action to strengthen and integrate regional and local food systems into federal food security planning so that citizens can be best prepared for a food emergency. The article first examines laws, regulations and policies put in place during World War II that employed regional and local food networks to satisfy a significant amount of civilian food supply needs. The article also looks at more recent Cuban efforts to achieve forced food self-reliance when, after the end of the Cold War, Soviet subsidies and preferential trading of energy and food supplies ceased almost overnight.

  19. The consummation of the kingdom of God. Reflections on the final victory of Christ as portrayed in Paul’s first Epistle to the Corinthians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Potgieter


    Full Text Available Reflections on 1 Corinthians 15:24-28 raise the question whether eschatology should be focused on Christ, or should rather be viewed theocentrically. A study of the mediatory reign of Christ clearly favours the notion of an intermediate kingdom, during which He will subjugate and destroy the “powers” and the enemies of the kingdom. Having achieved the final victory over death itself, the need for an intermediate rule of Christ no longer exists. However, the office of Mediator is unquestionably linked to Christ’s humanity. This again brings to the fore the question whether Christ will retain his human nature after the consummation of his kingdom. Although it remains an open question in Reformed theology whether Christ will relinquish his human nature at the end of this dispensation, it is argued that in the next dispensation He will no longer serve in the office of Mediator, but that He will reign as the Lamb of God in the stature of the eternal Son of God.

  20. Official Discourse Background of the Great Patriotic War Historic Period: Victory Expression in “Pravda” Linguo-rhetorics of 1941–1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra A. Vorozhbitova


    Full Text Available The article considers the expression of linguo-rhetoric tools of official front page stories of Pravda Newspaper in 1941-1945 in terms of discourse processes of Russian socio-cultural and educational environment of the Great Patriotic War period, expecting obligatory introduction of information, having historical nature. Discourse background of any historic period of social evolution is really important for historic science, as it in many ways determines key positions of the historic process. The importance of the role of linguistic personality of the discourse processes subject is stipulated by the fact that the latter one acts as the arena for the conflicts of ideological positions and innovation ideas, different concepts, views and opinions, generated by the levels of linguistic personality (motivational, linguo-cognitive, verbal-semantic in terms of linguo-rhetoric paradigm. Reference to key, watershed historical periods of the development of our Motherland, first of all to the Great Patriotic War period is of considerable importance. Such a peculiar type of institutional discourse as Soviet official discourse has undoubtedly contributed to the Victory, lifting morale and spirit of the troops and civilian population and uniting multinational Soviet population in the deadly fight against Nazis. Linguo-rhetoric of linguistic opposition with all its emotional expression is represented, particularly, in the set of front page stories of Pravda Newspaper, which bore a profound mobilizing emotional charge, had great psychological impact on collective recipient and specific character of universal linguo-rhetoric parameters.

  1. Surface Tension and Adsorption without a Dividing Surface. (United States)

    Marmur, Abraham


    The ingenious concept of a dividing surface of zero thickness that was introduced by Gibbs is the basis of the theory of surface tension and adsorption. However, some fundamental questions, mainly those related to the location of the dividing surface and the proper definition of relative adsorption, have remained open over the years. To avoid these questions, the present paper proposes to analyze an interfacial phase by defining a thermodynamic system of constant, but nonzero thickness. The interfacial phase is analyzed as it really is, namely a nonuniform three-dimensional entity. The current analysis redevelops the equation for calculating surface tension, though with different assumptions. However, the main point in the proposed model is that the thermodynamic interfacial system, due to its fixed thickness, conforms to the requirement of first-order homogeneity of the internal energy. This property is the key that allows using the Gibbs adsorption isotherm. It is also characteristic of the Gibbs dividing surface model, but has not always been discussed with regard to subsequent models. The resulting equation leads to a simple, "natural" expression for the relative adsorption. This expression may be compared with simulations and sophisticated surface concentration measurements, and from which the dependence of interfacial tension on the solution composition can be derived. Finally, it is important to point out that in order to calculate the interfacial tension as well as the relative adsorption from data on the properties of the interfacial phase, there is no need to know its exact thickness, as long as it is bigger than the actual thickness but sufficiently small.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Anokhin


    Full Text Available Introduction. Determination of power quality indices in high-voltage power grids allows to find the reasons for the deterioration of the power quality. The relevant national and International Standards for power quality contain relevant norms of quality indices and requirements for their accuracy measurement. Problem. The most complicated part in the process of measuring the power quality indices at high voltage is the selection of the corresponding high-voltage scale voltage converters. Therefore, comparing the requirements of IEC 61000-4-30 to high voltage scale voltage converters is an important task. Goal. Analysis of the International Standard IEC 61000-4-30 requirements feasibility for measuring the indices of power quality in high-voltage electrical networks using different types of high-voltage scale voltage converters. Methodology. Comparison of the requirements of IEC 61000-4-30 Standard to high-voltage scale voltage converters, when measuring power quality indices, with the characteristics of high voltage electromagnetic transformers used in Ukraine, and with promising developments of high-voltage converters of other types. Results. It is shown in the study that in order to fulfill some of the requirements for class A of IEC 61000-4-30, the characteristics of electromagnetic voltage transformers should be determined in the substation conditions using mobile calibration high-voltage laboratories. To meet all the requirements for Class A IEC 61000-4-30, it is recommended to use broadband high-voltage dividers of resistive-capacitive type. Originality. In study it is shown firstly that all the requirements of the IEC 61000-4-30 Standard for high-voltage scale voltage converters can be performed on the basis of the use of broadband resistive-capacitive damped voltage dividers. Practical value. Expositions of specific types of resistive-capacitive high-voltage dividers are presented, their parameters are confirmed by the results of state


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In his contribution, the author wishes to trace a few of the contemporary trends of western European theology. He notes that alongside the growing infl uence of Roman Catholic theological thought in the West, there also arose a new theological divide between, what he terms, the romantic and the classical modes of theological orthodoxy. Both positions use diff erent methodological approaches in their common attempt at off ering resistance to secular modernity: the former appealing to the senses, the imagination and the fantasy, and the latter to unadulterated human reason.

  4. Digital Television, Convergence, and the Public: Another Digital Divide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Smith


    Full Text Available While 85 percent of Americans pay to receive television signals through satellite or cable companies, 15 percent still receive their television using over-the-air signals. With the elminination of analog television signals, the 15 percent of households have had to make significant changes in their viewing technology. These households tend to be elderly, poor, minority and rural. Signal coverage areas will be cut back, since government assumed a viewer would have an antenna on a 30 foot pole. Few do, and governmental programs delibertely hid this engineering fact. It is argued that digitalism has neglected the public use of the airways and created yet one more digital divide.

  5. Affinity and Hostility in Divided Communities: a Mathematical Model

    CERN Document Server

    Thron, Christopher


    We propose, develop, and analyze a mathematical model of intergroup attitudes in a community that is divided between two distinct social groups (which may be distinguished by religion, ethnicity, or some other socially distinguishing factor). The model is based on very simple premises that are both intuitive and justified by sociological research. We investigate the behavior of the model in various special cases, for various model configurations. We discuss the stability of the model, and the continuous or discontinuous dependence of model behavior on various parameters. Finally, we discuss possible implications for strategies to improve intergroup affinity, and to defuse tension and prevent deterioration of intergroup relationships.

  6. Green and sustainable median on a divided multilane highway (United States)

    Ambak, K.; Bajuri, F. A. A.; Yusoff, N. A.; Madun, A.; Prasetijo, J.


    The road system in Malaysia showed good growth with increasing number of vehicles on the road. However, statistic of road accident is still at an alarming rate. There are many factor can contribute to the occurrence of an accident. If the accident was caused by road facilities such as street furniture, it is shown that the street furniture was failed to improve the safety of the road users. In this study, a new concept of materials for the construction of road dividers was purpose. The sustainable materials such as laterite soil, Cow Grass, tires and PVC pipes was used to replace the cement and iron guardrails in road divider construction. The main objectives of this study is to design characteristics of a road divider using natural material such as laterite soil, sand, grass and recycle material like used a tyre. A series of experiments such as test liquid limit, plastic limit test, standard proctor test and observations of root growth in 30 days were conducted. The result shows that the plastic index value of 35% was obtained. From the proctor compaction test, the optimum water content was 23% and maximum dry density at 15.3 kN/m3. This value was used to build a prototype of green and sustainable raised road median. The suitability of sand used as the medium in irrigation system was approved. Permeability of sand is 10-2 mm/s to 10 mm/s which is having a high rate of flow. The growth of Cow Grass roots was increased by 4.9 cm in 30 days. This shows that, the grass is suitable to grow in laterite soil and can be used as vegetation material. Through the impact test conducted on a model with a scale of 1:7.5, indicate the initial damage occurred when a force reaches 10N. However, the condition of the model is still stable. From the impact test conducted, the prototype of green and sustainable raised road median has a good potential to be used as existing road divider as it can absorb the impact of an accident.


    Gulati, H L; Sandhu, H S


    Management information system (MIS) is increasingly being used for information storage, handling, processing and retrieval of data for improving the services provided by any organisation. It allows quick decision making for overall functional improvement. Headquarters Central Command (Medical) Lucknow has developed software for data capturing in respect of six important functional areas. These include employability and availability of specialist officers, assessment of hospital services through functional update and monitoring team (FUMTs), patient satisfaction survey, user commanders opinion, state of critical items of hospital clothing and modernisation of hospitals. This automation has resulted in quick and scientific decision making for improving the medicare services to the clientele.

  8. Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c command-line interface

    CERN Document Server

    Pot'Vin, Kellyn; Smith, Ray


    Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Command-Line Interface shows how to use Enterprise Manager's powerful scripting language to automate your database administration work and save time by scripting routine tasks, and then executing those scripts across collections of databases and instances in your environment. This book is chock full of ready-made scripting examples contributed by the authors and leading members of the community. For example, you'll find scripts and examples of commands to: Remove an Enterprise Manager agent and its related targetsQuickly create administrator accounts that are ful

  9. Three dimensional visualization to support command and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Slambrook, G.A.


    Virtual reality concepts are changing the way one thinks about and with computers. The concepts have already proven their potential usefulness in a broad range of applications. This research was concerned with exploring and demonstrating the utility of virtual reality in robotics and satellite command and control applications. The robotics work addressed the need to quickly build accurate graphical models of physical environments by allowing a user to interactively build a model of a remote environment by superimposing stereo graphics onto live stereo video. The satellite work addressed the fusion of multiple data sets or models into one synergistic display for more effective training, design, and command and control of satellite systems.

  10. Stratified Flow Past a Hill: Dividing Streamline Concept Revisited (United States)

    Leo, Laura S.; Thompson, Michael Y.; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Fernando, Harindra J. S.


    The Sheppard formula (Q J R Meteorol Soc 82:528-529, 1956) for the dividing streamline height H_s assumes a uniform velocity U_∞ and a constant buoyancy frequency N for the approach flow towards a mountain of height h, and takes the form H_s/h=( {1-F} ) , where F=U_{∞}/Nh. We extend this solution to a logarithmic approach-velocity profile with constant N. An analytical solution is obtained for H_s/h in terms of Lambert-W functions, which also suggests alternative scaling for H_s/h. A `modified' logarithmic velocity profile is proposed for stably stratified atmospheric boundary-layer flows. A field experiment designed to observe H_s is described, which utilized instrumentation from the spring field campaign of the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) Program. Multiple releases of smoke at F≈ 0.3-0.4 support the new formulation, notwithstanding the limited success of experiments due to logistical constraints. No dividing streamline is discerned for F≈ 10, since, if present, it is too close to the foothill. Flow separation and vortex shedding is observed in this case. The proposed modified logarithmic profile is in reasonable agreement with experimental observations.

  11. On a nonlinear Kalman filter with simplified divided difference approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong


    We present a new ensemble-based approach that handles nonlinearity based on a simplified divided difference approximation through Stirling\\'s interpolation formula, which is hence called the simplified divided difference filter (sDDF). The sDDF uses Stirling\\'s interpolation formula to evaluate the statistics of the background ensemble during the prediction step, while at the filtering step the sDDF employs the formulae in an ensemble square root filter (EnSRF) to update the background to the analysis. In this sense, the sDDF is a hybrid of Stirling\\'s interpolation formula and the EnSRF method, while the computational cost of the sDDF is less than that of the EnSRF. Numerical comparison between the sDDF and the EnSRF, with the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) as the representative, is conducted. The experiment results suggest that the sDDF outperforms the ETKF with a relatively large ensemble size, and thus is a good candidate for data assimilation in systems with moderate dimensions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Embodied ideas and divided selves: revisiting Laing via Bakhtin. (United States)

    Burkitt, Ian; Sullivan, Paul


    In this article, we apply Mikhail Bakhtin's model of a 'divided self' to R.D. Laing's eponymous work on the lived experience of divided selves in 'psychosis'. Both of these authors offer intriguing insights into the fracturing of self through its social relationships (including the 'micro-dialogues' staged for oneself) but from uniquely different perspectives. Bakhtin (1984) uses Dostoevsky's novels as his material for a theory of self, centrally concerned with moments of split identity, crisis, and personal transformation, while Laing relies on his patient's accounts of 'psychosis'. We will outline how two key Bakhtinian divisions of the self (spirit/soul and authoritative/internally persuasive discourse) help to make sense of Laing's descriptions of his patient's experiences and micro-dialogues. Conversely, when refracted through Laing's phenomenology Bakhtin's account of the self becomes richer and somewhat darkened in terms of a double-edged ontology, which describes a maximally open self but one that is consumed by ideas, unable to manage their contradictions. The implications of this for managing the dilemmas of self-identity will be drawn out.

  13. Divided attention impairs human motor adaptation but not feedback control. (United States)

    Taylor, Jordan A; Thoroughman, Kurt A


    When humans experience externally induced errors in a movement, the motor system's feedback control compensates for those errors within the movement. The motor system's predictive control then uses information about those errors to inform future movements. The role of attention in these two distinct motor processes is unclear. Previous experiments have revealed a role for attention in motor learning over the course of many movements; however, these experimental paradigms do not determine how attention influences within-movement feedback control versus across-movement adaptation. Here we develop a dual-task paradigm, consisting of movement and audio tasks, which can differentiate and expose attention's role in these two processes of motor control. Over the course of several days, subjects performed horizontal reaching movements, with and without the audio task; movements were occasionally subjected to transient force perturbations. On movements with a force perturbation, subjects compensated for the force-induced movement errors, and on movements immediately after the force perturbation subjects exhibited adaptation. On every movement trial, subjects performed a two-tone frequency-discrimination task. The temporal specificity of the frequency-discrimination task allowed us to divide attention within and across movements. We find that divided attention did not impair the within-movement feedback control of the arm, but did reduce subsequent movement adaptation. We suggest that the secondary task interfered with the encoding and transformation of errors into changes in predictive control.

  14. Crossing the Sacred/Secular Divide; Unraveling Turkish Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrow Lisa


    Full Text Available This paper unpacks the ideas in the poem “Pull Down My Statues” by Süleyman Apaydın, to examine some common descriptors in use about modern Turkey. Taking his inspiration from Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the modern Turkish republic, Apaydın ponders the success of Atatürk’s vision, based on the idea of a secular/sacred divide. Combining this with the way travel in Turkey is heavily promoted using the same themes, I explore how this divide, with its underlying connotations of West versus East and modernity versus tradition (as found in Turkey’s Ottoman past, is applied to Turkish identity. Turks are commonly portrayed as a homogenous people only differentiated by their degree of religiosity, but I argue that this analysis is too simplistic. Turkish identity has never been based on a single clear cut model, and this is becoming obvious as more traditional Islamic ways of life are being reworked by new forms of Islam based on capitalism. Consequently, although it is important to acknowledge Turkey’s past, looking to history for a way to steer through the complexities of the present is no longer useful or even relevant.

  15. Attitude estimation by divided difference filter in quaternion space (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad; Khayatian, Alireza; Karimaghaee, Paknoush


    This article considers the application of Divided Difference Filter (DDF) to the orientation estimation, based on a quaternion-error continuous-discrete time model. DDF is a nonlinear estimator that in contrast to Taylor's expansion of extended Kalman Filter (EKF), exploit the polynomial approximations as a multivariable extension of Stirling's interpolation formula and require no derivatives. The DDF can be based on 1st and 2nd order Stirling's interpolation, which is named the divided difference filter-1st order (DDF1) and the divided difference filter-2nd order (DDF2). The orientation kinematics is defined in a quaternion vector space that unlike the Euler angle representation does not have any singularity problem. The presented nonlinear orientation model is an exact error model and is independent of the rigid body dynamics. The nonlinear process model includes six error-states in which only non-scalar elements of quaternion error vector are included in the error-state equations. The fourth element of quaternion error vector, which obeys unit norm constraint, is removed from system states to alleviate the estimated error covariance matrix divergence. The measurement system is a MARG sensor, which consists of a tri-axial rate gyro, a tri-axial accelerometer and a tri-axial magnetometer. The nonlinear measurement model is obtained based on the principals of magnetometer and accelerometer and the properties of the quaternion vector space. For the presented nonlinear orientation model, the performance of three filters namely DDF, EKF and Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) is compared for different sampling frequencies in terms of the rms error, the captured area under the error norm curve, the estimated state variance and the computational cost. It is shown that under the same initial angle-error conditions, DDFs and UKF are more robust than EKF. The DDFs perform better than unscented Kalman filter (UKF) although the computational load for UKF is less. Among DDF1 and

  16. Revolutions in Global Networking and Collaborations, and the Digital Divide (United States)

    Newman, Harvey


    The major physics experiments of the next twenty five years, such as those at the Large Hadron Collider and the International Linear Collider, will break new ground in our understanding of the fundamental interactions, structures and symmetries that govern the nature of matter and spacetime. In order to realize the scientific wealth of these experimental programs, physicists have formed global-scale collaborations and built grid systems where the data is processed, distributed and collaboratively analyzed using networked computing facilities at more than 100 sites around the world. Effective use of these emerging ensembles of facilities and networks presents new challenges in Petabyte-scale data access, processing and distribution, and collaboration across national and international networks on a scale unprecedented in the history of science. The key to meeting these challenges is the effective use of data networks. The bandwidth use by high energy physicists, paralleled by scientists in other fields of data intensive science, continues to grow at several hundred times per decade, and there are indications that this growth is accelerating. This is helping to drive the growth of the major networks serving research and education, as well as mission-oriented networks in the US, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America and across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Physicists and computer scientists have together made striking technological advances in recent years, and have developed tools that allow full use of long range 10 gigabit/sec links on a routine basis for the first time. As the science community continues to advance in its development of networks and grid systems, a key concern is the rising Digital Divide between the favored and less-favored regions of the world. Closing the Divide is vital for the health of our global collaborations and our field. In this talk I will review these trends, and focus on the means to reduce the Digital Divide, from the perspective of

  17. Apostle Battery Table Bay Fire Command | Croock | Scientia Militaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 20, No 3 (1990) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Apostle Battery Table Bay Fire Command.

  18. United States Joint Forces Command Joint Frequency Management Office (United States)


    Ukraine 1 7 Latin American Nations at U.S. Fleet Forces Command - 7 Representatives Argentina 1 Brazil 1 Chile 1 Ecuador 1 Mexico 1 Peru 1 Colombia 1...Representative for the GEMSIS program. GEMSIS UNCLASSIFIED 14 USJFCOM J683 JFMO Major Issues/Concerns • Listen to the Operational Spectrum Managers  Too often

  19. 14 CFR 125.281 - Pilot-in-command qualifications. (United States)



  20. 14 CFR 125.283 - Second-in-command qualifications. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Second-in-command qualifications. 125.283... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION... CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Crewmember...

  1. 14 CFR 135.243 - Pilot in command qualifications. (United States)



  2. 14 CFR 135.245 - Second in command qualifications. (United States)



  3. Battlespace awareness and the Australian Army battlefield command support system (United States)

    Gaertner, Paul S.; Slade, Mark; Bowden, Fred; Stagg, Bradley; Huf, Samuel


    Effective battlespace awareness is essential for any defence operation; this is especially true in the increasingly complex and dynamic land component of the military environment. Because of its relatively small force size dispersed piece-wise across a large and largely vacant landmass, the Defence of Australia presents a somewhat unique challenge for the development of systems that support command decision-making. The intent of this paper is to first examine the digitisation effort under way in Australia and describe the Army Battlefield Command Support System (BCSS) being developed for use in the tactical arena. BCSS is essentially a suite of commercial-off-the-shelf and government-off-the-shelf software components provided via a standard operating environment to aid decision-making. Then, we present the development of a Tactical Land C4I Assessment Capability (TLCAC) synthetic environment which is being used to undertake controlled performance evaluations of the various elements of the BCSS suite and provide impact assessments of new technological advances. The TLCAC provides a capacity to assess in near real-time Brigade and below level command post exercise activities. That is, when deployed it provides a mechanism to automatically collect command and control and manoeuvre data, which can aid in the after action review process.

  4. RAPID: Collaborative Commanding and Monitoring of Lunar Assets (United States)

    Torres, Recaredo J.; Mittman, David S.; Powell, Mark W.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Abramyan, Lucy; Shams, Khawaja S.; Wallick, Michael; Allan, Mark; hide


    RAPID (Robot Application Programming Interface Delegate) software utilizes highly robust technology to facilitate commanding and monitoring of lunar assets. RAPID provides the ability for intercenter communication, since these assets are developed in multiple NASA centers. RAPID is targeted at the task of lunar operations; specifically, operations that deal with robotic assets, cranes, and astronaut spacesuits, often developed at different NASA centers. RAPID allows for a uniform way to command and monitor these assets. Commands can be issued to take images, and monitoring is done via telemetry data from the asset. There are two unique features to RAPID: First, it allows any operator from any NASA center to control any NASA lunar asset, regardless of location. Second, by abstracting the native language for specific assets to a common set of messages, an operator may control and monitor any NASA lunar asset by being trained only on the use of RAPID, rather than the specific asset. RAPID is easier to use and more powerful than its predecessor, the Astronaut Interface Device (AID). Utilizing the new robust middleware, DDS (Data Distribution System), developing in RAPID has increased significantly over the old middleware. The API is built upon the Java Eclipse Platform, which combined with DDS, provides platform-independent software architecture, simplifying development of RAPID components. As RAPID continues to evolve and new messages are being designed and implemented, operators for future lunar missions will have a rich environment for commanding and monitoring assets.

  5. A Cyberspace Command and Control Model (Maxwell Paper, Number 47) (United States)


    Business and Management (New York: Routledge, 2003). 28. Mark Skinner Watson. Chief of Staff: Prewar Plans and Preparations (Washington. DC: Center...from the Practice ojCommand and Control ( Mon - terey, CA: National Defense Research Institute, RAND Corporation, 1999). 53. Ibid., xiv. 54. Ibid

  6. The Squadron Commander’s Responsibility for Officer Professional Development (United States)


    competency Tactical Expertise Personal Embodies Airman Culture - Ethical Leadership -Followership -Warrior Ethos -Develops Self Communicating ...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE SQUADRON COMMANDER’S RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFICER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT by Patrick/Sutherland...wing. 4 Abstract Squadron commanders (Sq/CCs), as Air Force leaders, have a duty to help create future leaders. While officer professional

  7. Cognitive Systems Modeling and Analysis of Command and Control Systems (United States)

    Norlander, Arne


    Military operations, counter-terrorism operations and emergency response often oblige operators and commanders to operate within distributed organizations and systems for safe and effective mission accomplishment. Tactical commanders and operators frequently encounter violent threats and critical demands on cognitive capacity and reaction time. In the future they will make decisions in situations where operational and system characteristics are highly dynamic and non-linear, i.e. minor events, decisions or actions may have serious and irreversible consequences for the entire mission. Commanders and other decision makers must manage true real time properties at all levels; individual operators, stand-alone technical systems, higher-order integrated human-machine systems and joint operations forces alike. Coping with these conditions in performance assessment, system development and operational testing is a challenge for both practitioners and researchers. This paper reports on research from which the results led to a breakthrough: An integrated approach to information-centered systems analysis to support future command and control systems research development. This approach integrates several areas of research into a coherent framework, Action Control Theory (ACT). It comprises measurement techniques and methodological advances that facilitate a more accurate and deeper understanding of the operational environment, its agents, actors and effectors, generating new and updated models. This in turn generates theoretical advances. Some good examples of successful approaches are found in the research areas of cognitive systems engineering, systems theory, and psychophysiology, and in the fields of dynamic, distributed decision making and naturalistic decision making.

  8. The Role of the NCO Inside the BCT Command Post (United States)


    execute complex tactical tasks, train junior enlisted Soldiers on military occupational skills and drills at the individual and team level. NCOs...formation. Doctrine 2015 introduced the importance of mission command doctrine into operations at all levels of leadership , and in the last five

  9. Warfighter Associate: Decision Aiding and Metrics for Mission Command (United States)


    Distributions: highlights the Pareto Principle -- the top 20% of the mission-command staff is heavily involved in collaborations. • Our...1999999999 • status: unsalisfied • isActive: 1 FSO 12-03-2011 11:59:48 - ongoing Active Activity Based P ... • lnstanceld: lED Cross Border Transport

  10. US Africa Command (AFRICOM) and Nigeria's National Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The US decision to establish a unified combatant command (AFRICOM) in African has raised numerous questions, particularly in Africa, regarding its possible security implications for the continent. The article narrows itself to the concern for unraveling the national security implications of Nigeria's opposition to the location of

  11. EEG signal classification to detect left and right command using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the right and left commands explored are based on the actual movement of lifting either left or right hand and the imaginary movement of lifting either left or right hand. For this initial study, EEG signals recorded based on the actual physical movements will be collected as the raw data, as well as the EEG signals ...

  12. Measures of Similarity for Command and Control Situation Analysis (United States)


    CBR cycle (Figure 1), termed the four Rs in Aamodt and Plaza[2]: 1. Retrieve similar cases to the problem description, 2. Reuse a solution suggested by...Irandoust and A. Benaskeur. Political, Cultural and Command & Control Challenges in Coalitions. Canadian Defence Academy Press, In Press 2011. [2] A. Aamodt

  13. Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance: Mission Command and Centralized Control (United States)


    Ewell was the new commander of the Confederate Second Corps, having replaced the fallen Stonewall Jackson . Before the...mass of traffic moving south on the roads in the vicinity of Brehal, Gavray, and Percy . In places transport was moving bumper to bumper…the damage

  14. Satellite Telemetry and Command using Big LEO Mobile Telecommunications Systems (United States)

    Huegel, Fred


    Various issues associated with satellite telemetry and command using Big LEO mobile telecommunications systems are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Commercial Satellite system overviews: Globalstar, ICO, and Iridium; 2) System capabilities and cost reduction; 3) Satellite constellations and contact limitations; 4) Capabilities of Globalstar, ICO and Iridium with emphasis on Globalstar; and 5) Flight transceiver issues and security.

  15. United States Special Operations Command History, 15th Anniversary (United States)


    entering the Canal from the Caribbean side and patrolled the shipping channel near Colon , preventing the PDF from commandeering boats and...boarded a German merchant ship, Asian Senator, in Cristobal . Once at the pier, the SEALs saw men in civilian clothes running down the Asian

  16. Technical Standards for Command and Control Information Systems (CCISs) (United States)


    Naval Data Auo i Command USsC ACOC S1 system kItegratio Standards WutCDC., a g Ceniter Requiremnts H(.C (C412)0 D v PSI Plaratiii and Intaroperabity...PDTR 10167, ISO/IEC JTC1 SC21 (SC21 N 3252), February 1989. [Perez 1991] Personal communication with Sandra Perez, Concept Technology, Inc., (703) 425

  17. Command and Control during Security Incidents/Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipper, W. [NSTec


    This presentation builds on our response to events that pose, or have the potential to pose, a serious security or law enforcement risk and must be responded to and controlled in a clear a decisive fashion. We will examine some common concepts in the command and control of security-centric events.

  18. A Psychodynamic Systems Perspective on Command Relationship during Combat Operations (United States)


    and Group Psychology and Wilfred Bion Experiences in Groups and Other Papers. The objective of this paragraph is to introduce the reader to tangible...not related. 52 Questionnaire from Leader 4, Copenhagen 2016, paragraph 12. 53 Jørgensen...54 Questionnaire from Leader 3, Copenhagen 2016, paragraph 8. 55 Commanders gathering, is a meeting

  19. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 192 - Checklist for Commanders (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Checklist for Commanders A Appendix A to Part 192 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EQUAL OPPORTUNITY IN OFF-BASE HOUSING Pt. 192, App. A Appendix A to Part 192—Checklist for...

  20. Commander in chief : FDR's battle with Churchill, 1943

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamilton, Charles Nigel


    Commander in Chief is een deelbiografie van president Franklin Delano Roosevelt waarin Roosevelts rol als opperbevelhebber van de gewapende strijdkrachten van de Verenigde Staten in de Tweede Wereldoorlog het hoofdthema is. Het boek concentreert zich op het jaar 1943: een jaar waaraan biografen van

  1. An easily extendable interpreter comprising MCA and CAMAC commands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkum, E. L.; Elsenaar, R.J.


    A BASIC interpreter is a useful tool for writing small programs in a quick and easy way. For the control of experiments, however, it lacks a number of essential features. A BASIC-like command interpreter BACO has therefore been developed. It runs on PDP-11 computers with the RSX-11M operating

  2. Forest Service patrol captain and patrol commanders report: nationwide study (United States)

    Deborah J. Chavez; Joanne F. Tynon


    This is the third in a series of studies to evaluate perceptions of USDA Forest Service law enforcement personnel of the roles, responsibilities, and issues entailed in their jobs. An e-mail survey was administered to the 79 Forest Service patrol captains and patrol commanders (PCs) across the United States. Seventy completed and returned the questionnaire....

  3. Amniotic membrane graft to reconstruct divided nevi of eyelids. (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Kasturi; Singh, Manpreet; Bhattacharjee, Harsha


    Two patients with congenital divided nevi of the eyelids presented with chief symptoms of cosmetic blemish (n=2) and epiphora (n=1). All the lesions were surgically excised with histological free margins and amniotic membrane graft (AMG) was used to cover the mucosal and eyelid marginal defects. Caruncular and punctal involvement was managed with complete excision and monocanalicular stent insertion to prevent punctal stenosis. AMG provided an adequate scaffold for conjunctival regenesis and anatomic continuity was found within 6 weeks in both patients. None of them had any residual pigmentation or disease recurrence after a follow-up of more than 2.5 years. Local absence of eyelashes was the only drawback which patients masked with modern artificial eyelashes or make-up. This novel utility of AMG illustrates effective conjunctival regenesis and maintenance of mucocutaneous junction functionality. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. Envy Up, Scorn Down: How Comparison Divides Us (United States)

    Fiske, Susan T.


    Comparison compels people, even as it stresses, depresses, and divides us. Comparison is only natural, but the collateral damage reveals envy upward and scorn downward, and these emotions, arguably, poison people and their relationships. Summaries of several experiments—using questionnaire, psychometric, response-time, electromyographic, and neuroimaging data—illustrate the dynamics of envy up and scorn down, as well as proposing how to mitigate their effects. Initial studies suggest the importance of status. Other data show how scorn down minimizes thought about another’s mind; power deactivates mental concepts. Regarding envy up, other studies demonstrate that Schadenfreude (malicious joy) targets envied outgroups. However, counterstereotypic information, empathy, and outcome dependency can mitigate both scorn and envy. PMID:21058760

  5. Bridging the Digital Divide through Educational Initiatives: Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Butler


    Full Text Available Being on the wrong side of the digital divide limits the life chances of the socially excluded, who have had neither the wherewithal nor the opportunity to obtain highly paid, skilled positions in IT. Irish policy makers see education as the solution to this problem. However, provid-ing institutional support for the socially disadvantaged who wish to avail of third level education in IT poses significant challenges. This paper describes these problems and explains how they were overcome in implementing an undergraduate university programme called the Diploma in Applied Business Computing. This targeted initiative was an unqualified success in that it achieved its primary objectives--academic and social. However, what made it so was the commitment of concerned stakeholders, from members of the executive steering committee who developed and implemented the course, to the lecturers who delivered it, the companies who supported it, and the students who participated in it.

  6. Universal Service in a Broader Perspective: The European Digital Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Concepcion GARCIA-JIMENEZ


    Full Text Available Ensuring universal service is a top objective in many countries in order that all the citizens can have access basic communications services. Although the ICT equipment in households and its usage by individuals are essential prerequisites for benefiting from ICTs, the situation in the European Union is far from uniform. This article provides a description of the European information society development scenario using the values reached by the member states in a set of indicators selected for measuring said progress in households. Two tools are used for providing a broader perspective of the digital divide: a composite index and the cluster analysis. Below, a study is provided on what variables are relevant for interpreting the situation that is presented.

  7. Bridging the Mass Divide: Super & Massive AGB Star Yields (United States)

    Doherty, C. L.; Gil-Pons, P.; Lau, H. H. B.; Lattanzio, J. C.


    Super Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars (Super AGBs) lie in the mass range 6-11 M⊙, which bridges the divide between low/intermediate mass AGB and massive stars. During the thermally pulsing phase of evolution competition between hot bottom burning (HBB) and third dredge up (3DU) events determine the stellar yields. Obtaining these yields is far more computationally demanding than those of most AGB stars because Super AGBs undergo up to a few thousand thermal pulses. We describe results from evolutionary and nucleosynthetic calculations for these stellar models. We examine element production in these Super AGB stars over time, with results from five metallicities spanning the range Z = 0.02-10-4 ([Fe/H] 0 to -2.3). Super AGB star nucleosynthetic yields have hitherto been neglected in galactic chemical evolution modelling.

  8. Flagellation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in newly divided cells (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Lee, Calvin; Anda, Jaime; Wong, Gerard


    For monotrichous bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, after cell division, one daughter cell inherits the old flagellum from its mother cell, and the other grows a new flagellum during or after cell division. It had been shown that the new flagellum grows at the distal pole of the dividing cell when the two daughter cells haven't completely separated. However, for those daughter cells who grow new flagella after division, it still remains unknown at which pole the new flagellum will grow. Here, by combining our newly developed bacteria family tree tracking techniques with genetic manipulation method, we showed that for the daughter cell who did not inherit the old flagellum, a new flagellum has about 90% chances to grow at the newly formed pole. We proposed a model for flagellation of P. aeruginosa.

  9. Nationality Divides and Shared Leadership in Multinational Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paunova, Minna


    dynamics, shared leadership within the team, and team performance. We conduct two empirical studies, and find that the number and balance of identity subgroups have important implications for multinational team functioning, in line with social identity approaches. Interestingly, the number and balance......How shared leadership is enacted in teams that are nationally diverse is currently under- researched, despite the increasing presence of multinational teams in the workplace. To better understand the phenomenon of shared leadership in multinational team contexts, we propose two ways in which...... nationality-based characteristics of members may divide teams and affect leadership. We argue that the national belonging of members may result in both identity subgroups and status ranks. However, the configurational properties of identity subgroups and status ranks will have distinct effects on team...

  10. Envy up, scorn down: how comparison divides us. (United States)

    Fiske, Susan T


    Comparison compels people, even as it stresses, depresses, and divides us. Comparison is only natural, but the collateral damage reveals envy upward and scorn downward, and these emotions, arguably, poison people and their relationships. Summaries of several experiments--using questionnaire, psychometric, response-time, electromyographic, and neuroimaging data--illustrate the dynamics of envy up and scorn down, as well as proposing how to mitigate their effects. Initial studies suggest the importance of status. Other data show how scorn down minimizes thought about another's mind; power deactivates mental concepts. Regarding envy up, other studies demonstrate that Schadenfreude (malicious joy) targets envied outgroups. However, counterstereotypic information, empathy, and outcome dependency can mitigate both scorn and envy. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. The cultural divide: exploring communication barriers between scientists and clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda L. Restifo


    Despite remarkable advances in basic biomedical science that have led to improved patient care, there is a wide and persistent gap in the abilities of researchers and clinicians to understand and appreciate each other. In this Editorial, the authors, a scientist and a clinician, discuss the rift between practitioners of laboratory research and clinical medicine. Using their first-hand experience and numerous interviews throughout the United States, they explore the causes of this ‘cultural divide’. Members of both professions use advanced problem-solving skills and typically embark on their career paths with a deeply felt sense of purpose. Nonetheless, differences in classroom education, professional training environments, reward mechanisms and sources of drive contribute to obstacles that inhibit communication, mutual respect and productive collaboration. More than a sociological curiosity, the cultural divide is a significant barrier to the bench-to-bedside goals of translational medicine. Understanding its roots is the first step towards bridging the gap.

  12. Effect of dividing daylight in symmetric prismatic daylight collector (United States)

    Yeh, Shih-Chuan; Lu, Ju-Lin; Cheng, Yu-Chin


    This paper presented a symmetric prismatic daylight collector to collect daylight for the natural light illumination system. We analyzed the characteristics of the emerging light when the parallel light beam illuminate on the horizontally placed symmetric prismatic daylight collector. The ratio of the relative intensities of collected daylight that emerging from each surface of the daylight collector shown that the ratio is varied with the incident angle during a day. The simulation of the emerging light of the daylight collector shown that the ratio of emerging light is varied with the tilted angle when sunshine illuminated on a symmetric prismatic daylight collector which was not placed horizontally. The integration of normalized intensity is also varied with the tilted angle. The symmetric prismatic daylight collector with the benefits of reducing glare and dividing intensity of incident daylight, it is applicable to using in the natural light illumination system and hybrid system for improving the efficiency of utilizing of solar energy.

  13. Further reflections on the humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide. (United States)

    Waterman, Alan S


    Replies to comments by Morley (see record 2014-01475-010), Serlin (see record 2014-01475-011), Friedman (see record 2014-01475-012), Churchill and Mruk (see record 2014-01475-013), and Schneider (see record 2014-01475-014) on the current author's original article "The humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide: Contrasts in philosophical foundations" (see record 2013-12501-001). The article contrasting humanistic psychology and positive psychology with respect to their ontological, epistemological, and practical philosophical foundations has generated commentaries from leading proponents of varying perspectives within humanistic psychology. There is a great deal of material within those commentaries with which the current author is in full accord. It is worth noting at the outset that no one appears to be challenging the observations (a) that published exchanges between proponents of humanistic and positive psychology have been marked by tension and ambivalence, albeit with occasional efforts at reconciliation and rapprochement; (b) that proponents of the two perspectives differ with respect to the philosophers they most frequently cite in their writings; or (c) that such citations reflect the philosophical assumptions serving as foundations for the theoretical, research, and counseling/therapeutic endeavors of psychologists in both groups. The principal points of concurrence in the critiques published here are that the current underestimates the extent to which mutually supportive, collaborative work can be accomplished across the philosophical divide and that the recommendations the current author has made has advanced serious potential negative consequences for the field. The current author will address these points here in the reply, although space does not permit him to address other substantive points raised by individual commentators. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Spike sorting for polytrodes: a divide and conquer approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas V. Swindale


    Full Text Available In order to determine patterns of neural activity, spike signals recorded by extracellular electrodes have to be clustered (sorted with the aim of ensuring that each cluster represents all the spikes generated by an individual neuron. Many methods for spike sorting have been proposed but few are easily applicable to recordings from polytrodes which may have 16 or more recording sites. As with tetrodes, these are spaced sufficiently closely that signals from single neurons will usually be recorded on several adjacent sites. Although this offers a better chance of distinguishing neurons with similarly shaped spikes, sorting is difficult in such cases because of the high dimensionality of the space in which the signals must be classified. This report details a method for spike sorting based on a divide and conquer approach. Clusters are initially formed by assigning each event to the channel on which it is largest. Each channel-based cluster is then sub-divided into as many distinct clusters as possible. These are then recombined on the basis of pairwise tests into a final set of clusters. Pairwise tests are also performed to establish how distinct each cluster is from the others. A modified gradient ascent clustering (GAC algorithm is used to do the clustering. The method can sort spikes with minimal user input in times comparable to real time for recordings lasting up to 45 minutes. Our results illustrate some of the difficulties inherent in spike sorting, including changes in spike shape over time. We show that some physiologically distinct units may have very similar spike shapes. We show that RMS measures of spike shape similarity are not sensitive enough to discriminate clusters that can otherwise be separated by principal components analysis. Hence spike sorting based on least-squares matching to templates may be unreliable. Our methods should be applicable to tetrodes and scaleable to larger multi-electrode arrays (MEAs.

  15. Brain activity associated with selective attention, divided attention and distraction. (United States)

    Salo, Emma; Salmela, Viljami; Salmi, Juha; Numminen, Jussi; Alho, Kimmo


    Top-down controlled selective or divided attention to sounds and visual objects, as well as bottom-up triggered attention to auditory and visual distractors, has been widely investigated. However, no study has systematically compared brain activations related to all these types of attention. To this end, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activity in participants performing a tone pitch or a foveal grating orientation discrimination task, or both, distracted by novel sounds not sharing frequencies with the tones or by extrafoveal visual textures. To force focusing of attention to tones or gratings, or both, task difficulty was kept constantly high with an adaptive staircase method. A whole brain analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed fronto-parietal attention networks for both selective auditory and visual attention. A subsequent conjunction analysis indicated partial overlaps of these networks. However, like some previous studies, the present results also suggest segregation of prefrontal areas involved in the control of auditory and visual attention. The ANOVA also suggested, and another conjunction analysis confirmed, an additional activity enhancement in the left middle frontal gyrus related to divided attention supporting the role of this area in top-down integration of dual task performance. Distractors expectedly disrupted task performance. However, contrary to our expectations, activations specifically related to the distractors were found only in the auditory and visual cortices. This suggests gating of the distractors from further processing perhaps due to strictly focused attention in the current demanding discrimination tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Older people and digital disengagement: a fourth digital divide? (United States)

    Olphert, Wendy; Damodaran, Leela


    Digital technologies are becoming more pervasive in all areas of society. Enabling everyone to have access and capability to use the Internet and associated digital technologies, summed up in the term 'digital inclusion', is seen to have wide-ranging benefits to the individual, to the economy and to society. For older people, being digitally included can help them to maintain their independence, social connectedness and sense of worth in the face of declining health or limited capabilities, as well as also offering new opportunities to improve their quality of life. At present however, access to the technology and to the benefits is not equally distributed either between or within nations, and older people tend to be on the 'wrong' side of what is termed the 'digital divide'. Governments globally are developing strategies to promote digital inclusion and indeed Internet uptake is increasing steadily, including amongst older people. However, such strategies have focussed on getting people online, and there appears to be an assumption that once someone is online they will remain 'digitally engaged'. In fact statistics show that some users give up using the Internet, and there is emerging evidence that older people are more vulnerable to the factors which can lead to this outcome. The authors see this phenomenon as a potential but largely unrecognised 'fourth digital divide' which has serious implications for social inclusion. The objectives of this article are (a) to raise awareness of the phenomenon of digital disengagement by considering some of the emerging evidence, (b) to explore some of the potential implications of not recognising and therefore not addressing the needs of the digitally disengaged older population, and (c) to reveal the prevailing gap in knowledge which future research should address. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Divided Attention and Processes Underlying Sense of Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen eWen


    Full Text Available Sense of agency refers to the subjective feeling of controlling events through one’s behavior or will. Sense of agency results from matching predictions of one’s own actions with actual feedback regarding the action. Furthermore, when an action involves a cued goal, performance-based inference contributes to sense of agency. That is, if people achieve their goal, they would believe themselves to be in control. Previous studies have shown that both action-effect comparison and performance-based inference contribute to sense of agency; however, the dominance of one process over the other may shift based on task conditions such as the presence or absence of specific goals. In this study, we examined the influence of divided attention on these two processes underlying sense of agency in two conditions. In the experimental task, participants continuously controlled a moving dot for 10 s while maintaining a string of three or seven digits in working memory. We found that when there was no cued goal (no-cued-goal condition, sense of agency was impaired by high cognitive load. Contrastingly, when participants controlled the dot based on a cued goal (cued-goal-directed condition, their sense of agency was lower than in the no-cued-goal condition and was not affected by cognitive load. The results suggest that the action-effect comparison process underlying sense of agency requires attention. On the other hand, the weaker influence of divided attention in the cued-goal-directed condition could be attributed to the dominance of performance-based inference, which is probably automatic.

  18. Effect of the pollution control measures on PM2.5 during the 2015 China Victory Day Parade: Implication from water-soluble ions and sulfur isotope. (United States)

    Han, Xiaokun; Guo, Qingjun; Liu, Congqiang; Strauss, Harald; Yang, Junxing; Hu, Jian; Wei, Rongfei; Tian, Liyan; Kong, Jing; Peters, Marc


    Air pollution by particulate matter is a serious problem in Beijing. Strict pollution control measures have been carried out in Beijing prior to and during the 2015 China Victory Day Parade in order to improve air quality. This distinct event provides an excellent opportunity for investigating the impact of such measures on the chemical properties of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5). The water-soluble ions as well as sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate in PM2.5 collected between August 19 and September 18, 2015 (n = 31) were analyzed in order to trace the sources and formation processes of PM2.5 in Beijing. The results exhibit a decrease in concentration of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 including aerosol sulfate. In contrast, the mean values of δ34Ssulfate (4.7 ± 0.8‰ vs. 5.0 ± 2.0‰) and δ18Osulfate (18.3 ± 2.3‰ vs. 17.2 ± 6.0) in PM2.5 during the air pollution control period and the non-source control period exhibit no significant differences, which suggests that despite a reduction in concentration, the sulfate source remains identical for the two periods. It is inferred that the decrease in concentration of sulfate in PM2.5 mainly results from variations in air mass transport. Notably, the air mass during the pollution control period originated mainly from north and northeast and changed to southerly directions thereafter. The sulfur and oxygen isotopes of the sulfate point to coal combustion as the major source of sulfate in PM2.5 from the Beijing area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, L W; Hunt, S T; Savage, S F [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); McLaughlin, P D; Shepard, A P; Worl, J C [Battelle Seattle Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States)


    The following appendices contain the detailed analysis data for the questionnaires and various FDS-1 after action reports submitted to the Marine Corps Systems Command (MARCORSYSCOM) Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Systems' Engineer.

  20. Confronting the Mortal Enemy of Military Justice: New Developments in Unlawful Command Influence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark L Johnson


    ...) to the area of unlawful command influence.1 They serve as a reminder that unlawful command influence is still the mortal enemy of military justice,2 and that all military justice practitioners must be vigilant to prevent even the appearance...

  1. Should the Department of Defense Establish a Unified U.S. Logistics Command?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wenzel, Frank


    This monograph asserts that DoD should establish a Unified Combatant Command (COCOM)-level U.S. Logistics Command (USLOGCOM). DoD should begin a deliberate 10-20 year process to establish a USLOGCOM...

  2. The Knowledge Structure of the Commander in Asymmetric Battlefield: The Six Sights and Sensemaking Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ntuen, Celestine A


    .... While there are availability of information technology to help the commander in data processing and analysis, it is not surprising that in real time operations, the commander falls back on what has...


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ünsal SIĞRI; Ufuk BAŞAR


    The aim of this paper is to uncover emerging challenges of peacekeeping operations, determine the changes in command actions and its effects on the professional preparation of commanders by analyzing...

  4. Analysis of Recruit Attrition from the Navy's Delayed Entry Program and Recruit Training Command

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neuhalfen, Jon K


    .... The analysis uses the PRIDE database, provided by Commander, Navy Recruiting Command. Trend analyses are used to identify significant changes in enlistment and attrition behavior for recruits who joined from fiscal years 1998 through 2005...

  5. The Digital Divide in Romania – A Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela BORISOV


    Full Text Available The digital divide is a subject of major importance in the current economic circumstances in which Information and Communication Technologies (ICT are seen as a significant determinant of increasing the domestic competitiveness and contribute to better life quality. Latest international reports regarding various aspects of ICT usage in modern society reveal a decrease of overall digital disparity towards the average trends of the worldwide ITC’s sector – this relates to latest advances of mobile and computer penetration rates, both for personal use and for households/ business. In Romania, the low starting point in the development of economy and society in the ICT direction was, in some extent, compensated by the rapid annual growth of the last decade. Even with these dynamic developments, the statistical data still indicate poor positions in European Union hierarchy; in this respect, the prospects of a rapid recovery of the low performance of the Romanian ICT endowment and usage and the issue continue to be regarded as a challenge for progress in economic and societal terms. The paper presents several methods for assessing the current state of ICT related aspects in terms of Internet usage based on the latest data provided by international databases. The current position of Romanian economy is judged according to several economy using statistical methods based on variability measurements: the descriptive statistics indicators, static measures of disparities and distance metrics.

  6. Actin in dividing cells: contractile ring filaments bind heavy meromyosin. (United States)

    Schroeder, T E


    Many microfilaments and microtubules are well preserved after glycerol-extraction of HeLa cells at room temperature (22 degrees ). Incubation in heavy meromyosin from rabbit skeletal muscle results in conspicuous and characteristic "decoration" of microfilaments of the contractile ring. Decoration is completely prevented by 10 mM ATP or 2 mM pyrophosphate, and fails to occur if heavy meromyosin is either omitted or replaced by egg albumin, a nonspecific protein. Decorated microfilaments have a substructure consisting of polarized, repeating arrowheads 27-35 nm apart. The specificity of these results strongly suggests that microfilaments of the contractile ring in HeLa cells are closely related to muscle actin. Very thin undecorated strands among the microfilaments of the contractile ring possibly represent a myosin component. These findings are discussed in terms of: the actomyosin-like properties of the contractile ring as a mechanochemical organelle that causes cell cleavage; the probable universal occurrence of actin-like protein in all dividing animal cells; and the contractile ring's combined sensitivity to cytochalasin B and its affinity for heavy meromyosin, a combination unique among microfilamentous organelles.

  7. Digital divide, biometeorological data infrastructures and human vulnerability definition (United States)

    Fdez-Arroyabe, Pablo; Lecha Estela, Luis; Schimt, Falko


    The design and implementation of any climate-related health service, nowadays, imply avoiding the digital divide as it means having access and being able to use complex technological devices, massive meteorological data, user's geographic location and biophysical information. This article presents the co-creation, in detail, of a biometeorological data infrastructure, which is a complex platform formed by multiple components: a mainframe, a biometeorological model called Pronbiomet, a relational database management system, data procedures, communication protocols, different software packages, users, datasets and a mobile application. The system produces four daily world maps of the partial density of the atmospheric oxygen and collects user feedback on their health condition. The infrastructure is shown to be a useful tool to delineate individual vulnerability to meteorological changes as one key factor in the definition of any biometeorological risk. This technological approach to study weather-related health impacts is the initial seed for the definition of biometeorological profiles of persons, and for the future development of customized climate services for users in the near future.

  8. Cultural safety and nursing education in divided societies. (United States)

    Arieli, Daniella; Mashiach, Michal; Hirschfeld, Miriam J; Friedman, Victor


    This research explores the experiences of cultural safety among nursing students from majority and minority groups in a divided society with implications for academic satisfaction and success. The study takes place in an academic nursing program in Israel, where Arab and Jewish students study together. A researcher-developed questionnaire was used with 17 statements concerning social relations between students, faculty support, and the effects of social relations on academic satisfaction and outcomes. Significant differences were found in the ways Arab and Jewish students perceived the cultural safety of the environment. Arab students perceived social relations and faculty attitude as less positive than Jewish students and perceived cultural safety as having greater influence on academic satisfaction and success. The findings indicate that students from different groups will perceive the same shared reality in significantly different ways. Nurse faculty and administrators need to make efforts to bring perceptions into closer alignment and to minimize the negative impact of external conflicts on feelings of cultural safety.

  9. Divided attention and mental effort after severe traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Azouvi, Philippe; Couillet, Josette; Leclercq, Michel; Martin, Yves; Asloun, Sybille; Rousseaux, Marc


    The aim of this study was to assess dual-task performance in TBI patients, under different experimental conditions, with or without explicit emphasis on one of two tasks. Results were compared with measurement of the subjective mental effort required to perform each task. Forty-three severe TBI patients at the subacute or chronic phase performed two tasks under single- and dual-task conditions: (a) random generation; (b) visual go-no go reaction time task. Three dual-task conditions were given, requiring either to consider both tasks as equally important or to focus preferentially on one of them. Patients were compared to matched controls. Subjective mental effort was rated on a visual analogic scale. TBI patients showed a disproportionate increase in reaction time in the go-no go task under the dual-task condition. However, they were just as able as controls to adapt performance to the specific instructions about the task to be emphasised. Patients reported significantly higher subjective mental effort, but the variation of mental effort according to task condition was similar to that of controls. These results suggest that the divided attention deficit of TBI patients is related to a reduction in available processing resources rather than an impairment of strategic processes responsible for attentional allocation and switching. The higher level of subjective mental effort may explain why TBI patients frequently complain of mental fatigue, although this subjective complaint seems to be relatively independent of cognitive impairment.

  10. Combas & Co. or the Figure and the Great Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Yaari


    Full Text Available The young painter, Robert Combas, leader of the 1980s "figuration libre" 'free figuration' movement, is seen here both as representative of stylistic and thematic trends in contemporary French art, and as illustrative, through the unfolding of his career, of the object "painting" and its sociology in contemporary France. Examined are: first, the "Postmodern convergence" of figurative, indeed narrative art, with the collapse of the "great divide" between elite and popular art forms; and second, traits such as hypertrophic verbal paratext, high erotic content, and political stand. Similar threads are followed in the work of a number of other artists, old and young, established or not, female and male—hence the "& Co." of the title. The essay raises, without claiming to solve, a set of sociologically and politically informed questions: What forces have shaped Combas' sensibility and style? What forces have made him a minor celebrity domestically, one that France's awesome cultural apparatus considers worthy of export? What, in the formation of contemporary mentalities and tastes, may account for the parallels found among artists as diverse as Combas, Quardon, Pierre and Gilles, Ben, and Klossowski?

  11. Movement Synchrony Forges Social Bonds Across Group Divides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar eTuncgenc


    Full Text Available Group dynamics play an important role in the social interactions of both children and adults. A large amount of research has shown that merely being allocated to arbitrarily defined groups can evoke disproportionately positive attitudes toward one’s in-group and negative attitudes toward out-groups, and that these biases emerge in early childhood. This prompts important empirical questions with far-reaching theoretical and applied significance. How robust are these inter-group biases? Can biases be mitigated by behaviors known to bond individuals and groups together? How can bonds be forged across existing group divides? To explore these questions, we examined the bonding effects of interpersonal synchrony on minimally constructed groups in a controlled experiment. In-group and out-group bonding were assessed using questionnaires administered before and after a task in which groups performed movements either synchronously or non-synchronously in a between-participants design. We also developed an implicit behavioral measure, the Island Game, in which physical proximity was used as an indirect measure of interpersonal closeness. Self-report and behavioral measures showed increased bonding between groups after synchronous movement. Bonding with the out-group was significantly higher in the condition in which movements were performed synchronously than when movements were performed non-synchronously between groups. The findings are discussed in terms of their importance for the developmental social psychology of group dynamics as well as their implications for applied intervention programs.

  12. The influence of spatial separation on divided listening. (United States)

    Best, Virginia; Gallun, Frederick J; Ihlefeld, Antje; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G


    If spatial attention acts like a "spotlight," focusing on one location and excluding others, it may be advantageous to have all targets of interest within the same spatial region. This hypothesis was explored using a task where listeners reported keywords from two simultaneous talkers. In Experiment 1, the two talkers were placed symmetrically about the frontal midline with various angular separations. While there was a small performance improvement for moderate separations, the improvement decreased for larger separations. However, the dependency of the relative talker intensities on spatial configuration accounted for these effects. Experiment 2 tested whether spatial separation improved the intelligibility of each source, an effect that could counteract any degradation in performance as sources fell outside the spatial spotlight of attention. In this experiment, intelligibility of individual sources was equalized across configurations by adding masking noise. Under these conditions, the cost of divided listening (the drop in performance when reporting both messages compared to reporting just one) was smaller when the spatial separation was small. These results suggest that spatial separation enhances the intelligibility of individual sources in a competing pair but increases the cost associated with having to process both sources simultaneously, consistent with the attentional spotlight hypothesis.

  13. Viatical settlement tax reform: Republicans support relief, Democrats divided. (United States)

    James, J S; Roehr, B


    Congress is considering the tax exempt status on money received from a life insurance policy before death of a person with a short life expectancy due to illness. Tax exempt status is being considered for both accelerated benefits and viatical settlement. Accelerated benefits allows for pre-payment in advance of death. A viatical settlement is the purchase of an insurance policy by third parties with the condition of their becoming the irrevocable beneficiary of the policy being purchased. While House Republicans on the House Ways and Means Committee are generally supportive of not taxing viatical settlements, Democrats are divided. Letters to Congress are needed, especially to House Ways and Means Democrats from voters in their districts and states to encourage their support of the reform bill (HR 8, the Senior Citizens' Equity Act) which includes tax relief for both accelerated benefits and viatical settlements. More information can be obtained by calling Gary Rose, National Association of People with AIDS, (202) 898-0414, or Tom McCormack, Affording Care, (202) 479-2543.

  14. Divided Universities: The Postcolonial Experience of Contemporary Ukrainian Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Svyrydenko


    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of Ukrainian divided universities, which appear at the result of Revolution of Dignity, annexation of Crimea by Russia as well as formation of quasi-republics of the East of Ukraine. Most of educational institutions form these territories were evacuated (students and teaching stuff, but “twin universities” appeared using campus and facilities of migrated ones. Author demonstrates the heuristic potential of using the interdisciplinary approaches for understanding the essence of this situation applying metaphors like “university cloning”, “university mitosis” and so on. This approach is strengthened by the ethical judgment through the basic axiological values of modern “idea of university” (freedom of thinking, academic freedom, institutional autonomy, will of knowledge and truth etc. collected at Magna Charta Universitatum. From these positions, migrated universities comprehend as an active bearer and translator of “idea of university”. The “twin universities” have a lot of formal arguments to be comprehended as authentic ones, but author stresses on the fact that these institutions don’t fit the universities axiological criteria: these universities rejected ones’ own tradition; teachers are ready to work in censored conditions and manipulate the knowledge; teachers and students risk to became subjects of violence; the autonomy and academic freedom are absent. Author also appeals the historical facts on the example of Cambridge University origination that let make the optimistic conclusion concerning the perspectives of migrated universities

  15. Universal logic gates via liquid-electronic hybrid divider. (United States)

    Zhou, Bingpu; Wang, Limu; Li, Shunbo; Wang, Xiang; Hui, Yu Sanna; Wen, Weijia


    We demonstrated two-input microdroplet-based universal logic gates using a liquid-electronic hybrid divider. All 16 Boolean logic functions have been realized by manipulating the applied voltages. The novel platform consists of a microfluidic chip with integrated microdroplet detectors and external electronic components. The microdroplet detectors act as the communication media for fluidic and electronic information exchange. The presence or absence of microdroplets at the detector translates into the binary signal 1 or 0. The embedded micro-mechanical pneumatically actuated valve (PAV), fabricated using the well-developed multilayer soft lithography technique, offers biocompatibility, flexibility and accuracy for the on-chip realization of different logic functions. The microfluidic chip can be scaled up to construct large-scale microfluidic logic computation. On the other hand, the microfluidic chip with a specific logic function can be applied to droplet-based chemical reactions for on-demand bio or chemical analysis. Our experimental results have presented an autonomously driven, precision-controlled microfluidic chip for chemical reactions based on the IF logic function.

  16. Does fish ecology predict dispersal across a river drainage divide? (United States)

    Burridge, Christopher P; Craw, Dave; Jack, Daniel C; King, Tania M; Waters, Jonathan M


    Obligate freshwater taxa are frequently distributed among catchments isolated by marine and terrestrial barriers. Such distributions can arise through vicariant changes in drainage geometry, or dispersal via intermittent freshwater connections. We employed two adjacent rivers in southern New Zealand to test for interdrainage dispersal while controlling for historical drainage geometry, and analyzed four ecologically distinct freshwater-limited fish taxa to assess any relationship with habitat preference. Individuals from the Mararoa and Oreti catchments (n >100 per species) were sequenced for a minimum of 1297 bp of mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b and control region). Phylogeographic relationships were consistent with ecological expectations of interdrainage dispersal capability, with the two obligate riverine taxa each exhibiting reciprocal monophyly between catchments, whereas the two facultative swamp dwellers revealed paraphyletic relationships, one of which shared a haplotype between catchments. Statistical phylogeography, accommodating taxon-specific mutation rates and the known age of the last major riverine connection between these catchments, rejected complete isolation of populations for one of the swamp dwellers. Therefore, dispersal across a young (145-240 kyr) drainage divide is inferred for one species, and can be predicted to some extent by species ecology. Moreover, our study highlights the importance of historical drainage geometry when assessing the causes of contemporary genetic structuring in freshwater taxa.

  17. Informaticiens Sans Frontieres: Helping to bridge the Digital Divide

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    ISF was formed as a CERN club during the World Summit for the Information Society, in Geneva, in 2003. Today we are involved in a number of international projects aimed to helping Africa bridge the Digital Divide, as well as using computing power (BOINCs) in the research against Malaria, or creating GRIDs that could allow African universities to join us in scientific research projects such as the LHC. Our latest project, named MANGO Net, is aimed at capacity building, by creating a network of computer assembly schools across the continent, which would form hardware and software technicians, create assembly centres, and lay the foundation for a future IT industry. ISF est né comme un club du CERN, en 2003, pendant le Sommet Mondiale de la Société de l'information à Genève. Aujourd'hui nous participons à plusieurs projets avec le but d'aider l'Afrique à reduire la Fracture Numérique, ou de fournir de la puissance de calcul (BOINC) à la recherche contre le Paludisme, ou en créant des GRIDs qui pourra...

  18. Universal logic gates via liquid-electronic hybrid divider

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Bingpu


    We demonstrated two-input microdroplet-based universal logic gates using a liquid-electronic hybrid divider. All 16 Boolean logic functions have been realized by manipulating the applied voltages. The novel platform consists of a microfluidic chip with integrated microdroplet detectors and external electronic components. The microdroplet detectors act as the communication media for fluidic and electronic information exchange. The presence or absence of microdroplets at the detector translates into the binary signal 1 or 0. The embedded micro-mechanical pneumatically actuated valve (PAV), fabricated using the well-developed multilayer soft lithography technique, offers biocompatibility, flexibility and accuracy for the on-chip realization of different logic functions. The microfluidic chip can be scaled up to construct large-scale microfluidic logic computation. On the other hand, the microfluidic chip with a specific logic function can be applied to droplet-based chemical reactions for on-demand bio or chemical analysis. Our experimental results have presented an autonomously driven, precision-controlled microfluidic chip for chemical reactions based on the IF logic function. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Field Marshall von Manstein’s Counteroffensive of Army Group South, February-March 1943: The Last Operational Level Victory of the Panzer Forces on the Eastern Front (United States)


    opposite. Though .he Soviet Fronts oanied around, they had not destroyed the German forces. 24 i , 2r4 General Frido Von Senger, commander of the 17th...The Soviet General Staff at War, 108. 9 Frido von Senger, Neither Fear Nor Hope, (London: Macdonald Publishing, 1960), 97-98. The Rhodes Scholar...Senger, Frido von. Neither Fear Nor Hope. London: Macdonald Publishing, 1960. Scheibert, Horst. Panzer Grenadier Division Grossdeutschland. Warren

  20. Digital Gunnery: How Combat Vehicle Gunnery Training Creates a Model for Training the Mission Command System. (United States)


    xi CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION .........................................................................................1 Introduction ...33 Mission Command Doctrine: Philosophy and Warfighting Function .......................... 36 Literature Review Conclusion...39 Introduction



    Ferenc SÁNTHA


    The article deals with the responsibility for a crime committed by command. In international criminal law exists two types of responsibilities. The first is the so called direct or active command responsibility, when the commander displays an active behavior in regards of the crime committed by subordinates, for example, by ordering them to commit a crime. These cases should be judged based on the traditional individual responsibility and the commander should be considered as a perpetrator ba...

  2. Financial Audit: Financial Reporting and Internal Controls at the Air Force Systems Command (United States)


    United States General Accounting Office GAO Report 1,o, the Commander, Air Force -A0 Systems Command Janar 191FINANCI-AL AUDTFI Financial Reporting ...20332 Dear General Yates: This report presents the results of our review of the Air Force Systems Command’s financial management operations. It addresses...internal control and financial reporting improvements needed within the Air Force Systems Command. The report resulted from our examination of the

  3. 14 CFR 61.57 - Recent flight experience: Pilot in command. (United States)


    ... command must hold at least a commercial pilot certificate with the appropriate category, class, and type... to the month of the flight. (ii) The pilot in command must hold at least a commercial pilot... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recent flight experience: Pilot in command...

  4. Air Force Commanders and Barriers to Entry into a Doctoral Business Program (United States)

    Williams, Tony; LeMire, Steven D.


    The authors examined professionally qualified Air Force commanders' barriers to entry into a business doctoral degree program related to the factors of time, financial means, academics, and motivation. Of the 116 present commanders, 63% were interested in pursuing a doctorate in business. For the commanders interested in obtaining a doctorate…

  5. Enhancement of the Logistics Battle Command Model: Architecture Upgrades and Attrition Module Development (United States)


    Battle Command Model Architecture Upgrades and Attrition Module Development U.S. Army TRADOC Analysis Center-Monterey 700 Dyer...17-010 January 2017 Enhancement of the Logistics Battle Command Model Architecture Upgrades and Attrition Module Development Nathan Parker...Logistics Battle Command Model Architecture Upgrades and Attrition Module Development 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  6. The Naval Plant Representative Office Organization Transition into the Defense Contract Management Command; Impacts on Customers (United States)


    Representative Office organization transition into the Defense Contract Management Command: impacts on customers Tiffany, Murray L., III Monterey, California...1 TITLE (Include Security Classification) The Naval Plant Representative Office Organization Transition into the Defense Contract Management Command...public release; distribution is unlimited. The Naval Plant Representative Office Organization Transition into the Defense Contract Managagement Command

  7. 32 CFR 536.8 - Responsibilities and operations of command claims services. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Responsibilities and operations of command claims... responsibility. (12) Appoint FCCs. (b) Operations of command claims services. The SJA of the command shall... CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.8 Responsibilities and...

  8. 14 CFR 91.3 - Responsibility and authority of the pilot in command. (United States)


    ... § 91.3 Responsibility and authority of the pilot in command. (a) The pilot in command of an aircraft is... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility and authority of the pilot in command. 91.3 Section 91.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  9. The Impact of Technology on the Command, Control, and Organizational Structure of Insurgent Groups (United States)



  10. AFRL Commander's Challenge 2015: stopping the active shooter (United States)

    McIntire, John P.; Boston, Jonathan; Smith, Brandon; Swartz, Pete; Whitney-Rawls, Amy; Martinez Calderon, Julian; Magin, Jonathan


    In this work, we describe a rapid-innovation challenge to combat and deal with the problem of internal, insider physical threats (e.g., active shooters) and associated first-responder situation awareness on military installations. Our team's research and development effort described within focused on several key tech development areas: (1) indoor acoustical gunshot detection, (2) indoor spatial tracking of first responders, (3) bystander safety and protection, (4) two-way mass alerting capability, and (5) spatial information displays for command and control. The technological solutions were specifically designed to be innovative, low-cost, and (relatively) easy-to-implement, and to provide support across the spectrum of possible users including potential victims/bystanders, first responders, dispatch, and incident command.

  11. Advances in Discrete-Event Simulation for MSL Command Validation (United States)

    Patrikalakis, Alexander; O'Reilly, Taifun


    In the last five years, the discrete event simulator, SEQuence GENerator (SEQGEN), developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to plan deep-space missions, has greatly increased uplink operations capacity to deal with increasingly complicated missions. In this paper, we describe how the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) project makes full use of an interpreted environment to simulate change in more than fifty thousand flight software parameters and conditional command sequences to predict the result of executing a conditional branch in a command sequence, and enable the ability to warn users whenever one or more simulated spacecraft states change in an unexpected manner. Using these new SEQGEN features, operators plan more activities in one sol than ever before.

  12. Circuit de commande pour Anti Collision Lamps ACL


    Gerber, Jérôme; Biner, Hans-Peter


    Objectif Les ACL sont des ampoules 28V/200W utilisés dans le domaine de l’éclairage professionnel. Habituellement, 8 ampoules sont branchées en série sur le réseau. Suite à ce montage, une commande individuelle de la luminosité n’est pas possible. L’appareil conçu dans ce projet met toutes les ampoules en parallèle sur un bus de tension continue à 28Vdc. La commande individuelle est maintenant possible. Une protection anti-courtcircuit est aussi conçue afin de sécuriser l’installation. Pour a...

  13. Joint Command, Control and Communications: An Army Perspective (United States)


    This functional representation is presented in Figure 7. (Operational and Organizational Plan for Mobile Subscriber Equipment (MSE) System, 1986, p. 3...Typically a few gateway switches at -he DSN (located in CONUS, Europe and Pacific) are connected to a few major command gateways (AN/TTC-39s) in the AOR...SMechanized Infantry MECH INF SArmored Recon (CAV) ARC ; Armored ArWlAery (Self AARTY (SP) ___Propelled)m SlgnaVCommo SIG ; Transportation TRANS Psycologi c

  14. Transforming Airborne Command and Control and Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (United States)


    Staff level. Lt Col Roger “Charlie” Brown offered key perspective at the Major Command level. Lt Col Herb “Weed” Maraman, Sqn Ldr Mike Lyttle...Other analysts say that the aircraft avionics and sensor equipment also rely on satellite connectivity for critical data and any loss of satellite...the battlefield could provide more redundant communications through various BLOS and LOS voice and data links. The requirements are broad in nature

  15. USN/USMC Commander’s Quick Reference Legal Handbook (United States)


    stigma often associated with seeking mental health care. MENTAL HEALTH REFERALS: Commanders and appropriate supervisors who in good faith believe...COMMANDER’S RESPONSIBILITIES PRIOR TO MAKING A MHE REFERAL:  NON-EMERGENCY SITUATIONS: Advise the Servicemember that there is no stigma associated with...facilitate customs and immigration inspections and ensure proper immigration clearances for military and civilian passengers.  The CO must ensure that

  16. The Ten Commandments tra Vecchio e Nuovo Testamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Berti Raffaele


    Full Text Available Cecil B. DeMille adapted for the screen the biblical text of Exodus twice, and in both cases he devised sophisticated strategies for intersemiotic translation with the aim to create a great show for a popular Christian audience. This is the reason why The Ten Commandments cannot be considered a mere illustration of the biblical story but instead a complex fiction film, which uses the Bible only as a starting point.

  17. The Ten Commandments tra Vecchio e Nuovo Testamento


    De Berti Raffaele; Tomaso Subini


    Cecil B. DeMille adapted for the screen the biblical text of Exodus twice, and in both cases he devised sophisticated strategies for intersemiotic translation with the aim to create a great show for a popular Christian audience. This is the reason why The Ten Commandments cannot be considered a mere illustration of the biblical story but instead a complex fiction film, which uses the Bible only as a starting point.

  18. Kesselring: An Analysis of the German Commander at Anzio. (United States)


    When the British attack began on the night of 17-18 January, von Senger knew immediately that he was in trouble . As the extent of the British...the next section. In general, however, Kesselring as a com- mander deserves close attention, not only to plumb the depths of his command personalit ...of time and snace. I would like to take the opportunity to commend a few of these discussions for further research. One of the more troubling aspects

  19. Nuclear Command and Control: Current Programs and Issues (United States)


    Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse ( HEMP ) and High Power Microwave (HPM) Devices: Threat Assessments, by Clay Wilson. 54 Dee Ann Divis, “Protection Not in...Some analysts argue that detonating a high altitude nuclear burst to generate EMP against the U.S. critical infrastructure might be one way that China...infrastructure, including command and control systems, through an electromagnetic pulse (EMP).53 A high altitude nuclear explosion generates an electrical

  20. The cuckoo clock syndrome : addicted to command, allergic to leadership


    Grint, Keith


    This article considers the extent to which we are addicted to particular ways of configuring the world and responding in a culturally appropriate way. It suggests that the original Tame and Wicked problems typology of Rittell and Webber (1973) can be usefully expanded to provide a heuristic for explaining this addiction and then focuses upon the most common approach an addiction to Crisis and Command. Some likely explanations for this addiction are discussed and some illustrative examples pro...

  1. Senior Level Leadership and Commands: A Selected Bibliography. (United States)


    and Executives. MA Thesis, US Naval Postgraduate School, 1981. Alexandria: Defense Technical Information Center, 1982. (V425 U5 TH A33) 2. Bennis ...Warren, and Nanus , Burt. Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge. New York: Harper & Row, 1985. (HD57.7 B46 1985) 3. Blanchard, Kenneth; Zigarmi...Davis, Bennie L. "Officership: A Profound Commitment." Air Force Policy Letter for Commanders Supplement, January 1981, pp. 24-29. 35. Denno, Bryce F

  2. Deja vu: The Unified Command Plan of the Future Revisited (United States)


    Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited Déjà vu : The Unified Command Plan of the Future Revisited A Monograph by Lieutenant...DD-MM-YYYY) 19-05-2011 2. REPORT TYPE Monograph 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JUL 2010 – MAY 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Déjà vu : The Unified...i SCHOOL OF ADVANCED MILITARY STUDIES MONOGRAPH APPROVAL Lieutenant Colonel Edward Francis Martignetti Title of Monograph: Déjà vu : The Unified

  3. Command and Functional Analysis of the Intelligence Systems Architecture Assessment (United States)


    requirements of the GCE. Currently, a de facto ACE CIC is formed on an ad hoc basis and is virtually imbedded in the Tactical Air Command Center (TACC). It...34w). Mo NSMoffe Cbp**c Sqqxtfaci~iy (MCSF orSdTCOM ltay ,j. for aeaw pia intlgkmmc Yoke ad/or dat oumu~ * AV Lm .R Sgweal Rq~ouwin ad Aula Chaik

  4. Evolution of the Air Component Commander Post Goldwater-Nichols (United States)


    command of the air forces for the Normandy invasion never actually existed. Instead, Eisenhower was forced to deal with three separated entities...Saudi Ministry of Defense and Aviation ( MODA ) building, located in Riyadh, for CENTCOM Headquarters. He also chose the Royal Saudi Air Forces...fight. The fourth and final job of the CFACC was the actual combat role, including planning and tasking. The challenge for Moseley was to prepare

  5. Headquarters Air Force Material Command Customer Relationship Study (United States)


    uses information about each customer to make each customer more valuable to the organization, and the organization more valuable to the customer , while...decreasing the cost of servicing the customer . However, an organization cannot conform to customer specifications if the needs of the customers as...well as what the customer values is not known. As a result, Headquarters (HQ) Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) is taking the initiative to gain an

  6. Commanders Guidance and Campaign Planning - The Falkland Islands War 1982 (United States)


    Exacerbating this was an unanticipated shift in the timeline, which moved up the invasion date by six months. The fact that they were executed with...information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM...YYYY) 29-03-2017 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN2016 – MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Commanders Guidance and

  7. Commanding in Chief, Strategic Leader Relationships in the Civil War (United States)


    the principle of a civilian leader rather than a uniformed officer at the head of the military. The framers of the Constitution most likely...such as video teleconferencing, is not a panacea for overcoming ineffective communication skills. It is imperative for a Commander in Chief to...C. Waugh, “Lincoln and McClellan,” Banner Lecture Series, Virginia Historical Society, Richmond, VA, May 12, 2011, video file. http://www.c

  8. Disagreement, Cognitive Command, and the Indexicality of Moral Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reichardt Bastian


    Full Text Available Moral Relativism can be considered an attractive alternative to realism because relativists can make good sense of cultural and societal disagreements by seeing them as faultless. However, we can show that this advantage is made possible by systematically disagreeing with moral phenomenology. Relativists make a substantial distinction between intercultural and intracultural discourses which turns out to be incoherent. This can be shown by making use of Crispin Wright’s notion of Cognitive Command.

  9. A Work Domain Analysis of Shipboard Command and Control (United States)


    lors d’événements imprévus ou de situations anormales. Évaluer une situation en cours et prendre des décisions exigent des efforts cognitifs importants... decision support. Tactical decisions require that the ship’s Command Team gain timely access to and comprehend the significance of large amounts situation assessment and decision making, where benefits for performance improvements may be expected from incorporating advanced support tools like

  10. Internal Realignment of TAC (Tactical Air Command) Services Squadrons. (United States)


    in the Tactical Air Command (TAC) are no exception. They are organized for their mission in a traditional fashion at first glance. However, there is...organizations as very traditional . However, there is little information available that evaluates how well this structure actually works, if it really complies...inflight and ground support carry out style meals are prepared, and pastry baking operations (10:12-13). 6 D. BILLETING: Manages transient quarters for

  11. Improving the Air Force Squadron Command Selection Process (United States)


    is assigned to the Air War College, Air University, Maxwell AFB, AL. Lt Col Taylor is an Air Force Special Operations pilot whose experience spans a...within the military, there are almost infinite levels of application. This study will focus attention at the Air Force squadron level for several reasons...through the stages of professional military education that span an Air Force officer’s career, we are taught that the Air Force squadron commander

  12. Fit for Command: Military Leadership Attributes for Small Wars (United States)


    Leadership Communications Skills Center for their excellent editing and support. Their valuable suggestions helped to improve the paper and eliminated...their subordinates. This requires sociability skills that enable military leaders to connect, relate, and communicate effectively with their troops. 16...very limited social skills. He was an introvert , not very approachable, and withdrawn. He was more a general staff officer than a battalion commander

  13. Spaceport Command and Control System User Interface Testing (United States)

    Huesman, Jacob


    The Spaceport Command and Control System will be the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's newest system for launching commercial and government owned spacecraft. It's a large system with many parts all in need of testing. To improve upon testing already done by NASA engineers, the Engineering Directorate, Electrical Division (NE-E) of Kennedy Space Center has hired a group of interns each of the last few semesters to develop novel ways of improving the testing process.

  14. The Battle Command Sustainment Support System: Initial Analysis Report (United States)


    Sustainment Sustainment System Mission Command (S2MC) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER...Data (214A) 6 Global Air Transportation Execution System (GATES) 6 Radio-Frequency Identification ( RFID ) Detections, Level 6, and Interrogator...information. Logistics Support Activity (LOGSA)  Frequency: 2 or 6 hr  Format: direct database link or flat file via secure file transfer

  15. Intelligent Command and Control Demonstration Setup and Presentation Instructions (United States)


    ARL-TR-8244 ● DEC 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Intelligent Command and Control Demonstration Setup and Presentation...and Control Demonstration Setup and Presentation Instructions by Laurel C Sadler and Somiya Metu Computational and Information Sciences...for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM

  16. Network Centric Warfare, Command, and the Nature of War (United States)


    80 Consequently, Frederick‘s army was the first into Silesia in 1740 and first into Saxony 1756.81 Preemption provided Frederick a great advantage in...refinement, of what is developing into a clearer picture of the essence of command. Eisenhower‘s circumstances are again unique; therefore, the analysis...differences, and construct a common picture ,‖ the advantages are unlikely to be that pronounced because understanding is not the same as developing a

  17. Role Allocation and Team Structure in Command and Control Teams (United States)


    tankers (FT), search units (S) and rescue units (R). Each unit is represented on the map by a numbered icon. Each type of unit is colour -coded and...experiences from command and control research with the C3Fire microworld. Cognition , Technology & Work, 5(3), 183-190. Hollenbeck, J. R. (2000). A...Alexandria, VA, June 2013. Jobidon, M.-E., Tremblay, S., Lafond, D., & Breton, R. (2006). The role of cognition in team functioning: A matter of

  18. Wargaming in support of command, control and communications experiments.


    Sherfey, Linda M.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The purpose of this thesis is to provide information about wargaming to prospective users. An in depth discussion focussing on two primary components ofwargaming is presented. The first component is wargaming in general. A description is provided of wargaming features and a discussion concerning the limitations and hazards inherent to wargames. The second component is how to design a wargame experiment to support command, cont...

  19. General Curtis E. Lemay on Leadership and Command (United States)


    2 Gary Yukl , Leadership in Organizations , 2nd Ed (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1989), 267. As...130. 35 Yukl , Leadership , 130. 46 perspective, LeMay was constantly looking to make the organization more effective – constant improvement...Command to a resolute and capable organization , capable of providing the nation’s nuclear deterrence. LeMay on Leadership focuses on his development of



    In 1992, the United States (US) re-organized the entire structure of the air transport system creating Air Mobility Command (AMC) as a part of a...Combat Command (ACC) and Air Mobility Command (AMC). AMC was designated as the lead for airlifts and tankers . Initially the main airplanes assigned...tasks to 18th AF that decides through the 618th AOC (TACC) (Air Operation Center - Tanker Airlift Control Center) which wing has to fly the mission in

  1. Crossing cultural divides: moral conflict and the Cairo population conference. (United States)

    Davis, J E


    This essay considers the public conflict that arose during the drafting of the Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) as reflecting a moral argument between interest groups holding different world views. These differences are seen as running through and across civilizations rather than being civilization-specific. The essay opens with background information on the development of the concepts of population control and population stabilization as well as the adoption of national population policies and the goals of population programs. The public conflict over the ICPD is then reiterated and is seen to be something other than the usual "West versus the rest" tension or a "religious" versus "secular" battle. Instead the divide can be broadly categorized as "orthodox" versus "progressive." The contested issues included a conflict over language relating to abortion, marriage and the family, promiscuity and adultery, and development and international migration. The conflict over human rights involved health rights versus nonmedicalized moral norms, individual rights versus family rights, and sustainable development versus integral development. The underriding conflict is seen to be a conflict between those holding orthodox versus progressive world views over who will shape the future. The tactics of this high-stakes conflict included portraying the other side as fanatics, treating the moral debate as a distraction from more important issues, charging the other side with having a hidden agenda, and isolating certain ideas from the possibility of discussion. With 92% of the Draft Programme of Action uncontested, both sides made compromises that resulted in the gist of the text remaining intact. Because the result of implementation of the Programme of Action will be cultural change, the conflict did not end with the ICPD. As the globalization of Western culture proceeds, cross-cultural moral conflicts may arise.

  2. BRIDGING THE KNOWLEDGE DIVIDE Educational Technology for Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Ozlem OZAN,


    Full Text Available BRIDGING THE KNOWLEDGE DIVIDEEducational Technology for DevelopmentMarshall,S., Kinuthia, W. & Wallace Taylor., Ed.D.; Information Age Publishing, Charlotte, NC, SBN: 978-1-60752-109-9, p.433, 2009Reviewed by Ozlem OZANFaculty of EducationEskişehir Osmangazi UniversityEskisehir, TURKEYThe concept of a knowledge divide is used to describe the gap in living conditions between those who can find, manage and process information or knowledge, and those who are impaired in this, for one reason or another. In the 21st century, the emergence of the knowledge society becomes pervasive hence the information and ICT systems that support knowledge are very important.This book discusses how educational technology can be used to transform education and assist developing communities to close the knowledge divide. Its broader audience is anyone who is interested in educational technology for development. In the book you can find best practices and case studies especially from countries in Africa.The book is edited by Stewart Marshall, Wanjira Kinuthia, Wallace Taylor. Professor Stewart Marshall, PhD, is the director of the Academic Division of the University of the West Indies Open Campus (UWIOC and holds the UNESCO Chair in Educational Technologies.Dr. Wanjira Kinuthia is assistant professor of Learning Technologies at Georgia State University. She works as an instructional designer in higher education and business and industry for several years. Professor Wallace Taylor, PhD, is a founding director of The Information Society Institute (TISI, a non-profit academic, research, and policy development organization based in South Africa.The book is consisted of 433 pages (+xxxv covering 24 articles divided into four sections and provides information about flexible learning for empowerment, managing and communicating knowledge, flexible delivery in higher education and preparing teacher using flexible approaches.Topics covered in the book are as follows

  3. Robustness of synthetic oscillators in growing and dividing cells (United States)

    Paijmans, Joris; Lubensky, David K.; Rein ten Wolde, Pieter


    Synthetic biology sets out to implement new functions in cells, and to develop a deeper understanding of biological design principles. Elowitz and Leibler [Nature (London) 403, 335 (2000), 10.1038/35002125] showed that by rational design of the reaction network, and using existing biological components, they could create a network that exhibits periodic gene expression, dubbed the repressilator. More recently, Stricker et al. [Nature (London) 456, 516 (2008), 10.1038/nature07389] presented another synthetic oscillator, called the dual-feedback oscillator, which is more stable. Detailed studies have been carried out to determine how the stability of these oscillators is affected by the intrinsic noise of the interactions between the components and the stochastic expression of their genes. However, as all biological oscillators reside in growing and dividing cells, an important question is how these oscillators are perturbed by the cell cycle. In previous work we showed that the periodic doubling of the gene copy numbers due to DNA replication can couple not only natural, circadian oscillators to the cell cycle [Paijmans et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 113, 4063 (2016), 10.1073/pnas.1507291113], but also these synthetic oscillators. Here we expand this study. We find that the strength of the locking between oscillators depends not only on the positions of the genes on the chromosome, but also on the noise in the timing of gene replication: noise tends to weaken the coupling. Yet, even in the limit of high levels of noise in the replication times of the genes, both synthetic oscillators show clear signatures of locking to the cell cycle. This work enhances our understanding of the design of robust biological oscillators inside growing and diving cells.

  4. Bridging the divide between genomic science and indigenous peoples. (United States)

    Jacobs, Bette; Roffenbender, Jason; Collmann, Jeff; Cherry, Kate; Bitsói, LeManuel Lee; Bassett, Kim; Evans, Charles H


    definition of "rigorous scientific research," one that includes both community development and scientific progress as legitimate objectives of genomic research. Innovative translational research is needed to develop practical, mutually acceptable methods for crossing the divide between genomic researchers and indigenous communities. This may mean the difference between success and failure in genomic science, and in improving health for all peoples. © 2010 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  5. Health literacy and the digital divide among older Americans. (United States)

    Levy, Helen; Janke, Alexander T; Langa, Kenneth M


    digital divide.

  6. Artificial Intelligence Applied to the Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence of the U.S. Central Command. (United States)


    these components will be presented. 4.17 °°,. CHAPTER III FOOTNOTES 1. Arron Barr and Edward A. Feigenbaum, eds., Te Handbook gf Artificial Inteligence ol...RD-R137 205 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE APPLIED TO THE COMIMAND CONTROL i/i COMMUNICATIONS RND..(U) ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS U PA J N ENVART 06...appropriate mlitary servic or *swesmment aency. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE APPLIED TO THE COMMAND, CONTROL, COMMUNICATIONS, AND INTELLIGENCE OF THE U.S. CENTRAL


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Sabou


    Full Text Available The paper present the importance of the method on commands in cost calculation and the particularities of the cost calculation method on commands in the furniture industry. This paper presents a hypotetical study on the method on commands, considering the observations made during 2013-2014, on how it is organized and managed accounts management using method on commands.By presenting this hypothetical model about the accounting in management accounting using the method on commands, the paper contributes to the correct application of this method in practice, specifically in management accounting in companies from the furniture industry. In my opinion the method on commands is an appropriate method for achieving management accounting for companies that have as main activity the production of furniture. When applying the method on commands in cost calculation and in management accounting, the companies must to consider the particularities of the cost calculation, in the furniture industry, like: technical and economic factors from this sector, the technical details of each command, the codification of the commands, planning materials and labor costs for each command, monitoring and recording production costs, registration of the direct costs, distribution of the indirect costs on commands, registration of the indirect costs and registration in management accounting.

  8. A Commander’s Strategy for Social Media (United States)


    social media and new media, may prove as profound as any of these inventions. We must therefore observe and adjust our information strategies in order not to "go under." One of the challenges that commanders now face is to develop strategies that recognize the shifts in the nature of warfare resulting from social media . There are already examples of militaries that have ignored the realities and have suffered. The effective use of social media may have the potential to help the Armed Forces better understand the environment

  9. Investigating Visual Alerting in Maritime Command and Control (United States)


    environnement, l’automatisation de certaine fonctions et tâches est nécessaire pour atténuer la charge de travail. À cette fin, le PC opérations comporte un bon...Psychophysics, 25, 345-347. 2. Cooper, R. (1998). Visual Dominance and the Control of Action. Proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference of the Cognitive ...Processes II: Attention and Consciousness, pp.78- 80. In Cognition : Sixth Edition. Crawfordsville: John Wiley & Sons. 7. Pigeau, R. (1992). Command

  10. A Cognitive Framework for Battlefield Commanders’ Situation Assessment (United States)


    S eSTr -mJ’e0 -0 ~eaqe 1:9 i’oirr Per IPWOrIre. nCo ,r te time~ for reviewingn inttrrc. Crs ej~rce’, 9 s Orr , o W .r1c, gathe-e And meaintaining tne...for situation assessment, based on research in cognitive psychology and tactical planning and on interviews with command staff. The report describes... psychological framework and discussion lay the groundwork for better insights into the required skills of situation assessment. The value of a situation

  11. A model-based executive for commanding robot teams (United States)

    Barrett, Anthony


    The paper presents a way to robustly command a system of systems as a single entity. Instead of modeling each component system in isolation and then manually crafting interaction protocols, this approach starts with a model of the collective population as a single system. By compiling the model into separate elements for each component system and utilizing a teamwork model for coordination, it circumvents the complexities of manually crafting robust interaction protocols. The resulting systems are both globally responsive by virtue of a team oriented interaction model and locally responsive by virtue of a distributed approach to model-based fault detection, isolation, and recovery.

  12. Operational Command and Control of Joint Task Force Cyberspace Operations (United States)


    is the “coordination and cooperation towar objectives”55 which “can be achieved either through Unity of Command ( UoC ) or through cooperation.”56...According to Dr. Vego, “the highest degree of effectiveness is ensured by having UoE though UoC ” and “failure to establish UoC results in a state of...offers an adversary the ability to do the same to friendly forces. According to Dr. Vego, “without [ UoC ] the [JTF] cannot bring all available forces to

  13. C3I: Issues of Command and Control (United States)


    commander the information he or she needs, in short, the CM area öfters many opportunities for honest men and women to disagree about what...thai will do anything from releasing 70 to 80 percent of our nuclear megatonnagc in one orgasmic whump, or just sil there and say. "Don’t do anything...bases or those of their allies. This is not to say that all men and women are power hungry, only that objectivity may be more apparent than real in

  14. Plant Habitat Telemetry / Command Interface and E-MIST (United States)

    Walker, Uriae M.


    Plant Habitat (PH) is an experiment to be taken to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2016. It is critical that ground support computers have the ability to uplink commands to control PH, and that ISS computers have the ability to downlink PH telemetry data to ground support. This necessitates communication software that can send, receive, and process, PH specific commands and telemetry. The objective of the Plant Habitat Telemetry/ Command Interface is to provide this communication software, and to couple it with an intuitive Graphical User Interface (GUI). Initial investigation of the project objective led to the decision that code be written in C++ because of its compatibility with existing source code infrastructures and robustness. Further investigation led to a determination that multiple Ethernet packet structures would need to be created to effectively transmit data. Setting a standard for packet structures would allow us to distinguish these packets that would range from command type packets to sub categories of telemetry packets. In order to handle this range of packet types, the conclusion was made to take an object-oriented programming approach which complemented our decision to use the C++ programming language. In addition, extensive utilization of port programming concepts was required to implement the core functionality of the communication software. Also, a concrete understanding of a packet processing software was required in order to put aU the components of ISS-to-Ground Support Equipment (GSE) communication together and complete the objective. A second project discussed in this paper is Exposing Microbes to the Stratosphere (EMIST). This project exposes microbes into the stratosphere to observe how they are impacted by atmospheric effects. This paper focuses on the electrical and software expectations of the project, specifically drafting the printed circuit board, and programming the on-board sensors. The Eagle Computer-Aided Drafting

  15. The Role of a Commander in Military Lessons Learned Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenon Waliński


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to investigate the role of a commander in military Lessons Learned systems. In order to achieve the aim, the paper presents (1 the architecture of the Lessons Learned capabilities in the U.S. Army, NATO and the Polish Armed Forces, (2 the commander’s role in the Lessons Learned process (3 the commander’s role in fostering Lessons Learned organisation culture. The paper is based on multiple case study analysis including Lessons Learned systems in NATO, the U.S. Army and the Polish Armed Forces.

  16. Computers for Command and Control: An Airland Battle Requirement! (United States)


    Systems management has been 7. Bernard L. Verdier and David P. Porreca, "The Command and Control Systems of the Future - Now," Military RevBiew November...September 1982, pp 45-49. 145 -r .- r r rr&r-- ’ . -. °- *° . * . - -’ - U 1 h -° - %-r- , . V !.t, V 7’" . .% V%- I. ’ ’ % ." . Verdier, Bernard L...Combat Organizations." Ph. D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1980. Hilbert, Donald E. and Kidwell , Birtrun S. Jr. "Development of Army Tactical

  17. The Development of Strategic Air Command, 1946-1976 (United States)


    Etop flights from Carswell Air Force Base, Texas, to Hawaii. The B-36, assigned to the 7th Bomb Group and commanded by Major J. D. Bartlett, flew... flight of six B-29s to Rhein-Main Airfield, Germany. Two C-54s of the 1st Air Transport Unit, Roswell Field, New Mexico, accompanied the B-29s with spare...visited capitals of several free-European countries, and surveyed numerous airdromes for possible use by B-29s. This flight , which was planned and executed

  18. Network Enabled Operations: The Experiences of Senior Canadian Commanders (United States)


    réseaux technologiques, et leur valeur les uns par rapport aux autres. Les commandants interrogés reconnaissent que les opérations actuelles nécessitent à...the best basis for CF transformation to build upon? • How does one go about creating an effective social network in joint and multinational...environments? • Is the presence or absence of an effective social network a factor in the success of an operation? • Was there any confusion evident

  19. The Secret of Future Victories (United States)


    six flaws to be staged by Marshall. Marshall won his bet: the inspector reported an unshaved soldier, a blouse unbuttoned, and a missing bayonet, but...capabilities of existing materiel nor properly validated in field experiments, for such empirical trials of the tank-destroyer concept as McNair had devised...66-73). Quoted in Grant, The Army of the Caesars, op. cit., p. xxvii ff. The passage continues: "This vast empire of theirs has come to them as the

  20. Victory celebrations mark 1945 peace

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Riia vennaskalmistul 8. mail peetud Teises maailmasõjas langenute mälestamistseremooniast võtsid osa ka Läti president Valdis Zatlers, spiiker Solvita Aboltina, kaitseminister Artis Pabriks, riiklike relvajõudude juhataja Raimond Graube ja Riia linnapea Nils Usakovs. 30 000 inimest tähistas Riias 9. mai võidupüha, kohal olid ka Euroopa Parlamendi saadikud Tatjana Zdanoka, Alfreds Rubiks ja Vladimirs Buzajevs

  1. Reducing the Digital Divide among Children Who Received Desktop or Hybrid Computers for the Home (United States)

    Zilka, Gila Cohen


    Researchers and policy makers have been exploring ways to reduce the digital divide. Parameters commonly used to examine the digital divide worldwide, as well as in this study, are: (a) the digital divide in the accessibility and mobility of the ICT infrastructure and of the content infrastructure (e.g., sites used in school); and (b) the digital…

  2. Divided attention capacity in adults with autism spectrum disorders and without intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogte, H; Flamma, B; Van der Meere, J.J.; van Engeland, H.

    Earlier research showed that divided attention, an aspect of executive function, is limited in both children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The current study explored divided attention capacity in adults with ASD and without intellectual disability (n = 36). Divided attention was

  3. Government Information Focus. The Digital Divide: Understanding and Addressing the Challenge. (United States)

    Latimer, Christopher P.

    This report discusses the challenges of the Digital Divide. Part I examines the issues concerning access as it relates to schools, communities, free Internet service providers, and broadband. Part II defines technological literacy and how it pertains to the Digital Divide debate. Part III examines those who are affected by the divide and…

  4. STS-93 Commander Collins takes part in emergency egress training (United States)


    STS-93 Commander Eileen M. Collins climbs into an M-113 armored personnel carrier at the launch pad to take part in emergency egress training. Collins is the first woman to serve as mission commander. In preparation for their mission, the STS-93 crew are participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities that also include a launch-day dress rehearsal culminating with a simulated main engine cut-off. Others in the crew are Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby and Mission Specialists Steven A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.), and Michel Tognini of France, who represents the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The primary mission of STS-93 is the release of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to obtain unprecedented X-ray images of exotic environments in space to help understand the structure and evolution of the universe. Chandra is expected to provide unique and crucial information on the nature of objects ranging from comets in our solar system to quasars at the edge of the observable universe. Since X-rays are absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere, space-based observatories are necessary to study these phenomena and allow scientists to analyze some of the greatest mysteries of the universe. The targeted launch date for STS-93 is no earlier than July 20 at 12:36 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B.

  5. ASCIIGenome: a command line genome browser for console terminals. (United States)

    Beraldi, Dario


    Current genome browsers are designed to work via graphical user interfaces (GUIs), which, however intuitive, are not amenable to operate within console terminals and therefore are difficult to streamline or integrate in scripts. To circumvent these limitations, ASCIIGenome runs exclusively via command line interface to display genomic data directly in a terminal window. By following the same philosophy of UNIX tools, ASCIIGenome aims to be easily integrated with the command line, including batch processing of data, and therefore enables an effective exploration of the data. ASCIIGenome is written in Java. Consequently, it is a cross-platform tool and requires minimal or no installation. Some of the common genomic data types are supported and data access on remote ftp servers is possible. Speed and memory footprint are comparable to or better than those of common genome browsers. Software and source code (MIT License) are available at with detailed documentation at . Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  6. Commande vectorielle d'un moteur asynchrone sans capteur (United States)

    Ourth, T.


    A field-oriented control strategy for induction machines which does not use mechanical sensors is presented. The rotor flux is observed by a reduced-order Luenberger-type observer based on a model using a stator-fixed reference frame. An estimate of the rotation speed is derived from the flux vector, the measured stator currents and the field orientation angle. Simulations demonstrate that this control strategy performs well even in the presence of parameter variations up to ± 50% (resistances). Ce papier présente la commande par flux orienté d'une machine asynchrone sans capteur de vitesse ou de position. Le flux rotorique est évalué grâce à un observateur d'ordre réduit d'un type voisin de Luenberger travaillant dans un repère fixe statorique. L'estimation de la vitesse est obtenue à partir du module du flux rotorique, des courants statoriques mesurés et de l'angle d'orientation du flux rotorique. Cette étude basée sur des simulations démontre un comportement acceptable de la commande malgré la variation des paramètres comme les résistances de la machine.

  7. A Virtual Information-Action Workspace for Command and Control (United States)

    Lintern, Gavan; Naikar, Neelam


    Information overload has become a critical challenge within military Command and Control. However, the problem is not so much one of too much information but of abundant information that is poorly organized and poorly represented. In addition, the capabilities to test the effects of decisions before they are implemented and to monitor the progress of events after a decision is implemented are primitive. A virtual information-action workspace could be designed to resolve these issues. The design of such a space would require a detailed understanding of the specific information needed to support decision making in Command and Control. That information can be obtained with the use of knowledge acquisition and knowledge representation tools from the field of applied cognitive psychology. In addition, it will be necessary to integrate forms for perception and action into a virtual space that will support access to the information and that will provide means for testing and implementing decisions. This paper presents a rationale for a virtual information-action workspace and outlines an approach to its design.

  8. Your wish is my command programming by example

    CERN Document Server


    As user interface designers, software developers, and yes-as users, we all know the frustration that comes with using "one size fits all" software from off the shelf. Repeating the same commands over and over again, putting up with an unfriendly graphical interface, being unable to program a new application that you thought of yourself-these are all common complaints. The inflexibility of today''s computer interfaces makes many people feel like they are slaves to their computers. Shouldn''t it be the other way around? Why can''t technology give us more "custom-fitting" software? On the horizon is a new technology that promises to give ordinary users the power to create and modify their own programs. Programming by example (PBE) is a technique in which a software agent records a user''s behavior in an interactive graphical interface, then automatically writes a program that will perform that behavior for the user. Your Wish is My Command: Programming by Example takes a broad look at this new technology. In the...

  9. Electronic Control System Of Home Appliances Using Speech Command Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Min Soe


    Full Text Available Abstract The main idea of this paper is to develop a speech recognition system. By using this system smart home appliances are controlled by spoken words. The spoken words chosen for recognition are Fan On Fan Off Light On Light Off TV On and TV Off. The input of the system takes speech signals to control home appliances. The proposed system has two main parts speech recognition and smart home appliances electronic control system. Speech recognition is implemented in MATLAB environment. In this process it contains two main modules feature extraction and feature matching. Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients MFCC is used for feature extraction. Vector Quantization VQ approach using clustering algorithm is applied for feature matching. In electrical home appliances control system RF module is used to carry command signal from PC to microcontroller wirelessly. Microcontroller is connected to driver circuit for relay and motor. The input commands are recognized very well. The system is a good performance to control home appliances by spoken words.

  10. Data Analysis & Statistical Methods for Command File Errors (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila; Waggoner, Bruce; Bryant, Larry


    This paper explains current work on modeling for managing the risk of command file errors. It is focused on analyzing actual data from a JPL spaceflight mission to build models for evaluating and predicting error rates as a function of several key variables. We constructed a rich dataset by considering the number of errors, the number of files radiated, including the number commands and blocks in each file, as well as subjective estimates of workload and operational novelty. We have assessed these data using different curve fitting and distribution fitting techniques, such as multiple regression analysis, and maximum likelihood estimation to see how much of the variability in the error rates can be explained with these. We have also used goodness of fit testing strategies and principal component analysis to further assess our data. Finally, we constructed a model of expected error rates based on the what these statistics bore out as critical drivers to the error rate. This model allows project management to evaluate the error rate against a theoretically expected rate as well as anticipate future error rates.

  11. General Nobile and the Airship Italia: No Second-In-Command (United States)

    Bendrick, Gregg A.


    The airship Italia, commanded by General Umberto Nobile, crashed during its return flight from the North Pole in 1928. Prior work has demonstrated the possibility that this crash was fatigue-related, due to significant sleep-deprivation on the part of its Commander, and to resulting errors in cognition and judgment. However, the underlying cause of the fatigue was likely due to the fact that the Commander did not have a Second-In-Command on board to take over duties while the Commander was allowed to rest. At that time the Second-In-Command was a formally designated position, and according to Nobiles previous writings was considered to be a necessary crew member on an airship.

  12. Squadron Commanders and the Air Force Personnel System: Key Partners in the Career Development Process. (United States)


    personnel topics in an effort to establish a background of opinion on issues such as the r3ted supplement and professional military education . The authors...34unprepared." SUMMARY In general, the survey results indicate the typica squi - dron commander receives major air command directed orientition...positions. Th2 commanders basically confirm current Air Force policy on the timing of in-residence professional military education : Squadron Officer

  13. Ubuntu Linux Toolbox 1000 + Commands for Ubuntu and Debian Power Users

    CERN Document Server

    Negus, Christopher


    In this handy, compact guide, you'll explore a ton of powerful Ubuntu Linux commands while you learn to use Ubuntu Linux as the experts do: from the command line. Try out more than 1,000 commands to find and get software, monitor system health and security, and access network resources. Then, apply the skills you learn from this book to use and administer desktops and servers running Ubuntu, Debian, and KNOPPIX or any other Linux distribution.

  14. Modeling and simulating command and control for organizations under extreme situations

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, Il-Chul; Kim, Tag Gon


    Commanding and controlling organizations in extreme situations is a challenging task in military, intelligence, and disaster management. Such command and control must be quick, effective, and considerate when dealing with the changing, complex, and risky conditions of the situation. To enable optimal command and control under extremes, robust structures and efficient operations are required of organizations. This work discusses how to design and conduct virtual experiments on resilient organizational structures and operational practices using modeling and simulation. The work illustrates key a

  15. The Twenty-Four Month Command Tour: Is It the Optimum Length? (United States)


    another. As Christina Maslach points out, "There is no single definition of burnout that is accepted as a standard." She offers some twenty or so...system, supporting the desire for former battalion commanders to serve in certain jobs, minimizing commander stress and burnout , and facilitating the...mentioned " burnout " 18 or some related term. Some used such words as "tired" or "stress." Others specifically discussed the toll the command tour takes

  16. The Predictive Factors of the Promotion of Physical Activity by Air Force Squadron Commanders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whelan, Dana


    This research examined the relationship between beliefs about physical activity, physical activity levels, age and the promotional practices for physical activity employed by Air Force squadron commanders...

  17. Developing Tactical Commanders at CGSOC for the Future AirLand Battlefield (United States)


    and history. Airland BaLtLe Futr (ALB-F), sentor Army leaders and cu|rrent an thors ettIIaI sizL’ w LI tIpo rta|ce of these same c’ommniland cotlpoilets...cannot be great, but we still require good commanders. Both types of analysis include the commander’s assessment of the METT-T variables in conjunction...with the higher commander’s intent. The METT-T variable analysis essentially addresses all the key elements necessary to develop a commander’s vision

  18. Design and Implementation of the Automatic Assessment System for the Command and Control Specialty in Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hao


    Full Text Available On the basis of analyzing the actual demand of automated assessment system for the command and control specialty in ships, the thought of the overall design of automated assessment system for the command and control specialty in ships is given, and the concrete realization methods of the user login module, test paper operation module and system maintenance module are studied and demonstrated. The proposed design idea and implementation method of automated assessment system for the command and control specialty in ships is scientific, efficient and practical, and provides reference for the exploitation of automated assessment system for the command and control specialty in ships.

  19. The Mac'OS X command line Unix under the hood

    CERN Document Server

    McElhearn, Kirk


    The Mac command line offers a faster, easier way to accomplish many tasks. It''s also the medium for many commands that aren''t accessible using the GUI. The Mac OS X Command Line is a clear, concise, tutorial-style introduction to all the major functionality provided by the command line. It''s also packed with information the experienced users need, including little-known shortcuts and several chapters devoted to advanced topics. This is a book to get you started, but also a book you won't soon outgrow.

  20. Space Command Sustainment Review: Improving the Balance Between Current and Future Capabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tripp, Robert S; Lynch, Kristin F; Harrison, Shawn; Drew, John G; Roll, Jr, Charles R


    .... Air Force space systems by evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of current policies related to processes, force development, doctrine, information systems and tools, and organization form command perspective...

  1. U.S. Joint Theater Ballistic Missile Defense: Seeking Optimal Command and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kinslow, Kevin E


    .... The vision for this capability presents an interesting question on command organization since the conventional military structure is based on warfighting in distinct geographic areas of responsibility...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünsal SIĞRI


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to uncover emerging challenges of peacekeeping operations, determine the changes in command actions and its effects on the professional preparation of commanders by analyzing experiences of military officers. To that end the research data were collected by means of structured face-to- face interviews with voluntary participation of fourteen officers, who took charge in various peacekeeping operations. The collected data were analyzed based on the content analysis method. Findings indicate that peacekeeping operations pose specific challenges for peacekeepers, necessitate changes in command action in terms of flexibility and new precautions in terms of preparation of commanders.

  3. AMO EXPRESS: A Command and Control Experiment for Crew Autonomy (United States)

    Stetson, Howard K.; Frank, Jeremy; Cornelius, Randy; Haddock, Angie; Wang, Lui; Garner, Larry


    NASA is investigating a range of future human spaceflight missions, including both Mars-distance and Near Earth Object (NEO) targets. Of significant importance for these missions is the balance between crew autonomy and vehicle automation. As distance from Earth results in increasing communication delays, future crews need both the capability and authority to independently make decisions. However, small crews cannot take on all functions performed by ground today, and so vehicles must be more automated to reduce the crew workload for such missions. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program funded Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an autonomous command and control demonstration of intelligent procedures to automatically initialize a rack onboard the International Space Station (ISS) with power and thermal interfaces, and involving core and payload command and telemetry processing, without support from ground controllers. This autonomous operations capability is enabling in scenarios such as a crew medical emergency, and representative of other spacecraft autonomy challenges. The experiment was conducted using the Expedite the Processing of Experiments for Space Station (EXPRESS) rack 7, which was located in the Port 2 location within the U.S Laboratory onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Activation and deactivation of this facility is time consuming and operationally intensive, requiring coordination of three flight control positions, 47 nominal steps, 57 commands, 276 telemetry checks, and coordination of multiple ISS systems (both core and payload). The autonomous operations concept includes a reduction of the amount of data a crew operator is required to verify during activation or de-activation, as well as integration of procedure execution status and relevant data in a single integrated display. During execution, the auto-procedures provide a step-by-step messaging paradigm and a high level status upon termination. This

  4. Addressing the Digital Divide in Contemporary Biology: Lessons from Teaching UNIX. (United States)

    Mangul, Serghei; Martin, Lana S; Hoffmann, Alexander; Pellegrini, Matteo; Eskin, Eleazar


    Life and medical science researchers increasingly rely on applications that lack a graphical interface. Scientists who are not trained in computer science face an enormous challenge analyzing high-throughput data. We present a training model for use of command-line tools when the learner has little to no prior knowledge of UNIX. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acquisition and control command system for power pulsed detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cornat, R; Magniette, F


    A DAQ system is developed within the SiW-Ecal ILC collaboration. It provides a flexible and scalable architecture, compound of four parts. A detector interface (DIF) extracting data from front-end electronics and sending them as packets. Two levels of data concentration, control clock and fast command fanout. The two cards, named DCC and GDCC, use respectively FastEthernet and GigaEthernet. A software suite (named Calicoes) allows to control the DAQ and the detector chips and to acquire data from GigaEthernet. It also includes programs for decoding frontend readout to various formats, and also dispatching and aggregating data. Overall architecture, performance in test beam and prospects for use with hundreds of thousands channels are discussed.

  6. Spaceport Command and Control System - Support Software Development (United States)

    Tremblay, Shayne


    The Information Architecture Support (IAS) Team, the component of the Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) that is in charge of all the pre-runtime data, was in need of some report features to be added to their internal web application, Information Architecture (IA). Development of these reports is crucial for the speed and productivity of the development team, as they are needed to quickly and efficiently make specific and complicated data requests against the massive IA database. These reports were being put on the back burner, as other development of IA was prioritized over them, but the need for them resulted in internships being created to fill this need. The creation of these reports required learning Ruby on Rails development, along with related web technologies, and they will continue to serve IAS and other support software teams and their IA data needs.

  7. Remotely Exploiting AT Command Attacks on ZigBee Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vaccari


    Full Text Available Internet of Things networks represent an emerging phenomenon bringing connectivity to common sensors. Due to the limited capabilities and to the sensitive nature of the devices, security assumes a crucial and primary role. In this paper, we report an innovative and extremely dangerous threat targeting IoT networks. The attack is based on Remote AT Commands exploitation, providing a malicious user with the possibility of reconfiguring or disconnecting IoT sensors from the network. We present the proposed attack and evaluate its efficiency by executing tests on a real IoT network. Results demonstrate how the threat can be successfully executed and how it is able to focus on the targeted nodes, without affecting other nodes of the network.

  8. Apollo 11 Commander Armstrong Presents President With Commemorative Plaque (United States)


    On June 4, 1974, 5 years after the successful Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, commander Neil Armstrong (right) presented a plaque to U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon (left) on behalf of all people who had taken part in the space program. In making the presentation, Armstrong said 'Mr. President, you have proclaimed this week to be United States Space week in conjunction with the fifth anniversary of our first successful landing on the Moon. It is my privilege to represent my colleagues, the crewmen of projects Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab, and the men and women of NASA, and the hundreds of thousands of Americans from across the land who contributed so mightily to the success of our efforts in space in presenting this plaque which bears the names of each individual who has had the privilege of representing this country' in a space flight. The presentation was made at the California white house in San Clemente.

  9. Pulsar Search Results from the Arecibo Remote Command Center (United States)

    Rodriguez, Miguel; Stovall, Kevin; Banaszak, Shawn A.; Becker, Alison; Biwer, Christopher M.; Boehler, Keith; Caballero, Keeisi; Christy, Brian; Cohen, Stephanie; Crawford, Fronefield; Cuellar, Andres; Danford, Andrew; Percy Dartez, Louis; Day, David; Flanigan, Joseph D.; Fonrouge, Aldo; Gonzalez, Adolfo; Gustavson, Kathy; Handzo, Emma; Hinojosa, Jesus; Jenet, Fredrick A.; Kaplan, David L. A.; Lommen, Andrea N.; Longoria, Chasity; Lopez, Janine; Lunsford, Grady; Mahany, Nicolas; Martinez, Jose; Mata, Alberto; Miller, Andy; Murray, James; Pankow, Chris; Ramirez, Ivan; Reser, Jackie; Rojas, Pablo; Rohr, Matthew; Rolph, Kristina; Rose, Caitlin; Rudnik, Philip; Siemens, Xavier; Tellez, Andrea; Tillman, Nicholas; Walker, Arielle; Wells, Bradley L.; Zaldivar, Jonathan; Zermeno, Adrienne; Gbncc Consortium, Palfa Consortium, Gbtdrift Consortium, Ao327 Consortium


    This poster presents the pulsar discoveries made by students in the Arecibo Remote Command Center (ARCC) program. The ARCC program was started at the University of Texas - Brownsville (UTB) within the Center for Advanced Radio Astronomy (CARA) as a group of scientists, faculty, graduate, undergraduate, and high school students interested in astrophysics. It has since expanded to form other ARCC programs at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (UWM) and Franklin and Marshall College (F&M). The students in the ARCC group control the world's largest radio telescopes to search and discover pulsars. Pulsars are exotic neutron stars that emit beams of electromagnetic radiation. ARCC students use a web application to view and rate the images of radio pulsar candidates based on their signal characteristics. To date, ARCC students have searched through thousands of candidates and have discovered 61 pulsars to date.

  10. The Arecibo Remote Command Center at Franklin and Marshall College (United States)

    Crawford, Fronefield; Jenet, Fredrick; Siemens, Xavier; Lommen, Andrea N.; Handzo, Emma; Mahany, Nicolas; Rolph, Kristina; Blazer, Sierra; Camuccio, Richard; Gebeyehu, Abel; Haylon, Christopher; Lederer, Mark; Lefebvre, Kathleen; Liang, Yaoyue; Mix, Daniel; McMahon, John; Morrow, Christopher; Munro, Jonathan; Nesselrodt, Ryan; Rose, Caitlin; TenBrook, Chase; Tibbetts, Matthew; Tran, Lam; Umberger, Rachel; Wilson, Emily; Wymer, Kristen


    We present an overview of the recently established Arecibo Remote Command Center (ARCC) program at Franklin and Marshall College. ARCC allows undergraduates to remotely use the Arecibo 305-m radio telescope for pulsar survey observations and to search the data collected for new radio pulsars using a custom pulsar candidate viewer. Students at Franklin and Marshall also have the opportunity to interact with and make research presentations via teleconference to other ARCC groups located at the University of Texas at Brownsville and the University of Wisconsin Milwaukee. This program serves as an effective introduction to radio pulsar research, and students develop skills that can be usefully employed in other pulsar research projects. A total of 22 Franklin and Marshall students have participated in ARCC since 2013. To date, one new pulsar has been found by the Franklin and Marshall ARCC group.

  11. Spaceport Command and Control System Automated Verification Software Development (United States)

    Backus, Michael W.


    For as long as we have walked the Earth, humans have always been explorers. We have visited our nearest celestial body and sent Voyager 1 beyond our solar system1 out into interstellar space. Now it is finally time for us to step beyond our home and onto another planet. The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) is being developed along with the Space Launch System (SLS) to take us on a journey further than ever attempted. Within SCCS are separate subsystems and system level software, each of which have to be tested and verified. Testing is a long and tedious process, so automating it will be much more efficient and also helps to remove the possibility of human error from mission operations. I was part of a team of interns and full-time engineers who automated tests for the requirements on SCCS, and with that was able to help verify that the software systems are performing as expected.

  12. Automation of Cassini Support Imaging Uplink Command Development (United States)

    Ly-Hollins, Lisa; Breneman, Herbert H.; Brooks, Robert


    "Support imaging" is imagery requested by other Cassini science teams to aid in the interpretation of their data. The generation of the spacecraft command sequences for these images is performed by the Cassini Instrument Operations Team. The process initially established for doing this was very labor-intensive, tedious and prone to human error. Team management recognized this process as one that could easily benefit from automation. Team members were tasked to document the existing manual process, develop a plan and strategy to automate the process, implement the plan and strategy, test and validate the new automated process, and deliver the new software tools and documentation to Flight Operations for use during the Cassini extended mission. In addition to the goals of higher efficiency and lower risk in the processing of support imaging requests, an effort was made to maximize adaptability of the process to accommodate uplink procedure changes and the potential addition of new capabilities outside the scope of the initial effort.

  13. Command Center Training Tool (C2T2) (United States)

    Jones, Phillip; Drucker, Nich; Mathews, Reejo; Stanton, Laura; Merkle, Ed


    This abstract presents the training approach taken to create a management-centered, experiential learning solution for the Virginia Port Authority's Port Command Center. The resultant tool, called the Command Center Training Tool (C2T2), follows a holistic approach integrated across the training management cycle and within a single environment. The approach allows a single training manager to progress from training design through execution and AAR. The approach starts with modeling the training organization, identifying the organizational elements and their individual and collective performance requirements, including organizational-specific performance scoring ontologies. Next, the developer specifies conditions, the problems, and constructs that compose exercises and drive experiential learning. These conditions are defined by incidents, which denote a single, multi-media datum, and scenarios, which are stories told by incidents. To these layered, modular components, previously developed meta-data is attached, including associated performance requirements. The components are then stored in a searchable library An event developer can create a training event by searching the library based on metadata and then selecting and loading the resultant modular pieces. This loading process brings into the training event all the previously associated task and teamwork material as well as AAR preparation materials. The approach includes tools within an integrated management environment that places these materials at the fingertips of the event facilitator such that, in real time, the facilitator can track training audience performance and resultantly modify the training event. The approach also supports the concentrated knowledge management requirements for rapid preparation of an extensive AAR. This approach supports the integrated training cycle and allows a management-based perspective and advanced tools, through which a complex, thorough training event can be developed.

  14. Command and Control (C2) in Joint Operations: Separate Functions, their Purpose, and Application to Battle Command in the 2lst Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hampton, David


    The command and control function at the operational level is the most important operations function because it ties together the other functions at all levels of war across the range of military operations...

  15. La lucha fratricida en el “Cuento de los Reyes” (El Victorial y en las Crónicas del canciller Ayala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devia, Cecilia


    Full Text Available We analyze the fratricidal struggle between Pedro I and Enrique II of Castilla in the light of the "Tale of the Kings" inserted into El Victorial, by Gutierre Díaz de Games, and Pero López de Ayala’s Chronicles. During the civil war, registered in greater conflict, the Hundred Years War, two kings fight for the crown. Since Pedro I clearly have a legitimate origin, the chroniclers, in favour of the usurper Enrique, must create for him a legitimacy based in the complaints for the profound damage caused to the kingdom by the notorious misconduct of the legitimate king. Once committed the double murder that means the murder of Pedro at the hands of Enrique, both fratricide and assassination, violence is exercised in its foundational role, establishing both a new reign and a new dynasty.

    Se analiza la lucha fratricida entre Pedro I y Enrique II de Castilla a la luz del “Cuento de los Reyes” inserto en El Victorial, de Gutierre Diaz de Games, y de las Crónicas de Pero López de Ayala. En el transcurso de una guerra civil, inscripta en un conflicto aún mayor, la Guerra de los Cien Años, dos reyes luchan por la misma corona. Ya que Pedro I tiene un origen claramente legítimo, los cronistas, favorables al usurpador Enrique, deben crear para éste una legitimidad, basada en este caso en la denuncia del profundo daño que causa al reino la notoria inconducta del rey legítimo. Una vez perpetrado el doble crimen que significa el asesinato de Pedro a manos de Enrique —a la vez fratricidio y magnicidio— se ejerce la violencia en su función fundacional, instaurando a la vez un nuevo reinado y una nueva dinastía.

  16. Mobility Divides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    Contemporary mobilities are cultural and social manifestations, and the mobile practices in the everyday life of billions of humans are re-configuring senses of place, self, other and relationships to the built environment. The way ‘mobile situations’ are staged in designed and built environments......’ in the everyday life and cast light on how design and ‘materialities of mobilites’ are creating differential mobilities across societies, social networks, and communities of practices....... are increasingly becoming ‘second nature’ but also expressions of power, exclusion, and difference. In this talk I will be applying a perspective of ‘mobile situationism’ illustrating how mobile everyday life practices are staged ‘from above’ in planning and policy frameworks, design codes and architectural...

  17. Divided Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten

    institutions. This conceptual stretching takes place at the expense of accuracy and clarity clouding our understanding of the multiple levels involved in trusting. This chapter seeks to clarify this issue conceptually by comparing and developing Niklas Luhmann’s system theoretical investigation of trust...... and confidence with Knud E. Løgstrup’s phenomenology of trust. The main argument presented here is that while Luhmann’s analysis of trust and confidence remains one of the most powerful and persuasive it is only when combining it with Løgstrup’s phenomenology of trusting as situated process that the linkages...

  18. Transition State Theory for solvated reactions beyond recrossing-free dividing surfaces


    Revuelta, F.; Bartsch, Thomas; Garcia-Muller, P. L.; Hernandez, Rigoberto; Benito, R. M.; Borondo, F.


    The accuracy of rate constants calculated using transition state theory depends crucially on the correct identification of a recrossing--free dividing surface. We show here that it is possible to define such optimal dividing surface in systems with non--Markovian friction. However, a more direct approach to rate calculation is based on invariant manifolds and avoids the use of a dividing surface altogether, Using that method we obtain an explicit expression for the rate of crossing an anharmo...

  19. Zones of silence: A framework beyond the digital divide (originally published in May 2006)


    Potter, Amelia Bryne


    There is no doubt that much digital divide work — including connectivity initiatives, technology transfer programs, and other projects — is done with good intention. Yet, as has been widely recognized, the conceptual framework of the digital divide is limiting. The language of the digital divide not only places people into simplistic “have”/“have not” categories, making assumptions about the solution to “information poverty” with little attention to local contexts, its logic also continues a ...

  20. Bringing Benefits and Warding off Blights in Due Commandment (Analytic Study Compared with the Jordanian Law) (United States)

    Al Etoum, Niebal Mohd Ibrahim; Mowafi, Hanan Sami Mohammad; Al Zubaidi, Faraj Hamad Salem


    The study aims to highlight the benefits and blights of the due commandment (intestate law) under Jordanian law for the year (2010) in the article (279). The study came in two sections, the first one dealt with the concept of due commandment, its legitimacy, verdict and terms; in the second section, I've dealt with the persons entitled to due…