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Sample records for victoria western province

  1. Myxomatosis on the Western Plains of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, F G; Edmonds, J W; Nolan, I F; Shepherd, R C; Gocs, A

    1977-10-01

    Myxomatosis on the Western Plains is an enzootic disease in contrast with the epizootic pattern which is general in eastern Australia. The most unusual aspects are the presence of significant numbers of diseased rabbits throughout the winter and the continuously low percentage of rabbits with antibodies to myxoma virus. Climatic and topographic conditions are unsuited to the production of the high densities of mosquitoes necessary for widespread epizootics. Under these conditions the effects of less efficient methods of myxomatosis transmission are apparent. The unusual epidemiology of myxomatosis has resulted in selection for virulence of the virus similar to that which has occurred under summer epizootic conditions. All field strains are now in the mid range of virulence.

  2. Characterising groundwater dynamics in Western Victoria, Australia using Menyanthes software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldeyohannes, Yohannes; Webb, John

    2010-05-01

    Water table across much of the western Victoria, Australia have been declining for at least the last 10-15 years, and this is attributed to the consistently low rainfall for these years, but over the same period of time there has been substantial change in land use, with grazing land replaced by cropping and tree plantations appearing in some areas. Hence, it is important to determine the relative effect the climate and land use factors on the water table changes. Monitoring changes in groundwater levels to climate variables and/or land use change is helpful in indicating the degree of threat faced to agricultural and public assets. The dynamics of the groundwater system in the western Victoria, mainly on the basalt plain, have been modelled to determine the climatic influence in water table fluctuations. In this study, a standardized computer package Menyanthes was used for quantifying the influence of climatic variables on the groundwater level, statistically estimating trends in groundwater levels and identify the properties that determine the dynamics of groundwater system. This method is optimized for use on hydrological problems and is based on the use of continuous time transfer function noise model, which estimates the Impulse response function of the system from the temporal correlation between time series of groundwater level and precipitation surplus. In this approach, the spatial differences in the groundwater system are determined by the system properties, while temporal variation is driven by the dynamics of the input into the system. 80 time series models are analysed and the model output parameter values characterized by their moments. The zero-order moment Mo of a distribution function is its area and M1 is related to the mean of the impulse response function. The relation is M1/Mo. It is a measure of the system's memory. It takes approximately 3 times the mean time (M1/Mo) for the effect of a shower to disappear completely from the system. Overall

  3. Drought Characteristics over the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christina M Botai; Joel O Botai; Jaco P de Wit; Katlego P Ncongwane; Abiodun M Adeola

    2017-01-01

    .... The present study assessed drought conditions using two categories of drought indicators computed from precipitation data sets measured by weather stations across the Western Cape Province, South...

  4. RTG resource book for western states and provinces: Final proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Western Interstate Energy Board held a workshop and liaison activities among western states, provinces, and utilities on the formation of Regional Transmission Groups (RTGs). Purpose of the activities was to examine the policy implications for western states and provinces in the formation of RTGs in the West, the implications for western ratepayers and utilities of the RTG formation and potential impacts of RTGs on the western electricity system. The workshop contributed to fulfilling the transmission access and competition objectives of Title VII of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.

  5. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  6. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  7. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  8. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids, #1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  9. Curculionidae (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea from Lorestan province, western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghahari H.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae from Lorestan province, western Iran is studied in this paper. A total 56 species from 19 genera and 5 subfamilies (including, Curculioninae, Ceutorhynchinae, Entiminae, Hyperinae, Lixinae were collected.

  10. Curculionidae (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) from Lorestan province, western Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ghahari H.; Arzanov Y.G.

    2012-01-01

    The fauna of weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from Lorestan province, western Iran is studied in this paper. A total 56 species from 19 genera and 5 subfamilies (including, Curculioninae, Ceutorhynchinae, Entiminae, Hyperinae, Lixinae) were collected.

  11. Validating homicide rates in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    homicide rate of 85/100 000 in the province was approximately 1.8 times the national average,[3] albeit based on crude rates that did not account for provincial differences in the age profile. SAPS data suggest that there has been a significant decline in homicide rates in the Western Cape relative to other provinces since.

  12. Drought Characteristics over the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Botai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a creeping phenomenon whose effects evolve with time, yet the start and end is often only clear in the hindsight. The present study assessed drought conditions using two categories of drought indicators computed from precipitation data sets measured by weather stations across the Western Cape Province, South Africa for the period 1985 to 2016. The first category was the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI accumulated over 3-, 6- and 12-months (hereafter of SPI-3, SPI-6 and SPI-12 respectively. The second category consists of the four Drought Monitoring Indicators (DMI i.e., Drought Duration (DD, Severity (DS, Intensity (DI and Frequency (DF. Firstly, analysis of SPI-3, SPI-6 and SPI-12 illustrate that between 1985 and 2016, the Western Cape Province experienced recurrent mild drought conditions. This suggests that the drought conditions experienced during 2015/2016 hydrological year (hereafter current in the Western Cape Province is a manifestation of past drought conditions. Secondly, analysis of trends in DMI series depict a noticeable spatial-temporal dependence wherein the southern and western regions experienced more severe droughts compared to the eastern and northern regions of the Western Cape Province. Results also show that the DMI trends exhibit up to ~8% variability over the past decade. Overall, the current drought conditions in the Western Cape Province continues to adversely affect agricultural production while the water reservoirs are at below 30% capacity implying that the socio-economic impacts of these droughts will continue to reverberate for many months to come. Though the on-going drought conditions in the Western Cape Province is a regular part of nature’s cycle, analysis of historical drought characteristics based on drought indicators is an important first step towards placing the current drought conditions into perspective, and contribute to triggering action and response thereof. All these lay the

  13. A historical overview of the Western Province Senior Schools Sports ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... system of education in South Africa is still unjust. It is therefore imperative that the history of the WPSSSU be recorded because it offered the mass of deprived school children in Cape Town participation opportunities. Key words: School sport, non-racialism, teacher activism, Western Province Senior Schools Sports Union.

  14. A new adder ( Bitis ; Viperidae) from the Western Cape Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new species of small, terrestrial Bitis is described from the Western Cape Province, South Africa. It occurs in sympatry with Bitis comuta and Bifis atropos on the upper slopes and summit of the Cedarberg, and with the latter on the Swartberg. Features of scalation, colour and body form distinguish the new species from all ...

  15. Differences in the population structure of Neisseria meningitidis in two Australian states: Victoria and Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Mowlaboccus

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is the causative agent of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD. A recombinant vaccine called Bexsero® incorporates four subcapsular antigens (fHbp, NHBA, NadA and PorA which are used to assign a Bexsero® antigen sequence type (BAST to each meningococcal strain. The vaccine elicits an immune response against combinations of variants of these antigens which have been grouped into specific BAST profiles that have been shown to have different distributions within geographical locations thus potentially affecting the efficacy of the vaccine. In this study, invasive meningococcal disease isolates from the western seaboard of Australia (Western Australia; WA were compared to those from the south-eastern seaboard (Victoria; VIC from 2008 to 2012. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS of 131 meningococci from VIC and 70 meningococci from WA were analysed for MLST, FetA and BAST profiling. Serogroup B predominated in both jurisdictions and a total of 10 MLST clonal complexes (cc were shared by both states. Isolates belonging to cc22, cc103 and cc1157 were unique to VIC whilst isolates from cc60 and cc212 were unique to WA. Clonal complex 41/44 represented one-third of the meningococcal population in each state but the predominant ST was locally different: ST-6058 in VIC and ST-146 in WA. Of the 108 BAST profiles identified in this collection, only 9 BASTs were simultaneously observed in both states. A significantly larger proportion of isolates in VIC harboured alleles for the NHBA-2 peptide and fHbp-1, antigenic variants predicted to be covered by the Bexsero® vaccine. The estimate for vaccine coverage in WA (47.1% [95% CI: 41.1-53.1%] was significantly lower than that in VIC (66.4% [95% CI: 62.3-70.5%]. In conclusion, the antigenic structure of meningococci causing invasive disease in two geographically distinct states of Australia differed significantly during the study period which may affect vaccine effectiveness and highlights the

  16. Assessing the Impacts of Wind Integration in the Western Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopinka, Amy

    Increasing carbon dioxide levels and the fear of irreversible climate change has prompted policy makers to implement renewable portfolio standards. These renewable portfolio standards are meant to encourage the adoption of renewable energy technologies thereby reducing carbon emissions associated with fossil fuel-fired electricity generation. The ability to efficiently adopt and utilize high levels of renewable energy technology, such as wind power, depends upon the composition of the extant generation within the grid. Western Canadian electric grids are poised to integrate high levels of wind and although Alberta has sufficient and, at times, an excess supply of electricity, it does not have the inherent generator flexibility required to mirror the variability of its wind generation. British Columbia, with its large reservoir storage capacities and rapid ramping hydroelectric generation could easily provide the firming services required by Alberta; however, the two grids are connected only by a small, constrained intertie. We use a simulation model to assess the economic impacts of high wind penetrations in the Alberta grid under various balancing protocols. We find that adding wind capacity to the system impacts grid reliability, increasing the frequency of system imbalances and unscheduled intertie flow. In order for British Columbia to be viable firming resource, it must have sufficient generation capability to meet and exceed the province's electricity self-sufficiency requirements. We use a linear programming model to evaluate the province's ability to meet domestic load under various water and trade conditions. We then examine the effects of drought and wind penetration on the interconnected Alberta -- British Columbia system given differing interconnection sizes.

  17. Seroprevalence of Human Fasciolosis in Pirabad, Lorestan Province, Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz KHEIRANDISH

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to perform seroepidemiological investigation for determining the status of human fasciolosis in Pirabad Village, Lorestan Province, western Iran. Methods: Blood samples were taken from residents of the village including 801 individuals. Sera were separated and stored at -20°C until used. The samples were analyzed using ELISA. Results: Anti-Fasciola antibodies were detected in 6 (0.7% individuals. Difference between age, sex and drinking or swimming in the surface water with seropositivity to fasciolosis was not significant. Out of 7 shepherds, 1 (14.3% was seropositive. Due to the small number of shepherds, comprehensive statistical inference in this regard cannot be done. Significant difference was detected between seropositivity to fasciolosis and consuming local freshwater vegetables during the last 6 months (P=0.001.Conclusion: Metacercariae carrying local freshwater plants might be the main source of contamination because consumption of these kinds of vegetables was confirmed by all participants. Awareness of local communities regarding the danger of freshwater plant consumption, through health education programs, will decrease the risk of infection.

  18. Phytotoponymy and Synphytotoponymy in Western Granada Province (Andalusia, Spain

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    Benítez Cruz, Guillermo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of a research project on the ethnobotany of the western section of the province of Granada, in southern Spain, a detailed study was made of place names derived from names related to plants (phytotoponyms and synphytotoponyms. The information —gathered from the Territorial Land Registry of Granada, the Regional Government of Andalusia and field work— has been included in a database written with the Microsoft Excel program. References to a total of 98 plant species were found in as many as 593 place names of the area. The authors comment on the environmental, paleophytogeographic and ethnobotanical significance of the species represented in the place names.

    En el marco de la investigación etnobotánica desarrollada en el poniente granadino, se ha realizado un estudio sobre la toponimia de la comarca con atención a los apelativos de origen vegetal (fitotopónimos y sinfitotopónimos. La información —obtenida de la Gerencia Territorial del Catastro de Granada, de la Junta de Andalucía y de nuestro trabajo de campo— se ha incluido en una base de datos con el programa Microsoft Excell®. Un total de 98 especies vegetales se encuentran representadas en la toponimia local, dando nombre a 593 lugares del territorio. Se aportan comentarios sobre el significado ecológico, paleofitogeográfico y etnobotánico de las especies reflejadas en la toponimia.

  19. victoria cross awards warrants concerning the victoria cross (1920)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. In the military history of both the British Empire and of the Western World, the highest British military decoration, namely the Victoria Cross, has attained con- siderable renown. The Victoria Cross was introduced in terms of the Royal Warrant of 29 January,. 1856 and by 1957 a total of 1346 had been ...

  20. (Bitis; Viperidae) from the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-02-25

    Feb 25, 1997 ... Leiden 43(9): 107-115. SPAWLS, S. & BRANCH, W.R. 1995. Dangerous snakes of. Africa, Southern Books Pub!.. Johannesburg, 192p. VISSER, 1. 1979. New and reconfirmed records for the Cape. Province with notes on some 'rare' species (Sauria, Serpentes and. Anura). J Herpetol. Assoc. Afr. 21: 40-50.

  1. The geochemical effects of olivine slurry replenishment and dolostone assimilation in the plumbing system of the Franklin Large Igneous Province, Victoria Island, Arctic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Ben; Lissenberg, C. Johan; Bédard, Jean H.; Beard, Charlie

    2015-02-01

    The Neoproterozoic (~723-716 Ma) Franklin Large Igneous Province exposed on Victoria Island in the Canadian Arctic is comprised of a sill-dominated magma plumbing system overlain by the coeval Natkusiak flood basalts. We have investigated three sections, separated by a total of >50 km of distance, of a sill (the Fort Collinson Sill Complex) emplaced just above a prominent sedimentary marker unit. The sill is characterized by a basal olivine-enriched layer (OZ: up to 55 % olivine) and an upper gabbroic unit. The observed diversity of olivine compositions in the OZ implies that bulk-rock MgO versus FeO arrays reflect accumulation of a heterogeneous olivine crystal cargo. We suggest that the OZ was formed as a late olivine slurry replenishment in a partially crystallized gabbroic sill, propagating for over 50 km along strike. This interpretation is consistent with Pb-isotope data, which show that at least three geochemically distinct magmas were emplaced into the Fort Collinson Sill Complex. The OZs exhibit a gradual westward evolution toward more Fe-rich bulk compositions. This is best explained by progressive mixing of the replenishing olivine slurry with a resident gabbroic mush during westward flow. Pb-isotopic signatures suggest that magmas near the inferred conduit feeder assimilated small amounts (rock, which may have locally buffered olivine compositions to high-Fo contents.

  2. Jarosite occurrence in the Deccan Volcanic Province of Kachchh, western India: Spectroscopic studies on a Martian analog locality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhattacharya, Satadru; Mitra, Souvik; Gupta, Saibal; Jain, Nirmala; Chauhan, Prakash; Parthasarathy, G; Ajai

    2016-01-01

    .... Here we report an analog terrestrial locality hosting jarosite from Matanumadh, Kachchh, western India, using detailed spectroscopic studies on weathered basalts of the Deccan Volcanic Province...

  3. Petrology, geochronology and emplacement model of the giant 1.37 Ga arcuate Lake Victoria Dyke Swarm on the margin of a large igneous province in eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkitie, Hannu; Data, Gabriel; Isabirye, Edward; Mänttäri, Irmeli; Huhma, Hannu; Klausen, Martin B.; Pakkanen, Lassi; Virransalo, Petri

    2014-09-01

    A comprehensive description of the petrography, geochemical composition, Sm-Nd data and intrinsic field relationships of a giant arcuate Mesoproterozoic mafic dyke swarm in SW Uganda is presented for the first time. The swarm is ∼100 km wide and mainly hosted in the Palaeoproterozoic Rwenzori Belt between the Mesoproterozoic Karagwe-Ankole Belt and the Archaean Uganda Block. The dykes trend NW-SE across Uganda, but can be correlated across Lake Victoria to another set of arcuate aeromagnetic anomalies that continue southwards into Tanzania, resulting in a remarkably large semi-circular swarm with an outer diameter of ∼500 km. We propose that this unique giant dyke structure be named the Lake Victoria Dyke Swarm (LVDS). The dykes are tholeiites with Mg numbers between 0.69 and 0.44, and with inherited marked negative Nb and P anomalies in spider diagrams. Two dykes provide Sm-Nd mineral ages of 1368 ± 41 Ma and 1374 ± 42 Ma, with initial εNd values of -2.3 and -3.2, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of ∼0.706-0.709. Geotectonic discrimination diagrams for the swarm exhibit more arc type than within-plate tectonic signatures, but this is in accordance with systematic enrichments in LREE, U and Th in the dolerites, more likely due to the involvement of the continental lithosphere during their petrogenesis. The LVDS is coeval with a regional ∼1375 Ma bimodal magmatic event across nearby Burundi, Rwanda and NW Tanzania, which can collectively be viewed as a large igneous province (LIP). It also indicates that the nearby Karagwe-Ankole Belt sequences - bracketed between 1.78 and 1.37 Ga and assumed by some to have been deposited within intracratonic basins - were capped by flood basalts that have subsequently been removed by erosion. Different geochemical signatures (e.g. LaN/SmN) suggest that most of the arcuate swarm was derived from an enriched SCLM, whereas related intrusions in the centre of this semi-circular segment have more or less enriched asthenospheric mantle

  4. Cross-sectional associations between intensity of animal and human infection with Schistosoma japonicum in Western Samar province, Philippines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGarvey, Stephen T.; Carabin, Hélène; Batalong, Ernesto Jr.

    2006-01-01

    To estimate the association between the intensity of animal infection with Schistosoma japonicum and human infection in Western Samar province, the Philippines......To estimate the association between the intensity of animal infection with Schistosoma japonicum and human infection in Western Samar province, the Philippines...

  5. Aspects of productivity of traditionally managed Barotse cattle in the Western Province of Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, van E.G.M.

    1994-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, traditionally managed livestock is important because of the provision of draught power and manure, the provision of security and investment possibilities, for the provision of meat and milk, and for social purposes (eg. brideprice, gifts). In the Western Province of

  6. AHP 6: Matrilineal Marriage in Tibetan Areas In Western Sichuan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Féng Mǐn 冯敏

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The marriage and family organization of the Zhaba 扎巴 people in Western Sichuan 四川 Province is similar to that practiced by the Naxi Mosuo 纳西摩梭 during the 1960s. The Zhaba2 Region is another matrilineal culture region in addition to the Lugu 泸沽 Region in Yunnan 云南 Province. The area has only recently begun modernizing because of its isolation. 'Visiting marriages' and matrilineal family organization continue to play an important role in Zhaba culture. This research contributes new material to the anthropological study of matrilineal societies.

  7. Seismic volcanostratigraphy of the western Indian rifted margin: The pre-Deccan igneous province

    OpenAIRE

    Calvès, Gérôme; Schwab, Anne M.; Huuse, Mads; Clift, Peter D.; Gaina, Carmen; Jolley, David; Tabrez, Ali R.; Inam, Asif

    2011-01-01

    The Indian Plate has been the focus of intensive research concerning the flood basalts of the Deccan Traps. Here we document a volcanostratigraphic analysis of the offshore segment of the western Indian volcanic large igneous province, between the shoreline and the first magnetic anomaly (An 28 ∼63 Ma). We have mapped the different crustal domains of the NW Indian Ocean from stretched continental crust through to oceanic crust, using seismic reflection and potential field data. Two volcanic s...

  8. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Soil and Kiwifruit of Planting Base in Western Hunan Province, China

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    WANG Ren-cai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The heavy metals accumulation in soil and kiwi fruit plant in Western Hunan Province main kiwifruit planting base were analyzed, such as As, Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr. The results showed that the accumulation of heavy metals in soil of 6 kiwifruit planting areas were not obvious. The contents of heavy metals in most of areas of Western Hunan Province were below the national standard, except one area where the soil contents of cadmium (4.900 mg·kg-1, mercury (0.634 mg·kg-1were exceeded. At the same time, the comprehensive pollution index of heavy metals was less than 0.7 in these areas. There were 5 bases with no pollution of heavy metal, all which the kiwifruit could be safely produced in line with the requirements of the green kiwifruit planting base soil standards. At these areas, the contents of various heavy metals(except cadmium and mercurywere small in the branches and leaves of kiwifruit; kiwifruit had a very well capacity to absorb the cadmium when the cadmium content of its branches reached 12.73%. The heavy metal contents of the kiwifruit in the 6 regions, which belonging to the pollutionfree green fruits, were below or far lower than the national standard. According to the comprehensive analysis, the soil condition of the main cultivated land in Western Hunan Province was good, and the fruit had no heavy metal residues.

  9. Analysis of Poplar process value chain in Western Azerbaijan province aims to upgrading

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    omid hosein zadeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the size and importance of poplar culturing and its role in the West Azerbaijan province economy, evaluation of the poplar value chain is necessary. With drawing up a comprehensive value chain and identify the lacks, setting the value chain in the province were studied. Finally, due to lacks of the value chain, value chain strategy for development was identified using ANP. The results of the calculation of location quotient in the West Azerbaijan province showed that the LQ is equal to 0.65852. Due to its lower LQ than one, it can be concluded that the poplar costumers in Western Azerbaijan province are less than the country average. The results of the prioritization of criteria affecting poplar value chain development in West Azerbaijan province indicated the most important criterion is the access to wooden raw materials weighing 0.16. After that the stable supply of raw materials, machinery and equipment, manpower, proximity to local markets, expertise and financial resources are with weights, 0.132, 0.123, 0.116, 0.105, 0.102 and 0.07 respectively. The weights of the other criteria have a little importance in the development of the poplar value chain. Final results of alternatives prioritization showed, the maximum weight is related to particleboard with the 0.295. The following options are OSB, MDF and HDF which have a weight of 0.185 and 0.178 respectively. After the composite wood products is turn of chemical products, namely cellulose, pulp and paper weights 0.112, 0.1 and 0.066 respectively.

  10. Annual ryegrass toxicity in Thoroughbred horses in Ceres in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

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    J.D. Grewar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of annual ryegrass toxicity occurred on a Thoroughbred stud in Ceres in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. This is the 1st report of annual ryegrass toxicity in horses in South Africa, although the condition has been reported in cattle and sheep populations in the past. Annual ryegrass toxicity is characterised by a variety of neurological signs including tremors, convulsions, recumbency and in many cases death. The description of the outbreak includes the history, clinical presentation and treatment protocol administered during the outbreak. Various epidemiological variables and their influence in the outbreak are also considered.

  11. The sero-epidemiology of Rift Valley fever in people in the Lake Victoria Basin of western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi-Soyster, Elysse Noel; de Glanville, William Anson; Thomas, Lian Francesca; Kariuki, Samuel; Bronsvoort, Barend Mark de Clare; Wamae, Claire Njeri; LaBeaud, Angelle Desiree; Fèvre, Eric Maurice

    2017-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic arbovirus affecting livestock and people. This study was conducted in western Kenya where RVFV outbreaks have not previously been reported. The aims were to document the seroprevalence and risk factors for RVFV antibodies in a community-based sample from western Kenya and compare this with slaughterhouse workers in the same region who are considered a high-risk group for RVFV exposure. The study was conducted in western Kenya between July 2010 and November 2012. Individuals were recruited from randomly selected homesteads and a census of slaughterhouses. Structured questionnaire tools were used to collect information on demographic data, health, and risk factors for zoonotic disease exposure. Indirect ELISA on serum samples determined seropositivity to RVFV. Risk factor analysis for RVFV seropositivity was conducted using multi-level logistic regression. A total of 1861 individuals were sampled in 384 homesteads. The seroprevalence of RVFV in the community was 0.8% (95% CI 0.5–1.3). The variables significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity in the community were increasing age (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.1–1.4, pslaughterhouse workers were sampled in 84 ruminant slaughterhouses. The seroprevalence of RVFV in slaughterhouse workers was 2.5% (95% CI 1.5–4.2). Being the slaughterman, the person who cuts the animal’s throat (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.0–12.1, p = 0.047), was significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity. This study investigated and compared the epidemiology of RVFV between community members and slaughterhouse workers in western Kenya. The data demonstrate that slaughtering animals is a risk factor for RVFV seropositivity and that slaughterhouse workers are a high-risk group for RVFV seropositivity in this environment. These risk factors have been previously reported in other studies providing further evidence for RVFV circulation in western Kenya. PMID:28686589

  12. Fauna and Geographical Distribution of Scorpions in Ilam Province, South Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifinia, Narges; Gowhari, Iman; Hoseiny-Rad, Manijeh; Aivazi, Ali Ashraf

    2017-06-01

    Scorpions' stings and their own mortalities place them among the most important health and medical problems. The dreadful features and especially their poisonous stings are considered a major cause of human stress and abhorrence/phobia. The current study aimed to study the scorpion fauna of Ilam Province, south western Iran in order to manage scorpionism related problems. In this field-laboratory investigation during March 2014 to February 2015, different parts of Ilam Province were surveyed. Nine sampling parts were selected based on geographical situation, scorpionism reports, weather, flora, and local data. Capturing scorpion was done employing a black light, and a long forceps from dusk to midnight. The collected scorpions were placed to 70% ethyl alcohol. All specimens were determined based on the valid taxonomic keys, furthermore their sexes were studied. Out of the 391 collected scorpions, 11 species were identified as follows: Hottentotta saulcyi, Mesobuthus eupeus, Compsobuthus matthiesseni, Razianus zarudnyi, Hemiscorpius lepturus, Androctonus crassicauda, Orthochirus iranus, Odontobuthus bidentatus, Buthacus macrocentrus, Scorpio maurus, and Polisius persicus. Eleven species of Buthidae, Scorpionidae and Hemiscorpiidae families from high risk areas were identified. Despite the low surface of the province, such different species reveals a diverse scorpion fauna that, in turn, shows good and suitable habits of scorpions, as considered by health staff.

  13. Seroprevalence of Human Fasciolosis in Lorestan Province, Western Iran, in 2015-16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman HEYDARIAN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was the seroepidemiological survey for detecting the status of human fasciolosis in Lorestan Province, western Iran.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015-16. Based on statistical estimations, 1256 serum samples were collected from different parts of Lorestan Province, western Iran, and stored at -20 °C until use. The collected serum samples were analyzed at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran using indirect ELISA method.Results: Anti-Fasciola antibodies were detected in 16 (1.3% individuals. Regarding the seropositivity to fasciolosis, no significant differences were found between age groups, sex, level of education and occupation; however significant differences were observed regarding location, consuming local freshwater plants and water resources (P<0.02.Conclusion: Local freshwater plants and unfiltered water resources were probably the main sources of the infection. Health education by local health centers to elevate awareness of people, and providing facilities for safer drinking water, especially in rural areas may help decrease the risk of fasciolosis infection in this region.

  14. Invasion of the red seaweed Heterosiphonia japonica spans biogeographic provinces in the Western North Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Newton

    Full Text Available The recent invasion of the red alga Heterosiphonia japonica in the western North Atlantic Ocean has provided a unique opportunity to study invasion dynamics across a biogeographical barrier. Native to the western North Pacific Ocean, initial collections in 2007 and 2009 restricted the western North Atlantic range of this invader to Rhode Island, USA. However, through subtidal community surveys, we document the presence of Heterosiphonia in coastal waters from Maine to New York, USA, a distance of more than 700 km. This geographical distribution spans a well-known biogeographical barrier at Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Despite significant differences in subtidal community structure north and south of Cape Cod, Heterosiphonia was found at all but two sites surveyed in both biogeographic provinces, suggesting that this invader is capable of rapid expansion over broad geographic ranges. Across all sites surveyed, Heterosiphonia comprised 14% of the subtidal benthic community. However, average abundances of nearly 80% were found at some locations. As a drifting macrophyte, Heterosiphonia was found as intertidal wrack in abundances of up to 65% of the biomass washed up along beaches surveyed. Our surveys suggest that the high abundance of Heterosiphonia has already led to marked changes in subtidal community structure; we found significantly lower species richness in recipient communities with higher Heterosiphona abundances. Based on temperature and salinity tolerances of the European populations, we believe Heterosiphonia has the potential to invade and alter subtidal communities from Florida to Newfoundland in the western North Atlantic.

  15. The sero-epidemiology of Rift Valley fever in people in the Lake Victoria Basin of western Kenya.

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    Elizabeth Anne Jessie Cook

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a zoonotic arbovirus affecting livestock and people. This study was conducted in western Kenya where RVFV outbreaks have not previously been reported. The aims were to document the seroprevalence and risk factors for RVFV antibodies in a community-based sample from western Kenya and compare this with slaughterhouse workers in the same region who are considered a high-risk group for RVFV exposure. The study was conducted in western Kenya between July 2010 and November 2012. Individuals were recruited from randomly selected homesteads and a census of slaughterhouses. Structured questionnaire tools were used to collect information on demographic data, health, and risk factors for zoonotic disease exposure. Indirect ELISA on serum samples determined seropositivity to RVFV. Risk factor analysis for RVFV seropositivity was conducted using multi-level logistic regression. A total of 1861 individuals were sampled in 384 homesteads. The seroprevalence of RVFV in the community was 0.8% (95% CI 0.5-1.3. The variables significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity in the community were increasing age (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.4, p<0.001, and slaughtering cattle at the homestead (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.0-10.5, p = 0.047. A total of 553 slaughterhouse workers were sampled in 84 ruminant slaughterhouses. The seroprevalence of RVFV in slaughterhouse workers was 2.5% (95% CI 1.5-4.2. Being the slaughterman, the person who cuts the animal's throat (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.0-12.1, p = 0.047, was significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity. This study investigated and compared the epidemiology of RVFV between community members and slaughterhouse workers in western Kenya. The data demonstrate that slaughtering animals is a risk factor for RVFV seropositivity and that slaughterhouse workers are a high-risk group for RVFV seropositivity in this environment. These risk factors have been previously reported in other studies providing further

  16. Evidence for Borna disease virus infection in neuropsychiatric patients in three western China provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Xu, M-M; Zeng, L; Liu, S; Liu, X; Wang, X; Li, D; Huang, R-Z; Zhao, L-B; Zhan, Q-L; Zhu, D; Zhang, Y-Y; Xu, P; Xie, P

    2014-04-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is a non-cytolytic, neurotropic RNA virus that can infect a wide variety of vertebrate species from birds and primates to humans. Several studies have been carried out to investigate whether BDV is associated with neuropsychiatric diseases. However, this association is still inconclusive. Two panels of subjects consisting of 1,679 various neuropsychiatric patients and healthy people from three western China provinces were enrolled in this study. BDV p24 or p40 RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were detected in the first panel of 1,481 subjects using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from the BDV RNA-positive individuals were subjected to BDV p24 antibodies testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). BDV p24 or p40 RNA in PBMCs and p24 antibodies in plasma were detected in the second panel of 198 subjects by RT-qPCR and Western blot. A higher prevalence for BDV RNA was demonstrated in patients with viral encephalitis (6.70%), Guillain-Barré syndrome (6.70%), schizophrenia (9.90%) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) (12.70%) compared to healthy controls in the first panel. CSF p24 antibodies were demonstrated in three viral encephalitis patients, two schizophrenia patients and two major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. The prevalences of p24 antibodies in plasma from patients with viral encephalitis (13.24%), multiple sclerosis (25.00%) and Parkinson's disease (22.73%) were significantly higher than healthy controls. This study demonstrates that BDV infection also exists in humans from three western China provinces, and suggests the involvement of the contribution of BDV in the aetiology of Chinese patients with some neuropsychiatric disorders, including viral encephalitis, schizophrenia, CFS, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.

  17. Biogeography of Nocardiopsis strains from hypersaline environments of Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces, western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Song-Tao; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Jiang, Hongchen; Yang, Ling-Ling; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Hozzein, Wael N.; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The genus Nocardiopsis is a widespread group within the phylum Actinobacteria and has been isolated from various salty environments worldwide. However, little is known about whether biogeography affects Nocardiopsis distribution in various hypersaline environments. Such information is essential for understanding the ecology of Nocardiopsis. Here we analyzed 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and sodA genes of 78 Nocardiopsis strains isolated from hypersaline environments in Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces of western China. The obtained Nocardiopsis strains were classified into five operational taxonomic units, each comprising location-specific phylo- and genotypes. Statistical analyses showed that spatial distance and environmental factors substantially influenced Nocardiopsis distribution in hypersaline environments: the former had stronger influence at large spatial scales, whereas the latter was more influential at small spatial scales. PMID:26289784

  18. Seroprevalence of Neospora infection in horses and donkeys in Hamedan province, Western Iran

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    Jamal Gharekhani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora infection in horses and donkeys in Hamedan province, Western Iran.Materials and Methods:In cross-sectional study, Blood samples (n=220 were collected from 120 horses and 100 donkeys in 2012 year. All sera were screened for Neosporausing Neosporamodified direct agglutination test (N-MAT. Results:Antibodies to Neospora infection in horses and donkeys were reported in 40.8% and 52%, respectively. There was not significant correlation demonstrated between infection rates in different age groups and genders.Conclusion: The current study is the first report of Neospora infection in donkeys from Iran. Further investigations and designing control strategies is recommended

  19. Virus diseases in the tobacco fields of Guilan and Western Azerbaijan provinces of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khateri, H; Moarrefzadeh, N; Mosahebi, G; Koohi-Habibi, M

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is one of the important industrial plants in Iran. Viruses as an important group of plant pathogens cause many losses on the quality and quantity of tobacco crop. There was few information on the types of plant viruses infecting the tobacco fields of Guilan and almost no information for Western Azerbaijan province. During 2005-2007, leaf samples were taken from symptomatic plants in the growing areas of these two provinces. The observed symptoms on plants in the fields varied from mild mosaics to severe necrosis. The regions of sampling were including Rasht, Bazar-jomeh, Soumae-Sara, Talesh and Astara in Guilan and Ourmia, Sardasht and Ghara-Ziaeddin in Western Azerbaijan. The tobacco types and varieties from which the samples were taken included air-cured burley variety Burley 21 and to a lesser extent, oriental tobacco variety Basma Serres in W. Azerbaijan and flue-cured varieties Coker 347 and Virginia El in Guilan province. Samples were tested by DAS-ELISA method (Clark and Adams, 1977) using the polyclonal antibodies for a set of tobacco viruses. Some samples with positive reactions in DAS-ELISA were inoculated to indicator test plants such as Chenopodium amaranticolor, Datura metel, D. stramonium, Physalis floridana, Nicotiana rustica, N. glutinosa, and tobacco (varieties White burley and Samsun). The results of greenhouse experiments were consistent with serological tests. The following viruses which are listed in order of their overall abundance within the tested samples were detected: Tobacco streak virus (TSV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Tobacco etch virus (TEV), Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), Potato virus Y (PVY), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). In all samples more than one virus infection was detected. The most severe mosaic type symptoms including the deformation and blistering on leaves were mainly seen in the infections by CMV and TMV. The most severe necrotic type symptoms including

  20. Black carbon record of the wildfire history of western Sichuan Province in China over the last 12.8 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weiwei; Zhang, Enlou; Shen, Ji; Chen, Rong; Liu, Enfeng

    2016-12-01

    Wildfire is recognized as a critical Earth system process which affects the global carbon cycle, atmospheric chemistry, and ecosystem dynamics. Estimating the potential impact of future climate change on the incidence of fire requires an understanding of the long-term interactions of fire, climate, vegetation, and human activity. Accordingly, we analyzed the black carbon content and the pollen stratigraphy of sediments spanning the past 12.8 ka from Lake Muge Co, an alpine lake in western Sichuan Province, in order to determine the main factors influencing regional fire regimes. The results demonstrate that wildfires occurred frequently and intensively during the late deglaciation and the early Holocene when the regional vegetation was dominated by deciduous forests. Wildfire occurrence decreased significantly during the Holocene climatic optimum between 9.2 and 5.6 cal ka BP. Overall, the wildfire history of western Sichuan Province is similar to that of the Chinese Loess Plateau and of East Asia as a whole, suggesting that regional-scale fires depended mainly on changes in the intensity of the Asian summer monsoon. In addition, the fire regime of western Sichuan Province may have been influenced by the establishment of human settlement and agriculture in western Sichuan Province and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau after about 5.5 cal ka BP, and by an intensification of cereal cultivation coupled with population expansion in southwestern China during the last two millennia.

  1. Checklist of the subfamilies Mirinae and Orthotylinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae in western parts of Kerman Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shamsi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A faunal study was carried out on the subfamilies Mirinae and Orthotylinae (Heteroptera: Miridae from different parts of western Kerman Province on various host plants. In total 16 species belonging to 14 genera were collected and identified from different host plants and localities.

  2. The Sustainability and Challenges of Business Incubators in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thobekani Lose

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the growing interest in business incubation programmes and the benefits derived from such programmes, the path is beset by numerous challenges. This paper investigates the challenges faced by business incubators (BIs as they strive to support their clients. The study utilized a qualitative approach to collect data by way of interviews to gain in-depth knowledge and understanding of the concept and challenges of business incubators. The data were collected using structured and unstructured in-depth personal interviews, which were carried out with the respondents of business incubators in the Western Cape. The research participants for this study were limited to the business incubators on the database of a local organization that promotes small and medium enterprises (SMEs development strategy and programmes in the Western Cape Province. All five business incubators on the database were deemed suitable for the study. The results indicated that an average of twenty-five entrepreneurs graduated from the incubation programme in the last five years. Furthermore, lack of sponsorship, production space, advanced technological facilities (prototype and expansion to different areas were found to be among the challenges hindering incubators.

  3. A systematic regional trend in helium isotopes across the northernbasin and range province, Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2006-05-01

    An extensive study of helium isotopes in fluids collectedfrom surface springs, fumaroles and wells across the northern Basin andRange Province reveals a systematic trend of decreasing 3He/4He ratiosfrom west to east. The western margin of the Basin and Range ischaracterized by mantle-like ratios (6-8 Ra) associated with active orrecently active crustal magma systems (e.g., Coso, Long Valley,Steamboat, and the Cascade volcanic complex). Moving towards the east,the ratios decline systematically to a background value of ~;0.1 Ra. Theregional trend is consistent with extensive mantle melting concentratedalong the western margin and is coincident with an east-to-west increasein the magnitude of northwest strain. The increase in shear strainenhances crustal permeability resulting in high vertical fluid flow ratesthat preserve the high helium isotope ratios at the surface. Superimposedon the regional trend are "helium spikes," local anomalies in the heliumisotope composition. These "spikes" reflect either local zones of mantlemelting or locally enhanced crustal permeability. In the case of theDixie Valley hydrothermal system, it appears to be a combination ofboth.

  4. A Systems Dynamic Model for Drug Abuse and Drug-Related Crime in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyabadza, Farai; Coetzee, Lezanie

    2017-01-01

    The complex problem of drug abuse and drug-related crimes in communities in the Western Cape province cannot be studied in isolation but through the system they are embedded in. In this paper, a theoretical model to evaluate the syndemic of substance abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape province of South Africa is constructed and explored. The dynamics of drug abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape are simulated using STELLA software. The simulation results are consistent with the data from SACENDU and CrimeStats SA, highlighting the usefulness of such a model in designing and planning interventions to combat substance abuse and its related problems.

  5. A Systems Dynamic Model for Drug Abuse and Drug-Related Crime in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farai Nyabadza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex problem of drug abuse and drug-related crimes in communities in the Western Cape province cannot be studied in isolation but through the system they are embedded in. In this paper, a theoretical model to evaluate the syndemic of substance abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape province of South Africa is constructed and explored. The dynamics of drug abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape are simulated using STELLA software. The simulation results are consistent with the data from SACENDU and CrimeStats SA, highlighting the usefulness of such a model in designing and planning interventions to combat substance abuse and its related problems.

  6. Ten-year epidemiology of chemical burns in western Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chunjiang; Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Yuanhai; Ni, Liangfang; Jiang, Ruiming; Liu, Liping; Han, Chunmao

    2016-05-01

    Chemical burns occur frequently in western Zhejiang Province. This study documents the epidemiology of chemical burns in the region using burn data from a local specialized hospital. Results from this analysis will assist in the planning of prevention strategies for high-risk occupations and groups. A 10-year retrospective analysis was conducted for all patients with chemical burns admitted to the Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery from January 2004 to December 2013. Information obtained for each patient included demographics (gender, age, occupation and education), location of the burn, cause of the burn, and categories of chemicals. Data regarding the season of admittance, prehospital treatment, wound site/size (area, region, and depth), accompanying injuries, operations, length of hospital stay and mortality were also assessed. A total of 690 patients (619 males, 71 females; average age: 30.6±12.4 years) were admitted to the department for chemical burns. Over the 10-year period, the incidence of chemical burns showed an increasing tendency. Chemical burns occurred most frequently in patients aged 20-59 years (94.79%). Most of the chemical burns were work-related, primarily in private enterprises (47.97%) and state-owned enterprises (24.93%). Operations (68.99%) and machine problems (17.26%) were the main causes of chemical burns in the workplace. With regard to burns caused by chemicals, most were caused by acids (72.01%), with hydrofluoric acid and sulphuric acid causing 51.45%. Most chemical burns occurred in the summer and autumn seasons (61.02%). The burn size was burns covering >40% TBSA. The most common burn sites were the upper extremities (31.57%), lower extremities (19.86%), and head and neck (28.83%). Most patients (581 (84.20%)) received water washing treatment on site immediately after exposure. The most common accompanying injuries included inhalation injury, ocular burns and digestive tract injury. The average hospital stay was 17.0±23

  7. Animals used for medicinal and magico-religious purposes in western Granada Province, Andalusia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Guillermo

    2011-10-11

    This paper serves to document and make known the folk medicinal uses of animals and animal products in the western part of the province of Granada (Andalusia, Spain), analyzing not only the species used, the administration methods and the ailments treated, but also the cultural implications of this traditional knowledge and the large percentage of magico-religious or ritual practices. The information was gathered through semi-structured open interviews of a total of 42 people, as a part of an in-deep ethnobiological research in 16 different municipalities within the study area. The use-value index was calculated for highlighting the most important species for the population. In this part of Granada, 26 different animals have been employed in the treatment of 26 conditions from 10 different pathological groups, amounting 150 total reports (7% of the total ones including plant and animal medicinal resources). Although some of the uses were included in several classical and anthropological works, most remain unpublished. Cultural and environmental implications are discussed. The traditional use of animals in medicine is low known for southern Europe. 26 species constitute a significant number of animals used, considering the socio-economic and cultural context in which the study area is situated, and its small size. Albeit the main part of the information presented in this paper can be more important in an historical or anthropological standpoint, most of the medicinal resources presented have not been deeply studied. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Paurodontella parapitica n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina, Sphaerularioidea) from Kermanshah Province, Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Mehrab; Heydari, Ramin; Ye, Weimin

    2016-06-01

    Paurodontella parapitica n. sp., collected from the rhizosphere of an apple tree in Kermanshah province, western Iran, is described. The new species is characterized by a body length of 505 to 723 µm (females) and 480 to 600 µm (males), lip region continuous by depression; 7 to 8 μm broad, 3 to 4 µm high, stylet length 7 to 9 µm or 1 to 1.3 times the lip region diameter, short postuterine sac of 4 to 6 μm long, lateral fields with five to six incisures; outer incisures crenated and inner incisures weakly crenated, excretory pore situated 90 to 100 µm from anterior end; functional males common in the population, with spicules 24 to 26 μm long. Tail of both sexes similar, almost straight and elongate-conoid. The new species resembles in morphology and morphometrics to four known species of the genus, namely P. apitica, P. minuta, P. myceliophaga, and P. sohailai. The results of phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of D2/D3 expansion region of 28S rRNA gene revealed this genus is polyphyletic in four different clades in Tylenchid.

  9. Acute Flaccid Paralysis and Its Differential Diagnosis in in Kurdistan Province, Western Iran; an 11-Year Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Soltani, Jafar; Esmailnasab, Nader; Roshani, Daem; Karimi, Mohamad; Amjadi, Mohamad-Jamil

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective The surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a key strategy for monitoring the progress of poliomyelitis eradication and is a sensitive measure for detecting potential cases of poliomyelitis and poliovirus infection. This study was conducted to describe the characteristics of patients reported with AFP, and to evaluate the performance of the surveillance system in Kurdistan province, western Iran, using indicators recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). ...

  10. Ethnomedicinal application of plants in the western plain region of North Jeolla Province in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi-Jang; Kim, Hyun

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to record and conserve oral traditional knowledge of medicinal plants from the indigenous people living in the western plain region of North Jeolla Province, Korea. Our research team interviewed 46 key informants (20 men and 26 women) who have lived over 50 years in the area. The average age of the informants was 74 (with a minimum age of 56 to maximum 84). Data was collected through the participatory rural appraisal method involving interviews, informal meetings, open and group discussions, and overt observation using semi-structured questionnaires. Ethnobotanical inventory possessed by the residents included 183 species of plants distributed in 156 genera belonging to 68 families and were used in 626 use-reports. Among them, the medicinal plants were comprised as 42 families, 75 genera, and 83 species in usage in 195 ways. A total of 71 ailments were treated with 222 kinds of remedies using medicinal plants. Parts of plant that were used as treatments total up to 17 and the methods of preparation for medicinal materials add up to 28. Informant consensus factor (ICF) showed that the muscular-skeletal disorders had the highest agreement measure (1.0) followed by cuts and wounds (0.87) and respiratory system disorders (0.77). Overall, 29 plant species showed fidelity level of 100%. This study is noteworthy in that it records rapidly disappearing traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in a time period of pressing environmental changes with regard to the newly built sea wall, eventually leading more or less to the immigration of the seaside inhabitants and the familiarization of the modern medical systems to the farmland inhabitants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Waste-to-energy potential in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia

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    Omar K.M. Ouda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Waste-to-energy (WTE is a viable option for municipal solid waste (MSW management and a renewable energy source. MSW is a chronic problem in Saudi Arabia and more specifically in Saudi Urban areas. The MSW practices in KSA are simply done by collecting the waste and dumping it in open landfill sites. KSA is considering WTE as a potential renewable energy source that can contribute to electricity demand in the Kingdom. This research aims to assess potential contribution of WTE facility to meet electricity demand in the three main cities in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia and to provide an alternative solution to landfills. Three scenarios for WTE utilization were developed: Mass Burn, Mass Burn with recycling, and refused derived fuel (RDF with biomethanation. The Mass Burn scenario implies full waste stream incineration; the Mass Burn with recycling scenario considers segregation of reusable materials and the waste leftover for incineration; while RDF with biomethanation considers segregation of general waste stream into inorganic and organic waste and utilizes organic waste for biomethanation and inorganic for RDF. The analyses were completed for Jeddah, Makkah, and Madina cities; with current total population of about 6.3 million. The results show that Jeddah has the potential to produce about 180 MW of electricity based on incineration scenario; about 11.25 MW based on incineration with recycling scenario; and about 87.3 MW based RDF with biomethanation scenario by the year 2032. These values and other two cities values are based on theoretical ideals and they help in identifying the optimal WTE techniques for each city.

  12. The Incidence of Onychomycosis Infection among Patients Referred to Hospitals in Kermanshah Province, Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaeili, Ali; Karimi, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a nail disorder associated with aesthetic problems, discomfort, physical injury and loss of dexterity. The purpose of the present study was to isolate and identify the causative fungi of onychomycosis in 2402 patients in Kermanshah Province, western Iran in 1994 to 2010. Mycologic assessment was carried out by standard methods including either microscopic or cultural procedures. Direct microscopy of the nail clips was positive in 1086 (45.2%) and fingernail and toenail onychomycoses were recognized in 773 (71.1%) and 313 (28.8%), respectively. Yeasts were detected in 853 (78.5%), dermatophytes in 201 (18.5%) and non-dermatophyte fungi in 32 (2.9%) patients. The results of fungal culture showed Candida albicans isolated in 384 (45.0%) and other Candida spp. isolated in 361 (54.0%) of the cases as the most common agents of onychomycosis while among dermatophytes, Trichophyton rubrum was found in 63 (37.0%) of the cases as the main dermatophytic agent followed by T. mentagrophytes 32 (15.9%) and Epidermophyton flocosum 30 (17.6%). Among the non-dermatophyte moulds, Aspergillus flavus was the most prevalent species 12 (37.5%) followed by A. niger 8 (25.0%) and A. fumigatus 4 (12.5%). Moreover, 139 (12.8%) samples with positive direct microscopy yielded no growth. The highest rate of onychomycosis was found in patients between 30-40 years of age. In sum, the current results identified the aetiological agents and primary epidemiological aspects of onychomycosis in west Iran.

  13. Uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic Conodont Zonation from Enshi area, western Hubei Province, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Z.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z. Q.; Ma, D.; Yan, P.; Zhan, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Permian-Triassic transition witnessed the largest biotic turnover of Earth life during the Phanerozoic history. Ecosystems in sea and on land have also experienced the most protected restoration following the end-Permian mass extinction. These biocrises were also associated with climatic and environmental extremes through the latest Permian to Middle Triassic. In order to uncover the links among these extreme events, we need to establish high-resolution biochronostratigraphy, which offers precise timescales for reconstructing event sequences and probing the possible causes. Of these, conodont biostratigraphy is an operational tool in enhancing stratigraphic resolution. Although their ancestors and phylogeny remain unclear, conodonts are a rapid evolutionary lineage and extremely abundant in the Triassic marine carbonate successions. Here, we present recent study results of the Lower Triassic conodont zonation from the Ganxi and Jianshi areas, western Hubei Province, South China, which were situated on a carbonate ramp at the southern northern margin of the Upper Yangtze Platform. Therein, the uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic successions are well exposed and yield abundant conodonts. A total of nine conodont zones was established: (1) Clarkina yini-Clarkina zhangi Zone, (2) Hindeodus changxingensis Zone, (3) Hindeodus parvus Zone, (4) Isarcicella staeschei Zone, (5) Clarkina planata Zone, (6) Neoclarkina discrete Zone, (7) Neospathodus dieneri Zone, (8) Novispathodus waageni Zone, and (9) Triassospathodus homeri Zone. The Ns. dieneri M1, Ns. dieneri M2 and Ns. dieneri M3 subzones have also been distinguished from the Ns. dieneri Zone. Both Nv. waageni eowaageni subzones and Nv. waageni waageni subzones are also recognizable from the Nv. waageni Zone. The first occurrence of H. parvus marks the Permian-Triassic boundary(PTB), while the first occurrence of Nv. waageni eowaageni defines the Induan-Olenekian boundary. These conodont zones correlate well with

  14. The trend of hydatidosis in kermanshah province, Western iran (1986-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzavi, Y; Vejdani, M; Nazari, N; Mikaeili, A

    2011-12-01

    Hydatidosis is the larval stage of the Echinococcusgranulosus. This disease is endemic in Iran. There are many studies about hydatidosis in different regions of the country, but there is not any information about the disease in Kermanshah Province. This article will review all available data about hydatidosis in this province. Using web based search engines and a survey on medical student's theses, all the information about hydatid cysts in the province from 1986 -2008 was collected. During these twenty years, at least 482 proven cases of hydatid cyst have been identified in the province. Accordingly, the trend of hydatid cyst operation in the province has been growing and the average annual number of cases has reached 1.41/100,000. Frequency of disease in urban areas was slightly higher than rural areas and the rate of infection in housewives was more than others. Because of the growing trend of hydatid cyst operation in Kermanshah Province, which may be due to many different reasons, this province should be considered as one of the important endemic regions of hydatidosis in Iran.

  15. The Trend of Hydatidosis in Kermanshah Province, Western Iran (1986–2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzavi, Y; Vejdani, M; Nazari, N; Mikaeili, A

    2011-01-01

    Background Hydatidosis is the larval stage of the Echinococcus granulosus. This disease is endemic in Iran. There are many studies about hydatidosis in different regions of the country, but there is not any information about the disease in Kermanshah Province. This article will review all available data about hydatidosis in this province. Methods Using web based search engines and a survey on medical student's theses, all the information about hydatid cysts in the province from 1986 -2008 was collected. Results During these twenty years, at least 482 proven cases of hydatid cyst have been identified in the province. Accordingly, the trend of hydatid cyst operation in the province has been growing and the average annual number of cases has reached 1.41/100,000. Frequency of disease in urban areas was slightly higher than rural areas and the rate of infection in housewives was more than others. Conclusion Because of the growing trend of hydatid cyst operation in Kermanshah Province, which may be due to many different reasons, this province should be considered as one of the important endemic regions of hydatidosis in Iran. PMID:22347311

  16. Inefficient procurement processes undermine access to medicines in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magadzire, Bvudzai P; Ward, Kim; Leng, Henry M J; Sanders, David

    2017-06-30

    South Africa (SA) has experienced several stock-outs of life-saving medicines for the treatment of major chronic infectious and non-communicable diseases in the public sector. To identify the causes of stock-outs and to illustrate how they undermine access to medicines (ATM) in the Western Cape Province, SA. This qualitative study was conducted with a sample of over 70 key informants (frontline health workers, sub-structure and provincial health service managers). We employed the critical incident technique to identify significant occurrences in our context, the consequences of which impacted on access to medicines during a defined period. Stock-outs were identified as one such incident, and we explored when, where and why they occurred, in order to inform policy and practice. Medicines procurement is a centralised function in SA. Health service managers unanimously agreed that stock-outs resulted from the following inefficiencies at the central level: (i) delays in awarding of pharmaceutical tenders; (ii) absence of contracts for certain medicines appearing on provincial code lists; and (iii) suppliers' inability to satisfy contractual agreements. The recurrence of stock-outs had implications at multiple levels: (i) health facility operations; (ii) the Chronic Dispensing Unit (CDU), which prepacks medicines for over 300 000 public sector patients; and (iii) community-based medicines distribution systems, which deliver the CDU's prepacked medicines to non-health facilities nearer to patient homes. For instance, stock-outs resulted in omission of certain medicines from CDU parcels that were delivered to health facilities. This increased workload and caused frustration for frontline health workers who were expected to dispense omitted medicines manually. According to frontline health workers, this translated into longer waiting times for patients and associated dissatisfaction. In some instances, patients were asked to return for undispensed medication at a later

  17. Inefficient procurement processes undermine access to medicines in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bvudzai P Magadzire

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. South Africa (SA has experienced several stock-outs of life-saving medicines for the treatment of major chronic infectious and non-communicable diseases in the public sector. Objective. To identify the causes of stock-outs and to illustrate how they undermine access to medicines (ATM in the Western Cape Province, SA. Methods. This qualitative study was conducted with a sample of over 70 key informants (frontline health workers, sub-structure and provincial health service managers. We employed the critical incident technique to identify significant occurrences in our context, the consequences of which impacted on access to medicines during a defined period. Stock-outs were identified as one such incident, and we explored when, where and why they occurred, in order to inform policy and practice. Results. Medicines procurement is a centralised function in SA. Health service managers unanimously agreed that stock-outs resulted from the following inefficiencies at the central level: (i delays in awarding of pharmaceutical tenders; (ii absence of contracts for certain medicines appearing on provincial code lists; and (iii suppliers’ inability to satisfy contractual agreements. The recurrence of stock-outs had implications at multiple levels: (i health facility operations; (ii the Chronic Dispensing Unit (CDU, which prepacks medicines for over 300 000 public sector patients; and (iii community-based medicines distribution systems, which deliver the CDU’s prepacked medicines to non-health facilities nearer to patient homes. For instance, stock-outs resulted in omission of certain medicines from CDU parcels that were delivered to health facilities. This increased workload and caused frustration for frontline health workers who were expected to dispense omitted medicines manually. According to frontline health workers, this translated into longer waiting times for patients and associated dissatisfaction. In some instances, patients were

  18. Synoptic and meteorological characterisation of olive pollen transport in Córdoba province (south-western Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ceballos, Miguel A; García-Mozo, Hermínia; Adame, José Antonio; Domínguez-Vilches, Eugenio; De la Morena, Benito A; Bolívar, Juan Pedro; Galán, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to provide a detailed analysis of olive pollen transport dynamics in the province of Córdoba (south-western Spain) by applying back-trajectory analysis. Pollen data from 2006 and 2007 were analysed at four monitoring sites: Córdoba city in the centre of the province, Baena and Priego de Córdoba located in the south, and El Cabril reserve (Hornachuelos Natural Park) in the north. Particular attention was paid to nine episodes of high pollen counts. Synoptic surface maps were used, and kinematic back-trajectories (3D) were computed using the hybrid single particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory model (HYSPLIT) at 500 m above ground level, run with a time-step of 6 h over a period of 36 h. Findings were analysed in conjunction with daily and bi-hourly airborne pollen data, field phenological data and hourly surface meteorological data recorded at nearby stations: temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, wind direction and wind speed. The results identified two pollen source areas over the Córdoba province, the largest one located in the south, affecting Baena, Priego de Córdoba and Córdoba city, and one smaller located in the west, which determines mainly the pollen cycle over the north of the province, El Cabril. In addition, two air mass circulations were found, one coming from the south and crossing the main olive pollen sources very close to the surface and being frequently associated with higher pollen counts, and the other coming from the west and, in the episodes investigated, influencing mainly the north of the province.

  19. Nematode parasites of some reptiles (Sauria: Testudines: Ophidia) from the northern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Bursey, Charles R; Freed, Paul S

    2010-10-01

    One hundred and seven reptiles (11 families, 32 species) from the Northern and Western Cape Provinces of South Africa were examined for helminths. Twenty-three (22%) individual reptiles were found to harbor at least 1 species of nematode; 3 (7%) reptiles harbored multiple infections of 2 nematode species. Eight species within 5 families of Nematoda were found in the reptiles surveyed including 1 atractid, 1 diaphanocephalid, 1 heterakid, 3 pharyngodonids, and 2 physalopterans. Ten new host records are reported. A summary of the nematode parasites identified from South African reptiles is provided.

  20. Validation of wet mount microscopy against Trichomonas culture among women of reproductive age group in Western province, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banneheke, H; Fernandopulle, R; Gunasekara, U; Barua, A; Fernando, N; Wickremasinghe, R

    2015-06-01

    Wet mount microscopy is the most commonly used diagnostic method for trichomoniasis in clinical diagnostic services all over the world including Sri Lanka due to its availability, simplicity and is relatively inexpensive. However, Trichomonas culture and PCR are the gold standard tests. Unfortunately, neither the culture nor PCR is available for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis in Sri Lanka. Thus, it is important to validate the wet mount microscopy as it is the only available diagnostic test and has not been validated to date in Sri Lanka. The objective was to evaluate the validity and reliability of wet mount microscopy against gold standard Trichomonas culture among clinic based population of reproductive age group women in Western province, Sri Lanka. Women attending hospital and institutional based clinics were enrolled. They were interviewed and high vaginal swabs were taken for laboratory diagnosis by culture and wet mount microscopy. There were 601 participants in the age group of 15-45 years. Wet mount microscopy showed 68% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive (PPV) and 98% negative predictive values (NPV) (P=0.001, kappa=0.803) respectively against the gold standard culture. The area under the ROC curve was 0.840. Sensitivity of wet mount microscopy is low. However it has high validity and reliability as a specific diagnostic test for trichomoniasis. If it is to be used among women of reproductive age group in Western province, Sri Lanka, a culture method could be adopted as a second test to confirm the negative wet mount for symptomatic patients.

  1. Crustal structure beneath the western Hubei Province of China from joint inversion of ambient noise and receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, S.; Zhu, L.; Luo, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate crustal S-wave structure beneath the western Hubei Province, which is located at a topographic step in China with high-rising plateaus to the west and low-elevation plains to the east. We collected two-year continuous seismic waveform records of 22 permanent broadband stations and six-month records of 29 portable stations and did cross-correlations of the waveform data between stations. We then measured phase/group velocity dispersion curves from 8 to 35s using frequency-time analysis (FTAN) method and performed surface wave tomography using the fast marching method to obtain phase/group velocity maps. We finally constructed high resolution 3-D shear-wave velocity structure beneath the western Hubei Province from joint inversion of surface wave dispersion data and receiver functions. The 3D model shows shear velocity variations are well correlated with geological features, such as sedimentary basins and mountain ranges. In particular, a high velocity anomaly beneath the Three Gorges Reservoir Dam indicates that it is located in a tectonic stable region.

  2. Indoor radon survey in dwellings of nine cities in the Eastern and the Western provinces of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Jarad, F; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Al-Jarallah, M I; Al-Shukri, A

    2003-01-01

    The results of a first phase of an indoor radon survey in a total of 1610 dwellings distributed in nine cities of the Eastern and the Western provinces of Saudi Arabia are presented. The objective of this radon survey was to obtain representative indoor radon data for seven cities in the Eastern province. Khafji, Hafr Al-Batin, Abqaiq, Qatif, Al-Ahsa, Dammam and Khobar and to compare this with two cities in the Western province, Madina and Taif. So far, detailed radon data is not available for Saudi Arabia: therefore, this radon survey provides a base line for Saudi Arabia in the Radon World Atlas. On average, 200 indoor radon dosemeters were distributed in each city and placed for a period of one year starting from May 2001 to May 2002. The total number of collected dosemeters was 847. A total of 724 houses and 98 schools were covered in this survey. The results of the survey in the cities showed that the overall minimum, maximum and average radon concentrations were 1, 137 and 22 Bq m(-3), respectively. Geometric mean and geometric standard deviations of the radon distribution were found to be 18 and 1.92, respectively. In one of the dwellings in Qatif city, radon concentration, measured by a passive system and then confirmed by an active system, was found to be 535 +/- 23 and 523 +/- 22 Bq m(-3), respectively. The result of a radon survey in 98 schools showed that the minimum, maximum and average radon concentrations were 1, 70 and 19 Bq m(-3), respectively. The average radon concentration for each city was also determined. The lowest average radon concentration (8 Bq m(-3)) was found in Al-Ahsa while the highest average concentration (40 Bq m(-3)) was found in Khafji.

  3. Indoor radon survey in dwellings of nine cities in the eastern and western provinces of Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Jarad, F.; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Al-Shukri, A

    2003-07-01

    The results of a first phase of an indoor survey in a total of 1610 dwellings distributed in nine cities of the Eastern and the Western provinces of Saudi Arabia are presented. The objective of this radon survey was to obtain representative indoor radon data for seven cities in the Eastern province, Khafji, Hafr Al-Batin, Abqaiq, Qatif, Al-Ahsa, Dammam and Khobar and to compare this with two cities in the Western province, Madina and Taif. So far, detailed radon data is not available for Saudi Arabia; therefore, this radon survey provides a base line for Saudi Arabia in the Radon World Atlas. On average, 200 indoor radon dosemeters were distributed in each city and placed for a period of one year starting from May 2001 to May 2002. The total number of collected dosemeters was 847. A total of 724 houses and 98 schools were covered in this survey. The results of the survey in the cities showed that the overall minimum, maximum and average radon concentrations were 1, 137 and 22 Bq m {sup -3}, respectively. Geometric mean and geometric standard deviations of the radon distribution were found to be 18 and 1.92, respectively. In one of the dwellings in Qatif city, radon concentration, measured by a passive system and then confirmed by an active system, was found to be 535 {+-} 23 and 523 {+-} 22 Bq m {sup -3}, respectively. The result of a radon survey in 98 schools showed that the minimum, maximum and average radon concentrations were 1, 70 and 19 Bq m{sup -3}, respectively. The average radon concentration for each city was also determined. The lowest average radon concentration (8 Bq m{sup -3}) was found in Al-Ahsa while the highest average concentration (40 Bq m {sup -3}) was found in Khafji. (author)

  4. Water resource infrastructure implications of a green economy transition in the Western Cape Province of South Africa: a system dynamics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pienaar, Aliza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Western Cape Province government in South Africa has established the transition to a green economy as a high priority. The sustainable use of water resources has been identified as a critical necessity for such a green economy transition. The research summarised in this paper conceptualised the factors that relate to water resources, and that influence the transition to a green economy in the Western Cape Province. Subsequently, a system dynamics model was developed to evaluate the impact of key strategic interventions of the green economy transition. The results from the model show that the Province could possibly experience extreme water shortages in the near future if a business-as-usual scenario continues. However, with sufficient investment and effective management, the water demand of the Province can be met.

  5. The Xanthophyceae and Chlorophyceae of the Western Ross Sea, Victoria Land, Antarctica and Macquarie Island collected under the direction of Prof. Dr. J. S. Zaneveld (1963—1967)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, H.P.; Zaneveld, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    During the austral summer seasons of 1963-1964 and 1964-1965, and during the austral winter season of 1967 Prof. Dr. J.S. Zaneveld made collection expeditions to the western Ross Sea. In 1965 collections were also made from the U.S.C.G. icebreaker ‘Glacier’, around the western Ross Sea and around

  6. Human visceral leishmaniasis in kermanshah province, Western iran, during 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzavi, Y; Hamzeh, B; Mohebali, M; Akhoundi, B; Ajhang, Kh; Khademi, N; Ghadiri, K; Bashiri, H; Pajhouhan, M

    2012-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar is a parasitic disease caused by the species of Leishmania donovani complex. It is endemic in some parts of provinces of Iran. According to the reported cases of VL in Kermanshah Province in recent years, this study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of VL in high risk villages of the province. Totally, 1622 serum samples obtained from children under 15 years old and 178 from adults in 22 villages of studied areas. Serum samples were examined by direct agglutination test (DAT) for the detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies. Data were analyzed using SPSS software ver.11.5. Only 6 serum samples (0.33%) showed anti-Leishmania antibodies against L.infantum at titers ≥ 1/3200. Four of the seropositive cases had a history of kala-azar and Leishman bodies were seen in their bone marrows. The highest (0.5%) and lowest (0.29%) seroprevalence was seen in the age groups of 5-9 and 10-14 years old, respectively. None of the adults were seropositive. There were not any significant differences between the rate of seropositivity in males (0.36%) and females (0.31%). 66.7% of seropositive individuals showed clinical manifestations. The most important symptoms in Kala-azar patients were fever, hepato-spleenomegally and anemia. Kala-azar is occurred sporadically in Kermanshah Province. But presence of significant number of positive sera confirms the necessity for attention of people and clinicians to kala-azar.

  7. Floristic Provinces of Sagebrush and Associated Shrub-steppe Habitats in Western North America

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Boundary for floristic regions used for the conservation assessment of Greater Sage-grouse and sagebrush habitat conducted by the Western Association of Fish and...

  8. Geographical accessibility and spatial coverage modeling of the primary health care network in the Western Province of Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huerta Munoz Ulises

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary health care is essential in improving and maintaining the health of populations. It has the potential to accelerate achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and fulfill the “Health for All” doctrine of the Alma-Ata Declaration. Understanding the performance of the health system from a geographic perspective is important for improved health planning and evidence-based policy development. The aims of this study were to measure geographical accessibility, model spatial coverage of the existing primary health facility network, estimate the number of primary health facilities working under capacity and the population underserved in the Western Province of Rwanda. Methods This study uses health facility, population and ancillary data for the Western Province of Rwanda. Three different travel scenarios utilized by the population to attend the nearest primary health facility were defined with a maximum travelling time of 60 minutes: Scenario 1 – walking; Scenario 2 – walking and cycling; and Scenario 3 – walking and public transportation. Considering these scenarios, a raster surface of travel time between primary health facilities and population was developed. To model spatial coverage and estimate the number of primary health facilities working under capacity, the catchment area of each facility was calculated by taking into account population coverage capacity, the population distribution, the terrain topography and the travelling modes through the different land categories. Results Scenario 2 (walking and cycling has the highest degree of geographical accessibility followed by Scenario 3 (walking and public transportation. The lowest level of accessibility can be observed in Scenario 1 (walking. The total population covered differs depending on the type of travel scenario. The existing primary health facility network covers only 26.6% of the population in Scenario 1. In Scenario 2, the use of a bicycle

  9. Geographical accessibility and spatial coverage modeling of the primary health care network in the Western Province of Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta Munoz, Ulises; Källestål, Carina

    2012-09-17

    Primary health care is essential in improving and maintaining the health of populations. It has the potential to accelerate achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and fulfill the "Health for All" doctrine of the Alma-Ata Declaration. Understanding the performance of the health system from a geographic perspective is important for improved health planning and evidence-based policy development. The aims of this study were to measure geographical accessibility, model spatial coverage of the existing primary health facility network, estimate the number of primary health facilities working under capacity and the population underserved in the Western Province of Rwanda. This study uses health facility, population and ancillary data for the Western Province of Rwanda. Three different travel scenarios utilized by the population to attend the nearest primary health facility were defined with a maximum travelling time of 60 minutes: Scenario 1--walking; Scenario 2--walking and cycling; and Scenario 3--walking and public transportation. Considering these scenarios, a raster surface of travel time between primary health facilities and population was developed. To model spatial coverage and estimate the number of primary health facilities working under capacity, the catchment area of each facility was calculated by taking into account population coverage capacity, the population distribution, the terrain topography and the travelling modes through the different land categories. Scenario 2 (walking and cycling) has the highest degree of geographical accessibility followed by Scenario 3 (walking and public transportation). The lowest level of accessibility can be observed in Scenario 1 (walking). The total population covered differs depending on the type of travel scenario. The existing primary health facility network covers only 26.6% of the population in Scenario 1. In Scenario 2, the use of a bicycle greatly increases the population being served to 58% of inhabitants

  10. Impact of Self Service Technology Quality on Customer Satisfaction: A Case of Retail Banks in Western Province in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawardana H.M.R.S.S.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid technological advancement in the banking environment drives Sri Lankan banks to adopt self-service technologies to deliver services via SMS banking, Internet banking and telephone banking facilities, Automated Teller Machines (ATM etc. This study explored the perceived quality of the self-service technology of these services and its effect on customer satisfaction. The literature survey and in depth interviews helped to formulate quality dimensions: security, efficiency, eases of use, reliability and convenience and those dimensions were assessed through a questionnaire. This study surveyed 215 customers from branches of six dominating commercial banks located in Western Province of Sri Lanka. Data were subjected to Principal Component Analysis and retained factors were regressed using multiple regressions to assess the impact of quality dimensions on customer satisfaction. The results revealed that reliability and convenience have positive impacts on customer satisfaction but efficiency has a negative effect.

  11. Implications for the agriculture sector of a green economy transition in the Western Cape province of South Africa : a system dynamics modelling approach to food crop production

    OpenAIRE

    Van Niekerk, J. B. S.; Brent, A. C.; Musango, J. K.; De Kock, I. H.

    2017-01-01

    The Western Cape Provincial government in South Africa has introduced a green economy framework, ‘Green is Smart’, to create a more sustainable economy. This framework stipulates plans for the Western Cape Province to implement more sustainable farming practices for food crop production. While sustainable farming practices will have benefits for the environment, they will also impact food crop production and will require financial investments from stakeholders. To comprehend fully the problem...

  12. Uplift along the western margin of the Deccan Basalt Province: Is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tectonic geomorphic analysis based on five proxy indicators suggests that the differences in GAT indices, both along strike and across the Western Ghat,are statistically insignificant. The index values are nowhere close to the ... Mapping of the indices reveals lack of discernable trends. The adduced results indicate that the ...

  13. Comparison between indigenous and Western postnatal care practices in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roinah N. Ngunyulu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postnatal care begins immediately after the expulsion of the placenta and continues for six to eight weeks post-delivery. High standard of care is required during the postnatal period because mothers and babies are at risk and vulnerable to complications related to postpartum haemorrhage and infections. Midwives and traditional birth attendants are responsible for the provision of postnatal care in different settings, such as clinics and hospitals, and homes.Methods: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research approach was followed in this study. Unstructured interviews were conducted with the traditional birth attendants. An integrated literature review was conducted to identify the Western postnatalcare practices. Tesch’s process was followed during data analysis.Findings: The following main categories were identified: similarities between indigenous and Western postnatal care practices, and differences between indigenous and Western postnatal care practices. Based on these findings, training of midwives and traditional birth attendants was recommended in order to empower them with knowledge and skills regarding the indigenous and Western postnatal care practices.Conclusions: It is evident that some indigenous postnatal care practices have adverse effects on the health of postnatal women and their newborn infants, but these are unknown to the traditional birth attendants. The employment of indigenous postnatal care practices by the traditional birth attendants is also influenced by their cultural beliefs, norms, values and attitudes. Therefore, there is an urgent need to train midwives and traditional birth attendants regarding the indigenous and Western postnatal care to improve the health of postnatal women and their babies.

  14. Rediscovery of Pelobates fuscus insubricus in the Asti Province, north-western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Mercurio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The amphibians of the pond complex “Stagni di Belangero” in the Po Plain, Asti Province, have been studied. The species living in the pond are Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Hyla intermedia, Pelobates fuscus, Rana dalmatina, Rana synklepton esculenta, Rana cf. kurtmuelleri, Triturus carnifex and Triturus vulgaris. Species composition, migration period of P. fuscus, and biometric data are provided. Relevant importance has been given to P. fuscus, since we reconfirm its presence in one of the ponds 13 years after its first finding in the area. This toad is also one of the most threatened species of amphibians in Europe and needs particular attention in order to be protected adequately.

  15. The Prevalence of Anemia and Hemoglobinopathies in the Hematologic Clinics of the Kermanshah Province, Western Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Payandeh, Mehrdad; Rahimi, Zohreh; Zare, Mohammad Erfan; Kansestani, Atefeh Nasir; Gohardehi, Farzad; Hashemian, Amir Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are the most common single gene disorders worldwide with a considerable frequency in certain area particularly Mediterranean and Middle Eastern countries. Hemoglobinopathies include structural variants of hemoglobin (Hb S, Hb C, HbE,…) and thalassaemias which are inherited defects in the globin chains synthesis. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in western Iranian patients. A total of 344 patients (151 males and 193 females) w...

  16. Exploring nurse preceptors’ perceptions of benefits and support of and commitment to the preceptor role in the Western Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inez S. Cloete

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: A preceptor is a specialised tutor who provides practical training to students in the practice setting. They are frequently used to orientate nursing students to prepare them for their duties as professional nurses. In the Western Cape Province professional nurses attend a training programme to prepare them for the role of preceptor. After completion of the training it is unclear how the trained nurse preceptors perceive their preparation for the role. The perceptions of preceptors may influence their commitment to their role. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore nurse preceptors’ perceptions of benefits, support and commitment to the preceptor role. A conceptual framework guided the study which replicated previous studies that explored nurse preceptors’ perceptions. Method: A quantitative approach utilising a descriptive correlational design was used in this study to address the research questions. A convenience sample was drawn from preceptors (n = 60 who had completed a preceptor training programme at the University of the Western Cape. Instrumentation for the study included the following scales: preceptors’ perceptions of benefits and rewards, preceptors’ perceptions of support, and commitment to the preceptor role. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0. Results: The findings indicate that nurse preceptors were committed to their role. Conclusion: The findings of this study are supported by Kanter’s model of structural determinants of behaviour in organisations, since preceptors who see themselves as having access to opportunity and support are likely to be committed to their role.

  17. Invisible gold in arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite from a multistage Archaean gold deposit: Sunrise Dam, Eastern Goldfields Province, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Y.-H.; Brugger, J.; Ciobanu, C. L.; Pring, A.; Skinner, W.; Nugus, M.

    2009-10-01

    The Sunrise Dam gold mine (11.1 Moz Au) is the largest deposit in the Archaean Laverton Greenstone Belt (Eastern Goldfields Province, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia). The deposit is characterized by multiple events of fluid flow leading to repeated alteration and mineralization next to a major crustal-scale structure. The Au content of arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite from four mineralizing stages (D1, D3, D4a, and D4b) and from different structural and lithostratigraphic environments was measured using in situ laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Pyrite contains up to 3,067 ppm Au ( n = 224), whereas arsenopyrite contains up to 5,767 ppm ( n = 19). Gold in arsenopyrite (D4a stage) was coprecipitated and remained as “invisible gold” (nanoparticles and/or lattice-bound) during subsequent deformation events. In contrast, gold in pyrite is present not only as “invisible gold” but also as micrometer-size inclusions of native gold, electrum, and Au(Ag)-tellurides. Pristine D1 and D3 arsenian pyrite contains relatively low Au concentrations (≤26 ppm). The highest Au concentrations occur in D4a arsenian-rich pyrite that has recrystallized from D3 pyrite. Textures show that this recrystallization proceeded via a coupled dissolution-reprecipitation process, and this process may have contributed to upgrading Au grades during D4a. In contrast, Au in D4b pyrite shows grain-scale redistribution of “invisible” gold resulting in the formation of micrometer-scale inclusions of Au minerals. The speciation of Au at Sunrise Dam and the exceptional size of the deposit at province scale result from multiple fluid flow and multiple Au-precipitating mechanisms within a single plumbing system.

  18. The gender gap among school children in poor rural areas of western China: evidence from a multi-province dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Mo, Di; Zhou, Chengchao; Medina, Alexis; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Rozelle, Scott

    2016-09-29

    The gender gap remains a major impediment in the path towards equality and it is especially wide in low-income countries. Up to the early 2000s, many studies documented extensive inequalities in China: girls had poorer health, less nutrition and less education than their male counterparts. The goal of this study is to examine whether the gender gap persists, given that China is now making the transition into the ranks of upper-middle income countries. We consider educational outcomes, mental and physical health status, as well as non-cognitive outcomes. We draw on a dataset containing 69,565 observations constructed by combining data from 7 different school-level surveys spanning 5 provinces. The surveys were all conducted by the authors between 2008 and 2013 using uniform survey instruments and data collection protocols in randomly selected schools across western provinces in rural China. The sample children range in age from 9 to 14 years (with 79 % of the sample being aged 10 to 12). Our analysis compares rural girls with rural boys in terms of 13 different indicators. With the exception of anemia rates, the health outcomes of girls are equal to those of boys. Girls and boys are statistically identical in terms of weight-for-age, height-for-age, and prevalence of intestinal worm infections. Girls performed better than boys on five of six cognitive and educational performance indicators. Girls performed worse than boys on all mental health indicators. All estimates are robust to the inclusion of different age ranges, controlling for the level of household assets, ethnic minority status, as well as the addition of provincial dummies. Our findings suggest that with the exception of non-cognitive outcomes, anemia and standardized math test scores, the gender gap in our study areas in China appears to be diminishing.

  19. Evaluation of Prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis Symptoms in Kurdistan, a Western Province in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Nasiri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Allergic rhinitis, like other allergic diseases, is one of the most common disorders during childhood; this study was conducted to assess and compare the prevalence and severity of allergic rhinitis in children and adolescents living in Kurdistan province. The study was aimed to provide a ground for the identification of likely causes and risk factors of this disorder. Materials and Methods This study was a cross-sectional study. In order to collect data, 4,000 questionnaires were distributed to elementary schools and junior high schools and 3,890 questionnaires were completed; as a result, the survey response rate was 97%. The study was carried out based on International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC: ISAAC questionnaire. After entering the data into SPSS version 13, they were analyzed using logistic regression and Chi- square test. Results Of a total 3,890 people, 29.7% of the subjects in this study reported a history of sneezing or runny nose in the past 12 months; it was reported more in boys in the age group 13-14 years and the difference between the sexes was significant [Odds ratio(OR=1.35, Confidence interval (CI]: 1.09-1.67, P < 0.01. Based on physician diagnosis, 9.37% of the subjects were overtaken by allergic rhinitis and it was more prevalent in boys at both educational levels and the difference was statistically significant in subjects aged 13-14 years old (OR=1.44 CI: 1.07-1.94, P

  20. The supplier relationship practices of travel agencies in the Western Cape Province - What is the status quo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mornay Roberts-Lombard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the article is to explore the supplier relationship practices of travel agencies in the Western Cape province. The article wants to establish the current supplier relationship practices of travel agencies in the province and to identify limitations in supplier market relationships which might exist in the industry. Problem investigated: Relationships are the basis on which trade in the travel industry is built (George, 2006:224. The establishment and management of these relationships must be to the advantage of all parties in the relationship (Swart, 2003:120. Townes (2007 indicated that the current level of relationships that exists between travel agencies and their suppliers, especially the South African Airways (SAA, the Protea and Southern Sun hotel groups and motor vehicle rental companies such as AVIS is fragmented and negatively impairs on the ability of travel agents to deliver a quality service to their customers. To improve their overall level of service delivery to both corporate and leisure customers, it is important for travel agencies to know and understand the current level of their relationships with suppliers. It is against this background that the research was undertaken. Methodology: The target population for this study was 118 travel agencies of which 61 managers and/or owners participated through personal interviews in the completion of questionnaires. Data analysis was done by calculating averages and standard deviations, Explorative Factor Analysis (EFA, Cronbach Alpha-values and practical significance by means of effect sizes. Findings: The owners and managers of travel agencies are of the opinion that the strengthening of their existing relationships with suppliers must be prioritised. More emphasis should be placed on the strengthening of existing communication channels between travel agencies and their suppliers to secure the faster resolution of queries and complaints and to enhance the sharing

  1. [Dynamic changes of topsoil organic carbon in subalpine spruce plantation at different succession stages in western Sichuan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fa-Yan; Sun, Hui; Lin, Bo; Liu, Qing

    2009-11-01

    Soil samples at 0-30 cm depth were collected from the primary spruce (Picea asperata) forest and its plantations at different succession stages (22-, 47-, and 65-year-old) in subalpine zone of western Sichuan Province to study the dynamic changes of soil organic carbon stock and labile organic carbon content. The soil total organic carbon (TOC) stocks in 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm soil layers decreased from 95.87, 79.08, and 71.55 t x hm(-2) in 22-year-old plantation to 56.12, 34.75, and 31.06 t x hm(-2) in 65-year-old plantation, respectively, and the TOC stocks in these soil layers in 47 and 65-year-old plantations were less than those (88.08, 71.16 and 64.81 t x hm(-2), respectively) in primary forest. The easily oxidizable organic carbon (EOC) contents in 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm soil layers decreased from 35.89, 26.91, and 26.00 g x kg(-1) in primary forest to 20.25, 14.50, and 12.36 g x kg L(-1) in 65-year-old plantation, the microbial biomass carbon (MBC) contents decreased from 524.44, 273.26, and 257.97 mg x kg(-1) in primary forest to 312.41, 186.95, and 152.18 mg x kg(-1) in 65-year-old plantation, and the particulate organic carbon (POC) contents decreased from 40.23, 27.10, and 19.55 g x kg(-1) in primary forest to 12.33, 7.31, and 5.32 g x kg(-1) in 65-year-old plantation, respectively. The results suggested that within the long succession period of primary P. asperata forest to its plantations in the subalpine zone of western Sichuan Province, soil TOC and labile organic carbon were in the state of net consumption.

  2. [Distribution of non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated and reported in a region of La Havana City and other western provinces from 1976 to 1982].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Ochoa, E; Armas Pérez, L; García Martínez, F D; Ferrá Salazar, C

    1989-01-01

    The results of a study on the isolation and identification of non-tuberculous mycobacterial strains in a Havana City area and in other three western provinces are reported. The isolate for identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria was more frequent in the provinces of Pinar del Rio, Havana, and Havana City than in Matanzas. The Runyon group most frequently found was number III, and the least frequent group I. The most frequent species belongs to the M. avium-intracellulare-scrofulaceum complex and M. fortuitum comes second. It was considered of interest to complete the study of the distribution of these mycobacteria in the rest of the country.

  3. Geothermic analysis of high temperature hydrothermal activities area in Western plateau of Sichuan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.

    2016-12-01

    There is a high temperature hydrothermal activity area in the western plateau of Sichuan. More than 200 hot springs points have been found in the region, including 11 hot spring water temperature above local boiling point. Most of these distribute along Jinshajjiang fracture, Dege-Xiangcheng fracture, Ganzi-Litang fracture as well as Xianshuihe fracture, and form three high-temperature hydrothermal activity strips in the NW-SE direction. Using gravity, magnetic, seismic and helium isotope data, this paper analyzed the crust-mantle heat flow structure, crustal heat source distribution and water heating system. The results show that the geothermal activity mainly controlled by the "hot" crust. The ratio of crustal heat flow and surface heat flow is higher than 60%. In the high temperature hydrothermal activities area, there is lower S wave velocity zone with VsGeothermal water mainly reserve in the Triassic strata of the containing water good carbonate rocks, and in the intrusive granite which is along the fault zone. The thermal energy of Surface heat thermal activities mainly comes from the high-temperature hot source which is located in the middle and lower crust. Being in the deep crustal fracture, the groundwater infiltrated to the deep crust and absorbed heat, then, quickly got back to the surface and formed high hot springs.

  4. Ethnopharmacological survey on medicinal plants used in snakebite treatments in Western and Sabaragamuwa provinces in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmadasa, R M; Akalanka, G C; Muthukumarana, P R M; Wijesekara, R G S

    2016-02-17

    Sri Lanka has a great diversity of snake species. In this relation, over 40,000 cases of snakebite accidents are reported annually from different agro-ecological regions of the country. Since more than 95% of victims rely on traditional treatments, there is an urgent necessity to improve the system. Traditional knowledge on snakebite treatments has been passed on from generation to generation within families. Unfortunately, there has been a limited update of information on pertinent issues related to this subject. In the present study we conducted a comprehensive survey on the types of medicinal plant materials, including the specific plant parts that are available for this purpose. In addition, various treatment types, frequency index, heavily used and rare materials, family wise distribution, challenges faced by traditional practitioners and future prospects were also explored. The present survey covered two provinces with a high population of traditional practitioners for snakebites treatment in Sri Lanka.Information was gathered from a total of seventy-four (74) traditional practitioners from the Sabaragamuwa and Western provinces. A questionnaire was prepared and pre-tested by 10-15 respondents prior to the survey. Actual data were gathered through face-to-face interviews. Collected data were tabulated and analyzed. A total of 341 different plant species belonging to 99 families were documented. The highest number of plants was reported from the family Fabaceae (32 species). This was followed by Malvaceae (16 species), Asteraceae (15 species), Rutaceae (13 species Apocyanaceae (14 species), Lamiaceae (11 species), Poaceae, Euphorbaceae and Phyllanthaceae (10 species per each) respectively. Different parts of the plant such as leaves (53.67%), barks (26.10%), entire plant (14.08%), roots (10.26%), bulbs (8.80%), seeds (7.62%), fruits (6.45%), buds (5.87%), flowers (3.23%) stems (2.93%) and latex (2.05%) were used for the preparation of nine different types of

  5. Jarosite occurrence in the Deccan Volcanic Province of Kachchh, western India: Spectroscopic studies on a Martian analog locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Satadru; Mitra, Souvik; Gupta, Saibal; Jain, Nirmala; Chauhan, Prakash; Parthasarathy, G.; Ajai

    2016-03-01

    The sulfate mineral jarosite is considered a key indicator of hydrous, acidic, and oxidizing conditions on the surface of early Mars. Here we report an analog terrestrial locality hosting jarosite from Matanumadh, Kachchh, western India, using detailed spectroscopic studies on weathered basalts of the Deccan Volcanic Province and overlying tuffaceous shales and sandstones of the Matanumadh Formation. Hyperspectral data in the visible/near-infrared (350-2500 nm) to midinfrared (4000-400 cm-1) region of the electromagnetic spectrum and X-ray diffraction patterns have been acquired on samples collected from the field to detect and characterize the hydrous sulfate and phyllosilicate phases present at the studied site. Hydrous sulfates occur in association with Al-rich phyllosilicates (kaolinite) that overlie a zone of Fe/Mg smectites in altered basalts. Jarosite is found within both saprolitic clay horizons altered from the basalt and within variegated sandstone and shale/clay units overlying the saprolite; it mostly occurs as secondary veins with or without gypsum. Jarosite is also seen as coatings on kaolinite clasts of varying shapes and sizes within the tuffaceous variegated sandstone unit. We argue that the overall geological setting of the Matanumadh area, with this unusual mineral assemblage developing within altered basalts and in the overlying sedimentary sequence, mimics the geological environment of many of the identified jarosite localities on Mars and can be considered as a Martian analog from this perspective.

  6. Property rights violations as a structural driver of women's HIV risks: a qualitative study in Nyanza and Western Provinces, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Shari L; Grabe, Shelly; Lu, Tiffany; Hatcher, Abigail M; Hatcher, Abbey; Kwena, Zachary; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Mwaura-Muiru, Esther

    2013-07-01

    While access to and control over assets can minimize women's HIV risk, little is known about the processes through which property rights violations increase the sexual transmission of HIV. The current study focused on two rural areas in Nyanza and Western Province, Kenya where HIV prevalence was high (23.8-33 %) and property rights violations were common. The current work drew on in-depth interview data collected from 50 individuals involved in the development and implementation of a community-led land and property rights program. The program was designed to respond to property rights violations, prevent disinheritance and asset stripping, and reduce HIV risk among women. In our findings, we detailed the social and economic mechanisms through which a loss of property rights was perceived to influence primary and secondary prevention of HIV. These included: loss of income, loss of livelihood and shelter, and migration to slums, markets, or beaches where the exchange of sex for food, money, shelter, clothing, or other goods was common. We also examined the perceived influence of cultural practices, such as wife inheritance, on HIV risk. In the conclusions, we made recommendations for future research in the science-base focused on the development of property ownership as a structural HIV prevention and treatment intervention.

  7. Integrating multi-criteria decision analysis for a GIS-based hazardous waste landfill sitting in Kurdistan Province, western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Mozafar; Hadidi, Mosslem; Vessali, Elahe; Mosstafakhani, Parasto; Taheri, Kamal; Shahoie, Saber; Khodamoradpour, Mehran

    2009-10-01

    The evaluation of a hazardous waste disposal site is a complicated process because it requires data from diverse social and environmental fields. These data often involve processing of a significant amount of spatial information which can be used by GIS as an important tool for land use suitability analysis. This paper presents a multi-criteria decision analysis alongside with a geospatial analysis for the selection of hazardous waste landfill sites in Kurdistan Province, western Iran. The study employs a two-stage analysis to provide a spatial decision support system for hazardous waste management in a typically under developed region. The purpose of GIS was to perform an initial screening process to eliminate unsuitable land followed by utilization of a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to identify the most suitable sites using the information provided by the regional experts with reference to new chosen criteria. Using 21 exclusionary criteria, as input layers, masked maps were prepared. Creating various intermediate or analysis map layers a final overlay map was obtained representing areas for hazardous waste landfill sites. In order to evaluate different landfill sites produced by the overlaying a landfill suitability index system was developed representing cumulative effects of relative importance (weights) and suitability values of 14 non-exclusionary criteria including several criteria resulting from field observation. Using this suitability index 15 different sites were visited and based on the numerical evaluation provided by MCDA most suitable sites were determined.

  8. Evaluation of the Water Quality Pollution Indices for Groundwater Resources of Ghahavand Plain, Hamadan Province, Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sobhanardakani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the increasing pollution of water resources, this study was carried out for evaluation of water quality pollution indices for monitoring of heavy metals (As, Zn, Pb and Cu contamination in Ghahavand Plain, Hamadan Province, Western Iran during spring and summer 2012. Methods: Totally, 20 ground water wells were chosen randomly. The samples were filtered (0.45 μm and maintained cool in polyethylene bottles. Samples were taken for the analysis of metals, the former was acidified with HNO3 to pH lower than 2. Metal concentrations were determined using ICP-OES. Results: The mean values of Contamination index (Cd, Heavy metal pollution index (HPI and Heavy metal evaluation index (HEI in samples for spring season were -2.27, 9.01 and 1.73 respectively and in samples for summer season were -1.95, 8.69 and 2.04 respectively. It indicates low contamination levels. Comparing the mean concentrations of the evaluated metals with WHO permissible limits showed a significant difference (P<0.05. Conclusion: The mean concentrations of the metals were significantly lower than the permissible limits. Although the heavy metal pollution of the ground water in Ghahavand Plain is lower than WHO permissible limits, but severe precautions consideration such as manage the use of agricultural inputs, prevention of use of wastewater and sewage sludge in agriculture, control of overuse of organic fertilizers and establishment of pollutant industries are recommended in this area.

  9. Water quality assessment by pollution-index method in the coastal waters of Hebei Province in western Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuguang; Lou, Sha; Kuang, Cuiping; Huang, Wenrui; Chen, Wujun; Zhang, Jianle; Zhong, Guihui

    2011-10-01

    Sources of pollution discharges and water quality samples at 27 stations in 2006 in the coastal waters of Hebei Province, western Bohai Sea, have been analyzed in this study. Pollutant loads from industrial sewages have shown stronger impact on the water environment than those from the general sewages. Analysis indicates that pollution of COD is mainly resulted from land-based point pollutant sources. For phosphate concentration, non-point source pollution from coastal ocean (fishing and harbor areas) plays an important role. To assess the water quality conditions, Organic Pollution Index and Eutrophication Index have been used to quantify the level of water pollution and eutrophication conditions. Results show that pollution was much heavier in the dry season than flood season in 2006. Based on COD and phosphate concentrations, results show that waters near Shahe River, Douhe River, Yanghe River, and Luanhe River were heavily polluted. Water quality in the Qinhuangdao area was better than those in the Tangshan and Cangzhou areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrochemistry of the Hot Springs in Western Sichuan Province Related to the Wenchuan M S 8.0 Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Yi, Li; Liu, Lei; Xie, Chao; Cui, Yueju; Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of 32 hot springs in the western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan M S 8.0 earthquake was investigated by analyzing the concentrations of cation and anion and the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen. The water samples of the hot springs were collected four times from June 2008 to April 2010. Hydrogeochemical data indicated the water samples can be classified into 9 chemical types. Values of δD and δ 18O indicated that the spring waters were mainly derived from meteoric precipitation and affected by water-rock interaction and mixture of deep fluids. Concentrations of K+and SO4 − of the samples from the Kangding district exhibited evident increases before the Wenchuan earthquake, indicating more supplement of deep fluids under the increase of tectonic stress. The chemical and isotopic variations of the water samples from the area closer to the epicenter area can be attributed to variation of regional stress field when the aftershock activities became weak. PMID:24892106

  11. Epidemiological trends of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah Province, Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miskelyemen Abdelatti Elmekki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the epidemiological trends of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, western region of KSA. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and sixty-seven parasitologically confirmed CL cases attending Al-Meeqat Hospital, Al-Madinah, during 2012–2015, were included in this study. Results: Both Saudi and non-Saudi nationals were infected, with the highest infection rate being among Saudis (68.7%. Males were more affected than females as 86.9% of the total CL cases were males. Moreover, CL was prevalent in all age groups with higher frequency among young adults and adolescents (23.1% and 22.7%, respectively. Interestingly, almost all the patients in the adolescent and child age groups were Saudis (96.2% and 93.5%, respectively. Considering geographical distribution, the highest percentage of the cases (40.5% were from the northern parts of Al-Madinah province while the eastern parts reported the least infection rate (7.3%. Few cases (2.5% were supposed to encounter the infection abroad. Additionally, the frequency of infection was found to follow a seasonal distribution. Regarding treatment, pentostam, ketoconazole, or cryotherapy were the treatment options usually used. Conclusion: CL is prevalent in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah area and new foci are being introduced. Thus, detailed studies with large surveillances regarding vector and reservoir hosts in and around the area are needed.

  12. Assessment of iron status among preschool children (6 to 59 months) with and without malaria in Western Province, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiangani, Isaac; Mbakaya, Charles; Makokha, Anzelimo; Magu, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is a major public health concern. Globally, iron deficiency ranks number 9 and is responsible for about 60% of all anemia cases among preschool children. In Africa iron deficiency is 43-52% while in Kenya, children under 5 years constitute the largest burden with 69% of them being deficient. There is limited iron deficiency data in Kenya. This study determined haemoglobin levels, serum ferritin levels, nutritional status and P.falciparum malaria infection in preschool children. A household cross sectional study was undertaken among 125 preschoolers in Western province, drawn from 37 clusters. Systematic random sampling was used for sample selection. Data was collected using pretested structured questionnaires, entered in Microsoft package. Data analysis was done in Statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20 using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression and differences were considered significant at P iron deficiency (Serum ferritin anaemia (Hb iron deficiency and anaemia (OR = 3.43, 95% CI: 1.33-8.84, p = 0.008). A preschool child with anaemia was 3.43 times likely to be iron deficient compared to a preschool child who was not anaemic. Iron deficiency, anaemia and plasmodium falciparum malaria was prevalent among preschool children. The findings revealed a significant association between iron deficiency and anaemia. Therefore effective interventions to improve iron status will have large health benefits by greatly reducing anaemia in preschool children.

  13. Effects of land use change on ecosystem services value: a case study in the western of Jilin Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hui-shi; Liu, Zhi-ming; Zeng, Nan

    2008-10-01

    Using RS and GIS, based on the data of Landsat TM/ETM+, the paper analyzes land use/cover change and calculates their effects on ecosystem services value in the western of Jilin province from 1993 to 2003.The methods are based on ESV computing formula and ESV coefficients. The following results and conclusions could be obtained: From1993 to 2003,the area of rice paddy, woodland, unutilized and build-up land increased, among which the area of rice paddy increased most greatly and increased by 48782.72hm2, while grassland, wetland, water area, dry farmland decreased, among which the area of dry farmland decreased most greatly and decreased by 34354.72hm2 The total value of ecosystem services of the study area declined from ¥988.45×108 in 1993 to ¥ 921.12x108 in 2003,with the net decline of ¥ 67.33×108 during the 10-year time period; The contribution of various ecosystem functions to the overall value of the ecosystem services mainly comes from the increase in gas regulation, soil formation and disposition, food production and raw materials, while climate regulation, water conservation, recreation, waste treatment and bio-diversity conservation had a decreased effect. Raw materials increased most greatly and increased by 5.91%, while water conservation decreased most greatly and decreased by 9.60%. The sensitivity analysis suggested that these estimates are relatively robust.

  14. A Systematic Regional Trend in Helium Isotopes Across the NorthernBasin and Range Province, Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2005-03-22

    An extensive study of helium isotopes in fluids collectedfrom surface springs, fumaroles and wells across the northern Basin andRange Province reveals a systematic trend of decreasing 3He/4He ratiosfrom west to east. The western margin of the Basin and Range ischaracterized by mantle-like ratios (6-8 Ra) associated with active orrecently active crustal magma systems (e.g. Coso, Long Valley, Steamboat,and the Cascade volcanic complex). Moving towards the east, the ratiosdecline systematically to a background value of ~;0.1 Ra. The regionaltrend is consistent with extensive mantle melting concentrated along thewestern margin and is coincident with an east-to-west increase in themagnitude of northwest strain. The increase in shear strain enhancescrustal permeability resulting in high vertical fluid flow rates thatpreserve the high helium isotope ratios at the surface. Superimposed onthe regional trend are "helium spikes", local anomalies in the heliumisotope composition. These "spikes" reflect either local zones of mantlemelting or locally enhanced crustal permeability. In the case of theDixie Valley hydrothermal system, it appears to be a combination ofboth.

  15. Assessment of iron status among preschool children (6 to 59 months) with and without malaria in Western Province, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiangani, Isaac; Mbakaya, Charles; Makokha, Anzelimo; Magu, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Iron deficiency is a major public health concern. Globally, iron deficiency ranks number 9 and is responsible for about 60% of all anemia cases among preschool children. In Africa iron deficiency is 43-52% while in Kenya, children under 5 years constitute the largest burden with 69% of them being deficient. There is limited iron deficiency data in Kenya. This study determined haemoglobin levels, serum ferritin levels, nutritional status and P.falciparum malaria infection in preschool children. Methods A household cross sectional study was undertaken among 125 preschoolers in Western province, drawn from 37 clusters. Systematic random sampling was used for sample selection. Data was collected using pretested structured questionnaires, entered in Microsoft package. Data analysis was done in Statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20 using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression and differences were considered significant at P iron deficiency (Serum ferritin iron deficiency and anaemia (OR = 3.43, 95% CI: 1.33-8.84, p = 0.008). A preschool child with anaemia was 3.43 times likely to be iron deficient compared to a preschool child who was not anaemic. Conclusion Iron deficiency, anaemia and plasmodium falciparum malaria was prevalent among preschool children. The findings revealed a significant association between iron deficiency and anaemia. Therefore effective interventions to improve iron status will have large health benefits by greatly reducing anaemia in preschool children. PMID:26405498

  16. The prevalence of anemia and hemoglobinopathies in the hematologic clinics of the kermanshah province, Western iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payandeh, Mehrdad; Rahimi, Zohreh; Zare, Mohammad Erfan; Kansestani, Atefeh Nasir; Gohardehi, Farzad; Hashemian, Amir Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are the most common single gene disorders worldwide with a considerable frequency in certain area particularly Mediterranean and Middle Eastern countries. Hemoglobinopathies include structural variants of hemoglobin (Hb S, Hb C, HbE,…) and thalassaemias which are inherited defects in the globin chains synthesis. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in western Iranian patients. A total of 344 patients (151 males and 193 females) with abnormal CBC and/or hemoglobin electrophoresis were enrolled in the present study. Cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis was performed for all patients and abnormal bands were identified by citrate agar gel electrophoresis and PCR based methods. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was present in 156 (45.3%) individuals. Thirty four (9.8%) patients had both iron deficiency anemia and α-thalassemia trait trait, 41(11.9%) patients were with both iron deficiency anemia and minor β-thalassemia. There were 31(9%) patients with α-thalassemia trait and 5 (2.2%) patients with Hb H disease. Fifty six (16.2%) patients had minor β-thalassemia. Also, there were 10 (2.9%) individuals homozygous for hemoglobin D-Punjab and one patient with hemoglobin G (0.3%). There was one sample with hemoglobin C. Further, we found 3 patients (0.9%) with sickle cell trait and more 3 patients (0.8%) with S/ β +-thalassemia. Our results indicated that the most frequent cause of hypochromic and/or microcytic anemia in our population was IDA and the minor β-thalassemia was the second cause that needs to more attention in screening programs.

  17. [Hepatitis C virus genotypes in a province of western Black-Sea region, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Elif; Ogedey, Esra Deniz; Külah, Canan; Beğendik Cömert, Füsun

    2010-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the significant causes of hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma all throughout the world. There are six genotypes and more than 50 subtypes of HCV. HCV genotyping is of crucial importance in the determination of the treatment protocols and the follow-up of the clinical course since treatment success is low and the duration of treatment is longer in HCV genotype 1 infected cases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the HCV genotype profiles of the patients with chronic hepatitis C in Zonguldak, providing the first data about HCV genotypes from western Black-Sea region, Turkey. The HCV genotypes of 44 patients (26 female, 18 male; age range: 29-89 years, mean age: 60.05 ± 10.81 years) with positive anti-HCV antibody and HCV-RNA results, admitted to the hospital between May 2007 and July 2009, were retrospectively evaluated and included in the study. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels of the patients were between 8-160 IU/L (mean 63.99 ± 37.15 IU/L) and the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were between 17-160 IU/L (mean 62.77 ± 36.75 IU/L). HCV antibody was determined by ELISA method (Abbott Laboratories, USA), and HCV-RNA was determined by two commercial real-time polymerase chain reaction systems [Cobas Taqman (Roche Diagnostic, USA) and Rotor-Gene 6000 (Corbett Research, USA)]. The genotyping was performed by a reverse hybridization based method, Versant® HCV Genotype Assay (LiPA) 2.0 (Bayer Health Care, Belgium). HCV genotypes could not be determined for 5 (11.4%) patients since HCV-RNA levels were low. Genotyping could be performed for 39 (88.6%) patients and 38 (97.4%) had genotype 1b and one (2.6%) patient had genotype 1a. In conclusion, in concordance with the other studies conducted in our country, genotype 1b was found to be the most prevalent genotype in patients from our region.

  18. Western Cape Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT study: Measuring primary care organisation and performance in the Western Cape Province, South Africa (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham F. Bresick

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Major health sector reform and the need for baseline measures of performance to determine impact.Aim: Baseline audit of primary healthcare (PHC performance.Setting: Cape Town and Cape Winelands (rural PHC facilities (PCFs in Western Cape Province, South Africa.Method: The South African cross-culturally validated ZA PCAT to audit PHC performance on 11 subdomains associated with improved health and reduced costs. Adult PCF users systematically sampled. All full-time doctors and nurse practitioners in PCFs sampled and all PCF managers in sub-districts sampled invited into the study.Results: Data from 1432 users, 100 clinicians and 64 managers from 13 PCFs in 10 sub-districts analysed (figures show stakeholder percentages scoring subdomain performance ‘acceptable to good’. 11.5% users scored access ‘acceptable to good’; community orientation and comprehensive services provided 20.8% and 39.9%, respectively. Total PHC score for users 50.2%; for managers and practitioners 82.8% and 88.0%, respectively. Among practitioners access was lowest (33.3%; PHC team (98.0% and comprehensive services available (100.0% highest. Among managers, access (13.5% and family centredness (45.6% are lowest; PHC team (85.9% and comprehensive services available (90.6% highest. Managers scored access, family centredness and cultural competence significantly lower than practitioners. Users scored comprehensive services available, comprehensive services provided and community orientation significantly lower than practitioners and managers.Conclusion: Gaps between users’ experience and providers’ assessments of PHC performance are identified. Features that need strengthening and alignment with best practice, provincial and national, and health policies are highlighted with implications for practitioner and manager training, health policy, and research.

  19. Western Cape Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT) study: Measuring primary care organisation and performance in the Western Cape Province, South Africa (2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresick, Graham F; Sayed, Abdul-Rauf; Le Grange, Cynthia; Bhagwan, Susheela; Manga, Nayna; Hellenberg, Derek

    2016-05-19

    Major health sector reform and the need for baseline measures of performance to determine impact. Baseline audit of primary healthcare (PHC) performance. Cape Town and Cape Winelands (rural) PHC facilities (PCFs) in Western Cape Province, South Africa. The South African cross-culturally validated ZA PCAT to audit PHC performance on 11 subdomains associated with improved health and reduced costs. Adult PCF users systematically sampled. All full-time doctors and nurse practitioners in PCFs sampled and all PCF managers in sub-districts sampled invited into the study. Data from 1432 users, 100 clinicians and 64 managers from 13 PCFs in 10 sub-districts analysed (figures show stakeholder percentages scoring subdomain performance 'acceptable to good'). 11.5% users scored access 'acceptable to good'; community orientation and comprehensive services provided 20.8% and 39.9%, respectively. Total PHC score for users 50.2%; for managers and practitioners 82.8% and 88.0%, respectively. Among practitioners access was lowest (33.3%); PHC team (98.0%) and comprehensive services available (100.0%) highest. Among managers, access (13.5%) and family centredness (45.6%) are lowest; PHC team (85.9%) and comprehensive services available (90.6%) highest. Managers scored access, family centredness and cultural competence significantly lower than practitioners. Users scored comprehensive services available, comprehensive services provided and community orientation significantly lower than practitioners and managers. Gaps between users' experience and providers' assessments of PHC performance are identified. Features that need strengthening and alignment with best practice, provincial and national, and health policies are highlighted with implications for practitioner and manager training, health policy, and research.

  20. Implementation of the HealthKick intervention in primary schools in low-income settings in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: a process evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    De Villiers, Anniza; Steyn, Nelia P; Draper, Catherine E; Hill, Jillian; Dalais, Lucinda; Fourie, Jean; Lombard, Carl; Barkhuizen, Gerhard; Lambert, Estelle V.

    2015-01-01

    Background The HealthKick intervention, introduced at eight primary schools in low-income settings in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, aimed to promote healthy lifestyles among learners, their families and school staff. Eight schools from similar settings without any active intervention served as controls. Methods The Action Planning Process (APP) guided school staff through a process that enabled them to assess areas for action; identify specific priorities; and set their own goals r...

  1. Access to affordable medicines after health reform: evidence from two cross-sectional surveys in Shaanxi Province, western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Wagner, Anita K; Yang, Shimin; Jiang, Minghuan; Zhang, Fang; Ross-Degnan, Dennis

    2013-10-01

    Limited access to essential medicines is a global problem. Improving availability and affordability of essential medicines is a key objective of the National Essential Medicine Policy (NEMP) in China. In its initial implementation in 2009, the NEMP targeted primary hospitals with policies designed to increase availability of essential medicines and reduce patients' economic burden from purchasing medicines. We assessed medicine availability and price during the early years of the health reform in Shaanxi Province in underdeveloped western China. We undertook two public (hospitals) and private (pharmacy) sector surveys of prices and availability of medicines, in September, 2010 and April, 2012, by a standard methodology developed by WHO and Health Action International. We measured medicine availability in outlets at the time of the surveys and inflation-adjusted median unit prices (MUPs), taking 2010 as the base year. We used general estimating equations to calculate the significance of differences in availability from 2010 to 2012 and the Wilcoxon signed rank test to calculate the significance of differences in adjusted median prices. We collected data from 50 public sector hospitals and 36 private sector retail pharmacies in 2010 and 72 public hospitals and 72 retail pharmacies in 2012. Mean availability of surveyed medicines was low in both the public and private sectors; availability of many essential medicines decreased from 2010 to 2012, particularly in primary hospitals (from 27·4% to 22·3% for lowest priced generics; pFund (71103141/G0308), the China Medical Board Faculty Development Awards, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2011jdhz62), the Shaanxi Provincial Social Science Fund (10E066), and the Harvard Medical School Pharmaceutical Policy Research Fellowship. Copyright © 2013 Fang et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY-NC-ND. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical skills required of ophthalmic nurse practitioners in tertiary level public hospitals in the Western Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Kyriacos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa has a 32-year history of training ophthalmic nurse practitioners (ONPs. The role and required skills and competencies of ONPs are not well documented in the international literature and are also absent from South African publications, including South African Nursing Council publications. Aim: This study aims to inform curriculum development and human resource planning by reporting on the clinical skills expected of ONPs by members of multidisciplinary ophthalmology teams. Method: A limited survey was undertaken in the ophthalmology wards and outpatient departments of three tertiary level hospitals in the Western Cape Province. A researcher-designed structured self-completion questionnaire was distributed to 30 ophthalmology practitioners: doctors, nurses and technicians. Respondents were asked to indicate the expected clinical skills of ONPs. Findings: All questionnaires were completed. All respondents favoured ONPs taking histories and performing emergency eye irrigations. There was less support for more complex procedures, such as B-scans. One-third of respondents did not expect ONPs to have skills in eight key areas, including examination of the anterior chamber angle for glaucoma. No statistically significant differences were found between responses of doctors and nurses, with one exception: more nurses (15/18 than doctors (4/10 had confidence in the ONP undertaking basic eye examinations for ocular motility (Fisher‘s exact test, P = 0 .035. Conclusion: In the study settings, ONPs are not using their specialist skills to the full. Not all practitioners were receptive to ONPs using the skills that they had acquired during their postgraduate diploma, threatening the educational effectiveness of this initiative.

  3. Biogeography and molar morphology of Pleistocene African elephants: new evidence from Elandsfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathlyn M.; Stynder, Deano D.

    2015-05-01

    Elandsfontein (EFT) is a Middle Pleistocene archaeological/paleontological site located in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The largest herbivore in the assemblage is Loxodonta atlantica zulu, an extinct member of the genus that includes modern African elephants. No Elephas recki specimens were recovered at EFT, despite their common occurrence in other regions of Africa at the same time. Because E. recki and L. atlantica molars are similar in appearance, but the two species are traditionally viewed as dominating different regions of Africa during the Pleistocene, isolated molars may on occasions have been assessed to species level on the basis of geography rather than morphology. The last morphologic evaluation of EFT elephants was conducted in the 1970s, and revisiting this issue with new specimens provides added insight into the evolution of elephants in Africa. Reevaluating morphological characteristics of EFT elephant molars, through qualitative and quantitative description and comparison with Middle Pleistocene E. recki recki, L. atlantica atlantica, and L. atlantica zulu molar morphology, corroborates assessment of EFT elephants as L. a. zulu. Two recently discovered, previously undescribed molars from EFT show that molars of L. a. zulu exhibit greater variation in enamel thickness, lamellar frequency, and occlusal surface morphology than previously reported. An update of the Pleistocene biogeography of Loxodonta and Elephas indicates that fossil remains of both are often found at the same localities in eastern Africa. Their rare co-occurrences in the north and south, however, suggest geographic separation of the two genera in at least some regions of Africa, which may have been based on habitat preference.

  4. Diabetes mellitus in Zambia and the Western Cape province of South Africa: Prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sarah Lou; Ayles, Helen; Beyers, Nulda; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Muyoyeta, Monde; du Toit, Elizabeth; Yudkin, John S; Floyd, Sian

    2016-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for diabetes mellitus and examine its diagnosis and management in the study communities. This is a population-based cross-sectional study among adults in 24 communities from Zambia and the Western Cape (WC) province of South Africa. Diabetes is defined as a random blood glucose concentration (RBG)⩾11.1mmol/L, or RBGdiabetes diagnosis. For individuals with a prior diagnosis of diabetes, RBGdiabetes was 3.5% and 7.2% respectively. The highest risk groups identified were those of older age and those with obesity. Of those identified to have diabetes, 34.5% in Zambia and 12.7% in WC were previously unaware of their diagnosis. Among Zambian participants with diabetes, this proportion was lower among individuals with better education or with higher household socio-economic position. Of all those with previously diagnosed diabetes, 66.0% in Zambia and 59.4% in WC were not on any diabetes treatment, and 34.4% in Zambia and 32.7% in WC had a RBG concentration beyond the recommended level, ⩾7.8mmol/L. The diabetes risk factor profile for our study communities is similar to that seen in high-income populations. A high proportion of individuals with diabetes are not on diabetes treatment and of those on treatment a high proportion have high glycaemic concentrations. Such data may assist in healthcare planning to ensure timely diagnosis and management of diabetes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Rainwater harvesting possibility under climate change: A basin-scale case study over western province of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazroui, Mansour; Islam, M. Nazrul; Balkhair, Khaled S.; Şen, Zekâi; Masood, Amjad

    2017-06-01

    Groundwater reservoirs are important water resources all over the world. Especially, they are of utmost significance for arid and semi-arid regions, and therefore, a sustainable exploitation of these reservoirs needs to be ensured. The natural and most exclusive water supplier to groundwater reservoirs in Saudi Arabia is rainfall, which is characterized by sporadic and random temporal and spatial distributions, particularly under the impacts of climate change; giving rise to uncertainty in groundwater recharge quantification. Although in Saudi Arabia, intense and frequent rainfall events are rare, but they generate significant flash floods with huge amounts of surface water. Under such circumstances, any simple but effective water storage augmentation facility such as rainwater harvesting (RWH) structures gain vital importance for sustainability of water supply and survivals in arid and semi-arid regions. The objective of this study is to explore the possibility of RWH over a basin in the western province of Saudi Arabia called Wadi Al-Lith under climate change. Climatic data is obtained from the IPCC AR5 GCMs, which is further downscaled using a regional climate model RegCM4 for the Arabian Peninsula domain. The RegCM4 is driven to simulate climatic parameters including rainfall at 25 km grid resolution for the present climate (1971-2000), and future climate (2006-2099) with representative concentration pathways, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Results indicate that more durable and longer wet durations are expected with increasing surplus rainfall amounts in the far future because of climate change impacts. Consequently, future climate scenarios are expected to enhance floods and flash floods occurrences, which call for progressive measures to harness the RWH opportunity.

  6. HIV type 1 V3 domain serotyping and genotyping in Gauteng, Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal, and Western Cape Provinces of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, S; Smith, T L; Kasper, P; Faatz, E; Zeier, M; Moodley, D; Clay, C G; van Rensburg, E J

    1999-03-01

    More than 20.8 million people are living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, with southern Africa the worst affected area and accounting for one of the fastest growing AIDS epidemics worldwide. Samples from 81 patients, including 25 from KwaZulu-Natal, 26 from Gauteng, 5 from Mpumalanga, and 25 from Western Cape Province, were serotyped using a competitive V3 peptide enzyme immunoassay (cPEIA). Viral RNA was also isolated from serum and the V3 region amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to obtain a 240-bp product for direct sequencing of 29 samples. CLUSTAL W was used to make multiple sequence alignments. Distance calculation, tree construction methods, and bootstrap analysis were done using TREECON. Subtype C-like V3 loop sequences predominate in all provinces tested in South Africa. Discordant sero- and genotype results were observed in one patient only. The correlation between sero- and genotyping was 96% (24 of 25) in KwaZulu-Natal and 100% in Gauteng and Mpumalanga. In Western Cape Province 18% of patients were identified as sero/genotype B and 82% as sero/genotype C. Our data show that results of the second-generation V3 cPEIA correlated well with V3 sequencing and would be a rapid and affordable screening test to monitor the explosive southern African HIV-1 epidemic.

  7. Post-folding magnetization of the Triassic rocks from western Guizhou and southern Yunnan provinces: New evidence for large clockwise rotations in the Simao Terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kainian; Opdyke, Neil D.

    2015-08-01

    Thermal demagnetization of the redbed samples collected from the Lower Triassic Feixianguan Formation at two localities in western Guizhou Province reveals that the natural remanent magnetization was dominated by a postfolding component of probably recent origin and the prefolding, possibly primary, component was barely preserved. This confirms that the Feixianguan Fm in western Guizhou and northeastern Yunnan provinces was severely remagnetized. Thermal demagnetization also resolves two postfolding components from the limestone samples of the Mid-Triassic Dashuijingshan Formation from southern Yunnan Province: a low temperature component acquired in recent times and a high temperature component probably acquired shortly after the India-Asia collision. The mean in-situ direction for the high temperature component based on eighteen sites is D = 95.4 °, I = 28.4 ° with α95 = 6.2 °, which indicates a clockwise rotation of 86.3 ± 7.3 ° with respect to stable Eurasia. This result together with paleomagnetic results previously reported from the Jurassic-Eocene rocks in the same area demonstrates beyond reasonable doubt that the central Simao Terrane has experienced large clockwise rotations due to the India's collision with, and continuing penetration into, Asia.

  8. Frequency of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Individuals Referred to the Medical Center Laboratories in Nahavand City, Hamadan Province, Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Haghighi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs cause serious public health problem in the world, especially those located in tropical and subtropical areas. This study was conducted with the aim of obtaining frequency of intestinal parasites in referred people to the Nahavand city laboratories, Hamadan province, western Iran.Materials and Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among checkup individuals and patients referred to laboratories of Nahavand County. A total of 371 stool samples (150 from checkup individuals and 221 from patients were selected by using systematic random sampling during summer 2014.  The stool specimens were examined macroscopically, and microscopically by using direct slide smear (saline wet mount and lugol staining, formaldehyde - diethyl ether concentration, trichrome staining and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining techniques. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and Chi-square test.Results: Ninety two patients (24.8% were infected with single or multiple intestinal parasites. The overall prevalence of IPIs in checkup individuals and patients was 21.3% and 27.1%, respectively. The frequency of the observed intestinal parasites was: Blastocystis spp. 72 (19.4%, Entamoeba coli 7 (1/9%, Endolimax nana 7 (1/9%, Giardia lamblia 5 (1/3%, Cryptosporidium spp. 3 (0.8%, Entamoeba hartmanni 3 (0.8%, Entamoeba histolitica/E. dispar 1 (0.3%, Trichomonas hominies 1 (0.3%, Chilomastix mesnili 1 (0.3%, Iodamoeba butschlii 1 (0.3% and Enterobius vermicularis egg l (0.3%.Conclusion: The proportion of observed protozoan parasites 91 (24.5% is higher than helminthes infection 1 (0.3%. The worm infections in Nahavand city was dramatically decreased over the past decades, induced increases in public health at the community level.  Blastocystis spp. was the predominant intestinal parasite in people referred to the Nahavand city laboratories.  Proportion of pathogenic IPIs among patients 4.07% (9 of 221 was

  9. Magmatic and related mineral deposits of the Pan-African Saldania belt in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozendaal, A.; Scheepers, R.

    1995-07-01

    Mineral deposits and prospects of the Pan-African Saldania orogenic belt in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, are reviewed. The polyphase, deformed, low-grade metamorphosed, volcano-sedimentary Malmesbury Group constitutes a complex, poorly understood supracrustal sequence that has been loosely subdivided into the Tygerberg, Swartland and Boland tectono-stratigraphic terranes on the basis of NW-trending fault zones. Syn- and post-tectonic granitoids of the Cape Granite Suite selectively intruded these terranes. Early S-types preferred the Tygerberg terrane, whereas the later I-types dominate the remaining areas. Anorogenic A-type granites, however, occur in all three terranes. Despite the absence of operating base or precious metal mines in the area, this study has established at least four metal associations directly or indirectly related to the intrusions: i) Cassiterite-wolframite (±Au, Cu, Mo, Zn, As, Fe-sulphides) in quartz and quartz/aplite veins hosted by tour-malinized and locally greissenized S-type granite. Similar exo-granitic veins occur in proximal metamorphites; ii) Juxtaposed, disseminated, stockwork breccia and vein style CuMoFe(Au)-sulphide mineralization hosted by mafic- to intermediate-intrusions of high-K calc-alkaline, I-type affinity; iii) CuMoAu-sulphides hosted by hydraulic breccia pipes, stocks and veins occurring in anorogenic A-type alkali feldspar granites and amphibole quartz syenites; iv) Scheelite with minor CuMoAu-sulphides associated with endo- and exo-skams spatially related to I-type monzogranite, granite and alkali feldspar granite. The first three associations occur along the Yzerfontein-Helderberg-zone, a 180 km lineament in the Tygerberg terrane, exploited by syn-, late- and post-tectonic intrusions and their related mineralization. The fourth association is typical of the Boland terrane. The spatial and temporal relationships among the various metal associations are interpreted as the result of

  10. [The epilepsy of Guadalupe Victoria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Pérez-de-Celis, Enrique

    2008-01-01

    Guadalupe Victoria, the first President of Mexico, passed away in 1843 uictim of an ailment that, at the time, was diagnosed as epilepsy. The clinical data and the pathologic findings, however, suggest the possibility that Victoria had an underlying disease that was responsible for the seizures that affected him. In this article I propose that Guadalupe Victoria had in fact Chagas Disease, and that he was infected with this parasitic malady while he lived in the tropical jungles of Veracruz, in eastern Mexico. Even though there aren't many published works regarding seizures secondary to chronic Chagas Disease, there are good descriptions of epileptic syndromes in patients with this infection. At the same time, the cardiac findings in Victoria's autopsy support the idea that he had some kind of cardiac pathology; in this case Chagasic dilated cardiomyopathy, which ultimately led to his death.

  11. VICTORIA'S SECRET Prepares for Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jordan K Speer

    2007-01-01

      After the upcoming holiday season, Victoria's Secret will take the first steps toward launching its e-commerce business on a cross-channel on-demand platform from partner n2N Commerce, a company...

  12. Investigating a green economy transition of the electricity sector in the Western Cape province of South Africa: a system dynamics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oosthuizen, Juan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Western Cape Government in South Africa has identified the concept of a green economy as a way to transform the Province’s economy to one that is more sustainable from an economic, social, and environmental perspective. System dynamics modelling was used to develop a better understanding of the implications of different green economy policies and investments in the electricity sector of the Western Cape Province. The results suggest that continuing on the current policy path would increase the gap between demand and supply, increase the carbon footprint of the electricity sector, and not provide growth in employment in the sector. Strategic green economy investments are therefore expected to impact positively on a number of indicators across a number of sectors.

  13. Implications for the agriculture sector of a green economy transition in the Western Cape province of South Africa : a system dynamics modelling approach to food crop production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Niekerk, J. B. S.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Western Cape Provincial government in South Africa has introduced a green economy framework, ‘Green is Smart’, to create a more sustainable economy. This framework stipulates plans for the Western Cape Province to implement more sustainable farming practices for food crop production. While sustainable farming practices will have benefits for the environment, they will also impact food crop production and will require financial investments from stakeholders. To comprehend fully the problem at hand, and to understand better the implications of a green economy transition for the food crop production system, system dynamics modelling was undertaken. The model’s findings highlight that sustainable farming practices will only be financially and environmentally viable if they match the yields of conventional farming practices.

  14. The role of active and ancient geothermal processes in the generation, migration, and entrapment of oil in the basin and Range Province, western USA. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulen, J.B.; Collister, J.W.; Curtiss, D.K. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The Basin and Range (B&R) physiographic province of the western USA is famous not only for its geothermal and precious-metal wealth, but also for its thirteen oil fields, small but in some cases highly productive. The Grant Canyon field in Railroad Valley, for example, for years boasted production of more than 6000 barrels of oil (BO) per day from just two wells; aggregate current production from the Blackburn field in Pine Valley commonly exceeds 1000 BO per day. These two and several other Nevada oil fields are unusually hot at reservoir depth--up to 130{degrees}C at depths as shallow as 1.1 km, up to three times the value expected from the prevailing regional geothermal gradient.

  15. Early Mesozoic paleogeography and tectonic evolution of the western United States: Insights from detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, Blue Mountains Province, northeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMaskin, Todd A.; Vervoort, J.D.; Dorsey, R.J.; Wright, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses early Mesozoic provenance linkages and paleogeographic-tectonic models for the western United States based on new petrographic and detrital zircon data from Triassic and Jurassic sandstones of the "Izee" and Olds Ferry terranes of the Blue Mountains Province, northeastern Oregon. Triassic sediments were likely derived from the Baker terrane offshore accretionary subduction complex and are dominated by Late Archean (ca. 2.7-2.5 Ga), Late Paleoproterozoic (ca. 2.2-1.6 Ga), and Paleozoic (ca. 380-255 Ma) detrital zircon grains. These detrital ages suggest that portions of the Baker terrane have a genetic affinity with other Cordilleran accretionary subduction complexes of the western United States, including those in the Northern Sierra and Eastern Klamath terranes. The abundance of Precambrian grains in detritus derived from an offshore complex highlights the importance of sediment reworking. Jurassic sediments are dominated by Mesozoic detrital ages (ca. 230-160 Ma), contain significant amounts of Paleozoic (ca. 290, 380-350, 480-415 Ma), Neoproterozoic (ca. 675-575 Ma), and Mesoproterozoic grains (ca. 1.4-1.0 Ga), and have lesser quantities of Late Paleoproterozoic grains (ca. 2.1-1.7 Ga). Detrital zircon ages in Jurassic sediments closely resemble well-documented age distributions in transcontinental sands of Ouachita-Appalachian provenance that were transported across the southwestern United States and modified by input from cratonal, miogeoclinal, and Cordilleran-arc sources during Triassic and Jurassic time. Jurassic sediments likely were derived from the Cordilleran arc and an orogenic highland in Nevada that yielded recycled sand from uplifted Triassic backarc basin deposits. Our data suggest that numerous Jurassic Cordilleran basins formed close to the Cordilleran margin and support a model for moderate post-Jurassic translation (~400 km) of the Blue Mountains Province. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  16. Paleomagnetic stratigraphy and geochronology of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) from the Middle Atlas and Western Meseta, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, S. J.; Renne, P. R.; Marzoli, A.; Callegaro, S.; Cuppone, T.; Mahmoudi, A.; Youbi, N.; Bertrand, H.

    2008-12-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is one of the largest igneous provinces (LIPs) on earth, and was emplaced as part of the pre-rift stage of the Central Atlantic Ocean at ~200 Ma. Like other LIPs, CAMP coincided closely with a mass extinction event. In order to further test the temporal correlation between the CAMP and the Triassic-Jurassic (T-J) boundary, four new sections of CAMP lavas in central and northern Morocco, each 110-140m thick with 14-16 flows, were sampled for paleomagnetic stratigraphy and geochronology. Preliminary paleomagnetic data are consistent with previous results (Knight et al. 2004) and record dominantly if not exclusively normal polarity, and also appear to record distinct pulses of magmatism with at least 4 directional groupings with discrete declinations and inclinations. 40Ar/39Ar analyses of plagioclase from 2 sections near Maaziz and Agourai yield plateau ages that are mutually indistinguishable and consistent with previous results. Collectively, these new paleomagnetic and geochronologic data provide further evidence of the brevity and synchrony of CAMP magmatism at the T-J boundary throughout Morocco.

  17. Agricultural land purchases for alternative uses – evidence from two farming areas in the Western Cape province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reed, LL

    2009-09-30

    Full Text Available for redistribution purposes. This paper reports on the extent of purchases of agricultural land for diverse reasons within an intensive and extensive agricultural farming area in the Western Cape, gathered through a survey of land buyers between January 2005...

  18. Special Issue on Lake Victoria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diversity of benthic mollusks of Lake Victoria and Lake Burigi · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JA Mwambungu, 21-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjs.v30i1.18384 ...

  19. Molecular Assay on Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ticks (Ixodidae) Collected from Kermanshah Province, Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadian, Maria; Chinikar, Sadegh; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Noroozi, Mehdi; Faghihi, Faezeh; Jalali, Tahmineh; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Shahhosseini, Nariman; Farhadpour, Firoozeh

    2016-09-01

    Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a feverous and hemorrhagic disease endemic in some parts of Iran and caused by an arbovirus related to Bunyaviridae family and Nairovirusgenus. The main virus reservoir in the nature is ticks, however small vertebrates and a wide range of domestic and wild animals are regarded as reservoir hosts. This study was conducted to determine the infection rate of CCHF virus in hard ticks of Sarpole-Zahab County, Kermanshah province, west of Iran. From total number of 851 collected ticks from 8 villages, 131 ticks were selected randomlyand investigated for detection of CCHF virus using RT-PCR. The virus was found in 3.8% of the tested ticks. Hyalommaanatolicum, H. asiaticum and Rhipicephalus sanguineus species were found to have viral infection, with the highest infection rate (11.11%) in Rh. sanguineus. These findings provide epidemiological evidence for planning control strategies of the disease in the study area.

  20. The Dynamic Coordinated Development of a Regional Environment-Tourism-Economy System: A Case Study from Western Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoqing Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on regional coordination theory and system theory, the authors constructed an evaluation index system for the coordinated development of a regional environment-tourism-economy system with a pressure-state-response (PSR model. With a coordinated development model, it further empirically analyzed the coordinated development state of an environment-tourism-economy system in western Hunan from 2001 to 2012. The results showed that, although this environment-tourism-economy system failed to achieve a high benefit index, inter-subsystem coupling extent, and coordinated development index, the three indices presented an increasing overall trend. This outcome suggested that the sub-systems in this system were developing towards their optimal proportions: the development of these sub-systems (environmental, tourism, and economic was unbalanced in western Hunan. The environment therein sees only slow development although provided with a favorable ecological foundation. Economic development, which has long been lagging, acted as the main factor restricting the coordinated development of a regional environment-tourism-economy system. To promote its coordinated development in western Hunan, the following recommendations were proposed: strengthen the prediction and warnings on the evolution of the whole system; optimize the industry’s structure; reinforce environmental management.

  1. Self-induction of abortion among women accessing second-trimester abortion services in the public sector, Western Cape Province, South Africa: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, D; Grossman, D; Lince, N; Harries, J

    2014-04-01

    Despite South Africa's liberal abortion law permitting abortion on request in the first trimester and under restricted conditions for second-trimester pregnancies, the practice of unsafe self-induced abortion persists. However, the prevalence of this practice, the methods used and the reasons behind it are relatively under-researched. As part of a larger study seeking to improve abortion services in the Western Cape Province, we explored reports of prior attempts to self-induce abortion among women undergoing legal second-trimester abortion. To describe the prevalence and methods of and factors related to unsuccessful attempts at self-induction of abortion by women presenting without complications and seeking second-trimester abortion at public health facilities in the Western Cape. In a cross-sectional study from April to August 2010, 194 consenting women undergoing second-trimester abortion were interviewed by trained fieldworkers using structured questionnaires at four public sector facilities near Cape Town. Thirty-four women (17.5%; 95% confidence interval 12.7 - 23.4) reported an unsuccessful attempt to self-induce abortion during the current pregnancy before going to a facility for second-trimester abortion. No factors were significantly associated with self-induction, but a relatively high proportion of this small sample were unemployed and spoke an indigenous African language at home. A readily available herbal product called Stametta was most commonly used; other methods included taking tablets bought from unlicensed providers and using other herbal remedies. No use of physical methods was reported. The prevalence of unsafe self-induction of abortion is relatively high in the Western Cape. Efforts to inform women in the community about the availability of free services in the public sector and to educate them about the dangers of self-induction and unsafe providers should be strengthened to help address this public health issue.

  2. Outsourcing vaccine logistics to the private sector: The evidence and lessons learned from the Western Cape Province in South-Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydon, Patrick; Raubenheimer, Ticky; Arnot-Krüger, Michelle; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-06-26

    With few exceptions, immunization supply chains in developing countries continue to face chronic difficulties in providing uninterrupted availability of potent vaccines up to service delivery levels, and in the most efficient manner possible. As these countries struggle to keep pace with an ever growing number of vaccines, more and more Ministries of Health are considering options of engaging the private sector to manage vaccine storage, handling and distribution on their behalf. Despite this emerging trend, there is limited evidence on the benefits or challenges of this option to improve public supply chain performance for national immunization programmes. To bridge this knowledge gap, this study aims to shed light on the value proposition of outsourcing by documenting the specific experience of the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The methodology for this review rested on conducting two key supply chain assessments which allowed juxtaposing the performance of the government managed segments of the vaccine supply chain against those managed by the private sector. In particular, measures of effective vaccine management best practice and temperature control in the cold chain were analysed. In addition, the costs of engaging the private sector were analysed to get a better understanding of the economics underpinning outsourcing vaccine logistics. The results from this analysis confirmed some of the theoretical benefits of outsourcing to the private sector. Yet, if the experience in the Western Cape can be deemed a successful one, there are several policy and practice implications that developing countries should be mindful of when considering engaging the private sector. While outsourcing can help improve the performance of the vaccine supply chain, it has the potential to do the reverse if done incorrectly. The findings and lessons learnt from the Western Cape experience can serve as a step towards understanding the role of the private sector in immunization

  3. The Victoria Project, Sri Lanka. Hydrological analysis for Victoria Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, B.S. [GU Projects (United Kingdom); Sutcliffe, J.V. [Gibb (Sir Alexander) and Partners (United Kingdom); Parks, Y.P. [Institute of Hydrology (United Kingdom)

    1994-03-01

    The hydrological analyses described in this paper formed an important part of the studies for the Victoria Project of which the Victoria Dam is the major component. The purpose of the hydrological studies was to provide consistent sets of river flow and climate data at the sites of the major components of the project, and to provide flood estimates for sizing the spillway and river diversion works. This paper outlines the approach used in the overall study, and then concentrates on aspects of specific relevance to the Victoria Dam. The main hydrological characteristics of the upper Mahaweli basin are presented as an introduction to the overall water balance; the humid climate made the appraisal of flow records relatively simple. Time series modelling was used to fill gaps in the observed flow records used for reservoir operation studies. The spillway design flood was based on the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) derived by maximizing a historic storm in which rainfall approaching the PMP covered most of the basin. Construction floods of moderate return period were estimated from a dimensionless analysis of regional flood records. The main lessons to be drawn are that water balance methods are of particular value in these humid monsoon conditions, while the ratio of the PMP to the maximum recorded storm is lower than would be the case in more arid regions. (author)

  4. SITE SELECTION TO HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILL OF GILANEGHARB TOWNSHIP IN KERMANSHAH PROVINCE, WESTERN IRAN BY USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOSLEM HADIDI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Each of them has different effects on site selection of hazardous waste landfill. Some factors cause limits to site selection such as; climatic, topographic, land use, edaphic, quakeable, regions under conservation of environment organization and so on. these factors may be cause unsustainable and move hazardous waste to surface and under ground water and also air pollution according to wind aspect, consequently different contaminations. This study was conducted in Gilanegharb town in Kermanshah province west of Iran in 2012 to find best area of landfill of hazardous wastes. Each of the factors valued and weighted based on experts opinions and then evaluated each of the preperated layers in RS and GIS softwares. In the first evaluation of 19 sites, 6 sites were investigated. The results show that asphalt factory site is the best region and then Shahrdary, Tan Kooshk sites are better to landfill of hazardous waste respectively. The reasons for selecting of this regions were far form surface and ground water resources and as a result avoiding to be defiled of ground water. On the other hand, there is no air pollution and malodorous of Ghilangharb town because of wind blow aspect in the region.

  5. Mutation Analysis of Exons 10 and 17a of CFTR Gene in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis in Kermanshah Province, Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahami, Abbas; Alibakhshi, Reza; Ghadiri, Keyghobad; Sadeghi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common genetic disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance among Caucasian populations. So far, more than 1950 different mutations were identified in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. CFTR gene has 27 exons. The type and distribution of mutations vary widely among different countries and/or ethnic groups. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis was performed on exon10 and exon17a of CFTR gene in CF patients in the Kermanshah province, western Iran. We tested 27 patients admitted to the medical genetics laboratory of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. The patients were from different cities of Kermanshah province. All the patients had the clinical signals and two positive sweat tests. After filling agreement forms and questionnaire, the peripheral blood sampling and DNA extraction were done. DNA samples were extracted. PCR and sequencing special PCR were done. Finally analysis of the results with DNA sequencing analysis version 5.2 software was performed. CFTR mutations analysis identified 4 different mutations in our CF patients. The disease-causing mutations were p.F508del (ΔF508) (14.81%), p.S466X (1.85%), and p.T1036I (1.85%). M470V polymorphism with frequency of 74.1% was found in 23 patients (17 homozygous and 6 heterozygous). Three disease-causing mutations in CF patients in the present study account for approximately 18.51% of mutations. The frequency of p.F508del, the most common mutation was 16-18.1% in Iranian population. The results of the present study can be applied for genetic counseling, population screening and prenatal diagnosis.

  6. Unprotected karst resources in western Iran: the environmental impacts of intensive agricultural pumping on the covered karstic aquifer, a case in Kermanshah province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Kamal; Taheri, Milad; Parise, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Bare and covered karst areas, with developed karstic aquifers, cover 35 percent of the Kermanshah province in western Iran. These aquifers are the vital sources for drinking and agricultural water supplies. Over the past decade, intensive groundwater use (exploitation) for irrigation imposed a significant impact on the carbonate environments. The huge amount of groundwater over-exploitations has been carried out and still goes on by local farmers in the absence of appropriate governance monitoring control. Increasing in water demands, for more intense crop production, is an important driving force toward groundwater depletion in alluvial aquifers. Progressive groundwater over-exploitations from underlying carbonate rocks have led to dramatic drawdown in alluvial aquifers and deep karst water tables. Detecting new sources of groundwater extractions and prohibiting the karst water utilization for agricultural use could be the most effective strategy to manage the sustainability of covered karst aquifers. Anthropogenic pressures on covered karst aquifers have magnified the drought impacts and caused dryness of most of the karst springs and deep wells. In this study, the combination of geophysical and geological studies was used to estimate the most intensively exploited agricultural zones of Islam Abad plain in the southwestern Kermanshah province using GIS. The results show that in the past decade a great number of deep wells were drilled through the overburden alluvial aquifer and reached the deep karst water resources. However, the difficulties involved in monitoring deep wells in covered karst aquifer were the main cause of karst water depletion. Overexploitation from both alluvial and karst aquifers is the main reason for drying out the Arkawazi, Sharafshah, Gawrawani karst springs, and the karst drinking water wells 1, 3 and 5 of Islam Abad city. Karst spring landscape destructions, fresh water supply deficit for inhabitants, decreasing of tourism and

  7. Predatory Ground Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Gaoligong Mountain Region of Western Yunnan Province, China: the Tribe Cyclosomini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva-Dabkoski, M.; Kavanaugh, D.

    2013-12-01

    Between 1998 and 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was the lead institution in a multi-national, multi-disciplinary biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region (GLGS) in the Yunnan province of China. The project surveyed the species diversity of both higher plants and bryophytes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and selected groups of arachnids and insects. The GLGS of China is one of the most biodiverse areas in all of Asia, yet it is also very poorly sampled and in great threat from increasing human activities in the region. CAS's biodiversity inventory project there has increased the number of carabid species known from just 50 to more than 550 species, an eleven-fold increase. The task that remains is to identify all of those 500 additional species and describe any that are new to science. This project is part of that larger biodiversity survey. Our objective was to identify and/or describe carabid beetles of the tribe Cyclosomini represented by nearly a hundred specimens collected in the GLSG. Among those specimens, six morphospecies were identified - one belonging to the genus Cyclosomus Latreille 1829, and the other five belonging to the genus Tetragonoderus Dejean 1829. Following this initial identification process, a list of known distributions of taxa in both genera was assembled to determine which described species to consider for comparative work. Original descriptions were then located for candidate species with known distributions in or near the GLGS; and these are being used now in morphological comparison of specimens. Type specimens for each of the candidate species have been requested from various academic institutions, and morphological comparisons with these types are underway. Morphological characteristics being examined include body proportions and overall shape, color of appendages, color and shape of pronotum, elytral color patterns, and shape and internal structure of male genitalia.

  8. Gastrointestinal helminths of raccoons (Procyon lotor in western Poland (Lubuskie province - with particular regard to Baylisascaris procyonis

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    Karamon Jacek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in raccoons with particular regard to zoonotic parasites. Fifty-five raccoons, hunted or found dead on roads, were examined. The small and large intestines were collected from all raccoons and, additionally, the stomach was collected from 43 animals. The samples were examined with the use of sedimentation and counting technique. The intestines and stomach were examined separately. Samples of raccoon faeces were collected from their environment localised in Słubice district, Lubuskie province (Poland. The samples were collected once a month in 2012. In total, 154 faecal samples were obtained and examined with the use of McMaster flotation technique. The following parasites were detected in the intestinal and stomach contents: tapeworms Mesocestoides sp. (67.3%, Echinostomatidae flukes (34.5%, and nematodes Capillaria sp. (25.5%. Moreover, Acanthocephala were found in the intestines of three raccoons. The highest intensity of infection were observed in case of Mesocestoides sp. Mesocestoides sp. and Echinostomatidae were found statistically more often in the intestines than in the stomach. In the case of these two parasites, there was positive correlation between the intensity of infection in the intestines and the presence of the same parasites in the stomach. Moreover, significantly higher prevalence and intensity of Mesocestoides sp. in males than in females were also observed. Faecal samples contained Baylisascaris procyonis eggs (mean 60 epg. These eggs were found in three samples collected in November and December. Furthermore, in some faecal samples eggs of flukes, Capillaria sp., Mesocystoides sp., and coccidian oocysts were found. It is one of rare reports concerning Baylisascaris procyonis in Poland confirming the presence of this dangerous parasite in Polish raccoon population.

  9. A New Endemic Focus of Chagas Disease in the Northern Region of Veraguas Province, Western Half Panama, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña, Azael; Pineda, Vanessa; Martinez, Inri; Santamaria, Giovanna; Santamaria, Ana Maria; Miranda, Aracelis; Calzada, Jose E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chagas disease was originally reported in Panama in 1931. Currently, the best knowledge of this zoonosis is restricted to studies done in historically endemic regions. However, little is known about the distribution and epidemiology of Chagas disease in other rural areas of the country. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out between May 2005 – July 2008 in four rural communities of the Santa Fe District, Veraguas Province. The study included an entomologic search to collect triatomines, bloodmeal type identification and infection rate with trypanosomes in collected vectors using a dot- blot and PCR analysis, genotyping of circulating Trypanosoma cruzi (mini-exon gene PCR analysis) and the detection of chagasic antibodies among inhabitants. The vector Rhodnius pallescens was more frequently found in La Culaca and El Pantano communities (788 specimens), where it was a sporadic household visitor. These triatomines presented darker coloration and larger sizescompared with typical specimens collected in Central Panama. Triatoma dimidiata was more common in Sabaneta de El Macho (162 specimens). In one small sub-region (El Macho), 60% of the houses were colonized by this vector. Of the examined R. pallescens, 54.7.0% (88/161) had fed on Didelphis marsupialis, and 24.6% (34/138) of T. dimidiata specimens collected inside houses were positive for human blood. R. pallescens presented an infection index with T. cruzi of 17.7% (24/136), with T. rangeli of 12.5% (17/136) and 50.7% (69/136) were mixed infections. In 117 T. dimidiata domestic specimens the infection index with T. cruzi was 21.4%. Lineage I of T. cruzi was confirmed circulating in these vectors. A T. cruzi infection seroprevalence of 2.3% (24/1,056) was found in this population. Conclusions This is the first report of Chagas disease endemicity in Santa Fe District, and it should be considered a neglected public health problem in this area of Panama. PMID:22558095

  10. Linking mortuary data improves vital statistics on cause of death of children under five years in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewald, Pam; Bradshaw, Debbie; Neethling, Ian; Martin, Lorna J; Dempers, Johan; Morden, Erna; Zinyakatira, Nesbert; Coetzee, David

    2016-01-01

    Reducing child mortality requires good information on its causes. Whilst South African vital registration data have improved, the quality of cause-of-death data remains inadequate. To improve this, data from death certificates were linked with information from forensic mortuaries in Western Cape Province. A local mortality surveillance system was established in 2007 by the Western Cape Health Department to improve data quality. Cause-of-death data were captured from copies of death notification forms collected at Department of Home Affairs Offices. Using unique identifiers, additional forensic mortuary data were linked with mortality surveillance system records. Causes of death were coded to the ICD-10 classification. Causes of death in children under five were compared with those from vital registration data for 2011. Cause-of-death data were markedly improved with additional data from forensic mortuaries. The proportion of ill-defined causes was halved (25-12%), and leading cause rankings changed. Lower respiratory tract infections moved above prematurity to rank first, accounting for 20.8% of deaths and peaking in infants aged 1-3 months. Only 11% of deaths from lower respiratory tract infections occurred in hospital, resulting in 86% being certified in forensic mortuaries. Road traffic deaths increased from 1.1-3.1% (27-75) and homicides from 3 to 28. The quality and usefulness of cause-of-death information for children in the WC was enhanced by linking mortuary and vital registration data. Given the death profile, interventions are required to prevent and manage LRTI, diarrhoea and injuries and to reduce neonatal deaths. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Echinococcus granulosus infection and options for control of cystic echinococcosis in Tibetan communities of Western Sichuan Province, China.

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    Yu Rong Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human cystic echinococcosis (CE is highly endemic in the Tibetan regions of Sichuan where most families keep guard dogs and where there are considerable numbers of ownerless/stray dogs. Strong Buddhist beliefs do not allow for elimination of stray dogs, and many strays are actually fed and adopted by households or monasteries. On account of the high altitude (3900-5000 m, pasturage is the major agricultural activity in this area. The harsh mountainous climate often leads to many grazing animals dying on the pasture at the end of a hard winter. The skin and some meat are taken, and the rest of the animal is left for scavenging birds and animals. The poor sanitation and hygiene, the Buddhist doctrine of allowing old livestock to die naturally, plus the unrestricted disposal of animal viscera post-slaughter may be responsible for the high prevalence of human CE in this setting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: As part of a large collaborative control program for CE in Ganzi County, situated in the west of Sichuan Province, surveillance for Echinococcus infection in domestic dogs using a coproantigen method and necropsy of unwanted dogs was carried out prior to (in 2000 and after (in 2005 dog anthelminthic treatment (5 mg/kg oral praziquantal at 6 month intervals to determine the efficacy of the treatment for control. The prevalence of E. granulosus only in dogs by necropsy was 27% and 22%, and prevalence of both Echinococcus spp. by necropsy was 63% and 38%; prevalence of both Echinococcus spp. by coproantigen analysis was 50% and 17%. Necropsy of sheep/goats (age <1 to 12 years (prevalence of E. granulosus in 1-6-year-old animals was 38% and in 10-12-year-old animals was 70% and yaks (age 4 years (prevalence of E. granulosus was 38% was undertaken to determine the baseline transmission pressure. Protoscoleces were only found in very old sheep/goats and yaks. Necropsy of dogs in the Datangma district indicated that there was no apparent

  12. A checklist of the non-acarine arachnids (Chelicerata: Arachnida of the De Hoop Nature Reserve, Western Cape Province, South Africa

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    Charles R. Haddad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA in conserved areas, arachnids were collected in the De Hoop Nature Reserve in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. The survey was carried out between 1999 and 2007, and consisted of five intensive surveys between two and 12 days in duration. Arachnids were sampled in five broad habitat types, namely fynbos, wetlands, i.e. De Hoop Vlei, Eucalyptus plantations at Potberg and Cupido’s Kraal, coastal dunes near Koppie Alleen and the intertidal zone at Koppie Alleen. A total of 274 species representing five orders, 65 families and 191 determined genera were collected, of which spiders (Araneae were the dominant taxon (252 spp., 174 genera, 53 families. The most species rich families collected were the Salticidae (32 spp., Thomisidae (26 spp., Gnaphosidae (21 spp., Araneidae (18 spp., Theridiidae (16 spp. and Corinnidae (15 spp.. Notes are provided on the most commonly collected arachnids in each habitat.Conservation implications: This study provides valuable baseline data on arachnids conserved in De Hoop Nature Reserve, which can be used for future assessments of habitat transformation, alien invasive species and climate change on arachnid biodiversity.

  13. Property Rights Violations as a Structural Driver of Women’s HIV Risks: A Qualitative Study in Nyanza and Western Provinces, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabe, Shelly; Lu, Tiffany; Hatcher, Abbey; Kwena, Zachary; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Mwaura-Muiru, Esther

    2013-01-01

    While access to and control over assets can minimize women’s HIV risk, little is known about the processes through which property rights violations increase the sexual transmission of HIV. The current study focused on two rural areas in Nyanza and Western Province, Kenya where HIV prevalence was high (23.8–33 %) and property rights violations were common. The current work drew on in-depth interview data collected from 50 individuals involved in the development and implementation of a community-led land and property rights program. The program was designed to respond to property rights violations, prevent disinheritance and asset stripping, and reduce HIV risk among women. In our findings, we detailed the social and economic mechanisms through which a loss of property rights was perceived to influence primary and secondary prevention of HIV. These included: loss of income, loss of livelihood and shelter, and migration to slums, markets, or beaches where the exchange of sex for food, money, shelter, clothing, or other goods was common. We also examined the perceived influence of cultural practices, such as wife inheritance, on HIV risk. In the conclusions, we made recommendations for future research in the science-base focused on the development of property ownership as a structural HIV prevention and treatment intervention. PMID:23179234

  14. A new long-tubed subspecies of Pelargonium dipetalum (section Hoarea (Geraniaceae from the Albertinia-Swellendam area in Western Cape Province, South Africa

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    M. Marianne le Roux

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Field studies confirmed that unusually long-tubed populations of Pelargonium dipetalum from between Swellendam and Albertinia, Western Cape Province, South Africa, are a distinct ecotype adapted to pollination by the long-proboscid fly, Prosoeca longipennis. The geographical and morphological isolation of these populations suggests that they are reproductively isolated from short-tubed populations, which are pollinated by bees. Objectives: To determine and describe the floral variation in P. dipetalum, with a view to recognising the long-tubed populations at some taxonomic level. Method: All available collections were measured and compared. Results: Populations of P. dipetalum were segregated into a short-tubed form with hypanthium 3 mm – 24 mm long and mostly pink petals that occurs from Betty’s Bay to Knysna, and a long-tubed form with the hypanthium 34 mm – 54 mm long and consistently white petals that is restricted to a small area east of Swellendam between Suurbraak and Albertinia. We described the long-tubed form as the new subspecies P. dipetalum subsp. stenosiphon. Conclusion: The new subspecies increases our understanding of the diversity in P. dipetalum and represents a new taxon of conservation concern.

  15. Relationship between socioeconomic status and HIV infection: findings from a survey in the Free State and Western Cape Provinces of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyasi, Erick Wekesa; Coetzee, David John

    2017-11-20

    Studies have shown a mixed association between socioeconomic status (SES) and prevalent HIV infection across and within settings in sub-Saharan Africa. In general, the relationship between years of formal education and HIV infection changed from a positive to a negative association with maturity of the HIV epidemic. Our objective was to determine the association between SES and HIV in women of reproductive age in the Free State (FSP) and Western Cape Provinces (WCP) of South Africa (SA). Cross-sectional. SA. We conducted secondary analysis on 1906 women of reproductive age from a 2007 to 2008 survey that evaluated effectiveness of Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission Programmes. SES was measured by household wealth quintiles, years of formal education and employment status. Our analysis principally used logistic regression for survey data. There was a significant negative trend between prevalent HIV infection and wealth quintile in WCP (Pstated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Knowledge and use of emergency contraception among women in the Western Cape province of South Africa: a cross-sectional study

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    Smit Jennifer

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergency contraception (EC is widely available free of charge at public sector clinics in South Africa. At the same time, rates of teenage and unintended pregnancy in South Africa remain high, and there are few data on knowledge of EC in the general population in South Africa, as in other resource-limited settings. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered survey among 831 sexually active women at 26 randomly selected public sector clinics in the Western Cape province. Results Overall, 30% of the women had ever heard of EC when asked directly, after the method was described to them. Only 15% mentioned EC by name or description spontaneously. Knowledge of EC was independently associated with higher education, being married, and living in an urban setting. Four percent of women had ever used EC. Discussion These data suggest that knowledge of EC in this setting is more common among women of higher socioeconomic status living in urban areas. For EC to play a role in decreasing unintended pregnancy in South Africa, specific interventions are necessary to increase knowledge of the method, where to get it, and the appropriate time interval for its use before the need for EC arises. Future health promotion campaigns should target rural and low socioeconomic status communities.

  17. Evaluation of selected aspects of the Nutrition Therapeutic Programme offered to HIV-positive women of child-bearing age in Western Cape Province, South Africa

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    Tine T. Hansen

    2015-04-01

    Objective: To evaluate implementation of the NTP at PHCs that provide antiretroviral therapy. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at 17 PHCs located within 3 districts of Western Cape Province. Two target groups were chosen: 32 staff members working at the sites and 21 women of child-bearing age enrolled in the NTP. Questionnaires were used to obtain data. Results: Only 2 women (10% lived in food-secure households; the rest were either at risk of hunger (29% or classified as hungry (61%. Most of the women knew they had to take the supplements to improve their nutritional status, but the majority only recalled receiving basic nutritional advice, and the information was mainly given verbally. Ten of the women had shared their supplements with others, mostly with their children. The study identified lack of clearly defined NTP responsibilities at the PHCs, causing confusion amongst the staff. Although many staff members expressed problems with the NTP, only 38% of them reported having routine evaluations regarding the programme. Conclusion: Several aspects compromised the effectiveness of the NTP, including socio- economic factors leading to clients’ non-compliance. The strategic organisation and implementation of the NTP varied between different PHCs offering antiretroviral therapy, and staff experienced difficulties with the logistics of the programme.

  18. The development of an implementation framework for service-learning during the undergraduate nursing programme in the Western Cape Province

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    Hester Julie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Service-learning (SL is a contested field of knowledge and issues of sustainability and scholarship have been raised about it. The South African Higher Education Quality Committee (HEQC has provided policy documents to guide higher education institutions (HEIs in the facilitation of SL institutionalisation in their academic programmes. An implementation framework was therefore needed to institutionalise the necessary epistemological shifts advocated in the national SL policy guidelines.Objectives: This article is based on the findings of a doctoral thesis that aimed at developing an SL implementation framework for the School of Nursing (SoN at the University of the Western Cape (UWC.Method: Mixed methods were used during the first four phases of the design and developmenti ntervention research model developed by Rothman and Thomas.Results: The SL implementation framework that was developed during Phase 3 specified the intervention elements to address the gaps that had been identified by the core findings of Phases 1 and 2. Four intervention elements were specified for the SL implementation framework. The first intervention element focused on the assessment of readiness for SL institutionalisation. The development of SL capacity and SL scholarship was regarded as the pivotal intervention element for three of the elements: the development of a contextual SL definition, an SL pedagogical model, and a monitoring and evaluation system for SL institutionalisation.Conclusion: The SL implementation framework satisfies the goals of SL institutionalisation, namely to develop a common language and a set of principles to guide practice, and to ensure the allocation of resources in order to facilitate the SL teaching methodology.The contextualised SL definition that was formulated for the SoN contributes to the SL operationalisation discourse at the HEI.

  19. The ecology and larval habitats characteristics of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Aligudarz County (Luristan province, western Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amani, Hamid; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Kassiri, Hamid

    2014-05-01

    To determine ecology and characteristics of the larval habitats of the genus Anopheles (Dipetra: Culicidae) in Aligudarz County, western Iran. This descriptive cross-sectional research was carried out to study the anopheline larvae ecology in seven rural districts, Aligudarz County, from late April to late November 1997. Larvae were captured using the dipping method. Larval breeding places characteristics were noted according to water situation (turbid or clean, stagnant or running), substrate type, site type (man-made or natural), sunlight situation, site situation (transient or permanent, with or without vegetation). A total of 9 620 3rd and 4th instar larvae of Anopheles from 115 breeding places in 22 villages were captured, which belonged to the following species: Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles d'thali, Anopheles apoci, Anopheles superpictus (forms A and B), Anopheles marterii sogdianus, Anopheles turkhodi, Anopheles maculipennis S.L and Anopheles claviger. Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles maculipennis S.L and Anopheles apoci were collected for the first time in this county. Anopheles superpictus (93.18%) was the most prevailed one and dispersed over the entire region. Larval habitats consisted of nine natural and three artificial larval habitats. The most important larval habitats were river edges (54.8%), rice fields (12.2%), and grassland (8.7%) with permanent or transient, stagnant or running and clean water, with or without vegetation, sand or mud substrate in full sunlight area. Regarding this research, river edges and rice fields are the most important breeding places of malaria vectors in Aligudarz County. It is worthy of note in larvicidal programs.

  20. The development of an implementation framework for service-learning during the undergraduate nursing programme in the Western Cape Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie, Hester

    2015-11-13

    Service-learning (SL) is a contested field of knowledge and issues of sustainability and scholarship have been raised about it. The South African Higher Education Quality Committee (HEQC) has provided policy documents to guide higher education institutions (HEIs) in the facilitation of SL institutionalisation in their academic programmes. An implementation framework was therefore needed to institutionalise the necessary epistemological shifts advocated in the national SL policy guidelines. This article is based on the findings of a doctoral thesis that aimed at developing an SL implementation framework for the School of Nursing (SoN) at the University of the Western Cape (UWC). Mixed methods were used during the first four phases of the design and developmenti ntervention research model developed by Rothman and Thomas. The SL implementation framework that was developed during Phase 3 specified the intervention elements to address the gaps that had been identified by the core findings of Phases 1 and 2. Four intervention elements were specified for the SL implementation framework. The first intervention element focused on the assessment of readiness for SL institutionalisation. The development of SL capacity and SL scholarship was regarded as the pivotal intervention element for three of the elements: the development of a contextual SL definition, an SL pedagogical model, and a monitoring and evaluation system for SL institutionalisation. The SL implementation framework satisfies the goals of SL institutionalisation, namely to develop a common language and a set of principles to guide practice, and to ensure the allocation of resources in order to facilitate the SL teaching methodology.The contextualised SL definition that was formulated for the SoN contributes to the SL operationalisation discourse at the HEI.

  1. Implementing community participation through legislative reform: a study of the policy framework for community participation in the Western Cape province of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Amidst an evolving post-apartheid policy framework for health, policymakers have sought to institutionalize community participation in Primary Health Care, recognizing participation as integral to realizing South Africa’s constitutional commitment to the right to health. With evolving South African legislation supporting community involvement in the health system, early policy developments focused on Community Health Committees (HCs) as the principal institutions of community participation. Formally recognized in the National Health Act of 2003, the National Health Act deferred to provincial governments in establishing the specific roles and functions of HCs. As a result, stakeholders developed a Draft Policy Framework for Community Participation in Health (Draft Policy) to formalize participatory institutions in the Western Cape province. Methods With the Draft Policy as a frame of analysis, the researchers conducted documentary policy analysis and semi-structured interviews on the evolution of South African community participation policy. Moving beyond the specific and unique circumstances of the Western Cape, this study analyzes generalizable themes for rights-based community participation in the health system. Results Framing institutions for the establishment, appointment, and functioning of community participation, the Draft Policy proposed a formal network of communication – from local HCs to the health system. However, this participation structure has struggled to establish itself and function effectively as a result of limitations in community representation, administrative support, capacity building, and policy commitment. Without legislative support for community participation, the enactment of superseding legislation is likely to bring an end to HC structures in the Western Cape. Conclusions Attempts to realize community participation have not adequately addressed the underlying factors crucial to promoting effective participation, with

  2. The Eugen Seibold coral mounds offshore western Morocco: oceanographic and bathymetric steering of a newly discovered cold-water coral province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glogowski, Silke; Dullo, Christian; Flögel, Sascha; Feldens, Peter; Hühnerbach, Veit; von Reumont, Jonas; Krastel, Sebastian; Wynn, Russ B.; Liebetrau, Volker

    2015-04-01

    This study presents new seafloor bathymetric and sidescan sonar data identifying a previously unknown cold-water coral (CWC) province on the Atlantic margin off western Morocco (ca. 31° N). Applying the concept of seawater density as a predictive tool for living CWC reef occurrence during research cruise 32 aboard RV Maria S. Merian in October 2013 CTD casts revealed potential sites. Direct sampling retrieved living coral patches within an extensive field of carbonate mounds, covering an area of ~410 km2 on the upper slope ~40 nautical miles north of Agadir Canyon. Individual mounds are up to 12 m high and are mainly composed of dead cold-water corals Lophelia pertusa thickets at present-day water depths of 678-863 m. Living CWCs represent only a thin veneer and were sampled by box coring in the shallower parts of the mound field between 678 and 719 m. CTD measurements in these shallower areas revealed that the occurrence of these living CWC reefs coincides with the deeper part of the North Atlantic Central Water (NACW) mass exhibiting conservative temperatures Φ of 9.78-9.94° C, absolute salinity SA of 35.632 g/kg, and a sea water density σΦ of 27.31-27.33 kg/m3). This is in good agreement with observations from the Renard Ridge (35° N, Gulf of Cadiz) to the north and sites off Mauretania (17° N-18° N) to the south, 'with the exception of sparse live corals in the latter region, the CWC reefs of both regions consist of a dead fabric in the deeper layer of the NACW slightly above the Mediterranean Outflow Water. The bathymetric and oceanographic settings of this newly discovered CWC site, with its thin veneer of living corals and much larger accumulations of coral rubble, are consistent with published evidence that, over the past three glacial-interglacial cycles, active CWC reef growth south of 50° N was more favourable during glacial times (possibly up to the very early Holocene) in this sector of the northeast Atlantic Ocean. The newly discovered

  3. Projecting the future levels of Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkelen, Inne; van Lipzig, Nicole; Thiery, Wim

    2017-04-01

    Lake Victoria directly sustains 30 million people living in its basin and 200 000 fishermen operating from its shores. As the one of the two sources of the Nile River, it also supports natural resources that impact the livelihood of over 300 million people living in the Nile basin. The outlet to the Nile is controlled by two hydropower dams. The water balance of Lake Victoria is controlled both by climatic conditions (precipitation and evaporation) and human management (dam outflow). Future climate simulations with a high resolution coupled lake-land-atmosphere model project decreasing mean precipitation and increasing evaporation over Lake Victoria. As these two are important factors in the water balance of Lake Victoria, these projected changes may induce a drop in future levels of Lake Victoria. Moreover, as Lake Victoria is also a relatively shallow lake, lake surface area may decrease as well. Here we present a water balance model for Lake Victoria that provides lake level and extent as output. We first force our model with observational input (new satellite products providing high quality precipitation and evaporation data) and evaluate it using measured lake levels. The skill of the model is subsequently assessed by forcing it with present-day regional climate simulations (CORDEX evaluation simulations). In a third step the future lake levels and surface area changes of Lake Victoria are simulated by forcing the model with CORDEX projections under RCP4.5 and 8.5. Finally, the role of human decisions regarding future dam outflow are investigated.

  4. Structural framework of the Lufilian Fold Belt in the Domes region of North Western Province, Zambia from interpretation of geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P. R.; Nisbet, B. W.

    2017-05-01

    The area around the Kabompo and Mwombezhi Domes in the North Western Province of Zambia is characterized by poor outcrop, and as is common with other areas in Zambia, correlation of units between isolated outcrops is complicated by the similarity of lithology in many sections of the stratigraphy. Aeromagnetic data, airborne radiometric and electromagnetic data were used to provide control on correlation between outcrops, and therefore allowed interpretation of a robust structural framework. The two domes are Paleoproterozoic basement-cored anticlines unconformably overlain by Neoproterozoic Roan Group rocks of the lower Katangan Supergroup. The Katangan Supergroup was deposited in an extensional basin formed as part of the breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia. From the geophysical interpretation several normal faults are identified that probably formed during this stage of basin formation, and there is good evidence for at least four regional transfer zones having formed at this time. The fault architecture initiated during the Katangan extensional tectonic event is shown in this interpretation to have strongly influenced the geometry of the Lufilian Fold Belt. Evidence in the domes area suggests that salt tectonics may explain the localization of the regional décollement at the top of the Lower Roan, and provide a structural mechanism for the formation of high-pressure metamorphic rocks in the area. Sinistral reverse faulting and associated folding dominates the Lufilian structural fabric in the east of area, and these faults appear to sole out on the regional décollement. Sigmoidal fold profiles have developed between adjacent fault zones, with east-west oriented fold axes in more distal areas rotating into parallelism adjacent to the faults, suggesting synchronous folding and faulting during north-directed compression. In the north-western part of the study area, fold hinge orientations and basement-cover interactions, indicate north north-westerly directed

  5. Evaluation of selected aspects of the Nutrition Therapeutic Programme offered to HIV-positive women of child-bearing age in Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine T. Hansen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Nutrition Therapeutic Programme (NTP involves the provision of food supplements at primary health clinics (PHCs to correct nutritional deficiencies in vulnerable groups. Although previous studies have identified problems with implementing the programme at PHCs, assessments of its efficiency have been scarce.Objective: To evaluate implementation of the NTP at PHCs that provide antiretroviral therapy.Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at 17 PHCs located within 3 districts of Western Cape Province. Two target groups were chosen: 32 staff members working at the sites and 21 women of child-bearing age enrolled in the NTP. Questionnaires were used to obtain data.Results: Only 2 women (10% lived in food-secure households; the rest were either at risk of hunger (29% or classified as hungry (61%. Most of the women knew they had to take the supplements to improve their nutritional status, but the majority only recalled receiving basic nutritional advice, and the information was mainly given verbally. Ten of the women had shared their supplements with others, mostly with their children. The study identified lack of clearly defined NTP responsibilities at the PHCs, causing confusion amongst the staff. Although many staff members expressed problems with the NTP, only 38% of them reported having routine evaluations regarding the programme.Conclusion: Several aspects compromised the effectiveness of the NTP, including socio- economic factors leading to clients’ non-compliance. The strategic organisation and implementation of the NTP varied between different PHCs offering antiretroviral therapy, and staff experienced difficulties with the logistics of the programme.

  6. Toward a three-century reconstruction of climate variability from a slow-growing coral in the Western Province, Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, C. R.; Quinn, T. M.; Taylor, F. W.; lin, K.; Shen, C.

    2012-12-01

    Climate variability in the west Pacific warm pool (WPWP), a major heat and moisture source to the atmosphere, is strongly influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Modeling work has suggested that multi-century scale reconstructions of ENSO variability from the tropical west Pacific may be necessary to fully characterize the nature of the ENSO system. Much of the previous coral-based climate studies have used the fast-growing coral genus Porites, although a few studies have used the long-lived, slow-growing coral genus Diploastrea. Here we present an oxygen isotope time series from a three century long D. heliopora coral from near Olasana Island, Western Province, Solomon Islands (WPSI, 8°07.92' S, 156°54.50' E), a location in the WPWP that experiences significant temperature and salinity anomalies during ENSO events. We first used a forward model to generate a pseudoproxy time series for the Olasana region, utilizing available gridded sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) data spanning 1970-2007. There are strong correlations between predicted and measured coral δ18O, between both monthly (r = 0.84) and monthly anomaly (r = 0.69) records. These results demonstrate that the Olasana D. heliopora coral δ18O record is a robust proxy of local surface ocean conditions. There is also a robust relationship between the Olasana δ18O record and NINO3.4 index of ENSO activity during 1938-2007, which provides confidence that the Olasana δ18O record can be used to characterize the ENSO state in this region back in time. Finally, we present results from near the core bottom (~1700 CE), which provide a first window into a gap of coral-based ENSO reconstructions in the immediate preindustrial (~1700-1850 CE).

  7. Surrogate Model Application to the Identification of Optimal Groundwater Exploitation Scheme Based on Regression Kriging Method-A Case Study of Western Jilin Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yongkai; Lu, Wenxi; Cheng, Weiguo

    2015-07-30

    This paper introduces a surrogate model to identify an optimal exploitation scheme, while the western Jilin province was selected as the study area. A numerical simulation model of groundwater flow was established first, and four exploitation wells were set in the Tongyu county and Qian Gorlos county respectively so as to supply water to Daan county. Second, the Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) method was used to collect data in the feasible region for input variables. A surrogate model of the numerical simulation model of groundwater flow was developed using the regression kriging method. An optimization model was established to search an optimal groundwater exploitation scheme using the minimum average drawdown of groundwater table and the minimum cost of groundwater exploitation as multi-objective functions. Finally, the surrogate model was invoked by the optimization model in the process of solving the optimization problem. Results show that the relative error and root mean square error of the groundwater table drawdown between the simulation model and the surrogate model for 10 validation samples are both lower than 5%, which is a high approximation accuracy. The contrast between the surrogate-based simulation optimization model and the conventional simulation optimization model for solving the same optimization problem, shows the former only needs 5.5 hours, and the latter needs 25 days. The above results indicate that the surrogate model developed in this study could not only considerably reduce the computational burden of the simulation optimization process, but also maintain high computational accuracy. This can thus provide an effective method for identifying an optimal groundwater exploitation scheme quickly and accurately.

  8. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used to manage High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bitterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Denver; Gibson, Diana; Johnson, Quinton

    2016-12-24

    The aim of this study was to identify and document medicinal plants used to manage High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bitterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa. One hundred and twelve (112) respondents were interviewed between August 2014 and September 2015 through semi-structured surveys to gather data on the percentage of people who had been diagnosed with High Blood Pressure and/or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and to determine the frequency of medicinal plant and allopathic medicine use. Twelve (12) key respondents were subsequently selected, using a non-probability snowball sampling method. They were interviewed in-depth concerning their plant practices and assisted with plant collection. Twenty-four plant (24) species belonging to 15 families were identified for the management of High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The most frequently reported families were Asteraceae (20.8%), Lamiaceae (16.67%), Crassulaceae (8.33%) and Aizoaceae (8.33%). The remaining (45.54%) were evenly split over eleven families- Fabaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Capparaceae, Geraniaceae, Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Apocynaceae, Rutaceae, Asphodelaceae and Thymelaeaceae. The most commonly used plant species overall was Lessertia frutescens (96.55%). The most frequently used plant parts included leaves (57.63%) roots/bulbs (15.25%) and stems (11.86%), mostly prepared as infusions or decoctions for oral administration. Medicinal plants are widely used by High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus sufferers. They employ diverse plant species to manage both conditions. In addition, some sufferers often use prescribed allopathic medication, as well as medicinal plants, but at different intervals. Despite high usage the plants identified are not currently threatened (Red Data list status: least concern). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 1.8 billion years of fluid-crust interaction: A zircon oxygen isotope record for the lower crust, western Churchill Province, Canadian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petts, Duane C.; Moser, Desmond E.; Longstaffe, Frederick J.; Davis, William J.; Stern, Richard A.

    2014-04-01

    The western Churchill Province of the Canadian Shield experienced a prolonged and complex formation history (ca. 4.04 to 1.70 Ga), with evidence for multiple episodes of orogenesis and regional magmatic activity. Here we report on the oxygen isotopic compositions of garnet and zircon recovered from lower crustal xenoliths, which have U-Pb ages between ca. 3.5 and 1.7 Ga. Overall, zircon from four metabasite xenoliths from the Rankin Inlet sample suite have δ18O values ranging from + 5.5 to + 8.6‰. Zircon from three metatonalite/anorthosite xenoliths and five metabasite xenoliths from the Repulse Bay sample suite have δ18O values of + 5.6 to + 8.3‰. High δ18O values (> + 6.0‰) for the oldest igneous zircon cores (ca. 3.5 Ga and 3.0-2.6 Ga) indicate that their metatonalite/anorthosite protolith magmas were generated from, or had assimilated, supracrustal rocks that interacted previously with surface-derived fluids. Igneous zircon cores (ca. 2.9-2.6 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith have δ18O values of + 5.6 to + 6.4‰, which suggests a formation from a mantle-derived basaltic/gabbroic magma. Metamorphic zircon cores (ca. 2.0-1.9 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith commonly have δ18O values between + 6.0 and + 6.3‰, which is indicative of a basalt/gabbro protolith and localized reworking of the lower crust caused by regional-scale plate convergence. The wide range of δ18O values (+ 5.5 to + 8.3‰) for ca. 1.75-1.70 Ga metamorphic zircon rims (identified in all xenoliths) indicates regional transient heating and reworking of mantle- and supracrustal-derived crust, induced by magmatic underplating along the crust-mantle boundary.

  10. HIV-1 subtypes B and C unique recombinant forms (URFs and transmitted drug resistance identified in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Brendon Jacobs

    Full Text Available South Africa has the largest worldwide HIV/AIDS population with 5.6 million people infected and at least 2 million people on antiretroviral therapy. The majority of these infections are caused by HIV-1 subtype C. Using genotyping methods we characterized HIV-1 subtypes of the gag p24 and pol PR and RT fragments, from a cohort of female participants in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. These participants were recruited as part of a study to assess the combined brain and behavioural effects of HIV and early childhood trauma. The partial HIV-1 gag and pol fragments of 84 participants were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Different online tools and manual phylogenetic analysis were used for HIV-1 subtyping. Online tools included: REGA HIV Subtyping tool version 3; Recombinant Identification Program (RIP; Context-based Modeling for Expeditious Typing (COMET; jumping profile Hidden Markov Models (jpHMM webserver; and subtype classification using evolutionary algorithms (SCUEAL. HIV-1 subtype C predominates within the cohort with a prevalence of 93.8%. We also show, for the first time, the presence of circulating BC strains in at least 4.6% of our study cohort. In addition, we detected transmitted resistance associated mutations in 4.6% of analysed sequences. With tourism and migration rates to South Africa currently very high, we are detecting more and more HIV-1 URFs within our study populations. It is still unclear what role these unique strains will play in terms of long term antiretroviral treatment and what challenges they will pose to vaccine development. Nevertheless, it remains vitally important to monitor the HIV-1 diversity in South Africa and worldwide as the face of the epidemic is continually changing.

  11. Mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) in amphibole-bearing granites of the Bintang batholith, Main Range granite province: Evidence for a meta-igneous basement in Western Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Long Xiang; Ghani, Azman A.; Chung, Sun-Lin; Li, Shan; Lai, Yu-Ming; Saidin, Mokhtar; Amir Hassan, Meor H.; Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Afiq; Badruldin, Muhammad Hafifi; Abu Bakar, Ahmad Farid

    2017-08-01

    Mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) with varying sizes are a common occurrence in porphyritic amphibole-bearing granite of the Bintang batholith, which is part of the Main Range granite province. The MMEs of the amphibole-bearing granite are significant as they are related to the I-type granitoids within the Main Range granite province. Petrographic observations indicate the MMEs are mantled with coarse mafic crystals on the rim and contain similar minerals to the host (biotite + plagioclase + K-feldspar + pyroxene + amphibole), but in different proportions. Geochemical analyses indicate the MMEs are shoshonitic with mg# comparable to the granite host. Substantial similarities exist between the MMEs and granite with regards to the normalized rare earth element patterns and trace elements variation diagrams. The MMEs and granite are not completely coeval as the MME zircon U-Pb age (224.3 ± 1.2 Ma) is slightly older than its granite host zircon U-Pb age (216.2 ± 1.0 Ma). The age difference is also observed from the unusual 500 m-long Tiak MME and another amphibole-bearing granite sample from the south of the pluton, which yield 221.8 ± 1.1 Ma and 217.4 ± 1.0 Ma respectively. The oldest inherited zircons found in the MME and granite are 2.0 Ga and 1.3 Ga respectively, while the oldest xenocrystic zircons found in the MME and granite are 2.5 Ga and 1.5 Ga respectively. Identical negative εHf(t) values from zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf analysis for a MME-granite pair indicates the rocks were generated from a similar, ancient source in the basement. Combining the results, we suggest that incongruent melting of an ancient protolith played an important part in the evolution of the MMEs and granite and the MMEs characteristics are best explained as restite. The zircon Hf model age (two-stage) and the I-type peritectic and restitic mineral assemblages in the MMEs further describe the protolith as Early Proterozoic-Late Archean (≈2.5 Ga) meta-igneous rock. This shows the

  12. New insights into the petrogenesis of the Jameson Range layered intrusion and associated Fe-Ti-P-V-PGE-Au mineralisation, West Musgrave Province, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karykowski, Bartosz T.; Polito, Paul A.; Maier, Wolfgang D.; Gutzmer, Jens; Krause, Joachim

    2017-02-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Jameson Range intrusion forms part of the Giles Complex, Musgrave Province, Western Australia. It is predominantly mafic in composition comprising olivine-bearing gabbroic lithologies with variable amounts of magnetite and ilmenite. Lithologies containing more than 50 vol% magnetite and ilmenite are classified as magnetitites. The Jameson Range hosts several of these magnetitites forming laterally extensive layers, which can be traced for at least 19 km as continuous magnetic anomalies. Similar occurrences of magnetitites are known from the upper parts of other layered intrusions, such as the Bushveld Complex. In addition, the intrusion hosts several P-rich zones, one of which is at least 59 m in thickness containing 1.0 wt% P2O5. The P-rich zones are not directly associated with the magnetitites, but they mostly occur slightly above them. The mineral chemistry of the Jameson Range cumulates is relatively evolved with olivine compositions ranging from Fo44 to Fo60 and plagioclase compositions varying between An56 and An59. The Mg# (100 × Mg / (Mg + Fe)) of ortho- and clinopyroxene ranges from 60 to 61 and from 70 to 75, respectively. Magnetite compositions are characterised by low TiO2 concentrations varying from 0.39 to 3.04 wt% representing near end-member magnetite with up to 1.2 wt% Cr and 1.3 wt% V, respectively. The basal magnetite layer reaches up to 68.8 wt% Fe2O3(t) and 24.2 wt% TiO2, and it is also markedly enriched in Cu (up to 0.3 wt% Cu), V (up to 1.05 wt% V2O5) and platinum-group elements (PGE) (up to 2 ppm Pt + Pd). Sulphide minerals comprising bornite, chalcopyrite and minor pentlandite occur finely disseminated in the magnetitite and account for the elevated base metal and PGE concentrations. Modelling indicates that the PGE mineralisation was formed at very high R factors of up to 100,000, which is typical for PGE reefs in layered intrusions. Whole rock geochemical and mineralogical data of the magnetite layers and their host

  13. Anisian (Middle Triassic) marine ichnocoenoses from the eastern and western margins of the Kamdian Continent, Yunnan Province, SW China: Implications for the Triassic biotic recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xueqian; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Woods, Adam; Pei, Yu; Wu, Siqi; Fang, Yuheng; Luo, Mao; Xu, Yaling

    2017-10-01

    Two Anisian (Middle Triassic) marine ichnocoenoses are reported from the Boyun and Junmachang (JMC) sections located along the eastern and western margins of the Kamdian Continent, Yunnan Province, Southwest China, respectively. The Boyun ichnoassemblage is middle Anisian in age and is dominated by robust Rhizocorallium, while the JMC ichnoassemblage is of an early Anisian age and is characterized by the presence of Zoophycos. The ichnoassemblage horizons of the Boyun section represent an inner ramp environment, while the JMC section was likely situated in a mid-ramp setting near storm wave base as indicated by the presence of tempestites. The ichnofossil-bearing successions are usually highly bioturbated in both the Boyun (BI 3-5, BPBI 5) and JMC (BI 3-4, BPBI 3-4) sections. Three large, morphologically complicated ichnogenera: 1) Rhizocorallium; 2) Thalassinoides; and, 3) Zoophycos characterize the Anisian ichnocoenoses. Of these, Rhizocorallium has mean and maximum tube diameters up to 20.4 mm and 28 mm, respectively, while Thalassinoides mean and maximum tube diameters are 14.2 mm and 22 mm, respectively. Zoophycos is present in the early Anisian strata of the JMC section, and represents the oldest known occurrence of this ichnogenus following the latest Permian mass extinction. Similar to coeval ichnoassemblages elsewhere in the world, the Yunnan ichnocoenoses embrace a relatively low ichnodiversity, but their burrows usually penetrate deeply into the sediment, and include large and complex Rhizocorallium and Thalassinoides. All of these ichnologic features are indicative of recovery stage 4 after the latest Permian crisis. Anisian ichnoassemblages occur globally in six different habitat settings, and all show similar ecologic characteristics except for slightly different degrees of ichnotaxonomic richness, indicating that depositional environment is not a crucial factor shaping the recovery of the trace-makers, but may have an impact on their ichnodiversity

  14. Implementation of the HealthKick intervention in primary schools in low-income settings in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Anniza; Steyn, Nelia P; Draper, Catherine E; Hill, Jillian; Dalais, Lucinda; Fourie, Jean; Lombard, Carl; Barkhuizen, Gerhard; Lambert, Estelle V

    2015-08-22

    The HealthKick intervention, introduced at eight primary schools in low-income settings in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, aimed to promote healthy lifestyles among learners, their families and school staff. Eight schools from similar settings without any active intervention served as controls. The Action Planning Process (APP) guided school staff through a process that enabled them to assess areas for action; identify specific priorities; and set their own goals regarding nutrition and physical activity at their schools. Educators were introduced to the APP and trained to undertake this at their schools by holding workshops. Four action areas were covered, which included the school nutrition environment; physical activity and sport environment; staff health; and chronic disease and diabetes awareness. Intervention schools also received a toolkit comprising an educator's manual containing planning guides, printed resource materials and a container with physical activity equipment. To facilitate the APP, a champion was identified at each school to drive the APP and liaise with the project team. Over the three-years a record was kept of activities planned and those accomplished. At the end of the intervention, focus group discussions were held with school staff at each school to capture perceptions about the APP and intervention activities. Overall uptake of events offered by the research team was 65.6% in 2009, 75% in 2010 and 62.5% in 2011. Over the three-year intervention, the school food and nutrition environment action area scored the highest, with 55.5% of planned actions being undertaken. In the chronic disease and diabetes awareness area 54.2% actions were completed, while in the school physical activity and sport environment and staff health activity areas 25.9 and 20% were completed respectively. According to educators, the low level of implementation of APP activities was because of a lack of parental involvement, time and available resources

  15. Spiraal : uus Victoria & Alberti muuseum Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Daniel Libeskindi projekt Victoria & Alberti Muuseumi laiendamiseks on põhjustanud konservatiivsete londonlaste pahameele, kuid kutsunud esile ka hulgaliselt toetusavaldusi. Muuseumi uus osa (kokkuvarisemise piiril näiva ehitisena) peaks külastajaile avatama 2004. a.

  16. Initial hydrological modelling to assess impacts of different land uses on process hydrology in a small-scale semi-arid catchment in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steudel, T

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available shown that hydrological process dynamics are strongly influenced by the given land use practice. Since semi-arid regions suffer from water scarcity, an optimized land use practice is important for sustainable management of limited water resources...) Refe renc e Initial hydrological modelling to assess impacts of different land uses on process hydrology in a small-scale semi-arid catchment in the Western Cape Province, South Africa Thomas Steudel1, Willem De Clercq2, Richard Bugan2,3, Nebo...

  17. The Victoria Project, Sri Lanka: Victoria Power-Station. [Hydroelectric power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creber, B. (Sir Alexander Gibb and Partners (GB))

    1991-04-01

    The Victoria Hydroelectric Power-Station forms part of the Victoria Project on the Mahaweli Ganga in Sri Lanka and it provides the country's largest single power source. The Paper describes the planning, design and construction of the civil engineering works, including problems encountered, and also describes, in outline, the electrical and mechanical works. (Author).

  18. Post subduction thermal regime of the western North America and effects on the Great Valley, Sierra Nevada and northern Baja California provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Kamil

    Tectonic evolution of the transform margin of western North America has attracted great interest. This boundary formed as the fault-fault-trench type Mendocino triple junction has moved north. The tectonic transition is expected to have a significant thermal signature because the subduction zones are quite distinct from any other plate boundary zones with their depressed heat flow in the outer arc regions. There is a significant amount of heat flow data in most of California covering the Great Valley and Sierra Nevada regions where were part of the outer arc of the Farallon subduction was located. The heat flow in a very large area covering all over the Great Valley and western Sierra Nevada shows the consistent pattern of a recent subduction. The unique pattern of the heat flow distribution indicates the tectonic origin of the data which has a potential to reveal the nature of the tectonic transition after the cessation of subduction 30 Ma. In this collection, the first two papers deal with the interpretation of heat flow data using forward thermal models of the lithosphere. The two proposed tectonic scenarios, namely the slab window and the stalled slab models, were compared in terms of the thermal consequences. The low heat flow in the Great Valley and the narrow transition zone toward the Coast Ranges rules out opening of a slab window in a conventional sense and is therefore indicative of a stalled slab type transition. Therefore, the high heat flow in the Coast Ranges must be explained by a mechanism other than opening of a slab window beneath the Coast Ranges. The low (reduced) heat flow in the Western Sierra Nevada which extends to the south end of the region where the subduction ceased more than 15 My ago is important in understating the thermal history of the lithosphere after the cessation of subduction. The thermal data are also in close agreement with the seismic cut-out depth where sufficient seismic activity is present. The numerical thermal model of

  19. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The excavated main lignite seams and overlying lacustrine sediments of the opencast mines Eskihisar, Salihpaşalar, and Tı naz, Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey were investigated using a high taxonomic resolution palynological approach. The Eskihisar section comprises 47m and 56 samples of which 30 were usable for palynological analysis. The Tı naz section comprises 75 m and 29 samples of which 15 were usable for palynological analysis. Finally, the Salihpaşalar section comprises 25 m and 26 samples of which 16 were usable for palynological analysis. The age of the palynological sections is middle to late Miocene based on radiometric dating and vertebrate fossils. In order to investigate dispersed pollen and spores and their botanical affinities a combined light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach was used. The rich palynoflora comprises: seven types of algal cysts (Botryococcus, Zygnemataceae), seventeen spore types belonging to Lycopsida (club mosses), Marsileaceae (water-clover), Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae (brake), and Polypodiaceae; 14 types of gymnosperm pollen belonging to Ephedraceae (Mormon tea), Cupressaceae, Pinaceae (Cathaya, cedar, hemlock, pine, spruce); five types of monocotyledone pollen belonging to Poaceae (grasses, common reed), and Typhaceae (bulrush, bur-reed); ca 90 dicotyledone pollen types belonging to Altingiaceae (sweet gum), Amaranthaceae (goosefoot), Anacardiaceae (sumac family), Apiaceae (parsley family), Aquifoliaceae (holly), Asteraceae (sunflower family), Betulaceae (alder, birch, hazel, hophornbeam, hornbeam), Campanulaceae (bellflower family), Cannabaceae (hackberries), Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle, teasel family), Caryophyllaceae (pink family), Ericaceae (heather family), Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae (spurge family), Fabaceae (bean family), Fagaceae (beech, oak), Geraniaceae (storkbills), Juglandaceae (hickory, walnut, wingnut), Lamiaceae (bagflower), Linaceae (flax), Lythraceae (waterwillow), Malvaceae

  20. Amphibians and squamate reptiles from the latest early Pleistocene of Cueva Victoria (Murcia, southeastern Spain, SW Mediterranean): Paleobiogeographic and paleoclimatic implications

    OpenAIRE

    BLAIN, H.A.; BAILON, S.; AGUSTÍ BALLESTER, J.

    2009-01-01

    The karstic filling of Cueva Victoria in southeastern Spain, dated from the latest early Pleistocene (ca. 1.1 Ma), is famous for providing primate fossil remains (Theropithecus) of typical African origin, in the general controversy on the antiquity of the first hominid settlements in Western Europe and their possible entrance into Europe through the Strait of Gibraltar. Cueva Victoria has also furnished the following fauna of anurans and squamate reptiles: cf. Pelodytes sp. (Pelodytidae), ...

  1. total mercury concentration in common fish species of lake victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total mercury (THg) concentration was analysed in muscles of common fish species of Lake. Victoria in the eastern and southern parts of the lake using cold vapour Atomic Absorption. Spectrophotometric ... INTRODUCTION. The Lake Victoria ...

  2. Stratigraphic architecture of bedrock reference section, Victoria Crater, Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Lauren A.; Grotzinger, John P.; Hayes, Alex G.; Rubin, David M.; Squyres, Steve W.; Bell, James F.; Herkenhoff, Ken E.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has investigated bedrock outcrops exposed in several craters at Meridiani Planum, Mars, in an effort to better understand the role of surface processes in its geologic history. Opportunity has recently completed its observations of Victoria crater, which is 750 m in diameter and exposes cliffs up to ~15 m high. The plains surrounding Victoria crater are ~10 m higher in elevation than those surrounding the previously explored Endurance crater, indicating that the Victoria crater exposes a stratigraphically higher section than does the Endurance crater; however, Victoria strata overlap in elevation with the rocks exposed at the Erebus crater. Victoria crater has a well-developed geomorphic pattern of promontories and embayments that define the crater wall and that reveal thick bedsets (3–7m) of large-scale cross-bedding, interpreted as fossil eolian dunes. Opportunity was able to drive into the crater at Duck Bay, located on the western margin of Victoria crater. Data from the Microscopic Imager and Panoramic Camera reveal details about the structures, textures, and depositional and diagenetic events that influenced the Victoria bedrock. A lithostratigraphic subdivision of bedrock units was enabled by the presence of a light-toned band that lines much of the upper rim of the crater. In ascending order, three stratigraphic units are named Lyell, Smith, and Steno; Smith is the light-toned band. In the Reference Section exposed along the ingress path at Duck Bay, Smith is interpreted to represent a zone of diagenetic recrystallization; however, its upper contact also coincides with a primary erosional surface. Elsewhere in the crater the diagenetic band crosscuts the physical stratigraphy. Correlation with strata present at nearby promontory Cape Verde indicates that there is an erosional surface at the base of the cliff face that corresponds to the erosional contact below Steno. The erosional contact at the base of Cape Verde

  3. Seabed surveys of Victoria harbour, Mahe, Seychelles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Wagle, B.G.

    The seabed surveys in the Victoria Harbour, Mahe, Seychelles shows that the prominent feature is the navigational channel aligned in the northeast-southwest direction with a width varying from 300 to 450m. The depth in the channel ranges from 14...

  4. Geography and Geographical Education in Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriewaldt, Jeana

    2006-01-01

    Victoria has just emerged from 10 years where Geography has been one of three strands in the key learning area of Studies of Society and Environment (SOSE). The overarching framework emerged from an attempt to develop a national curriculum. Whilst the national curriculum was rejected by Australian state and territories who each hold legislative…

  5. within the lake victoria basin, tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Levels of nitrates (NOg-N) and phosphates (PO4~P) in some satellite lakes within the Lake. Victoria basin were determined in Kagera (Lake Burigt), in Mara (River Mara) and in Mwanza region (Lake Malimbe) during August/September 2002 (dry season) and January/February 2003. (wet season).

  6. D Digital Cadastre Journey in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, D.; Olfat, H.; Briffa, M.; Rajabifard, A.

    2017-10-01

    Land development processes today have an increasing demand to access three-dimensional (3D) spatial information. Complex land development may need to have a 3D model and require some functions which are only possible using 3D data. Accordingly, the Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM), as a national body in Australia provides leadership, coordination and standards for surveying, mapping and national datasets has developed the Cadastre 2034 strategy in 2014. This strategy has a vision to develop a cadastral system that enables people to readily and confidently identify the location and extent of all rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to land and real property. In 2014, the land authority in the state of Victoria, Australia, namely Land Use Victoria (LUV), has entered the challenging area of designing and implementing a 3D digital cadastre focused on providing more efficient and effective services to the land and property industry. LUV has been following the ICSM 2034 strategy which requires developing various policies, standards, infrastructures, and tools. Over the past three years, LUV has mainly focused on investigating the technical aspect of a 3D digital cadastre. This paper provides an overview of the 3D digital cadastre investigation progress in Victoria and discusses the challenges that the team faced during this journey. It also addresses the future path to develop an integrated 3D digital cadastre in Victoria.

  7. CLARIIDAE) FROM THE MWANZA GULF, LAKE VICTORIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Seventeen species of parasites were recovered from 107 I Clarias gariepinus examined flom the. Mwanza Gulf of Lake Victoria. The parasite fauna comprised of four ectoparasites, a. Monogenea, Hirudinea, crustacean and a Digenea,' and fourteen endoparasites, five nematodes,. five trematodes and three ...

  8. Reasons given by hypertensive patients for concurrently using traditional and Western medicine at Natalspruit Hospital in the Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atileombolo A. Lotika

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2007, a large number of hypertensive patients seen at Natalspruit Hospital had poor adherent to their anti-hypertension treatment which manifested itself through poor blood pressure control. On enquiry, they revealed that they were also taking traditional medicines.Objectives: To explore the reasons given by hypertensive patients for concurrently using traditional and Western medicine.Methods: A qualitative study was conducted amongst nine purposefully selected participants attending treatment at the hospital. Interviews were conducted in the Southern Sotho and IsiZulu languages and were audio-taped. The exploratory question was: ‘Would you tell us why you are taking traditional medicine together with the antihypertensive medicine your arereceiving at this hospital?’ The transcribed and translated transcriptions were analysed using the ‘cut and paste’ method to identify themes.Results: Themes that emerged were that traditional medicine was readily accessible; traditional healers displayed knowledge and confidence in their medicine; traditional medicine was perceived to counteract the side-effects of western medicine; the two streams were perceived to complement each other and both streams could lead to a ‘cure’. Patients were disappointed at the perceived bad attitude of the hospital staff.Conclusion: The reasons given by hypertensive patients for their concurrent use of traditional and Western medicine centred around patients’ relatively favourable perception of traditional medicine and its practitioners. Western medicine health care practitioners should continue health education on antihypertensive medication in a manner acceptable to patients.

  9. Reasons given by hypertensive patients for concurrently using traditional and Western medicine at Natalspruit Hospital in the Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuza, Langalibalele H.; Okonta, Henry I.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2007, a large number of hypertensive patients seen at Natalspruit Hospital had poor adherent to their anti-hypertension treatment which manifested itself through poor blood pressure control. On enquiry, they revealed that they were also taking traditional medicines. Objectives To explore the reasons given by hypertensive patients for concurrently using traditional and Western medicine. Methods A qualitative study was conducted amongst nine purposefully selected participants attending treatment at the hospital. Interviews were conducted in the Southern Sotho and IsiZulu languages and were audio-taped. The exploratory question was: ‘Would you tell us why you are taking traditional medicine together with the antihypertensive medicine your are receiving at this hospital?’ The transcribed and translated transcriptions were analysed using the ‘cut and paste’ method to identify themes. Results Themes that emerged were that traditional medicine was readily accessible; traditional healers displayed knowledge and confidence in their medicine; traditional medicine was perceived to counteract the side-effects of western medicine; the two streams were perceived to complement each other and both streams could lead to a ‘cure’. Patients were disappointed at the perceived bad attitude of the hospital staff. Conclusion The reasons given by hypertensive patients for their concurrent use of traditional and Western medicine centred around patients’ relatively favourable perception of traditional medicine and its practitioners. Western medicine health care practitioners should continue health education on antihypertensive medication in a manner acceptable to patients.

  10. Regional-scale fluxes of zinc, copper, and nickel into and out of the agricultural soils of the Kermanshah province in western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi Doabi, Shahab; Karami, Mahin; Afyuni, Majid

    2016-04-01

    It is important to study the status and trend of soil contamination with trace elements to make sustainable management strategies for agricultural soils. This study was conducted in order to model zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and nickel (Ni) accumulation rates in agricultural soils of Kermanshah province using input and output fluxes mass balance and to evaluate the associated uncertainties. The input and output fluxes of Zn, Cu, and Ni into (from) the agricultural soils of Kermanshah province via livestock manure, mineral fertilizers, municipal waste compost, pesticides, atmospheric deposition, and crop removal were assessed for the period 2000-2014. The data were collected to compute the fluxes at both township and regional scales from available databases such as regional agricultural statistics. The basic units of the balance were 9 townships of Kermanshah province. Averaged over the entire study region, the estimated net fluxes of Zn, Cu, and Ni into agricultural soils were 341, 84, and131 g ha year(-1), with a range of 211 to 1621, 61 to 463, and 114 to 679 among the townships. The livestock manure was responsible for 55, 56, and 67 % of the total Zn, Cu, and Ni inputs at regional scale, while municipal waste compost and mineral fertilizers accounted for approximately 19, 38, and 15 % and 24, 4, and 14 % of the total Zn, Cu, and Ni inputs, respectively. Atmospheric deposition was a considerable source only for Ni and at township scale (7-29 % of total Ni input). For Zn, Cu, and Ni, the input-to-output ratio of the fluxes ranged from 1.8 to 48.9, 2 to 48.2, and 4 to 303 among townships and averaged 2.8, 3, and 9 for the entire study area, respectively. Considering that outputs other than with crop harvests are minor, this means that Zn, Cu, and Ni (in particular Ni) stocks are rapidly building up in soils of some parts of the study region. Uncertainties in the livestock manure and crop removal data were the main sources of estimation uncertainty in this study

  11. Mathematical Problems in Biology : Victoria Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1974-01-01

    A conference on "Some Mathematical Problems in Biology" was held at the University of Victoria, Victoria, B. C. , Canada, from May 7 - 10, 1973. The participants and invited speakers were mathematicians interested in problems of a biological nature, and scientists actively engaged in developing mathematical models in biological fields. One aim of the conference was to attempt to assess what the recent rapid growth of mathematical interaction with the biosciences has accomplished and may accomplish in the near future. The conference also aimed to expose the problems of communication bet~",een mathematicians and biological scientists, and in doing so to stimulate the interchange of ideas. It was recognised that the topic spans an enormous breadth, and little attempt was made to balance the very diverse areas. Widespread active interest was shown in the conference, and just over one hundred people registered. The varied departments and institutions across North America from which the participants came made it bo...

  12. Pancam Peek into 'Victoria Crater' (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08776 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08776 A drive of about 60 meters (about 200 feet) on the 943rd Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's exploration of Mars' Meridiani Planum region (Sept. 18, 2006) brought the NASA rover to within about 50 meters (about 160 feet) of the rim of 'Victoria Crater.' This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months. Opportunity reached a location from which the cameras on top of the rover's mast could begin to see into the interior of Victoria. This stereo anaglyph was made from frames taken on sol 943 by the panoramic camera (Pancam) to offer a three-dimensional view when seen through red-blue glasses. It shows the upper portion of interior crater walls facing toward Opportunity from up to about 850 meters (half a mile) away. The amount of vertical relief visible at the top of the interior walls from this angle is about 15 meters (about 50 feet). The exposures were taken through a Pancam filter selecting wavelengths centered on 750 nanometers. Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is the expectation that a thick stack of geological layers will be exposed in the crater walls, potentially several times the thickness that was previously studied at Endurance and therefore, potentially preserving several times the historical record.

  13. Implementation of the victoria bowel performance scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Philippa; Barwich, Doris; Kirk, Lisa

    2011-12-01

    There is a lack of evidence to guide constipation management in patients receiving palliative care. Data collection requires the systematic use of validated assessment tools. The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of the Victoria Bowel Performance Scale (BPS) as an audit tool. Charts were reviewed before and after the implementation of a program to monitor constipation through repeated use of the Victoria Bowel Scale. The program was initiated at three oncology pain and symptom management clinics, four palliative care units, and four residential hospices. An additional "control" palliative care unit introduced new nursing assessment tools without the new scale. The Victoria BPS was recorded at 86% of 192 postimplementation outpatient clinic visits and was easy to use in this setting. Documentation of bowel performance at comparable visits improved from 44% to 66% (Passessment tool, uniquely incorporating the patient's usual bowel function. Modifications to the scale have been made to improve clarity and allow for the expected drop in bowel activity seen in end-of-life care. Considerable educational effort and appropriate organization of the charts are required for optimal implementation. The proportion of revised BPS scores ranging from -1 to +1 is proposed as an indicator of satisfactory bowel management for clinical, audit, and research purposes. Copyright © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydrogeological Modelling of Some Geothermal Waters of Ivrindi, Havran and Gönen in the Province Capital of Balikesir, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgür, Nevzat; Ugurlu, Zehra; Memis, Ümit; Aydemir, Eda

    2017-12-01

    In this study, hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical and isotope geochemical features of Havran, Gönen and Ivrindi within the province capital of Balıkesir, Turkey were investigated in detail. The Early Triassic Karakaya formation in the study area of Havran forms the oldest rocks consisting of spilitic basalts, diabases, gabbros, mudstones, cherts and radiolarites. There are limestone blocks in this formation with intercalations with sandstones and with feldspar contents, quartzite, conglomerates and siltstones. Oligocene to Miocene granodiorite intrusions were generated in association with intensively volcanic events in the area. Between Upper Oligocene and Early Miocene, andesitic and dacitic pyroclastic rocks cropped out due to intensively volcanism. Later, conglomerates, sandstones, claystones, marls and limestones as lacustrine sediments formed from Middle to Upper Miocene in the study area. In the study area of Gönen, the Lower Triassic Karakaya formation consists of basalts, diabases, gabbros, mudstones, cherts and radiolarites and forms the basement rocks overlain by Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous sandy limestones. Upper and Middle Miocene volcanics which can be considered intensive Biga Peninsula volcanos outcrop in the area. These andesitic lava flows are of black, gray and red color with intensive fissures. Neogene lacustrine sediments consist of conglomerates, sandstones, marl, claystone and clayey limestones. Upper Miocene to Pliocene rhyolitic pyroclastics and dacitic lava flows are the volcanic rocks which are overlain by Pliocene conglomerates, sandstones and claystones. In the study area of Ivrindi, the Çaldağ limestones are the oldest formation in Permian age. Çavdartepe metamorphic rocks are of Lower Triassic in which can be observed marbles sporadically. The Kınık formation consisting of conglomerates, sandstones, siltstones and limestones are of Lower Triassic age and display a lateral Stratigraphic progress with volcanic rocks. Upper

  15. Regional metamorphic controls on alteration associated with gold mineralization in the Eastern Goldfields province, Western Australia: Implications for the timing and origin of Archean lode-gold deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, W. K.

    1991-10-01

    Alteration assemblages associated with Archean epigenetic gold mineralization in the Menzies-Kambalda area of the Yilgarn craton, Western Australia, vary systematically with regional metamorphic grade, up to and including upper amphibolite facies rocks. K-metasomatism is recorded by the presence of muscovite, biotite, and K-feldspar at progressively higher metamorphic grades. High metamorphic grades are commonly developed in broad thermal aureoles around fate syntectonic granitic intrusions. Metamorphic recrystallization of alteration assemblages is common in the thermal aureoles. These relations suggest broad contemporaneity among granitoid intrusion, regional metamorphism, and mineralization during the final stages of the tectonic evolution of the granite-greenstone terrain. Late syntectonic granitoids acted as centers of heat and fluid flux in large-scale, synmetamorphic hydrothermal systems that deposited gold, possibly from modified mantle-derived fluids.

  16. DISTRIBUTION IN NON-TRAWLABLE AREAS OF LAKE VICTORIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Victoria. Netherlands Journal of. Zoology 42'. 214 -232. Witte F, Goldschmidt PC and Wanink JH. 1995. Dynamics of the haplochromine cichlid fauna and other ecological changes in the. Mwanza gmlf of Lake Victoria. In: Pitcher TH and Hart PJB (eds):. Impact of species change in fiican lakes. Chapman & Hall, London, pp.

  17. Adaptive responses to environmental changes in Lake Victoria cichlids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijssel, Jacobus Cornelis van (Jacco)

    2014-01-01

    Lake Victoria cichlids show the fastest vertebrate adaptive radiation known which is why they function as a model organism to study evolution. In the past 40 years, Lake Victoria experienced severe environmental changes including the boom of the introduced, predatory Nile perch and eutrophication.

  18. Gender Integration in the Management of the Lake Victoria Fisheries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The riparian governments of Lake Victoria have adopted co-management approach in fisheries management. This paper discusses gender mainstreaming in fisheries management of Lake Victoria, user rights, successes and challenges of the process. This paper has used gender-disaggregated data from several studies ...

  19. A study on usefulness of a set of known risk factors in predicting maternal syphilis infections in three districts of Western Province, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakala, Jacob; Chizuni, Nellisiwe; Nzala, Selestine

    2016-01-01

    Despite roll-out of cost-effective point-of-care tests, less than half antenatal attendees in rural western Zambia are screened for syphilis. This study formulated a clinical, risk-based assessment criteria and evaluated its usefulness as a non-biomedical alternative for identifying high-risk prenatal cases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of antenatal clinic attendees in Kaoma, Luampa and Nkeyema districts to collect data on exposure to nine pre-selected syphilis risk factors. These factors were classified into major and minor factors based on their observed pre-study association strengths to maternal syphilis. Clinical disease was defined as exposure to either two major factors, one major with two minor factors or three minor factors. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the clinical protocol were then calculated in comparison to rapid plasmin reagin results. The observed syphilis prevalence was 9.3% (95% CI: 7.4 - 11.6%) and the overall sensitivity of the study criteria was 62.3% with positive predictive value of 72.9%. Sensitivities of individual case-defining categories were even lower; from 17.4% to 33.3%. Results confirmed that abortion history, still birth, multiple sexual partners, previous maternal syphilis infection, partner history of sexually transmitted infection and maternal co-morbid conditions of HIV and genital ulcer disease were significantly associated to maternal syphilis in study population as well. The criteria was not as effective as biomedical tests in identifying maternal syphilis. However, it could be a useful adjunct/alternative in antenatal clinics when biomedical tests are either inadequate or unavailable.

  20. Degradation of Victoria Crater, Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J. A.; Wilson, S. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Golombek, M. P.; Geissler, P. E.; Sullivan, R. J.

    2007-12-01

    Victoria crater (2.05N, 354.51E) is ~750 m in diameter and the largest crater on Mars observed in situ. The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity traversed NW to SE across a broad annulus dominated by dark sand that at least partially surrounds the crater before navigating the northern crater rim. Rover observations of the crater and ejecta deposits are complemented by images with 26-52 cm/pixel scales from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and enable assessment of degradation state. The present depth/diameter ratio for Victoria is 0.1, less than the 0.2 expected for a pristine primary impact structure. Together with the eroded, serrated rim, this implies an originally smaller crater diameter and/or considerable infilling consistent with occurrence of a large dune field and few exposed rocks on the crater floor. The height and width of the raised rim is generally 4-5 m and 150-225 m, respectively, less than the 30 m and 500-600 m, respectively, expected for a pristine 750 m diameter crater. Ejecta thicknesses around the rim were derived using rover-based and HiRISE images and yield consistent estimates averaging ~3 m. The serrated rim plan creates a series of promontories extending up to 50 m into the crater and generally fronted by 30-60 degree slopes that are locally vertical and are separated by bays whose floors typically slope 15-25 degrees. A crater originally on order of 600-650 m in diameter and subsequently enlarged by mass wasting and aeolian erosion may yield a structure resembling Victoria today. The steep expression of the promontories and local outcroppings of rocks in the ejecta blanket points to some ongoing mass wasting, but the relative paucity of associated flanking talus indicates derived blocks of sulfate sandstone are not resistant to saltating sand and are rapidly broken down by the wind or are completely covered/filled in by aeolian drift. At Cape St. Vincent, the promontory appears undercut

  1. Approach to medical missions: Dr. Neil Macvicar and the Victoria Hospital, Lovedale, South Africa, circa 1900-1950

    OpenAIRE

    Lunde, Martin Jacob

    2009-01-01

    This thesis examines the thought, work, and impact of the Scottish medical missionary, Dr Neil Macvicar, as well other personnel connected to the Victoria Hospital at the Lovedale mission in the Eastern Cape. Of special concern for study in medical history, missiology, and relief development studies, this work centres on Macvicar’s modern Western conceptions of Christianity, biomedicine, civilisation, African cosmological understandings, and traditional methods of healing, within the last ye...

  2. A prospective cohort study on ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidities including childhood asthma in adolescents from the western Cape Province: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyib Olaniyan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings. In particular, data from sub-Sahara Africa is scarce and virtually absent among populations residing in informal residential settlements. Methods/design A prospective cohort study of 600 school children residing in four informal settlement areas with varying potential ambient air pollutant exposure levels in the Western Cape in South Africa is carried-out. The study has two follow-up periods of at least six-months apart including an embedded panel study in summer and winter. The exposure assessment component models temporal and spatial variability of air quality in the four study areas over the study duration using land-use regression modelling (LUR. Additionally, daily pollen levels (mould spores, tree, grass and weed pollen in the study areas are recorded. In the panel study asthma symptoms and serial peak flow measurements is recorded three times daily to determine short-term serial airway changes in relation to varying ambient air quality and pollen over 10-days during winter and summer. The health outcome component of the cohort study include; the presence of asthma using a standardised ISAAC questionnaire, spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric-oxide (FeNO and the presence of atopy (Phadiatop. Discussion This research applies state of the art exposure assessment approaches to characterize the effects of ambient air

  3. A prospective cohort study on ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidities including childhood asthma in adolescents from the western Cape Province: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniyan, Toyib; Jeebhay, Mohamed; Röösli, Martin; Naidoo, Rajen; Baatjies, Roslynn; Künzil, Nino; Tsai, Ming; Davey, Mark; de Hoogh, Kees; Berman, Dilys; Parker, Bhawoodien; Leaner, Joy; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel

    2017-09-16

    There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings. In particular, data from sub-Sahara Africa is scarce and virtually absent among populations residing in informal residential settlements. A prospective cohort study of 600 school children residing in four informal settlement areas with varying potential ambient air pollutant exposure levels in the Western Cape in South Africa is carried-out. The study has two follow-up periods of at least six-months apart including an embedded panel study in summer and winter. The exposure assessment component models temporal and spatial variability of air quality in the four study areas over the study duration using land-use regression modelling (LUR). Additionally, daily pollen levels (mould spores, tree, grass and weed pollen) in the study areas are recorded. In the panel study asthma symptoms and serial peak flow measurements is recorded three times daily to determine short-term serial airway changes in relation to varying ambient air quality and pollen over 10-days during winter and summer. The health outcome component of the cohort study include; the presence of asthma using a standardised ISAAC questionnaire, spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric-oxide (FeNO) and the presence of atopy (Phadiatop). This research applies state of the art exposure assessment approaches to characterize the effects of ambient air pollutants on childhood respiratory health, with a specific focus on

  4. “HealthKick”: Formative assessment of the health environment in low-resource primary schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the primary school environment in terms of being conducive to good nutrition practices, sufficient physical activity and prevention of nicotine use, with the view of planning a school-based health intervention. Methods A sample of 100 urban and rural disadvantaged schools was randomly selected from two education districts of the Western Cape Education Department, South Africa. A situation analysis, which comprised an interview with the school principal and completion of an observation schedule of the school environment, was done at all schools. Results Schools, on average, had 560 learners and 16 educators. Principals perceived the top health priorities for learners to be an unhealthy diet (50%) and to far lesser degree, lack of physical activity (24%) and underweight (16%). They cited lack of physical activity (33%) and non-communicable diseases (NCDs; 24%) as the main health priorities for educators, while substance abuse (66%) and tobacco use (31%) were prioritised for parents. Main barriers to health promotion programmes included lack of financial resources and too little time in the time table. The most common items sold at the school tuck shops were crisps (100%), and then sweets (96%), while vendors mainly sold sweets (92%), crisps (89%), and ice lollies (38%). Very few schools (8%) had policies governing the type of food items sold at school. Twenty-six of the 100 schools that were visited had vegetable gardens. All schools reported having physical activity and physical education in their time tables, however, not all of them offered this activity outside the class room. Extramural sport offered at schools mainly included athletics, netball, and rugby, with cricket and soccer being offered less frequently. Conclusion The formative findings of this study contribute to the knowledge of key environmental and policy determinants that may play a role in the health behaviour of learners, their parents and their educators. Evidently

  5. “HealthKick”: Formative assessment of the health environment in low-resource primary schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Villiers Anniza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated the primary school environment in terms of being conducive to good nutrition practices, sufficient physical activity and prevention of nicotine use, with the view of planning a school-based health intervention. Methods A sample of 100 urban and rural disadvantaged schools was randomly selected from two education districts of the Western Cape Education Department, South Africa. A situation analysis, which comprised an interview with the school principal and completion of an observation schedule of the school environment, was done at all schools. Results Schools, on average, had 560 learners and 16 educators. Principals perceived the top health priorities for learners to be an unhealthy diet (50% and to far lesser degree, lack of physical activity (24% and underweight (16%. They cited lack of physical activity (33% and non-communicable diseases (NCDs; 24% as the main health priorities for educators, while substance abuse (66% and tobacco use (31% were prioritised for parents. Main barriers to health promotion programmes included lack of financial resources and too little time in the time table. The most common items sold at the school tuck shops were crisps (100%, and then sweets (96%, while vendors mainly sold sweets (92%, crisps (89%, and ice lollies (38%. Very few schools (8% had policies governing the type of food items sold at school. Twenty-six of the 100 schools that were visited had vegetable gardens. All schools reported having physical activity and physical education in their time tables, however, not all of them offered this activity outside the class room. Extramural sport offered at schools mainly included athletics, netball, and rugby, with cricket and soccer being offered less frequently. Conclusion The formative findings of this study contribute to the knowledge of key environmental and policy determinants that may play a role in the health behaviour of learners, their parents and their

  6. The Bands Culture in Victoria, Australia: Live Music Benefits Career Paths, Employment and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amanda; Forrest, David

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the career paths, employment, business opportunities and community contributions made available through the provision and development of the contemporary performance bands' culture in the State of Victoria. It is framed with the support given to live music performers by Arts Victoria, Small Business Victoria and Music Victoria.…

  7. Towards Developing an Initial Programme Theory: Programme Designers and Managers Assumptions on the Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence Club Programme in Primary Health Care Facilities in the Metropolitan Area of Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukumbang, Ferdinand C.; van Belle, Sara; Marchal, Bruno; van Wyk, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background The antiretroviral adherence club intervention was rolled out in primary health care facilities in the Western Cape province of South Africa to relieve clinic congestion, and improve retention in care, and treatment adherence in the face of growing patient loads. We adopted the realist evaluation approach to evaluate what aspects of antiretroviral club intervention works, for what sections of the patient population, and under which community and health systems contexts, to inform guidelines for scaling up of the intervention. In this article, we report on a step towards the development of a programme theory—the assumptions of programme designers and health service managers with regard to how and why the adherence club intervention is expected to achieve its goals and perceptions on how it has done so (or not). Methods We adopted an exploratory qualitative research design. We conducted a document review of 12 documents on the design and implementation of the adherence club intervention, and key informant interviews with 12 purposively selected programme designers and managers. Thematic content analysis was used to identify themes attributed to the programme actors, context, mechanisms, and outcomes. Using the context-mechanism-outcome configurational tool, we provided an explanatory focus of how the adherence club intervention is roll-out and works guided by the realist perspective. Results We classified the assumptions of the adherence club designers and managers into the rollout, implementation, and utilisation of the adherence club programme, constructed around the providers, management/operational staff, and patients, respectively. Two rival theories were identified at the patient-perspective level. We used these perspectives to develop an initial programme theory of the adherence club intervention, which will be tested in a later phase. Conclusion The perspectives of the programme designers and managers provided an important step towards developing

  8. U-Pb zircon, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic constraints on the age and origin of Early Palaeozoic I-type granite from the Tengchong-Baoshan Block, Western Yunnan Province, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shen; Hu, RuiZhong; Gao, Shan; Feng, CaiXia; Huang, Zhilong; Lai, Shaocong; Yuan, Honglin; Liu, Xiaoming; Coulson, Ian M.; Feng, Guangying; Wang, Tao; Qi, YouQiang

    2009-09-01

    Herein we present new U-Pb zircon ages, whole-rock geochemical data and Nd-Sr-Hf isotopic data for an Early Palaeozoic monzogranite batholith from the Tengchong-Baoshan Block, Western Yunnan Province, China. Mineralogical and geochemical features suggest that this granitoid is a high-K, calc-alkaline, I-type granite. SHRIMP and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) analysis of zircon yields ages of between 499 ± 5 Ma and 502 ± 5 Ma, for three samples from the batholith. The monzogranite is characterised by high initial 87Sr/ 86Sr (0.7132-0.7144), negative ɛNd( t) (-9.7 to -9.40) and ɛHf( t) (-10 to -13.1), and is interpreted to derive from remelting of pre-existing Palaeoproterozoic, high-K, metabasaltic rocks of the upper crust. The granitoid magma underwent extensive fractional crystallisation of biotite ± hornblende, ilmenite, titanite, K-feldspar and plagioclase during emplacement. The crystallisation temperature of the magma lies in the range 633-733 °C, however, there is no evidence to suggest crustal assimilation occurred during its ascent. Like the ˜500 Ma, I-type granite of this study, there occur numerous granitoid rocks of Early Palaeozoic age (490-470 Ma) in adjacent regions across the entire Tengchong-Baoshan Block ( Chen et al., 2004, 2005; Song et al., 2007). This episode of plutonism is coeval with the widespread granitoid magmatism found throughout the Indian Plate and the Himalayan Orogenic Belt that are both subordinate parts of the ancient, Gondwana supercontinent. We infer, therefore, that the Tengchong-Baoshan Block may also have formed part of Gondwana, and that it separated from this supercontinent along with other crustal blocks during the Late Palaeozoic. Moreover, based on the findings of this study, we document the occurrence of arc-related magmatism in the Tengchong-Baoshan Block during the late Palaeoproterozoic.

  9. Alcohol Use, Working Conditions, Job Benefits, and the Legacy of the “Dop” System among Farm Workers in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: Hope Despite High Levels of Risky Drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Phillip Gossage

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes alcohol consumption in five Western Cape Province communities. Cross-sectional data from a community household sample (n = 591 describe the alcohol use patterns of adult males and females, and farm workers vs. others. Data reveal that men were more likely to be current drinkers than women, 75.1% vs. 65.8% (p = 0.033; farm laborers were more likely to be current drinkers than individuals in other occupations 83.1% vs. 66.8% (p = 0.004. Group, binge drinking on weekends was the norm; men were more likely to be binge drinkers in the past week than women 59.8% vs. 48.8% (p = 0.086; farm workers were more likely to binge than others 75.0% vs. 47.5% (p < 0.001. The legacy of “Dop” contributes to current risky drinking behaviors. Farm owners or managers were interviewed on 11 farms, they described working conditions on their farms and how the legacy of “Dop” is reflected in the current use of alcohol by their workers. “Dop” was given to farm workers in the past on six of the 11 farms, but was discontinued for different reasons. There is zero tolerance for coming to work intoxicated; farm owners encourage responsible use of alcohol and assist farm workers in getting help for alcohol problems when necessary. The farm owners report some positive initiatives, were ahead of the movement to provide meaningful wages, and provide other important amenities. Further research is needed to assess whether progressive practices on some farms will reduce harmful alcohol use.

  10. High-precision U-Pb geochronology of the Jurassic Yanliao Biota from Jianchang (western Liaoning Province, China): Age constraints on the rise of feathered dinosaurs and eutherian mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhuyin; He, Huaiyu; Ramezani, Jahandar; Bowring, Samuel A.; Hu, Dongyu; Zhang, Lijun; Zheng, Shaolin; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Zhonghe; Deng, Chenglong; Guo, Jinghui

    2016-10-01

    The Yanliao Biota of northeastern China comprises the oldest feathered dinosaurs, transitional pterosaurs, as well as the earliest eutherian mammals, multituberculate mammals, and new euharamiyidan species that are key elements of the Mesozoic biotic record. Recent discovery of the Yanliao Biota in the Daxishan section near the town of Linglongta, Jianchang County in western Liaoning Province have greatly enhanced our knowledge of the transition from dinosaurs to birds, primitive to derived pterosaurs, and the early evolution of mammals. Nevertheless, fundamental questions regarding the correlation of fossil-bearing strata, rates of dinosaur and mammalian evolution, and their relationship to environmental change in deep time remain unresolved due to the paucity of precise and accurate temporal constraints. These limitations underscore the importance of placing the rich fossil record of Jianchang within a high-resolution chronostratigraphic framework that has thus far been hampered by the relatively low precision of in situ radioisotopic dating techniques. Here we present high-precision U-Pb zircon geochronology by the chemical abrasion isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (CA-ID-TIMS) from three interstratified ash beds previously dated by secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) technique. The results constrain the key fossil horizons of the Daxishan section to an interval spanning 160.89 to 160.25 Ma with 2σ analytical uncertainties that range from ±46 to ±69 kyr. These data place the Yanliao Biota from Jianchang in the Oxfordian Stage of the Late Jurassic, and mark the Daxishan section as the site of Earth's oldest precisely dated feathered dinosaurs and eutherian mammals.

  11. Accounting for Violence at the Victoria Industrial School

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bryan Hogeveen

    2009-01-01

    Boys who were inmates at the Victoria Industrial School (VIS) from its opening in 1887 to its closure in 1934 often suffered extreme, violent, and capricious penalties and encountered calculated psychological manipulation...

  12. Ecological Biogeography of the Terrestrial Nematodes of Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Byron J.; Wall, Diana H.; Virginia, Ross A.; Broos, Emma; Knox, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The terrestrial ecosystems of Victoria Land, Antarctica are characteristically simple in terms of biological diversity and ecological functioning. Nematodes are the most commonly encountered and abundant metazoans of Victoria Land soils, yet little is known of their diversity and distribution. Herein we present a summary of the geographic distribution, habitats and ecology of the terrestrial nematodes of Victoria Land from published and unpublished sources. All Victoria Land nematodes are endemic to Antarctica, and many are common and widely distributed at landscape scales. However, at smaller spatial scales, populations can have patchy distributions, with the presence or absence of each species strongly influenced by specific habitat requirements. As the frequency of nematode introductions to Antarctica increases, and soil habitats are altered in response to climate change, our current understanding of the environmental parameters associated with the biogeography of Antarctic nematofauna will be crucial to monitoring and possibly mitigating changes to these unique soil ecosystems. PMID:25061360

  13. Victoria Land, Ross Sea, and Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On December 19, 2001, MODIS acquired data that produced this image of Antarctica's Victoria Land, Ross Ice Shelf, and the Ross Sea. The coastline that runs up and down along the left side of the image denotes where Victoria Land (left) meets the Ross Ice Shelf (right). The Ross Ice Shelf is the world's largest floating body of ice, approximately the same size as France. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  14. The Early (Feminist Essays of Victoria Ocampo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Meyer

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the essays written by Ocampo between 1920 and 1934, prior to the time when she publicly voiced her adhesion to feminism and the rights of women in Argentine society. In these works from her Testimonios in which Ocampo struggles to find her voice as a female writer, the maleable essay serves her need to engage in discursive dialogues from the margins of the literary culture of her time. Both as a woman and a member of the oligarchy, she questions cultural assumptions and gender-based binary structures common among the male writers of her time, many of whom she knew personally. Using rhetorical strategies that show the self-reflexive and subversive nature of her writing, Ocampo reads and reinterprets these works from a parenthetical feminist perspective, contesting their intellectual and aesthetic biases. The active agency of the reader as writer in these early essays shows Ocampo's awareness of her own unorthodox subject position—alienated from the conventions of her class, her gender, her national culture and language. Her autobiographical musings and her engagement with literary modernity in the 1920s and 1930s reveal a woman who accepted the liabilities of articulating an autonomous self, both in a European and a Latin American context. The influence of family bonds and patriarchal morality decisively shaped, but did not ultimately control, the way Victoria Ocampo eventually defined herself as a feminist author.

  15. Cardiovascular risk and endothelial function in people living with HIV/AIDS: design of the multi-site, longitudinal EndoAfrica study in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijdom, Hans; De Boever, Patrick; Walzl, Gerhard; Essop, M Faadiel; Nawrot, Tim S; Webster, Ingrid; Westcott, Corli; Mashele, Nyiko; Everson, Frans; Malherbe, Stephanus T; Stanley, Kim; Kessler, Harald H; Stelzl, Evelyn; Goswami, Nandu

    2017-01-07

    There is growing evidence of an interaction between HIV-infection, anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Epidemiological studies in Europe and North America have been observing a shift towards an increased incidence of coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarctions in HIV-infected populations compared to the general population even after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Despite South Africa (and sub-Saharan Africa, SSA) being regarded as the epicentre of the global HIV epidemic, very little is known about the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and precursors of vascular disease in HIV-infected populations in this region. The knowledge gap is further widened by the paucity of data from prospective studies. We present the rationale, objectives and key methodological features of the EndoAfrica study, which aims to determine whether HIV-infection and ART are associated with altered cardiovascular risk and changes in vascular endothelial structure and function in adults living in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. In this longitudinal study, comprehensive cardiovascular assessments of HIV-negative and HIV-positive (with and without ART) study participants are performed by clinical and biochemical screening for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and biomarkers of CVD. Vascular and endothelial function is determined by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), carotid-intima-thickness (IMT) measurements and quantitative retinal blood vessel analyses, complemented by vascular endothelial biomarker assays. Finally, we aim to statistically determine whether HIV-infection and/or ART are associated with increased cardiovascular risk and vascular endothelial dysfunction, and determine whether there is progression/regression in these endpoints 18 months after the baseline assessments. The EndoAfrica study provides a unique opportunity to recruit a cohort of HIV-infected patients and HIV

  16. Environmental factors associated with the foliage cover of invasive fairy grass (Lachnagrostis filiformis) in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosney, Kate; Florentine, Singarayer K

    2018-01-01

    Fairy grass (Lachnagrostis filiformis) is an Australian native grass that has recently become a major concern for rural communities. Its dried inflorescences are blown by the wind and build up against fences and buildings, becoming a severe fire hazard. Understanding the ecology of fairy grass and its impacts on rural communities is relevant to its management. Four dry lake beds in Western Victoria were selected to determine if environmental factors, such as lake, location, direction, altitude and road type and the covariates of pH, soil salinity, soil moisture and distance to nearest road, are related to the presence of fairy grass. The 'lake' factor was the only environmental parameter that was significantly associated with the presence of this weed.

  17. Fine resolution AMS {sup 14}C chronology for Lunette-Lake sediment sequences, Lake Bolac, Victoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, E. [Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Centre for Palynology and Palaeoecology, Department of Geography and Environmental Science

    1998-12-31

    This study aims to provide a fine-resolution chronology for lake sediment records from Lakes Bolac and Turangmoroke, located within the drier part of the Western Plains, Victoria. These lakes are expected to be sensitive to subtle climate and vegetation variability and have long been recognised as archaeologically rich, bearing stone tools, hearth and other cultural materials dated to the late Pleistocene (Horton, 1984; former Victorian Aboriginal Survey, unpublished data). Fine-resolution chronological control has rarely been attempted in this sedimentary and (semi-arid) climatic context owing to the paucity of material available for conventional {sup 14}C dating. However, pollen and microscopic charcoal in the lake sediments at Bolac and Turangmoroke are suitable for AMS age determination with the most important sedimentary section well within the range of {sup 14}C making them ideal records for such a study. Recent dating results, which have substantially increased chronostratigraphic interpretation of concurrent palaeoecological and sedimentological work in progress, are presented

  18. An assessement of the ecosystem health of Lake Victoria (East Africa)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessement of the ecosystem health of Lake Victoria (East Africa): Current status, trends and impacts to fishery. ... complicated the ecosystem dynamics of Lake Victoria and pose serious uncertainties about its future stability and sustainability of the fisheries resources. Lake Victoria's future sustainability requires ...

  19. Contravention of town planning regulations in Ikoyi and Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated possible relationships between educational attainment, awareness of town planning regulations and contravening these regulations in Ikoyi and Victoria Island, Lagos. Both primary and secondary data were used for the study. Secondary data were obtained from both published and unpublished ...

  20. 3D DIGITAL CADASTRE JOURNEY IN VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shojaei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Land development processes today have an increasing demand to access three-dimensional (3D spatial information. Complex land development may need to have a 3D model and require some functions which are only possible using 3D data. Accordingly, the Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM, as a national body in Australia provides leadership, coordination and standards for surveying, mapping and national datasets has developed the Cadastre 2034 strategy in 2014. This strategy has a vision to develop a cadastral system that enables people to readily and confidently identify the location and extent of all rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to land and real property. In 2014, the land authority in the state of Victoria, Australia, namely Land Use Victoria (LUV, has entered the challenging area of designing and implementing a 3D digital cadastre focused on providing more efficient and effective services to the land and property industry. LUV has been following the ICSM 2034 strategy which requires developing various policies, standards, infrastructures, and tools. Over the past three years, LUV has mainly focused on investigating the technical aspect of a 3D digital cadastre. This paper provides an overview of the 3D digital cadastre investigation progress in Victoria and discusses the challenges that the team faced during this journey. It also addresses the future path to develop an integrated 3D digital cadastre in Victoria.

  1. Research on School-Based Management in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, David T.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a 1992-93 research project involving 66 state schools that attempted to ascertain the overall effectiveness of school-based management in Victoria, Australia. Findings of the Likert-style survey revealed substantial participant satisfaction with school councils' current composition, information provision, and overall functioning. (20…

  2. Fishing Business Arrangements and Sustainability in Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article an attempt is made to analyse the existing production relations between the owners of the vessels and the crewmembers and the concern for sustainability. Our results found that the existing sharing system in Lake Victoria poses a big challenge in as far as sustainability is concerned. Some of the system such ...

  3. Implementing Co-management of Lake Victoria's Fisheries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are still many challenges facing the sustainable management of Lake Victoria fisheries, including; lack of compliance with regulations and rapid increase in fishing effort, environmental degradation, inadequate service provision and the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS amongst the fishing communities. Key words: Lake ...

  4. The Lake Victoria Intense Storm Early Warning System (VIEWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, Wim; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Bedka, Kristopher; Semazzi, Fredrick; Lhermitte, Stef; Willems, Patrick; van Lipzig, Nicole; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-04-01

    Weather extremes have harmful impacts on communities around Lake Victoria in East Africa. Every year, intense nighttime thunderstorms cause numerous boating accidents on the lake, resulting in thousands of deaths among fishermen. Operational storm warning systems are therefore crucial. Here we complement ongoing early warning efforts based on NWP, by presenting a new satellite data-driven storm prediction system, the prototype Lake Victoria Intense storm Early Warning System (VIEWS). VIEWS derives predictability from the correlation between afternoon land storm activity and nighttime storm intensity on Lake Victoria, and relies on logistic regression techniques to forecast extreme thunderstorms from satellite observations. Evaluation of the statistical model reveals that predictive power is high and independent of the input dataset. We then optimise the configuration and show that also false alarms contain valuable information. Our results suggest that regression-based models that are motivated through process understanding have the potential to reduce the vulnerability of local fishing communities around Lake Victoria. The experimental prediction system is publicly available under the MIT licence at http://github.com/wthiery/VIEWS.

  5. Study of genetic variation in population of Bipolaris victoriae , the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolates of Bipolaris victoriae were analysed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) techniques to determine the amount of intraspecific genetic variability. Seven primers were applied and DNA bands of 200-5000 bp were produced. Cluster analysis using UPGMA method gave five groups. Levels of polymorphism ...

  6. satellite lakes of lake victoria basin (tanzanian side)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on phytoplankton species diversity and abundance were carried out in 8 selected satellite lakes within the Lake Victoria ... cyanobacteria occurrence and their unforeseen effects such as toxin production and oxygen depletion during nights that may ..... Species extinction and concomitant ecological changes in Lake.

  7. Governance and Welfare of Fishing Communities of Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... have potable water or electricity. Educational standards remain low and many communities lack proper sanitation, and are therefore at risk of disease, while most basic facilities such as hospitals, schools and clinics are not within their reach. Key Words; Co-management, Beach Management Units, Lake Victoria, Health, ...

  8. Total mercury concentration in common fish species of Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total mercury (THg) concentration was analysed in muscles of common fish species of Lake Victoria in the eastern and southern parts of the lake using cold vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric technique. Mercury concentration in all fish species was generally lower than the WHO maximum allowable ...

  9. Transactional sex in the fishing communities along Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study describes the nature, context and implications of a unique form of transactional sexual relationships in the fishing communities along Lake Victoria in Kisumu County, Kenya. We conducted 12 focus group discussions and 17 key informant interviews among fishermen, fishmongers and fish transporters in Kisumu.

  10. Domestication of medicinal tree species in the Victoria lakeshore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Therefore, there is high potential of marketing forest products by the subsistence farmers. Growing medicinal plants is one great opportunity for raising household incomes in this area. A survey was conducted among herbalists living around the Victoria lakeshore region. Questionnaires were administered through formal ...

  11. Catalogue Use at the State Library of Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hider, Philip

    2008-01-01

    A questionnaire survey conducted at the State Library of Victoria indicates that users in general, and not just scholars, value the standard elements of bibliographic data found in the Library's catalogues, and consider all these elements useful for finding, identifying and selecting items. Rather than making do with less, users wanted more…

  12. Vocabulary Size Research at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Paul; Coxhead, Averil

    2014-01-01

    The English Language Institute (now the School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies) at Victoria University of Wellington has a long history of corpus-based vocabulary research, especially after the arrival of the second director of the institute, H. V. George, and the appointment of Helen Barnard, whom George knew in India. George's…

  13. SEDIMENTS FROM SOUTHERN LAKE VICTORIA AND ITS BASIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water, sediment and soil samples collected from Southern Lake Victoria and its basin were analysed for 76 organochlorine, organophosphorous, carbamate and pyrethroid pesticide residues. The samples were collected from sampling stations in nine districts on the Tanzanian side of the lake, namely Mwanza, Sengerema ...

  14. Early warnings of hazardous thunderstorms over Lake Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiery, Wim; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Bedka, Kristopher; Semazzi, Fredrick H.M.; Lhermitte, S.L.M.; Willems, Patrick; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-01-01

    Weather extremes have harmful impacts on communities around Lake Victoria in East Africa. Every year, intense nighttime thunderstorms cause numerous boating accidents on the lake, resulting in thousands of deaths among fishermen. Operational storm warning systems are therefore crucial. Here we

  15. Lake Victoria's Water Budget and the Potential Effects of Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the Lake Victoria water budget for the period 1950-2004 and findings of a study on potential climate change impact on the lake's Hydrology through the 21st Century. The mass balance components are computed from measured and simulated data. A2 and B2 emission scenarios of the Special Report ...

  16. Early warnings of hazardous thunderstorms over Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, Wim; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Bedka, Kristopher; Semazzi, Fredrick H. M.; Lhermitte, Stef; Willems, Patrick; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-07-01

    Weather extremes have harmful impacts on communities around Lake Victoria in East Africa. Every year, intense nighttime thunderstorms cause numerous boating accidents on the lake, resulting in thousands of deaths among fishermen. Operational storm warning systems are therefore crucial. Here we complement ongoing early warning efforts based on numerical weather prediction, by presenting a new satellite data-driven storm prediction system, the prototype Lake Victoria Intense storm Early Warning System (VIEWS). VIEWS derives predictability from the correlation between afternoon land storm activity and nighttime storm intensity on Lake Victoria, and relies on logistic regression techniques to forecast extreme thunderstorms from satellite observations. Evaluation of the statistical model reveals that predictive power is high and independent of the type of input dataset. We then optimise the configuration and show that false alarms also contain valuable information. Our results suggest that regression-based models that are motivated through process understanding have the potential to reduce the vulnerability of local fishing communities around Lake Victoria. The experimental prediction system is publicly available under the MIT licence at http://github.com/wthiery/VIEWS.

  17. Climate Change and Fishery Sustainability in Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fisheries of Lake Victoria have recently undergone rapid ecological and social change. Loss of diversity in terms of species richness and economic opportunity has increased the system's vulnerability to additional economic, ecological, and social stressors predicted with future climate change. This paper discusses the ...

  18. Late Pleistocene-Holocene volcanic activity in northern Victoria Land recorded in Ross Sea (Antarctica) marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carlo, P.; Di Roberto, A.; Di Vincenzo, G.; Bertagnini, A.; Landi, P.; Pompilio, M.; Colizza, E.; Giordano, G.

    2015-05-01

    Eight pyroclastic fall deposits have been identified in cores of Late Pleistocene-Holocene marine sediments from the Ross Sea (Antarctica), and their components, granulometry and clast morphologies were analysed. Sedimentological, petrographic and geochemical analysis of clasts, with 40Ar-39Ar dating of alkali feldspar grains, indicate that during this period at least five explosive eruptions of mid to high intensity (plinian to subplinian) occurred, and that three of these eruptions took place from Mount Melbourne volcanic complex, between 137.1 ± 3.4 and 12 ka. Geochemical comparison of the studied tephra with micro- and crypto-tephra recovered from deep Antarctic ice cores and from nearby englacial tephra at Frontier Mountain indicates that eruptive activity in the Melbourne Volcanic Province of northern Victoria Land was intense during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene, but only a general area of provenance for the majority of the identified tephra can be identified.

  19. Simulation of Lake Victoria Circulation Patterns Using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamweya, Chrispine; Desjardins, Christopher; Sigurdsson, Sven; Tomasson, Tumi; Taabu-Munyaho, Anthony; Sitoki, Lewis; Stefansson, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Lake Victoria provides important ecosystem services including transport, water for domestic and industrial uses and fisheries to about 33 million inhabitants in three East African countries. The lake plays an important role in modulating regional climate. Its thermodynamics and hydrodynamics are also influenced by prevailing climatic and weather conditions on diel, seasonal and annual scales. However, information on water temperature and circulation in the lake is limited in space and time. We use a Regional Oceanographic Model System (ROMS) to simulate these processes from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2014. The model is based on real bathymetry, river runoff and atmospheric forcing data using the bulk flux algorithm. Simulations show that the water column exhibits annual cycles of thermo-stratification (September-May) and mixing (June-August). Surface water currents take different patterns ranging from a lake-wide northward flow to gyres that vary in size and number. An under flow exists that leads to the formation of upwelling and downwelling regions. Current velocities are highest at the center of the lake and on the western inshore waters indicating enhanced water circulation in those areas. However, there is little exchange of water between the major gulfs (especially Nyanza) and the open lake, a factor that could be responsible for the different water quality reported in those regions. Findings of the present study enhance understanding of the physical processes (temperature and currents) that have an effect on diel, seasonal, and annual variations in stratification, vertical mixing, inshore-offshore exchanges and fluxes of nutrients that ultimately influence the biotic distribution and trophic structure. For instance information on areas/timing of upwelling and vertical mixing obtained from this study will help predict locations/seasons of high primary production and ultimately fisheries productivity in Lake Victoria.

  20. Myxomatosis: the occurrence of antibody to a soluble antigen of myxoma virus in wild rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.), in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, J W; Shepherd, R C; Nolan, I F

    1978-10-01

    The occurrence of antibody of myxoma virus in wild rabbits following epizootics is highest in the semi-arid north-west of Victoria and lowest in temperate southern Victoria. Occurrence ranges up to about 90% in the north-west and to about 70% in the south except on the Western Plains where epizootics are rare and antibody occurrence seldom exceeds 30%. The establishment of the European rabbit flea may be changing the pattern of occurrence of antibody in the north-west by causing spring outbreaks of myxomatosis. It is suggested that the effects of the replacement of a simple recurring system of epizootic and breeding season several months apart by the occurrence of myxomatosis twice in the same year, once coincident with the breeding season, will be complex. The occurrence of detectable antibody may be less dependent on the infection rate and may be dependent to some extent on the relative timing of spring myxomatosis and the breeding season.

  1. Measles outbreak in young adults in Victoria, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, S B; Morgan, M L; Riddell, M A; Andrews, R M; Kelly, H A; Leydon, J A; Catton, M C; Lynch, P A; Gercovich, D K; Lester, R A; Carnie, J A; Rouch, G J

    2000-11-06

    To describe an outbreak of measles in Victoria. Case series with cases identified through enhanced passive surveillance and outbreak-related active surveillance. State of Victoria, 1999. Number of cases; epidemiological links and patterns of transmission; patient demographic features and vaccination status; complications. 75 cases were identified (74 laboratory-confirmed; and one epidemiologically linked to a laboratory-confirmed case), with onset between 11 February and 2 May 1999. The first case was in a 21-year-old woman who had recently holidayed in Bali and worked at a large cinema complex in Melbourne. Sixteen cases occurred in people who had contact with the index case at the cinema on one evening. The outbreak spread to regional Victoria and South Australia. Median age of patients was 22 years; 64 (85%) were born between 1968 and 1981, with only one patient in the age group targeted by the primary school component of the 1998 Australian Measles Control Campaign; this child had not been vaccinated. More than a third of patients (28) were hospitalised (total, 97 inpatient days), and five were healthcare workers. This outbreak was caused by international importation of measles virus. It highlights the change in epidemiology of measles in Australia, from a disease of childhood to one predominantly affecting young adults. A strong two-dose childhood vaccination program, vigilant surveillance, and rapid response to outbreaks will continue to be the basis of measles control, but better protection for young adults should be considered.

  2. An examination of injection drug use trends in Victoria and Vancouver, BC after the closure of Victoria's only fixed-site needle and syringe programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivsins, Andrew; Chow, Clifton; Macdonald, Scott; Stockwell, Tim; Vallance, Kate; Marsh, David C; Michelow, Warren; Duff, Cameron

    2012-07-01

    Needle and syringe programmes (NSPs) have been established as effective harm reduction initiatives to reduce injection drug use (IDU)-related risk behaviours, including sharing needles. On May 31, 2008, Victoria, BC's only fixed site NSP was shut down due to community and political pressure. This study examines and compares IDU trends in Victoria with those in Vancouver, BC, a city which has not experienced any similar disruption of IDU-related public health measures. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by interviewer-administered questionnaires conducted with injection drug users (n=579) in Victoria and Vancouver between late 2007 and late 2010. Needle sharing increased in Victoria from under 10% in early 2008 to 20% in late 2010, whilst rates remained relatively low in Vancouver. Participants in Victoria were significantly more likely to share needles than participants in Vancouver. Qualitative data collected in Victoria highlight the difficulty participants have experienced obtaining clean needles since the NSP closed. Recent injection of crack cocaine was independently associated with needle sharing. The closure of Victoria's fixed site NSP has likely resulted in increased engagement in high-risk behaviours, specifically needle sharing. Our findings highlight the contribution of NSPs as an essential public health measure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Increasing deaths involving oxycodone, Victoria, Australia, 2000-09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintoul, Angela C; Dobbin, Malcolm D H; Drummer, Olaf H; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2011-08-01

    In light of an emerging epidemic identified in the United States and Canada, to identify trends in fatal drug toxicity involving oxycodone and the demographic characteristics and indicators of socioeconomic disadvantage of the deceased. Population-based observational study in Victoria, Australia. Decedents whose death was reported to the Victorian Coroner between 2000 and 2009 and where oxycodone was detected. Association between supply of oxycodone and deaths. Demographic characteristics of decedents. Rate ratios of the rural or metropolitan location and socioeconomic indicators of disadvantage of the deceased. Supply to Victoria has increased nine-fold from 7.5 mg per capita in 2000 to 67.5 mg per capita in 2009. Detection of oxycodone in deaths reported to the Victorian Coroner has increased from 4 (0.08/100,000 population) in 2000 to 97 (1.78/100,000 population) in 2009-a 21-fold increase in deaths. Of the 320 cases described, 53.8% (172) were the result of drug toxicity. Of these, 52.3% were unintentional and 19.8% intentional self-harm; the remaining 27.9% are either still under investigation by the coroner or intent is unknown. Drug toxicity deaths were overrepresented in both rural areas and areas indexed with high levels of disadvantage. The substantial increase in the number of deaths involving oxycodone is strongly and significantly associated with the increase in supply. Most drug toxicity deaths involving oxycodone were unintentional. This newly identified trend in fatalities in Victoria supports concerns that a pattern of increasing deaths involving oxycodone is emerging globally.

  4. Reforming Victoria's primary health and community service sector: rural implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, K

    2000-01-01

    In 1999 the Victorian primary care and community support system began a process of substantial reform, involving purchasing reforms and a contested selection process between providers in large catchment areas across the State. The Liberal Government's electoral defeat in September 1999 led to a review of these reforms. This paper questions the reforms from a rural perspective. They were based on a generic template that did not consider rural-urban differences in health needs or other differences including socio-economic status, and may have reinforced if not aggravated rural-urban differences in the quality of and access to primary health care in Victoria.

  5. Exploration of Victoria crater by the mars rover opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squyres, S. W.; Knoll, A.H.; Arvidson, R. E.; Ashley, James W.; Bell, J.F.; Calvin, W.M.; Christensen, P.R.; Clark, B. C.; Cohen, B. A.; De Souza, P.A.; Edgar, L.; Farrand, W. H.; Fleischer, I.; Gellert, Ralf; Golombek, M.P.; Grant, J.; Grotzinger, J.; Hayes, A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Jolliff, B.; Klingelhofer, G.; Knudson, A.; Li, R.; McCoy, T.J.; McLennan, S.M.; Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Rice, J. W.; Schroder, C.; Sullivan, R.J.; Yen, A.; Yingst, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars rover Opportunity has explored Victoria crater, a ???750-meter eroded impact crater formed in sulfate-rich sedimentary rocks. Impact-related stratigraphy is preserved in the crater walls, and meteoritic debris is present near the crater rim. The size of hematite-rich concretions decreases up-section, documenting variation in the intensity of groundwater processes. Layering in the crater walls preserves evidence of ancient wind-blown dunes. Compositional variations with depth mimic those ???6 kilometers to the north and demonstrate that water-induced alteration at Meridiani Planum was regional in scope.

  6. Zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic compositions of alkaline silicic magmatic rocks in the Phan Si Pan-Tu Le region, northern Vietnam: Identification of a displaced western extension of the Emeishan Large Igneous Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuki, Tadashi; Lan, Ching-Ying; Tran, Trong Hoa; Pham, Thi Dung; Wang, Kuo-Lung; Shellnutt, Gregory J.; Chung, Sun-Lin

    2015-01-01

    In-situ zircon U-Pb and Hf isotope analyses were carried out for alkaline silicic magmatic rocks from the Phan Si Pan-Tu Le region in northern Vietnam to constrain their possible sources and to determine their petrogenetic relationship with the Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP), SW China. Nine granites and nine rhyolites yield zircon 206Pb/238U ages from 262 Ma to 249 Ma, coinciding with the timing of silicic magmatism in the Panxi area of the ELIP. The zircon εHf(t) values (+14 to +3) of these granites and rhyolites suggest a moderately depleted mantle source and overlap with those of peralkaline and metaluminous granites in the Panxi area [i.e. εHf(t) = +14 to +4]. The zircon Hf isotope ratios show that the zircons probably record the original source characteristics whereas whole-rock Nd isotope data indicate an evidence for crustal contamination that may have occurred at lower temperatures during magma emplacement. The synchroneity, coupled with petrological and geochemical similarities, indicate that silicic rocks from the Phan Si Pan-Tu Le region are cogenetic with the Panxi silicic plutonic rocks and that they are likely derived by similar petrogenetic processes (i.e. fractionation of mafic magmas or partial melting of mafic rocks). Therefore, we propose that the Phan Si Pan-Tu Le region represents a displaced portion of the ELIP inner zone.

  7. Eesti NATO Ühing juurutab demokraatlikke väärtusi / Victoria Punga ; interv. Aive Antsov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Punga, Victoria, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti NATO Ühingu tegevjuht organisatsiooni eesmärkidest, projektidest, koostööst teiste riikidega ning kaitsepoliitika ja majanduse seostest. Lisa: Väljavõte Victoria CVst; Eesti kaitsepoliitika viis plussi Victoria meelest

  8. Hydrologic provinces of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheaume, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Geological Survey Division, to describe the statewide hydrologic variations in Michigan's water resources. Twelve hydrologic provinces, which are based on similarities in aquifer lithology, yield, recharge, and ground-water- and surface-water-quality data, are described. The definition of statewide hydrologic characteristics and the delineation of hydrologic provinces improves the understanding of Michigan's water resources and provides a firm basis for realistic water-manangement decisions. The 12 provinces identified areas where bedrock aquifers provide most of the potable ground water (five provinces), where glacial-deposit aquifers provide most of the potable ground water (three provinces), and where problems with water quantity and (or) quality have limited the use of ground water as a water supply (four provinces). Subprovinces are defined on the basis of regional surface-water flow directions toward each of the Great Lakes.

  9. Lunnyu soils in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda: Link to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lunnyu soils in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda: Link to toposequence and soil type. B Fungo, S Grunwald, MM Tenywa, B Vanlauwe, P Nkedi-Kizza. Abstract. We compared the physico-chemical characteristics of Lunnyu soils using soil type and slope position in order to explain their variability in the Lake Victoria basin ...

  10. A Snapshot: Multicultural Music Teaching in Schools in Victoria, Australia, Portrayed by School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethsinghe, Rohan Nishantha

    2012-01-01

    Due to the changing demographic factors and as demanded by the governmental policies and regulations, schools in Victoria, Australia, are expected to foster multicultural educational programs that address the diverse needs of students. Research has found that school teachers in Victoria struggle to provide the aspired to multicultural education…

  11. Editorial The “Eye” of Africa: A Vision of Lake Victoria Basin as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGHOGHO A

    The “Eye” of Africa: A Vision of Lake Victoria Basin as an Environmental. Observatory. Since my days as a schoolboy in geography class, I have not been able to observe maps of the African continent without also “seeing” the profile of a face, with Lake Victoria representing the right eye, gazing adoringly at Madagascar.

  12. Victoria suudlus teeb maapoisist printsi, kuid mitte tulevase kuninga / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2010-01-01

    Printsess Victoria tulevasest abikaasast Daniel Westlingist, printsess Madelaine'i kihluse lõpetamisest, Bernadotte'ide dünastia asutajast Jean Bernadotte'ist. Monarhia toetajate vähenemisest Rootsis. Printsess Victoria ja Daniel Westlingi pulmatseremooniast 19. juunil

  13. An examination of the selenium nutrition of sheep in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caple, I W; Andrewartha, K A; Edwards, S J; Halpin, C G

    1980-04-01

    The selenium nutrition of sheep throughout Victoria was assessed by a survey of the blood glutathione peroxidase activity in 708 flocks. It was shown that the blood glutathione peroxidase activity in sheep had a seasonal variation with lowest levels in the spring. The enzyme activity was correlated with the blood selenium concentration. Areas where blood selenium was less than 0.03 micrograms/ml in spring were defined. Sheep with low selenium nutrition were grazing pastures in the high rainfall areas on acid soils, particularly those derived from granite. Selenium concentrations in pasture samples examined were greater than 0.02 mg/kg, and it was found that superphosphate application had no significant effect on the selenium content of pasture. However, management practices such as high stocking rates and rates of application of superphosphate to pasture were associated with low blood glutathione peroxidase activities in sheep. It was concluded that the selenium nutrition of most of the sheep flocks in Victoria is adequate, and that the deficient areas are localised. There seems little requirement for supplementation of adult sheep. As the delayed type of white muscle disease in spring lambs appears to be the main selenium-responsive disorder, direct supplementation of lambs in the low selenium areas would be the most effective method of ensuring adequate selenium nutrition.

  14. Epidemiology of the 2012 influenza season in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Fielding

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the magnitude and severity of the 2012 influenza season in Victoria, Australia using surveillance data from five sources. Methods: Data from influenza notifications, sentinel general practices, a sentinel hospital network, a sentinel locum service and strain typing databases for 2012 were descriptively analysed. Results: Influenza and influenza-like illness activity was moderate compared to previous years, although a considerable increase in notified laboratory-confirmed influenza was observed. Type A influenza comprised between 83% and 87% of cases from the general practitioners, hospitals and notifiable surveillance data. Influenza A/H3 was dominant in July and August, and most tested isolates were antigenically similar to the A/Perth/16/2009 virus used in the vaccine. There was a smaller peak of influenza type B in September. No tested viruses were resistant to any neuraminidase inhibitor antivirals. Higher proportions of type A/H3, hospitalized cases and those with a comorbid condition indicated for influenza vaccination were aged 65 years or older. Influenza vaccination coverage among influenza-like illness patients was 24% in sentinel general practices and 50% in hospitals. Discussion: The 2012 influenza season in Victoria was average compared to previous years, with an increased dominance of A/H3 accompanied by increases in older and hospitalized cases. Differences in magnitude and the epidemiological profile of cases detected by the different data sources demonstrate the importance of using a range of surveillance data to assess the relative severity of influenza seasons.

  15. Comprehensive nursing education in Victoria: rhetoric or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, B

    2001-12-01

    Significant and widespread changes to the education of the psychiatric nursing workforce in Victoria, Australia are resulting in serious problems in the recruitment of new nursing staff. In reviewing the available literature, it is evident that undergraduate nursing students do not commence their educational program with a strong interest in pursuing a career in psychiatric nursing. In light of this knowledge, the role of education in providing a comprehensive view of the nursing profession becomes paramount. Research investigating the impact of education on the attitudes of students to psychiatric nursing as a career option has produced mixed and often inconclusive results. A longitudinal study was undertaken in Victoria, Australia. Students of the majority of universities in which undergraduate nursing programs were operating participated in this study. The participants were asked to rank nine areas of nursing specialty in order of preference at the commencement and immediately prior to the completion of the nursing program. Despite a significant improvement in the popularity of psychiatric nursing as a career choice, this area was ranked at number 8 at both pre- and post-program test. The analysis of open-ended questions demonstrated a marked change in the overall attitudes towards the mentally ill and psychiatric nursing.

  16. VICTORIA PARK: A DEMOCTRATIC PUBLIC OPEN SPACE FOR INDONESIA DOMESTIC HELPERS (TKW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmonangan Manurung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Victoria Park is the largest city park in Hong Kong. This city park is not only known in Hong Kong, but also very well known in Indonesia as a gathering place for Indonesia domestic helpers (TKW in Hong Kong. This research tried to find out some determinant factors that have been affected the public open spac of Victoria Park to be a gathering place for thousands of TKW in Sunday and holidays as their day off. In order to get the results of research, some methodological research had been conducted such as: observation (survey, mapping, interviews and literature studies. The results showed that Victoria Park has a number of factors capable of meeting the needs of domestic help-ers in Hong Kong, these factors consist of internal factors and external factors. Internally, the character and functions held Victoria Park became a very influential factor, while externally, the accessibility and support functions around Victoria Park also has a considerable influence.

  17. The impact of extensive loss of telecommunications on general practice: A case study in rural Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nancy H; Pedler, Daryl

    2017-04-01

    To describe the impact of major loss of telecommunications on general practice in a rural region of Australia. A multi-stage qualitative study. Purposively selected participants were invited to contribute to initial data collection using an online survey, followed by interviews with selected participants. Thematic analysis of the data was performed by both research team members. South-western Victoria, Australia. Individuals from organisations involved in Telstra recovery efforts, disaster management, health care and general practice staff. The survey collected freeform responses from participants. Semi-structured interviews further explored a variety of experiences from purposively selected participants. Organisations and practices in the region were prepared for major disasters, but not for the unusual and 'limited' disaster of losing telecommunications, including lack of Internet access and loss of telephone services. Although alternative measures were found for telecommunications, there was still a significant impact on many health-care-related activities and general practice functionality during the outage period. In particular, there was an increase in duties for administrative staff to compensate for loss of telecommunications. Patient traffic for many services decreased due to uncertainty about availability and continuation of business. The Warrnambool outage could be used as a case study illustrating the dramatic impact of communication loss. Major impacts include changes in patient traffic, increased administrative duties and slowing of patient care. When developing or assessing disaster management plans, general practices should consider the impact of telecommunication loss on functionality and prepare appropriate alternative, accessible and reliable measures. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  18. Winter food of the fox Vulpes vulpes in the Province of Cuneo (North-Western Italy / Alimentazione invernale della Volpe Vulpes vulpes nell'Albese (Provincia di Cuneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Debernardi

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of the Fox Vulpes vulpes was studied by the analysis of 157 gastric contents coming from hilly areas of the Province of Cuneo. Samples were gathered during January-March of the years '86 (N. 41, '87 (N. 72 and '88 (N. 44. The mean percentage of frequency was determined for the following feeding categories: Fruits (26.1%, Other vegetable components (19.7%, Insects (2.5%, Wild birds (11.5%, Insectivores and Rodents (42.7%, Lepus capensis (13.4%, Indeterminate Lagomorphs (17.2%, Domestic animals (59.2% and Other (2.5%. The diet is analysed in relation to some available trophic resources (dumps, restoking of hares and of pheasants. Riassunto Vengono presentati i dati dell'analisi di 157 contenuti gastrici di Vulpes vulpes, provenienti da aree collinari della provincia di Cuneo; i campioni si riferiscono ai primi tre mesi delle annate '86 (N. 41, '87 (N. 72 e '88 (N. 44. Sono state determinate le frequenze percentuali delle seguenti categorie alimentari: Frutti (26,1%, Altre componenti vegetali (19,7%, Insetti (2,5%, Uccelli selvatici (11,5%, Insettivori e Roditori (42,7%, Lepus capensis (13,4%, Lagomorfi indeterminati (17,2%, Animali domestici (59,2% e Altro (2,5%. La dieta viene esaminata in relazione ad alcuni aspetti legati alle disponibilità trofiche del territorio (presenza di discariche, ripopolamenti di selvaggina.

  19. Malnutrition in China's Rural Boarding Schools: The Case of Primary Schools in Shaanxi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to document the nature of boarding schools and empirically analyse the difference in nutrition intake and malnutrition status between boarding and non-boarding students in western rural China. By using two data sets on boarding schools and boarding students in Shaanxi Province, a representative province in western…

  20. A high-resolution aeromagnetic survey over the Lanterman Range, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Antonia; Läufer, Andreas; Crispini, Laura; Capponi, Giovanni; Lisker, Frank

    2017-04-01

    During the GANOVEX XI (German North Victoria Land Expedition) in 2015-16, a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was carried out over the Lanterman Range in northern Victoria Land (NVL). The helicopter-based survey aimed to resolve the fine structure over the so-called Lanterman Suture Zone, which represents one of the main key areas regarding geodynamic evolution of NVL during the Early Palaeozoic Ross Orogeny. This was achieved by reducing the flight line spacing to 1-2 km with 10 km tie lines and flying in a terrain-following mode. The survey was completed by ground truth magnetic susceptibility readings by using a Kappameter KM-7. The Ross-aged basement of NVL is subdivided into three tectonometamorphic so-called "terranes", comprising from W to E the Wilson-, the Bowers- and the Robertson Bay Terrane. They are generally interpreted to have formed by accretion processes at the Palaeo-Pacific active continental margin of East Gondwana in the Cambrian and Ordovician. The survey over the Lanterman Range covered parts of the two western terranes, namely the Wilson and Bowers terranes, which are separated by the Lanterman Fault Zone. This polyphase tectonic discontinuity is characterized by a belt of mafic and ultramafic rocks comprising metabasites with eclogite-facies relicts. Preliminary results show two distinct and nearly parallel magnetic lineaments in the survey area that will be further interpreted by combined magnetic susceptibility measurements and geological field data. One magnetic lineament correlates well with the known boundary between the Wilson and Bowers terranes, which comprises also a metaconglomerate belt with mafic to ultramafic clasts. The second, further easterly magnetic lineament is so far not supported by outcrops of associated highly magnetic rocks in the field. Similar parallel structures have been observed further to the southeast and seem to be offset by a major sinistral strike-slip fault zone of possibly post-Jurassic age. One

  1. Tectonics and metallogenic provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    Various theories have been advanced to explain the well-known uneven distribution of metals and ore-deposit types in space and time. Primordial differences in the mantle, preferential concentration of elements in the crust, the prevalence of ore-forming processes at certain times and (or) places, and combinations of one or several of these factors have all been called upon to account for the "metallogenic provinces," which can be defined loosely as regions containing similar deposits of one or a group of metals or minerals. Because many, perhaps most, provinces have complex, multistage origins, the relative importance of inheritance vs. process is still controversial. In recent years the geographic relationship of many geologically young provinces to present-day plate-tectonic positions (accreting or consuming margins, intraplate structures, etc.) has been widely recognized, and the presumption is strong that older provinces had similar relationships to former plates. As most ore deposits resulted from a favorable conjunction of geological processes that are no longer operative, elucidation of their genesis requires reconstruction of the geologic history of the province, with particular emphasis on events coeval with mineralization. Tectonic analysis is an important aspect of this reconstruction; data from orbiting satellites have contributed greatly to this analysis, as the voluminous literature of the past decade testifies. Both the synoptic view of large areas and the ability to emphasize faint contrasts have revealed linear, curvilinear, and circular features not previously recognized from field studies. Some of these undoubtedly reflect basement structures that have contributed to the development, or limit the extent, of metallogenic provinces. Their recognition and delineation will be increasingly valuable to the assessment of resources available and as guides to exploration for the ores needed by future generations. ?? 1983.

  2. Heavy daily-rainfall characteristics over the Gauteng Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The central and north-western parts of the Province experience the most events where the rainfall at a single station surpasses 75 and 115 mm. With regard to seasonal rainfall, the 1995/96 summer rainfall season had the highest seasonal rainfall during this 32-yr period followed by the 1999/2000 season. The 1995/96 ...

  3. VENUS - The Victoria Experimental Network Under the Sea: First Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, R. K.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Round, A.

    2006-05-01

    The Victoria Experimental Network Under the Sea (VENUS) is a recently installed cabled ocean observatory representing the next generation of infrastructure technology. VENUS is scheduled to consist of two major segments, one in Saanich Inlet (installed in February 2006), and a second in the Strait of Georgia (planned for October 2006). The technologies associated with both the hardware and software that will deliver data from instruments to scientists is being developed in collaboration with both the NEPTUNE Canada and MARS observatories. The presentation will provide an overview of the science projects planned for stage one of the installed instruments, the engineering design of the infrastructure, the preliminary design of the Data Management and Archive System (DMAS), lessons learned so far, and preliminary results from the first few months of data from Saanich Inlet.

  4. Myxomatosis in the Mallee region of Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, R C; Edmonds, J W; Nolan, I F; Gocs, A

    1978-10-01

    Sharp reductions in the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.)) population in the Mallee are associated with annual myxomatosis epizootics. The extent to which the population reductions are the direct result of the epizootics varies with time of epizootic occurrence. All grazing animals in the Mallee are under nutritional stress each summer and autumn. When the epizootic occurs during the early summer heavy losses occur in a previously healthy population. Similar losses which occur in the late summer and autumn are the result of a nutritional stress - epizootic complex. The end result in each case is a population reduction of about 80%. This reduction occurs in a population which is the most resistant to myxomatosis known in Victoria and in association with epizootics caused by field strains of myxoma virus of moderate virulence only. The earlier summer epizootics are of considerable economic importance because they sharply reduce the pressure on the limited food available for other grazing animals.

  5. Literatura y vida. Una lectura de Victoria Ocampo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Celia Vázquez

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The relation of literature, writer and life, particularly, the way life is understood within this relation constitutes a key element to define the peculiar way of reading literature that Victoria Ocampo had. This can be seen in her essay on Emily Brontë; though she gives priority to biography over aesthetics, Ocampo does not adopt a biographical approach nor identifies the meaning of life with that of the writer's biography since she searches the key for interpretation in natural forces such as "character" and "fate" (instead of the positivistic interaction of social and historical environment. Thus, she identifies the vital experience of nature (the moors as the key for the writer's personality as well as her novel's, Wuthering Heights.

  6. Color variations on Victoria quadrangle: support for the geological mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, F.; Galluzzi, V.; Carli, C.; Giacomini, L.; Massironi, M.; Palumbo, P.; Guzzetta, L.; Mancinelli, P.; Vivaldi, V.; Ferranti, L.; Pauselli, C.; Frigeri, A.; Zusi, M.; Pozzobon, R.; Cremonese, G.; Ferrari, S.; Capaccioni, F.

    2015-10-01

    Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun. Its extreme thermal environment makes it difficult to explore onsite. In 1974, Mariner 10, the first mission dedicated to Mercury, covered 45% of the surface during of the three Hermean flybys [1]. For about 30 years after Mariner 10, no other mission has flownto Mercury. Many unresolved issues need an answer, and in recent years the interest about Mercury has increased. MESSENGER mission contributed to understand Mercury's origin, its surface structure, and the nature of its magnetic field, exosphere, and magnetosphere [1]. The Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) provided a global coverage of Mercury surface with variable spatial resolution. MDIS is equipped with a narrow angle camera (NAC), dedicated to the study of the geology and a wide angle camera (WAC) with 12 filters useful to investigate the surface composition[2]. Mercury has been divided into 15 quadrangles for mapping purposes [3]. The mapping process permits integration of different geological surface information to better understand the planet crust formation and evolution. Merging spectroscopically data is a poorly followed approach in planetary mapping, but it gives additional information about lithological composition, contributing to the construction of a more complete geological map [e.g. 4]. Recently, [5] proposed a first detailed map of all the Victoria quadrangle (H2). Victoria quadrangle is located in a longitude range between 270°E and 360°E and a latitude range of 22.5°N and 65°N,and itwas only partially mapped by Mariner 10 data[3]. Here we investigate the lithological variation by using the MDIS-WAC data to produce a set of color map products which could be asupport to the geological mapping [5]. The future ESA-JAXA mission to Mercury, BepiColombo, will soon contribute to improve the knowledge of Mercury surface composition and geology thanks to the Spectrometer and Imagers for MPO BepiColombo-Integrated Observatory SYStem (SIMBIO-SYS)[6].

  7. Critical Comments on Brian Victoria's "Engaged Buddhism: Skeleton in the Closet?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Miyata

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In "Engaged Buddhism: A Skeleton in the Closet?" (Vol. 2 Brian Daizen Victoria claims, among other things, that Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871-1944, founder of the Soka Kyoiku Gakkai (forebear of the Soka Gakkai and Soka Gakkai International, was an active supporter of the Japanese wars of aggression. In this response, Koichi Miyata argues that Victoria's claims rest on the highly selective use of quotes, and ignore key interpretative issues associated with Japanese imperial fascism and its underlying belief structures. Miyata discusses the significance of Makiguchi's arrest and imprisonment under a law specifically aimed at opponents of the war efforts, in his analysis of critical lapses in Victoria's article.

  8. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915...... to the internet, Mark Sedgwick demonstrates that the phenomenon of Western Sufism not only draws on centuries of intercultural transfers, but is also part of a long-established relationship between Western thought and Islam that can be productive, not confrontational....

  9. [Research on child neglect situation and influential factors of left-behind children and living-with-parents children aged 6-17 year-old in rural areas of two provinces, western China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yin; Zhong, Zhaohui; Pan, Jianping; Li, Qunying; Zhong, Yun; Sun, Haoling

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the situation and the influential factors of child neglect between left-behind children and living-with-parents children aged 6-17 years in the rural areas in western China. Students were randomly selected according to the principle of multi-stage stratified cluster sampling and they were from three cities in Shanxi and four districts in Chongqing. Among the 4,131 children, there were 1,874 students in the 6-11 years group and the left-behind children accounted for 50.21% (941/1,874) in this group. There were 2,257 students in the 12-17 years old group and the left-behind children accounted for 53.35% (1,204/2,257) in this group. The questionnaire named "Evaluation on Neglect for Elementary and Secondary School Students Aged 6-17 Years in Rural Areas in China" was used in the field investigation. The students' neglect frequency was described by neglect rate and the factors affecting students' neglect were analyzed by means of binary logistic regression. In the 6-11 years old group, the neglect rates of left-behind children and living-with-parents children were 63.03% (474/752) and 43.87% (347/791), respectively (χ2=58.86, Pchildren and living-with-parents children were 60.64% (627/1 034) and 53.57% (495/924), respectively (χ2=9.96, Pchildren, compared to the factors about boys, younger mother (≤40 years old), presence of parents' income reduction within the last year and nuclear family, the factors about girls, elder mother (41-49 years), absence of parents' income reduction within the last year and three-generation family or single-parent family were associated with lower neglect risk, and OR values were 0.67, 0.68, 0.70, 0.73, and 0.43 (Pchildren, the factors about other nationalities, non-only child, no separate room at home, and non-resident children were associated with high neglect risk, and OR values were 1.85, 1.34, 1.46, and 1.32 (Pchildren and parents as well as good relationship between parents, fair or poor relationship was associated

  10. Billion year thermal histories constrained by zircon (U-Th)/He age-eU correlations: Examples from the Laramide and Sevier Provinces of the western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenthner, William; Orme, Devon; Reiners, Peter; Laskowski, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in zircon (U-Th)/He low-temperature thermochronology have shown that radiation damage plays an important role in governing the kinetics of He diffusion in zircon and therefore affects ages. This effect manifests as positive and negative correlations between zircon He ages and effective uranium (eU), a proxy for relative damage. These correlations both explain dataset complexity and greatly expand the scope of time-temperature space that can be constrained with zircon He ages. Here, we present examples of both of these attributes with two datasets from the western United States. The first dataset comes from Wyoming craton crystalline rocks exposed in the hanging wall of a major Laramide thrust fault in the Wind River Range. Zircons (54 single grains) show a range of He ages from 540 Ma at low eU concentrations to an age-eU "pediment" of multiple ~40 Ma ages that span eU concentrations from 1000-7000 ppm. With a model that describes the coevolution of damage, diffusivity, and He age, this age-eU correlation is used to constrain the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic thermal history of Laurentian basement in the northern Rocky Mountain region. Our best fit history includes two phases of cooling at 1800-1600 Ma and 900-700 Ma followed by reheating during the Phanerozoic to maximum temperatures between 160-125°C, and final Laramide cooling to 50°C between 60-40 Ma. This thermal history is therefore consistent with more recent cooling related to the Laramide orogeny, as well as cooling associated with Yavapai-Mazatazal tectonism and two phases of Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic intracratonic extension. The second dataset consists of detrital zircon grains collected from sedimentary units in the Oquirrh Mountains of central Utah. These data are complex and difficult to interpret as the samples contain grains that are only partially reset and possess different pre-depositional thermal histories. In order to explain this complexity and constrain burial and

  11. End‐of‐life decisions in medical practice: a survey of doctors in Victoria (Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, D A; Coady, C A J; Thompson, J; Kuhse, H

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To discover the current state of opinion and practice among doctors in Victoria, Australia, regarding end‐of‐life decisions and the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia. Longitudinal comparison with similar 1987 and 1993 studies. Design and participants Cross‐sectional postal survey of doctors in Victoria. Results 53% of doctors in Victoria support the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia. Of doctors who have experienced requests from patients to hasten death, 35% have administered drugs with the intention of hastening death. There is substantial disagreement among doctors concerning the definition of euthanasia. Conclusions Disagreement among doctors concerning the meaning of the term euthanasia may contribute to misunderstanding in the debate over voluntary euthanasia. Among doctors in Victoria, support for the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia appears to have weakened slightly over the past 17 years. Opinion on this issue is sharply polarised. PMID:18055904

  12. Eutrophication, Nile perch and food-web interactions in south-east Lake Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing eutrophication, the introduction of Nile perch (Lates niloticus) and the increasing fishing pressure has changed Lake Victoria tremendously the last century. Since the 1960s, eutrophication increased primary production, enabling an increase in fish production. However, eutrophication

  13. Ecological Biogeography of the Terrestrial Nematodes of Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Adams

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial ecosystems of Victoria Land, Antarctica are characteristically simple in terms of biological diversity and ecological functioning. Nematodes are the most commonly encountered and abundant metazoans of Victoria Land soils, yet little is known of their diversity and distribution. Herein we present a summary of the geographic distribution, habitats and ecology of the terrestrial nematodes of Victoria Land from published and unpublished sources. All Victoria Land nematodes are endemic to Antarctica, and many are common and widely distributed at landscape scales. However, at smaller spatial scales, populations can have patchy distributions, with the presence or absence of each species strongly influenced by specific habitat requirements. As the frequency of nematode introductions to Antarctica increases, and soil habitats are altered in response to climate change, our current understanding of the environmental parameters associated with the biogeography of Antarctic nematofauna will be crucial to monitoring and possibly mitigating changes to these unique soil ecosystems.

  14. Analysis of an Organisation: A University of the Third Age (U3A), Mornington, Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is two fold: to look at Mornington U3A in organisational terms and then look at U3AM as a loosely coupled system. One outcome of the study would be to undertake further analyses of U3As in Victoria to determine the levels of bureaucracy under which each operates. Questions to be asked: are U3As in Victoria operating as…

  15. Sensitivity analysis of the GNSS derived Victoria plate motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinário, João; Fernandes, Rui; Bos, Machiel

    2014-05-01

    Fernandes et al. (2013) estimated the angular velocity of the Victoria tectonic block from geodetic data (GNSS derived velocities) only.. GNSS observations are sparse in this region and it is therefore of the utmost importance to use the available data (5 sites) in the most optimal way. Unfortunately, the existing time-series were/are affected by missing data and offsets. In addition, some time-series were close to the considered minimal threshold value to compute one reliable velocity solution: 2.5-3.0 years. In this research, we focus on the sensitivity of the derived angular velocity to changes in the data (longer data-span for some stations) by extending the used data-span: Fernandes et al. (2013) used data until September 2011. We also investigate the effect of adding other stations to the solution, which is now possible since more stations became available in the region. In addition, we study if the conventional power-law plus white noise model is indeed the best stochastic model. In this respect, we apply different noise models using HECTOR (Bos et al. (2013), which can use different noise models and estimate offsets and seasonal signals simultaneously. The seasonal signal estimation is also other important parameter, since the time-series are rather short or have large data spans at some stations, which implies that the seasonal signals still can have some effect on the estimated trends as shown by Blewitt and Lavellee (2002) and Bos et al. (2010). We also quantify the magnitude of such differences in the estimation of the secular velocity and their effect in the derived angular velocity. Concerning the offsets, we investigate how they can, detected and undetected, influence the estimated plate motion. The time of offsets has been determined by visual inspection of the time-series. The influence of undetected offsets has been done by adding small synthetic random walk signals that are too small to be detected visually but might have an effect on the

  16. Compositional variations on Mercury: Results from the Victoria quadrangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Francesca; Carli, Cristian; Galluzzi, Valentina; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Giacomini, Lorenza; Massironi, Matteo; Palumbo, Pasquale; Cremonese, Gabriele

    2017-04-01

    Mercury was recently explored by the MESSENGER mission that orbited around the planet from March 2011 until April 2015 allowing a complete coverage of its surface. The Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS), mapped the Hermean surface at different spatial resolutions, due to variable altitude of the spacecraft from the surface. MDIS consists of two instruments: a Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) centered at 747nm, which acquired high-resolution images for the geological analysis, and the Wide Angle Camera (WAC), provided with 11 filters dedicated to the compositional analysis, operating in a range of wavelengths between 395 and 1040 nm. Mercury's surface has been divided into 15 quadrangles for mapping purposes. Here, we analyze the results obtained by the color composite mosaic of the quadrangle Victoria (H02) located at longitudes 270 ° - 360 ° E, and latitudes 22.5 ° N - 65 ° N. We produced a color mosaic, by using the images relative to the filters with the best spatial coverage. To obtain the 8-color mosaic of the Victoria quadrangle, we calibrated and georefenced the WAC raw images. Afterwards, we applied the Hapke photometric correction by using the parameters derived by Domingue et al. (2015). We projected and coregistered the data, and finally, we produced the mosaic. To analyze the compositional variations of the Victoria quadrangle, we consider different techniques of analysis, such as specific RGB color combinations and band ratios, which emphasize the different compositional characteristics of the surface. Furthermore, the use of clustering and classification methods allows for recognizing various terrain units, in terms of reflectance and spectral characteristics. In the H02 quadrangle, we observed a dichotomy in the RGB mosaic (R: second principal component (PC2), G: first principal component (PC1), B: 430/1000 nm; see Denevi et al. 2009) between the northern region of the quadrangle, dominated by smooth plains, and the southern part, characterized by

  17. Assessment of spatial rainfall variability in Lake Victoria Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizza, M.; Westerberg, I.; Rodhe, A.; Ntale, H. K.

    2011-12-01

    A gridded monthly rainfall dataset having a spatial resolution of 2 km and covering the period 1960-2004 was derived for the Lake Victoria basin. Such a dataset is useful for hydrological modelling aimed at resource utilisation and for estimation of catchment inflow to Lake Victoria. The lake and its basin support more than 30 million people and also contribute substantially to the River Nile flow. The major challenge in analysing the lake water balance is the estimation of the rainfall over the lake which is complicated by the varying quality and spatial coverage of rain-gauge data in the basin. In this study we addressed these problems by using satellite-derived precipitation data from two products and rain-gauge data for 362 stations around the basin to derive a monthly precipitation dataset for the entire basin, including the lake. First, the rain-gauge data were quality controlled; resulting in a rejection of 13% of the stations while 12% needed corrective actions. These results emphasise the importance of a systematic quality control of rain-guage data in this region. Thereafter we filled short gaps in the daily data series which resulted in 9,429 additional months of data. Two interpolation methods were then assessed for spatial interpolation and the universal kriging method performed slightly better than the inverse distance weighting method. The rainfall patterns in the interpolated dataset were shown to be consistent with the spatial and temporal patterns expected at the large scale as a result of the climate variability in the basin. The key problem of how to account for the enhancement of rainfall over the lake surface because of the lake-land thermal contrasts was addressed by estimating a relationship between rain-gauge and satellite data. Two satellite rainfall products, TRMM 3B43 and PERSIANN were compared to the interpolated monthly rain-gauge data for the land part of the basin. The bias in the TRMM 3B43 rainfall estimates was higher than the bias

  18. Hepatitis e virus: Western Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Madden (Richie); Wallace, S. (Sebastian); M. Sonderup; Korsman, S. (Stephen); Chivese, T. (Tawanda); Gavine, B. (Bronwyn); Edem, A. (Aniefiok); Govender, R. (Roxy); English, N. (Nathan); Kaiyamo, C. (Christy); Lutchman, O. (Odelia); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); S.D. Pas (Suzan); Webb, G.W. (Glynn W); Palmer, J. (Joanne); Goddard, E. (Elizabeth); Wasserman, S. (Sean); H.R. Dalton (Harry); C.W. Spearman

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAIM To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. METHODS Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross

  19. Stratigraphic relations of australites in the Port Campbell embayment, Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Eugene M.; Uhlherr, H. Ralph

    1999-05-01

    In the Port Campbell Embayment of Victoria, australites have been found in situ in channel deposits of the Hanson Plain Sand of Pliocene and Pleistocene age. The large majority of the australites, however, occur as a lag deposit at the basal contact of the Sturgess Sand of late Pleistocene and Holocene age and are spatially correlated with ferruginous sandstone clasts that are derived from the Hanson Plain Sand. Some of the tektites are imbedded in or bonded to the ferruginous sandstone clasts, but most are found as individual tektite fragments. A few percent of the tektites have nearly perfectly preserved, complete aerodynamically shaped forms. The sandstone clasts and associated tektites have been reworked from the much older underlying Hanson Plain and have been locally concentrated in the lag deposit. Some tektites also occur at higher levels in the Sturgess Sand, almost invariably in association with stone flakes, exotic stones transported by the aborigines, and, locally, with middens of mollusc shells. Circumstantial evidence indicates that the aborigines transported the tektites found in the upper part of the Sturgess, particularly at Stanhope Bay. As Port Campbell australites unequivocally occur in strata much older than the late Pleistocene and Holocene Sturgess, there is no longer any conflict between the apparent stratigraphic age of the tektites and the middle Pleistocene ages obtained by various chronometric methods.

  20. The bone microstructure of polar "hypsilophodontid" dinosaurs from Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Holly N; Rich, Thomas H; Vickers-Rich, Patricia

    2018-01-18

    High-latitude (i.e., "polar") Mesozoic fauna endured months of twilight and relatively low mean annual temperatures. Yet non-avian dinosaurs flourished in this taxing environment. Fossils of basal ornithopod dinosaurs ("hypsilophodontids") are common in the Early Cretaceous high-latitude sediments of Victoria, Australia, and four taxa have been described; although their ontogenetic histories are largely unexplored. In the present study, eighteen tibiae and femora were utilized in the first multi-specimen ontogenetic histological analysis of Australian polar hypsilophodontids. The sample consists of eleven individuals from the Flat Rocks locality (Late Valanginian or Barremian), and five from the Dinosaur Cove locality (Albian). In both groups, growth was most rapid during the first three years, and skeletal maturity occurred between five and seven years. There is a weak asymptotic trend in a plot of growth mark count versus femur length, with considerable individual variation. Histology suggests two genera are present within the Dinosaur Cove sample, but bone microstructure alone could not distinguish genera within the Flat Rocks sample, or across the two geologically separate (~ 26 Ma) localities. Additional histologic sampling, combined with morphological analyses, may facilitate further differentiation between ontogenetic, individual, and species variation.

  1. Diversity of soil yeasts isolated from South Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, L.; Redman, R.; Craig, S.; Scorzetti, G.; Iszard, M.; Rodriguez, R.

    2008-01-01

    Unicellular fungi, commonly referred to as yeasts, were found to be components of the culturable soil fungal population in Taylor Valley, Mt. Discovery, Wright Valley, and two mountain peaks of South Victoria Land, Antarctica. Samples were taken from sites spanning a diversity of soil habitats that were not directly associated with vertebrate activity. A large proportion of yeasts isolated in this study were basidiomycetous species (89%), of which 43% may represent undescribed species, demonstrating that culturable yeasts remain incompletely described in these polar desert soils. Cryptococcus species represented the most often isolated genus (33%) followed by Leucosporidium (22%). Principle component analysis and multiple linear regression using stepwise selection was used to model the relation between abiotic variables (principle component 1 and principle component 2 scores) and yeast biodiversity (the number of species present at a given site). These analyses identified soil pH and electrical conductivity as significant predictors of yeast biodiversity. Species-specific PCR primers were designed to rapidly discriminate among the Dioszegia and Leucosporidium species collected in this study. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  2. Flow structures and fluid transport for the hydromedusae Sarsia tubulosa and Aequorea victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinski, Doug; Mohseni, Kamran

    2009-08-01

    The flow structures produced by the hydromedusae Sarsia tubulosa and Aequorea victoria are examined using direct numerical simulation and Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS). Body motion of each hydromedusa is digitized and input to a CFD program. Sarsia tubulosa uses a jetting type of propulsion, emitting a single, strong, fast-moving vortex ring during each swimming cycle while a secondary vortex of opposite rotation remains trapped within the subumbrellar region. The ejected vortex is highly energetic and moves away from the hydromedusa very rapidly. Conversely, A. victoria, a paddling type hydromedusa, is found to draw fluid from the upper bell surface and eject this fluid in pairs of counter-rotating, slow-moving vortices near the bell margins. Unlike S. tubulosa, both vortices are ejected during the swimming cycle of A. victoria and linger in the tentacle region. In fact, we find that A. victoria and S. tubulosa swim with Strouhal numbers of 1.1 and 0.1, respectively. This means that vortices produced by A. victoria remain in the tentacle region roughly 10 times as long as those produced by S. tubulosa, which presents an excellent feeding opportunity during swimming for A. victoria. Finally, we examine the pressure on the interior bell surface of both hydromedusae and the velocity profile in the wake. We find that S. tubulosa produces very uniform pressure on the interior of the bell as well as a very uniform jet velocity across the velar opening. This type of swimming can be well approximated by a slug model, but A. victoria creates more complicated pressure and velocity profiles. We are also able to estimate the power output of S. tubulosa and find good agreement with other hydromedusan power outputs. All results are based on numerical simulations of the swimming jellyfish.

  3. Quality of asthma care: Western Cape Province, South Africa | Mash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Asthma is the eighth leading contributor to the burden of disease in South Africa, but has received less attention than other chronic diseases. The Asthma Guidelines Implementation Project (AGIP) was established to improve the impact of the South African guidelines for chronic asthma in adults and ...

  4. The epidemiology of major incidents in the Western Cape Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major incidents were accordingly defined as. 'any incident where the location, number, severity or type of live casualties requires extraordinary resources'. [1] Incidents were only entered onto the database after they had been declared a major incident by the emergency medical services (EMS) officer commanding the scene ...

  5. Evaluation of vehicle side airbag effectiveness in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, Angelo; Newstead, Stuart; Scully, Jim

    2013-05-01

    Side airbag systems were first introduced into vehicles around 1995 to help protect occupants from injury in side impact crashes. International studies have shown that side airbags are effective in reducing the risk of death and injury, however, serious injuries can still occur even when side airbags deploy. The objective of this study was to use detailed injury information from insurance injury compensation claims data linked to Police reported crash data to determine the effectiveness of side airbags in reducing the risk of death or injury for occupants involved in side impact crashes in Victoria, Australia based on the specific body regions that side airbag systems are designed to protect. It was found that head and torso-protecting dual airbag systems designed to protect the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen are highly effective in reducing driver death or injury due to near side crashes. They were associated with a statistically significant reduction of 41.1% (25.9%, 53.2%) in the odds of death or injury across all body regions; and a 48.0% (28.0%, 62.4%) reduction in the odds of death or injury to the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen. The study did not find any evidence that torso-protecting airbags alone are effective in reducing death or injury. Analysis results indicate that head and torso-protecting side airbag systems in vehicles are a highly effective technology for reducing the risk of death or injury to vehicle occupants in near side crashes. The magnitude of the injury reduction benefits estimated indicate that fitment of this technology to all vehicles should be a high priority and will yield significant savings in overall road trauma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Demand Response in the West: Lessons for States and Provinces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas C. Larson; Matt Lowry; Sharon Irwin

    2004-06-29

    OAK-B135 This paper is submitted in fulfillment of DOE Grant No. DE-FG03-015F22369 on the experience of western states/provinces with demand response (DR) in the electricity sector. Demand-side resources are often overlooked as a viable option for meeting load growth and addressing the challenges posed by the region's aging transmission system. Western states should work together with utilities and grid operators to facilitate the further deployment of DR programs which can provide benefits in the form of decreased grid congestion, improved system reliability, market efficiency, price stabilization, hedging against volatile fuel prices and reduced environmental impacts of energy production. This report describes the various types of DR programs; provides a survey of DR programs currently in place in the West; considers the benefits, drawbacks and barriers to DR; and presents lessons learned and recommendations for states/provinces.

  7. Benthic foraminifera of the Panamanian Province: distribution and origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, R.W.; Poag, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    Two hundred twenty-nine species of benthic foraminifera have been identified from 96 stations representing 33 localities on the eastern Pacific inner continental shelf, ranging from southern Peru to northern Baja California. Their distributions mark nearshore provincial boundaries that are nearly identical with those previously documented from the distribution of ostracodes and molluscs. Thirteen species are characteristic of the Panamanian Province, one is characteristic of the Chilean-Peruvian Province, and one is characteristic of the newly proposed Sonoran Subprovince. Seventeen species (7%) appear to be endemic to the eastern Pacific. Fifty-eight (25%) of the species recognized are disjunct from population centers in the western Pacific, 134 species (59%) are disjunct from modern assemblages of the Atlanto-Carribean region, and 40 species (17%) are disjunct from both the western Pacific and the Atlanto-Caribbean. The distribution of the remaining 57 species (25%) is poorly documented; we classify them as of unknown origin. -Authors

  8. Marine research in the Latitudinal Gradient Project along Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Arthur Berkman

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the conceptual framework of the Latitudinal Gradient Project that is being implemented by the New Zealand, Italian and United States Antarctic programmes along Victoria Land, Antarctica, from 72°S to 86°S. The purpose of this interdisciplinary research project is to assess the dynamics and coupling of marine and terrestrial ecosystems in relation to global climate variability. Preliminary data about the research cruises from the R/V “Italica” and R/V “Tangaroa” along the Victoria Land Coast in 2004 are presented. As a global climate barometer, this research along Victoria Land provides a unique framework for assessing latitudinal shifts in ‘sentinel’ environmental transition zones, where climate changes have an amplified impact on the phases of water.

  9. Chemodenitrification in the cryoecosystem of Lake Vida, Victoria Valley, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, N E; Gandhi, H; Trubl, G; Murray, A E

    2016-11-01

    Lake Vida, in the Victoria Valley of East Antarctica, is frozen, yet harbors liquid brine (~20% salt, >6 times seawater) intercalated in the ice below 16 m. The brine has been isolated from the surface for several thousand years. The brine conditions (permanently dark, -13.4 °C, lack of O2 , and pH of 6.2) and geochemistry are highly unusual. For example, nitrous oxide (N2 O) is present at a concentration among the highest reported for an aquatic environment. Only a minor 17 O anomaly was observed in N2 O, indicating that this gas was predominantly formed in the lake. In contrast, the 17 O anomaly in nitrate (NO3-) in Lake Vida brine indicates that approximately half or more of the NO3- present is derived from atmospheric deposition. Lake Vida brine was incubated in the presence of 15 N-enriched substrates for 40 days. We did not detect microbial nitrification, dissimilatory reduction of NO3- to ammonium (NH4+), anaerobic ammonium oxidation, or denitrification of N2 O under the conditions tested. In the presence of 15 N-enriched nitrite (NO2-), both N2 and N2 O exhibited substantial 15 N enrichments; however, isotopic enrichment declined with time, which is unexpected. Additions of 15 N-NO2- alone and in the presence of HgCl2 and ZnCl2 to aged brine at -13 °C resulted in linear increases in the δ15 N of N2 O with time. As HgCl2 and ZnCl2 are effective biocides, we interpret N2 O production in the aged brine to be the result of chemodenitrification. With this understanding, we interpret our results from the field incubations as the result of chemodenitrification stimulated by the addition of 15 N-enriched NO2- and ZnCl2 and determined rates of N2 O and N2 production of 4.11-41.18 and 0.55-1.75 nmol L-1  day-1 , respectively. If these rates are representative of natural production, the current concentration of N2 O in Lake Vida could have been reached between 6 and 465 years. Thus, chemodenitrification alone is sufficient to explain the high levels of N2 O

  10. Stroke Incidence in Victoria, Australia—Emerging Improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin B. Clissold

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEvidence of a decline in the incidence of stroke has emerged from population-based studies. These have included retrospective and prospective cohorts. However, in Australia and other countries, government bodies and stroke foundations predict a rise in the prevalence of stroke that is anticipated to increase the burden of stroke across the entire domain of care. This increase in prevalence must be viewed as different from the decline in incidence being observed, a measure of new stroke cases. In Victoria, all public emergency department visits and public and private hospital admissions are reported to the Department of Health and Human Services and include demographic, diagnostic, and procedural/treatment information.MethodsWe obtained data from financial years 1997/1998 to 2007/2008 inclusive, for all cases with a primary stroke diagnosis (ICD-10-AM categories with associated data fields. Incident cases were established by using a 5-year clearance period.ResultsFrom 2003/2004 to 2007/2008 inclusive, there were 53,425 patients with a primary stroke or TIA diagnosis. The crude incident stroke rate for first ever stroke was 211 per 100,000 per year (95% CI 205–217 [females—205 per 100,000 per year (95% CI 196–214 and males—217 per 100,000 per year (95% CI 210–224]. The overall stroke rates were seen to significantly decline over the period [males (per 100,000 per year 227 in 2003/2004 to 202 in 2007/2008 (p = 0.0157 and females (per 100,000 per year 214 in 2003/2004 to 188 in 2007/2008 (p = 0.0482]. Ischemic stroke rates also appeared to decline; however, this change was not significant.ConclusionThese results demonstrate a significant decline in stroke incidence during the study period and may suggest evidence for effectiveness of primary and secondary prevention strategies in cerebrovascular risk factor management.

  11. Archiving the Web: A Case Study from the University of Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Davis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The University of Victoria Libraries started archiving websites in 2013, and it quickly became apparent that many scholarly websites being produced by faculty, especially in the digital humanities, were going to prove very challenging to effectively capture and play back. This article will provide an overview of web archiving and explore the considerable legal and technical challenges of implementing a web archiving initiative at a research library, using the University of Victoria's implementation of Archive-it, a web archiving service from the Internet Archive, as a case study, with a special focus on capturing complex, interactive websites that scholars are creating to disseminate their research in new ways.

  12. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  13. Coupled human and natural system dynamics as key to the sustainability of Lake Victoria's ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Downing, Andrea S.; van Nes, Egbert H.; Balirwa, John S.; Beuving, Joost; Bwathondi, P. O. J.; Chapman, Lauren J.; Cornelissen, Ilse J. M.; Cowx, Iain G.; Goudswaard, Kees P. C.; Hecky, Robert E.; Janse, Jan H.; Janssen, Annette B. G.; Kaufman, Les; Kishe-Machumu, Mary A.; Kolding, Jeppe; Ligtvoet, Willem; Mbabazi, Dismas; Medard, Modesta; Mkumbo, Oliva C.; Mlaponi, Enock; Munyaho, Antony T.; Nagelkerke, Leopold A. J.; Ogutu-Ohwayo, Richard; Ojwang, William O.; Peter, Happy K.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Seehausen, Ole; Sharpe, Diana; Silsbe, Greg M.; Sitoki, Lewis; Tumwebaze, Rhoda; Tweddle, Denis; van de Wolfshaar, Karen E.; van Dijk, Han; van Donk, Ellen; van Rijssel, Jacco C.; van Zwieten, Paul A. M.; Wanink, Jan; Witte, F.; Mooij, Wolf M.

    2014-01-01

    East Africa's Lake Victoria provides resources and services to millions of people on the lake's shores and abroad. In particular, the lake's fisheries are an important source of protein, employment, and international economic connections for the whole region. Nonetheless, stock dynamics are poorly

  14. The diversity of benthic mollusks of Lake Victoria and Lake Burigi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molluscan diversity, abundance and distribution in sediments of Lake Victoria and its satellite lake, Lake Burigi, were investigated. The survey was carried out ... Melanoides tuberculata and Biomphalaria chaonomphala were the only two gastropods represented and widely distributed in the two lakes. Bivalvia constituting of ...

  15. Connections '98. Proceedings of a Faculty Conference (4th, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, May 1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Sandra L., Ed.; Anderson, John O., Ed.

    This proceedings contains 13 papers from the 1998 annual Faculty of Education conference at the University of Victoria, British Columbia (Canada). The papers are: (1) "Struggling with Re-Presentation, Voice, and Self in Narrative Research" (Marla Arvay); (2) "Women's Soccer in Canada: A Slow Road to Equity" (Meredith Bogle,…

  16. Nile perch fish processing waste along Lake Victoria in East Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide, fish industry wastes are an important contaminant having an impact on the environment. The recovery of value added products from these residues constitutes an important waste reduction strategy for the industry. In East Africa, Nile perch fish processing into chilled fish fillet for export along Lake Victoria ...

  17. Water hyacinth hotspots in the Ugandan waters of Lake Victoria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water hyacinth invaded Lake Victoria in the 1980s and, by 1998, had attained peak coverage of approximately 2 000 ha in the Ugandan waters of the lake. Control interventions, especially via biological means, significantly reduced the weed's coverage to non-nuisance levels (<10 ha) by 1999. Although resurgence was ...

  18. Perception of Aquaculture Education to Support Further Growth of Aquaculture Industry in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awal, Sadiqul; Christie, Andrew; Watson, Matthew; Hannadige, Asanka G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The central aim of this study was to determine the perception of aquaculture educational provisions in the state of Victoria, and whether they are sufficient to ultimately support further growth of the industry. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires were formulated and distributed to participants in a variety of ways, including via…

  19. Lake Victoria wetlands and the ecology of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Linne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balirwa, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    An ecological study of wetlands was undertaken in northern Lake Victoria (East Africa) between 1993 and 1996 with a major aim of characterising shallow vegetation-dominated interface habitats, and evaluating their importance for fish, in particular, for the stocked and socio-economically

  20. People Management Practices in the Public Health Sector: Developments from Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Pauline; Bartram, Timothy; Harbridge, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the impact on human resource management (HRM) practices in the public health sector in Victoria, Australia of two different government policy environments. First, it explores the Liberal Coalition Government's decentralisation of public health sector management, from 1992-1999 and second, the Labor Government's…

  1. From Aspiration to Destination: Understanding the Decisions of University Applicants in Regional Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Andrew; Burnheim, Catherine; Joschko, Lucie; Luckman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the choices and destinations of prospective university students from three regional areas in Victoria. The study is based on information collected for tertiary applicants in the Gippsland, Bendigo and Mildura areas, all of which host a local university campus. Using application and enrollment data, we examine the choices that…

  2. What Do the Public Search for on the Catalogue of the State Library of Victoria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Vivienne

    2009-01-01

    This study examines what the public search for in the catalogue of the State Library of Victoria (SLV). As well as indicating the type of content being accessed, this gives an indication of what catalogue users expect of the State Library collection. A content analysis was undertaken of a random, stratified sample of 4,000 search queries typed in…

  3. Do invasive bullfrogs in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, show evidence of parasite release?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, O K; Forbes, M R

    2013-06-01

    Few studies have examined vertebrate models of invasive species to explore parasite release as a proposed mechanism through which host species might become invasive. In this study, we examined evidence for parasite release in invasive American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana/Lithobates catesbeianus) from five sites in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. We examined helminth species richness, as well as the prevalence, intensity and abundance of lung and kidney fluke infections. These flukes are expected to impose costs on host survival, growth and reproductive output. We compared measures of these parasite taxa with bullfrogs from Ontario and New Brunswick where they are endemic. Helminth species richness in bullfrogs from the Victoria sites was lower than in Ontario bullfrogs, but comparable to reported indices for other endemic populations. The prevalence of lung flukes (Haematoloechus spp.) in bullfrogs from Victoria was twice as high as was observed in the Ontario bullfrogs, and higher than has been reported from other endemic locations. In four of the five study sites in Victoria, numbers of Echinostoma spp. kidney cysts were lower than observed in endemic populations; however, the fifth site had uncharacteristically high numbers of cysts. In this study, there did not appear to be clear evidence to support parasite release using either parasite species numbers, or infection by specific parasite taxa. Instead, the invasive bullfrogs demonstrated high parasite species richness and high levels of infection for parasites known to be harmful to their hosts.

  4. Parasite-mediated sexual selection and species divergence in Lake Victoria cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, Martine E.; Van Rooijen, Anne M. C.; Van Alphen, Jacques J. M.; Seehausen, Ole

    We investigate the role of parasite-mediated sexual selection in the divergence of two species of Lake Victoria cichlids. Pundamilia pundamilia and Pundamilia nyererei represent a common pattern of male nuptial colour divergence between haplochromine sister species: metallic grey-blue in P.

  5. Lake Victoria wetlands and the ecology of the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis Niloticus Linné

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balirwa, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The importance of LalVictoria wetlands for the Nile tilap'a was studied. Five wetland types were defined: papyrus, reed, bulrush, hippo grass, water hyacinth. Hydrology, vegetation and distance towards open water explained the variation in abiotic and biotic factors. Over 30 fish species were

  6. Distribution of Nile perch Lates niloticus in southern Lake Victoria is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although Nile perch Lates niloticus is assumed to be sensitive to low oxygen concentrations, it was found in deep water in Lake Victoria, where oxygen depletion is common during the rainy season. Since factors determining Nile perch distribution are not well understood its spatial distribution in the Mwanza Gulf of Lake ...

  7. affect rice in integrated rice-fish culture in Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGHOGHO A

    To ensure increased adoption of rice-fish farming, we have to be certain that practices and adoption of these technologies fit within the available resources, the socio-cultural and economic conditions of the Lake. Victoria Basin (LVB). Practices and technologies from. Asia may be inappropriate due to differences in agro cli-.

  8. Monitoring exposure to heavy metals among children in Lake Victoria, Kenya: Environmental and fish matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okoth, E.O.; Admiraal, W.; Osano, O.; Ngure, V.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Omutange, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    This study used hair and nails to biomonitor heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr and Cu) from geological source and exposure through regular fish consumption among children in Lake Victoria, Kenya. Concentration of Pb and Cu in water reflected anthropogenic pathways, while Cd and Cr reflected accumulation from

  9. Metal concentrations in sediment and fish of Lake Victoria near and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentrations of metals in sediment and fish as well as organic matter contents of sediment from Lake Victoria were investigated. The objective of the study was to compare levels of metals in sediment and fish from areas of the lake that are within and outside catchments with gold mining activities. The results showed that ...

  10. Testing the Marine Hypothesis for The Opportunity Landing Site at Victoria Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, T. J.

    2006-12-01

    Hypothesis Summary: 1. Meridiani Planum is a marine sulfate platform deposit, analogous to terrestrial carbonate platforms but with sulfate mineralogy, laid down during one or multiple marine transgressions over the landing site region. 2. Outcrop laminations, ripples, and larger, dune-scale bedforms are subaqueous in origin, produced by tidal currents. Aqueous deposits may be interbedded with crossbedded aeolian deposits of same composition derived from subjacent water-lain deposits during lowstands. At the scale of observations made by Opportunity, the marine hypothesis differs from the consensus, sabkha model, in two relatively minor ways (but with important differences in the inferred paleoenvironments). 3. Blueberry and cobble "lag" on top of outcrop is a lag, but indicates erosion of perhaps many meters, even tens of meters or more of outcrop material from the region by water. Wind erosion has been very limited over geologic time (perhaps less than a meter locally). 4. Remarkably-flat, horizontal geomorphic surface of outcrop was produced by shallow standing water locally, controlling both deposition and erosion of the sulfate outcrop material to within a few meters of sea level. 5. Craters in the landing site exhibit a continuum of degradation states, with Endurance and Victoria typifying the best preserved craters visited (or to be visited) by Opportunity, and Erebus and Terra Nova representing the most degraded craters visited that are larger than 100 meters across. Terra Nova is similar to numerous kilometer-scale "rock ring" craters in the Meridiani Planum landing site. 6. "Serrated" rim at Victoria is similar to, but fresher in expression, rim morphology at Erebus Crater, and may indicate water pouring over crater rim during tidal or storm surges in water level across the region. Predictions to be tested at Victoria Crater: 1. The crater's ejecta and raised rim have been destroyed by tidal currents in shallow standing water. There is no Endurance

  11. Evolution of the Lake Victoria basin in the context of coeval rift initiation in East Africa: a 3D numerical model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichura, Henry; Quinteros, Javier; Melnick, Daniel; Brune, Sascha; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2015-04-01

    Over the last four years sedimentologic and thermochronologic studies in the western and eastern branches of the Cenozoic East African Rift System (EARS) have supported the notion of a broadly contemporaneous onset of normal faulting and rift-basin formation in both segments. These studies support previous interpretations based on geophysical investigations from which an onset of rifting during the Paleogene had been postulated. In light of these studies we explore the evolution of the Lake Victoria basin, a shallow, unfaulted sedimentary basin centered between both branches of the EARS and located in the interior of the East African Plateau (EAP). We quantify the fluvial catchment evolution of the Lake Victoria basin and assess the topographic response of African crust to the onset of rifting in both branches. Furthermore, we evaluate and localize the nature of strain and flexural rift-flank uplift in both branches. We use a 3D numerical forward model that includes nonlinear temperature- and stress-dependent elasto-visco-plastic rheology. The model is able to reproduce the flexural response of variably thick lithosphere to rift-related deformation processes such as lithospheric thinning and asthenospheric upwelling. The model domain covers the entire EAP and integrates extensional processes in a heterogeneous, yet cold and thick cratonic block (Archean Tanzania craton), which is surrounded by mechanically weaker Proterozoic mobile belts, which are characterized by thinner lithosphere ("thin spots"). The lower limits of the craton (170 km) and the mobile belts (120 km) are simulated by different depths of the 1300 °C lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. We assume a constant extension rate of 4 mm/a throughout the entire simulation of 30 Ma and neglect the effect of dynamic topography and magmatism. Even though the model setup is very simple and the resolution is not high enough to calculate realistic rift-flank uplift, it intriguingly reveals important topographic

  12. Soil surface lowering due to soil erosion in villages near Lake Victoria, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meyer, A.; Deckers, J.; Poesen, J.; Isabirye, M.

    2009-04-01

    In the effort to pinpoint the sources of sediment pollution in Lake Victoria, the contribution of sedi-ment from compounds, landing sites, main roads and footpaths is determined in the catchment of Na-bera Bay and Kafunda Bay at the northern shore of Lake Victoria in southern Uganda. The amount of soil loss in compounds and landing sites is determined by the reconstruction of the original and current soil surface according to botanical and man-made datable objects. The soil erosion rate is then deter-mined by dividing the eroded soil volume (corrected for compaction) by the age of the oldest datable object. In the study area, the average soil erosion rate in compounds amounts to 107 Mg ha-1 year-1 (per unit compound) and in landing sites to 207 Mg ha-1 year-1 (per unit landing site). Although com-pounds and landing sites occupy a small area of the study area (1.1 %), they are a major source of sediment to Lake Victoria (63 %). The soil loss on footpaths and main roads is calculated by multip-lying the total length of footpaths and main roads with the average width and depth (measured towards a reference surface). After the correction for compaction is carried out, the soil erosion rate on foot-paths amounts to 34 Mg ha-1 year-1 and on main roads to 35 Mg ha-1 year-1. Also footpaths and main roads occupy a small area of the study area (1.1 %), but contribute disproportionately to the total soil loss in the catchment (22 %). In this research, the information about the village/compound given by the villager/owner is indispensable. In accordance to an adaptation of the model of McHugh et al. (2002), 32 % of the sediment that is generated in the catchment, is deposited in Lake Victoria (i.e. 2 209 Mg year-1 or 0.7 Mg ha-1 year-1). The main buffer in the study area is papyrus at the shore of Lake Victoria. Also sugarcane can be a major buffer. However, the sugarcane-area is intersected by com-pounds, landing sites, footpaths and main roads that generate large amounts of

  13. Species-specific relationships between water transparency and male coloration within and between two closely related Lake Victoria cichlid species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castillo Cajas, Ruth F; Selz, Oliver M; Ripmeester, Erwin A P; Seehausen, Ole; Maan, Martine E

    2012-01-01

    Environmental variation in signalling conditions affects animal communication traits, with possible consequences for sexual selection and reproductive isolation. Using spectrophotometry, we studied how male coloration within and between populations of two closely related Lake Victoria cichlid

  14. The Basin and Range Province in Utah, Nevada, and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Thomas B.

    1943-01-01

    In this report an attempt has been made to summarize and in places to interpret the published information that was available through 1938 on the geology of those parts of Nevada, California, and Utah that are included in the geologic province known as the Basin and Range province. This region includes most of the Great Basin, from which no water flows to the sea, as well as part of the drainage basin of the lower Colorado River. It is characterized by numerous parallel, linear mountain ranges that are separated from one another by wide valleys or topographic basins. All the major divisions of geologic time are represented by the rocks exposed in this region. The oldest are of pre-Cambrian age and crop out chiefly along the eastern and southern borders. They have been carefully studied at only a few localities, and the correlation and extent of the subdivision so far recognized is uncertain. There appear to be at least three series of pre-Cambrian rocks which are probably separated from one another by profound unconformities. Large masses of intrusive igneous rocks have been recognized only in the oldest series. During the Paleozoic era the region was a part of the Cordilleran geosyncline, and sediments were deposited during all of the major and most of the minor subdivisions of the era. There are thick and widespread accumulations of Cambrian and Ordovician strata, the maximum aggregate thickness possibly exceeding 23,000 feet. The eastern and western boundaries of the province were approximately those of the area of rapid subsidence within the geosyncline, though the axes of maximum subsidence oscillated back and forth during the two periods. The Silurian and Devonian seas, on the other hand, extended beyond the province and, possibly as a consequence, are represented by much thinner sections - of the order of 6,000 feet. At the end of the Devonian period the geosyncline was split by the emergence of a geanticline in western Nevada, and Mississippian and

  15. Preliminary assessment of the cocial, economic and environmental impacts of Water Hyacinth in Lake Victoria basin and status of control

    OpenAIRE

    Mailu, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents preliminary data collected in an assessment of the social, economic and environmental impacts of water hyacinth in the Lake Victoria Basin. A summary of the status of control and strategies for the future is given. The report draws on field observations made, studies through interviews of affected communities and organisations, personal communications and published reports by scientists in the region. Lake Victoria, the world’s second largest freshwater body, su...

  16. The Genus Lepidochitona Gray, 1821 (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean (Oregonian and Californian Provinces)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eernisse, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The systematics of the northeastern Pacific Lepidochitona from the Californian and Oregonian Provinces (western continental United States) is presented and discussed. Three new species are described: L. caverna spec. nov. and L. berryana spec. nov. from California, and L. fernaldi spec. nov. from

  17. The Central European, Tarim and Siberian Large Igneous Provinces, Late Palaeozoic orogeny and coeval metallogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boorder, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/098199056

    2014-01-01

    The formation of the Central European and Tarim Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) in the Early Permian coincided with the demise of the Variscan and the Southern Tianshan orogens, respectively. The Early Triassic Siberian LIP was formed in the wake of the Western Altaid orogeny in the Late Permian.

  18. [Epidemiology of caprine and ovine brucellosis in Formosa province, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana M; Mancebo, Orlando A; Monzón, Carlos M; Gait, Juan J; Casco, Rubén D; Torioni de Echaide, Susana M

    2016-01-01

    An epidemiological study of brucellosis was carried out in 516 goats and mixed flocks (goat/sheep) from the three agro-ecological regions of Formosa province, Argentina. Serum samples from a total of 25401 goats and 2453 sheeps were analyzed using buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT) and complement fixation test (CFT). Bacteriological and PCR analyses on milk samples from goats in three flocks with a history of brucellosis and recent abortions were also performed. Brucellosis was detected in four of the nine departments of the province with an overall prevalence of 2% and an intra-flock prevalence ranging between 1% and 40%. The proportion of infected flocks was 3.6%, 12% and 36% for the eastern, central and western regions, respectively. Brucella melitensis bv. 1 was isolated efrom goats for the first time in the province. The expected fragments of 827bp from the omp2ab gene (Brucella spp.) and 731bp from the insert IS711 (B. melitensis) were amplified by PCR. Detection of antibodies by BPAT and FCT in sheep cohabiting with goats suggests that infections could have been caused by B. melitensis, posing an additional risk to public health. Control and eradication programs for brucellosis should consider mixed flocks as a single epidemiological unit. The results indicate that brucellosis by B. melitensis bv1 is highly endemic in the central and western regions of Formosa province. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Paleoenvironmental context of the Middle Stone Age record from Karungu, Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya, and its implications for human and faunal dispersals in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, J Tyler; Tryon, Christian A; Peppe, Daniel J; Beverly, Emily J; Blegen, Nick; Blumenthal, Scott; Chritz, Kendra L; Driese, Steven G; Patterson, David

    2015-06-01

    The opening and closing of the equatorial East African forest belt during the Quaternary is thought to have influenced the biogeographic histories of early modern humans and fauna, although precise details are scarce due to a lack of archaeological and paleontological records associated with paleoenvironmental data. With this in mind, we provide a description and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Late Pleistocene Middle Stone Age (MSA) artifact- and fossil-bearing sediments from Karungu, located along the shores of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. Artifacts recovered from surveys and controlled excavations are typologically MSA and include points, blades, and Levallois flakes and cores, as well as obsidian flakes similar in geochemical composition to documented sources near Lake Naivasha (250 km east). A combination of sedimentological, paleontological, and stable isotopic evidence indicates a semi-arid environment characterized by seasonal precipitation and the dominance of C4 grasslands, likely associated with a substantial reduction in Lake Victoria. The well-preserved fossil assemblage indicates that these conditions are associated with the convergence of historically allopatric ungulates from north and south of the equator, in agreement with predictions from genetic observations. Analysis of the East African MSA record reveals previously unrecognized north-south variation in assemblage composition that is consistent with episodes of population fragmentation during phases of limited dispersal potential. The grassland-associated MSA assemblages from Karungu and nearby Rusinga Island are characterized by a combination of artifact types that is more typical of northern sites. This may reflect the dispersal of behavioral repertoires-and perhaps human populations-during a paleoenvironmental phase dominated by grasslands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Towards understanding hydroclimatic change in Victoria, Australia – preliminary insights into the "Big Dry"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kiem

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1990s the majority of Victoria, Australia, has experienced severe drought conditions (i.e. the "Big Dry" characterized by streamflow that is the lowest in approximately 80 years of record. While decreases in annual and seasonal rainfall totals have also been observed, this alone does not seem to explain the observed reduction in flow. In this study, we investigate the large-scale climate drivers for Victoria and demonstrate how these modulate the regional scale synoptic patterns, which in turn alter the way seasonal rainfall totals are compiled and the amount of runoff per unit rainfall that is produced. The hydrological implications are significant and illustrate the need for robust hydrological modelling, that takes into account insights into physical mechanisms that drive regional hydroclimatology, in order to properly understand and quantify the impacts of climate change (natural and/or anthropogenic on water resources.

  1. Use of regionalisation approach to develop fire frequency curves for Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khastagir, Anirban; Jayasuriya, Niranjali; Bhuyian, Muhammed A.

    2017-11-01

    It is important to perform fire frequency analysis to obtain fire frequency curves (FFC) based on fire intensity at different parts of Victoria. In this paper fire frequency curves (FFCs) were derived based on forest fire danger index (FFDI). FFDI is a measure related to fire initiation, spreading speed and containment difficulty. The mean temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and areal extent of open water (LC2) during summer months (Dec-Feb) were identified as the most important parameters for assessing the risk of occurrence of bushfire. Based on these parameters, Andrews' curve equation was applied to 40 selected meteorological stations to identify homogenous stations to form unique clusters. A methodology using peak FFDI from cluster averaged FFDIs was developed by applying Log Pearson Type III (LPIII) distribution to generate FFCs. A total of nine homogeneous clusters across Victoria were identified, and subsequently their FFC's were developed in order to estimate the regionalised fire occurrence characteristics.

  2. Art at Second Hand: Prints after European Pictures in Victoria before 1870

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Inglis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the significance of the large number of European reproductive prints present in the public and private art collections of early colonial Victoria. Several factors are identified as contributing to this popularity; ranging from the suitability of the print medium for the export market to the existence of informed print connoisseurs amongst colonial collectors and artists. This article also demonstrates some of the typical features of Australian art history; in that it is concerned with the evaluation of the Australian art world through reference to European culture (the centre-periphery debate and also that it limits its discussion to the art of a particular Australian state (Victoria. The nineteenth-century division of Australia into different colonies had ramifications for Australian art history that continue to the present day – namely; the tendency to interpret colonial artistic activities from a regional perspective.

  3. ZnO-Fe2O3 heterojunction for photocatalytic degradation of victoria blue dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pushpendra; Khatri, Taslimahemad; Bawa, Harpreet; Kaur, Jashandeep

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, ZnO-Fe2O3 heterojunction has been successfully synthesized by co-precipitation method for photocatalytic degradation of Victoria blue dye. The synthesized samples were subjected to XRD for microstructural characterization and scanning electron microscopy for morphological investigation. The typical X-ray diffraction pattern shows exhaustive evolution of hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO and α-Fe2O3 having crystalline in the range of 34-54 nm. The synthesized samples were applied for degradation of victoria blue dye under UV illumination. ZnO-Fe2O3 heterojunction showed higher photocatalytic activity for dye degradation compared to bare ZnO. This rise in photocatalytic activity can be attributed to enhanced charge separation derived from coupling of ZnO and Fe2O3. In this manuscript, the effect of photocatalyst dose, irradiation time and initial dye concentration on photodegradation of dye is reported in detail.

  4. Strain and displacement measurements for the June 9, 1980 Victoria, Mexico Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, D.; Nyland, E.; Suarez, F.; Chavez, D.; Gonzalez, J.

    A microgeodetic network 22 km south east of Est. Guadalupe Victoria, Baja California Norte, installed in late May 1980, has been resurveyed in an experiment that started 12 hours after the June 9, 1980 Victoria earthquake, which had an epicenter at 10 km depth about 12 km from the network. The resurvey was complete by June 13. Both the initial observations and the resurvey were done with HP3800 distance meter equipment. Some angular control was provided with a Wild T3 theodolite. The network underwent a compressive strain of 7 ± 3 micro strain essentially parallel the Cerro Prieto fault about the time of the earthquake. Strains of this size are associated with simple dislocation models of earthquakes of this magnitude. Its direction appears to be anomalous however. This may indicate compression related to soil liquefaction processes or strain near the end of the slip plane.

  5. Uranium provinces of North America; their definition, distribution, and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1996-01-01

    formed initially by hot saline formational water related to diagenesis (»1,400 to 1,330 Ma) and later reconcentrated by hydrothermal events at »1,280–»1,000, »575, and »225 Ma. Subsequently in North America, only minor uranium mineralization occurred until after continental collision in Permian time (255 Ma). Three principal epochs of uranium mineralization occurred in the CPUP: (1) » 210–200 Ma, shortly after Late Triassic sedimentation; (2) »155–150 Ma, in Late Jurassic time; and (3) » 135 Ma, after sedimentation of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation. The most likely source of the uranium was silicic volcaniclastics for the three epochs derived from a volcanic island arc at the west edge of the North American continent. Uranium mineralization occurred during Eocene, Miocene, and Pliocene times in the RMIBUP, GCUP, and BRUP. Volcanic activity took place near the west edge of the continent during and shortly after sedimentation of the host rocks in these three provinces. Some volcanic centers in the Sierra de Peña Blanca district within the BRUP may have provided uranium-rich ash to host rocks in the GCUP.Most of the uranium provinces in North America appear to have a common theme of close associations to volcanic activity related to the development of the western margin of the North American plate. The south and west margin of the Canadian Shield formed the leading edge of the progress of uranium source development and mineralization from the Proterozoic to the present. The development of favorable hosts and sources of uranium is related to various tectonic elements developed over time. Periods of major uranium mineralization in North America were Early Proterozoic, Middle Proterozoic, Late Triassic–Early Jurassic, Early Cretaceous, Oligocene, and Miocene. Tertiary mineralization was the most pervasive, covering most of Western and Southern North America. 

  6. Impacts of changing water price and availability on irrigated dairy farms in northern Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Christie K.M.; Armstrong, Dan P.; Doyle, Peter T.; Malcolm, Bill

    2004-01-01

    Farming systems throughout the Murray-Darling Basin are under increasing scrutiny from the perspective of ecological sustainability of farm and catchment systems. In northern Victoria, the dairy industry is a major user of water, and contributes to the environmental issues. Changes in irrigation water price, availability and policy will invariably impact on the viability of dairy farming in this region, but the diversity of dairy farm systems suggests that the impact will vary between farms. ...

  7. Imperialist women in Edwardian Britain : the Victoria League, 1899-1914

    OpenAIRE

    Riedi, Elizabeth L.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis, based on private papers, society records, autobiographies and memoirs, newspapers and periodicals, examines one mainly female imperialist organisation - the Victoria League - and the women who ran it. It considers two related questions - what made Edwardian women imperialist, and how, within the limits of Edwardian society, could they express their imperialism? The thesis shows that several of the League's founders and executive had visited South Africa during or s...

  8. Lake Victoria wetlands and the ecology of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Linne

    OpenAIRE

    Balirwa, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    An ecological study of wetlands was undertaken in northern Lake Victoria (East Africa) between 1993 and 1996 with a major aim of characterising shallow vegetation-dominated interface habitats, and evaluating their importance for fish, in particular, for the stocked and socio-economically important Oreochromis niloticus LINNÉ (the Nile tilapia). From field and laboratory experiments, five major habitat types could be defined by the type of the dominant emergent ma...

  9. Intestinal schistosomiasis among preschool children along the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalugwa, A.; Olsen, Annette; Tukahebwa, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    prevalence and intensity of infection were examined in 3058 children from 5 districts along Lake Victoria shoreline, eastern Uganda. For each child one stool sample was collected on three consecutive days. The Kato-Katz technique was used to prepare stool smears on slides for microscopic examination. Short...... for schistosomiasis takes preschool children into consideration and that health education on transmission of schistosomiasis is delivered to the endemic communities regularly....

  10. A Bottom-Up Understanding of Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated Fishing in Lake Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Luomba

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU fishing is a major concern in fisheries management around the world. Several measures have been taken to address the problem. In Lake Victoria, the alleviation of IUU fishing is implemented through the Regional Plan of Action (RPOA-IUU, which restricts use of certain fishing gear, as well as prohibits fishing in closed areas and during closed seasons. Despite the long-term efforts to monitor and control what goes on in the fisheries, IUU fishing has persisted in Lake Victoria. Inspired by interactive governance theory, this paper argues that the persistence of IUU fishing could be due to different images that stakeholders have about the situation, rather than the lack of management competency. Through structured interviews with 150 fisheries stakeholders on Ijinga Island in the southeastern part of Lake Victoria, Tanzania, using paired comparison questionnaires, the study elicits stakeholders’ perspective about the severity of different locally-pertinent fishing-related activities. The results show that while fisheries stakeholder groups agree on their judgments about certain fishing gears, some differences are also apparent. For instance, fisheries managers and scientists do not always agree with fishing people about what activities cause the most damage to fisheries resources and ecosystem. Further, they tend to consider some IUU fishing-related activities less damaging than some non-IUU fishing. Such disparity creates governability challenges, pointing to the need to revisit relevant regulatory measures and to make them consistent with the knowledge and judgments of all stakeholders. Based on these findings, we discuss governing interventions that may contribute to addressing IUU fishing in Lake Victoria and elsewhere.

  11. A Comparison of digestive Tract Morphology in muskoxen and caribou from Victoria Island, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Staaland

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Although caribou and muskoxen coexist in close proximity on southeastern Victoria Island, they appear primarily adapted to different diets and foraging strategies. Visual inspection and analysis of rumen contents for fiber and lignin from the study (unpubl. also indicate a predominantly graminoid diet in the muskoxen and a more varied diet with a substantial browse component in the caribou.This should reduce the likelihood of competition for limited food resources in winter.

  12. B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination in Lake Victoria cichlid fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohta Yoshida

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The endemic cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria are a model system for speciation through adaptive radiation. Although the evolution of the sex-determination system may also play a role in speciation, little is known about the sex-determination system of Lake Victoria cichlids. To understand the evolution of the sex-determination system in these fish, we performed cytogenetic analysis in 11 cichlid species from Lake Victoria. B chromosomes, which are present in addition to standard chromosomes, were found at a high prevalence rate (85% in these cichlids. In one species, B chromosomes were female-specific. Cross-breeding using females with and without the B chromosomes demonstrated that the presence of the B chromosomes leads to a female-biased sex ratio in this species. Although B chromosomes were believed to be selfish genetic elements with little effect on phenotype and to lack protein-coding genes, the present study provides evidence that B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination. FISH analysis using a BAC clone containing B chromosome DNA suggested that the B chromosomes are derived from sex chromosomes. Determination of the nucleotide sequences of this clone (104.5 kb revealed the presence of several protein-coding genes in the B chromosome, suggesting that B chromosomes have the potential to contain functional genes. Because some sex chromosomes in amphibians and arthropods are thought to be derived from B chromosomes, the B chromosomes in Lake Victoria cichlids may represent an evolutionary transition toward the generation of sex chromosomes.

  13. Salinity in Water Markets : An ExperimentalInvestigation of the Sunraysia Salinity Levy, Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    C. Duke; L. Gangadharan

    2005-01-01

    Irrigation can have a significant negative impact on the environment. Irrigation impacts contribute a significant portion to the estimated forty six million dollar cost per annum of salinity in the Murray River, Australia. Policies available to regulators include externality taxes and levies. In 2002 the Victorian Government introduced a system of salinity levies in the irrigation regions of Sunraysia, northern Victoria. These levies differ from typical taxes because they also introduce trade...

  14. Satellite-Based Assessment of the spatial extent of Aquatic Vegetation in Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, W.; Aligeti, N.; Jeyaprakash, T.; Martins, M.; Stodghill, J.; Winstanley, H.

    2011-12-01

    Lake Victoria in Africa is the second largest freshwater lake in the world and is known for its abundance of aquatic wildlife. In particular over 200 different fish species are caught and sold by local fisherman. The lake is a major contributor to the local economy as a corridor of transportation, source of drinking water, and source of hydropower. However, the invasion of aquatic vegetation such as water hyacinth in the lake has disrupted each of these markets. Aquatic vegetation now covers a substantial area of the coastline blocking waterways, disrupting hydropower, hindering the collection of drinking water and decreasing the profitability of fishing. The vegetation serves as a habitat for disease carrying mosquitoes as well as snakes and snails that spread the parasitic disease bilharzia. The current control measures of invasive aquatic vegetation rely on biological, chemical and mechanical control. The objective of this study was to utilize remote sensing to map aquatic vegetation within Lake Victoria from 2000 to 2011. MODIS, Landsat 4-5TM, and Landsat 7-ETM imagery was employed to perform change detections in vegetation and identify the extent of aquatic vegetation throughout the years. The efficiency of containment efforts were evaluated and ideal time for application of such efforts were suggested. A methodology for aquatic vegetation surveillance was created. The results of this project were presented as a workshop to the Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization, SERVIR, and other partner organizations. The workshop provided instruction into the use of NASA and other satellite derived products. Time series animations of the spatial extent of aquatic vegetation within the lake were created. By identifying seasons of decreased aquatic vegetation, ideal times to employ control efforts were identified. SERVIR will subsequently utilize the methodologies and mapping results of this study to develop operational aquatic vegetation surveillance for Lake Victoria.

  15. B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination in Lake Victoria cichlid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kohta; Terai, Yohey; Mizoiri, Shinji; Aibara, Mitsuto; Nishihara, Hidenori; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Kuroiwa, Asato; Hirai, Hirohisa; Hirai, Yuriko; Matsuda, Yoichi; Okada, Norihiro

    2011-08-01

    The endemic cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria are a model system for speciation through adaptive radiation. Although the evolution of the sex-determination system may also play a role in speciation, little is known about the sex-determination system of Lake Victoria cichlids. To understand the evolution of the sex-determination system in these fish, we performed cytogenetic analysis in 11 cichlid species from Lake Victoria. B chromosomes, which are present in addition to standard chromosomes, were found at a high prevalence rate (85%) in these cichlids. In one species, B chromosomes were female-specific. Cross-breeding using females with and without the B chromosomes demonstrated that the presence of the B chromosomes leads to a female-biased sex ratio in this species. Although B chromosomes were believed to be selfish genetic elements with little effect on phenotype and to lack protein-coding genes, the present study provides evidence that B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination. FISH analysis using a BAC clone containing B chromosome DNA suggested that the B chromosomes are derived from sex chromosomes. Determination of the nucleotide sequences of this clone (104.5 kb) revealed the presence of several protein-coding genes in the B chromosome, suggesting that B chromosomes have the potential to contain functional genes. Because some sex chromosomes in amphibians and arthropods are thought to be derived from B chromosomes, the B chromosomes in Lake Victoria cichlids may represent an evolutionary transition toward the generation of sex chromosomes.

  16. Leuconidae (Crustacea: Cumacea) from the collections of the Museum Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, Sarah

    2016-01-21

    The collections of the Museum Victoria have yielded six new leuconid species in five genera from Australian waters: Austroleucon adiazetos n. sp., A. dolosolevis n. sp., Eudorellopsis mykteros n. sp., Kontiloleucon australiensis n. gen., n. sp., Leucon (Alytoleucon) dolichorhinos n. sp., Ommatoleucon megalopos n. sp. as well as the new genus Kontiloleucon. Leucon (Leucon) echinolophotos n. sp. is a new species from off Enderby Land, Antarctica. Keys to the Australian leuconid genera and species are included.

  17. Assessment of potentially toxic metal contamination in the soils of a legacy mine site in Central Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Joji; Dowling, Kim; Florentine, Singarayer

    2018-02-01

    The environmental impact of toxic metal contamination from legacy mining activities, many of which had operated and were closed prior to the enforcement of robust environmental legislation, is of growing concern to modern society. We have carried out analysis of As and potentially toxic metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the surface soil of a legacy gold mining site in Maldon, Victoria, Australia, to reveal the status of the current metal concentration. The results revealed the median concentrations of metals from highest to lowest, in the order: Mn > Zn > As > Cr > Cu > Pb > Ni > Co > Hg > Cd. The status of site was assessed directly by comparing the metal concentrations in the study area with known Australian and Victorian average top soil levels and the health investigation levels set by the National Environmental Protection Measures (NEPM) and the Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) of the State of Western Australia. Although, median concentrations of As, Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn exceeded the average Australian and Victorian top soil concentrations, only As and Hg exceeded the ecological investigation levels (EIL) set by DEC and thus these metals are considered as risk to the human and aquatic ecosystems health due to their increase in concentration and toxicity. In an environment of climate fluctuation with increased storm events and forest fires may mobilize these toxic metals contaminants, pose a real threat to the environment and the community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A modeling study of climate variability over western and eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liqiang

    1997-09-01

    This dissertation is composed of six separate papers linked by a common purpose: to investigate the physical mechanisms associated with the climate variability over western and eastern Africa. This study is carried out on both monthly and seasonal time-scales. In Chapter 2, the NASA GEOS-1 GCM was adopted to investigate the role of orography in determining the western African climate. The moist southwesterlies emanating from the Atlas-Ahaggar orographic trough and the dry hot northeasterlies originating from the corresponding orographic windward ridge tend to converge thus re-enforcing the ITCZ over the Sahel. A zonal orographic ridge is generated along the coastal region of West Africa. Thus a permanent orographic induced rainfall dipole pattern over western Africa is produced. A weaker orographic induced rainfall dipole pattern across West Africa is simulated in response to the 1973 SST anomaly pattern. Consequently, wetter conditions along the coastal region and rainfall deficits over the Sahel are produced, which are consistent with observations. In Chapter 3, we customized the NCAR Regional Climate Model (RegCM2) for eastern Africa. The physics of RegCM2 has been improved. In Chapter 4, the model simulated both large-scale and mesoscale features during the autumn rains of 1988. In Chapter 5, we simulated the interannual variability of precipitation during autumn rains between 1982 and 1993. The stronger Arabian High appears to be responsible for earlier onset of rains, and the enhanced St. Helena and weaker Mascarene Highs lead to positive precipitation anomalies over Tanzania. The enhanced St. Helena High also leads to positive precipitation anomalies over Angola plateau. Strong connection between precipitation anomalies over Lake Victoria and ENSO exists. El Nino events usually lead to positive precipitation anomalies over the Turkana Channel. Precipitation over western Kenya Highlands is significantly affected by Lake Victoria and the Arabian High. The

  19. Recent reduction in the water level of Lake Victoria has created more habitats for Anopheles funestus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futami Kyoko

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The water level of Lake Victoria has fallen more than 1.5 m since 1998, revealing a narrow strip of land along the shore. This study determined whether the recent drop in the water level has created additional breeding grounds for malaria vectors. Methods The recent and past shorelines were estimated using landmarks and a satellite image. The locations of breeding habitats were recorded using a GPS unit during the high and low lake water periods. GIS was used to determine whether the breeding habitats were located on newly emerged land between the new and old shorelines. Results Over half of the breeding habitats existed on newly emerged land. Fewer habitats for the Anopheles gambiae complex were found during the low water level period compared to the high water period. However, more habitats for Anopheles funestus were found during the high water level period, and they were all located on the newly emerged land. Conclusion The recent reduction in water level of Lake Victoria has increased the amount of available habitat for A. funestus. The results suggest that the water drop has substantially affected the population of this malaria vector in the Lake Victoria basin, particularly because the lake has a long shoreline that may harbour many new breeding habitats.

  20. Urban eutrophication and its spurring conditions in the Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabenge, Martin; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Fengting

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of Lake Victoria in providing its ecosystem services to riparian states, both immediate and along the Nile river basin, is strongly related to its water quality. Over the past few decades, eutrophication has increased in the lake arising from increased inflow of nutrients. This study was carried out in the Murchison Bay area of Lake Victoria with the aims of assessing the progress of eutrophication nutrient enrichment into the lake between 1990 and 2014. Using Landsat satellite floating algae index (FAI) products and data from laboratory analysis of water samples, the study revealed that floating algae reoccurred periodically with coverage varying between 1 and 18 km(2). The findings also indicated that the range of nitrate-nitrogen concentrations increased greatly with maximum concentrations recorded at 31.2 mg l(-1) in 2007 from 0.084 mg l(-1) in 1990. The soluble reactive phosphorus concentration range showed a maximum of 1.45 mg l(-1) in 2007 from 0.043 mg l(-1) in 1990. The chlorophyll levels increased from an average of 17 μg l(-1) in 1992 by threefold in 1996 but had however declined and halved in intensity by 2011. The eutrophication that has occurred in Lake Victoria over the past decades has been due to pollution from industrial, residential, and agricultural areas within the catchment.

  1. Genetic structure of pelagic and littoral cichlid fishes from Lake Victoria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyuki Takeda

    Full Text Available The approximately 700 species of cichlids found in Lake Victoria in East Africa are thought to have evolved over a short period of time, and they represent one of the largest known examples of adaptive radiation. To understand the processes that are driving this spectacular radiation, we must determine the present genetic structure of these species and elucidate how this structure relates to the ecological conditions that caused their adaptation. We analyzed the genetic structure of two pelagic and seven littoral species sampled from the southeast area of Lake Victoria using sequences from the mtDNA control region and 12 microsatellite loci as markers. Using a Bayesian model-based clustering method to analyze the microsatellite data, we separated these nine species into four groups: one group composed of pelagic species and another three groups composed mainly of rocky-shore species. Furthermore, we found significant levels of genetic variation between species within each group at both marker loci using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA, although the nine species often shared mtDNA haplotypes. We also found significant levels of genetic variation between populations within species. These results suggest that initial groupings, some of which appear to have been related to habitat differences, as well as divergence between species within groups took place among the cichlid species of Lake Victoria.

  2. Women's experience of domiciliary postnatal care in Victoria and South Australia: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Mary Anne; Yelland, Jane S; Sutherland, Georgina A; Brown, Stephanie J

    2012-11-01

    Despite the expansion of postnatal domiciliary services, we know little about the women receiving visits and how they regard their care. The aim of this study is to examine the provision of postnatal domiciliary care from a consumer perspective. All women who gave birth in September-October 2007 in South Australia and Victoria were mailed questionnaires 6 months after the birth. Women were asked if they had received a midwifery home visit, and to rate the care they received. More women in South Australia reported receiving a domiciliary visit than in Victoria (88.0% v. 76.0%) and they were more likely to rate their care as 'very good' (69.1% v. 63.4%). Younger women, women on a lower income, who were holding a healthcare concession card or who had not completed secondary education were less likely to receive a visit. Although the majority of women in public maternity care in Victoria and South Australia receive domiciliary care and rate it positively, there are significant state-based differences. Those more likely to benefit from domiciliary care are less likely to receive a visit. There is a need to further explore the purpose, aims and content of domiciliary care at individual and state-wide levels.

  3. Sediment Production from Settlements and Farmlands within Lake Victoria Shoreline Zone in Uganda and Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabirye, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the general acceptance that the current land use changes are unlikely to yield a sustainable environment, the source of sediment that causes eutrophication in Lake Victoria is not clearly understood. It is hypothesized that roads, footpaths, and compounds (settlement are a major source of sediments. This study was conducted on the northern Lake Victoria shoreline to determine the rate of sediment generated by agricultural and settlement land use types. Results show that settlements generate significantly higher sediment yields i.e. between 17- 87 ton.ha-1. yr -1 whereas agricultural land use types produced between 0-27 ton ha-1.yr-1. The high sediment yield from settlements is attributed to high runoff coefficients and the occurrence of gully erosion. The high sediment yield from settlements justifies the need to conduct further investigations on the contribution of settlements to sediment production in catchments with different soil - landscape and climatic setting in the Lake Victoria catchment.

  4. Temporality and Patterns of ART Adherence in the Western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an ethnographic study conducted over thirty months in South Africa's Western Cape Province ending in 2012, we explored ART adherence amongst almost 200 patients attending three clinics. This setting contained significant political, structural, economic and socio cultural barriers to the uptake of, and adherence to, ...

  5. Two new species of Hesperiidae from Western Kenya (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de R.

    1976-01-01

    The belt of lowland forest that stretches from West Africa eastward ends in a number of isolated forests in East Uganda and West Kenya, the most eastern extremity being the Kakamega Forest in the Western Province of Kenya, about 50 km north of Kisumu. Although impoverished as compared with the

  6. Health care achievement and challenges in the Western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hail u yers die s e tinson tifor r bs zler dat oub icroft der Spuy ensburg son s. Issues in. Medicine. Health care achievement and challenges in the. Western Cape. The health sector in the country and in the province has probably delivered most to the expectations of the mass of our citizens: (I) the introduction of free primary ...

  7. Temporality and Patterns of ART Adherence in the Western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an ethnographic study conducted over thirty months in South Africa's Western Cape. Province ending in 2012, we explored ART adherence amongst almost 200 patients attending three clinics. This setting contained significant political, structural, economic and socio-cultural barriers to the uptake of, and adherence to, ...

  8. Trends in numbers of Kelp Gulls Larus dominicanus off western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The number of Kelp Gulls Larus dominicanus breeding at 11 islands in South Africa's Western Cape province increased during the period 1978 to 1999–2000 and then decreased. The increase came after removal of controls on gulls and was associated with supplementary food provided by fish factories and rubbish tips.

  9. Distribution of cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Made, Felix; Wilson, Kerry; Jina, Ruxana; Tlotleng, Nonhlanhla; Jack, Samantha; Ntlebi, Vusi; Kootbodien, Tahira

    2017-12-01

    Cancer mortality rates are expected to increase in developing countries. Cancer mortality rates by province remain largely unreported in South Africa. This study described the 2014 age standardised cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa, to provide insight for strategic interventions and advocacy. 2014 deaths data were retrieved from Statistics South Africa. Deaths from cancer were extracted using 10th International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for cancer (C00-C97). Adjusted 2013 mid-year population estimates were used as a standard population. All rates were calculated per 100 000 individuals. Nearly 38 000 (8%) of the total deaths in South Africa in 2014 were attributed to cancer. Western Cape Province had the highest age standardised cancer mortality rate in South Africa (118, 95% CI: 115-121 deaths per 100 000 individuals), followed by the Northern Cape (113, 95% CI: 107-119 per 100 000 individuals), with the lowest rate in Limpopo Province (47, 95% CI: 45-49 per 100 000). The age standardised cancer mortality rate for men (71, 95% CI: 70-72 per 100 000 individuals) was similar to women (69, 95% CI: 68-70 per 100 000). Lung cancer was a major driver of cancer death in men (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000). In women, cervical cancer was the leading cause of cancer death (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000 individuals). There is a need to further investigate the factors related to the differences in cancer mortality by province in South Africa. Raising awareness of risk factors and screening for cancer in the population along with improved access and quality of health care are also important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of mortality following hospitalisation for isolated head injury in England and Wales, and Victoria, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda J Gabbe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI remains a leading cause of death and disability. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines recommend transfer of severe TBI cases to neurosurgical centres, irrespective of the need for neurosurgery. This observational study investigated the risk-adjusted mortality of isolated TBI admissions in England/Wales, and Victoria, Australia, and the impact of neurosurgical centre management on outcomes. METHODS: Isolated TBI admissions (>15 years, July 2005-June 2006 were extracted from the hospital discharge datasets for both jurisdictions. Severe isolated TBI (AIS severity >3 admissions were provided by the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN and Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR for England/Wales, and Victoria, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare risk-adjusted mortality between jurisdictions. FINDINGS: Mortality was 12% (749/6256 in England/Wales and 9% (91/1048 in Victoria for isolated TBI admissions. Adjusted odds of death in England/Wales were higher compared to Victoria overall (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.6, 2.5, and for cases <65 years (OR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.51, 3.69. For severe TBI, mortality was 23% (133/575 for TARN and 20% (68/346 for VSTR, with 72% of TARN and 86% of VSTR cases managed at a neurosurgical centre. The adjusted mortality odds for severe TBI cases in TARN were higher compared to the VSTR (OR 1.45, 95% CI: 0.96, 2.19, but particularly for cases <65 years (OR 2.04, 95% CI: 1.07, 3.90. Neurosurgical centre management modified the effect overall (OR 1.12, 95% CI: 0.73, 1.74 and for cases <65 years (OR 1.53, 95% CI: 0.77, 3.03. CONCLUSION: The risk-adjusted odds of mortality for all isolated TBI admissions, and severe TBI cases, were higher in England/Wales when compared to Victoria. The lower percentage of cases managed at neurosurgical centres in England and Wales was an explanatory factor, supporting the changes made to the NICE

  11. Aquatic and fisheries survey of the upper Victoria Nile: a report prepared for AES Nile Power Bujagali hydropower project, final report

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The aquatic ecosystem of the Upper Victoria Nile is part of a wider complex of water bodies (lakes and rivers) in Uganda that is of immense socioeconomic importance, especially the fisheries. A source of food, income, energy, irrigation and drinking water, the protection, sustainable use and management of the Upper Victoria Nile water resources are vital to Uganda's economy. The Upper Victoria Nile,due to its abundance of socio-economic benefits,provides a significant contribution to Ugand...

  12. [Environmental efficiency evaluation under carbon emission constraint in Western China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Jian-bo; Yan, Li-jiao; Huang, Shao-rong; Zhang, Ge

    2015-06-01

    This research used the SBM model based on undesirable outputs to measure the static environmental efficiency of Western China under carbon emission constraint from 2000 to 2012. The researchers also utilized the Malmquist index to further analyze the change tendency of environmental efficiency. Additionally, Tobit regression analysis was used to study the factors relevant to environmental efficiency. Practical solutions to improve environmental quality in Western China were put forward. The study showed that in Western China, environmental efficiency with carbon emission constraint was significantly lower than that without carbon emission constraint, and the difference could be described as an inverse U-shaped curve which increased at first and then decreased. Guang-xi and Inner Mongolia, the two provinces met the effective environmental efficiency levels all the time under carbon emission constraint. However, the five provinces of Guizhou, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia and Xinjiang did not. Furthermore, Ningxia had the lowest level of environmental efficiency, with a score between 0.281-0.386. Although the environmental efficiency of most provinces was currently at an ineffective level, the environmental efficiency quality was gradually improving at an average speed of 6.6%. Excessive CO2 emission and a large amount of energy consumption were the primary factors causing environmental inefficiency in Western China, and energy intensity had the most negative impact on the environmental efficiency. The increase of import and export trade reduced the environmental efficiency significantly in Western China, while the increase of foreign direct investment had a positive effect on its environmental efficiency.

  13. Modelling the influence of temperature and rainfall on malaria incidence in four endemic provinces of Zambia using semiparametric Poisson regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimaponda-Mataa, Nzooma M; Tembo-Mwase, Enala; Gebreslasie, Michael; Achia, Thomas N O; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2017-02-01

    Although malaria morbidity and mortality are greatly reduced globally owing to great control efforts, the disease remains the main contributor. In Zambia, all provinces are malaria endemic. However, the transmission intensities vary mainly depending on environmental factors as they interact with the vectors. Generally in Africa, possibly due to the varying perspectives and methods used, there is variation on the relative importance of malaria risk determinants. In Zambia, the role climatic factors play on malaria case rates has not been determined in combination of space and time using robust methods in modelling. This is critical considering the reversal in malaria reduction after the year 2010 and the variation by transmission zones. Using a geoadditive or structured additive semiparametric Poisson regression model, we determined the influence of climatic factors on malaria incidence in four endemic provinces of Zambia. We demonstrate a strong positive association between malaria incidence and precipitation as well as minimum temperature. The risk of malaria was 95% lower in Lusaka (ARR=0.05, 95% CI=0.04-0.06) and 68% lower in the Western Province (ARR=0.31, 95% CI=0.25-0.41) compared to Luapula Province. North-western Province did not vary from Luapula Province. The effects of geographical region are clearly demonstrated by the unique behaviour and effects of minimum and maximum temperatures in the four provinces. Environmental factors such as landscape in urbanised places may also be playing a role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. British History is Their History: Britain and the British Empire in the History Curriculum of Ontario, Canada and Victoria, Australia 1930-1975

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephen J Jackson

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the evolving conceptions of national identity in Canada and Australia through an analysis of officially sanctioned history textbooks in Ontario, Canada and Victoria, Australia...

  15. [GIS-based analysis of the land suitability for manure application in the northeastern provinces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-xia; Li, Wei; Han, Wei; Yang, Ming; Dong, Yun-she; Lin, Chun-ye; Zhang, Feng-song; Xiong, Xiong

    2010-04-01

    As an important industrial and grain production base of China, livestock and poultry industry have been rapidly developed in the northeastern provinces. With the rapid increasing amount of animal production, how to handle the huge amount of animal manure has become a critical issue for local government. A quantitative analysis based on geographic information system (GIS) combining the biophysical, environmental, social and economic factors was applied to determine the land suitability for manure application in the northeastern provinces. The results show that a farmland area of 211942.7 km2, accounting for 78.9% of the cultivated land in three northeastern provinces, is estimated to be suitable for manure application. The suitable farmlands are mostly distributed in Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces. Proximity to residential area, water body and roads are identified as the primary factors influencing the manure application, while rainfall is the main factor to generate discrepancies in different areas. Furthermore, the future potential capacity for animal production in three provinces was forecasted based on the areas of suitable land and the population of existing livestock production. Among 36 cities of three provinces, the big variation is observed, Siping City is overproducing 1.813 million heads of pig unit at present, but Qiqihaer City still has the potential to rear 11.203 million heads of pig unit. Overall, eastern region of the study area holds the high potential for animal production with a surplus capacity of 2.842 million heads of pig unit, the potential of the typical mountain and forest areas is only 10% of eastern region, however. In contrast, in half of western region (central Liaoning province and central Jilin Province), their animal populations have exceeded the land carrying capacity. Therefore, we strongly suggest a site-specific animal production and manure application guide to achieve a sustainable development of livestock production in the

  16. Amphibians in Western Asturia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Geert

    1982-01-01

    In the spring of 1980, from the end of March till in July, I visited the eastern part of the Spanish province of Oviedo and the adjacent part of the province of Leon. The main subject of investigation during this period was the species Rana temporaria (Veenstra 1981). I tried to find out where this

  17. A geochemical study of lithospheric mantle beneath Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica): main evidences from volatile content in ultramafic xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correale, Alessandra; Pelorosso, Beatrice; Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Coltorti, Massimo; Italiano, Francesco; Bonadiman, Costanza

    2017-04-01

    A geochemical study of ultramafic xenoliths from Northern Victoria Land (Green Point, GP and Handler Ridge, HR), is carried out in order to investigate the features of the lithosphere mantle beneath the Western Antarctic Ridge System (WARS). The majority of samples is spinel anhydrous lherzolite with rare presence of secondary phases (secondary cpx and glass). Geothermobarometric calculations, based on the Fe/Mg distribution among the peridotite minerals reveal that Sub Continental Lithospheric Mantle (SCLM) beneath Handler Ridge records temperatures and redox conditions higher then Greene Point (P fixed at 15 Kbar). Moreover, geochemical models evidence that, GP mantle domain represents a residuum after ˜7 to 21 % of partial melting in the spinel stability field, which was variably affected by interaction with infiltrating melts, acting in different times, from at least Jurassic to Cenozoic (Pelorosso et al., 2016). Fluid inclusions (FI) entrapped in olivine and pyroxene crystals were investigated for elemental and isotopic contents of both, noble gases (He, Ne, Ar) and CO2. He, Ar and Ne concentrations range from 1.52×10-14 to 1.07×10-12, from 4.09×10-13 to 3.47×10-11and from 2.84×10-16 to 7.57×10-14 mol/g, respectively, while the CO2amounts are between 7.08×10-10 and 8.12×10-7 mol/g. The 3He/4He varies between 5.95 and 20.18 Ra (where Ra is the 3He/4He ratio of air), being the lowest and the highest values measured in the He-poorer samples. Post-eruptive input of cosmogenic 3He and radiogenic 4He seems to influence mainly the samples associated to a lower He concentrations, increasing and decreasing respectively their primordial 3He/4He values, that for all the other samples range between 6.76 and 7.45 Ra. This range reasonably reflects the isotope signature of mantle beneath the investigated areas. The 4He/40Ar* ratio corrected for atmospheric-derived contamination ranges between 0.004 and 0.39. The lowest 4He/40Ar* values (4He/40Ar*<0.1) are

  18. Petrogenesis and tectonic setting of the Roman Volcanic Province, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccaluva, L.; Di Girolamo, P.; Serri, G.

    1991-01-01

    The volcanism in the Roman Province of Italy can be modelled by the partial melting of heterogeneously enriched mantle sources. The heterogeneity was created by materials derived from a subducted slab which can still be traced geophysically beneath the central Apennines. New petrographical and chemical data are presented for the high-K calc-alkaline and the shoshonitic volcanics of the Campania region. Primary magmas are present only locally. The existence of spatial zonation in the volcanism of Campania is documented for the first time. The shoshonitic, leucite-basanitic and leucititic volcanics of the Phlegraean Fields-Procida-Ischia and the Somma-Vesuvius areas are, at similar degrees of evolution, about two times richer in Nb and Ba than those of northwestern Campania and the Latium part of the Roman Province. Accordingly, distinct north-western and south-eastern subprovinces can be defined. The evaluation of enrichment factors, that is the abundance ratio between the average contents of each element in the relatively primitive lavas of the low K- and the high K suites, shows that the mantle sources prior to K-metasomatism were different in the two sub-provinces of the Roman Province. In the north-western one, they resembled the sources of ocean-island tholeiites and moderately enriched MOR-basalts. In the south-east they were similar to those of ocean island alkaline lavas and enriched MORB's. Modelling based on K, P, Ce, Sr, Rb, Ba, Th, Sm, Eu, Gd, Y, Nb and {87 Sr}/{86 Sr} was carried out. It indicates that the range of mantle sources of the volcanics in northwestern Campania and Latium can be modelled by the addition of 3 to 20% of materials derived by partial melting of carbonaceous pelites to a Sr-enriched mantle wedge comparable to the Honolulu mantle source least enriched in Nb. The production of Sr-enriched mantle wedge requires either the action of fluids produced by dehydration of subducted oceanic crust, or a small amount of metasomatism caused by

  19. Monitoring geodynamic activity in the Victoria Land, East Antarctica: Evidence from GNSS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanutta, A.; Negusini, M.; Vittuari, L.; Cianfarra, P.; Salvini, F.; Mancini, F.; Sterzai, P.; Dubbini, M.; Galeandro, A.; Capra, A.

    2017-10-01

    GNSS networks in Antarctica are a fundamental tool to define actual crustal displacements due to geological and geophysical processes and to constrain the glacial isostatic models (GIA). A large network devoted to the detection and monitoring of crustal deformations in the Northern Victoria Land (Victoria Land Network for DEFormation control - VLNDEF), was monumented during the 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 field campaigns, as part of Italian National Program for Antarctic Research and surveyed periodically during the Southern summer seasons. In this paper, GPS observations of VLNDEF collected over a more than 15-year span, together with various selected POLENET sites and more than 70 IGS stations, were processed with Bernese Software, using a classical double difference approach. A solution was obtained combining NEQs by means of ADDNEQ2/FODITS tools embedded in Bernese Software. All the Antarctic sites were kept free and a subset of 50 IGS stations were used to frame VLNDEF into ITRF2008. New evidence provided by analysis of GPS time series for the VLNDEF network is presented; also displacements along the vertical component are compared with the recently published GIA models. The absolute velocities indicate an overall displacement of the northern Victoria Land region along the south-east direction (Ve = 10.6 mm/yr, Vn = -11.5 mm/yr) and an average uplift rate of Vu = 0.5 mm/yr. Two GIA models have been analyzed: ICE-6G_C-VM5a proposed by Argus et al. (2014), Peltier et al. (2015) and W12A_v1 by Whitehouse et al. (2012a,b). Up rates, predicted over the VLNDEF sites by the mentioned GIA models, have been extracted and compared with those observed. A preliminary comparison with GPS-derived vertical rates shows that the Victoria Land ICE-6G_C-VM5 and W12A_v1 GIA models predict overestimated uplift rates of 0.7 and 0.9 mm/yr weighted mean residuals respectively. The mean horizontal relative motions within the Victoria Land (VL) area are in most cases negligible, while only

  20. Stable isotope paleoecology of Late Pleistocene Middle Stone Age humans from the Lake Victoria basin, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Nicole D; Fox, David L; McNulty, Kieran P; Faith, J Tyler; Peppe, Daniel J; Van Plantinga, Alex; Tryon, Christian A

    2015-05-01

    Paleoanthropologists have long argued that environmental pressures played a key role in human evolution. However, our understanding of how these pressures mediated the behavioral and biological diversity of early modern humans and their migration patterns within and out of Africa is limited by a lack of archaeological evidence associated with detailed paleoenvironmental data. Here, we present the first stable isotopic data from paleosols and fauna associated with Middle Stone Age (MSA) sites in East Africa. Late Pleistocene (∼100-45 ka, thousands of years ago) sediments on Rusinga and Mfangano Islands in eastern Lake Victoria (Kenya) preserve a taxonomically diverse, non-analog faunal community associated with MSA artifacts. We analyzed the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of paleosol carbonate and organic matter and fossil mammalian tooth enamel, including the first analyses for several extinct bovids such as Rusingoryx atopocranion, Damaliscus hypsodon, and an unnamed impala species. Both paleosol carbonate and organic matter data suggest that local habitats associated with human activities were primarily riverine woodland ecosystems. However, mammalian tooth enamel data indicate that most large-bodied mammals consumed a predominantly C4 diet, suggesting an extensive C4 grassland surrounding these riverine woodlands in the region at the time. These data are consistent with other lines of paleoenvironmental evidence that imply a substantially reduced Lake Victoria at this time, and demonstrate that C4 grasslands were significantly expanded into equatorial Africa compared with their present distribution, which could have facilitated dispersal of human populations and other biotic communities. Our results indicate that early populations of Homo sapiens from the Lake Victoria region exploited locally wooded and well-watered habitats within a larger grassland ecosystem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The molecular epidemiology of norovirus outbreaks in Victoria, 2014 to 2015
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggink, Leesa D; Moselen, Jean M; Marshall, John A

    2017-03-31

    Noroviruses are a leading cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis. This study examined the incidence and molecular characteristics of norovirus outbreaks in healthcare and non-healthcare settings in Victoria, Australia, over 2 years (2014-2015). Norovirus was detected in 65.7% and 60.4% of gastroenteritis outbreaks investigated for the years 2014 and 2015 respectively. There was a significant decline in the number of norovirus outbreaks in the period 2014 to 2015 although in both years norovirus outbreaks peaked in the latter part of the year. Norovirus Open Reading Frame (ORF) 2 (capsid) genotypes identified included GI.2, GI.3, GI.4, GI.5, GI.6, GI.9, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.6, GII.7, GII.8, GII.13 and GII.17. GII.4 was the most common genotype detected. In addition, the following ORF 1/ORF 2 recombinant forms were confirmed: GII.P4_NewOrleans_2009/GII.4_Sydney_2012, GII.P12/GII.3, GII.Pb (GII.21)/GII.3, GII.Pe/GII.2 and GII.Pe/GII.4_Sydney_2012. A significant decline was noted in the chief norovirus strain GII.Pe/GII.4_Sydney_2012 between 2014 and 2015 but there was a re-emergence of a GII.P4_ NewOrleans _2009 norovirus strain. Outbreaks involving the GII.P17/GII.17 genotype were also detected for the first time in Victoria. GI genotypes circulating in Victoria for the 2 years 2014 and 2015 underwent a dramatic change between the 2 years of the survey. Many genotypes could occur in both healthcare and non-healthcare settings although GI.3, GII.6, and GII.4 were significantly more common in healthcare settings. The study emphasises the complex way in which norovirus circulates throughout the community.

  2. Sex and sport: sexual risk behaviour in young people in rural and regional Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fabian Y S; Hocking, Jane S; Link, Chris Kyle; Chen, Marcus Y; Hellard, Margaret E

    2010-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of chlamydia and understand sexual risk behaviour in 16-29 year olds in rural Victoria through a chlamydia testing program undertaken at local sporting clubs. Young people were recruited from the Loddon Mallee region of Victoria, Australia between May and September 2007. After a night of sporting practice, participants provided a first pass urine sample and completed a brief questionnaire about sexual risk behaviour. Those positive for chlamydia were managed by telephone consultation with a practitioner from Melbourne Sexual Health Centre. A total of 709 young people participated (77% male, 23% female) in the study; 77% were sexually active. Overall chlamydia prevalence in sexually active participants was 5.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.4-7.3); 7.4% in females (95% CI: 3.5-13.6) and 4.5% in males (95% CI: 2.7-6.9). Approximately 60% of males and 20% of females consumed alcohol at high 'Risky Single Occasion Drinking' levels at least weekly and 60% had used an illicit drug in their lifetime. Nearly 45% reported having sex in the past year when they usually would not have because they were too drunk or high. Sexually transmissible infection (STI) knowledge was generally poor and only 25% used a condom the last time they had sex. Chlamydia prevalence was high in our study population. Many participants had poor knowledge about STIs and low condom use. These findings combined with high levels of risky alcohol use and having sex while intoxicated highlights the need for programs in rural and regional Victoria that combine both STI testing and prevention and education programs.

  3. The Most Effective Methods for Delivering Severe Weather Early Warnings to Fishermen on Lake Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tushemereirwe, Richard; Tuhebwe, Doreen; Cooper, Mary Ann; D'ujanga, Florence Mutonyi

    2017-02-22

    Introduction : It is estimated that five thousand people die on Lake Victoria every year by drowning which is triggered by severe weather hazards like lightning. Objectives :  In order to improve predictability of severe weather conditions on Lake Victoria, there is need to deliver timely and effective Severe Weather Early Warning Systems (SWEWS) to those at risk. On Lake Victoria, previous SWEW service trials ceased with the end of the funding grants. This study therefore assessed the possibility of sustaining the SWEW service by assessing willingness to pay.   Methods : An assessment was conducted between March and May 2015 to determine the SWEW service improvements desired by the population. A convenience sample of respondents was gathered and interviewed during impromptu visits to landing sites on Lake Victoria. The respondents were also among community members that had earlier participated in a pilot assessing the feasibility of mobile phones is delivering SWEW alerts.  Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to fishermen and fisher folks at the landing site to gather suggestions/strategies for (i) better design and implementation of SWEW service, (ii) use of smart phones, and (iii) their ability and willingness to pay for a SWEW service. Results were presented as frequencies. Results : Two hundred fifteen respondents from fourteen landing sites (communities) were interviewed. Over 50% of the respondents (113/215) were aware about at least one community member who had been injured due to lightening on the lake in the past year. Ninety two percent (198/215) of the respondents reported using mobile phones as their main tool of communication but only 4% had smart phones that could receive early warning weather alerts through internet connectivity. Seventy five percent of respondents said they would welcome a system that could deliver commercial weather alerts and 65% were willing to pay for such a service.   Conclusions : A SWEW service is feasible

  4. Gambling revenues as a public administration issue: electronic gaming machines in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickernell, David; Keast, Robyn; Brown, Kerry; Yousefpour, Nina; Miller, Chris

    2013-12-01

    Gambling activities and the revenues derived have been seen as a way to increase economic development in deprived areas. There are also, however, concerns about the effects of gambling in general and electronic gaming machines (EGMs) in particular, on the resources available to the localities in which they are situated. This paper focuses on the factors that determine the extent and spending of community benefit-related EGM-generated resources within Victoria, Australia, focusing in particular on the relationships between EGM activity and socio-economic and social capital indicators, and how this relates to the community benefit resources generated by gaming.

  5. A Baseline Air Quality Assessment Onboard a Victoria Class Submarine: HMCS Windsor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    défense Canada – Toronto; May 2006. Pour faciliter l’élaboration de futurs plans de gestion de la qualité de l’air à bord des nouveaux sous-marins de...visant à améliorer la gestion de la qualité de l’air à bord de sous-marins de classe Victoria. Ces recommandations comprennent : l’examen de tous les... ambient air from the WSC (centre of the torpedo racks, used as bunk space); Senior Rates Mess Accommodation Space (aft compartment); Junior Rates

  6. Gastropod diversity, distribution and abundance in habitats with and without anthropogenic disturbances in Lake Victoria, Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, C. N.; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Madsen, Henry

    2013-01-01

    We investigated freshwater gastropod diversity, abundance and distribution in habitats with and without anthropogenic disturbance in two localities, Ndere in the Winam Gulf and Mbita Point, Lake Victoria, Kenya, from May 2002 to January 2004. A total of 133 984 gastropod specimens belonging to 15...... and other wastes so as to reduce local eutrophication, thereby reducing risks associated with transmission of potential snail-borne diseases. © 2013...... species were recorded, 14 from Mbita and 12 from Ndere. Two species, Ferrissia kavirondica and Cleopatra cridlandi, which were recorded only from undisturbed habitats, could be indicators of least disturbed habitats. Water chemistry did differ between fish landing sites and undisturbed habitats at some...

  7. Microbial quality and safety of fresh and dried Rastrineobola argentea from Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baniga, Zebedayo; Dalsgaard, Anders; Mhongole, Ofred J

    2017-01-01

    Rastrineobola argentea (silver cyprinid/sardines) is an important commercial fish species found in Lake Victoria. It is an important protein source for consumers in several African countries including Tanzania. A cross-sectional study was conducted using standard methods to assess the bacteriolog...... sites contained 30% (n = 20) and those from the markets contained 15% (n = 20) Salmonella spp. Salmonella spp. were not detected in sardines dried on racks. To conclude, sun drying of sardines on racks is an effective drying method providing a safe product for human consumption....

  8. A new species of Anabarhynchus (Diptera: Therevidae from an ocean beach in south east Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ferguson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae (Diptera that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchus oceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic A. kampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001, but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Megathereva Lyneborg, 1992. This new species brings the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 113.

  9. VICTORIA: A mechanistic model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system under severe accident conditions. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heams, T J [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, D A; Johns, N A; Mason, A [UKAEA, Winfrith, (England); Bixler, N E; Grimley, A J [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wheatley, C J [UKAEA, Culcheth (England); Dickson, L W [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada); Osborn-Lee, I [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Domagala, P; Zawadzki, S; Rest, J [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Alexander, C A [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Lee, R Y [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The VICTORIA model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a light water reactor during a severe accident is described. It has been developed by the USNRC to define the radionuclide phenomena and processes that must be considered in systems-level models used for integrated analyses of severe accident source terms. The VICTORIA code, based upon this model, predicts fission product release from the fuel, chemical reactions involving fission products, vapor and aerosol behavior, and fission product decay heating. Also included is a detailed description of how the model is implemented in VICTORIA, the numerical algorithms used, and the correlations and thermochemical data necessary for determining a solution. A description of the code structure, input and output, and a sample problem are provided.

  10. La construcción de legitimidad del Frente para la Victoria (1988-1991 Frente para la Victoria's construction of legitimacy (1988-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Sosa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo aborda la construcción de legitimidad del Frente para la Victoria (FV en el escenario político de Santa Cruz desde su nacimiento en 1988 hasta llegar a la gobernación en 1991. Se identifican tres fuentes de legitimidad construidas de manera alternativa al debilitamiento de la credibilidad de los partidos políticos tradicionales: la UCR, el PJ, el PI y el MID, entre otros. En este contexto, el Frente para la Victoria desplegó sus estrategias de legitimación apelando a la unidad de lo diverso y sumando referentes individuales de todo el arco político. Por otro lado, apeló a través de sus discursos y la conformación de los elencos y organizaciones a representar la fragmentación social propia de una sociedad compuesta por capas migratorias y, por último, construyó una novedosa oferta política a-partidaria acorde a las representaciones de la crisis estatal a mediados del '80 a partir de la reivindicación de los valores de la gestión, la eficiencia, el orden, el trabajo y la gobernabilidad. Sus estrategias de legitimación muestran cómo la primera etapa de construcción de poder político del FV fue efecto de su trayectoria en la frontera de los débiles grupos sociales y políticos.O trabalho aborda a construção de legitimidade do Frente para la Victoria (FV no cenário político de Santa Cruz desde seu nascimento em 1988 até chegar ao governo em 1991. Identificam-se três fontes de legitimidade construídas de maneira alternativa ao enfraquecimento da credibilidade dos partidos políticos tradicionais: a UCR, o PJ, o PI e o MID, entre outros. Neste contexto, o Frente para la Victoria desdobrou suas estratégias de legitimação apelando à unidade do que for diverso e somando referências individuais de todo o arco político. Por outro lado, apelou, através de seus discursos e a conformação dos elencos e organizações, a representar a fragmentação social própria de uma sociedade composta por camadas migrat

  11. Influence of the Pearl River estuary and vertical mixing in Victoria Harbor on water quality in relation to eutrophication impacts in Hong Kong waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kedong; Harrison, Paul J

    2007-06-01

    This study presents water quality parameters such as nutrients, phytoplankton biomass and dissolved oxygen based on 11 years of water quality data in Victoria Harbor and examined how the Pearl River estuary discharge in summer and year round sewage discharge influenced these parameters. Nutrients in Victoria Harbor were strongly influenced by both the Pearl River and sewage effluent, as indicated by the high NO(3) inputs from the Pearl River in summer and higher NH(4) and PO(4) in Victoria Harbor than both its sides. N:P ratios were low in the dry season, but increased to >16:1 in the wet season, suggesting that P is potentially the most limiting nutrient in this area during the critical period in the summer. Although there were generally high nutrients, the phytoplankton biomass was not as high as one would expect in Victoria Harbor. In fact, there were high concentrations of chl near the bottom well below the photic zone. Salinity near the bottom was lower in Victoria Harbor than at the two entrances to Victoria Harbor, suggesting strong vertical mixing within Victoria Harbor. Therefore, strong vertical mixing and horizontal advection appear to play an important role in significantly reducing eutrophication impacts in Victoria Harbor. Consequently, dissolved oxygen near the bottom was low in summer, but only occasionally dipped to 2 mgL(-1) despite the high organic loading from sewage effluent.

  12. Geochemistry of the Kalkarindji Magmas: Insights into the Source of the Oldest Phanerozoic Large Igneous Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, B. D.; Jourdan, F.; Hodges, K.; Tessalina, S.; Chiaradia, M.; Evins, L.; Gole, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Kalkarindji continental flood basalt province (CFBP) of northern Australia is the oldest Phanerozoic large igneous province (LIP) in the world. The extent of this Middle Cambrian LIP has been estimated to at least 2.1 x 106 km2 with exposures in Western Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland, and South Australia. The research into Kalkarindji is still in its infancy with only a handful of studies published. The rocks of the Kalkarindji province occur as lava flows, sills, dykes, and volcanic tuffs. Kalkarindji has been linked to an extinction event at the Early-Middle Cambrian boundary. The Kalkarindji province displays Low-Ti values and high SiO2 values compared to other large igneous provinces, enriched 87Sr/86Sr values, and low 187Os/188Os. This project presents a large data set of new geochemical analyses of the various constituents of the Kalkarindji CFBP. Source mixing calculations, assimilation and fractionation models, coupled with Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to understand the petrogenesis of the province. The trace element and 87Sr/86Sr values indicate a contribution of enriched crustal-like material into the source region; however, the Os values fall into typical mantle ranges. These geochemical patterns suggest that the mantle source(s) of the Kalkarindji CFBP has been directly enriched at some stage of history, before the emplacement of the province. This study will provide further insights into the magma source and origin processes needed to create one of the world's largest and oldest Phanerozoic large igneous provinces.

  13. Round the bend: a brief history of mental health nursing in Victoria, Australia 1848 to 1950's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Natisha Marina

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents a history of mental health nursing in Victoria, Australia from 1848 to the 1950's, or the asylum years to the era of the mental hospital. The research for this historical overview was conducted as part of a literature review for a mental health nursing doctoral thesis, which included an account of the evolution of the profession from asylum attendant to the present time. The literature reviewed for this project revealed a distinct lack of a coherent, chronological account of the historical development of mental health nursing in Victoria, and this paper seeks to address that knowledge gap.

  14. Aprendiendo a entender. Victoria Ocampo y su descubrimiento de los Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plotkin, Mariano

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the evolving relationship that Argentine intellectual and cultural entrepreneur Victoria Ocampo established with the United States. Through her trajectory the article analyzes broader topics such as the evolution of the Argentine social and intellectual élite’s project of modernization. Ocampo was at the same time a typical and a unique representative of the Argentine social élite. She was typical in the way she was educated in a cosmopolitan environment. She was unique because she occupied a central figure in the Argentine field of cultural production since the 1920 until her death in the late 1970s.

    El artículo analiza la evolución de la compleja relación que la intelectual y empresaria cultural argentina Victoria Ocampo estableció con los Estados Unidos. A través de esta trayectoria, el artículo analiza también temas mas amplios como la evolución de los proyectos modernizadores de la élite social e intelectual argentina. Ocampo era a la vez una representante típica y única de su clase social. Era típica por la manera en que fue educada en un ambiente cosmopolita. Era única por el lugar central que ocupó en el campo intelectual argentino desde la década de 1920 hasta su muerte a finales de los años 70.

  15. Reasons women give for contemplating or undergoing abortion: a qualitative investigation in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Maggie; Rosenthal, Doreen; Mallett, Shelley; Rowe, Heather; Hardiman, Annarella

    2010-11-01

    To increase understanding of women's perspectives on considering or undergoing elective abortion. Qualitative study. A large public women's hospital in the state of Victoria, Australia. Sixty women who had contacted a public pregnancy advisory service in Victoria, Australia, seeking information, advice, or appointments in relation to an unplanned or unwanted pregnancy. Qualitative telephone interviews. The iterative qualitative analysis employed the five stages of a thematic framework approach. Themes in women's accounts of considering or undergoing elective abortion. Women's accounts emphasized their reasons for considering or seeking abortion. Decisions were made in the context of their lives as a whole; influences were usually contingent and multiple. Reasons related to the woman herself, the potential child, existing children, her partner and other significant relationships, and financial matters. This research used qualitative methods to produce the only recent study of its kind in Australia. Women's accounts reveal the complex personal and social contexts within which reproductive events must be comprehended and the thoughtfulness with which they make decisions. Results of this research will assist health-care professionals to increase their insights into women's reproductive experiences. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Individual and community correlates of young people's high-risk drinking in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Michael; Laslett, Anne-Marie; Dietze, Paul

    2008-12-01

    To examine key individual- and community-level correlates of regular very high-risk drinking (more than 20 drinks at least 12 times a year for males and more than 11 drinks at least 12 times a year for females) among young (16-24) drinkers in Victoria. CATI survey of 10,879 young Victorian drinkers. Multi-level modelling of correlates of proportion drinking at very high-risk levels at both individual (e.g. age, gender) and community levels (e.g. alcohol outlet density, remoteness). One-fifth of the sample reported regular (at least monthly) very high-risk drinking. Significant individual-level correlates of very high-risk drinking included age, gender, cultural background, recreational spending money, life stage, living situation, family conflict and age at first drink. Significant community-level correlates included remoteness (living in a rural area) and packaged liquor outlet density. The study highlights a range of important factors relating to regular drinking of dangerous amounts of alcohol by youth. Interventions aimed at preventing early initiation or managing recreational spending should be explored. Further, regulatory management of packaged liquor outlets and or remote rural communities in Victoria with high levels of dangerous drinking should be a priority.

  17. A longitudinal study of the cost of food in Victoria influenced by geography and nutritional quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Claire; McCartan, Julia; Kleve, Sue; Sinha, Kompal; Shiell, Alan

    2016-06-01

    To monitor the cost and affordability of a nutritious diet and to assess the influence of distance from the capital city and socioeconomic status on the cost of nutritious food in Victoria. Twenty-six of Victoria's 79 local government areas (33%) were randomly chosen for inclusion in the study. A random sample of stores was selected for inclusion from each local government area. The cost of the 44 'healthy' and 10 'discretionary' food and drinks in the healthy food basket for a family of four for a fortnight was collected during the winter and summer of 2012, 2013 and 2014. The mean cost of the basket increased from $424.06 ± 38.22 in winter 2012 to $451.19 ± 33.83 in summer 2014 (pcost. These findings show that a healthy diet may be unaffordable for some Victorians. The cost of food is a key factor influencing intake. Public health strategies may need to consider strategies to make healthy food more affordable for some. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  18. Prescription opioid dispensing and prescription opioid poisoning: Population data from Victoria, Australia 2006 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Hassani-Mahmooei, Behrooz; Clapperton, Angela; McClure, Roderick

    2017-02-01

    To describe recent trends in opioid prescribing and prescription opioid poisoning resulting in hospitalisation or death in Victoria, Australia. This is a population-based ecological study of residents of Victoria, 2006 - 14. Australian Bureau of Statistics residential population data were combined with Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) opioid prescription data, Victorian Admitted Episodes Data (VAED) and cause of death data. Annual opioid dispensings increased by 78% in 2006 - 13, from 0.33 to 0.58 per population. Opioid use increased with age: in 2013, 14% of Victorian residents aged ≥65 years filled at least one oxycodone prescription. In 2006 - 14, prescription opioid related hospital admissions increased by 6.8% per year, from 107 to 187 /1,000,000 person-years; 56% were due to intentional self-poisoning. Annual deaths increased from 21 to 28 /1,000,000 persons, in 2007 - 11. Admissions and deaths peaked at 25-44 years. Although both opioid prescribing and poisoning have increased, there is discrepancy between the exposed group (dispensings increased with age) and those with adverse consequences (rates peaked at ages 25-44 years). A better understanding is needed of drivers of prescribing and adverse consequences. Together with monitoring of prescribing and poisoning, this will facilitate early detection and prevention of a public health problem. © 2016 The Authors.

  19. VIRGINIA WOOLF EN LOS TESTIMONIOS DE VICTORIA OCAMPO: TENSIONES ENTRE FEMINISMO Y COLONIALISMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Salomone

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan una serie de textos ensayísticos de la escritora argentina Victoria Ocampo (1890-1979, en los que ella aborda la relación que la ligó a Virginia Woolf, su principal referente en términos literarios y feministas. Desde perspectivas teóricas postcoloniales y feministas, se hace una interpretación de los textos de Ocampo, observando los límites que la cosmovisión colonialista impone no solo a sus diálogos con Woolf, sino al despliegue de su propia escrituraThis article reviews a series of essays by the Argentine writer Victoria Ocampo (1890-1979 in which she deals with the relationship that bound her to Virginia Woolf, her main referent in literary and feminist terms. From postcolonial theoretical perspectives, an interpretation of Ocampo's texts is made, while noticing the limits that the colonialist cosmic vision imposed not only on her dialogues with Woolf but on the development of her own writing

  20. Reproductive efficiency of Thoroughbred and Standardbred horses in north-east Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, L C; Anderson, G A; McKinnon, A O

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the reproductive efficiency of horse farms in north-east Victoria and identify aspects of management to be targeted for improving reproductive efficiency. Retrospective study. Records from seven Thoroughbred (TB) and four Standardbred (STB) studs in north-east Victoria from 1990 to 2001 were reviewed; 8813 cycles in 4455 mares were analysed. TB mares were inseminated by natural mating, whereas STB mares (89%) were artificially inseminated. The overall early pregnancy rate per cycle was 68.8% for TB mares and for STB mares, 68.3%. Multiple pregnancy per cycle was more frequent in TB (8.3%) than in STB (4.6%) mares (P reproductive status within the TB than the STB mares. Pregnancy rate per cycle among stallions ranged from 48% to 79%. On-farm pregnancy rates in both breeds were higher than previously reported and likely reflect improvements in reproductive management. The disparity between breeds in the inseminations per cycle and proportion of barren mares exposed the differing structures of the two industries, and presents a target for improving the reproductive efficiency in STBs. The difference between breeds in the multiple pregnancy rate per cycle likely reflects the higher ovulation rate of TB mares. The variability in pregnancy rate per cycle between the 22 stallions was associated with differences in individual inherent fertility and the quality of stallion management.

  1. Climatic variability in combination with eutrophication drives adaptive responses in the gills of Lake Victoria cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijssel, Jacco C; Hecky, Robert E; Kishe-Machumu, Mary A; Meijer, Saskia E; Pols, Johan; van Tienderen, Kaj M; Ververs, Jan D; Wanink, Jan H; Witte, Frans

    2016-12-01

    Textbook examples of adaptive radiation often show rapid morphological changes in response to environmental perturbations. East Africa's Lake Victoria, famous for its stunning adaptive radiation of cichlids, has suffered from human-induced eutrophication over the past decades. This cultural eutrophication is thought to be partly responsible for the dramatically reduced cichlid biodiversity, but climatic variability in itself might also have contributed to the eutrophication which resulted in low oxygen levels and decreased water transparency. To determine how recent environmental changes have influenced the lake and its cichlids over the past 50 years, we gathered environmental and meteorological variables and compared these with gill surface area of four cichlid species. We found that during the period of severe eutrophication and temperature increase (1980s), reduced wind speeds coincided with a reduction in oxygen levels and a decrease in both water temperature and transparency. The gill surface area in three out of the four cichlid species increased during this period which is consistent with adaptive change in response to increased hypoxia. During the 2000s, wind speeds, oxygen levels, water transparency and water temperature increased again, while cichlid gill surface area decreased. Our results imply that climatic changes and especially wind speed and direction might play a crucial role in tropical lake dynamics. The changes in Lake Victoria's water quality coincide with fluctuations in cichlid gill surface area, suggesting that these fish can respond rapidly to environmental perturbations, but also that climatic variability, together with continued eutrophication, might be detrimental to the lake's cichlid biodiversity.

  2. Acute stress ulceration prophylaxis: point prevalence surveys in intensive care units in Victoria, 1997 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Megan S; Wilson, Stuart J; Cade, John F

    2008-03-01

    To assess current practice in acute stress ulceration (ASU) prophylaxis in adult intensive care units in Victoria, Australia, in 1997 and 2005. Point prevalence surveys using a structured telephone questionnaire of ASU prophylaxis practices were performed in adult ICUs in Victoria on 11 November 1997 and 13 April 2005. All Victorian ICUs identified on each study day participated, comprising 30 ICUs in 1997 and 35 ICUs in 2005. Presence of a clinical protocol or guideline for ASU prophylaxis increased significantly from 23% in 1997 to 54% in 2005 (P = 0.01). Overall provision of ASU prophylaxis to ICU patients also increased significantly from 67% in 1997 to 86% in 2005 (P 1997 to 45% in 2005 (P 1997 and 2005. Use of ASU prophylaxis for patients admitted to Victorian ICUs increased significantly from 1997 to 2005, with an associated increase in the presence of protocols or guidelines for ASU prophylaxis. Although agents currently used for ASU prophylaxis in Victorian ICUs are consistent with available evidence, we are concerned that ASU prophylaxis is given to all patients admitted to the ICU rather than targeted to patients in high-risk categories.

  3. Re-visitando a Federica Montseny. Una lectura de La Victoria y sus lecturas

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    Lozano de la Pola, Ana

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article wants to be a close reading of La Victoria, Federica Montseny’s novel published in 1925, in order to achieve two objectives: on the one hand, to break down the clichés that normally appear in Montseny’s work –her “revolutionary melodrama”- as a perfect example of the eternal “ethic-aesthetic” paradox and, on the other hand, to point out the capability of this kind of study to dynamize the so-called “women’s literature” in the context of the XX Century Spanish literature.Este artículo pretende hacer una lectura atenta de La Victoria, novela de Federica Montseny publicada en 1925, con dos objetivos: en primer lugar, deshacer los clichés que suelen tratar la obra de esta autora como representante de la eterna “paradoja ético-estética” que suponen sus “folletines revolucionarios” y, en segundo, señalar la capacidad que tiene el estudio de este tipo de obras para dinamizar la categoría de “literatura de mujeres” con el fin de evitar su estancamiento en el ámbito de la literatura española del s. XX.

  4. Comparison of Sterol Biomarkers for Sewage with other Measures in Victoria Harbour, B.C., Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, S. M.; Lintern, D. Gwyn

    1999-01-01

    A lipid biomarker survey was conducted in Victoria Harbour, Canada, to compare the distribution of sewage-derived organic matter with existing results from bacterial studies. Previous surveys [Miller (1993) Report prepared by Capital Regional District Engineering Department, Victoria, B.C. Canada and Miller et al. (1995) Report prepared by CRD Environmental Services Group and Aquatic Science Consultants Ltd., B.C., Canada] of sewage contamination in the harbour were based principally on infrequent faecal coliform counts. The use of lipid biomarkers to determine time-averaged concentrations of sewage components in sediments may be a more appropriate method for defining areas where sewage is causing environmental or human health risks. 5β-Coprostanol was measured together with other sterols, fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Generally, sewage contamination shown by these lipid biomarkers was coincident with high faecal coliform counts from previous studies. However, this survey suggests, contrary to faecal coliform counts, that Portage Inlet was a region where sewage had accumulated in the sediments, possibly due to nearby overflow facilities or tidal pumping. Although the bacterial counts were low, sewage-derived organic matter was accumulating in the slack areas. In sediments of the Gorge and West Bay there were low faecal biomarker concentrations; this was probably due to the strong tidal currents which do not allow faecal matter to settle in sediments. Faecal coliform counts, however, indicated poor water quality in these same regions but this probably reflects fresh discharges passing through this area without leading to settlement.

  5. Rural Health and Spiritual Care Development: A Review of Programs across Rural Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Lindsay B; Hennequin, Christine; Krikheli, Lillian; O'Brien, Annette; Sanchez, Erin; Marsden, Candace R

    2016-06-01

    Given declining populations in rural areas and diminishing traditional religious support, this research explores whether spiritual care education programs would be beneficial for and appreciated by those working in rural health and/or community organizations. An overview of literature identified three dominant rural health issues affecting the provision of spiritual care in rural areas, namely the disparity between rural and urban areas in terms of resources, the lack of access to services, plus the need for education and training within rural areas. Spiritual Health Victoria Incorporated (Victoria, Australia) sought to address these issues with the implementation of a variety of spiritual education programs within rural areas. Results of an evaluation of these programs are presented specifying participant demographics, reasons why participants attended, their evaluation of the program and any recommendations for future programs. In overall terms, the results indicated that at least 90% of participants favorably rated their attended program as either 'very good' or 'good' and indicated that the main reason for their attendance was to develop their own education and/or practice of spiritual care within their rural context for the benefit of local constituents. Several recommendations are made for future programs.

  6. Algal biomass and pigments along a latitudinal gradient in Victoria Land lakes, East Antarctica

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    Francesca Borghini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that Antarctic terrestrial diversity decreases as latitude increases, but latitudinal patterns of several organisms are not always as clear as expected. The Victoria Land region is rich in lakes and ponds and spans 8 degrees of latitude that encompasses gradients in factors such as solar radiation, temperature, ice cover and day length. An understanding of the links between latitudinally driven environmental and biodiversity changes is essential to the understanding of the ecology and evolution of Antarctic biota and the formulation of hypotheses about likely future changes in biodiversity. As several studies have demonstrated that photosynthetic pigments are an excellent, although underused, tool for the study of lacustrine algal communities, the aim of the present study was to investigate variations in algal biomass and biodiversity across the latitudinal gradient of Victoria Land using sedimentary pigments. We test the hypothesis that the biodiversity of freshwater environments decreases as latitude increases. On the basis of our results, we propose using the number of sedimentary pigments as a proxy for algal diversity and the sum of chlorophyll a and bacteriochlorophyll a with their degradation derivatives as an index of biomass. Overall, our data show that biomass and diversity decrease as latitude increases but local environmental conditions, in particular, natural levels of eutrophy, can affect both productivity and diversity.

  7. Performance of 119 Brazilian children on Stroop paradigm: Victoria version Desempenho de 119 crianças brasileiras no paradigma Stroop: versão Victoria

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    Helenice Charchat-Fichman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Stroop paradigm evaluates susceptibility to interference and is sensitive to dysfunction in frontal lobes. Performance in the Stroop changes along the development. Despite its usefulness in research and clinical settings, there are few studies with Brazilian samples. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the performance and age effect on Stroop paradigm of Brazilian children. METHOD: A sample of 119 children, aged from 7 to 10 years, was submitted to the Victoria version of Stroop. RESULTS: The pattern of results observed was similar to that observed in foreign studies with adults and children. Younger children were overall slower than older ones (positive correlation between age and naming time. Also, younger children showed more susceptible to interference than older ones (negative correlation between age and number of errors for the maximal interference condition. CONCLUSION: There was an age effect explained in terms of developmental changes in information processing velocity and attention selectivity.INTRODUÇÃO: O paradigma Stroop avalia a susceptibilidade à interferência e é sensível a disfunção nos lobos frontais. O desempenho no Stroop muda durante o desenvolvimento. Apesar de sua utilidade na pesquisa e na clínica, existem poucos estudos brasileiros. OBJETIVO: Investigar o desempenho e efeito de idade de crianças brasileiras no Stroop. MÉTODO: A versão Victoria do Stroop foi aplicada em 119 crianças (7 a 10 anos. RESULTADOS: O padrão de resultados observado é comparável a estudos estrangeiros com adultos e crianças. Crianças mais jovens foram mais lentas do que as mais velhas (correlação positiva entre idade e tempo de nomeação. Os mais jovens apresentaram maior susceptibilidade à interferência, comparados aos mais velhos (correlação negativa entre idade e número de erros para a condição de interferência máxima. CONCLUSÃO: O efeito de idade foi observado e discutido em termos de mudanças na

  8. Utilisation of Rep-PCR to track microbes in aerosols collected adjacent to their source, a saline lake in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Chris I; O'Loingsigh, Tadhg; Tapper, Nigel J; De Deckker, Patrick; Allison, Gwen E

    2013-04-15

    Dust storms are a major source of aerosolized bacteria, especially in the drought conditions experienced in Australia in the decade to 2009. The major aims of this project were to identify the culturable bacteria in environmental samples and to genetically fingerprint all isolates using repetitive element PCR (Rep-PCR) to investigate the possibility of tracking isolates from their source into the atmosphere. Four field trips were conducted to a dry lake in western Victoria, Australia to sample aerosols and sediments. Aerosols were collected at heights up to 150 m using vacuum pumps with filters attached to a tethered helium balloon, while corresponding sediments were collected in sterile polypropylene tubes. Isolates were cultivated on Tryptic Soy Agar, R2 Agar and Marine Agar, and grown in dark conditions at ambient temperature. By sequencing the 16S rRNA gene of 270 isolates, fifteen different bacterial families were identified, with both the aerosols and sediments dominated by the Bacillaceae family. Four sets of Rep-PCR primers were tested, with the ERIC and (GTG)5 primers proving to be the most suitable for fingerprinting the cultured taxa. Rep-PCR revealed very high strain diversity in the samples collected, however some strains were still able to be tracked from sediments up to 150 m in height. This shows the potential of Rep-PCR, however very large reference databases would be required for the technique to be more useful. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Staff and bed distribution in public sector mental health services in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

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    Kiran Sukeri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Eastern Cape Province of South Africa is a resource-limited province with a fragmented mental health service.  Objective. To determine the current context of public sector mental health services in terms of staff and bed distribution, and how this corresponds to the population distribution in the province. Method. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, an audit questionnaire was submitted to all public sector mental health facilities. Norms and indicators were calculated at provincial and district level. This article investigates staff and bed distribution only. Results. Results demonstrated that within the province, only three of its seven districts have acute beds above the national baseline norm requirement of 13/100 000. The private mental health sector provides approximately double the number of medium- to long-stay beds available in the public sector. Only two regions have staff/population ratios above the baseline norm of 20/100 000. However, there are significant differences in this ratio among specific staff categories. There is an inequitable distribution of resources between the eastern and western regions of the province. When compared with the western regions, the eastern regions have poorer access to mental health facilities, human resources and non-governmental organisations.  Conclusion. Owing to the inequitable distribution of resources, the provincial authorities urgently need to develop an equitable model of service delivery. The province has to address the absence of a reliable mental health information system.

  10. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Kara Basins and Platforms Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Kara Basins and Platforms Province as part of the its Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal. This geologic province is north of western Siberia, Russian Federation, in the North Kara Sea between Novaya Zemlya to the west and Severnaya Zemlya to the east. One assessment unit (AU) was defined, the North Kara Basins and Platforms AU, which coincides with the geologic province. This AU was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The total estimated mean volumes of undiscovered petroleum resources in the province are ~1.8 billion barrels of crude oil, ~15.0 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and ~0.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids, all north of the Arctic Circle.

  11. Three Decades of Implementation of School-Based Management in the Australian Capital Territory and Victoria in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammage, David T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how the process of implementation of school-based management (SBM) has worked within the public school systems in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and Victoria in Australia. The period covered was 1976-2006. Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted was the mixed methodology which…

  12. Language in the Workplace Project and Workplace Communication for Skilled Migrants Course at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bres, Julia; Holmes, Janet; Joe, Angela; Marra, Meredith; Newton, Jonathan; Riddiford Nicky; Vine, Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    The School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies (LALS) at Victoria University of Wellington conducts research and teaching in Linguistics, Applied Linguistics, Writing and Deaf Studies. It incorporates a Deaf Studies Research Unit, which undertakes research on topics relating to deaf people and their language in New Zealand, and the New…

  13. University of Victoria Genome British Columbia Proteomics Centre Partners with CPTAC | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Victoria Genome British Columbia Proteomics Centre, a leader in proteomic technology development, has partnered with the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) to make targeted proteomic assays accessible to the community through NCI’s CPTAC Assay Portal (https://assays.cancer.gov).

  14. Possible implications of Rabbit Calicivirus Disease for malleefowl Leipoa ocellata Gould in the north-west of Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandell, P.

    1999-01-01

    Parks Victoria and the Department of Natural Resources & Environment (NRE) are collaborating with agencies from the other States and the Commonwealth of Australia in a national program of detailed monitoring and surveillance of the effects of Rabbit Calicivirus Disease (RCD). A component of the

  15. Victoria Khiterer. Jewish City or Inferno of Russian Israel? A History of the Jews in Kiev Before February 1917.

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    Kimberly St. Julian-Varnon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Book review of Victoria Khiterer. Jewish City or Inferno of Russian Israel? A History of the Jews in Kiev Before February 1917. Academic Studies Press, 2016. Jews of Russia and Eastern Europe and Their Legacy, series editor, Maxim D. Shrayer. xx, 474 pp. Illustrations. Tables. Maps. Appendix. Bibliography. Index. $89.00, cloth.

  16. The Development and Use of Individual Learning Plans for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P. Margaret; Byrnes, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the Individual Learning Plans of eighty-eight students who were deaf and hard of hearing attending facilities and schools for the deaf in Victoria Australia. The students' assessment and planning portfolios were scrutinised for evidence of formal and informal assessment used to generate goals for the Individual Learning…

  17. Chequered fortunes in global exports: The sociogenesis of African entrepreneurship in the Nile Perch Business at Lake Victoria, Uganda

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    Beuving, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at African entrepreneurship in the Nile perch export business at Lake Victoria, Uganda. Often heralded as an economic success story, this business has perhaps another tale to tell. The fishermen, traders and other small-scale entrepreneurs at the lower end of the export chain face

  18. Inter-guild differences and possible causes of the recovery of cichlid species in Lake Victoria, Tanzania

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    Kishe-Machumu, Mary Alphonce

    2012-01-01

    Until the 1970s, the fish fauna of Lake Victoria was dominated by 500+ endemic haplochromine cichlid species in which detritivores was the dominant group followed by zooplanktivores. With the upsurge of Nile perch in the 1980s, a strong decline of haplochromines occurred. During the1990s, a

  19. Poética de la autotraducción: María Victoria Atencia

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    López Martínez, María Isabel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-translation is an ancient but poorly researched practice. This article analyses an exceptional case: the reflection on self-translation as exposed in poetry. A case in point is the poem «Voz traducida», from the poetry collection De la llama en que arde (1988. Indeed, the poem selected for examination was written by M.ª Victoria Atencia (Málaga, 1931, an expert both in writing poetry and in translating literature. Her book of poems also contains an original text, «Rosas», in Galician, and its corresponding Spanish translation. Both translation and reflection are complementary in her compositions. These poetic creations attest to the fact that artfulness works as a depiction of the next creation. Furthermore, this study will deeply explore the poet’s most important literary thoughts.La autotraducción es una práctica antigua, pero poco estudiada. El presente artículo analiza un caso excepcional: la reflexión sobre la autotraducción expuesta en la lírica. Para ello, se analiza el poema de M.ª Victoria Atencia «Voz traducida», perteneciente al libro titulado De la llama en que arde (1988. Es un ejemplo de que la tarea de traducir funciona como un motivo que origina una nueva creación. Además, permite que el lector conozca facetas importantes del pensamiento literario de la escritora. M.ª Victoria Atencia, además de poeta, es una experta traductora. El libro contiene también dos versiones del poema «Rosas», en gallego y en español, pruebas de la dimensión práctica de los planteamientos teóricos de la autora y de su coherencia estética. Ambas facetas, la traducción y la reflexión, son complementarias en la obra de la autora.

  20. Characteristics of potential gasifier fuels in selected regions of the Lake Victoria Basin

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    Geoffrey O. Mosiori

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available All countries in the Lake Victoria Basin depend mostly on hydroelectric power for the provision of energy. Gasification technology has a high potential for reducing biomass energy consumption whilst increasing access to modern energy services. The key aspect for the failure of gasification operations in the Lake Victoria Basin is inadequate adaptation of gasification equipment to fuel characteristics, lack of fuel specification and inappropriate material choice. We therefore investigated the thermo-chemical characterisation of six biomass fuels, namely Pinus caribaea, Calitris robusta, Cupressus lusitanica, Eucalyptus grandis, Pinus patula and sugarcane bagasse from selected regions of the Lake Victoria Basin. Ultimate analysis was done using a Flash 2000 elemental analyser. Moisture content, ash content and volatile matter were determined in oven and muffle furnaces while heating values were determined using a Gallenkamp calorimeter. The mean percentage levels obtained indicate that all six biomass fuels had a mean range for nitrogen of 0.07±0.2–0.25±0.07%, for carbon of 40.45±0.61–48.88±0.29%, for hydrogen of 4.32±0.13–5.59±0.18% and for oxygen of 43.41±1.58–51.1±0.64%. Moisture content ranged between 25.74±1.54% and 56.69±0.52%, ash content between 0.38±0.02% and 2.94±0.14%, volatile matter between 74.68±0.49% and 82.71±0.19% and fixed carbon between 14.35±0.33% and 24.74±0.27%. Heating values ranged between 16.95±0.10 MJ/kg and 19.48±0.42 MJ/kg. The results suggest that all six biomass fuels are potential biomass gasification materials.

  1. Extent and drainage status of organic soils in the Lake Victoria catchment

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    Barthelmes, Reni; Barthelmes, Alexandra; Joosten, Hans

    2016-04-01

    When considering peatlands and organic soils in the tropics, the huge areas in SE Asia prevail in public and scientific perception, whereas Africa has largely been out of focus. However, East Africa contains large areas of organic soils as well. They basically occur in the high altitudes of the uplifted flanks of the East African Rift System, isolated volcanoes and the Ethiopian highlands, in the Zambezian floodplains (e.g. Zambia), and in coastal environments (e.g. Mozambique and Madagascar). We used a mapping approach that integrates old field data and maps, specialized landscape and peatland-related knowledge, and modern RS and GIS techniques to elaborate a comprehensive and rather reliable overview of organic soils (incl. peatlands) in the Lake Victoria catchment. Maps at a scale of 1:25,000 have been prepared for Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. The land use intensity has been estimated for all organic soil areas based on satellite and aerial imagery. Feeding the Nile River, sustaining a fast growing and widely poor population and already facing climatic changes, organic soils of the Lake Victoria neighbouring countries are partially under heavy threat. We mapped 10,645 km2 of organic soils for the entire area of which 8,860 km2 (83.2%) seem to be in near natural condition. We assume slightly drainage and low degradation for 564 km2 (5.3%) and intensive drainage and heavy degradation for 1,222 km2 (11.5%). Degradation hotspot is Burundi with 522 km2 (79.5%) of heavily drained and degrading organic soils. This area assessment has been quite conservative to not overestimate the extent of organic soils. A reserve of 5-7,000 km2 of wetlands in the Lake Victoria catchment may include peatlands too, which needs to be confirmed in field surveys. Considering the key role of peatlands and organic soils for water provision and regulation and their rapid degradation due to drainage and inappropriate use, this inventory might be a step towards organic soil

  2. Temperature and hydrologic variability of Lake Victoria, East Africa since the Late Pleistocene

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    Berke, M. A.; Johnson, T. C.; Werne, J. P.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    Recent organic geochemical advances have facilitated the comparison between continental temperature change and hydrologic variability. TEX86, a proxy based on the lipids of aquatic Crenarchaeota that show a positive correlation with growth temperature, was used to reconstruct surface water temperatures from Lake Victoria, East Africa during the latest Pleistocene-Holocene. Hydrologic conditions were interpreted using paleoecological implications of shifting pollen and diatom assemblages found in the lake (Kendall, 1969; Stager et al., 2003) and will be compared with future compound specific δ13C data from terrestrial biomarkers in order to determine the patterns of rainfall and aridity in this region. Initial comparisons of climatic changes seen in temperature and hydrologic records appear to show consistency between warm/wet intervals and cool/dry intervals that is often assumed, but more rarely shown, in tropical Africa. Lake Victoria temperatures show a steady warming beginning 16 cal ka, with a pause around the Younger Dryas, dominated by arid conditions and strong savannah grassland development during this interval. There is continued warming to a sustained thermal maximum for this portion of the record at ~10.5-8.5 ka, which generally coincides with the beginning of the Holocene Hypsithermal, an interval of elevated temperatures and precipitation throughout much of tropical Africa. This thermal maximum occurs during the most humid interval of this record (~9.5-8.3 ka), shown by an increase of humid forest pollen and high diatom abundance (due to increased water column mixing and nutrient runoff). Temperatures abruptly cool ~1.5°C in <800 years while precipitation becomes somewhat more seasonally restricted, coinciding with an abrupt drop in inferred P:E ratio and reduction in wind-driven mixing. The record then shows a general cooling, reaching a Holocene thermal minimum of ~18.4°C at ~4.5 ka, contrary to other East African continental and marine

  3. The Meaning of ‘General Paralysis of the Insane’ in Victoria, Australia; 1886 to 1906

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    Roberts, Phillip

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conclusion to the meaning of the historical diagnosis “general paralysis of the insane” in nineteenth century Victorian Registrar General”s reports. Most studies suggest that in the past the diagnosis refers to neuro-syphilis, and while after 1906 this is not disputed, this paper will show that the diagnosis had a much broader meaning incorporating many forms of degenerative brain disease during the study period (Victoria 1886 to 1906. It is acknowledged, however, that the use of this diagnosis may have varied dramatically in the past based on a doctor’s education and/or background. This conclusion has been arrived at by analysing both government and general hospital records on the Australian, Victorian population. This paper also presents methods for determining the meaning of obsolete medical diagnoses where the definition is poorly understood.En este trabajo presenta una conclusión sobre el significado de la “parálisis general de los locos” como diagnóstico en los informes del Victorian Registrar General durante el siglo XIX. La mayoría de los estudios sugieren que en el pasado el diagnóstico se refiere a la neuro-sífilis, y aunque después de 1906 no se discute, este trabajo mostrará que el diagnóstico tiene un significado mucho más amplio e incorpora muchas formas de enfermedad degenerativa del cerebro durante el período de estudio (Victoria 1886 a 1906. Se reconoce, sin embargo, que el uso de este diagnóstico puede haber variado drásticamente en el pasado dependiendo de la formación y del ambiente médico. Se ha llegado a esta conclusión mediante el análisis de los registros hospitalarios de la población de Victoria, Australia. Este documento también presenta métodos para determinar el significado de los diagnósticos médicos obsoletos cuya definición es confusa.

  4. Aves, province of Guizhou, China.

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    Chen, G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report our inventories of birds observed and collected at three field sites from the province of Guizhou,southeastern China. Our findings detailed herein complement our previous ornithological surveys from Guangxiprovince, as part of a comprehensive biotic survey of the region. Of 153 total bird species recorded, 17 were new for theprovince, among which several taxa of conservational importance, such as: Golden Pheasant Crysolophus pictus,Tawny Fish-Owl Ketupa flavipes, Black-breasted Thrush Turdus dissimilis, Fujian Flycatcher Niltava davidii, RedtailedLaughingthrush Garrulax milnei, and Slaty Bunting Latoucheornis siemsseni. These records provide the mostrecent insight into the current status of the habitats and the avian biodiversity of an important, yet sparsely surveyed andreported biogeographic region.

  5. [Emergy evaluation and dynamic measurement analysis of agro-ecosystems in Sichuan Province of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Cong; Du, Shou-Hu

    2012-03-01

    Agro-ecosystem is the most basic system for human beings survival, while the analysis of the structure and function of the system is the key to solve the problems of agro-ecological environment. In this paper, emergy theory and related economic measurement methods including data envelopment analysis, cointegration test, and error correction model were applied to quantitatively analyze the operation dynamics, environmental loading, operation efficiency, and input-output relation of the agro-ecosystems in Sichuan Province and its 21 cities in 1997-2009. In the study period, Sichuan Province was in the transition period from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. The agricultural mechanization level of the Province improved constantly, resources utilization efficiency enhanced continually, overall structural dominant degree was better, but the over-reliance on economic emergy input caused the sustainability of the system weakened gradually. The development status of the agro-ecosystems in the Province varied among regions. Chengdu Plain and Western Sichuan Highland were either in overexploited or in underutilized, while the hilly areas were full of vitality and development potential, tended to be the important areas for the future development of Sichuan agriculture. Generally, the operation efficiency of the agro-ecosystems in the Province was relatively low, with the situation differed in different regions due to the lower technical efficiency or improper scale. There was a long-term equilibrium between the economic emergy indices and output emergy, but the short-term emergy input didn't reach the ideal output.

  6. The ;Sardinian cold-water coral province; in the context of the Mediterranean coral ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taviani, M.; Angeletti, L.; Canese, S.; Cannas, R.; Cardone, F.; Cau, A.; Cau, A. B.; Follesa, M. C.; Marchese, F.; Montagna, P.; Tessarolo, C.

    2017-11-01

    A new cold-water coral (CWC) province has been identified in the Mediterranean Sea in the Capo Spartivento canyon system offshore the southern coast of Sardinia. The 'Sardinia cold-water coral province' is characterized in the Nora canyon by a spectacular coral growth dominated by the branching scleractinian Madrepora oculata at a depth of 380-460 m. The general biohermal frame is strengthened by the common occurrence of the solitary scleractinian Desmophyllum dianthus and the occasional presence of Lophelia pertusa. As documented by Remotely Operated Vehicle survey, this area is a hotspot of megafaunal diversity hosting among other also live specimens of the deep oyster Neopycnodonte zibrowii. The new coral province is located between the central Mediterranean CWC provinces (Bari Canyon, Santa Maria di Leuca, South Malta) and the western and northern ones (Melilla, Catalan-Provençal-Ligurian canyons). As for all the best developed CWC situations in the present Mediterranean Sea, the new Sardinian province is clearly influenced by Levantine Intermediate Water which appears to be a main driver for CWC distribution and viability in this basin.

  7. Residual susceptibility to measles among young adults in Victoria, Australia following a national targeted measles-mumps-rubella vaccination campaign

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    Leydon Jennie A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Past measles immunisation policies in Australia have resulted in a cohort of young adults who have been inadequately vaccinated, but who also have low levels of naturally acquired immunity because immunisation programs have decreased the circulation of wild virus. A measles-mumps-rubella (MMR immunisation campaign aimed at addressing this susceptibility to measles among young adults was conducted in Australia in 2001–2. By estimating age-specific immunity, we aimed to evaluate the success of this campaign in the state of Victoria. Methods We conducted serosurveys after the young adult MMR program at state and national levels to estimate immunity among young adults born between 1968–82. We compared results of the Victorian (state surveys with the Victorian component of the national surveys and compared both surveys with surveys conducted before the campaign. We also reviewed all laboratory confirmed measles cases in Victoria between 2000–4. Results The Victorian state serosurveys indicated no significant change in immunity of the cohort following the young adult MMR campaign (83.9% immune pre and 85.5% immune post campaign while the Victorian component of the national serosurvey indicated a significant decline in immunity (91.0% to 84.2%; p = 0.006. Both surveys indicated about 15% susceptibility to measles among young Victorian adults after the campaign. Measles outbreaks in Victoria between 2000–4 confirmed the susceptibility of young adults. Outbreaks involved a median of 2.5 cases with a median age of 24.5 years. Conclusion In Victoria, the young adult MMR program appears to have had no effect on residual susceptibility to measles among the 1968–82 birth cohort. Young adults in Victoria, as in other countries where past immunisation policies have left a residual susceptible cohort, represent a potential problem for the maintenance of measles elimination.

  8. LAKE VICTORIA AND THE COMMON PROPERTY DEBATE: IS THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS A THREAT TO ITS FUTURE?

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    Erick Ochieng OGELLO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lake Victoria is the largest among the African Great Lakes in East African region that are believed to have both dynamic and fragile aquatic ecosystems. Within two decades, the lake has experienced extensive resource exploitation leading to constrained productivity and drastic decline of native biodiversity. Intensive non-selective fishing, catchment vegetation degradation, industrial and agricultural pollution, the introduction of exotic species and uneven patchwork of governmental laws are some of the reasons for the current ecological woes facing Lake Victoria. This paper intends to stimulate recognition of Lake Victoria and its catchment as a lived Com­mons, to be shared, protected, managed and enjoyed by all who live around it. The paper compares the original biodiversity status of the lake with the current status and discusses the role of unlimited access as a function of the loss of the Lake’s biological wealth. The Lake’s water resource base, fishery, wetlands and other aquatic resources have been exhaustively discussed. In this review, we uphold the Hardin’s school of thought that freedom of the commoners causes resource overuse leading to poverty. Therefore, limiting freedom could be essential. However, there is need for provision of alternative means of survival since people with no choices would continue over-exploiting ecosystems even under limited access. The Lake Victoria basin commons should be protected by strict legal and clear political frame­work based on public trust doctrine, reinforced in law that the Lake is vital for the survival of people, plants and animals living on or near it and therefore must be protected for the common good. The political jurisdictions should consider governing the Lake basin as one integrated watershed. It is our fervent hope that bordering communities will secure grass root movements to protect and nurture Lake Victoria and its environs for the benefit of the present and future

  9. Trend of cutaneous leishmaniasis in kermanshah province, west of iran from 1990 to 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdan Hamzavi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explain the trend of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL in Kermanshah Province, western Iran from 1991-2012.In this analytical-descriptive study, all of the patients suspected to CL in Kermanshah Province were studied. Smears were prepared from most of them, stained with Giemsa, and examined microscopically for Leishman bodies. A few of the patients were diagnosed according to physician diagnosis and response to glucantime. Questionnaires were completed for all of them. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS-21 and Spearman and Kendall tests.From 1991 to 2012, 1684 cases of CL were recorded. In the years 2011-12 the frequency of CL in the province reached to 7.4/100,000, which showed a remarkable increase in the frequency of new cases CL in the province. In the years 2011-12 about 47% of total cases of CL in the province, was seen in Ghasr-e-Shirin district,which the frequency of CL in this district reached to 264.5/100,000. Frequency of CL in males and females was 57% and 43% respectively. The most cases of CL were seen in housewives (32.1% and age groups of 20 to 29 years old (19.9%. In addition, the most cases of disease were seen in winter (41.8% and fall (28.9%.CL is increasing remarkably in warm climates of the province, and Ghasr-e-Shirin must be of particular interest, as the most infected district in the province.

  10. Trend of cutaneous leishmaniasis in kermanshah province, west of iran from 1990 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzavi, Yazdan; Khademi, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to explain the trend of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) in Kermanshah Province, western Iran from 1991-2012. In this analytical-descriptive study, all of the patients suspected to CL in Kermanshah Province were studied. Smears were prepared from most of them, stained with Giemsa, and examined microscopically for Leishman bodies. A few of the patients were diagnosed according to physician diagnosis and response to glucantime. Questionnaires were completed for all of them. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS-21 and Spearman and Kendall tests. From 1991 to 2012, 1684 cases of CL were recorded. In the years 2011-12 the frequency of CL in the province reached to 7.4/100,000, which showed a remarkable increase in the frequency of new cases CL in the province. In the years 2011-12 about 47% of total cases of CL in the province, was seen in Ghasr-e-Shirin district,which the frequency of CL in this district reached to 264.5/100,000. Frequency of CL in males and females was 57% and 43% respectively. The most cases of CL were seen in housewives (32.1%) and age groups of 20 to 29 years old (19.9%). In addition, the most cases of disease were seen in winter (41.8%) and fall (28.9%). CL is increasing remarkably in warm climates of the province, and Ghasr-e-Shirin must be of particular interest, as the most infected district in the province.

  11. Seismicity and arrival-time residuals from the Victoria Earthquake of June 9, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, V.; Frez, J.

    1981-01-01

    Hypocenter distribution in space and time of the aftershock activity from the Victoria Earthquake of June 9, 1980 was studied. It was concluded that the main event excited aftershocks in several pre-existing nests at the northwest end of the Cerro Prieto Fault, but no significant activity occurred at the immediate neighborhood of the main event. The depth of the aftershocks increases with the distance from the northwest end of the fault and this feature might be related with the higher temperatures and the spreading center located between the ends of the Imperial and Cerro Prieto Faults. The significance of the arrival-times residuals for local and regional stations is discussed both for P and S-waves and the importance of obtaining station corrections is emphasized. The non-uniqueness in determining a structure which minimizes the residuals is illustrated. Two different structures which satisfy the local data are presented.

  12. Journalist to the interview: professionals routines. The case of Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos David SANTAMARÍA OCHOA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The newspaper interview is sort of use in printed newspapers in Ciudad Victoria Tamaulipas, Mexico. Journalists argue lack of time-space and is to develop this type of work. An analysis of the publications of the largest newspapers in this city dad throws the result that no literary interviews are published, the em-ployee's resource for structuring news and sporadically of reports. This paper develops conducting depth interviews with journalists pe-active, which reaffirm the limited use given the corresponding gender, as well as an analysis of the works published in newspapers printed cases in the capital of Tamaulipas, only on local information section. Lack of time for preparation, few spaces and I shift to electronic means are the most common causes.

  13. Compliance with regulations by "swim-with-dolphins" operations in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpaci, Carol; Dayanthi, Nugegoda; Corkeron, Peter J

    2003-03-01

    Managing the activities of commercial wildlife viewing tends to involve either restricting the number of industry participants and/or regulating the activities or industry participants. We report on operator compliance with regulations regarding humans swimming with free-ranging bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops sp.) in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia. A total of 128 commercial dolphin-swim trips was studied between September 1998 and April 2000. Four permit conditions were investigated: approach type, swim time, time in proximity of dolphins, and presence of "fetal fold" calves. Results demonstrate noncompliance by operators to all of the four permit conditions studied. Compliance with temporal conditions was poorer than with other conditions. When conducting studies on the extent to which tourism affects cetaceans, investigators should consider whether tourist operations comply with existing regulations or guidelines.

  14. Suffering by comparison: Twitter users' reactions to the Victoria's Secret Fashion Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisler, Joan C; Fung, Kaitlin T; Lopez, Alexandra M; Gorman, Jennifer A

    2013-09-01

    Social comparison theory suggests that evaluating the self in comparison with others (e.g., peers, celebrities, models) can influence body image. Experimental studies that have tested effects of viewing idealized images in the media often show that women feel worse about themselves after seeing images that illustrate the beauty ideal. Twitter presents a naturally occurring opportunity to study viewers' reactions. An analysis was conducted of 977 tweets sent immediately before and during the 2011 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show that reference the show. Although the majority were idiosyncratic remarks, many tweets contain evidence of upward social comparisons to the fashion models. There were tweets about body image, eating disorders, weight, desires for food or alcohol, and thoughts about self-harm. The results support social comparison theory, and suggest that vulnerable viewers could experience negative affect, or even engage in harmful behaviors, during or after viewing the show or others like it. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. PREDICTION OF THE LIKELIHOOD OF HOUSEHOLDS FOOD SECURITY IN THE LAKE VICTORIA REGION OF KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nyamuhanga Mwita

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the modeling and prediction of  households food security status using a sample of households in the  Lake Victoria region of Kenya. A priori expected food security  factors and their measurements are given. A binary logistic regression model  derived was fitted to thirteen priori expected factors. Analysis of the marginal effects revealed that effecting the use of the seven significant determinants: farmland size, per capita aggregate production, household size, gender of household head, use of fertilizer, use of pesticide/herbicide and education of household head,  increase the likelihood of a household being food secure. Finally, interpretations  of   predicted conditional probabilities, following improvement of significant determinants,  are given.

  16. Reality check of laboratory service effectiveness during pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catton, Michael; Druce, Julian; Papadakis, Goergina; Tran, Thomas; Birch, Christopher

    2011-06-01

    In Australia, the outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 began in Melbourne, Victoria; in the first 17 days, the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory detected 977 cases. Although the laboratory had a pandemic plan in place, a retrospective evaluation found 3 major variations from plan assumptions: 1) higher peak demand not limited by a case definition, 2) prolonged peak demand because containment attempts continued despite widespread influenza, and 3) unexpected influence of negative test results on public health actions. Although implementation of the plan was generally successful, the greatest challenges were limited availability of skilled staff and test reagents. Despite peak demand of 1,401 tests per day, results were provided within the usual 24 hours of specimen receipt; however, turnaround time seemed slower because of slow transport times (>3 days for 45% of specimens). Hence, effective laboratory capability might be enhanced by speeding transport of specimens and improving transmission of clinical data.

  17. La legobiografía de Victoria Ocampo: evocaciones de una lectora (des)autorizada

    OpenAIRE

    Vélez, Irma

    2012-01-01

    Pero no conseguiré hacer nada en el campo de la novela. Tengo que escribir à batons rompus, cuando se me antoje. Jamás podré crear un personaje. Lo llevaría a la rastra, y eso no sirve. Y todos mis personajes serían “yo” disfrazada. Perfectamente insoportable. ¿Cómo demonios puede uno deshacerse de su “yo” ?(Fragmento de Carta a Delfina Bunge, Autobiografía II, p. 85)En 1910, Victoria Ocampo cumple 20 años, apenas dos años después que en Santiago se auspiciara la sede del Primer Congreso Cien...

  18. La legobiografía de Victoria Ocampo: evocaciones de una lectora (desautorizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Vélez

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Pero no conseguiré hacer nada en el campo de la novela. Tengo que escribir à batons rompus, cuando se me antoje. Jamás podré crear un personaje. Lo llevaría a la rastra, y eso no sirve. Y todos mis personajes serían “yo” disfrazada. Perfectamente insoportable. ¿Cómo demonios puede uno deshacerse de su “yo” ?(Fragmento de Carta a Delfina Bunge, Autobiografía II, p. 85En 1910, Victoria Ocampo cumple 20 años, apenas dos años después que en Santiago se auspiciara la sede del Primer Congreso Cien...

  19. Magistrates, patrons and benefactors of voluntary associations: status building and Romanisation in the Spanish, Gallic and German Provinces of the Roman Empire

    OpenAIRE

    Verboven, Koenraad

    2009-01-01

    Social historians are becoming increasingly aware that voluntary associations provide the ‘missing link’ between the civic elites and the ‘lower classes’. This raises an important question: how did the Roman collegia contribute to the Romanisation of the (Western) provinces ? Romanisation is the outcome of a confrontation between cultures. There are major differences between provinces in how Romanisation took place. I will argue that status-achievement through collegia was markedly more signi...

  20. Coupled human and natural system dynamics as key to the sustainability of Lake Victoria's ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S. Downing

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available East Africa's Lake Victoria provides resources and services to millions of people on the lake's shores and abroad. In particular, the lake's fisheries are an important source of protein, employment, and international economic connections for the whole region. Nonetheless, stock dynamics are poorly understood and currently unpredictable. Furthermore, fishery dynamics are intricately connected to other supporting services of the lake as well as to lakeshore societies and economies. Much research has been carried out piecemeal on different aspects of Lake Victoria's system; e.g., societies, biodiversity, fisheries, and eutrophication. However, to disentangle drivers and dynamics of change in this complex system, we need to put these pieces together and analyze the system as a whole. We did so by first building a qualitative model of the lake's social-ecological system. We then investigated the model system through a qualitative loop analysis, and finally examined effects of changes on the system state and structure. The model and its contextual analysis allowed us to investigate system-wide chain reactions resulting from disturbances. Importantly, we built a tool that can be used to analyze the cascading effects of management options and establish the requirements for their success. We found that high connectedness of the system at the exploitation level, through fisheries having multiple target stocks, can increase the stocks' vulnerability to exploitation but reduce society's vulnerability to variability in individual stocks. We describe how there are multiple pathways to any change in the system, which makes it difficult to identify the root cause of changes but also broadens the management toolkit. Also, we illustrate how nutrient enrichment is not a self-regulating process, and that explicit management is necessary to halt or reverse eutrophication. This model is simple and usable to assess system-wide effects of management policies, and can

  1. Maternal and Child Health Nurses work with refugee families: Perspectives from regional Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Suzanne M; Cant, Robyn P; Williams, Allison; McIntyre, Meredith

    2018-01-21

    This study aimed to explore service provision for Victorian regional refugee families from the perspective of Maternal and Child Health nurses. Increasingly, more families from a refugee background are resettling in regional Victoria. The refugee journey has significant effect on families. Refugee families with infants and young children can be provided with support by Maternal and Child Health services; however, many families experience barriers to ongoing engagement with this service. This descriptive study used focus group and questionnaire. A purposive sample of 26 Maternal and Child Health Nurses was drawn from six municipalities throughout regional Victoria, where higher numbers of people from a refugee background resettle. Six focus groups were held in 2014. Audio-recorded narratives were transcribed, prior to inductive thematic analysis. Participating nurses were experienced nurses, averaging 12 years in the service. Four major themes emerged: 'How to identify women from a refugee background'; 'The Maternal and Child Health nurse role when working with families from a refugee background'; 'Interpreting issues', and 'Access to other referral agencies'. Nurses worked to develop a relationship with families, attending to a complex mix of issues which were complicated by language barriers. Nurses found their role in supporting refugee families required additional time and more home visits. To provide best practice, Maternal and Child Health nurses need (i) ongoing professional development; (ii) time, flexibility, and creativity to build relationships with refugee families and (iii) better access to services that enhance communication, such as interpreting services and translated resources. Nurses require ongoing professional development to help them address the multifaceted needs of families of refugee background. With limited resources available in regional areas, accessing further education can be challenging. Distance education models and organisational

  2. Intended and unintended consequences of abortion law reform: perspectives of abortion experts in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, L A; Newton, D; Bayly, C; McNamee, K; Hardiman, A; Webster, A; Bismark, M

    2017-01-01

    In Victoria, Australia, abortion was decriminalised in October 2008, bringing the law in line with clinical practice and community attitudes. We describe how experts in abortion service provision perceived the intent and subsequent impact of the 2008 Victorian abortion law reform. Experts in abortion provision in Victoria were recruited for a qualitative semi-structured interview about the 2008 law reform and its perceived impact, until saturation was reached. Nineteen experts from a range of health care settings and geographic locations were interviewed in 2014/2015. Thematic analysis was conducted to summarise participants' views. Abortion law reform, while a positive event, was perceived to have changed little about the provision of abortion. The views of participants can be categorised into: (1) goals that law reform was intended to address and that have been achieved; (2) intent or hopes of law reform that have not been achieved; (3) unintended consequences; (4) coincidences; and (5) unfinished business. All agreed that law reform had repositioned abortion as a health rather than legal issue, had shifted the power in decision making from doctors to women, and had increased clarity and safety for doctors. However, all described outstanding concerns; limited public provision of surgical abortion; reduced access to abortion after 20 weeks; ongoing stigma; lack of a state-wide strategy for equitable abortion provision; and an unsustainable workforce. Law reform, while positive, has failed to address a number of significant issues in abortion service provision, and may have even resulted in a 'lull' in action. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. The Green Dialysis Survey: Establishing a Baseline for Environmental Sustainability across Dialysis Facilities in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Katherine A; Gleeson, Alice; Holt, Stephen G; Agar, John Wm

    2017-11-02

    The Green Dialysis Survey aimed to 1) establish a baseline for environmental sustainability (ES) across Victorian dialysis facilities, and 2) guide future initiatives to reduce the environmental impact of dialysis delivery. Nurse unit managers of all Victorian public dialysis facilities received an online link to the survey, which asked 107 questions relevant to the ES of dialysis services. Responses were received from 71/83 dialysis facilities in Victoria (86%), representing 628/660 dialysis chairs (95%). Low energy lighting was present in 13 facilities (18%), 18 (25%) recycled reverse osmosis water and 7 (10%) reported use of renewable energy. Fifty-six facilities (79%) performed comingled recycling but only 27 (38%) recycled polyvinyl chloride plastic. A minority educated staff in appropriate waste management (n=30;42%) or formally audited waste generation and segregation (n=19;27%). Forty-four (62%) provided secure bicycle parking but only 33 (46%) provided shower and changing facilities. There was limited use of tele- or video-conferencing to replace staff meetings (n=19;27%) or patient clinic visits (n=13;18%). A minority considered ES in procurement decisions (n=28;39%) and there was minimal preparedness to cope with climate change. Only 39 services (49%) confirmed an ES policy and few had ever formed a green group (n=14; 20%) or were currently undertaking a green project (n=8;11%). Only 15 facilities (21%) made formal efforts to raise awareness of ES. This survey provides a baseline for practices that potentially impact the environmental sustainability of dialysis units in Victoria, Australia. It also identifies achievable targets for attention. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Benthic macroinvertebrate community structure in Napoleon Gulf, Lake Victoria: effects of cage aquaculture in eutrophic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egessa, Robert; Pabire, Gandhi Willy; Ocaya, Henry

    2018-02-02

    An investigation was conducted on the macro-benthic fauna of the Napoleon Gulf in the northern part of Lake Victoria from March 2011 to December 2016 at the cage fish farm. The aim was to examine the likely impact of cage aquaculture on macro-benthic invertebrates. Cage aquaculture is now a common practice on Lake Victoria yet little is known about its long-term effect on macro-benthic faunal assemblages. Temporal variation indicated a general decline in annual faunal density at the farm area with corresponding stability at upstream (control) and downstream sites. Arthropods remained numerically dominant at the control and downstream sites. The percentage abundance of EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera) and Malacostraca was highest at the upstream and lowest at the farm area. The farm area which initially was dominated by molluscs became dominated by arthropods after 3 years. The decrease in density of molluscs at the farm area was attributed to the general decrease in density of two species: Bellamya unicolor (Gastropoda) and Corbicula africana (Bivalvia). These two species were initially abundant but showed decline within the farm area with corresponding stability at the upstream and downstream areas. Oligochaete annelids were more abundant within the farm area than at the upstream and downstream sites. These findings suggested that molluscs offered better prediction of the impact of cages on the environment than arthropods. Besides that, in a community dominated by pollution-tolerant organisms, the impact of aquaculture may not be immediate especially when organic loading from aquaculture is moderate.

  5. Sex workers can be screened too often: a cost-effectiveness analysis in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David P; Heymer, Kelly-Jean; Anderson, Jonathan; O'Connor, Jody; Harcourt, Christine; Donovan, Basil

    2010-04-01

    Commercial sex is licensed in Victoria, Australia such that sex workers are required to have regular tests for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, the incidence and prevalence of STIs in sex workers are very low, especially since there is almost universal condom use at work. We aimed to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of the financial cost of the testing policy versus the health benefits of averting the transmission of HIV, syphilis, chlamydia and gonorrhoea to clients. We developed a simple mathematical transmission model, informed by conservative parameter estimates from all available data, linked to a cost-effectiveness analysis. We estimated that under current testing rates, it costs over $A90,000 in screening costs for every chlamydia infection averted (and $A600,000 in screening costs for each quality-adjusted life year (QALY) saved) and over $A4,000,000 for every HIV infection averted ($A10,000,000 in screening costs for each QALY saved). At an assumed willingness to pay of $A50,000 per QALY gained, HIV testing should not be conducted less than approximately every 40 weeks and chlamydia testing approximately once per year; in comparison, current requirements are testing every 12 weeks for HIV and every 4 weeks for chlamydia. Mandatory screening of female sex workers at current testing frequencies is not cost-effective for the prevention of disease in their male clients. The current testing rate required of sex workers in Victoria is excessive. Screening intervals for sex workers should be based on local STI epidemiology and not locked by legislation.

  6. The job satisfaction of female sex workers working in licensed brothels in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilardi, Jade E; Miller, Amanda; Hocking, Jane S; Keogh, Louise; Cummings, Rosey; Chen, Marcus Y; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Fairley, Christopher K

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have examined sex workers' attitudes to work but not their levels of job satisfaction compared with other occupations. The job satisfaction levels and standards of living of sex workers in licensed brothels in Victoria were compared with Australian women. Responses to a questionnaire that included questions about sex work and their "most likely alternative job." Survey data was compared with identical questions from the Households, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey. A structured survey was undertaken with sex workers in Victoria attending a a sexual health service. Of the 112 sex workers who agreed to participate in the study, 85 (76%) completed the survey. The median years women had been working as sex workers was three (range 0.1-18). The main reasons women started sex work was because "they needed the money" (69%), were attracted to the flexible hours (44%) or had a particular goal in mind (43%). The two biggest concerns women had about sex work were their safety (65%) and the risk of sexually transmitted infections (65%). When compared with the median job satisfaction scores of Australian women working in sex workers' "most likely alternative jobs," 50% of sex workers reported a higher median satisfaction score for sex work in relation to hours worked, 47% in relation to flexibility, 43% in relation to total pay, 26% in relation to job security, 19% in relation to the work itself, and 25% in relation to overall job satisfaction. Women reported that they primarily do sex work for financial gain although a significant minority prefer it to other work they would be likely to do. These results should be interpreted in the context that the presence of personality disorders that are common among sex workers were not measured in this study. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  7. El periodista ante la entrevista: rutinas profesionales. El caso de Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santamaría Ochoa, Carlos David

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En español: La entrevista periodística es un género en desuso en los diarios impresos de Ciudad Victoria Tamaulipas, México. Los periodistas argumentan falta de tiempo y espacio para desarrollar este tipo de trabajos.Un análisis de las publicaciones de los diarios de mayor circulación en esta ciudad arroja como resultado el que no se publican entrevistas literarias; el recurso es empleado para la estructuración de noticias y, esporádicamente, de reportajes.El presente trabajo se desarrolla realizando entrevistas a profundidad con periodistas en activo, los que reafirman el poco uso que se da al género correspondiente, así como un análisis de los trabajos publicados en los diarios impresos de la capital de Tamaulipas, únicamente en la sección de información local.Falta de tiempo para la preparación, pocos espacios y el cambio hacia los me-dios electrónicos son las causas más recurrentes. In english: The newspaper interview is sort of use in printed newspapers in Ciudad Victoria Tamaulipas, Mexico. Journalists argue lack of time-space and is to develop this type of work.An analysis of the publications of the largest newspapers in this city dad throws the result that no literary interviews are published, the em-ployee's resource for structuring news and sporadically of reports.This paper develops conducting depth interviews with journalists pe-active, which reaffirm the limited use given the corresponding gender, as well as an analysis of the works published in newspapers printed cases in the capital of Tamaulipas, only on local information section. Lack of time for preparation, few spaces and I shift to electronic means are the most common causes.

  8. Perceptions about interventions to control schistosomiasis among the Lake Victoria island communities of Koome, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E Sanya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Praziquantel-based mass treatment is the main approach to controlling schistosomiasis mansoni in endemic areas. Interventions such as provision and use of safe water, minimising contact with infested water, disposal of stool in latrines and snail control provide key avenues to break the transmission cycle and can sustain the benefits of mass treatment in the long term. Efforts are also being made to develop a schistosomiasis vaccine which, if effective, might reduce the incidence of re-infection after treatment. However, any interventions deployed need to be acceptable to, and sustainable by, the target communities.In this qualitative study, we investigated the perceptions of six Lake Victoria island communities of Koome, Uganda, about interventions to control Schistosoma mansoni infection and their willingness to participate in Schistosoma vaccine trials. Thirty-two in-depth interviews, 12 key informant interviews and 10 focus group discussions were conducted. Data were analysed using a thematic content approach.Intestinal schistosomiasis was not regarded as a serious health problem because a mass treatment programme is in place. However, the communities lack safe water sources and latrines. Mass treatment with praziquantel, safe water supplies and use of toilets were deemed the most acceptable interventions by the participants. The communities are willing to participate in Schistosoma vaccine trials.Knowledge of a community's perception about interventions to control schistosomiasis can be valuable to policy makers and programme implementers intending to set up interventions co-managed by the community members. In this study, the views of the Lake Victoria island communities of Koome are presented. This study also provides data to guide further work on alternative interventions such as Schistosoma vaccine trials in these communities.

  9. Tsetse fly (G. f. fuscipes distribution in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugenyi Albert

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes, the causative agent of human and animal African trypanosomiasis. The tsetse vector is extensively distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosomiasis maintenance is determined by the interrelationship of three elements: vertebrate host, parasite and the vector responsible for transmission. Mapping the distribution and abundance of tsetse flies assists in predicting trypanosomiasis distributions and developing rational strategies for disease and vector control. Given scarce resources to carry out regular full scale field tsetse surveys to up-date existing tsetse maps, there is a need to devise inexpensive means for regularly obtaining dependable area-wide tsetse data to guide control activities. In this study we used spatial epidemiological modelling techniques (logistic regression involving 5000 field-based tsetse-data (G. f. fuscipes points over an area of 40,000 km2, with satellite-derived environmental surrogates composed of precipitation, temperature, land cover, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI and elevation at the sub-national level. We used these extensive tsetse data to analyse the relationships between presence of tsetse (G. f. fuscipes and environmental variables. The strength of the results was enhanced through the application of a spatial autologistic regression model (SARM. Using the SARM we showed that the probability of tsetse presence increased with proportion of forest cover and riverine vegetation. The key outputs are a predictive tsetse distribution map for the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda and an improved understanding of the association between tsetse presence and environmental variables. The predicted spatial distribution of tsetse in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda will provide significant new information to assist with the spatial targeting of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control.

  10. Tsetse fly (G. f. fuscipes) distribution in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mugenyi; Wardrop, Nicola A; Atkinson, Peter M; Torr, Steve J; Welburn, Susan C

    2015-04-01

    Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes, the causative agent of human and animal African trypanosomiasis. The tsetse vector is extensively distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosomiasis maintenance is determined by the interrelationship of three elements: vertebrate host, parasite and the vector responsible for transmission. Mapping the distribution and abundance of tsetse flies assists in predicting trypanosomiasis distributions and developing rational strategies for disease and vector control. Given scarce resources to carry out regular full scale field tsetse surveys to up-date existing tsetse maps, there is a need to devise inexpensive means for regularly obtaining dependable area-wide tsetse data to guide control activities. In this study we used spatial epidemiological modelling techniques (logistic regression) involving 5000 field-based tsetse-data (G. f. fuscipes) points over an area of 40,000 km2, with satellite-derived environmental surrogates composed of precipitation, temperature, land cover, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and elevation at the sub-national level. We used these extensive tsetse data to analyse the relationships between presence of tsetse (G. f. fuscipes) and environmental variables. The strength of the results was enhanced through the application of a spatial autologistic regression model (SARM). Using the SARM we showed that the probability of tsetse presence increased with proportion of forest cover and riverine vegetation. The key outputs are a predictive tsetse distribution map for the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda and an improved understanding of the association between tsetse presence and environmental variables. The predicted spatial distribution of tsetse in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda will provide significant new information to assist with the spatial targeting of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control.

  11. The effect of an area-based intervention on breastfeeding rates in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelaher, Margaret; Dunt, David; Feldman, Peter; Nolan, Andrea; Raban, Bridie

    2009-04-01

    Best Start is an area-based early childhood intervention where projects are developed and implemented through a community partnership. A core tenet of the initiative is that implementing projects through a partnership generates greater value than would be expected if projects were undertaken independently by partner members. In this study we examine whether: (1) Best Start is effective in increasing the proportion of infants being fully breastfed at 3 months and 6 months. (2) The quality of community partnerships is a potential mechanism for change. Best Start was implemented in Victoria, Australia. The study examined breastfeeding rates before and after Best Start in sites with Best Start breastfeeding projects compared to the rest of state. The relationship between partnership quality scores and breastfeeding percentages was also examined. Both analyses controlled for socioeconomic and demographic differences and clustering by area. Best Start targeted some of the most socially disadvantaged communities in Victoria. In the 3 years of its operation, the rates of fully breastfeeding at 3 months (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.14-1.47) and 6 months (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.1-1.61) increased in Best Start sites compared to the rest of the state. Quality of partnership scores was positively associated with increased percentages of fully breastfeeding (3 months=OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.06; 6 months=OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.98-1.08). These results suggest that area-based interventions are effective in increasing percentages of fully breastfeeding. The study also supported the idea that developing quality community partnerships had a positive influence on their success.

  12. Impact of an outright ban on the availability of commercial tanning services in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, C; Cleaves, N; Dunstone, K; Makin, J; Zouzounis, S

    2016-08-01

    Australian states have introduced an outright ban on commercial artificial tanning sunbeds. This was based on evidence from systematic reviews affirming a strong association between tanning bed use and increased risk of melanoma. The implementation of the ban provides an opportunity to assess the effectiveness of the legislation in preventing access to artificial UV radiation. Compliance with the ban has been enforced and monitored by government departments. We additionally monitored online tanning bed advertisements before and after the ban, showing a decline over time in the number of sunbeds advertised for sale on gumtree.com.au and ebay.com.au, from a peak of 115 advertisements in May 2014 to 50 or fewer per month from February 2015. There was also an increase in advertised price, with the percentage of sunbeds offered in Victoria on gumtree.com.au at higher than $2 000 increasing from around 25% between January and June 2014 to 65% in the quarter following the introduction of the ban. Advertisements on gumtree.com.au from individuals wishing to access a sunbed in a private home in Victoria increased from only isolated instances in the months immediately prior to the ban, to between 25 and 77 advertisements per month in the quarter following the ban. In summary, the introduction of an outright ban of commercial sunbeds has achieved a dramatic reduction in the availability of harmful artificial UV radiation sources in Australia. Long-term benefits to the health of the population and a reduction in costs to the health system are expected to result. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. A tephra chronostratigraphic framework for the Frontier Mountain blue-ice field (northern Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzio, Pietro; Folco, Luigi; Ada Laurenzi, Marinella; Mellini, Marcello; Zeoli, Antonio

    2008-03-01

    Englacial tephra provide chronostratigraphic markers in the Antarctic ice sheets. Structural, mineralogical, geochemical and geochronological data on selected samples allowed the reconstruction of a chronostratigraphic framework for the Frontier Mountain blue-ice field—an important meteorite trap on the southeastern flank of Talos Dome in northern Victoria Land. The stratigraphic thickness of the blue-ice succession is ˜1150 m. The 40Ar- 39Ar age of one layer close to the stratigraphic bottom of the ice succession is 100±5 ka and constrains the maximum age of the bulk of Frontier Mountain blue ice. The 49±11 ka age of a second layer at a depth of ˜950 m in the stratigraphic succession indicates that >90% of the ice is younger than this value. These ages agree well with the terrestrial ages of meteorites found on the blue ice (up to 140±30 ka), suggesting a mechanism of exhumation of meteorites by ablation after englacial transport. Particle size (up to several tens of microns) and the alkaline compositional character of 22 layers allow correlation with source volcanoes within the Cenozoic magmatism associated with the West Antarctic Rift System. The proximal Mount Melbourne, Mount Rittman and The Pleiades (within a radius of ˜250 km) are the best candidate source volcanoes. The reconstructed chronostratigraphic framework thus lays the foundations for a detailed investigation of ˜100 ka of explosive volcanism in northern Victoria Land. Furthermore, in light of the ongoing ice core drilling project at Talos Dome, the Frontier Mountain ice succession may become important for establishing regional correlations, for sampling and dating key tephra layers, and for selecting ice successions for high-resolution studies of past atmospheric chemistry and fallout.

  14. Biological Diversity and Resilience: Lessons from the Recovery of Cichlid Species in Lake Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex O. Awiti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental feature of the Anthropocene is the inexorable erosion of the self-repairing capacity or adaptive renewal of natural systems because of natural perturbation, exploitation, or management failure. The concept of resilience offers a systematic framework for understanding the dynamics and variables that govern response dynamics of ecosystems. Resilience of haplochromine cichlids is assessed using limnological and biodiversity changes in Lake Victoria, the world's second largest freshwater lake, over the last five decades. The review explores the resurgence of the haplochromine cichlids using Holling's adaptive renewal cycle and attempts to illustrate how resilience-based management approaches might learn from an inadvertent management experiment. The introduction in the 1980s of the Nile perch (Lates niloticus, a fecund and voracious predator of the endemic phytoplankton feeding haplochromine cichlids, anthropogenic eutrophication, and deep water hypoxia have combined in a synergistic way to increase the vulnerability of the lake ecosystem to perturbations that were hitherto absorbed. However, the upsurge in commercial Nile perch fishing appears to be enabling the resurgence of the haplochromine cichlids. The resurgence of haplochromine cichlids is characterized by phenotypic plasticity, ecological and life history traits and demonstrates the critical role of response diversity in the maintenance of systems resilience. Resilience of the haplochromine cichlids resides in the requisite functional response diversity and habitat diversity that provide the resources for renewal and regeneration. This paper concludes that management of Nile perch fisheries and control of nutrient loading into Lake Victoria could halt or reverse eutrophication, hence offer the best promise for a diverse, productive, and resilient social-ecological system.

  15. Geographical Weighted Regression Model for Poverty Analysis in Jambi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inti Pertiwi Nashwari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture sector has an important contribution to food security in Indonesia, but it also huge contribution to the number of poverty, especially in rural area. Studies using a global model might not be sufficient to pinpoint the factors having most impact on poverty due to spatial differences. Therefore, a Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR was used to analyze the factors influencing the poverty among food crops famers. Jambi Province is selected because have high number of poverty in rural area and the lowest farmer exchange term in Indonesia. The GWR was better than the global model, based on high value of R2, lowers AIC and MSE and Leung test. Location in upland area and road system had more influence to the poverty in the western-southern. Rainfall was significantly influence in eastern. The effect of each factor, however, was not generic, since the parameter estimate might have a positive or negative value.

  16. Tradução para o Português de Queen Victoria in Her Letters and Journals de Christopher Hibbert

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Caroline Feital

    2014-01-01

    A presente dissertação de mestrado tem como um dos objetivos produzir a tradução para o português de quatro seções da obra Queen Victoria in her letters and journals/ A Rainha Victoria em suas cartas e diários de Christopher Hibbert, publicada pela editora Sutton Publishing Limited na Inglaterra em 2000. Nas seções Queen regnant, Family life, Monarchs and ministers e ‘Frequent difficulties’, as anotações e as cartas da Rainha Victoria (1819-1901) da Inglaterra apresentam um pouco de história ...

  17. Comparing women pharmacy consumers’ experiences with weight loss treatment in Victoria and Nottingham: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been a recent increase in weight management services available in pharmacies across Australia and England. The aim of this study was to determine the following between women in Victoria and Nottingham: similarities and differences of what weight management options are preferred by women pharmacy consumers; how they feel about pharmacists providing advice in this area; and what they desire in a weight management program. Method Women pharmacy consumers were randomly approached by a researcher in community pharmacies in Victoria and Nottingham and asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their own weight management experiences. The questionnaire was self-completed or researcher-administered and was comprised of four main sections that focused on the participant’s general health, previous weight loss experiences, their ideal weight management program and their demographics. Data was entered in SPSS 19 and logistic regression was used to identify any differences in weight loss experiences between women. Results The participant rates were high: 86% (n = 395/460) in Victoria and 98% in Nottingham (n = 215/220). Overall, women in Victoria and Nottingham were similar with comparable demographics. Approximately 50% (250/507) of women were in the overweight or obese body mass index category, with over 70% (n = 436/610) of women having attempted to lose weight in the past. The majority of women (n = 334/436) felt comfortable receiving advice from pharmacists. In the logistic regression analysis women in Nottingham were found to be significantly less likely to have utilised a pharmacy weight management program in the last five years (OR: 0.23 CI: 0.08, 0.63) and were significantly less likely to want an ideal weight management program located in a pharmacy (OR: 0.49 CI: 0.30, 0.82) compared to women in Victoria. No significant associations between location and feeling comfortable with a pharmacist advising on weight loss or wanting a pharmacist in an

  18. [Characteristic of spatial-temporal distribution of hepatitis E in Hunan province, 2006-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Liang, Weijun; Li, Junhua; Liu, Fuqiang; Zhou, Guifeng; Zha, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Guochao

    2016-04-01

    To analyze the spatial-temporal distribution of Hepatitis E (HEV) in Hunan province from 2006 to 2014. Data related to HEV cases in Hunan province from 2006 to 2014 were collected from the Infectious Diseases Reporting Information System in the formation System of Disease Prevention and Control of China. Based on ArcGIS (10.2) and SaTScan(version 9.1), spatial autocorrelation analysis and space-time clustering analysis were used to study the prevalence on HEV. A total of 7 124 HEV cases were reported with 3 deaths during this period. The average annual incidence rate was 1.22/10(5). Most of the cases were over 55 years old and the majority of them (54.15%) were farmers. The distribution of HEV showed differences on locations and the regions with high incidence seen in northern and western areas of Hunan. However the regions with low incidence appeared in central or southern parts of Hunan. Data from the global spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that there was space autocorrelation on the HEV incidence rates in counties (cities, districts) (Moran'I was positive,Panalysis, 31 countries in high-high region all showed statistically significant differences (P<0.05). RESULTS from the space-time scan showed 7 space-time clustering areas, including those most likely in the western Hunan area (2012-2014); the secondary clusters in northern Hunan areas (2011-2014). Significant cluster pattern was found in the distribution of HEV in Hunan province. Clusters found in northern and western of Hunan province were seen more than in other regions.

  19. Geologic Provinces of the Arctic, 2000 (prvarcst)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons and polygon labels that describe Arctic portion of the U.S. Geological Survey defined geologic provinces of the World in 2000.

  20. Tourism as a Poverty Reduction Tool: The Case of Mukuni Village in the Southern Province of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Horák

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, tourism is becoming one of the cornerstones of national economic growth and as a means of poverty alleviation, especially in the tourist attractions in rural areas. This article assesses the levels of utilization of tourism potentials in Zambia, in general, and the Mukuni village in the Southern province in Zambia, in particular, with reference to poverty reduction. The world famous Victoria Falls is situated in the Southern province and therefore this area is the most visited places in Zambia and attracts more tourists throughout the whole year. The main income of the local people, which includes the Tonga tribe comes from tourism. Even though tourism has brought positive results, including the realization of some local development projects and prosperity to the people, it has also brought some negative effects such as sociocultural change, pollution and waste in the tourist destination areas in Zambia.For the Mukuni people and Zambia as a whole to fully exploit tourism potentials, stricter laws protecting the destruction of the environment and the preservation culture of the indigenous people should be enforced in the tourist destination areas. The government should use the levy from tourism to provide better infrastructure, create job opportunities and create wealth within the tourist areas for sustainable tourism development and poverty reduction.

  1. Community genetics reveal elevated levels of sympatric gene flow among morphologically similar but not among morphologically dissimilar species of Lake Victoria cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konijnendijk, N.; Joyce, D.A.; Mrosso, H.D.J.; Egas, M.; Seehausen, O.

    2011-01-01

    We examined genetic structure among five species of Lake Victoria haplochromine cichlids in four island communities, using a full factorial sampling design that compared genetic differentiation between pairs of species and populations of varying morphological similarity and geographical proximity.

  2. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    HUANG, Huide; Zhang, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  3. CURCULIONOIDEA FROM GOLESTAN PROVINCE, NORTHERN IRAN (Coleoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Ghahari; Enzo Colonnelli

    2012-01-01

    The 195 species of Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) thus far indicated from Golestan province (northern Iran) according to both literature and original records are listed in this paper. New data for 61 species belonging to 18 genera collected during this research are also given. Besides the 42 species newly reported for the Golestan province, the following additional 15 species are newly recorded from Iran: Brachypera lunata, Ceutorhynchus anatolicus, Datonychus urticae, Hypera contaminata, Hypera...

  4. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage.Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases.Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  5. Western Australia energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Scaife; Andre Urfer; Phil Brown; Aaron Cottrell; Jason Nunn; Louis Wibberley

    2006-03-15

    The study aims to assess present and future energy supply in Western Australia, and incorporates requests made by Wesfarmers, Griffin Energy, Western Power and the Department of Industry and Resources in October 2003 to include a number of hypothetical energy futures.

  6. Scenario-based water resources planning for utilities in the Lake Victoria region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, V. K.; Aslam, O.; Dale, L.; Miller, N.; Purkey, D.

    2010-12-01

    Cities in the Lake Victoria (LV) region are experiencing the highest growth rates in Africa, at the same time that their water resource is threatened by domestic waste and industrial pollution. Urban centers use local springs, wetlands and Lake Victoria as source waters. As efforts to meet increasing demand accelerate, integrated water resources management (IWRM) tools provide opportunities for utilities and other stakeholders to develop a planning framework comprehensive enough to include short term (e.g. landuse change), as well as longer term (e.g. climate change) scenarios. This paper presents IWRM models built using the Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) decision support system, for three pilot towns in the LV region - Bukoba (Tanzania), Masaka (Uganda), and Kisii (Kenya). Their current populations are 100,000, 70,000 and 200,000 respectively. Demand coverage is ~70% in Masaka and Bukoba, and less than 50% in Kisii. IWRM models for each town were calibrated under current system performance based on site visits, utility reporting and interviews. Projected water supply, demand, revenues and costs were then evaluated against a combination of climate, demographic and infrastructure scenarios upto 2050. In Masaka, flow and climate data were available to calibrate a runoff model to simulate streamflow at water intake. In Masaka, without considering climate change, the system is infrastructure-limited and not water availability (hydrology) limited until 2035, under projected population growth of 2.17%. Under a wet climate scenario as projected by GCM’s for the LV region, the current wetland source could supply all expected demands until 2050. Even under a drought scenario, the wetland could supply all demand until 2032, if the supply infrastructure is updated at an estimated cost of USD 10.8 million. However, demand targets can only be met at the expense of almost no water returning to the wetland downstream of the intake by 2035, unless substantial investments

  7. Rock Glaciers in the Upper Basin of Bermejo River, Santa Victoria, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, A. L.; Íbáñez Palacios, G. P.; Toledo, M. A.; Páez, S. V.

    2013-05-01

    The Bermejo River is an international basin in the Tropical Andes, Santa Victoria range. The Santa Victoria range extend in N-S sense (22°08' and 23°00' South latitude between 65° and 65°30' West longitude). It maxim height is about 5.055 m s.n.m. and it average height is 3000 m s.n.m. There have been localize intact rock glaciers (active and inactive) and relict. The rock glaciers are frozen water reservoir and regulate the water regime in the high mountain over the world. The global warming effects have been express in this region with average annual air temperatures in increase: The series of temperatures of La Quiaca weather station, years 1911-2010, shows an increase about 1° C (from 9,14° C to 10,08° C) since 70' decade to actuality. This study aims to contribute to the survey of intact rock glaciers and the suite of accompanying landforms. The geographic identification and location of rock glaciers have made through the interpretation of aerial photographs and LandSat 7 and Aster Images in comparison with Google Earth using GIS and visual interpretation technics. This information has controlled with fieldwork in several campaigns. The rock glaciers are classified (in base of it activity) in actives, inactives and relict. The first and the second class were grouped in a category called intact rock glaciers for simplify it identification. The unified categories are water-storing. In the fieldwork have determinated the following aspects: 1- Active processes determination (needle ice, lenticular ice formation, etc.) and its sedimentary products: sucrose structure, inverted gradation, extrusion, open work gravels. 2- Location and geomorphologic measurement of rock glaciers and periglacial forms. There are identified 318 intact rock glaciers in high basin of Bermejo river, Sub-basins Condado river, Los Toldos-Lipeo river and Iruya river, Santa Victoria range. The actives rock glaciers, indicators of discontinuous permafrost, are installed from 4300 m s

  8. Geochronology of Precambrian granites and associated U-Ti-Th mineralization, northern Olary province, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, K. R.; Cooper, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Proterozoic granitoids and metamorphic rocks in the Olary province of the Willyama block of South Australia host ore-grade amounts of U-Th-Ti and U-Fe-Ti-Th minerals. U-Pb-Th isotope analyses on zircons from all granitoids associated with the Crocker Well brannerite deposit indicate that these granitoids were intruded within a short time span, close to the 1579.2??1.5 m.y. age of the brannerite-bearing host-rock. Though the early Paleozoic Delamerian orogeny was intense in this region, the zircon isotopic systems remained unaffected; rather, the best-defined zircon chords on concordia plots show a welldefined lower intercept of 43.8??6.5 Ma, which can only be associated with early Tertiary block faulting. Pb-U-Th isotope analyses on brannerite from the Crocker Well deposit and davidite from the Mt. Victoria deposit and the Radium Hill deposit yield badly scattered and discordant apparent ages that suggest a primary age at least as old as the age of the Crocker Well granitoids, followed by a severe disturbance in the early Paleozoic. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Religión y religiosidad en la poesía de María Victoria Atencia

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Yebra, Antonio Agustín

    2015-01-01

    La poesía de María Victoria Atencia está hecha de fervores y de claridades, dijo Manuel Alcántara cuando la presentó como pregonera de la Semana Santa de Málaga en 1985. El contacto con Dios, oral (y sentimental), es una de las señales de la piedad de María Victoria, que cree en el Dios de la religión católica, tan fuertemente marcada por la herencia hebrea del Antiguo Testamento, pero que ella ha heredado fundamentalmente a través del Nuevo. De los primeros libros de la Biblia hay a...

  10. Outbreaks of sarcoptic mange in free-ranging koala populations in Victoria and South Australia: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, K N; Whiteley, P L; Woolford, L; Duignan, P J; Bacci, B; Lathe, S; Boardman, W; Scheelings, T F; Funnell, O; Underwood, G; Stevenson, M A

    2017-07-01

    To describe outbreaks of sarcoptic mange caused by Sarcoptes scabiei in free-ranging koalas in Victoria (December 2008 to November 2015) and South Australia (October 2011 to September 2014). Koalas affected by mange-like lesions were reported by wildlife carers, veterinary practitioners or State Government personnel to the Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences at The University of Melbourne and the School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences at The University of Adelaide. Skin scrapings were taken from live and dead koalas and S. scabiei mites were identified. Tissues from necropsied koalas were examined histologically. Outbreaks of sarcoptic mange were found to occur in koalas from both Victoria (n = 29) and South Australia (n = 29) for the first time. The gross pathological and histopathological changes are described. We present the first reported cases of sarcoptic mange outbreaks in free-ranging koalas. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  11. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from raw milk sources in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Kate; Moore, Sean C; McAuley, Catherine M; Fegan, Narelle; Fox, Edward M

    2016-07-29

    Highly pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus can cause disease in both humans and animals. In animal species, including ruminants, S. aureus may cause severe or sub-clinical mastitis. Dairy animals with mastitis frequently shed S. aureus into the milk supply which can lead to food poisoning in humans. The aim of this study was to use genotypic and immunological methods to characterize S. aureus isolates from milk-related samples collected from 7 dairy farms across Victoria. A total of 30 S. aureus isolates were collected from milk and milk filter samples from 3 bovine, 3 caprine and 1 ovine dairy farms across Victoria, Australia. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) identified 11 distinct pulsotypes among isolates; all caprine and ovine isolates shared greater than 80 % similarity regardless of source. Conversely, bovine isolates showed higher diversity. Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) identified 5 different sequence types (STs) among bovine isolates, associated with human or ruminant lineages. All caprine and ovine isolates were ST133, or a single allele variant of ST133. Two new novel STs were identified among isolates in this study (ST3183 and ST3184). With the exception of these 2 new STs, eBURST analysis predicted all other STs to be founding members of their associated clonal complexes (CCs). Analysis of genetic markers revealed a diverse range of classical staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE) among isolates, with 11 different SEs identified among bovine isolates, compared with just 2 among caprine and ovine isolates. None of the isolates contained mecA, or were resistant to oxacillin. The only antibiotic resistance identified was that of a single isolate resistant to penicillin; this isolate also contained the penicillin resistance gene blaZ. Production of SE was observed at 16 °C and/or 37 °C in milk, however no SE production was detected at 12 °C. Although this study characterized a limited number of isolates, bovine-associated isolates

  12. Developmental effects of environmental light on male nuptial coloration in Lake Victoria cichlid fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shane Wright

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Efficient communication requires that signals are well transmitted and perceived in a given environment. Natural selection therefore drives the evolution of different signals in different environments. In addition, environmental heterogeneity at small spatial or temporal scales may favour phenotypic plasticity in signaling traits, as plasticity may allow rapid adjustment of signal expression to optimize transmission. In this study, we explore signal plasticity in the nuptial coloration of Lake Victoria cichlids, Pundamilia pundamilia and Pundamilia nyererei. These two species differ in male coloration, which mediates species-assortative mating. They occur in adjacent depth ranges with different light environments. Given the close proximity of their habitats, overlapping at some locations, plasticity in male coloration could contribute to male reproductive success but interfere with reproductive isolation. Methods We reared P. pundamilia, P. nyererei, and their hybrids under light conditions mimicking the two depth ranges in Lake Victoria. From photographs, we quantified the nuptial coloration of males, spanning the entire visible spectrum. In experiment 1, we examined developmental colour plasticity by comparing sibling males reared in each light condition. In experiment 2, we assessed colour plasticity in adulthood, by switching adult males between conditions and tracking coloration for 100 days. Results We found that nuptial colour in Pundamilia did respond plastically to our light manipulations, but only in a limited hue range. Fish that were reared in light conditions mimicking the deeper habitat were significantly greener than those in conditions mimicking shallow waters. The species-specific nuptial colours (blue and red did not change. When moved to the opposing light condition as adults, males did not change colour. Discussion Our results show that species-specific nuptial colours, which are subject to strong divergent

  13. An overview of Australia?s Phytophthora species assemblage in natural ecosystems recovered from a survey in Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Dunstan, William A.; Howard, Kay; StJ. Hardy, Giles E.; Burgess, Treena I.

    2016-01-01

    Although Phytophthora species cause serious diseases worldwide, until recently the main focus on disease in natural ecosystems in southern Australia has been on the distribution and impact of P. cinnamomi. However, new Phytophthora pathogens have emerged from natural ecosystems, and there is a need to better understand the diversity and distribution of these species in our natural forests, woodlands and heathlands. From a survey along a 70 km pipeline easement in Victoria, Phytophthora specie...

  14. Regions With Low Rates of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Have Lower Rates of CPR Training in Victoria, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Bray, Janet E.; Straney, Lahn; Smith, Karen; Cartledge, Susie; Case, Rosalind; Bernard, Stephen; Finn, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Background Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) more than doubles the chance of surviving an out‐of‐hospital cardiac arrest. Recent data have shown considerable regional variation in bystander CPR rates across the Australian state of Victoria. This study aims to determine whether there is associated regional variation in rates of CPR training and willingness to perform CPR in these communities. Methods and Results We categorized each Victorian postcode as either a low or high bystand...

  15. Las guerras de las mujeres en la guerra :[homenaje a la teórica deminista Victoria Sau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Pérez González

    2011-12-01

    This paper pays tribute to the work of the feminist theorist Victoria Sau. The article relies on the three mythological or literary figures used by the author to exemplify the different stages of feminism -Cassandra, Antigone and Lysistrata- in order to review the roles played in different moments and places by women in war, understood as a defence mechanism intended to preserve the patriarchal system. As long as this mechanism is not dismantled, these roles will not disappear.

  16. Biologically relevant physical measurements in the ice-free valleys of southern Victoria Land: soil temperature profiles and ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienow, J. A.; Meyer, M. A.; Friedmann, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    As part of the ongoing comprehensive study of the cryptoendolithic microbial community in the ice-free valleys of southern Victoria Land, thermal properties of the soil and the ultraviolet radiation regime were measured. Although soil temperature profiles have been measured in the ice-free valleys (e.g., Cameron et al. 1970; Cameron 1972), these are the first such data from higher elevations. This is apparently the first time the ultraviolet radiation regime has been measured in the Antarctic.

  17. China's first intermediate resolution multi-channel seismic survey in the northern Victoria Land Basin and Terror Rift, Ross Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhongyan; Gao, Jinyao; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Wei; Ding, Weifeng; Zhang, Sheng

    2017-04-01

    The West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) represents one of the largest active continental rift systems on Earth and is less well known than other rift systems because it is largely covered by thick ice. The Terror Rift (TR), superimposing on the Victoria Land Basin (VLB) in the western Ross Sea, is identified as the most recent deformational zone of the WARS, thus will provide knowledge of the active deformation process of the WARS. The structure and kinematics of the TR is under debate. Originally, the TR was thought to consist of two parts: the Discovery Graben and the magmatically-intruded Lee Arch. New denser seismic grid in the middle and southern segments of the TR revealed a different structure of the Lee Arch while the northern segment of the TR is not well studied. The glacial history of the VLB/TR region is another attractive issue to the geologists since this area records the behavior information of EAIS and WAIS. In the southern part of the VLB, especially in the McMurdo Sound, the framework of the glacial history is well established after several deep cores which recovery the whole stratigraphic sequences since the onset of the glaciation. However, the glacial history of the northern part of the VLB/TR is less well studied and here we emphasize its importance because the northern part of the VLB/TR is a link between the well-studied southern VLB and the sediment-well-preserved Northern Basin. During the 32nd Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition, on the board of the RV XueLong, we collected intermediate resolution multi-channel seismic reflection data in the northern VLB/TR. These data will establish new constraints on the timing of deformation, structure and kinematics of the TR, and the history of the EAIS and WAIS.

  18. Student Performance and Family Socioeconomic Status: Results from a Survey of Compulsory Education in Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Lu, Ke

    2008-01-01

    This study used fifteen-year-old ninth-grade students from rural areas of five provinces in western China as samples to carry out research on the relationship between the socioeconomic status of Chinese families and student academic performance. Based on parents' educational background, occupation, family economic conditions, and other factors,…

  19. Spatio-temporal aspects of gated residential security estates in non-metropolitan Western Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spocter, M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available non-metropolitan gated residential security estates. While the locational and temporal aspects of non-metropolitan gated residential security estates in the Western Cape Province are discussed in this paper, there remain a number of avenues for further...

  20. Golden Key Program. Common Education for Visually Impaired Children in Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bailun

    This paper describes a new program in the Western provinces of China (Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Tibet, and Inner Mongolia) that is designed to integrate 20,000 children with low-vision into general education classrooms. The Golden Key Research Center of Education for Visually Impaired has been working with the…

  1. The birds of the alien Acacia thickets of the South-western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This leaves 37 species which can be regarded as forming the avifauna of the .... unexpected since the litter below the trees is much richer in small arthropods than the litter below indigenous vegetation .... The bird fauna of the thickets of the alien Acacia cyanophylla and A. cyclops in the South- western Cape Province was ...

  2. A study of heavy metal pollution in Lake Victoria sediments by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makundi, I N

    2001-01-01

    Sources of heavy metal pollution of Lake Victoria is of interest due to its economic and domestic implication in East Africa. Sediments from the shore of Lake Victoria and from some streams flowing into the lake have been analyzed for their heavy metal content using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis. The samples were collected from seventeen different locations around the Municipality of Mwanza divided into three zones according to their activities. The results show that sediments from Mwanza North, which is least in anthropogenic activities, contains Cr and Co in addition to metals of terrestrial origin (K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Rb, Sr, Y, and Zr), samples from Mwanza Central, which is the town center, contains high concentrations of V, Cu, Zn and Pb, and samples collected from Mwanza South, which is the industrial area, contains the highest concentrations of V, Cu, Zn, As and Pb. It is concluded that the industrial and sewage wastes discharged into the lake are the main sources of the heavy metal contamination of Lake Victoria. Further studies will be required to assess detriments of these pollutants to human and aquatic life before policy for the factories responsible is put in place.

  3. Climatic, socio-economic, and health factors affecting human vulnerability to cholera in the Lake Victoria basin, East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olago, Daniel; Marshall, Michael; Wandiga, Shem O; Opondo, Maggie; Yanda, Pius Z; Kanalawe, Richard; Githeko, Andrew K; Downs, Tim; Opere, Alfred; Kavumvuli, Robert; Kirumira, Edward; Ogallo, Laban; Mugambi, Paul; Apindi, Eugene; Githui, Faith; Kathuri, James; Olaka, Lydia; Sigalla, Rehema; Nanyunja, Robinah; Baguma, Timothy; Achola, Pius

    2007-06-01

    Cholera epidemics have a recorded history in the eastern Africa region dating to 1836. Cholera is now endemic in the Lake Victoria basin, a region with one of the poorest and fastest growing populations in the world. Analyses of precipitation, temperatures, and hydrological characteristics of selected stations in the Lake Victoria basin show that cholera epidemics are closely associated with El Niño years. Similarly, sustained temperatures high above normal (T(max)) in two consecutive seasons, followed by a slight cooling in the second season, trigger an outbreak of a cholera epidemic. The health and socioeconomic systems that the lake basin communities rely upon are not robust enough to cope with cholera outbreaks, thus rendering them vulnerable to the impact of climate variability and change. Collectively, this report argues that communities living around the Lake Victoria basin are vulnerable to climate-induced cholera that is aggravated by the low socioeconomic status and lack of an adequate health care system. In assessing the communities' adaptive capacity, the report concludes that persistent levels of poverty have made these communities vulnerable to cholera epidemics.

  4. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Precipitation over Lake Victoria, East Africa, in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Akurut

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation over Lake Victoria in East Africa greatly influences its water balance. Over 30 million people rely on Lake Victoria for food, potable water, hydropower and transport. Projecting precipitation changes over the lake is vital in dealing with climate change impacts. The past and future precipitation over the lake were assessed using 42 model runs obtained from 26 General Circulation Models (GCMs of the newest generation in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5. Two CMIP5 scenarios defined by Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP, namely RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, were used to explore climate change impacts. The daily precipitation over Lake Victoria for the period 1962–2002 was compared with future projections for the 2040s and 2075s. The ability of GCMs to project daily, monthly and annual precipitation over the lake was evaluated based on the mean error, root mean square error and the frequency of occurrence of extreme precipitation. Higher resolution models (grid size <1.5° simulated monthly variations better than low resolution models (grid size >2.5°. The total annual precipitation is expected to increase by less than 10% for the RCP4.5 scenario and less than 20% for the RCP8.5 scenario over the 21st century, despite the higher (up to 40% increase in extreme daily intensities.

  5. A Vertical and Horizontal Comparison of Sustainable Development Status in Western China from the Perspective of Ecological Footprint

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Hui-ying; DONG, HONG-LIN; Jin, Bo

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of ecological footprint theory, the ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity of western China and 12 provinces and cities in 2009 are calculated. From the perspective of ecological footprint, the sustainable development status of west China and 12 provinces and cities in 2009 and 1999 are compared vertically and horizontally. Results assume that no matter weighting by using local or national ecological carrying capacity, the west area laid in the unsustainable develo...

  6. Obstetrical events that shaped Western European history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, W B

    1992-01-01

    Taking into account that marriage, the family as a social unit, and concepts of legitimacy developed to ensure the devolution of property and that, when these concepts apply in a society based on hierarchically organized monarchies, they also involve the devolution of power, this essay furnishes examples of dislocations in such devolutions, in terms of familiar incidents in western European history. That Jane Seymour died in childbirth but her son Edward VI survived long enough to ensure the stability of the Church of England is the first example. The infertility of Mary Tudor, when married to Philip II of Spain, prevented the formation of an Anglo-Spanish dynasty that would have been Roman Catholic is the second example of such a dislocation. Likewise, the infertility of Charles II's wife, Catherine of Braganza, led to the succession of James II, a practicing Roman Catholic, whose attempts to undermine the Church of England led to the Glorious Revolution of 1788 and the preservation of English Protestantism. Another example is the death in 1817 of Princess Charlotte, in childbirth, which led to the scramble of George III's aging sons to marry and beget an heir to the throne. The only success led to the birth of the future Queen Victoria, whose dynastic competence remains unquestionable, but who herself had some passing involvement with obstetrical developments. Finally, the delivery of Kaiser Wilhelm II, who sustained a brachial plexus injury that produced Erb's palsy of the left arm, is considered, and the question of intrapartum fetal hypoxia is raised as a hypothesis, in addition to the mechanical trauma and its effect on his personality.

  7. Bionomics of Aedes aegypti subpopulations (Diptera: Culicidae) from Misiones Province, northeastern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejerina, Edmundo Fabricio; Almeida, Francisco Felipe Ludueña; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Life statistics of four Aedes aegypti subpopulations from the subtropical province of Misiones were studied during autumn and winter, under semi-natural conditions, coming from the localities of Posadas (SW), San Javier (SE), Bernardo de Irigoyen (NE) and Puerto Libertad (NW). The eastern subpopulations are geographically separated by the central mountain system of the province from the western subpopulations. High percentages of larval and pupal survival (97-100%) were recorded, and no significant differences were detected among the four subpopulations. Larvae and pupae lasted approximately 8 days to complete their development, no significant differences being detected among the four subpopulations studied. Sex ratio recorded did not differ significantly from 1:1. Male longevity did not show difference among the different subpopulations, but female longevity was remarkably different among the four subpopulations (F=16.27; d.f.=(3;8); P=0.0009), ranging among 11.45 days for San Javier and 57.87 days for Posadas. Fecundity also varied considerably among subpopulations, the greatest number (307.44 eggs/female) being recorded for Posadas (F=4.13; d.f.=(3;8); P=0.04). Ae. aegypti females of the western subpopulations lived longer than the eastern subpopulations studied, therefore, the risk of dengue outbreak would be greater on the Misiones Province border with Paraguay.

  8. A meteorological potential forecast model for acid rain in Fujian Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi Yong; Lin, Chang Cheng; Liu, Jing Xiong; Wu, De Hui; Lian, Dong Ying; Chen, Bin Bin

    2010-05-01

    Based on the acid rain and concurrent meteorological observational data during the past 10 years in Fujian Province, China, the dependence of distribution characteristics of acid rain on season, rain rate, weather pattern and dominant airflow in four regions of Fujian Province is analyzed. On the annual average, the acid rain frequency is the highest (above 40%) in the southern and mid-eastern regions, and the lowest (16.2%) in the western region. The acid rain occurs most frequently in spring and winter, and least frequent in summer. The acid rain frequency in general increases with the increase of precipitation. It also depend on the direction of dominant airflows at 850 hPa. In the mid-eastern region, more than 40% acid rains appear when the dominant wind directions are NW, W, SW, S and SE. In the southern region, high acid rain occurrence happens when the dominant wind directions are NW, W, SW and S. In the northern region, 41.8% acid rains occur when the southwesterly is pronounced. In the western region, the southwesterly is associated with a 17% acid rain rate. The examination of meteorological sounding conditions over Fuzhou, Xiamen and Shaowu cities shows that the acid rain frequency increases with increased inversion thickness. Based on the results above, a meteorological potential forecast model for acid rain is established and tested in 2007. The result is encouraging. The model provides an objective basis for the development of acid rain forecasting operation in the province.

  9. Control of swimming in the hydrozoan jellyfish Aequorea victoria: subumbrellar organization and local inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlie, Richard A

    2008-11-01

    The subumbrella of the hydrozoan jellyfish Aequorea victoria (previously classified as Aequorea aequorea) is divided by numerous radial canals and attached gonads, so the subumbrellar musculature is partitioned into subumbrellar segments. The ectoderm of each segment includes two types of muscle: smooth muscle with a radial orientation, used for local (feeding and righting) and widespread (protective) radial responses, and striated muscle with a circular orientation which produces swim contractions. Two subumbrellar nerve nets were found, one of which stained with a commercial antibody produced against the bioactive peptide FMRFamide. Circular muscle cells produce a single, long-duration action potential with each swim, triggered by a single junctional potential. In addition, the circular cells are electrically coupled so full contractions require both electrotonic depolarization from adjacent cells and synaptic input from a subumbrellar nerve net. The radial cells, which form a layer superficial to the circular cells, are also activated by a subumbrellar nerve net, and produce short-duration action potentials. The radial muscle cells are electrically coupled to one another. No coupling exists between the two muscle layers. Spread of excitation between adjacent segments is decremental, and nerve net-activated junctional potentials disappear during local inhibition of swimming (such as with a radial response). Variable swim contractions are controlled by a combination of synaptic input from the motor network of the inner nerve ring, synaptic input from a subumbrellar nerve net, and electrotonic depolarization from adjacent, active muscle cells.

  10. A new marine ecosystem model for the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Keller

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Earth System Climate Models (ESCMs are valuable tools that can be used to gain a better understanding of the climate system, global biogeochemical cycles and how anthropogenically-driven changes may affect them. Here we describe improvements made to the marine biogeochemical ecosystem component of the University of Victoria's ESCM (version 2.9. Major changes include corrections to the code and equations describing phytoplankton light limitation and zooplankton grazing, the implementation of a more realistic zooplankton growth and grazing model, and the implementation of an iron limitation scheme to constrain phytoplankton growth. The new model is evaluated after a 10 000-yr spin-up and compared to both the previous version and observations. For the majority of biogeochemical tracers and ecosystem processes the new model shows significant improvements when compared to the previous version and evaluated against observations. Many of the improvements are due to better simulation of seasonal changes in higher latitude ecosystems and the effect that this has on ocean biogeochemistry. This improved model is intended to provide a basic new ESCM model component, which can be used as is or expanded upon (i.e., the addition of new tracers, for climate change and biogeochemical cycling research.

  11. An overview of Australia's Phytophthora species assemblage in natural ecosystems recovered from a survey in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, William A; Howard, Kay; StJ Hardy, Giles E; Burgess, Treena I

    2016-06-01

    Although Phytophthora species cause serious diseases worldwide, until recently the main focus on disease in natural ecosystems in southern Australia has been on the distribution and impact of P. cinnamomi. However, new Phytophthora pathogens have emerged from natural ecosystems, and there is a need to better understand the diversity and distribution of these species in our natural forests, woodlands and heathlands. From a survey along a 70 km pipeline easement in Victoria, Phytophthora species were isolated from 249 rhizosphere samples and 25 bait bags deployed in 21 stream, river, or wetland locations. Of the 186 Phytophthora isolates recovered, 130 were identified to species based on ITS sequence data. Ninety-five isolates corresponded to 13 described Phytophthora species while additionally 35 isolates were identified as Clade 6 hybrids. Phytophthora cinnamomi was the most common species isolated (31 %), followed by P. elongata (6 %), both species were only recovered from soil. Samples from sites with the highest soil moisture at the time of sampling had the highest yield of isolates. Consistent with other studies throughout the world, Clade 6 species and their hybrids dominated water samples, although many of these species were also recovered less frequently from soil samples. Many of the species recovered in this study have not previously been reported from eastern Australia, reinforcing that Phytophthora species are widespread, abundant and diverse in natural ecosystems. We have probably been underestimating Phytophthora diversity in Australia.

  12. Reforming Defences to Homicide in Victoria: Another Attempt to Address the Gender Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Naylor

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2005 in the Australian state of Victoria, significant changes were made to the defences to homicide. These reforms were in response to long standing concerns about the gendered operation of provocation and self-defence by feminist researchers and advocates, Law Reform Commissions, the media and political pressures. This paper critically examines the reforms and the extent to which they have addressed these varied concerns and interests. The paper argues that these important law reforms have challenged some of the powerful narratives being used in the courts that minimise the existence and significance of family violence in intimate relationships. We see this particularly in judicial sentencing remarks. However, law reform must be accompanied by a shift in legal culture to be effective in practice. To this end, we argue that legal professionals need to have information about how to utilise the new family violence provisions as well as ongoing training and professional development to promote consistent understandings of family violence across the criminal justice system.

  13. Psychiatric/Mental health nursing education in Victoria, Australia: barriers to specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda

    2006-04-01

    The introduction of undergraduate comprehensive nursing education in Victoria, Australia, during the 1990s has resulted in significant changes in undergraduate preparation for psychiatric/mental health nursing. Comprehensive programs became charged with the responsibility of preparing graduates to provide care for people experiencing a mental illness across a broad range of health-care settings, as well as providing a pathway for graduates with an interest in specialist practice in this field. The aim of this article is to clearly articulate the issues associated with psychiatric/mental health nursing education at the undergraduate level, including prevalence of mental illness, the inadequacy of psychiatric/mental health nursing theory and practice at undergraduate level, the negative attitudes of students toward this field of practice, and the subsequent failure of nursing education and practice initiatives to provide a clear mechanism for specialization in this important area of nursing practice. Throughout the article, the distinction between generalist and specialist preparation is argued and accompanied by a call for nursing education to recognize and address the issues associated with both domains.

  14. Development and reliability testing of the Victoria Bowel Performance Scale (BPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, G Michael; Kuziemsky, Craig; Lesperance, Mary; Lau, Francis; Syme, Ann

    2007-11-01

    With changes in bowel function being a common and often distressful issue for palliative care patients, the ability to easily monitor and record changes in bowel status would be helpful in addressing quality of care. Most bowel tools record either constipation or diarrhea, but not both. A new tool, the Victoria Bowel Performance Scale (BPS), was designed as an ordinal nine-point scale from -4 (severe constipation) to +4 (severe diarrhea) and includes three parameters: visual stool characteristics, bowel pattern, and ability to control defecation. This study tested the reliability of BPS using case scenarios in a test-retest format. Sixty-seven raters in Time Period 1 and 54 raters in Time Period 2 ranked the 18 cases. The intraclass correlation coefficients for absolute agreement were 0.822 and 0.853 for Time Periods 1 and 2, respectively. Results showed that the raters were consistent in their scoring over time, with an average Cohen's kappa of 0.70 over all of the raters. The average Pearson correlation coefficient between Time Periods 1 and 2 scores was 0.92. Further prospective testing in day-to-day clinical care is needed to further confirm the reliability and clinical utility of the BPS. A BPS management guideline has been developed to assist with decision making for each BPS score, which also requires validation.

  15. Strategies used by dentists in Victoria, Australia, to manage children with anxiety or behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, F A; McMurray, N E; Giebartowski, J

    1991-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty-seven Australian dentists from the State of Victoria, representing members of the Australian Society of Dentistry for Children (AusSDC) and randomly selected practitioners, responded to a survey on attitudes and practices in the management of anxious children or children with behavior problems. The most common strategies used by dentists in this study were: permitting the child to exercise some form of control over terminating the treatment, if they were experiencing difficulties; furnishing waiting areas with play materials; and using a Tell-Show-Do approach to the provision of dental care. Members of the Australian Society of Dentistry for Children differed from general dentists by more frequently teaching anxious children a technique of relaxation and also by more frequently using a mouth prop or rubber dam during the delivery of care. Younger dentists tended to use behavioral strategies more frequently than older practitioners. Women dentists more frequently than male dentists, used strategies including: spending more time with the child before entering the operatory; setting shorter appointment sessions; and permitting the child to hold a toy or a mirror during dental treatment. In contrast to North American studies, few of the Australian dentists used the Hand-Over-Mouth technique to control hysteria. Australian dentists appeared to rely more frequently than their North American colleagues on setting shorter appointment sessions as a major strategy in managing children with anxiety or other behavioral difficulties.

  16. Motor vehicle exhaust gas suicide in Victoria, Australia 1998-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Chris; Routley, Virginia; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2006-01-01

    Motor vehicle exhaust gas suicide (MVEGS) is the second most frequent method of suicide in Victoria, Australia. It is a highly lethal method of suicide with 1.5 deaths for every hospital admission. Australian regulations require all vehicles manufactured since 1998 to have a maximum carbon monoxide exhaust emission level of 2.1 g/km, reduced from the previous level of 9.6 g/km. Information surrounding all Victorian MVEGS between 1998-2002 was analyzed to determine whether suicides occurred in vehicles with the lower emission levels. Between 1998-2002, 607 suicides by this means were recorded while just 393 hospital admissions were recorded for the same period. Mean carboxyhaemoglobin levels were significantly lower in fatalities using vehicles manufactured from 1998, however suicide still occurred in these vehicles (n = 25). The extent to which the new regulations contributed to the relatively low rate of suicide in vehicles less than 5 years old compared to their frequency in the fleet remains unknown. Based on international experience and the age of the Victorian vehicle fleet, it may take well over a decade until substantial decreases in MVEGS are observed in the absence of active preventive measures.

  17. Observed Marine Debris in the Pacific Ocean 00e2?? Victoria to Maui 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Location and descriptions of marine debris observed by the Sailing Vessel (S/V) Family Affair yacht during the Victoria, British Columbia to Maui, Hawaii Yacht Race in July 2012. These observations are organized according to the following map layers: Family Affairs Observations, Fleet Debris Levels, Return Vessels Special Reports, Roll Call Debris Data-Race, Special Report Debris-Race, Vessel Specific Observations, and Return Vessel Specific Levels Observations.The March, 2011 tsunami that affected northern Japan washed enormous amounts of debris out to sea. While most of this debris sank quickly out at sea, much remains on the surface and by ocean current and wind is working its way across the Pacific Ocean. In early days, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) could track the debris slick by satellite, but by early 2012, the debris had become too dispersed to track. News stories have reported containers with motorcycles on Haida Gwaii, whole fishing boats in Alaska, and sections of concrete dock in Oregon. Recent reports are about the struggles of local governments to deal with cleaning up and disposing of flotsam washing up on local beaches.

  18. Unforeseen misuses of bed nets in fishing villages along Lake Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futami Kyoko

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To combat malaria, the Kenya Ministry of Health and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs have distributed insecticide-treated nets (ITNs for use over beds, with coverage for children under five years of age increasing rapidly. Nevertheless, residents of fishing villages have started to use these bed nets for drying fish and fishing in Lake Victoria. This study investigated the extent of bed net misuse in fishing villages. Methods Seven fishing villages along the lake were surveyed to estimate how widely bed nets were being used for fishing and drying fish. Villagers were asked why they used the bed nets for such purposes. Results In total, 283 bed nets were being used for drying fish. Of these, 239 were long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLIN and 44 were non-long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (NLLIN. Further, 72 of the 283 bed nets were also being used for fishing. The most popular reasons were because the bed nets were inexpensive or free and because fish dried faster on the nets. LLINs were preferred to NLLINs for fishing and drying fish. Conclusion There is considerable misuse of bed nets for drying fish and fishing. Many villagers are not yet fully convinced of the effectiveness of LLINs for malaria prevention. Such misuses may hamper the efforts of NGOs and governmental health organizations.

  19. Content analysis of school anti-bullying policies: a comparison between New Zealand and Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Louise; McGee, Rob; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Williams, Sheila

    2011-12-01

    To undertake a detailed analysis of the content of anti-bullying policies in schools in New Zealand (NZ) and Victoria, Australia. The content of anti-bullying policies from 253 NZ schools and 93 Victorian schools were analysed in terms of definitions of bullying behaviour; reporting, recording and responding to bullying incidents; communicating and evaluating the policy; and outlining strategies for preventing bullying. There was a wide range in 'policy scores' between schools, and Victorian schools scored higher on nearly every area compared with NZ schools. In both regions, definitions rarely included bullying on the grounds of homophobia, religion or disability; or bullying between adults and students. Policies also lacked detail about the responsibilities of non-teaching staff in dealing with bullying, and rarely described follow-up after a bullying incident. Few policies explained how the policy would be evaluated, and many failed to mention preventive strategies. This study highlights some important areas that are deficient in NZ and Victorian school anti-bullying policies, and emphasises the need for guidance on how schools can develop an effective anti-bullying policy. Having more comprehensive anti-bullying policies will give schools a much better chance of reducing bullying.

  20. Highly Heterogeneous Soil Bacterial Communities around Terra Nova Bay of Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyoun Soo; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ji Hee; Lee, Joohan; Choi, Taejin; Ahn, Tae Seok; Kim, Ok-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Given the diminished role of biotic interactions in soils of continental Antarctica, abiotic factors are believed to play a dominant role in structuring of microbial communities. However, many ice-free regions remain unexplored, and it is unclear which environmental gradients are primarily responsible for the variations among bacterial communities. In this study, we investigated the soil bacterial community around Terra Nova Bay of Victoria Land by pyrosequencing and determined which environmental variables govern the bacterial community structure at the local scale. Six bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, were dominant, but their relative abundance varied greatly across locations. Bacterial community structures were affected little by spatial distance, but structured more strongly by site, which was in accordance with the soil physicochemical compositions. At both the phylum and species levels, bacterial community structure was explained primarily by pH and water content, while certain earth elements and trace metals also played important roles in shaping community variation. The higher heterogeneity of the bacterial community structure found at this site indicates how soil bacterial communities have adapted to different compositions of edaphic variables under extreme environmental conditions. Taken together, these findings greatly advance our understanding of the adaption of soil bacterial populations to this harsh environment. PMID:25799273

  1. Economic, social and resource management factors influencing groundwater trade: Evidence from Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bruce; Webb, John; Stott, Kerry; Cheng, Xiang; Wilkinson, Roger; Cossens, Brendan

    2017-07-01

    In Victoria, Australia, most groundwater resources are now fully allocated and opportunities for new groundwater development can only occur through trading of license entitlements. Groundwater usage has rarely exceeded 50% of the available licensed volume, even in the 2008/9 drought year, and 50 to 70% of individual license holders use less than 5% of their allocation each year. However, little groundwater trading is occurring at present. Interviews were conducted with groundwater license holders and water brokers to investigate why the Victorian groundwater trade market is underdeveloped. Responses show there is a complex mix of social, economic, institutional and technical reasons. Barriers to trade are influenced by the circumstances of each groundwater user, administrative process and resource management rules. Water brokers deal with few trades at low margins and noted unrealistic selling prices and administrative difficulties. Irrigators who have successfully traded identify that there are few participants in trading, technical appraisals are expensive and administrative requirements and fees are burdensome, especially when compared to surface water trading. Opportunities to facilitate trade include groundwater management plan refinement and improved information provision. Simplifying transaction processes and costs, demonstrating good resource stewardship and preventing third party impacts from trade could address some concerns raised by market participants. There are, however, numerous individual circumstances that inhibit groundwater trading, so it is unlikely that policy and process changes alone could increase usage rates without greater demand for groundwater or more favourable farming economic circumstances.

  2. Short-term droughts forecast using Markov chain model in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, Siti Nazahiyah; Jayasuriya, Niranjali; Bhuiyan, Muhammed A.

    2017-07-01

    A comprehensive risk management strategy for dealing with drought should include both short-term and long-term planning. The objective of this paper is to present an early warning method to forecast drought using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and a non-homogeneous Markov chain model. A model such as this is useful for short-term planning. The developed method has been used to forecast droughts at a number of meteorological monitoring stations that have been regionalised into six (6) homogenous clusters with similar drought characteristics based on SPI. The non-homogeneous Markov chain model was used to estimate drought probabilities and drought predictions up to 3 months ahead. The drought severity classes defined using the SPI were computed at a 12-month time scale. The drought probabilities and the predictions were computed for six clusters that depict similar drought characteristics in Victoria, Australia. Overall, the drought severity class predicted was quite similar for all the clusters, with the non-drought class probabilities ranging from 49 to 57 %. For all clusters, the near normal class had a probability of occurrence varying from 27 to 38 %. For the more moderate and severe classes, the probabilities ranged from 2 to 13 % and 3 to 1 %, respectively. The developed model predicted drought situations 1 month ahead reasonably well. However, 2 and 3 months ahead predictions should be used with caution until the models are developed further.

  3. Liturgy and Music in Hereford Cathedral in the Time of Queen Victoria and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Murdoch

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Victorian Gothic Revival and its focus on liturgical neo-medievalism inspired the 1860s restoration of the medieval Hereford Cathedral. In this restoration, the new screen played a central part. Designed by George Gilbert Scott and manufactured by the firm of Francis Skidmore in Coventry, the screen was commissioned in order to re-unite the choir with the nave. The symbolism and colours decorating the screen harmonized with the medieval and later features of the cathedral, including the high altar reredos, organ pipes, and floor tiles. Hereford Cathedral Library preserves historical accounts of the interior and original music manuscripts by Edward Elgar and Frederick Ouseley that illustrate, with the musical inserts provided, the rich tradition of choral music and liturgy which continues to this day with key liturgies and the annual Three Choirs Festival linking Gloucester, Hereford, and Worcester. Memorials and stained-glass windows dedicated to successive precentors embellish the musical vocabulary of the interior. In focusing on the musical culture connected with Hereford Cathedral, this essay seeks to enrich the interpretation of the restored Hereford Screen in its secular setting at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

  4. Is Gippsland environmentally iodine deficient? Water iodine concentrations in the Gippsland region of Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ashequr; Deacon, Nicholas; Panther, Barbara; Chesters, Janice; Savige, Gayle

    2010-12-01

      This paper provides evidence of environmental iodine deficiency in the Gippsland region.   Quantitative study; water samples were collected from 18 water treatment plants and four rain water tanks across Gippsland and water iodine concentrations were measured.   Gippsland region of Victoria, Australia.   This paper reports on the iodine concentration of drinking water from sources across Gippsland and examines the contribution of iodine from water to the Gippsland diet. This study also briefly examines the relationship between the concentration of iodine in water and distance from the sea. The cut-off value for water iodine concentrations considered to be indicative of environmental iodine deficiency is water from 18 Gippsland water treatment plants was 0.38 µg L(-1) and would therefore make negligible difference to the dietary intake of iodine. This finding also falls well below the suggested dietary intake of iodine from water estimated by the 22nd Australian Total Diet Study. Our study found no linear relationship between the water iodine concentration and distance from the sea.   As Gippsland has environmental iodine deficiency there is a greater probability that people living in this region are at higher risk of dietary iodine deficiency than those living in environmentally iodine sufficient regions. Populations living in areas known to have environmental iodine deficiency should be monitored regularly to ensure that problems of iodine deficiency, especially amongst the most vulnerable, are addressed promptly. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  5. A study of autotrophic communities in two Victoria Land lakes (Continental Antarctica using photosynthetic pigments

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    Roberto BARGAGLI

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The composition of algal pigments and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS was determined in microbial mats from two lakes in Victoria Land (Continental Antarctica with different lithology and environmental features. The aim was to expand knowledge of benthic autotrophic communities in Antarctic lacustrine ecosystems, providing reference data for future assessment of possible changes in environmental conditions and freshwater communities. The results of chemical analyses were supported by microscopy observations. Pigment profiles showed that filamentous cyanobacteria are dominant in both lakes. Samples from the water body at Edmonson Point had greater biodiversity, fewer pigments and lower EPS ratios than those from the lake at Kar Plateau. Differences in mat composition and in pigment and EPS profile between the two lakes are discussed in terms of local environmental conditions such as lithology, ice-cover and UV radiation. The present study suggests that a chemical approach could be useful in the study of benthic communities in Antarctic lakes and their variations in space and time.

  6. Forensic odontology, part 3. The Australian bushfires - Victoria state, February 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, J

    2011-04-09

    This paper aims to demonstrate the stages in the disaster victim identification of those who lost their lives in the Australian bushfires that raged across the state of Victoria in February 2009. Communities were damaged or destroyed leaving families distressed and homeless, and as the number of deaths increased the Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) teams were activated, with plans evolving to deal with this emergency. The identification process was challenging due to many factors, such as the dangers and difficulties involved in body recovery and the charring and commingling of remains. It would take several months of careful work to identify the dead using a multidisciplinary approach. The impact of this incident will have long-lasting consequences for the families and communities involved. At the time of writing all but one of the 173 victims had been identified, mostly by dental methods: quite remarkable when only small fragments of the dental structures remained in many cases. This article is based on the author's personal experience working to assist the organised and experienced Australian Dental DVI Team.

  7. Public values for integration in natural disaster management and planning: A case study from Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawluk, Andrea; Ford, Rebecca M; Neolaka, Fendi L; Williams, Kathryn J

    2017-01-01

    Values can be useful for identifying what is important to individuals and communities, yet there is currently not a coherent way to conceptualize, identify, and organize the breadth of values that can be affected by a natural disaster. This research proposes a conceptual framework for how to conceptualize, identify, and organize values, and proposes a concrete, tangible value called the valued entity. The framework is applied in two studies of bushfire in Victoria, Australia: 112 submissions from individuals to the 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission and interviews with 30 members of the public in bushfire risk landscapes. Our findings suggest that: what people value ranges from abstract to concrete; prevalent abstract values include benevolence and universalism; prevalent mid-level valued attributes include natural attributes of landscapes and human life and welfare; prevalent valued entities are people and properties close to the person. Comparison between the two studies suggests people with more recent experience with bushfire refer less to the importance of natural places and natural attributes. The conceptual framework can act as a boundary object to facilitate researchers and policy-makers understanding the breadth of values affected by natural disaster events and management actions and how governance can better consider values at different scales. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Morchella australiana sp. nov., an apparent Australian endemic from New South Wales and Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Todd F; Bougher, Neale L; O'Donnell, Kerry; Trappe, James M

    2014-01-01

    An abundant fruiting of a black morel was encountered in temperate northwestern New South Wales (NSW), Australia, during a mycological survey in Sep 2010. The site was west of the Great Dividing Range in a young, dry sclerophyll forest dominated by Eucalyptus and Callitris north of Coonabarabran in an area known as the Pilliga Scrub. Although the Pilliga Scrub is characterized by frequent and often large, intense wildfires, the site showed no sign of recent fire, which suggests this species is not a postfire morel. Caps of the Morchella elata-like morel were brown with blackish ridges supported by a pubescent stipe that became brown at maturity. Because no morel has been described as native to Australia, the collections were subjected to multilocus molecular phylogenetic and morphological analyses to assess its identity. Results of these analyses indicated that our collection, together with collections from NSW and Victoria, represented a novel, genealogically exclusive lineage, which is described and illustrated here as Morchella australiana T. F. Elliott, Bougher, O'Donnell & Trappe, sp. nov.

  9. Longitudinal effects of school drug policies on student marijuana use in Washington State and Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Whipp, Tracy J; Plenty, Stephanie M; Catalano, Richard F; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Toumbourou, John W

    2015-05-01

    We examined the longitudinal effect of schools' drug policies on student marijuana use. We used data from the International Youth Development Study, which surveyed state-representative samples of students from Victoria, Australia, and Washington State. In wave 1 (2002), students in grades 7 and 9 (n = 3264) and a school administrator from each participating school (n = 188) reported on school drug policies. In wave 2 (2003), students reported on their marijuana use. We assessed associations between student-reported and administrator-reported policy and student self-reported marijuana use 1 year later. Likelihood of student marijuana use was higher in schools in which administrators reported using out-of-school suspension and students reported low policy enforcement. Student marijuana use was less likely where students reported receiving abstinence messages at school and students violating school policy were counseled about the dangers of marijuana use. Schools may reduce student marijuana use by delivering abstinence messages, enforcing nonuse policies, and adopting a remedial approach to policy violations rather than use of suspensions.

  10. Microbiological Safety and Food Handling Practices of Seed Sprout Products in the Australian State of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, Sally; Goldsmith, Paul; Haines, Heather

    2015-07-01

    Seed sprouts have been implicated as vehicles for numerous foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Seed sprouts pose a unique food safety concern because of the ease of microbiological seed contamination, the inherent ability of the sprouting process to support microbial growth, and their consumption either raw or lightly cooked. To examine seed sprout safety in the Australian state of Victoria, a survey was conducted to detect specific microbes in seed sprout samples and to investigate food handling practices relating to seed sprouts. A total of 298 seed sprout samples were collected from across 33 local council areas. Escherichia coli was detected in 14.8%, Listeria spp. in 12.3%, and Listeria monocytogenes in 1.3% of samples analyzed. Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the samples. A range of seed sprout handling practices were identified as potential food safety issues in some food businesses, including temperature control, washing practices, length of storage, and storage in proximity to unpackaged ready-to-eat potentially hazardous foods.

  11. Finding Space for Participation: Fisherfolk Mobility and Co-Management of Lake Victoria Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Fiona; Luomba, Joseph; Lwenya, Caroline; Yongo, Ernest; Odongkara, Konstantine; Ntambi, Baker

    2012-08-01

    The literature on fisheries co-management is almost silent on the issue of the movement of fisherfolk within fisheries, although such movement must have implications for the effectiveness of co-management. The introduction of co-management often involves the formation of new structures that should enable the participation of key stakeholder groups in decision-making and management, but such participation is challenging for migrating fishers. The article reports on a study on Lake Victoria, East Africa, which investigated the extent of movement around the lake and the implications of movement for how fishers participate and are represented in co-management, and the implications of the extent and nature of movement for co-management structures and processes. The analysis draws on the concept of space from the literature on participation in development and on a framework of representation in fisheries co-management in addressing these questions. The created space is on an `invited' rather than open basis, reflecting the top-down nature of implementation and the desire to secure participation of different occupational groups, as well as women in a male-dominated sector. The more powerful boat owners dominate positions of power within the co-management system, particularly as the levels of co-management, from sub-district to national, are traversed. The limited power and resources of boat crew are exacerbated by the degree and nature of movement around the lake, making effective participation in co-management decision-making a challenge.

  12. A positive association between cryptosporidiosis notifications and ambient temperature, Victoria, Australia, 2001-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Lillian; McPherson, Michelle; Higgins, Nasra

    2015-12-01

    Increased temperatures provide optimal conditions for pathogen survival, virulence and replication as well as increased opportunities for human-pathogen interaction. This paper examined the relationship between notifications of cryptosporidiosis and temperature in metropolitan and rural areas of Victoria, Australia between 2001 and 2009. A negative binomial regression model was used to analyse monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall and the monthly count of cryptosporidiosis notifications. In the metropolitan area, a 1 °C increase in monthly average minimum temperature of the current month was associated with a 22% increase in cryptosporidiosis notifications (incident rate ratio (IRR) 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.31). In the rural area, a 1 °C increase in monthly average minimum temperature, lagged by 3 months, was associated with a 9% decrease in cryptosporidiosis notifications (IRR 0.91; 95% CI 0.86-0.97). Rainfall was not associated with notifications in either area. These relationships should be considered when planning public health response to ecological risks as well as when developing policies involving climate change. Rising ambient temperature may be an early warning signal for intensifying prevention efforts, including appropriate education for pool users about cryptosporidiosis infection and management, which might become more important as temperatures are projected to increase as a result of climate change.

  13. Selection of electrogenic bacteria for microbial fuel cell in removing Victoria blue R from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Tsai, Teh-Hua; Wu, Pei-Ssu; Tsao, Shuo-En; Huang, Yu-Shan; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2018-01-28

    This study was conducted to select electrogenic bacteria from wastewater sludge. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in the microbial fuel cell (MFC) during the decomposition process of organic pollutants. Five culturable bacteria strains - namely, Bacillus subtilis, Flavobacterium sp., Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter freundii, and Stenotrophomonas sp. - have a double potential in dye removal and electricity generation. We inoculated the mixed electrogenic bacteria at a specific ratio and treated them with a triphenylmethane dye, Victoria blue R (VBR), to evaluate their electricity generation ability for the artificial and real wastewater. The results of the VBR shock-loading experiment indicated that the inoculated MFC could adapt to shock loading in 1-2 days and exhibited high removal efficiency (95-100%) for 100-800 mg L-1 VBR with a power density of 8.62 ± 0.10 to 34.81 ± 0.25 mW m-2. The selected electrogenic bacteria in the MFC could use VBR as only electron donor for power generation. The matrix effects of the real wastewater on VBR removal and electricity generation of MFC were insignificant. VBR degradation by the electrogenic bacteria involves a stepwise demethylation process to yield partially dealkylated VBR species. In addition, these results demonstrate the feasibility of inoculating culturable bacteria strains to develop an efficient MFC for purifying wastewater.

  14. The photodynamic effect of Victoria blue BO on peripheral blood mononuclear and leukemic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedorowicz, M. [Hugo Kollatay Univ. of Agriculture, Krakow (Poland); Pituch-Noworolska, A.; Zembala, M. [Polish-American Children`s Hospital, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Clinical Immunology

    1997-05-01

    The photodynamic effect of Victoria blue BO (VB-BO) and photoirradiation on peripheral blood mononuclear cells was studied. The cells were preincubated with VB-BO followed by photoirradiation and overnight culture. The highest percentage of dead cells (propidium iodide assay in flow cyctometry) was seen in the monocyte population. The lymphocytes showed a lower sensitivity to VB-BO photodynamic action than the monocytes (12% vs 80% of PI-positive cells). The effect of VB-BO and phototreatment on lymphocyte function was studied using a mitogen-induced proliferation assay. A decrease of mitogen response was observed. The VB-BO and photoirradiation were also used on leukemic cells. The leukemic cells from acute myeloid leukemia and B precursors leukemia were sensitive to VB-BO photodynamic action. The high VB-BO sensitivity of monocytes and leukemic cells (myeloid and lymphoid B derived) suggests possible application of VB-BO for selective depletion of monocytes or sensitive leukemic cells. (author).

  15. Sensitive voltammetric detection of yeast RNA based on its interaction with Victoria Blue B

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    WEI SUN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Voltammetric studies of the interaction of yeast RNA (y-RNA with Victoria Blue B (VBB are described in this paper. Furthermore, a linear sweep voltammetric method for the detection of y-RNA was established. The reaction conditions, such as acidity and amount of buffer solution, the concentration of VBB, the reaction time and temperature, etc., were carefully investigated by second order derivative linear sweep voltammetry. Under the optimal conditions, the reduction peak current of VBB at –0.75 V decreased greatly after the addition of y-RNA to the solution without any shift of the reduction peak potential. Based on the decrease of the peak current, a new quantitative method for the determination of y-RNA was developed. The effects of co-existing substances on the determination were carefully investigated and three synthetic samples were determined with satisfactory results. The stoichiometry of the VBB–y-RNA complex was calculated by linear sweep voltammetry and the interaction mechanism is discussed.

  16. Relationships between body fatness, small-screen sedentary activity and regionality among schoolchildren in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucote, Helen M; Cooper, Andrew

    2009-06-01

    To examine the difference in body fatness and engagement in small-screen activities across children living in different degrees of regionality, and to examine the relationship between child body fatness and small-screen activities. Cross-sectional study design. Grade 5-6 schoolchildren (n = 393) from central and metropolitan Victoria, and a parent/guardian of each child (n = 393). Parents completed a questionnaire on their child's engagement in television (TV) viewing and video game playing (VGP). Children's weight and height were measured by a researcher. Body mass index (BMI) (kg/m(2)) was calculated and adjusted for age and sex. Regionality (metropolitan, population > 100 000; regional, 100 000 > population < 20 000; and rural, population < 10 000) and socioeconomic status (socioeconomic indexes for areas: index of disadvantage) were assigned according to school attended. BMI did not differ across regionality or sex. Boys engaged in more VGP than girls, and metropolitan children engaged in more VGP than rural and regional children. TV viewing did not differ across sex or regionality. VGP did not predict BMI, and TV viewing did not predict girls' BMI. Three to four per cent of the variance in boys' BMI was predicted by TV viewing. Boys and metropolitan children engage in more VGP. Boys', but not girls', BMI is related to TV viewing. Interventions designed to decrease engagement in TV viewing should be targeting boys.

  17. The shortened dental arch concept: awareness and opinion of dentists in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzar, M A; Humplik, A J; Shahim, N

    2015-09-01

    The occlusion of a complete dental arch is generally desirable but not necessary nor always achievable in many individuals. It is, however, relevant for dentists to consider what minimum number of teeth is required by individuals for oral function. This study investigated dentists' awareness and opinion of the shortened dental arch (SDA) concept in an Australian context. A self-administered voluntary and anonymous questionnaire was mailed to a sample of 434 dentists, randomly selected from both rural and metropolitan locations in Victoria, Australia. The information collected included awareness of the SDA concept and its application as a treatment option. More than half of the respondents (61%) were aware of the SDA concept. All respondents 'agreed' or 'strongly agreed' with the seven criteria of SDA proposed in this study based on Käyser (1989). The majority (78.4%) believed that the SDA concept is useful in clinical practice. Dentists with dentists who responded to this survey agreed that the SDA is a practical and useful treatment modality for older adults with limitations to complex restorative care. However, application of the SDA varied considerably among dentists. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  18. Psychological distress and risky sexual behaviours among women aged 16-25 years in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhuong T; Subasinghe, Asvini K; Wark, John D; Reavley, Nicola; Garland, Suzanne M

    2017-12-01

    Identifying factors related to risky sexual behaviour may contribute to preventive and interventional approaches to reduce negative mental health outcomes among young women. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between psychological distress and risky sexual behaviours in females aged 16-25 years in Victoria, Australia. Data were extracted from the Young Female Health Initiative (YFHI), a study in which participants were recruited via advertisements on Facebook. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between psychological distress, as measured by the Kessler 10 (K10) Psychological Distress Scale, and risky sexual behaviours. Data were available from 200 sexually active participants and 40 non-sexually active participants. We found that the K10 score was independently associated with sex while under the influence of alcohol or drugs (odds ratio: 1.7; 95% confidence intervals: 1.2, 2.7; P = 0.006). Although data were collected from a small sample of young women, we found that those with underlying psychological distress may adopt risky sexual behaviours, especially if concomitantly drinking alcohol or taking drugs.

  19. Socio-demographic profile of child and adolescent users of oral health services in Victoria, Australia

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    J Rodrigo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the socio-demographic characteristics of the eligible population of users of public oral health care services in the Australian state of Victoria, aged 17 years or younger. The study was conducted as a secondary analysis of data collected from July 2008 to June 2009 for 45,728 young clients of public oral health care. The sample mean age was 8.9 (SD: 3.5 years. The majority (82.7% was between 6 and 17 years of age, and 50.3% were males. The majority (76.6% was Australian-born and spoke English at home (89.1%. The overall mean DMFT was 1.0 (SD: 2.1 teeth, with a mean dmft of 3.16 (SD: 5.79 teeth. Data indicate that, among six year olds in the Significant Caries Index (SiC category, the mean dmft was 6.82 teeth. Findings corroborate social inequalities in oral health outcome and provide suggestions for oral health services to develop strategies and priorities to reduce inequalities in health and well-being, and better coordinate and target services to local needs.

  20. Continuous bioelectricity generation through treatment of Victoria blue R: A novel microbial fuel cell operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Wang, Guey-Horng; Tsai, Teh-Hua; Chen, Wan-Tzu; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2017-07-29

    A novel two-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) operation with a continuous anaerobic-aerobic decolorization system was developed to improve the degradation of the triphenylmethane dye, Victoria blue R (VBR). In addition, bioelectricity was generated during the VBR degradation process, and the operation parameters were optimized. The results indicated that the VBR removal efficiency and electricity generation were affected by the VBR concentration, liquid retention time (LRT), external resistance, gas retention time (GRT), and shock loading. The optimal operation parameters were as follows: VBR concentration, 600 mg L-1; LRT, 24 h; external resistance, 3300 Ω; and GRT, 60 s. Under these operating conditions, the VBR removal efficiency, COD removal efficiency, and power density were 98.2% ± 0.3%, 97.6% ± 0.5%, and 30.6 ± 0.4 mW m-2, respectively. According to our review of the relevant literature, this is the first paper to analyze the electrical characteristics of a continuous two-chamber MFC operation and demonstrate the feasibility of the simultaneous electricity generation and decolorization of VBR.

  1. Structural provinces of the northeastern Brooks Range, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.K.; Hanks, C.L. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (USA))

    1990-07-01

    The dominant Cenozoic structures of the northeastern Brooks Range are anticlinoria with cores of sub-Mississippian rocks, reflecting a regional north-vergent duplex with a floor thrust in the sub-Mississippian sequence and a roof thrust in the Mississippian Kayak Shale. The number of horses forming each anticlinorium and the structural style of the overlying Mississippian and younger cover sequence varies regionally, providing a basis for dividing the northeastern Brooks Range into structural provinces. In the western province, each anticlinorium contains a single horse, and shortening above the Kayak Shale was accommodated mainly by detachment folds. To the north in the Sadlerochit Mountains, the Kayak Shale is depositionally discontinuous and rocks elsewhere separated by this detachment deformed together. In the eastern province, each anticlinorium contains multiple horses, and shortening above the Kayak Shale was accommodated largely by thrust duplication of Mississippian through Triassic rocks. In the narrow central province, the Devonian Okpilak batholith was detached from its roots, internally shortened along shear zones and by penetrative strain, and transported northward. Because the Kayak Shale is locally absent, the Mississippian and younger cover sequence deformed in part penetratively along with the batholith. 13 figs.

  2. Upper Paleozoic glacigenic deposits of Gondwana: Stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental significance of a tillite succession in Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornamusini, Gianluca; Talarico, Franco M.; Cirilli, Simonetta; Spina, Amalia; Olivetti, Valerio; Woo, Jusun

    2017-08-01

    Late Paleozoic glacial deposits are widespread in Gondwana. In Antarctica the best outcrops occur in the Central Transantarctic Mountains, Ellsworth Mountains, Pensacola Mountains, and in Southern Victoria Land, whereas they are rare and very scattered in Northern Victoria Land, which represents a linkage sector with Tasmania and eastern Australia. The aim of the present research is to define the stratigraphic setting and the environmental interpretation of a poorly studied Lower Permian glacigenic succession located near Orr Glacier in the Lanterman Range in Northern Victoria Land. It has great importance because it represents the only significant glacigenic succession for this wide area, marking and defining time and modality of a glacial-postglacial transition during the early Permian, a critical time-interval in the paleoenvironmental evolution of southern Gondwana. This succession, named here as the Lanterman Formation, lies directly on to crystalline basement, and is overlain by a thick Permian fluvial succession (Takrouna Formation). The results provided by sedimentological facies analysis and palynological analysis, integrated with a limited petrographic characterization, show a correlation framework between two isolated successions, outlining their stratigraphic architecture and subdivided into a lower glacial portion and an upper postglacial portion. The former, Asselian in age, is dominated by diamictite, sandstone, mudstone with lonestones, and carbonate deposits, suggesting repeated advance and retreat of a terrestrial glacier, with facies associations indicating environmental changes from subglacial to glaciofluvial, to glaciolacustrine. The latter is dominated by lacustrine mudstone with decreasing lonestones upward, thin bedded sandstone, conglomerate and a thick fluvial sandstone and pebbly sandstone succession at the top, signalling the transition to a fluvial system through time. The overall dataset suggests that the late Paleozoic glacigenic

  3. Epidemiology of Ectopic Pregnancy in Hamadan Province

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    Fatemeh Shobeiri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The blastocyst implantation in any place other than uterus cavity endometrium is called ectopic pregnancy. The prevalence of ectopic pregnancy is different in various countries. This study has been conducted to investigate the epidemiology of ectopic pregnancy in Hamadan province during 2000-2010.Materials and Methods: The present study is a retrospective descriptive study. The data on 872 ectopic pregnancies were extracted by questionnaires from the files in the records department of hospitals and delivery centers in Hamadan province during 2000-2010. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the obtained data were analyzed using SPSS-16 software.Results: The frequency of ectopic pregnancy in Hamadan province during 2000-2010 was averagely 2.6 per 1000 pregnancies. Tubal pregnancy with 95.2% is the most prevalent type of ectopic pregnancy most of which had occurred in the right tube (52.4%. Most ectopic pregnancies (52.2% were in the age group of 25-34.Conclusion: The prevalence of ectopic pregnancy in Hamadan province during the mentioned years has been 2.6 in 1000 pregnancies, which is lower compared to many existing data. However, the prevalence of ectopic pregnancy in this province has increased over time, so that it has become 3.3 times as much from 2000-2010.

  4. Silvics of western redcedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond J. Boyd

    1959-01-01

    Western redcedar (Thuja plicata) is one of the most important commercial species in the Pacific Northwest, Alaska, and British Columbia. Local common names include giant arborvitae, canoe cedar, shinglewood, Pacific redcedar, giant cedar, arborvitae, and cedar (24).

  5. A new rhamphorhynchid pterosaur (Pterosauria) from Jurassic deposits of Liaoning Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Junchang; Pu, Hanyong; Xu, Li; Wei, Xuefang; Chang, Huali; Kundrát, Martin

    2015-01-16

    Compared to pterosaurs from the Early Cretaceous from China, Late Jurassic pterosaurs are relatively rare. A new rhamphorhynchid pterosaur, Orientognathus chaoyngensis gen. et sp. nov., is erected based on an incomplete skeleton from the Upper Jurassic Tuchengzi Formation of Chaoyang, Liaoning Province, China. It is identified by the following characters: the toothless tip of the lower jaw is slightly pointed; the length ratio of wing metacarpal to humerus is 0.38, the ulna is shorter than each wing phalanx and the tibia is nearly equal to femur in length. A phylogenetic analysis recovers Orientognathus chaoyngensis as a rhamphorhynchid pterosaur. Orientognathus chaoyngensis is perhaps the youngest Jurassic pterosaur from western Liaoning Province of China. 

  6. A Redescription of Acanthocreagris iranica (Pseudoscorpiones, Neobisiidae Inhabiting Soil Under Oak Trees in Zagros Forest, Western Iran

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    Nassirkhani M.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available During study on soil mesofauna in Choqa Sabz Forest and Dalab Protected Area in Ilam Province (western Iran, the following pseudoscorpions belonging to four families were collected and identified: Chthonius (Chthonius shelkovnikovi Redikorzev, 1930, Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius negarinae Nassirkhani and Vafai, 2015, Paramenthus nanus Mahnert, 2007, Cardiolpium asiaticum (Dashdamirov, 1990, and Acanthocreagris iranica Beier, in Mahnert 1976. All of these species are new to the fauna of western Iran. In this survey, the adults of A. iranica collected from Ilam and Lorestan Provinces are redescribed and figured. Additionally, its tritonymph and deutonymph are briefly described.

  7. Prediction of SWCC of Saline Soil in Western Jilin Based on Arya-Paris Model

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    Bao Shuochao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The saline soil distributed in Western Jilin Province could cause a serious of damages to local construction engineering and agriculture. The relationship between water content and soil suction has great influence on engineering properties, and effect the water migration and forming of saline soil. This paper aims to the saline soil in Zhenlai area of Western Jilin province, the basic properties test were taken in laboratory, and Arya-Paris prediction model were chosen to predict the SWCC of saline soil in Western Jilin. The results show that the 30cm soil sample has lower water holding capacity than the 50cm soil sample, which means the water migration rate is higher of 30cm. The results may provide theoretical support and beneficial reference for research and prediction of engineering properties and forming mechanism of saline soil.

  8. CURCULIONOIDEA FROM GOLESTAN PROVINCE, NORTHERN IRAN (Coleoptera

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    Hassan Ghahari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The 195 species of Curculionoidea (Coleoptera thus far indicated from Golestan province (northern Iran according to both literature and original records are listed in this paper. New data for 61 species belonging to 18 genera collected during this research are also given. Besides the 42 species newly reported for the Golestan province, the following additional 15 species are newly recorded from Iran: Brachypera lunata, Ceutorhynchus anatolicus, Datonychus urticae, Hypera contaminata, Hypera viciae, Larinus canescens, L. adspersus, Lixus ascanii, Microplontus rugulosus, Neoglocianus smyrnensis, Otiorhynchus tetrarchus, O. scitus, Tychius cuprifer, T. picirostris, T. thoracicus.

  9. Spatiotemporal characterization and mapping of PM2.5concentrations in southern Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Christakos, George; Yang, Xue; He, Junyu

    2018-03-01

    As a result of rapid industrialization and urbanization, China is experiencing severe air pollution problems. Understanding the spatiotemporal variation and trends of air pollution is a key element of an improved understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms and the implementation of the most effective risk assessment and environmental policy in the region. The motivation behind the present work is that the study region of southern Jiangsu province of China is one of the most populated and developed regions in China. The daily concentrations of particulate matter with particle diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) in southern Jiangsu province obtained during the year 2014 were used to derive the variogram model that provided a quantitative characterization of the spatiotemporal (ST) variation of PM 2.5 concentrations in the study region. A spatiotemporal ordinary kriging (STOK) technique was subsequently employed to generate informative maps of the ST pollutant distribution in southern Jiangsu province. The results generated by STOK showed that during 2014 about 29.3% of the area was PM 2.5 polluted (at various severity levels, according to the criteria established by the Chinese government), and that the number of days characterized as polluted varied from 59 to 164 at different parts of the study region. Nanjing, the capital of Jiangsu province, was the place with the highest PM 2.5 pollution (including 3 days of serious pollution). The PM 2.5 pollution exhibited a decreasing spatial trend from the western to the eastern part of southern Jiangsu. A similar temporal PM 2.5 pattern was found from the western to the eastern part of southern Jiangsu, which was characterized by 4 peaks and 3 troughs linked to different meteorological conditions and human factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Emeishan large igneous province: A synthesis

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    J. Gregory Shellnutt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The late Permian Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP covers ∼0.3 × 106 km2 of the western margin of the Yangtze Block and Tibetan Plateau with displaced, correlative units in northern Vietnam (Song Da zone. The ELIP is of particular interest because it contains numerous world-class base metal deposits and is contemporaneous with the late Capitanian (∼260 Ma mass extinction. The flood basalts are the signature feature of the ELIP but there are also ultramafic and silicic volcanic rocks and layered mafic-ultramafic and silicic plutonic rocks exposed. The ELIP is divided into three nearly concentric zones (i.e. inner, middle and outer which correspond to progressively thicker crust from the inner to the outer zone. The eruptive age of the ELIP is constrained by geological, paleomagnetic and geochronological evidence to an interval of ≤3 Ma. The presence of picritic rocks and thick piles of flood basalts testifies to high temperature thermal regime however there is uncertainty as to whether these magmas were derived from the subcontinental lithospheric mantle or sub-lithospheric mantle (i.e. asthenosphere or mantle plume sources or both. The range of Sr (ISr ≈ 0.7040–0.7132, Nd (ɛNd(t ≈ −14 to +8, Pb (206Pb/204Pb1 ≈ 17.9–20.6 and Os (γOs ≈ −5 to +11 isotope values of the ultramafic and mafic rocks does not permit a conclusive answer to ultimate source origin of the primitive rocks but it is clear that some rocks were affected by crustal contamination and the presence of near-depleted isotope compositions suggests that there is a sub-lithospheric mantle component in the system. The silicic rocks are derived by basaltic magmas/rocks through fractional crystallization or partial melting, crustal melting or by interactions between mafic and crustal melts. The formation of the Fe-Ti-V oxide-ore deposits is probably due to a combination of fractional crystallization of Ti-rich basalt and fluxing of CO2-rich fluids

  11. Application of Satellite Observations to Manage Natural Disasters in the Lake Victoria Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Policelli, F.; Irwin, D.; Korme, Tesfaye; Adler, Bob; Hong, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Lake Victoria, the second largest fresh water lake in the Eastern part of Africa is a vital natural resource for the economic well being and prosperity of over 30 million people located in riparian regions of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania. It covers a large area of about 68,870 km2 and produces a GDP of about US $30 billion per year. The region is also very much prone to natural disasters such as severe floods during heavy precipitation periods in the Eastern part of Africa. In addition to floods, the precipitation also produces large infestations of mosquito larvae due to the standing water in many areas. This further causes multiple vector borne diseases such as Malaria, Rift Valley Fever and more. These problems are of serious concern and require active and aggressive surveillance and management to minimize the loss of human and animal lives and property damage. Satellite imagery and observations along with the in situ measurements provide a great tool to analyze and study this area and inform the policy makers to make calculated policy decisions which are more beneficial to the environment. Recently, NASA and USAID have joined forces with the Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) located in Nairobi, Kenya to utilize multiple NASA sensors such as TRMM, SRTM and MODIS to develop flood potential maps for the Lake Victoria Basin. The idea is to generate a flood forecasts and "nowcasts" that can be sent to the disaster management organizations of Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania. Post flood event satellite imagery is becoming a common tool to assess the areas inundated by flooding. However, this work is unique undertaking by utilizing land imaging and atmospheric satellites to build credible flood potential maps. At same time, we are also studying the potential occurrence and spread of Rift Valley Fever disease based on the short term climate records and precipitation data. These activities require multi-nation coordination and agreements and

  12. A statewide review of postnatal care in private hospitals in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Concerns have been raised in Australia and internationally regarding the quality and effectiveness of hospital postnatal care, although Australian women receiving postnatal care in the private maternity sector rate their satisfaction with care more highly than women receiving public maternity care. In Victoria, Australia, two-thirds of women receive their maternity care in the public sector and the remainder in private health care sector. A statewide review of public hospital postnatal care in Victoria from the perspective of care providers found many barriers to care provision including the busyness of postnatal wards, inadequate staffing and priority being given to other episodes of care; however the study did not include private hospitals. The aim of this study was replicate the review in the private sector, to explore the structure and organisation of postnatal care in private hospitals and identify those aspects of care potentially impacting on women's experiences and maternal and infant care. This provides a more complete overview of the organisational structures and processes in postnatal care in all Victorian hospitals from the perspective of care providers. Methods A mixed method design was used. A structured postal survey was sent to all Victorian private hospitals (n = 19) and key informant interviews were undertaken with selected clinical midwives, maternity unit managers and obstetricians (n = 11). Survey data were analysed using descriptive statistics and interview data analysed thematically. Results Private hospital care providers report that postnatal care is provided in very busy environments, and that meeting the aims of postnatal care (breastfeeding support, education of parents and facilitating rest and recovery for women following birth) was difficult in the context of increased acuity of postnatal care; prioritising of other areas over postnatal care; high midwife-to-woman ratios; and the number and frequency of visitors. These

  13. A statewide review of postnatal care in private hospitals in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forster Della A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns have been raised in Australia and internationally regarding the quality and effectiveness of hospital postnatal care, although Australian women receiving postnatal care in the private maternity sector rate their satisfaction with care more highly than women receiving public maternity care. In Victoria, Australia, two-thirds of women receive their maternity care in the public sector and the remainder in private health care sector. A statewide review of public hospital postnatal care in Victoria from the perspective of care providers found many barriers to care provision including the busyness of postnatal wards, inadequate staffing and priority being given to other episodes of care; however the study did not include private hospitals. The aim of this study was replicate the review in the private sector, to explore the structure and organisation of postnatal care in private hospitals and identify those aspects of care potentially impacting on women's experiences and maternal and infant care. This provides a more complete overview of the organisational structures and processes in postnatal care in all Victorian hospitals from the perspective of care providers. Methods A mixed method design was used. A structured postal survey was sent to all Victorian private hospitals (n = 19 and key informant interviews were undertaken with selected clinical midwives, maternity unit managers and obstetricians (n = 11. Survey data were analysed using descriptive statistics and interview data analysed thematically. Results Private hospital care providers report that postnatal care is provided in very busy environments, and that meeting the aims of postnatal care (breastfeeding support, education of parents and facilitating rest and recovery for women following birth was difficult in the context of increased acuity of postnatal care; prioritising of other areas over postnatal care; high midwife-to-woman ratios; and the number and

  14. Western Gas Sands Project. Quarterly basin activities report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-31

    A summation is presented of the drilling and testing activity in the four primary study areas and the USGS designated core sites of the Western Gas Sands Project (WGSP). Pertinent review information for April, May and June 1978, included for each study area, is divided into two sections. The core program section identifies industry activity within the USGS recommended core areas and relates the status of WGSP core acquisition developments. The second part, the activity section, details drilling and testing operations of interest to the WGSP throughout the entire basin or province. Newly staked or completed wells are listed in tabular form and shown on a map. Information is included on activities in the Northern Great Plains Province, the greater Green River Basin, the Uinta Basin, and the Piceance Basin.

  15. Geographical information systems-based spatial analysis and implications for syphilis interventions in Jiangsu province, People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yue-Jia; Norris, Jessie; Bao, Chang-Jun; Liang, Qi; Hu, Jian-Li; Wu, Ying; Tang, Fen-Yang; Liu, Wen-Dong; Ding, Ke-Qin; Zhao, Yang; Peng, Zhi-Hang; Yu, Rong-Bin; Wang, Hua; Shen, Hong-Bing; Chen, Feng

    2012-11-01

    Spatial distribution rules and risk factors for syphilis were studied in Jiangsu province, People's Republic of China during 2005 and 2009. Trend surface analysis, spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatio-temporal clustering were applied with the incidence rates of the various counties in the province to determine spatial distribution rules and risk factors. Syphilis was found to be most severe in the southern region of the province where many counties could be shown to be hotspots with positive autocorrelation. Clusters were detected in the south-western region of Jiangsu with the county-level city of Yixing as the centre. Temperature, distance from railways and highways, and the normalised difference vegetation index were determined as supporting variables with regard to the transmission of the disease by both univariate and multivariate spatial correlation analyses. Interventions, including health education and awareness campaigns, should be strengthened throughout the province targeting the south-western areas, especially the clusters and hotspots detected in order to improve the situation.

  16. Occurrence and genetic variability of Kemerovo virus in Ixodes ticks from different regions of Western Siberia, Russia and Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachev, Sergey E; Tikunov, Artem Yu; Babkin, Igor V; Livanova, Natalia N; Livanov, Stanislav G; Panov, Victor V; Yakimenko, Valeriy V; Tantsev, Alexey K; Taranenko, Dmitrii E; Tikunova, Nina V

    2017-01-01

    Kemerovo virus (KEMV), a member of the Reoviridae family, Orbivirus genus, is transmitted by Ixodes ticks and can cause aseptic meningitis and meningoencephalitis. Recently, this virus was observed in certain provinces of European part of Russia, Ural, and Western and Eastern Siberia. However, the occurrence and genetic diversity of KEMV in Western Siberia remain poorly studied. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence and genetic variability of KEMV in Ixodes ticks from Western Siberia. A total of 1958 Ixodes persulcatus, I. pavlovskyi ticks and their hybrids from Novosibirsk and Omsk provinces, Altai Republic (Russia) and East Kazakhstan province (Kazakhstan) were analyzed for the presence of KEMV and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) RNA. It was observed that the KEMV distribution area in Western Siberia was wider than originally thought and included Northern and Northeastern Altai in addition to the Omsk and Novosibirsk provinces. For the first time, this virus was found in Kazakhstan. The occurrence of KEMV was statistically lower than TBEV in most locations in Western Siberia. KEMV was found both in I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi ticks and in their hybrids. Notably, KEMV variants observed in the 2010s were genetically different from those isolated in the 1960s, which indicated the ongoing process of evolution of the Kemerovo virus group. Moreover, the possibility of reassortment for KEMV was demonstrated for the first time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Family Presence During Resuscitation (FPDR): Observational case studies of emergency personnel in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Joanne E; Miller, Nareeda; Giannis, Anita; Coombs, Nicole

    2017-07-01

    Family Presence During Resuscitation (FPDR), although not a new concept, remains inconsistently implemented by emergency personnel. Many larger metropolitan emergency departments (ED) have instigated a care coordinator role, however these personnel are often from a non-nursing background and have therefore limited knowledge about the clinical aspects of the resuscitation. In rural emergency departments there are simply not enough staff to allocate an independent role. A separate care coordinator role, who is assigned to care for the family and not take part in the resuscitation has been well documented as essential to the successful implementation of FPDR. One rural and one metropolitan emergency department in the state of Victoria, Australia were observed and data was collected on FPDR events. The participants consisted of resuscitation team members, including; emergency trained nurses, senior medical officers, general nurses and doctors. The participants were not told that the data would be recorded around interactions with family members or team discussions regarding family involvement in the resuscitation, following ethical approval involving limited disclosure of the aims of the study. Seventeen adult presentations (Metro n=9, Rural n=8) were included in this study and will be presented as resuscitation case studies. The key themes identified included ambiguity around resuscitation status, keeping the family informed, family isolation and inter-professional communication. During 17 adult resuscitation cases, staff were witnessed communicating with family, which was often limited and isolation resulted. Family were often uninformed or separated from their family member, however when a family liaison person was available it was found to be beneficial. This research indicated that staff could benefit from a designated family liaison role, formal policy and further education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploring Service Providers' Perspectives in Improving Childhood Obesity Prevention among CALD Communities in Victoria, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Cyril

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity rates have been increasing disproportionately among disadvantaged communities including culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD migrant groups in Australia due to their poor participation in the available obesity prevention initiatives. We sought to explore service providers' perceptions of the key factors influencing the participation of CALD communities in the existing obesity prevention services and the service requirements needed to improve CALD communities' participation in these services.We conducted a qualitative study using focus group discussions involving fifty-nine service providers from a range of services, who are involved in the health and wellbeing of children from CALD groups living in four socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia.Thematic analysis of the data showed three major themes including community-level barriers to CALD engagement in childhood obesity prevention services; service-level barriers to the delivery of these services; and proposed changes to current childhood obesity prevention approaches. Integrating obesity prevention messages within existing programs, better coordination between prevention and treatment services and the establishment of a childhood obesity surveillance system, were some of the important changes suggested by service providers.This study has found that low CALD health literacy, lack of knowledge of cultural barriers among service providers and co-existing deficiencies in the structure and delivery of obesity prevention services negatively impacted the participation of CALD communities in obesity prevention services. Cultural competency training of service providers would improve their understanding of the cultural influences of childhood obesity and incorporate them into the design and development of obesity prevention initiatives. Service providers need to be educated on the pre-migratory health service experiences and health conditions of CALD

  19. Prehospital management of supraventricular tachycardia in Victoria, Australia: epidemiology and effectiveness of therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gavin; McD Taylor, David; Morgans, Amee; Cameron, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined patient demographics, characteristics and the effectiveness of current prehospital supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) management by ambulance paramedics in Victoria, Australia. We conducted a retrospective study of all Victorian patients attended by paramedics between 14 February 2012 and 13 February 2013, where SVT was the initial or final diagnosis. Patients were excluded if SVT was not captured on ECG, incomplete data were recorded, or SVT began after initial assessment. Data were extracted from the VACIS(®) clinical data warehouse. Accuracy of paramedic SVT diagnosis was examined. Nine hundred and thirty-three patients were enrolled, including 882 (94.5%) adults and 564 (60.5%) women. Mean adult and paediatric (SVT in 119/123 (96.7%, 95% CI: 91.5, 99.0) of adult ECG strips examined. There were 273/882 (31.0%) patients who spontaneously reverted while in paramedic care. Valsalva manoeuvre was undertaken by 212/882 (24.0%) patients and reverted the SVT in 99/358 (27.7%) attempts. Verapamil was administered to 38/882 (4.3%) patients and reverted 33 (86.8%). Aramine was administered to 43/882 (4.9%) patients and 35 reverted following administration (81.4%). Synchronised cardioversion (70 J) reverted four patients at first attempt. Ultimately, 438 (49.7%) patients remained in SVT on arrival at hospital. Patient characteristics associated with SVT are more likely to be middle-aged women with a history of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia. Therapies were underutilised leading to reduced clinical guideline effectiveness. Where therapies were instigated, reversion rates are greater than previously reported. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  20. Influence of voluntary standards and design modifications on trampoline injury in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Karen; Eager, David; D'Elia, Angelo; Day, Lesley

    2015-10-01

    To examine the influence of the voluntary Australian trampoline standard (AS 4989-2006) and market-driven design modifications on relevant trampoline injuries. Trend and intervention analysis on frequencies and proportions of hospital-treated trampoline-related injury in Victoria, Australia, extracted from the Victorian Emergency Minimum Dataset from 1 July 1999 to 30 June 2013. The injuries relevant to the AS were contact with spring and frame, and multiple-user injury. Falls from trampolines were relevant for netted trampolines, a market-driven modification. Frequency of all trampoline injuries increased by 11.4% (95% CI 10.0% to 11.7%) on average each year. Spring and frame, and fall injuries increased to a lesser extent (8.7%, 95% CI 6.9% to 9.8% and 7.3%, 95% CI 5.8% to 8.3%, respectively). Multiple-user injuries increased by 21.0% (95% CI 16.3% to 21.9%). As a proportion of all trampoline injuries, spring and frame injury and falls injury decreased, while multiple-user injuries increased. The intervention analysis showed no significant change in spring and frame injuries associated with the AS (p=0.17). A significant increase was found for multiple-user injuries (p=0.01), in particular for the 0-year to 4-year age group (ptrampolines appear to be associated with a decrease in falls from trampolines but an increase in injuries to multiple users. A mandated trampoline safety standard and a safety campaign including warnings about multiple users is recommended. Continued monitoring of injury data will be required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.