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Sample records for victoria visual sensitivity

  1. Australian doctors and the visual arts. Part 3. Doctor-artists in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D G

    1986-06-09

    The contribution of doctors to the visual arts is being discussed in a series of six articles. The first two articles dealt with doctors and the visual arts in New South Wales. In this, the third, doctor-artists in Victoria are discussed.

  2. Australian doctors and the visual arts. Part 4. Doctors as supporters of art galleries and artists in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D G

    1986-07-07

    The contribution of doctors to the visual arts is being discussed in a series of six articles. Doctor-artists in New South Wales and Victoria, and doctors as collectors, donors, gallery supporters and writers in New South Wales, have been discussed in earlier articles. This, the fourth article, deals with doctors as supporters of art galleries and artists in Victoria.

  3. Medical review licensing outcomes in drivers with visual field loss in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Carlyn; Charlton, Judith L; Odell, Morris; Keeffe, Jill; Wood, Joanne; Bohensky, Megan; Fildes, Brian; Oxley, Jennifer; Bentley, Sharon; Rizzo, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Background Good vision is essential for safe driving and studies have associated visual impairment with an increased crash risk. Currently, there is little information about the medical review of drivers with visual field loss. This study examines the prevalence of visual field loss among drivers referred for medical review in one Australian jurisdiction and investigates factors associated with licence outcome in this group. Methods A random sample of 10,000 (31.25 per cent) medical review cases was extracted for analysis from the Victorian licensing authority. Files were screened for the presence of six visual field-related medical conditions. Data were captured on a range of variables, including referral source, age, gender, health status, crash history and licence outcome. Prevalence analyses were univariate and descriptive. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with licence outcomes in the visual field loss group. Results Approximately 1.9 per cent of the 10,000 medical review cases screened had a visual field loss condition identified (n=194). Among the visual field loss group, 57.2 per cent were permitted to continue driving (conditional/unconditional licence). Primary referral sources were the police, self-referrals and general medical practitioners. Key factors associated with licence test outcomes were visual field condition, age group, crash involvement and referral to the Driver Licensing Authority’s Medical Advisors. Those who were younger had a crash involvement triggering referral and those who were referred to the Medical Advisors were more likely to have a positive licensing outcome. Conclusion The evidence base for making licensing decisions is complicated by the variable causes, patterns, progressions and measuring technologies for visual field loss. This study highlighted that the involvement of an expert medical advisory service in Victoria resulted in an increased likelihood that drivers with visual field loss will be

  4. Engagement sensitive visual stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Early detection during golden hour and treatment of individual neurological dysfunction in stroke using easy-to-access biomarkers based on a simple-to-use, cost-effective, clinically-valid screening tool can bring a paradigm shift in healthcare, both urban and rural. In our research we have designed a quantitative automatic home-based oculomotor assessment tool that can play an important complementary role in prognosis of neurological disorders like stroke for the neurologist. Once the patient has been screened for stroke, the next step is to design proper rehabilitation platform to alleviate the disability. In addition to the screening platform, in our research, we work in designing virtual reality based rehabilitation exercise platform that has the potential to deliver visual stimulation and in turn contribute to improving one’s performance.

  5. Patient characteristics associated with hospitalisations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari Zahid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSCs are those for which hospitalisation is thought to be avoidable with the application of preventive care and early disease management, usually delivered in a primary care setting. ACSCs are used extensively as indicators of accessibility and effectiveness of primary health care. We examined the association between patient characteristics and hospitalisation for ACSCs in the adult and paediatric population in Victoria, Australia, 2003/04. Methods Hospital admissions data were merged with two area-level socioeconomic indexes: Index of Socio-Economic Disadvantage (IRSED and Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA. Univariate and multiple logistic regressions were performed for both adult (age 18+ years and paediatric (age Results Predictors were much more strongly associated with ACSCs admissions compared to non-ACSCs admissions in the adult group than for the paediatric group with the exception of rurality. Significant adjusted ORs in the adult group were 1.06, 1.15, 1.13, 1.06 and 1.11 for sex, rurality, age, IRSED and ARIA variables, and 1.34, 1.04 and 1.09 in the paediatric group for rurality, IRSED and ARIA, respectively. Conclusions Disadvantaged paediatric and adult population experience more need of hospital care for ACSCs. Access barriers to primary care are plausible causes for the observed disparities. Understanding the characteristics of individuals experiencing access barriers to primary care will be useful for developing targeted interventions meeting the unique ambulatory needs of the population.

  6. Sensitive voltammetric detection of yeast RNA based on its interaction with Victoria Blue B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI SUN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Voltammetric studies of the interaction of yeast RNA (y-RNA with Victoria Blue B (VBB are described in this paper. Furthermore, a linear sweep voltammetric method for the detection of y-RNA was established. The reaction conditions, such as acidity and amount of buffer solution, the concentration of VBB, the reaction time and temperature, etc., were carefully investigated by second order derivative linear sweep voltammetry. Under the optimal conditions, the reduction peak current of VBB at –0.75 V decreased greatly after the addition of y-RNA to the solution without any shift of the reduction peak potential. Based on the decrease of the peak current, a new quantitative method for the determination of y-RNA was developed. The effects of co-existing substances on the determination were carefully investigated and three synthetic samples were determined with satisfactory results. The stoichiometry of the VBB–y-RNA complex was calculated by linear sweep voltammetry and the interaction mechanism is discussed.

  7. Enhancing Sensitivity to Visual Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    for certain amblyopes, repeated testing enhianced sensitivity several fold. Amblyopia refers to any of a class of diseases in which there is a loss in...See SEKULER, 1980 for a full treatment of these models. The predictions for the Simultaneous and Random conditions from the different models are...Psychologia, 18, 35-50. COHEN, L.B. & SALAPATEK, P. Infant perception. From sensation to cognition. New York, Academic Press. CYNADER, M., BERMAN, N

  8. High blood pressure and visual sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Alvin; Samples, John R.

    2003-09-01

    The study had two main purposes: (1) to determine whether the foveal visual sensitivities of people treated for high blood pressure (vascular hypertension) differ from the sensitivities of people who have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure and (2) to understand how visual adaptation is related to standard measures of systemic cardiovascular function. Two groups of middle-aged subjects-hypertensive and normotensive-were examined with a series of test/background stimulus combinations. All subjects met rigorous inclusion criteria for excellent ocular health. Although the visual sensitivities of the two subject groups overlapped extensively, the age-related rate of sensitivity loss was, for some measures, greater for the hypertensive subjects, possibly because of adaptation differences between the two groups. Overall, the degree of steady-state sensitivity loss resulting from an increase of background illuminance (for 580-nm backgrounds) was slightly less for the hypertensive subjects. Among normotensive subjects, the ability of a bright (3.8-log-td), long-wavelength (640-nm) adapting background to selectively suppress the flicker response of long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones was related inversely to the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure to heart rate. The degree of selective suppression was also related to heart rate alone, and there was evidence that short-term changes of cardiovascular response were important. The results suggest that (1) vascular hypertension, or possibly its treatment, subtly affects visual function even in the absence of eye disease and (2) changes in blood flow affect retinal light-adaptation processes involved in the selective suppression of the flicker response from LWS cones caused by bright, long-wavelength backgrounds.

  9. Social exclusion, deprivation and child health: a spatial analysis of ambulatory care sensitive conditions in children aged 0-4 years in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Danielle C; Thurecht, Linc; Brown, Laurie; Konings, Paul

    2013-10-01

    Recent Australian policy initiatives regarding primary health care focus on planning services around community needs and delivering these at the local area. As in many other countries, there has also been a growing concern over social inequities in health outcomes. The aims of the analysis presented here were firstly to describe small area variations in hospital admissions for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) among children aged 0-4 years between 2003 and 2009 in the state of Victoria, Australia, and secondly to explore the relationship of ACSC hospitalisations with socio-economic disadvantage using a comparative analysis of the Child Social Exclusion (CSE) index and the Composite Score of Deprivation (CSD). This is a cross sectional secondary data analysis, with data sourced from 2003 to 2009 ACSC data from the Victorian State Government Department of Health; the Australian Standard Geographical Classification of remoteness; the Australian 2006 Census of Population and Housing; and AMPCo General Practitioner data from 2010. The relationship between the indexes and child health outcomes was examined through bivariate analysis and visually through a series of maps. The results show there is significant variation in the geographical distribution of the relationship between ACSCs and socio-economic disadvantage, with both indexes capturing important social gradients in child health conditions. However, measures of access, such as geographical accessibility and workforce supply, detect additional small area variation in child health outcomes. This research has important implications for future primary health care policy and planning of services, as these findings confirm that not all areas are the same in terms of health outcomes, and there may be benefit in tailoring mechanisms for identifying areas of need depending on the outcome intended to be affected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sensitive visual test for concave diffraction gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, E. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A simple visual test for the evaluation of concave diffraction gratings is described. It is twice as sensitive as the Foucault knife edge test, from which it is derived, and has the advantage that the images are straight and free of astigmatism. It is particularly useful for grating with high ruling frequency where the above image faults limit the utility of the Foucault test. The test can be interpreted quantitatively and can detect zonal grating space errors of as little as 0.1 A.

  11. Effects of visual attention on chromatic and achromatic detection sensitivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikawa, Keiji; Sato, Masayuki; Kuwamura, Keiko

    2014-05-01

    Visual attention has a significant effect on various visual functions, such as response time, detection and discrimination sensitivity, and color appearance. It has been suggested that visual attention may affect visual functions in the early visual pathways. In this study we examined selective effects of visual attention on sensitivities of the chromatic and achromatic pathways to clarify whether visual attention modifies responses in the early visual system. We used a dual task paradigm in which the observer detected a peripheral test stimulus presented at 4 deg eccentricities while the observer concurrently carried out an attention task in the central visual field. In experiment 1, it was confirmed that peripheral spectral sensitivities were reduced more for short and long wavelengths than for middle wavelengths with the central attention task so that the spectral sensitivity function changed its shape by visual attention. This indicated that visual attention affected the chromatic response more strongly than the achromatic response. In experiment 2 it was obtained that the detection thresholds increased in greater degrees in the red-green and yellow-blue chromatic directions than in the white-black achromatic direction in the dual task condition. In experiment 3 we showed that the peripheral threshold elevations depended on the combination of color-directions of the central and peripheral stimuli. Since the chromatic and achromatic responses were separately processed in the early visual pathways, the present results provided additional evidence that visual attention affects responses in the early visual pathways.

  12. Visual and Auditory Sensitivities and Discriminations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Regan, David

    2003-01-01

    .... A new equation gives TTC from binocular information without involving distance. The human visual system contains a mechanism that rapidly compares contours at two distant sites so as to encode the location size and shape of an object...

  13. Sound improves diminished visual temporal sensitivity in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer-Schellekens, L.; Stekelenburg, J.J.; Maes, J.P.; van Gool, A.R.; Vroomen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Visual temporal processing and multisensory integration (MSI) of sound and vision were examined in individuals with schizophrenia using a visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) task. Compared to a non-psychiatric control group, persons with schizophrenia were less sensitive judging the temporal order

  14. The economics of motion perception and invariants of visual sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gepshtein, Sergei; Tyukin, Ivan; Kubovy, Michael

    2007-06-21

    Neural systems face the challenge of optimizing their performance with limited resources, just as economic systems do. Here, we use tools of neoclassical economic theory to explore how a frugal visual system should use a limited number of neurons to optimize perception of motion. The theory prescribes that vision should allocate its resources to different conditions of stimulation according to the degree of balance between measurement uncertainties and stimulus uncertainties. We find that human vision approximately follows the optimal prescription. The equilibrium theory explains why human visual sensitivity is distributed the way it is and why qualitatively different regimes of apparent motion are observed at different speeds. The theory offers a new normative framework for understanding the mechanisms of visual sensitivity at the threshold of visibility and above the threshold and predicts large-scale changes in visual sensitivity in response to changes in the statistics of stimulation and system goals.

  15. High contrast sensitivity for visually guided flight control in bumblebees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, Aravin; Kelber, Almut; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2017-12-01

    Many insects rely on vision to find food, to return to their nest and to carefully control their flight between these two locations. The amount of information available to support these tasks is, in part, dictated by the spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity of their visual systems. Here, we investigate the absolute limits of these visual properties for visually guided position and speed control in Bombus terrestris. Our results indicate that the limit of spatial vision in the translational motion detection system of B. terrestris lies at 0.21 cycles deg -1 with a peak contrast sensitivity of at least 33. In the perspective of earlier findings, these results indicate that bumblebees have higher contrast sensitivity in the motion detection system underlying position control than in their object discrimination system. This suggests that bumblebees, and most likely also other insects, have different visual thresholds depending on the behavioral context.

  16. The effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on visual sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Andrew; Sharpe, Lindsay T; Tufail, Adnan; Kell, Philip D; Ripamonti, Caterina; Jeffery, Glen

    2007-06-08

    The erectile dysfunction medicine sildenafil citrate (Viagra) inhibits phosphodiesterase type 6 (PDE6), an essential enzyme involved in the activation and modulation of the phototransduction cascade. Although Viagra might thus be expected to impair visual performance, reports of deficits following its ingestion have so far been largely inconclusive or anecdotal. Here, we adopt tests sensitive to the slowing of the visual response likely to result from the inhibition of PDE6. We measured temporal acuity (critical fusion frequency) and modulation sensitivity in four subjects before and after the ingestion of a 100-mg dose of Viagra under conditions chosen to isolate the responses of either their short-wavelength-sensitive (S-) cone photoreceptors or their long- and middle-wavelength-sensitive (L- and M-) cones. When vision was mediated by S-cones, all subjects exhibited some statistically significant losses in sensitivity, which varied from mild to moderate. The two individuals who showed the largest S-cone sensitivity losses also showed comparable losses when their vision was mediated by the L- and M-cones. Some of the losses appear to increase with frequency, which is broadly consistent with Viagra interfering with the ability of PDE6 to shorten the time over which the visual system integrates signals as the light level increases. However, others appear to represent a roughly frequency-independent attenuation of the visual signal, which might also be consistent with Viagra lengthening the integration time (because it has the effect of increasing the effectiveness of steady background lights), but such changes are also open to other interpretations. Even for the more affected observers, however, Viagra is unlikely to impair common visual tasks, except under conditions of reduced visibility when objects are already near visual threshold.

  17. Visual sensitivity of deepwater fishes in Lake Superior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A Harrington

    Full Text Available The predator-prey interactions in the offshore food web of Lake Superior have been well documented, but the sensory systems mediating these interactions remain unknown. The deepwater sculpin, (Myoxocephalus thompsoni, siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet, and kiyi (Coregonus kiyi inhabit low light level environments. To investigate the potential role of vision in predator-prey interactions, electroretinography was used to determine visual sensitivity for each species. Spectral sensitivity curves revealed peak sensitivity at 525 nm for each species which closely corresponds to the prevalent downwelling light spectrum at depth. To determine if sufficient light was available to mediate predator-prey interactions, visual sensitivity was correlated with the intensity of downwelling light in Lake Superior to construct visual depth profiles for each species. Sufficient daytime irradiance exists for visual interactions to approximately 325 m for siscowet and kiyi and 355 m for the deepwater sculpin during summer months. Under full moon conditions, sufficient irradiance exists to elicit ERG response to light available at approximately 30 m for the siscowet and kiyi and 45 m for the deepwater sculpin. Visual interactions are therefore possible at the depths and times when these organisms overlap in the water column indicating that vision may play a far greater role at depth in deep freshwater lakes than had been previously documented.

  18. Visualization of nonlinear kernel models in neuroimaging by sensitivity maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Hansen, Lars Kai; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    There is significant current interest in decoding mental states from neuroimages. In this context kernel methods, e.g., support vector machines (SVM) are frequently adopted to learn statistical relations between patterns of brain activation and experimental conditions. In this paper we focus...... on visualization of such nonlinear kernel models. Specifically, we investigate the sensitivity map as a technique for generation of global summary maps of kernel classification methods. We illustrate the performance of the sensitivity map on functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) data based on visual stimuli. We...

  19. Visual Contrast Sensitivity in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Wendy; Palidis, Dimitrios J; Spering, Miriam; McKeown, Martin J

    2016-10-01

    Visual impairments are frequent in Parkinson's disease (PD) and impact normal functioning in daily activities. Visual contrast sensitivity is a powerful nonmotor sign for discriminating PD patients from controls. However, it is usually assessed with static visual stimuli. Here we examined the interaction between perception and eye movements in static and dynamic contrast sensitivity tasks in a cohort of mildly impaired, early-stage PD patients. Patients (n = 13) and healthy age-matched controls (n = 12) viewed stimuli of various spatial frequencies (0-8 cyc/deg) and speeds (0°/s, 10°/s, 30°/s) on a computer monitor. Detection thresholds were determined by asking participants to adjust luminance contrast until they could just barely see the stimulus. Eye position was recorded with a video-based eye tracker. Patients' static contrast sensitivity was impaired in the intermediate spatial-frequency range and this impairment correlated with fixational instability. However, dynamic contrast sensitivity and patients' smooth pursuit were relatively normal. An independent component analysis revealed contrast sensitivity profiles differentiating patients and controls. Our study simultaneously assesses perceptual contrast sensitivity and eye movements in PD, revealing a possible link between fixational instability and perceptual deficits. Spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity profiles may represent an easily measurable metric as a component of a broader combined biometric for nonmotor features observed in PD.

  20. Visual Multipoles And The Assessment Of Visual Sensitivity To Displayed Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stanley A.

    1989-08-01

    The contrast sensitivity function (CSF) is widely used to specify the sensitivity of the visual system. Each point of the CSF specifies the amount of contrast needed to detect a sinusoidal grating of a given spatial frequency. This paper describes a set of five mathematically related visual patterns, called "multipoles," that should replace the CSF for measuring visual performance. The five patterns (ramp, edge, line, dipole and quadrupole) are localized in space rather than being spread out as sinusoidal gratings. The multipole sensitivity of the visual system provides an alternative characterization that complements the CSF in addition to offering several advantages. This paper provides an overview of the properties and uses of the multipole stimuli. This paper is largely a summary of several unpublished manuscripts with excerpts from them. Derivations and full references are omitted here. Please write me if you would like the full manuscripts.

  1. Technique for Measuring Speed and Visual Motion Sensitivity in Lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Kevin L.; Burke, Darren

    2008-01-01

    Testing sensory characteristics on herpetological species has been difficult due to a range of properties related to physiology, responsiveness, performance ability, and the type of reinforcer used. Using the Jacky lizard as a model, we outline a successfully established procedure in which to test the visual sensitivity to motion characteristics.…

  2. Synchronous Sounds Enhance Visual Sensitivity without Reducing Target Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chuan Chen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined the crossmodal effect of the presentation of a simultaneous sound on visual detection and discrimination sensitivity using the equivalent noise paradigm (Dosher & Lu, 1998. In each trial, a tilted Gabor patch was presented in either the first or second of two intervals consisting of dynamic 2D white noise with one of seven possible contrast levels. The results revealed that the sensitivity of participants' visual detection and discrimination performance were both enhanced by the presentation of a simultaneous sound, though only close to the noise level at which participants' target contrast thresholds started to increase with the increasing noise contrast. A further analysis of the psychometric function at this noise level revealed that the increase in sensitivity could not be explained by the reduction of participants' uncertainty regarding the onset time of the visual target. We suggest that this crossmodal facilitatory effect may be accounted for by perceptual enhancement elicited by a simultaneously-presented sound, and that the crossmodal facilitation was easier to observe when the visual system encountered a level of noise that happened to be close to the level of internal noise embedded within the system.

  3. Visualization of Nonlinear Classification Models in Neuroimaging - Signed Sensitivity Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Schmah, Tanya; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2012-01-01

    Classification models are becoming increasing popular tools in the analysis of neuroimaging data sets. Besides obtaining good prediction accuracy, a competing goal is to interpret how the classifier works. From a neuroscientific perspective, we are interested in the brain pattern reflecting...... the underlying neural encoding of an experiment defining multiple brain states. In this relation there is a great desire for the researcher to generate brain maps, that highlight brain locations of importance to the classifiers decisions. Based on sensitivity analysis, we develop further procedures for model...... direction the individual locations influence the classification. We illustrate the visualization procedure on a real data from a simple functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment....

  4. Endogenous visuospatial attention increases visual awareness independent of visual discrimination sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernet, Marine; Japee, Shruti; Lokey, Savannah; Ahmed, Sara; Zachariou, Valentinos; Ungerleider, Leslie G

    2017-08-12

    Visuospatial attention often improves task performance by increasing signal gain at attended locations and decreasing noise at unattended locations. Attention is also believed to be the mechanism that allows information to enter awareness. In this experiment, we assessed whether orienting endogenous visuospatial attention with cues differentially affects visual discrimination sensitivity (an objective task performance) and visual awareness (the subjective feeling of perceiving) during the same discrimination task. Gabor patch targets were presented laterally, either at low contrast (contrast stimuli) or at high contrast embedded in noise (noise stimuli). Participants reported their orientation either in a 3-alternative choice task (clockwise, counterclockwise, unknown) that allowed for both objective and subjective reports, or in a 2-alternative choice task (clockwise, counterclockwise) that provided a control for objective reports. Signal detection theory models were fit to the experimental data: estimated perceptual sensitivity reflected objective performance; decision criteria, or subjective biases, were a proxy for visual awareness. Attention increased sensitivity (i.e., improved objective performance) for the contrast, but not for the noise stimuli. Indeed, with the latter, attention did not further enhance the already high target signal or reduce the already low uncertainty on its position. Interestingly, for both contrast and noise stimuli, attention resulted in more liberal criteria, i.e., awareness increased. The noise condition is thus an experimental configuration where people think they see the targets they attend to better, even if they do not. This could be explained by an internal representation of their attentional state, which influences awareness independent of objective visual signals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Visual field measurement with motion sensitivity screening test

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    has been shown that early ocular lesions which manifest as visual field defects or ... easy-to-understand computer perimetry that could be useful in monitoring visual field changes in onchocer- .... education with the equivalent of ordinary level.

  6. Is the auditory sensory memory sensitive to visual information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besle, Julien; Fort, Alexandra; Giard, Marie-Hélène

    2005-10-01

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) component of auditory event-related brain potentials can be used as a probe to study the representation of sounds in auditory sensory memory (ASM). Yet it has been shown that an auditory MMN can also be elicited by an illusory auditory deviance induced by visual changes. This suggests that some visual information may be encoded in ASM and is accessible to the auditory MMN process. It is not known, however, whether visual information affects ASM representation for any audiovisual event or whether this phenomenon is limited to specific domains in which strong audiovisual illusions occur. To highlight this issue, we have compared the topographies of MMNs elicited by non-speech audiovisual stimuli deviating from audiovisual standards on the visual, the auditory, or both dimensions. Contrary to what occurs with audiovisual illusions, each unimodal deviant elicited sensory-specific MMNs, and the MMN to audiovisual deviants included both sensory components. The visual MMN was, however, different from a genuine visual MMN obtained in a visual-only control oddball paradigm, suggesting that auditory and visual information interacts before the MMN process occurs. Furthermore, the MMN to audiovisual deviants was significantly different from the sum of the two sensory-specific MMNs, showing that the processes of visual and auditory change detection are not completely independent.

  7. Method Matters: Systematic Effects of Testing Procedure on Visual Working Memory Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovski, Tal; Watson, Leah M.; Koutstaal, Wilma; Jiang, Yuhong V.

    2010-01-01

    Visual working memory (WM) is traditionally considered a robust form of visual representation that survives changes in object motion, observer's position, and other visual transients. This article presents data that are inconsistent with the traditional view. We show that memory sensitivity is dramatically influenced by small variations in the…

  8. Parallel development of contour integration and visual contrast sensitivity at low spatial frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedek, Krisztina; Janáky, Márta; Braunitzer, Gábor

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that visual contrast sensitivity and contour integration functions exhibit a late maturation during adolescence. However, the relationship between these functions has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the development of visual contrast sensitivity...

  9. The scotopic visual sensitivity of four species of trout: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russel B. Rader; Timberley Belish; Michael K. Young; John Rothlisberger

    2007-01-01

    We compared the maximum scotopic visual sensitivity of 4 species of trout from twilight (mesotopic) to fully dark-adapted vision. Scotopic vision is the minimum number of photons to which a fully dark-adapted animal will show a behavioral response. A comparison of visual sensitivity under controlled laboratory conditions showed that brown trout (Salmo trutta...

  10. Visual Field Measurement with Motion Sensitivity Screening Test in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eye disease is a frequent complication of onchocerciasis in countrise where the disease is highly endemic. It has been shown that early ocular lesions which manifest as visual field defects or reduction in visual acuity can be reversed following treatment with ivermectin. At the community level, it is important to detect ...

  11. Characterizing head motion in three planes during combined visual and base of support disturbances in healthy and visually sensitive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshner, E A; Dhaher, Y

    2008-07-01

    Multiplanar environmental motion could generate head instability, particularly if the visual surround moves in planes orthogonal to a physical disturbance. We combined sagittal plane surface translations with visual field disturbances in 12 healthy (29-31 years) and 3 visually sensitive (27-57 years) adults. Center of pressure (COP), peak head angles, and RMS values of head motion were calculated and a three-dimensional model of joint motion was developed to examine gross head motion in three planes. We found that subjects standing quietly in front of a visual scene translating in the sagittal plane produced significantly greater (pplane of platform motion significantly increased (phistory of vestibular disorder produced large, delayed compensatory head motion. Orthogonal head motions were significantly greater in visually sensitive than in healthy subjects in the dark (pplanes orthogonal to the direction of a physical perturbation. These results suggest that the mechanisms controlling head orientation in space are distinct from those that control trunk orientation in space. These behaviors would have been missed if only COP data were considered. Data suggest that rehabilitation training can be enhanced by combining visual and mechanical perturbation paradigms.

  12. From Specificity to Sensitivity: Affective states modulate visual working memory for emotional expressive faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eMaran

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous findings suggest that visual working memory preferentially remembers angry looking faces. However, the meaning of facial actions is construed in relation to context. To date, there are no studies investigating the role of perceiver-based context when processing emotional cues in visual working memory. To explore the influence of affective context on visual working memory for faces, we conducted two experiments using both a visual working memory task for emotionally expressive faces and a mood induction procedure. Affective context was manipulated by unpleasant (Experiment 1 and pleasant (Experiment 2 IAPS pictures in order to induce an affect high in motivational intensity (defensive or appetitive, respectively compared to a low arousal control condition. Results indicated specifically increased sensitivity of visual working memory for angry looking faces in the neutral condition. Enhanced visual working memory for angry faces was prevented by inducing affects of high motivational intensity. In both experiments, affective states led to a switch from specific enhancement of angry expressions in visual working memory to an equally sensitive representation of all emotional expressions. Our findings demonstrate that emotional expressions are of different behavioral relevance for the receiver depending on the affective context, supporting a functional organization of visual working memory along with flexible resource allocation. In visual working memory, stimulus processing adjusts to situational requirements and transitions from a specifically prioritizing default mode in predictable environments to a sensitive, hypervigilant mode in exposure to emotional events.

  13. The Visualization of Infrared Radiation Using Thermal Sensitive Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochnícek, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a set of demonstration school experiments where infrared radiation is detected using thermal sensitive foils. The possibility of using standard glass lenses for infrared imaging is discussed in detail. It is shown that with optic components made from glass, infrared radiation up to 2.5 µm of wavelength can be detected. The…

  14. Action video game playing is associated with improved visual sensitivity, but not alterations in visual sensory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, L Gregory; Cain, Matthew S; Darling, Elise F; Mitroff, Stephen R

    2013-08-01

    Action video game playing has been experimentally linked to a number of perceptual and cognitive improvements. These benefits are captured through a wide range of psychometric tasks and have led to the proposition that action video game experience may promote the ability to extract statistical evidence from sensory stimuli. Such an advantage could arise from a number of possible mechanisms: improvements in visual sensitivity, enhancements in the capacity or duration for which information is retained in visual memory, or higher-level strategic use of information for decision making. The present study measured the capacity and time course of visual sensory memory using a partial report performance task as a means to distinguish between these three possible mechanisms. Sensitivity measures and parameter estimates that describe sensory memory capacity and the rate of memory decay were compared between individuals who reported high evels and low levels of action video game experience. Our results revealed a uniform increase in partial report accuracy at all stimulus-to-cue delays for action video game players but no difference in the rate or time course of the memory decay. The present findings suggest that action video game playing may be related to enhancements in the initial sensitivity to visual stimuli, but not to a greater retention of information in iconic memory buffers.

  15. High-sensitivity visualization of localized electric fields using low-energy electron beam deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Samuel; Ito, Yoshikazu; Edwards, Gary; Fujita, Jun-ichi

    2018-06-01

    The visualization of localized electronic charges on nanocatalysts is expected to yield fundamental information about catalytic reaction mechanisms. We have developed a high-sensitivity detection technique for the visualization of localized charges on a catalyst and their corresponding electric field distribution, using a low-energy beam of 1 to 5 keV electrons and a high-sensitivity scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) detector. The highest sensitivity for visualizing a localized electric field was ∼0.08 V/µm at a distance of ∼17 µm from a localized charge at 1 keV of the primary electron energy, and a weak local electric field produced by 200 electrons accumulated on the carbon nanotube (CNT) apex can be visualized. We also observed that Au nanoparticles distributed on a CNT forest tended to accumulate a certain amount of charges, about 150 electrons, at a ‑2 V bias.

  16. Visual resolution and contrast sensitivity in two benthic sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Laura A; Hart, Nathan S; Collin, Shaun P; Hemmi, Jan M

    2016-12-15

    Sharks have long been described as having 'poor' vision. They are cone monochromats and anatomical estimates suggest they have low spatial resolution. However, there are no direct behavioural measurements of spatial resolution or contrast sensitivity. This study estimates contrast sensitivity and spatial resolution of two species of benthic sharks, the Port Jackson shark, Heterodontus portusjacksoni, and the brown-banded bamboo shark, Chiloscyllium punctatum, by recording eye movements in response to optokinetic stimuli. Both species tracked moving low spatial frequency gratings with weak but consistent eye movements. Eye movements ceased at 0.38 cycles per degree, even for high contrasts, suggesting low spatial resolution. However, at lower spatial frequencies, eye movements were elicited by low contrast gratings, 1.3% and 2.9% contrast in H portusjacksoni and C. punctatum, respectively. Contrast sensitivity was higher than in other vertebrates with a similar spatial resolving power, which may reflect an adaptation to the relatively low contrast encountered in aquatic environments. Optokinetic gain was consistently low and neither species stabilised the gratings on their retina. To check whether restraining the animals affected their optokinetic responses, we also analysed eye movements in free-swimming C. punctatum We found no eye movements that could compensate for body rotations, suggesting that vision may pass through phases of stabilisation and blur during swimming. As C. punctatum is a sedentary benthic species, gaze stabilisation during swimming may not be essential. Our results suggest that vision in sharks is not 'poor' as previously suggested, but optimised for contrast detection rather than spatial resolution. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Structural and effective connectivity reveals potential network-based influences on category-sensitive visual areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas eFurl

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Visual category perception is thought to depend on brain areas that respond specifically when certain categories are viewed. These category-sensitive areas are often assumed to be modules (with some degree of processing autonomy and to act predominantly on feedforward visual input. This modular view can be complemented by a view that treats brain areas as elements within more complex networks and as influenced by network properties. This network-oriented viewpoint is emerging from studies using either diffusion tensor imaging to map structural connections or effective connectivity analyses to measure how their functional responses influence each other. This literature motivates several hypotheses that predict category-sensitive activity based on network properties. Large, long-range fiber bundles such as inferior fronto-occipital, arcuate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi are associated with behavioural recognition and could play crucial roles in conveying backward influences on visual cortex from anterior temporal and frontal areas. Such backward influences could support top-down functions such as visual search and emotion-based visual modulation. Within visual cortex itself, areas sensitive to different categories appear well-connected (e.g., face areas connect to object- and motion sensitive areas and their responses can be predicted by backward modulation. Evidence supporting these propositions remains incomplete and underscores the need for better integration of DTI and functional imaging.

  18. victoria cross awards warrants concerning the victoria cross (1920)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1. WARRANTS CONCERNING THE. VICTORIA CROSS (1920). In order to get a picture of the Royal Warrants promulgated from 1856 to 1920 in respect of the .... to confirmation by us. Eighthly. - It is ordained, where such an act shall not have been performed in the sight of a commanding officer as aforesaid, then the ...

  19. Method matters: systematic effects of testing procedure on visual working memory sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovski, Tal; Watson, Leah M; Koutstaal, Wilma; Jiang, Yuhong V

    2010-11-01

    Visual working memory (WM) is traditionally considered a robust form of visual representation that survives changes in object motion, observer's position, and other visual transients. This article presents data that are inconsistent with the traditional view. We show that memory sensitivity is dramatically influenced by small variations in the testing procedure, supporting the idea that representations in visual WM are susceptible to interference from testing. In the study, participants were shown an array of colors to remember. After a short retention interval, memory for one of the items was tested with either a same-different task or a 2-alternative-forced-choice (2AFC) task. Memory sensitivity was much lower in the 2AFC task than in the same-different task. This difference was found regardless of encoding similarity or of whether visual WM required a fine or coarse memory resolution. The 2AFC disadvantage was reduced when participants were informed shortly before testing which item would be probed. The 2AFC disadvantage diminished in perceptual tasks and was not found in tasks probing visual long-term memory. These results support memory models that acknowledge the labile nature of visual WM and have implications for the format of visual WM and its assessment. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  20. Perceptual learning improves contrast sensitivity, visual acuity, and foveal crowding in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barollo, Michele; Contemori, Giulio; Battaglini, Luca; Pavan, Andrea; Casco, Clara

    2017-01-01

    Amblyopic observers present abnormal spatial interactions between a low-contrast sinusoidal target and high-contrast collinear flankers. It has been demonstrated that perceptual learning (PL) can modulate these low-level lateral interactions, resulting in improved visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. We measured the extent and duration of generalization effects to various spatial tasks (i.e., visual acuity, Vernier acuity, and foveal crowding) through PL on the target's contrast detection. Amblyopic observers were trained on a contrast-detection task for a central target (i.e., a Gabor patch) flanked above and below by two high-contrast Gabor patches. The pre- and post-learning tasks included lateral interactions at different target-to-flankers separations (i.e., 2, 3, 4, 8λ) and included a range of spatial frequencies and stimulus durations as well as visual acuity, Vernier acuity, contrast-sensitivity function, and foveal crowding. The results showed that perceptual training reduced the target's contrast-detection thresholds more for the longest target-to-flanker separation (i.e., 8λ). We also found generalization of PL to different stimuli and tasks: contrast sensitivity for both trained and untrained spatial frequencies, visual acuity for Sloan letters, and foveal crowding, and partially for Vernier acuity. Follow-ups after 5-7 months showed not only complete maintenance of PL effects on visual acuity and contrast sensitivity function but also further improvement in these tasks. These results suggest that PL improves facilitatory lateral interactions in amblyopic observers, which usually extend over larger separations than in typical foveal vision. The improvement in these basic visual spatial operations leads to a more efficient capability of performing spatial tasks involving high levels of visual processing, possibly due to the refinement of bottom-up and top-down networks of visual areas.

  1. Audio-visual speech timing sensitivity is enhanced in cluttered conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warrick Roseboom

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Events encoded in separate sensory modalities, such as audition and vision, can seem to be synchronous across a relatively broad range of physical timing differences. This may suggest that the precision of audio-visual timing judgments is inherently poor. Here we show that this is not necessarily true. We contrast timing sensitivity for isolated streams of audio and visual speech, and for streams of audio and visual speech accompanied by additional, temporally offset, visual speech streams. We find that the precision with which synchronous streams of audio and visual speech are identified is enhanced by the presence of additional streams of asynchronous visual speech. Our data suggest that timing perception is shaped by selective grouping processes, which can result in enhanced precision in temporally cluttered environments. The imprecision suggested by previous studies might therefore be a consequence of examining isolated pairs of audio and visual events. We argue that when an isolated pair of cross-modal events is presented, they tend to group perceptually and to seem synchronous as a consequence. We have revealed greater precision by providing multiple visual signals, possibly allowing a single auditory speech stream to group selectively with the most synchronous visual candidate. The grouping processes we have identified might be important in daily life, such as when we attempt to follow a conversation in a crowded room.

  2. Pineal photoreceptor cells are required for maintaining the circadian rhythms of behavioral visual sensitivity in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinle Li

    Full Text Available In non-mammalian vertebrates, the pineal gland functions as the central pacemaker that regulates the circadian rhythms of animal behavior and physiology. We generated a transgenic zebrafish line [Tg(Gnat2:gal4-VP16/UAS:nfsB-mCherry] in which the E. coli nitroreductase is expressed in pineal photoreceptor cells. In developing embryos and young adults, the transgene is expressed in both retinal and pineal photoreceptor cells. During aging, the expression of the transgene in retinal photoreceptor cells gradually diminishes. By 8 months of age, the Gnat2 promoter-driven nitroreductase is no longer expressed in retinal photoreceptor cells, but its expression in pineal photoreceptor cells persists. This provides a tool for selective ablation of pineal photoreceptor cells, i.e., by treatments with metronidazole. In the absence of pineal photoreceptor cells, the behavioral visual sensitivity of the fish remains unchanged; however, the circadian rhythms of rod and cone sensitivity are diminished. Brief light exposures restore the circadian rhythms of behavioral visual sensitivity. Together, the data suggest that retinal photoreceptor cells respond to environmental cues and are capable of entraining the circadian rhythms of visual sensitivity; however, they are insufficient for maintaining the rhythms. Cellular signals from the pineal photoreceptor cells may be required for maintaining the circadian rhythms of visual sensitivity.

  3. Aging of non-visual spectral sensitivity to light in humans: compensatory mechanisms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond P Najjar

    Full Text Available The deterioration of sleep in the older population is a prevalent feature that contributes to a decrease in quality of life. Inappropriate entrainment of the circadian clock by light is considered to contribute to the alteration of sleep structure and circadian rhythms in the elderly. The present study investigates the effects of aging on non-visual spectral sensitivity to light and tests the hypothesis that circadian disturbances are related to a decreased light transmittance. In a within-subject design, eight aged and five young subjects were exposed at night to 60 minute monochromatic light stimulations at 9 different wavelengths (420-620 nm. Individual sensitivity spectra were derived from measures of melatonin suppression. Lens density was assessed using a validated psychophysical technique. Although lens transmittance was decreased for short wavelength light in the older participants, melatonin suppression was not reduced. Peak of non-visual sensitivity was, however, shifted to longer wavelengths in the aged participants (494 nm compared to young (484 nm. Our results indicate that increased lens filtering does not necessarily lead to a decreased non-visual sensitivity to light. The lack of age-related decrease in non-visual sensitivity to light may involve as yet undefined adaptive mechanisms.

  4. Immature visual neural system in children reflected by contrast sensitivity with adaptive optics correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Zhou, Jiawei; Zhao, Haoxin; Dai, Yun; Zhang, Yudong; Tang, Yong; Zhou, Yifeng

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the neural development status of the visual system of children (around 8 years old) using contrast sensitivity. We achieved this by eliminating the influence of higher order aberrations (HOAs) with adaptive optics correction. We measured HOAs, modulation transfer functions (MTFs) and contrast sensitivity functions (CSFs) of six children and five adults with both corrected and uncorrected HOAs. We found that when HOAs were corrected, children and adults both showed improvements in MTF and CSF. However, the CSF of children was still lower than the adult level, indicating the difference in contrast sensitivity between groups cannot be explained by differences in optical factors. Further study showed that the difference between the groups also could not be explained by differences in non-visual factors. With these results we concluded that the neural systems underlying vision in children of around 8 years old are still immature in contrast sensitivity. PMID:24732728

  5. Alginate microgels loaded with temperature sensitive liposomes for magnetic resonance imageable drug release and microgel visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Elk, Merel; Lorenzato, Cyril; Ozbakir, Burcin; Oerlemans, Chris; Storm, Gert; Nijsen, Frank; Deckers, Roel; Vermonden, Tina; Hennink, Wim E.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to prepare and characterize alginate microgels loaded with temperature sensitive liposomes, which release their payload after mild hyperthermia. It is further aimed that by using these microgels both the drug release and the microgel deposition can be visualized by

  6. Reliability and sensitivity of visual scales versus volumetry for evaluating white matter hyperintensity progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gouw, A A; van der Flier, W M; van Straaten, E C W

    2008-01-01

    the reliability and sensitivity of cross-sectional and longitudinal visual scales with volumetry for measuring WMH progression. METHODS: Twenty MRI scan pairs (interval 2 years) were included from the Amsterdam center of the LADIS study. Semi-automated volumetry of WMH was performed twice by one rater. Three...

  7. Diversification of non-visual photopigment parapinopsin in spectral sensitivity for diverse pineal functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Wada, Seiji; Kawano-Yamashita, Emi; Hara, Yuichiro; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Kosaka, Shigeaki; Kawakami, Koichi; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Hisao; Shichida, Yoshinori; Terakita, Akihisa

    2015-09-15

    Recent genome projects of various animals have uncovered an unexpectedly large number of opsin genes, which encode protein moieties of photoreceptor molecules, in most animals. In visual systems, the biological meanings of this diversification are clear; multiple types of visual opsins with different spectral sensitivities are responsible for color vision. However, the significance of the diversification of non-visual opsins remains uncertain, in spite of the importance of understanding the molecular mechanism and evolution of varied non-visual photoreceptions. Here, we investigated the diversification of the pineal photopigment parapinopsin, which serves as the UV-sensitive photopigment for the pineal wavelength discrimination in the lamprey, linking it with other pineal photoreception. Spectroscopic analyses of the recombinant pigments of the two teleost parapinopsins PP1 and PP2 revealed that PP1 is a UV-sensitive pigment, similar to lamprey parapinopsin, but PP2 is a blue-sensitive pigment, with an absorption maximum at 460-480 nm, showing the diversification of non-visual pigment with respect to spectral sensitivity. We also found that PP1 and PP2 exhibit mutually exclusive expressions in the pineal organs of three teleost species. By using transgenic zebrafish in which these parapinopsin-expressing cells are labeled, we found that PP1-expressing cells basically possess neuronal processes, which is consistent with their involvement in wavelength discrimination. Interestingly, however, PP2-expressing cells rarely possess neuronal processes, raising the possibility that PP2 could be involved in non-neural responses rather than neural responses. Furthermore, we found that PP2-expressing cells contain serotonin and aanat2, the key enzyme involved in melatonin synthesis from serotonin, whereas PP1-expressing cells do not contain either, suggesting that blue-sensitive PP2 is instead involved in light-regulation of melatonin secretion. In this paper, we have clearly

  8. Correlation between contrast sensitivity and visual acuity in retinitis pigmentosa patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeo, Kiyoshi; Hiida, Yoshiki; Saga, Masamichi; Inoue, Rikako; Oguchi, Yoshihisa

    2002-01-01

    High-contrast figures such as Landolt rings are insufficient to evaluate the function of the foveal cones of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients. We investigated the correlation between visual function as determined with Landolt rings and with the Vistech Contrast Sensitivity Function Test (VCTS) at various spatial frequencies, in addition to the Cambridge Low Contrast Grating (CLCG). The study included 30 retinitis pigmentosa patients (53 eyes). All patients were assessed with Landolt rings, the Vistech method, and the CLCG. We estimated the relative contribution of contrast sensitivity to visual acuity by VCTS at each spatial frequency and by CLCG by simple linear regression analysis. The results of the regression analysis of VCTS at 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 cycles/degree showed a significant correlation between Landolt rings and VCTS and between CLCG and VCTS that was strongest at 6.0 cycles/degree. There was no significant correlation between Landolt rings and VCTS or between CLCG and VCTS at 12.0 and 18.0 cycles/degree. Patients with a visual acuity of 20/25 and CLCG greater than 100 were divided into two groups according to their contrast sensitivity at 18.0 cycles/degree on VCTS. The VCTS at the highest frequency was useful for evaluating the foveal visual function in RP patients having good visual acuity with the Landolt rings. Thus, contrast sensitivity should be useful in detecting minute impairment or improvement of visual function in RP. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Haptic sensitivity in needle insertion: the effects of training and visual aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumas Cedric

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an experiment conducted to measure haptic sensitivity and the effects of haptic training with and without visual aid. The protocol for haptic training consisted of a needle insertion task using dual-layer silicon samples. A visual aid was provided as a multimodal cue for the haptic perception task. Results showed that for a group of novices (subjects with no previous experience in needle insertion, training with a visual aid resulted in a longer time to task completion, and a greater applied force, during post-training tests. This suggests that haptic perception is easily overshadowed, and may be completely replaced, by visual feedback. Therefore, haptic skills must be trained differently from visuomotor skills.

  10. Spatial contrast sensitivity vision loss in children with cortical visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, William V; Hou, Chuan; Norcia, Anthony M

    2012-11-19

    Although cortical visual impairment (CVI) is the leading cause of bilateral vision impairment in children in Western countries, little is known about the effects of CVI on visual function. The aim of this study was to compare visual evoked potential measures of contrast sensitivity and grating acuity in children with CVI with those of age-matched typically developing controls. The swept parameter visual evoked potential (sVEP) was used to measure contrast sensitivity and grating acuity in 34 children with CVI at 5 months to 5 years of age and in 16 age-matched control children. Contrast thresholds and spatial frequency thresholds (grating acuities) were derived by extrapolating the tuning functions to zero amplitude. These thresholds and maximal suprathreshold response amplitudes were compared between groups. Among 34 children with CVI, 30 had measurable but reduced contrast sensitivity with a median threshold of 10.8% (range 5.0%-30.0% Michelson), and 32 had measurable but reduced grating acuity with median threshold 0.49 logMAR (9.8 c/deg, range 5-14 c/deg). These thresholds were significantly reduced, compared with age-matched control children. In addition, response amplitudes over the entire sweep range for both measures were significantly diminished in children with CVI compared with those of control children. Our results indicate that spatial contrast sensitivity and response amplitudes are strongly affected by CVI. The substantial degree of loss in contrast sensitivity suggests that contrast is a sensitive measure for evaluating vision deficits in patients with CVI.

  11. Visual face-movement sensitive cortex is relevant for auditory-only speech recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Philipp; Ragert, Patrick; Schelinski, Stefanie; Kiebel, Stefan J; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2015-07-01

    It is commonly assumed that the recruitment of visual areas during audition is not relevant for performing auditory tasks ('auditory-only view'). According to an alternative view, however, the recruitment of visual cortices is thought to optimize auditory-only task performance ('auditory-visual view'). This alternative view is based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. These studies have shown, for example, that even if there is only auditory input available, face-movement sensitive areas within the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) are involved in understanding what is said (auditory-only speech recognition). This is particularly the case when speakers are known audio-visually, that is, after brief voice-face learning. Here we tested whether the left pSTS involvement is causally related to performance in auditory-only speech recognition when speakers are known by face. To test this hypothesis, we applied cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the pSTS during (i) visual-only speech recognition of a speaker known only visually to participants and (ii) auditory-only speech recognition of speakers they learned by voice and face. We defined the cathode as active electrode to down-regulate cortical excitability by hyperpolarization of neurons. tDCS to the pSTS interfered with visual-only speech recognition performance compared to a control group without pSTS stimulation (tDCS to BA6/44 or sham). Critically, compared to controls, pSTS stimulation additionally decreased auditory-only speech recognition performance selectively for voice-face learned speakers. These results are important in two ways. First, they provide direct evidence that the pSTS is causally involved in visual-only speech recognition; this confirms a long-standing prediction of current face-processing models. Secondly, they show that visual face-sensitive pSTS is causally involved in optimizing auditory-only speech recognition. These results are in line

  12. Auditory and visual modulation of temporal lobe neurons in voice-sensitive and association cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrodin, Catherine; Kayser, Christoph; Logothetis, Nikos K; Petkov, Christopher I

    2014-02-12

    Effective interactions between conspecific individuals can depend upon the receiver forming a coherent multisensory representation of communication signals, such as merging voice and face content. Neuroimaging studies have identified face- or voice-sensitive areas (Belin et al., 2000; Petkov et al., 2008; Tsao et al., 2008), some of which have been proposed as candidate regions for face and voice integration (von Kriegstein et al., 2005). However, it was unclear how multisensory influences occur at the neuronal level within voice- or face-sensitive regions, especially compared with classically defined multisensory regions in temporal association cortex (Stein and Stanford, 2008). Here, we characterize auditory (voice) and visual (face) influences on neuronal responses in a right-hemisphere voice-sensitive region in the anterior supratemporal plane (STP) of Rhesus macaques. These results were compared with those in the neighboring superior temporal sulcus (STS). Within the STP, our results show auditory sensitivity to several vocal features, which was not evident in STS units. We also newly identify a functionally distinct neuronal subpopulation in the STP that appears to carry the area's sensitivity to voice identity related features. Audiovisual interactions were prominent in both the STP and STS. However, visual influences modulated the responses of STS neurons with greater specificity and were more often associated with congruent voice-face stimulus pairings than STP neurons. Together, the results reveal the neuronal processes subserving voice-sensitive fMRI activity patterns in primates, generate hypotheses for testing in the visual modality, and clarify the position of voice-sensitive areas within the unisensory and multisensory processing hierarchies.

  13. Auditory and Visual Modulation of Temporal Lobe Neurons in Voice-Sensitive and Association Cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrodin, Catherine; Kayser, Christoph; Logothetis, Nikos K.

    2014-01-01

    Effective interactions between conspecific individuals can depend upon the receiver forming a coherent multisensory representation of communication signals, such as merging voice and face content. Neuroimaging studies have identified face- or voice-sensitive areas (Belin et al., 2000; Petkov et al., 2008; Tsao et al., 2008), some of which have been proposed as candidate regions for face and voice integration (von Kriegstein et al., 2005). However, it was unclear how multisensory influences occur at the neuronal level within voice- or face-sensitive regions, especially compared with classically defined multisensory regions in temporal association cortex (Stein and Stanford, 2008). Here, we characterize auditory (voice) and visual (face) influences on neuronal responses in a right-hemisphere voice-sensitive region in the anterior supratemporal plane (STP) of Rhesus macaques. These results were compared with those in the neighboring superior temporal sulcus (STS). Within the STP, our results show auditory sensitivity to several vocal features, which was not evident in STS units. We also newly identify a functionally distinct neuronal subpopulation in the STP that appears to carry the area's sensitivity to voice identity related features. Audiovisual interactions were prominent in both the STP and STS. However, visual influences modulated the responses of STS neurons with greater specificity and were more often associated with congruent voice-face stimulus pairings than STP neurons. Together, the results reveal the neuronal processes subserving voice-sensitive fMRI activity patterns in primates, generate hypotheses for testing in the visual modality, and clarify the position of voice-sensitive areas within the unisensory and multisensory processing hierarchies. PMID:24523543

  14. Age-related sensitive periods influence visual language discrimination in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikum, Whitney M; Vouloumanos, Athena; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Werker, Janet F

    2013-01-01

    Adults as well as infants have the capacity to discriminate languages based on visual speech alone. Here, we investigated whether adults' ability to discriminate languages based on visual speech cues is influenced by the age of language acquisition. Adult participants who had all learned English (as a first or second language) but did not speak French were shown faces of bilingual (French/English) speakers silently reciting sentences in either language. Using only visual speech information, adults who had learned English from birth or as a second language before the age of 6 could discriminate between French and English significantly better than chance. However, adults who had learned English as a second language after age 6 failed to discriminate these two languages, suggesting that early childhood exposure is crucial for using relevant visual speech information to separate languages visually. These findings raise the possibility that lowered sensitivity to non-native visual speech cues may contribute to the difficulties encountered when learning a new language in adulthood.

  15. The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on contrast sensitivity and visual evoked potential amplitude in adults with amblyopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Zhaofeng; Li, Jinrong; Spiegel, Daniel P.; Chen, Zidong; Chan, Lily; Luo, Guangwei; Yuan, Junpeng; Deng, Daming; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of vision that occurs when the visual cortex receives decorrelated inputs from the two eyes during an early critical period of development. Amblyopic eyes are subject to suppression from the fellow eye, generate weaker visual evoked potentials (VEPs) than fellow eyes and have multiple visual deficits including impairments in visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. Primate models and human psychophysics indicate that stronger suppression is associated...

  16. Study on efficacy and visual sensitivity of long - term masking therapy for children with ametropic amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the efficacy and visual sensitivity of occlusion therapy combined training for children with ametropic amblyopia. METHODS: Totally 85 children(85 eyeswith anisometropic amblyopia treated in our hospital from January 2013 to January 2015 were selected. All patients were given occlusion therapy combined training. Statistical analysis of clinical efficacy and visual sensitivity changes were taken, and the changes of visual acuity, AULCSF, Smax, Frmax were analyzed. RESULTS: The visual acuity after therapy was significantly better than that before treatment(1.12±0.29 vs 0.45±0.25, Pmax and Frmax all increased, the difference between the two groups was statistically significant(PPP=0.001. Mild group and moderate group had no significant difference on the total clinical efficiency difference(χ2=3.091, P=0.079; between mild group and severe group total effective rate was significantly different(χ2=11.471, P=0.001; the moderate and severe groups total clinical efficiency were no significantly different(χ2=3.359, P=0.067. In addition, the total efficiency rate of wearing glasses under the age of 6 was significantly higher than that after 6 years old(95% vs 77%, statistical difference between the two groups was significant(PCONCLUSION: Masking therapy combined with comprehensive training, in the treatment of children with ametropic amblyopia, and wearing a corrective spectacles, is desirable, especially for children under 7 years of age.

  17. Deficient cortical face-sensitive N170 responses and basic visual processing in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, S; Mashhoon, Y; Ekstrom, T; Lukas, S; Chen, Y

    2016-01-01

    Face detection, an ability to identify a visual stimulus as a face, is impaired in patients with schizophrenia. It is unclear whether impaired face processing in this psychiatric disorder results from face-specific domains or stems from more basic visual domains. In this study, we examined cortical face-sensitive N170 response in schizophrenia, taking into account deficient basic visual contrast processing. We equalized visual contrast signals among patients (n=20) and controls (n=20) and between face and tree images, based on their individual perceptual capacities (determined using psychophysical methods). We measured N170, a putative temporal marker of face processing, during face detection and tree detection. In controls, N170 amplitudes were significantly greater for faces than trees across all three visual contrast levels tested (perceptual threshold, two times perceptual threshold and 100%). In patients, however, N170 amplitudes did not differ between faces and trees, indicating diminished face selectivity (indexed by the differential responses to face vs. tree). These results indicate a lack of face-selectivity in temporal responses of brain machinery putatively responsible for face processing in schizophrenia. This neuroimaging finding suggests that face-specific processing is compromised in this psychiatric disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Aneurysm Recurrence Volumetry Is More Sensitive than Visual Evaluation of Aneurysm Recurrences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, M H; Schlotfeldt, V; Forkert, N D; Goebell, E; Groth, M; Vettorazzi, E; Cho, Y D; Han, M H; Kang, H-S; Fiehler, J

    2016-03-01

    Considerable inter-observer variability in the visual assessment of aneurysm recurrences limits its use as an outcome parameter evaluating new coil generations. The purpose of this study was to compare visual assessment of aneurysm recurrences and aneurysm recurrence volumetry with an example dataset of HydroSoft coils (HSC) versus bare platinum coils (BPC). For this retrospective study, 3-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography datasets acquired 6 and 12 months after endovascular therapy using BPC only or mainly HSC were analyzed. Aneurysm recurrence volumes were visually rated by two observersas well as quantified by subtraction of the datasets after intensity-based rigid registration. A total of 297 aneurysms were analyzed (BPC: 169, HSC: 128). Recurrences were detected by aneurysm recurrence volumetry in 9 of 128 (7.0 %) treated with HSC and in 24 of 169 (14.2 %) treated with BPC (odds ratio: 2.39, 95 % confidence interval: 1.05-5.48; P = 0.039). Aneurysm recurrence volumetry revealed an excellent correlation between observers (Cronbach's alpha = 0.93). In contrast, no significant difference in aneurysm recurrence was found for visual assessment (3.9 % in HSC cases and 4.7 % in BPC cases). Recurrences were observed in aneurysms smaller than the sample median in 10 of 33 (30.3 %) by aneurysm recurrence volumetry and in 1 of 13 (7.7 %) by visual assessment. Aneurysm recurrences were detected more frequently by aneurysm recurrence volumetry when compared with visual assessment. By using aneurysm recurrence volumetry, differences between treatment groups were detected with higher sensitivity and inter-observer validity probably because of the higher detection rate of recurrences in small aneurysms.

  19. Sensitivity to the visual field origin of natural image patches in human low-level visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien J. Mannion

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetries in the response to visual patterns in the upper and lower visual fields (above and below the centre of gaze have been associated with ecological factors relating to the structure of typical visual environments. Here, we investigated whether the content of the upper and lower visual field representations in low-level regions of human visual cortex are specialised for visual patterns that arise from the upper and lower visual fields in natural images. We presented image patches, drawn from above or below the centre of gaze of an observer navigating a natural environment, to either the upper or lower visual fields of human participants (n = 7 while we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to measure the magnitude of evoked activity in the visual areas V1, V2, and V3. We found a significant interaction between the presentation location (upper or lower visual field and the image patch source location (above or below fixation; the responses to lower visual field presentation were significantly greater for image patches sourced from below than above fixation, while the responses in the upper visual field were not significantly different for image patches sourced from above and below fixation. This finding demonstrates an association between the representation of the lower visual field in human visual cortex and the structure of the visual input that is likely to be encountered below the centre of gaze.

  20. The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on contrast sensitivity and visual evoked potential amplitude in adults with amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhaofeng; Li, Jinrong; Spiegel, Daniel P; Chen, Zidong; Chan, Lily; Luo, Guangwei; Yuan, Junpeng; Deng, Daming; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin

    2016-01-14

    Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of vision that occurs when the visual cortex receives decorrelated inputs from the two eyes during an early critical period of development. Amblyopic eyes are subject to suppression from the fellow eye, generate weaker visual evoked potentials (VEPs) than fellow eyes and have multiple visual deficits including impairments in visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. Primate models and human psychophysics indicate that stronger suppression is associated with greater deficits in amblyopic eye contrast sensitivity and visual acuity. We tested whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the visual cortex would modulate VEP amplitude and contrast sensitivity in adults with amblyopia. tDCS can transiently alter cortical excitability and may influence suppressive neural interactions. Twenty-one patients with amblyopia and twenty-seven controls completed separate sessions of anodal (a-), cathodal (c-) and sham (s-) visual cortex tDCS. A-tDCS transiently and significantly increased VEP amplitudes for amblyopic, fellow and control eyes and contrast sensitivity for amblyopic and control eyes. C-tDCS decreased VEP amplitude and contrast sensitivity and s-tDCS had no effect. These results suggest that tDCS can modulate visual cortex responses to information from adult amblyopic eyes and provide a foundation for future clinical studies of tDCS in adults with amblyopia.

  1. Individual Differences in Scotopic Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity: Genetic and Non-Genetic Influences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex J Bartholomew

    Full Text Available Despite the large amount of variation found in the night (scotopic vision capabilities of healthy volunteers, little effort has been made to characterize this variation and factors, genetic and non-genetic, that influence it. In the largest population of healthy observers measured for scotopic visual acuity (VA and contrast sensitivity (CS to date, we quantified the effect of a range of variables on visual performance. We found that young volunteers with excellent photopic vision exhibit great variation in their scotopic VA and CS, and this variation is reliable from one testing session to the next. We additionally identified that factors such as Circadian preference, iris color, astigmatism, depression, sex and education have no significant impact on scotopic visual function. We confirmed previous work showing that the amount of time spent on the vision test influences performance and that laser eye surgery results in worse scotopic vision. We also showed a significant effect of intelligence and photopic visual performance on scotopic VA and CS, but all of these variables collectively explain <30% of the variation in scotopic vision. The wide variation seen in young healthy volunteers with excellent photopic vision, the high test-retest agreement, and the vast majority of the variation in scotopic vision remaining unexplained by obvious non-genetic factors suggests a strong genetic component. Our preliminary genome-wide association study (GWAS of 106 participants ruled out any common genetic variants of very large effect and paves the way for future, larger genetic studies of scotopic vision.

  2. Decoding of faces and face components in face-sensitive human visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F Nichols

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A great challenge to the field of visual neuroscience is to understand how faces are encoded and represented within the human brain. Here we show evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI for spatially distributed processing of the whole face and its components in face-sensitive human visual cortex. We used multi-class linear pattern classifiers constructed with a leave-one-scan-out verification procedure to discriminate brain activation patterns elicited by whole faces, the internal features alone, and the external head outline alone. Furthermore, our results suggest that whole faces are represented disproportionately in the fusiform cortex (FFA whereas the building blocks of faces are represented disproportionately in occipitotemporal cortex (OFA. Faces and face components may therefore be organized with functional clustering within both the FFA and OFA, but with specialization for face components in the OFA and the whole face in the FFA.

  3. [Spectral sensitivity and visual pigments of the coastal crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukoliukov, S A; Zak, P P; Kalamkarov, G R; Kalishevich, O O; Ostrovskiĭ, M A

    1980-01-01

    It has been shown that the compound eye of the coastal crab has one photosensitive pigment rhodopsin and screening pigments, black and orange one. The orange pigment has lambda max = 480 nm, rhodopsin in digitonin is stable towards hydroxylamin action, has lambda max = 490-495 nm and after bleaching is transformed into free retinene and opsin. The pigments with lambda max = 430 and 475 nm of the receptor part of the eye are also solubilized. These pigments are not photosensitive but they dissociate under the effect of hydroxylamine. The curye of spectral sensitivity of the coastal crab has the basic maximum at approximately 525 nm and the additional one at 450 nm, which seems to be provided by a combination of the visual pigment--rhodopsin (lambda max 500 nm) with a carotinoid filter (lambda max 480-490). Specific features of the visual system of coastal crab are discussed.

  4. Flow Visualization at Cryogenic Conditions Using a Modified Pressure Sensitive Paint Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, A. Neal; Goad, William K.; Obara, Clifford J.; Sprinkle, Danny R.; Campbell, Richard L.; Carter, Melissa B.; Pendergraft, Odis C., Jr.; Bell, James H.; Ingram, JoAnne L.; Oglesby, Donald M.

    2005-01-01

    A modification to the Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) method was used to visualize streamlines on a Blended Wing Body (BWB) model at full-scale flight Reynolds numbers. In order to achieve these conditions, the tests were carried out in the National Transonic Facility operating under cryogenic conditions in a nitrogen environment. Oxygen is required for conventional PSP measurements, and several tests have been successfully completed in nitrogen environments by injecting small amounts (typically < 3000 ppm) of oxygen into the flow. A similar technique was employed here, except that air was purged through pressure tap orifices already existent on the model surface, resulting in changes in the PSP wherever oxygen was present. The results agree quite well with predicted results obtained through computational fluid dynamics analysis (CFD), which show this to be a viable technique for visualizing flows without resorting to more invasive procedures such as oil flow or minitufts.

  5. Task relevance differentially shapes ventral visual stream sensitivity to visible and invisible faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouider, Sid; Barbot, Antoine; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2016-01-01

    requires dissociating it from the top-down influences underlying conscious recognition. Here, using visual masking to abolish perceptual consciousness in humans, we report that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses to invisible faces in the fusiform gyrus are enhanced when they are task...... relevance crucially shapes the sensitivity of fusiform regions to face stimuli, leading from enhancement to suppression of neural activity when the top-down influences accruing from conscious recognition are prevented.......Top-down modulations of the visual cortex can be driven by task relevance. Yet, several accounts propose that the perceptual inferences underlying conscious recognition involve similar top-down modulations of sensory responses. Studying the pure impact of task relevance on sensory responses...

  6. Chromatic spatial contrast sensitivity estimated by visual evoked cortical potential and psychophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboni, M.T.S.; Gomes, B.D.; Souza, G.S.; Rodrigues, A.R.; Ventura, D.F.; Silveira, L.C.L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to measure contrast sensitivity to equiluminant gratings using steady-state visual evoked cortical potential (ssVECP) and psychophysics. Six healthy volunteers were evaluated with ssVECPs and psychophysics. The visual stimuli were red-green or blue-yellow horizontal sinusoidal gratings, 5° × 5°, 34.3 cd/m2 mean luminance, presented at 6 Hz. Eight spatial frequencies from 0.2 to 8 cpd were used, each presented at 8 contrast levels. Contrast threshold was obtained by extrapolating second harmonic amplitude values to zero. Psychophysical contrast thresholds were measured using stimuli at 6 Hz and static presentation. Contrast sensitivity was calculated as the inverse function of the pooled cone contrast threshold. ssVECP and both psychophysical contrast sensitivity functions (CSFs) were low-pass functions for red-green gratings. For electrophysiology, the highest contrast sensitivity values were found at 0.4 cpd (1.95 ± 0.15). ssVECP CSF was similar to dynamic psychophysical CSF, while static CSF had higher values ranging from 0.4 to 6 cpd (P chromatic functions showed no specific tuning shape; however, at high spatial frequencies the evoked potentials showed higher contrast sensitivity than the psychophysical methods (P chromatic red-green CSFs in agreement with psychophysical thresholds, mainly if the same temporal properties are applied to the stimulus. For blue-yellow CSF, correlation between electrophysiology and psychophysics was poor at high spatial frequency, possibly due to a greater effect of chromatic aberration on this kind of stimulus. PMID:23369980

  7. Long-term occupational exposure to organic solvents affects color vision, contrast sensitivity and visual fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Leiros Costa

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual outcome of chronic occupational exposure to a mixture of organic solvents by measuring color discrimination, achromatic contrast sensitivity and visual fields in a group of gas station workers. We tested 25 workers (20 males and 25 controls with no history of chronic exposure to solvents (10 males. All participants had normal ophthalmologic exams. Subjects had worked in gas stations on an average of 9.6 ± 6.2 years. Color vision was evaluated with the Lanthony D15d and Cambridge Colour Test (CCT. Visual field assessment consisted of white-on-white 24-2 automatic perimetry (Humphrey II-750i. Contrast sensitivity was measured for sinusoidal gratings of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 cycles per degree (cpd. Results from both groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. The number of errors in the D15d was higher for workers relative to controls (p<0.01. Their CCT color discrimination thresholds were elevated compared to the control group along the protan, deutan and tritan confusion axes (p<0.01, and their ellipse area and ellipticity were higher (p<0.01. Genetic analysis of subjects with very elevated color discrimination thresholds excluded congenital causes for the visual losses. Automated perimetry thresholds showed elevation in the 9°, 15° and 21° of eccentricity (p<0.01 and in MD and PSD indexes (p<0.01. Contrast sensitivity losses were found for all spatial frequencies measured (p<0.01 except for 0.5 cpd. Significant correlation was found between previous working years and deutan axis thresholds (rho = 0.59; p<0.05, indexes of the Lanthony D15d (rho=0.52; p<0.05, perimetry results in the fovea (rho= -0.51; p<0.05 and at 3, 9 and 15 degrees of eccentricity (rho= -0.46; p<0.05. Extensive and diffuse visual changes were found, suggesting that specific occupational limits should be created.

  8. Contrast sensitivity measured by two different test methods in healthy, young adults with normal visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Baste, Valborg; Roumes, Corinne; Høvding, Gunnar

    2015-03-01

    This study reports contrast sensitivity (CS) reference values obtained by two different test methods in a strictly selected population of healthy, young adults with normal uncorrected visual acuity. Based on these results, the index of contrast sensitivity (ICS) is calculated, aiming to establish ICS reference values for this population and to evaluate the possible usefulness of ICS as a tool to compare the degree of agreement between different CS test methods. Military recruits with best eye uncorrected visual acuity 0.00 LogMAR or better, normal colour vision and age 18-25 years were included in a study to record contrast sensitivity using Optec 6500 (FACT) at spatial frequencies of 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 18 cpd in photopic and mesopic light and CSV-1000E at spatial frequencies of 3, 6, 12 and 18 cpd in photopic light. Index of contrast sensitivity was calculated based on data from the three tests, and the Bland-Altman technique was used to analyse the agreement between ICS obtained by the different test methods. A total of 180 recruits were included. Contrast sensitivity frequency data for all tests were highly skewed with a marked ceiling effect for the photopic tests. The median ICS for Optec 6500 at 85 cd/m2 was -0.15 (95% percentile 0.45), compared with -0.00 (95% percentile 1.62) for Optec at 3 cd/m2 and 0.30 (95% percentile 1.20) FOR CSV-1000E. The mean difference between ICSFACT 85 and ICSCSV was -0.43 (95% CI -0.56 to -0.30, p<0.00) with limits of agreement (LoA) within -2.10 and 1.22. The regression line on the difference of average was near to zero (R2=0.03). The results provide reference CS and ICS values in a young, adult population with normal visual acuity. The agreement between the photopic tests indicated that they may be used interchangeably. There was little agreement between the mesopic and photopic tests. The mesopic test seemed best suited to differentiate between candidates and may therefore possibly be useful for medical selection purposes.

  9. Rapid and sensitive detection of Didymella bryoniae by visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiefeng Yao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Didymella bryoniae is a pathogenic fungus that causes gummy stem blight (GSB in Cucurbitaceae crops (e.g. cantaloupe, muskmelon, cucumber, and watermelon. GSB produces lesions on the stems and leaves, and can also be spread by seeds. Here, we developed a rapid, visual, and sensitive loop-mediated amplification (LAMP assay for D. bryoniae detection based on sequence-characterized amplified regions (GenBank accession nos GQ872461 and GQ872462 common to the two random amplification of polymorphic DNA group genotypes (RGI and RGII of D. bryoniae; ideal conditions for detection were optimized for completion in 45 min at 63°C. The sensitivity and specificity of the LAMP assay were further analyzed in comparison with those of a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 1000-fold higher than that of conventional PCR with a detection limit of 0.1 fg μL−1 of targeted DNA. The LAMP assay could be accomplished in about 45 min, with the results visible to the naked eye. The assay showed high specificity in discriminating all D. bryoniae isolates from seven other fungal pathogens that occur in Cucurbitaceae crops. The LAMP assay also detected D. bryoniae infection in young muskmelon leaves with suspected early symptoms of GSB disease. Hence, the technique has great potential for developing rapid and sensitive visual detection methods for the D. bryoniae pathogen in crops and seeds. This method has potential application in early prediction of disease and reducing the risk of epidemics.

  10. Visual and sensitive fluorescent sensing for ultratrace mercury ions by perovskite quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li-Qiang; Tan, Tian; Tian, Xi-Ke; Li, Yong; Deng, Pan

    2017-09-15

    Mercury ions sensing is an important issue for human health and environmental safety. A novel fluorescence nanosensor was designed for rapid visual detection of ultratrace mercury ions (Hg 2+ ) by using CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 perovskite quantum dots (QDs) based on the surface ion-exchange mechanism. The synthesized CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 QDs can emitt intense green fluorescence with high quantum yield of 50.28%, and can be applied for Hg 2+ sensing with the detection limit of 0.124 nM (24.87 ppt) in the range of 0 nM-100 nM. Furthermore, the interfering metal ions have no any influence on the fluorescence intensity of QDs, showing the perovskite QDs possess the high selectivity and sensitivity for Hg 2+ detection. The sensing mechanism of perovskite QDs for Hg 2+ is has also been investigated by XPS, EDX studies, showing Pb 2+ on the surface of perovskite QDs has been partially replaced by Hg 2+ . Spot plate test shows that the perovskite QDs can also be used for visual detection of Hg 2+ . Our research indicated the perovskite QDs are promising candidates for the visual fluorescence detection of environmental micropollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Visual sensitivity for luminance and chromatic stimuli during the execution of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Doris I; Schütz, Alexander C; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2017-07-01

    Visual sensitivity is dynamically modulated by eye movements. During saccadic eye movements, sensitivity is reduced selectively for low-spatial frequency luminance stimuli and largely unaffected for high-spatial frequency luminance and chromatic stimuli (Nature 371 (1994), 511-513). During smooth pursuit eye movements, sensitivity for low-spatial frequency luminance stimuli is moderately reduced while sensitivity for chromatic and high-spatial frequency luminance stimuli is even increased (Nature Neuroscience, 11 (2008), 1211-1216). Since these effects are at least partly of different polarity, we investigated the combined effects of saccades and smooth pursuit on visual sensitivity. For the time course of chromatic sensitivity, we found that detection rates increased slightly around pursuit onset. During saccades to static and moving targets, detection rates dropped briefly before the saccade and reached a minimum at saccade onset. This reduction of chromatic sensitivity was present whenever a saccade was executed and it was not modified by subsequent pursuit. We also measured contrast sensitivity for flashed high- and low-spatial frequency luminance and chromatic stimuli during saccades and pursuit. During saccades, the reduction of contrast sensitivity was strongest for low-spatial frequency luminance stimuli (about 90%). However, a significant reduction was also present for chromatic stimuli (about 58%). Chromatic sensitivity was increased during smooth pursuit (about 12%). These results suggest that the modulation of visual sensitivity during saccades and smooth pursuit is more complex than previously assumed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spiraal : uus Victoria & Alberti muuseum Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Daniel Libeskindi projekt Victoria & Alberti Muuseumi laiendamiseks on põhjustanud konservatiivsete londonlaste pahameele, kuid kutsunud esile ka hulgaliselt toetusavaldusi. Muuseumi uus osa (kokkuvarisemise piiril näiva ehitisena) peaks külastajaile avatama 2004. a.

  13. From specificity to sensitivity: affective states modulate visual working memory for emotional expressive faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maran, Thomas; Sachse, Pierre; Furtner, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that visual working memory (VWM) preferentially remembers angry looking faces. However, the meaning of facial actions is construed in relation to context. To date, there are no studies investigating the role of perceiver-based context when processing emotional cues in VWM. To explore the influence of affective context on VWM for faces, we conducted two experiments using both a VWM task for emotionally expressive faces and a mood induction procedure. Affective context was manipulated by unpleasant (Experiment 1) and pleasant (Experiment 2) IAPS pictures in order to induce an affect high in motivational intensity (defensive or appetitive, respectively) compared to a low arousal control condition. Results indicated specifically increased sensitivity of VWM for angry looking faces in the neutral condition. Enhanced VWM for angry faces was prevented by inducing affects of high motivational intensity. In both experiments, affective states led to a switch from specific enhancement of angry expressions in VWM to an equally sensitive representation of all emotional expressions. Our findings demonstrate that emotional expressions are of different behavioral relevance for the receiver depending on the affective context, supporting a functional organization of VWM along with flexible resource allocation. In VWM, stimulus processing adjusts to situational requirements and transitions from a specifically prioritizing default mode in predictable environments to a sensitive, hypervigilant mode in exposure to emotional events.

  14. First- and second-order contrast sensitivity functions reveal disrupted visual processing following mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Daniel P; Reynaud, Alexandre; Ruiz, Tatiana; Laguë-Beauvais, Maude; Hess, Robert; Farivar, Reza

    2016-05-01

    Vision is disrupted by traumatic brain injury (TBI), with vision-related complaints being amongst the most common in this population. Based on the neural responses of early visual cortical areas, injury to the visual cortex would be predicted to affect both 1(st) order and 2(nd) order contrast sensitivity functions (CSFs)-the height and/or the cut-off of the CSF are expected to be affected by TBI. Previous studies have reported disruptions only in 2(nd) order contrast sensitivity, but using a narrow range of parameters and divergent methodologies-no study has characterized the effect of TBI on the full CSF for both 1(st) and 2(nd) order stimuli. Such information is needed to properly understand the effect of TBI on contrast perception, which underlies all visual processing. Using a unified framework based on the quick contrast sensitivity function, we measured full CSFs for static and dynamic 1(st) and 2(nd) order stimuli. Our results provide a unique dataset showing alterations in sensitivity for both 1(st) and 2(nd) order visual stimuli. In particular, we show that TBI patients have increased sensitivity for 1(st) order motion stimuli and decreased sensitivity to orientation-defined and contrast-defined 2(nd) order stimuli. In addition, our data suggest that TBI patients' sensitivity for both 1(st) order stimuli and 2(nd) order contrast-defined stimuli is shifted towards higher spatial frequencies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Visualization and evaluation of flow during water filtration: Parameterization and sensitivity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bílek Petr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with visualization and evaluation of flow during filtration of water seeded by artificial microscopic particles. Planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF is a wide spread method for visualization and non-invasive characterization of flow. However the method uses fluorescent dyes or fluorescent particles in special cases. In this article the flow is seeded by non-fluorescent monodisperse polystyrene particles with the diameter smaller than one micrometer. The monodisperse sub-micron particles are very suitable for testing of textile filtration materials. Nevertheless non-fluorescent particles are not useful for PLIF method. A water filtration setup with an optical access to the place, were a tested filter is mounted, was built and used for the experiments. Concentration of particles in front of and behind the tested filter in a laser light sheet measured is and the local filtration efficiency expressed is. The article describes further progress in the measurement. It was carried out sensitivity analysis, parameterization and performance of the method during several simulations and experiments.

  16. The cortical eye proprioceptive signal modulates neural activity in higher-order visual cortex as predicted by the variation in visual sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Siebner, Hartwig R; Paulson, Olaf B

    2012-01-01

    target when the right eye was rotated leftwards as compared with when it was rotated rightwards. This effect was larger after S1(EYE)-rTMS than after rTMS of a control area in the motor cortex. The neural response to retinally identical stimuli in this area could be predicted from the changes in visual......Whereas the links between eye movements and the shifts in visual attention are well established, less is known about how eye position affects the prioritization of visual space. It was recently observed that visual sensitivity varies with the direction of gaze and the level of excitability...... in the eye proprioceptive representation in human left somatosensory cortex (S1(EYE)), so that after 1Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over S1(EYE), targets presented nearer the center of the orbit are detected more accurately. Here we used whole-brain functional magnetic resonance...

  17. Autoshaping as a psychophysical paradigm: Absolute visual sensitivity in the pigeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passe, Dennis H.

    1981-01-01

    A classical conditioning procedure (autoshaping) was used to determine absolute visual threshold in the pigeon. This method provides the basis for a standardized visual psychophysical paradigm. PMID:16812228

  18. Implied motion because of instability in Hokusai Manga activates the human motion-sensitive extrastriate visual cortex: an fMRI study of the impact of visual art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Naoyuki; Matsuyoshi, Daisuke; Ikeda, Takashi; Osaka, Mariko

    2010-03-10

    The recent development of cognitive neuroscience has invited inference about the neurosensory events underlying the experience of visual arts involving implied motion. We report functional magnetic resonance imaging study demonstrating activation of the human extrastriate motion-sensitive cortex by static images showing implied motion because of instability. We used static line-drawing cartoons of humans by Hokusai Katsushika (called 'Hokusai Manga'), an outstanding Japanese cartoonist as well as famous Ukiyoe artist. We found 'Hokusai Manga' with implied motion by depicting human bodies that are engaged in challenging tonic posture significantly activated the motion-sensitive visual cortex including MT+ in the human extrastriate cortex, while an illustration that does not imply motion, for either humans or objects, did not activate these areas under the same tasks. We conclude that motion-sensitive extrastriate cortex would be a critical region for perception of implied motion in instability.

  19. Regional vascular density-visual field sensitivity relationship in glaucoma according to disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joong Won; Lee, Jiyun; Kwon, Junki; Choi, Jaewan; Kook, Michael S

    2017-12-01

    To study whether there are global and regional relationships between peripapillary vascular density (pVD) assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) and visual field (VF) mean sensitivity at different glaucoma stages. Microvascular images and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) thicknesses were obtained using a Cirrus OCT-A device in 91 glaucoma subjects. The pVD was measured at various spatial locations according to the Garway-Heath map, using a MATLAB software (The MathWorks, Natick, Massachusetts). VF mean sensitivity (VFMS) was recorded in the 1/L scale. Global and regional vasculature-function (pVD vs VFMS) relationships were assessed in separate patient groups at mild and moderate-to-advanced stages of glaucoma. The pVDs at superotemporal and inferotemporal regions were significantly associated with corresponding VFMS in mild glaucoma (pglaucoma, there were significant associations between pVD and VFMS, regardless of location. The association between global pVD and VFMS was significantly stronger than that between global pRNFL thickness and VFMS in moderate-to-advanced stage glaucoma (p glaucoma. OCT-A may be useful in monitoring glaucoma at various stages. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Insulin sensitivity affects corticolimbic brain responses to visual food cues in polycystic ovary syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaadi, Hanin M; Van Vugt, Dean A

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the effect of insulin sensitivity on the responsiveness of appetite regulatory brain regions to visual food cues. Nineteen participants diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were divided into insulin-sensitive (n=8) and insulin-resistant (n=11) groups based on the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR). Subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing food pictures following water or dextrose consumption. The corticolimbic blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses to high-calorie (HC) or low-calorie (LC) food pictures were compared within and between groups. BOLD responses to food pictures were reduced during a glucose challenge in numerous corticolimbic brain regions in insulin-sensitive but not insulin-resistant subjects. Furthermore, the degree of insulin resistance positively correlated with the corticolimbic BOLD response in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate and ventral tegmental area (VTA) in response to HC pictures, and in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), mPFC, anterior cingulate, and insula in response to LC pictures following a glucose challenge. BOLD signal in the OFC, midbrain, hippocampus, and amygdala following a glucose challenge correlated with HOMA2-IR in response to HC-LC pictures. We conclude that the normal inhibition of corticolimbic brain responses to food pictures during a glucose challenge is compromised in insulin-resistant subjects. The increase in brain responsiveness to food pictures during postprandial hyperinsulinemia may lead to greater non-homeostatic eating and perpetuate obesity in insulin-resistant subjects.

  1. Distribution of Nile perch Lates niloticus in southern Lake Victoria is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although Nile perch Lates niloticus is assumed to be sensitive to low oxygen concentrations, it was found in deep water in Lake Victoria, where oxygen depletion is common during the rainy season. Since factors determining Nile perch distribution are not well understood its spatial distribution in the Mwanza Gulf of Lake ...

  2. Has climate change disrupted stratification patterns in Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Has climate change disrupted stratification patterns in Lake Victoria, East Africa? ... Climate change may threaten the fisheries of Lake Victoria by increasing density differentials in the water column, thereby strengthening stratification and increasing the ... Keywords: deoxygenation, fisheries, global warming, thermocline

  3. Coal Corporation of Victoria annual report 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Information is presented on operations, strategic planning, brown coal production and finance. Divisional reports are presented for the following divisions of the Coal Corporation of Victoria: marketing, technical marketing and special projects, research and development, and corporate services. The activities of the technical marketing and special projects division are discussed under the following headings: the coal for industry programme, the Brown Coal Liquefaction (Victoria) Pty. Ltd. project, dried brown coal activities, and resource development planning and policy activities. The corporation is currently conducting research into the following areas: ion exchange materials, activated carbons, and horticultural and agricultural applications of brown coal.

  4. Visuo-perceptual capabilities predict sensitivity for coinciding auditory and visual transients in multi-element displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerhoff, Hauke S; Gehrer, Nina A

    2017-01-01

    In order to obtain a coherent representation of the outside world, auditory and visual information are integrated during human information processing. There is remarkable variance among observers in the capability to integrate auditory and visual information. Here, we propose that visuo-perceptual capabilities predict detection performance for audiovisually coinciding transients in multi-element displays due to severe capacity limitations in audiovisual integration. In the reported experiment, we employed an individual differences approach in order to investigate this hypothesis. Therefore, we measured performance in a useful-field-of-view task that captures detection performance for briefly presented stimuli across a large perceptual field. Furthermore, we measured sensitivity for visual direction changes that coincide with tones within the same participants. Our results show that individual differences in visuo-perceptual capabilities predicted sensitivity for the presence of audiovisually synchronous events among competing visual stimuli. To ensure that this correlation does not stem from superordinate factors, we also tested performance in an unrelated working memory task. Performance in this task was independent of sensitivity for the presence of audiovisually synchronous events. Our findings strengthen the proposed link between visuo-perceptual capabilities and audiovisual integration. The results also suggest that basic visuo-perceptual capabilities provide the basis for the subsequent integration of auditory and visual information.

  5. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation transiently improves contrast sensitivity and normalizes visual cortex activation in individuals with amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Daniel P; Byblow, Winston D; Hess, Robert F; Thompson, Benjamin

    2013-10-01

    Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of vision that is associated with abnormal patterns of neural inhibition within the visual cortex. This disorder is often considered to be untreatable in adulthood because of insufficient visual cortex plasticity. There is increasing evidence that interventions that target inhibitory interactions within the visual cortex, including certain types of noninvasive brain stimulation, can improve visual function in adults with amblyopia. We tested the hypothesis that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) would improve visual function in adults with amblyopia by enhancing the neural response to inputs from the amblyopic eye. Thirteen adults with amblyopia participated and contrast sensitivity in the amblyopic and fellow fixing eye was assessed before, during and after a-tDCS or cathodal tDCS (c-tDCS). Five participants also completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study designed to investigate the effect of a-tDCS on the blood oxygen level-dependent response within the visual cortex to inputs from the amblyopic versus the fellow fixing eye. A subgroup of 8/13 participants showed a transient improvement in amblyopic eye contrast sensitivity for at least 30 minutes after a-tDCS. fMRI measurements indicated that the characteristic cortical response asymmetry in amblyopes, which favors the fellow eye, was reduced by a-tDCS. These preliminary results suggest that a-tDCS deserves further investigation as a potential tool to enhance amblyopia treatment outcomes in adults.

  6. A Sensitive Period for Language in the Visual Cortex: Distinct Patterns of Plasticity in Congenitally versus Late Blind Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedny, Marina; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Dravida, Swethasri; Saxe, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that blindness enables visual circuits to contribute to language processing. We examined whether this dramatic functional plasticity has a sensitive period. BOLD fMRI signal was measured in congenitally blind, late blind (blindness onset 9-years-old or later) and sighted participants while they performed a sentence…

  7. Correlation between observation task performance and visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and environmental light in a simulated maritime study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Assmuss, Jörg; Høvding, Gunnar

    2018-03-25

    To examine the relevance of visual acuity (VA) and index of contrast sensitivity (ICS) as predictors for visual observation task performance in a maritime environment. Sixty naval cadets were recruited to a study on observation tasks in a simulated maritime environment under three different light settings. Their ICS were computed based on contrast sensitivity (CS) data recorded by Optec 6500 and CSV-1000E CS tests. The correlation between object identification distance and VA/ICS was examined by stepwise linear regression. The object detection distance was significantly correlated to the level of environmental light (p maritime environment may presumably be ascribed to the normal and uniform visual capacity in all our study subjects. © 2018 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Seabed surveys of Victoria harbour, Mahe, Seychelles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Wagle, B.G.

    The seabed surveys in the Victoria Harbour, Mahe, Seychelles shows that the prominent feature is the navigational channel aligned in the northeast-southwest direction with a width varying from 300 to 450m. The depth in the channel ranges from 14...

  9. Regions of mid-level human visual cortex sensitive to the global coherence of local image patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, Damien J; Kersten, Daniel J; Olman, Cheryl A

    2014-08-01

    The global structural arrangement and spatial layout of the visual environment must be derived from the integration of local signals represented in the lower tiers of the visual system. This interaction between the spatially local and global properties of visual stimulation underlies many of our visual capacities, and how this is achieved in the brain is a central question for visual and cognitive neuroscience. Here, we examine the sensitivity of regions of the posterior human brain to the global coordination of spatially displaced naturalistic image patches. We presented observers with image patches in two circular apertures to the left and right of central fixation, with the patches drawn from either the same (coherent condition) or different (noncoherent condition) extended image. Using fMRI at 7T (n = 5), we find that global coherence affected signal amplitude in regions of dorsal mid-level cortex. Furthermore, we find that extensive regions of mid-level visual cortex contained information in their local activity pattern that could discriminate coherent and noncoherent stimuli. These findings indicate that the global coordination of local naturalistic image information has important consequences for the processing in human mid-level visual cortex.

  10. The importance of ultraviolet and near-infrared sensitivity for visual discrimination in two species of lacertid lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mélissa; Le Galliard, Jean-François; Meylan, Sandrine; Loew, Ellis R

    2015-02-01

    Male and female Lacertid lizards often display conspicuous coloration that is involved in intraspecific communication. However, visual systems of Lacertidae have rarely been studied and the spectral sensitivity of their retinal photoreceptors remains unknown. Here, we characterise the spectral sensitivity of two Lacertid species from contrasting habitats: the wall lizard Podarcis muralis and the common lizard Zootoca vivipara. Both species possess a pure-cone retina with one spectral class of double cones and four spectral classes of single cones. The two species differ in the spectral sensitivity of the LWS cones, the relative abundance of UVS single cones (potentially more abundant in Z. vivipara) and the coloration of oil droplets. Wall lizards have pure vitamin A1-based photopigments, whereas common lizards possess mixed vitamin A1 and A2 photopigments, extending spectral sensitivity into the near infrared, which is a rare feature in terrestrial vertebrates. We found that spectral sensitivity in the UV and near infrared improves discrimination of small variations in throat coloration among Z. vivipara. Thus, retinal specialisations optimise chromatic resolution in common lizards, indicating that the visual system and visual signals might co-evolve. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Hemofilie onder die nasate van koningin Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Retief

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie studie bespreek die uitwerking van die sogenaamde Victoriaanse hemofilie op Europese koningshuise gedurende die negentiende en twintigste eeu. Hemofilie as molekulêre defek word verduidelik en die kliniese beeld van die siekte word aangedui. ’n Bespreking van toepaslike terapeutiese ingrepe volg. Dan word ’n historiese oorsig verskaf van die verspreiding van Victoriaanse hemofilie vanaf koningin Victoria (Britse monarg, 1837–1901 via sommige van haar dogters na ander lede van die Britse koningshuis en ook na die Duitse, Russiese en Spaanse koningshuise. Elf bevestigde gevalle van hemofilie onder lede van koningin Victoria se nageslag word vermeld, asook drie ander moontlike gevalle van die siekte. Die effek van hemofilie op die verloop van die geskiedenis word ook ondersoek.Haemophilia amongst the descendants of Queen Victoria. This study discusses the impact of ‘Victorian haemophilia’ on the royal houses of Europe during the 19th and 20th centuries. Haemophilia as a molecular defect is explained and the clinical picture of the condition is indicated. Applicable therapeutic interventions also receive attention. Next, an historical review is provided of how ‘Victorian haemophilia’ spread from Queen Victoria (British monarch, 1837–1901 via some of her daughters to other members of the British royal family and also to the royal houses of Germany, Russia and Spain. Eleven confirmed cases of haemophilia amongst the descendants of Queen Victoria are mentioned, as well as three other possible cases. The effect of haemophilia on the course of history is also investigated.

  12. A Comparison of digestive Tract Morphology in muskoxen and caribou from Victoria Island, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Staaland

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Although caribou and muskoxen coexist in close proximity on southeastern Victoria Island, they appear primarily adapted to different diets and foraging strategies. Visual inspection and analysis of rumen contents for fiber and lignin from the study (unpubl. also indicate a predominantly graminoid diet in the muskoxen and a more varied diet with a substantial browse component in the caribou.This should reduce the likelihood of competition for limited food resources in winter.

  13. Sensitivity to audio-visual synchrony and its relation to language abilities in children with and without ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Giulia; Tenenbaum, Elena J; McCormick, Carolyn; Blossom, Megan; Amso, Dima; Sheinkopf, Stephen J

    2018-04-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is often accompanied by deficits in speech and language processing. Speech processing relies heavily on the integration of auditory and visual information, and it has been suggested that the ability to detect correspondence between auditory and visual signals helps to lay the foundation for successful language development. The goal of the present study was to examine whether young children with ASD show reduced sensitivity to temporal asynchronies in a speech processing task when compared to typically developing controls, and to examine how this sensitivity might relate to language proficiency. Using automated eye tracking methods, we found that children with ASD failed to demonstrate sensitivity to asynchronies of 0.3s, 0.6s, or 1.0s between a video of a woman speaking and the corresponding audio track. In contrast, typically developing children who were language-matched to the ASD group, were sensitive to both 0.6s and 1.0s asynchronies. We also demonstrated that individual differences in sensitivity to audiovisual asynchronies and individual differences in orientation to relevant facial features were both correlated with scores on a standardized measure of language abilities. Results are discussed in the context of attention to visual language and audio-visual processing as potential precursors to language impairment in ASD. Autism Res 2018, 11: 645-653. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Speech processing relies heavily on the integration of auditory and visual information, and it has been suggested that the ability to detect correspondence between auditory and visual signals helps to lay the foundation for successful language development. The goal of the present study was to explore whether children with ASD process audio-visual synchrony in ways comparable to their typically developing peers, and the relationship between preference for synchrony and language ability. Results showed that

  14. Efficacy of perceptual vision therapy in enhancing visual acuity and contrast sensitivity function in adult hypermetropic anisometropic amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin E

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Elvan Yalcin, Ozlem BalciWorld Eye Hospital, Department of Pediatric Ophthalmology, Istanbul, TurkeyBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of neural vision therapy, also termed perceptual vision therapy, in enhancing best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and contrast sensitivity function in amblyopic patients.Methods: This prospective study enrolled 99 subjects previously diagnosed with unilateral hypermetropic amblyopia aged 9–50 years. The subjects were divided into two groups, with 53 subjects (53 eyes in the perceptual vision therapy group and 46 subjects (46 eyes in the control group. Because the nature of the treatment demands hard work and strict compliance, we enrolled the minimal number of subjects required to achieve statistically significant results. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Study phases included a baseline screening, a series of 45 training sessions with perceptual vision therapy, and an end-of-treatment examination. BCVA and contrast sensitivity function at 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 18 cycles per degree spatial frequencies were obtained for statistical analysis in both groups. All subjects had follow-up examinations within 4–8 months. With the exception of one subject from the study group and two subjects from the control group, all subjects had occlusion during childhood. The study was not masked.Results: The results for the study group demonstrated a mean improvement of 2.6 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR lines in visual acuity (from 0.42 to 0.16 logMAR. Contrast sensitivity function improved at 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 18 cycles per degree spatial frequencies. The control group did not show any significant change in visual acuity or contrast sensitivity function. None of the treated eyes showed a drop in visual acuity. Manifest refractions remained unchanged during the study.Conclusion: The results of our study demonstrate the efficacy of perceptual vision therapy in

  15. Historical perspective on the use of visual grading scales in evaluating skin irritation and sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farage, Miranda A; Maibach, Howard I; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2011-01-01

    quality in comparison with current testing methods that rely on visual assessment. In addition, such measuring techniques can add considerably to the complexity of testing protocols. When benefits and cost are weighed in the balance, the visual assessment scales popularized by Draize and others remain...

  16. Mathematical Problems in Biology : Victoria Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1974-01-01

    A conference on "Some Mathematical Problems in Biology" was held at the University of Victoria, Victoria, B. C. , Canada, from May 7 - 10, 1973. The participants and invited speakers were mathematicians interested in problems of a biological nature, and scientists actively engaged in developing mathematical models in biological fields. One aim of the conference was to attempt to assess what the recent rapid growth of mathematical interaction with the biosciences has accomplished and may accomplish in the near future. The conference also aimed to expose the problems of communication bet~",een mathematicians and biological scientists, and in doing so to stimulate the interchange of ideas. It was recognised that the topic spans an enormous breadth, and little attempt was made to balance the very diverse areas. Widespread active interest was shown in the conference, and just over one hundred people registered. The varied departments and institutions across North America from which the participants came made it bo...

  17. Chemistry models in the Victoria code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimley, A.J. III

    1988-01-01

    The VICTORIA Computer code consists of the fission product release and chemistry models for the MELPROG severe accident analysis code. The chemistry models in VICTORIA are used to treat multi-phase interactions in four separate physical regions: fuel grains, gap/open porosity/clad, coolant/aerosols, and structure surfaces. The physical and chemical environment of each region is very different from the others and different models are required for each. The common thread in the modelling is the use of a chemical equilibrium assumption. The validity of this assumption along with a description of the various physical constraints applicable to each region will be discussed. The models that result from the assumptions and constraints will be presented along with samples of calculations in each region

  18. A third, ultraviolet-sensitive, visual pigment in the Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, E R

    1994-06-01

    Numerous extraction and microspectrophotometric studies have shown that the nocturnal Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko), has two visual pigments: a "green" with lambda max at 521 nm and a "blue" at 467 nm. In addition, similar studies on other nocturnal gecko species have found only the same two classes of visual pigment. With the finding that some diurnal species of gecko have a third visual pigment class with lambda max peaking in the UV, doubts were raised concerning the presence of only two visual pigment classes in nocturnal forms. Therefore, a microspectrophotometric re-examination of the Tokay gecko was undertaken to look specifically for a UV visual pigment. A UV-absorbing pigment (364 nm lambda max) was found in approx. 20% of the thin outer segments of type C double rods, thought previously to contain only the 467 nm pigment. That this UV-absorbing pigment was truly a visual pigment was confirmed by its dichroism, behaviour following exposure to UV radiation and "nomogram" fit. It is suggested that this visual pigment had been seen in previous microspectrophotometric studies, but its similarity to known photoproducts peaking in the same spectral region resulted in a case of mistaken identity.

  19. [The influence of IOL implantation on visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and colour vision 2 and 4 months after cataract surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventruba, J

    2006-04-01

    To assess the change in visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and colour vision in relation to the time after cataract surgery and to the type of implanted IOL, and to compare visual functions by patients with one and two pseudophakic eyes. 45 cataract patients were examined before and then 2 and 4 month after the cataract surgery. Visual acuity (VA) was tested on logMAR optotype chart with Landolt rings, contrast sensitivity (CS) was tested on the Pelli-Robson chart and the SWCT chart. For colour vision (CV) testing, the standard Farnsworth D-15 test and the desaturated Lanthony D-15 test were used. The patients were divided into two groups--a group with one pseudophakic eye and a group with two pseudophakic eyes, and also according to the type of IOL--PMMA or hydrophobic acrylate that had been implanted. Control group was composed of phakic subjects with no ocular pathology. After the cataract surgery, in both groups there was a significant improvement in monocular and binocular VA (p test (p test (p tested by means of psychophysical methods of VA, CS and CV significantly improve and are stable 2 month after the surgery. The second eye surgery improves binocular visual functions the level of which doesn't differ from that of normal phakic subjects. There was no influence of the type of IOL on final state of VA, CS or CV.

  20. Queen Victoria, her physicians, and her cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravin, J G

    1994-01-01

    Decreasing vision due to cataracts became a significant problem for Queen Victoria toward the end of the 19th century. Her personal physician, Sir James Reid, obtained consultations with two eminent British ophthalmologists, George Lawson and Edward Nettleship. The Queen was not satisfied, and requested an opinion from the German professor Hermann Pagenstecher. All the doctors agreed on the diagnosis, but the Queen never underwent surgery.

  1. Pancam Peek into 'Victoria Crater' (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08776 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08776 A drive of about 60 meters (about 200 feet) on the 943rd Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's exploration of Mars' Meridiani Planum region (Sept. 18, 2006) brought the NASA rover to within about 50 meters (about 160 feet) of the rim of 'Victoria Crater.' This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months. Opportunity reached a location from which the cameras on top of the rover's mast could begin to see into the interior of Victoria. This stereo anaglyph was made from frames taken on sol 943 by the panoramic camera (Pancam) to offer a three-dimensional view when seen through red-blue glasses. It shows the upper portion of interior crater walls facing toward Opportunity from up to about 850 meters (half a mile) away. The amount of vertical relief visible at the top of the interior walls from this angle is about 15 meters (about 50 feet). The exposures were taken through a Pancam filter selecting wavelengths centered on 750 nanometers. Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is the expectation that a thick stack of geological layers will be exposed in the crater walls, potentially several times the thickness that was previously studied at Endurance and therefore, potentially preserving several times the historical record.

  2. Chemical cues from fish heighten visual sensitivity in larval crabs through changes in photoreceptor structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Corie L; Cohen, Jonathan H

    2015-11-01

    Several predator avoidance strategies in zooplankton rely on the use of light to control vertical position in the water column. Although light is the primary cue for such photobehavior, predator chemical cues or kairomones increase swimming responses to light. We currently lack a mechanistic understanding for how zooplankton integrate visual and chemical cues to mediate phenotypic plasticity in defensive photobehavior. In marine systems, kairomones are thought to be amino sugar degradation products of fish body mucus. Here, we demonstrate that increasing concentrations of fish kairomones heightened sensitivity of light-mediated swimming behavior for two larval crab species (Rhithropanopeus harrisii and Hemigrapsus sanguineus). Consistent with these behavioral results, we report increased visual sensitivity at the retinal level in larval crab eyes directly following acute (1-3 h) kairomone exposure, as evidenced electrophysiologically from V-log I curves and morphologically from wider, shorter rhabdoms. The observed increases in visual sensitivity do not correspond with a decline in temporal resolution, because latency in electrophysiological responses actually increased after kairomone exposure. Collectively, these data suggest that phenotypic plasticity in larval crab photobehavior is achieved, at least in part, through rapid changes in photoreceptor structure and function. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Productivity changes in the Gas and Fuel Corporation of Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushdi, A.

    1994-01-01

    The study reveals that the total factor productivity in the Gas and Fuel Corporation of Victoria (GFCV) continued to increase throughout the study period except for a brief period between 1983-84 and 1984-85 which was mainly the result of the decline in the industrial demand for gas and a decelerated growth rate in residential demand. The productivity gains were found to be highly sensitive to the rates of depreciation and discount rates assumed. The estimated terms of trade suggest that the increase in gas prices was lower that the increase in the aggregate input prices the GFCV paid, particularly to capital and labour. However, while the price index of reticulated gas increased to 2.17, the purchase price declined to 0.96 over the study period. The productivity gains by GFCV seem to have been shared with its customers. (Author)

  4. [Measuring contrast sensitivity using visual acuity tests in retinal and optic nerve diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, E; Marré, E; Mierdel, P

    1990-01-01

    The luminance contrast needed to discern various test types was measured with monochromatic and achromatic light to detect discrete functional deficiencies of the retina and optic nerve in cases of normal visual acuity. Landolt rings corresponding to visual acuity levels from 0.04 to 1.0 were used as test types. A significant increase in the necessary minimum contrast was detectable with blue test light on large Landolt rings in patients with diabetic retinopathy, ocular hypertension and glaucoma and with green or yellow test light on medium-sized and small Landolt rings in patients with central serous chorioidopathy and optic atrophy. The additional contrast needed to reach the maximum visual acuity amounts to 14-100% compared with normal visual acuity, depending on the color of the test light and the diagnosis. The amount of contrast needed is greatest in retinal diseases, and it is therefore possible to a certain extent to distinguish these from diseases of the optic nerve.

  5. Visual motion-sensitive neurons in the bumblebee brain convey information about landmarks during a navigational task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel eMertes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bees use visual memories to find the spatial location of previously learnt food sites. Characteristic learning flights help acquiring these memories at newly discovered foraging locations where landmarks - salient objects in the vicinity of the goal location - can play an important role in guiding the animal’s homing behavior. Although behavioral experiments have shown that bees can use a variety of visual cues to distinguish objects as landmarks, the question of how landmark features are encoded by the visual system is still open. Recently, it could be shown that motion cues are sufficient to allow bees localizing their goal using landmarks that can hardly be discriminated from the background texture. Here, we tested the hypothesis that motion sensitive neurons in the bee’s visual pathway provide information about such landmarks during a learning flight and might, thus, play a role for goal localization. We tracked learning flights of free-flying bumblebees (Bombus terrestris in an arena with distinct visual landmarks, reconstructed the visual input during these flights, and replayed ego-perspective movies to tethered bumblebees while recording the activity of direction-selective wide-field neurons in their optic lobe. By comparing neuronal responses during a typical learning flight and targeted modifications of landmark properties in this movie we demonstrate that these objects are indeed represented in the bee’s visual motion pathway. We find that object-induced responses vary little with object texture, which is in agreement with behavioral evidence. These neurons thus convey information about landmark properties that are useful for view-based homing.

  6. Effects of Milk vs Dark Chocolate Consumption on Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity Within 2 Hours: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Jeff C; Karunathilake, Nirmani; Patrizi, Korey

    2018-04-26

    Consumption of dark chocolate can improve blood flow, mood, and cognition in the short term, but little is known about the possible effects of dark chocolate on visual performance. To compare the short-term effects of consumption of dark chocolate with those of milk chocolate on visual acuity and large- and small-letter contrast sensitivity. A randomized, single-masked crossover design was used to assess short-term visual performance after consumption of a dark or a milk chocolate bar. Thirty participants without pathologic eye disease each consumed dark and milk chocolate in separate sessions, and within-participant paired comparisons were used to assess outcomes. Testing was conducted at the Rosenberg School of Optometry from June 25 to August 15, 2017. Visual acuity (in logMAR units) and large- and small-letter contrast sensitivity (in the log of the inverse of the minimum detectable contrast [logCS units]) were measured 1.75 hours after consumption of dark and milk chocolate bars. Among the 30 participants (9 men and 21 women; mean [SD] age, 26 [5] years), small-letter contrast sensitivity was significantly higher after consumption of dark chocolate (mean [SE], 1.45 [0.04] logCS) vs milk chocolate (mean [SE], 1.30 [0.05] logCS; mean improvement, 0.15 logCS [95% CI, 0.08-0.22 logCS]; P chocolate (mean [SE], 2.05 [0.02] logCS) vs milk chocolate (mean [SE], 2.00 [0.02] logCS; mean improvement, 0.05 logCS [95% CI, 0.00-0.10 logCS]; P = .07). Visual acuity improved slightly after consumption of dark chocolate (mean [SE], -0.22 [0.01] logMAR; visual acuity, approximately 20/12) and milk chocolate (mean [SE], -0.18 [0.01] logMAR; visual acuity, approximately 20/15; mean improvement, 0.04 logMAR [95% CI, 0.02-0.06 logMAR]; P = .05). Composite scores combining results from all tests showed significant improvement after consumption of dark compared with milk chocolate (mean improvement, 0.20 log U [95% CI, 0.10-0.30 log U]; P chocolate bar compared with a

  7. VICTORIA Class Submarine Human-in-the-Loop Experimentation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    1472G. VICTORIA Class Submarine Human-in-the-Loop Experimentation Plan and Preliminary Results © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of...19 th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium Title: VICTORIA Class Submarine Human-in-the-Loop...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE VICTORIA Class Submarine Human-in-the-Loop Experimentation Plan 5a. CONTRACT

  8. Visualizing ecological sensitivity assessment of Huangnan, in the Three-river Region, China, based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xia; Guo, Luo

    2017-07-01

    Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture is located in the three-river source region (the TRSR) in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China, which is characterized with ecological sensitivity and vulnerability. In the paper, we integrated remote sensing images, field investigation and social-economic data , and with the help of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and comprehensive index methods, a sensitivity assessment system was built to calculate ecological sensitivity scores and assign levels for the study area. Results show that: areas which are moderately or even highly ecologically sensitive account for 54.02%, distributed in south, north and northeast of study area and those that have most apparent ecological sensitivity are mainly located in Zeekog, northwest of Huangnan while other counties enjoy relatively lower sensitivity. The results will facilitate future region management and planning for decision-makers.

  9. Deep Brain Stimulation of the Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus (PPN Influences Visual Contrast Sensitivity in Human Observers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Strumpf

    Full Text Available The parapontine nucleus of the thalamus (PPN is a neuromodulatory midbrain structure with widespread connectivity to cortical and subcortical motor structures, as well as the spinal cord. The PPN also projects to the thalamus, including visual relay nuclei like the LGN and the pulvinar. Moreover, there is intense connectivity with sensory structures of the tegmentum in particular with the superior colliculus (SC. Given the existence and abundance of projections to visual sensory structures, it is likely that activity in the PPN has some modulatory influence on visual sensory selection. Here we address this possibility by measuring the visual discrimination performance (luminance contrast thresholds in a group of patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD treated with deep-brain stimulation (DBS of the PPN to control gait and postural motor deficits. In each patient we measured the luminance-contrast threshold of being able to discriminate an orientation-target (Gabor-grating as a function of stimulation frequency (high 60Hz, low 8/10, no stimulation. Thresholds were determined using a standard staircase-protocol that is based on parameter estimation by sequential testing (PEST. We observed that under low frequency stimulation thresholds increased relative to no and high frequency stimulation in five out of six patients, suggesting that DBS of the PPN has a frequency-dependent impact on visual selection processes at a rather elementary perceptual level.

  10. Positive selection of a duplicated UV-sensitive visual pigment coincides with wing pigment evolution in Heliconius butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Adriana D.; Bybee, Seth M.; Bernard, Gary D.; Yuan, Furong; Sison-Mangus, Marilou P.; Reed, Robert D.; Warren, Andrew D.; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2010-01-01

    The butterfly Heliconius erato can see from the UV to the red part of the light spectrum with color vision proven from 440 to 640 nm. Its eye is known to contain three visual pigments, rhodopsins, produced by an 11-cis-3-hydroxyretinal chromophore together with long wavelength (LWRh), blue (BRh) and UV (UVRh1) opsins. We now find that H. erato has a second UV opsin mRNA (UVRh2)—a previously undescribed duplication of this gene among Lepidoptera. To investigate its evolutionary origin, we screened eye cDNAs from 14 butterfly species in the subfamily Heliconiinae and found both copies only among Heliconius. Phylogeny-based tests of selection indicate positive selection of UVRh2 following duplication, and some of the positively selected sites correspond to vertebrate visual pigment spectral tuning residues. Epi-microspectrophotometry reveals two UV-absorbing rhodopsins in the H. erato eye with λmax = 355 nm and 398 nm. Along with the additional UV opsin, Heliconius have also evolved 3-hydroxy-DL-kynurenine (3-OHK)-based yellow wing pigments not found in close relatives. Visual models of how butterflies perceive wing color variation indicate this has resulted in an expansion of the number of distinguishable yellow colors on Heliconius wings. Functional diversification of the UV-sensitive visual pigments may help explain why the yellow wing pigments of Heliconius are so colorful in the UV range compared to the yellow pigments of close relatives lacking the UV opsin duplicate. PMID:20133601

  11. Bandpass characteristics of high-frequency sensitivity and visual experience in blindsight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seifert, Doerthe; Falter, Christine; Strasburger, Hans; Elliott, Mark A.

    Patient RP suffers a unilateral right homonymous quadrant anopia but demonstrates better than chance discrimination for Stimuli presented in the blind field at temporal frequencies between 33 and 47 Hz (all significant at p <05, binomial) Examination of her reports of visual experience during

  12. Dam safety management in Victoria (Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adem, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Victoria state government's decision to make dam owners accountable for safety and upkeep of their dams was reported. To give effect to this decision a series of guidelines have been developed which outline the required activities and skills to ensure that dams are properly managed within a framework of 'light-handed' regulation. The guidelines are also intended to ensure that dam management becomes an integral part of the business decision making process, not just a set of prescribed technical procedures. Details of the direction being taken and the proposed controls to ensure compliance with national and international standards were described. 4 refs., 2 figs

  13. Coal Corporation of Victoria strategic plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The Coal Corporation has been established by the Victorian Parliament to plan for and to manage the responsible utilisation of the brown coal resource (Victoria's most abundant fossil resource) in order to underpin economic growth and job creation. For each of 5 issues, the Strategic Plan outlines the current situation, reviews recent factors which have affected or may affect the situation and outlines the goals, strategies and targets which have been set for the period 1985/1989. In each case, the achievements to date are also outlined. The issues addressed are: project development, marketing, resource planning and inter corporate relations, organisation of the Corporation, and finance.

  14. Real-time decreased sensitivity to an audio-visual illusion during goal-directed reaching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Tremblay

    Full Text Available In humans, sensory afferences are combined and integrated by the central nervous system (Ernst MO, Bülthoff HH (2004 Trends Cogn. Sci. 8: 162-169 and appear to provide a holistic representation of the environment. Empirical studies have repeatedly shown that vision dominates the other senses, especially for tasks with spatial demands. In contrast, it has also been observed that sound can strongly alter the perception of visual events. For example, when presented with 2 flashes and 1 beep in a very brief period of time, humans often report seeing 1 flash (i.e. fusion illusion, Andersen TS, Tiippana K, Sams M (2004 Brain Res. Cogn. Brain Res. 21: 301-308. However, it is not known how an unfolding movement modulates the contribution of vision to perception. Here, we used the audio-visual illusion to demonstrate that goal-directed movements can alter visual information processing in real-time. Specifically, the fusion illusion was linearly reduced as a function of limb velocity. These results suggest that cue combination and integration can be modulated in real-time by goal-directed behaviors; perhaps through sensory gating (Chapman CE, Beauchamp E (2006 J. Neurophysiol. 96: 1664-1675 and/or altered sensory noise (Ernst MO, Bülthoff HH (2004 Trends Cogn. Sci. 8: 162-169 during limb movements.

  15. Requirements for VICTORIA Class Fire Control System: Contact Management Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Requirements for VICTORIA Class Fire Control System Contact Management Function Tab Lamoureux CAE Integrated Enterprise Solutions...Contract Report DRDC-RDDC-2014-C190 July 2014 © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the...i Abstract …….. The VICTORIA Class Submarines (VCS) are subject to a continuing program of technical upgrades. One such program is

  16. Causes and effects of the Lake Victoria ecological revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, Pleun Cornelis

    2006-01-01

    Nile perch was introduced in Lake Victoria in the 1950s and exploded in number during the 1980s. The process of colonization of the lake by this predatory fish is described and explained. The changes in a number of other fauna elements of Lake Victoria are described and explained. Not only Nile

  17. Adaptive responses to environmental changes in Lake Victoria cichlids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijssel, Jacobus Cornelis van (Jacco)

    2014-01-01

    Lake Victoria cichlids show the fastest vertebrate adaptive radiation known which is why they function as a model organism to study evolution. In the past 40 years, Lake Victoria experienced severe environmental changes including the boom of the introduced, predatory Nile perch and eutrophication.

  18. Youth suicide in Victoria: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupinski, J; Tiller, J W; Burrows, G D; Hallenstein, H

    1994-02-07

    To determine the trends in youth suicide in Victoria and Australia as a whole, and their relation to youth unemployment. We used Australian Bureau of Statistics data to analyse suicide trends between 1907 and 1990 in young people aged 15-24 years and made an in-depth study of youth suicides between 1980 and 1990, for which computerised data are available. There has been a steady increase in youth suicide both in Victoria and Australia as a whole since 1960 in males but not females. There were significant differences in age, sex and area of residence in both the rate and the method of suicide. The increase in youth suicide was not associated with the rise in unemployment. Male (not female) suicide rates were higher in non-metropolitan areas and areas of high youth unemployment. The reasons for the increase in youth suicide remain obscure. There is a need for a prospective in-depth study to determine factors in the aetiology of youth suicide, with particular reference to possible areas for prevention.

  19. Nintendo Wii Balance Board is sensitive to effects of visual tasks on standing sway in healthy elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslucher, Frank; Wade, Michael G; Nelson, Brent; Lim, Kelvin; Chen, Fu-Chen; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2012-07-01

    Research has shown that the Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB) can reliably detect the quantitative kinematics of the center of pressure in stance. Previous studies used relatively coarse manipulations (1- vs. 2-leg stance, and eyes open vs. closed). We sought to determine whether the WBB could reliably detect postural changes associated with subtle variations in visual tasks. Healthy elderly adults stood on a WBB while performing one of two visual tasks. In the Inspection task, they maintained their gaze within the boundaries of a featureless target. In the Search task, they counted the occurrence of designated target letters within a block of text. Consistent with previous studies using traditional force plates, the positional variability of the center of pressure was reduced during performance of the Search task, relative to movement during performance of the Inspection task. Using detrended fluctuation analysis, a measure of movement dynamics, we found that COP trajectories were more predictable during performance of the Search task than during performance of the Inspection task. The results indicate that the WBB is sensitive to subtle variations in both the magnitude and dynamics of body sway that are related to variations in visual tasks engaged in during stance. The WBB is an inexpensive, reliable technology that can be used to evaluate subtle characteristics of body sway in large or widely dispersed samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reduced plantar sole sensitivity facilitates early adaptation to a visual rotation pointing task when standing upright

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Billot

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Humans are capable of pointing to a target with accuracy. However, when vision is distorted through a visual rotation or mirror-reversed vision, the performance is initially degraded and thereafter improves with practice. There are suggestions this gradual improvement results from a sensorimotor recalibration involving initial gating of the somatosensory information from the pointing hand. In the present experiment, we examined if this process interfered with balance control by asking participants to point to targets with a visual rotation from a standing posture. This duality in processing sensory information (i.e., gating sensory signals from the hand while processing those arising from the control of balance could generate initial interference leading to a degraded pointing performance. We hypothesized that if this is the case, the attenuation of plantar sole somatosensory information through cooling could reduce the sensorimotor interference, and facilitate the early adaptation (i.e. improvement in the pointing task. Results supported this hypothesis. These observations suggest that processing sensory information for balance control interferes with the sensorimotor recalibration process imposed by a pointing task when vision is rotated.

  1. Functional visual sensitivity to ultraviolet wavelengths in the Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus), and its influence on foraging substrate selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Daniels, Sean T.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Mihail, Jeanne D.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Werner, Scott J.

    2017-01-01

    Most diurnal birds are presumed visually sensitive to near ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths, however, controlled behavioral studies investigating UV sensitivity remain few. Although woodpeckers are important as primary cavity excavators and nuisance animals, published work on their visual systems is limited. We developed a novel foraging-based behavioral assay designed to test UV sensitivity in the Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus). We acclimated 21 wild-caught woodpeckers to foraging for frozen mealworms within 1.2 m sections of peeled cedar (Thuja spp.) poles. We then tested the functional significance of UV cues by placing frozen mealworms behind UV-reflective covers, UV-absorptive covers, or decayed red pine substrates within the same 1.2 m poles in independent experiments. Behavioral responses were greater toward both UV-reflective and UV-absorptive substrates in three experiments. Study subjects therefore reliably differentiated and attended to two distinct UV conditions of a foraging substrate. Cue-naïve subjects showed a preference for UV-absorptive substrates, suggesting that woodpeckers may be pre-disposed to foraging from such substrates. Behavioral responses were greater toward decayed pine substrates (UV-reflective) than sound pine substrates suggesting that decayed pine can be a useful foraging cue. The finding that cue-naïve subjects selected UV-absorbing foraging substrates has implications for ecological interactions of woodpeckers with fungi. Woodpeckers transport fungal spores, and communication methods analogous to those of plant-pollinator mutualisms (i.e. UV-absorbing patterns) may have evolved to support woodpecker-fungus mutualisms.

  2. Prokaryotic Abundance and Activity in Permafrost of the Northern Victoria Land and Upper Victoria Valley (Antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Ferla, Rosabruna; Azzaro, Maurizio; Michaud, Luigi; Caruso, Gabriella; Lo Giudice, Angelina; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Cabral, Anderson S; Conte, Antonella; Cosenza, Alessandro; Maimone, Giovanna; Papale, Maria; Rappazzo, Alessandro Ciro; Guglielmin, Mauro

    2017-08-01

    Victoria Land permafrost harbours a potentially large pool of cold-affected microorganisms whose metabolic potential still remains underestimated. Three cores (BC-1, BC-2 and BC-3) drilled at different depths in Boulder Clay (Northern Victoria Land) and one sample (DY) collected from a core in the Dry Valleys (Upper Victoria Valley) were analysed to assess the prokaryotic abundance, viability, physiological profiles and potential metabolic rates. The cores drilled at Boulder Clay were a template of different ecological conditions (different temperature regime, ice content, exchanges with atmosphere and with liquid water) in the same small basin while the Dry Valleys site was very similar to BC-2 conditions but with a complete different geological history and ground ice type. Image analysis was adopted to determine cell abundance, size and shape as well as to quantify the potential viable and respiring cells by live/dead and 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl-tetrazolium chloride staining, respectively. Subpopulation recognition by apparent nucleic acid contents was obtained by flow cytometry. Moreover, the physiological profiles at community level by Biolog-Ecoplate™ as well as the ectoenzymatic potential rates on proteinaceous (leucine-aminopeptidase) and glucidic (ß-glucosidase) organic matter and on organic phosphates (alkaline-phosphatase) by fluorogenic substrates were tested. The adopted methodological approach gave useful information regarding viability and metabolic performances of microbial community in permafrost. The occurrence of a multifaceted prokaryotic community in the Victoria Land permafrost and a large number of potentially viable and respiring cells (in the order of 10 4 -10 5 ) were recognised. Subpopulations with a different apparent DNA content within the different samples were observed. The physiological profiles stressed various potential metabolic pathways among the samples and intense utilisation rates of polymeric carbon compounds and carbohydrates

  3. Paediatric doses from diagnostic radiology in Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boal, T.J.; Cardillo, I.; Einsiedel, P.F.

    1998-01-01

    This study examines doses to paediatric patients from diagnostic radiology. Measurements were made at 29 hospitals and private radiology practices in the state of Victoria. Entrance skin doses in air were measured for the exposure factors used by hospital radiology departments and private radiology practices for a standard size 1, 5, 10 and 15 year old child, for the following procedures: chest AP/PA, lat; abdomen AP; pelvis AP; lumbar spine AP, lat; and skull AP, lat. There was a large range of doses for each particular procedure and age group. Factors contributing to the range of doses were identified. Guidance levels for paediatric radiology based on the third quartile value of the skin entrance doses have been recommended and are compared with guidance levels. Copyright (1998) Australasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine

  4. Layers of 'Cabo Frio' in 'Victoria Crater'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This view of 'Victoria crater' is looking southeast from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cabo Frio.' The small crater in the right foreground, informally known as 'Sputnik,' is about 20 meters (about 65 feet) away from the rover, the tip of the spectacular, layered, Cabo Frio promontory itself is about 200 meters (about 650 feet) away from the rover, and the exposed rock layers are about 15 meters (about 50 feet) tall. This is an approximately true color rendering of images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  5. Tactile sensitivity of blind and visually impaired children and adolescents. The significance of swimming exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Rostkowska, Elżbieta; Maśnik, Elżbieta

    2001-01-01

    The im of the study is to compare the tactile sensitivity threshold (TST) of the blind children who practice swimming and those who do not practice any sports with the TST of healthy people of similar age. TST was measured on the pad of he index finger of the dominant hand using an aesthesiometer. Lower TST was found in blind girls compared to healthy girls as well as lower TST in blind girls who practice swimming compared to the blind girls who do not practice ane sports. A significant lower...

  6. Investigation of the sensitivity of a cross-polarized light visualization system to detect subclinical erythema and dryness in women with vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farage, Miranda A; Singh, Mukul; Ledger, William J

    2009-07-01

    An enhanced visualization technique using polarized light (Syris v600 enhanced visualization system; Syris Scientific LLC, Gray, ME) detects surface and subsurface ( approximately 1 mm depth) inflammation. We sought to compare the Syris v600 system with unaided visual inspection and colposcopy of the female genitalia. Erythema and dryness of the vulva, introitus, vagina, and cervix were visualized and scored by each method in patients with and without vulvitis. Subsurface visualization was more sensitive in detecting genital erythema and dryness at all sites whether or not symptoms were present. Subsurface inflammation of the introitus, vagina, and cervix only was detected uniquely in women with vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS). A subset of women presenting with VVS exhibited subclinical inflammation of the vulva vestibule and vagina (designated VVS/lichen sclerosus subgroup). Enhanced visualization of the genital epithelial subsurface with cross-polarized light may assist in diagnosing subclinical inflammation in vulvar conditions heretofore characterized as sensory syndromes.

  7. The Bands Culture in Victoria, Australia: Live Music Benefits Career Paths, Employment and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amanda; Forrest, David

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the career paths, employment, business opportunities and community contributions made available through the provision and development of the contemporary performance bands' culture in the State of Victoria. It is framed with the support given to live music performers by Arts Victoria, Small Business Victoria and Music Victoria.…

  8. Visualization of Global Sensitivity Analysis Results Based on a Combination of Linearly Dependent and Independent Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Misty D.; Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2010-01-01

    A useful technique for the validation and verification of complex flight systems is Monte Carlo Filtering -- a global sensitivity analysis that tries to find the inputs and ranges that are most likely to lead to a subset of the outputs. A thorough exploration of the parameter space for complex integrated systems may require thousands of experiments and hundreds of controlled and measured variables. Tools for analyzing this space often have limitations caused by the numerical problems associated with high dimensionality and caused by the assumption of independence of all of the dimensions. To combat both of these limitations, we propose a technique that uses a combination of the original variables with the derived variables obtained during a principal component analysis.

  9. Changes in visual sensitivity of the rabbit after a bleaching flash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, Daniel

    1981-01-01

    Electrical responses were simultaneously recorded at the photoreceptor level (a-wave of the ERG), at the pre-ganglionic retinal level (b-wave of the ERG) and at the post-retinal level (P1-wave of the superior colliculus and cortical VER). The relations of the different parameters of evoked responses with flash intensity were established. The changes and the recovery of this transfer function after the bleaching flash point out to the following conclusions: - Fast adaptation due to the ionic permeability change of the cellular membrane, resulting from the action of an internal transmitter, is different both with rods and cones. - In photopic adaptation, the a-wave slope temporarily exceeds the control value whereas the other parameters display a monotonous recovery. This suggests that, at the cone level, one product of degradation of the internal transmitter is a precursor of its formation. - The changes in amplitude-intensity relation are different between a- and b-waves, inducing a second mechanism of fast adaptation at a distal level of the retina. - There exists no supplementary adaptation at the ganglionic cells level since no difference is seen between the sensitivity curves obtained at the cortical and the ganglionic levels. (author) [fr

  10. The pointillism method for creating stimuli suitable for use in computer-based visual contrast sensitivity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis H

    2005-03-30

    An increasingly large corpus of clinical and experimental neuropsychological research has demonstrated the utility of measuring visual contrast sensitivity. Unfortunately, existing means of measuring contrast sensitivity can be prohibitively expensive, difficult to standardize, or lack reliability. Additionally, most existing tests do not allow full control over important characteristics, such as off-angle rotations, waveform, contrast, and spatial frequency. Ideally, researchers could manipulate characteristics and display stimuli in a computerized task designed to meet experimental needs. Thus far, 256-bit color limitation in standard cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors has been preclusive. To this end, the pointillism method (PM) was developed. Using MATLAB software, stimuli are created based on both mathematical and stochastic components, such that differences in regional luminance values of the gradient field closely approximate the desired contrast. This paper describes the method and examines its performance in sine and square-wave image sets from a range of contrast values. Results suggest the utility of the method for most experimental applications. Weaknesses in the current version, the need for validation and reliability studies, and considerations regarding applications are discussed. Syntax for the program is provided in an appendix, and a version of the program independent of MATLAB is available from the author.

  11. Victoria Land, Ross Sea, and Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On December 19, 2001, MODIS acquired data that produced this image of Antarctica's Victoria Land, Ross Ice Shelf, and the Ross Sea. The coastline that runs up and down along the left side of the image denotes where Victoria Land (left) meets the Ross Ice Shelf (right). The Ross Ice Shelf is the world's largest floating body of ice, approximately the same size as France. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  12. Recent plant studies using Victoria 2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixler, Nathan E.; Gasser, Ronald D.

    2000-01-01

    VICTORIA 2.0 is a mechanistic computer code designed to analyze fission product behavior within the reactor coolant system (RCS) during a severe nuclear reactor accident. It provides detailed predictions of the release of radioactive and nonradioactive materials from the reactor core and transport and deposition of these materials within the RCS and secondary circuits. These predictions account for the chemical and aerosol processes that affect radionuclide behavior. VICTORIA 2.0 was released in early 1999; a new version VICTORIA 2.1, is now under development. The largest improvements in VICTORIA 2.1 are connected with the thermochemical database, which is being revised and expanded following the recommendations of a peer review. Three risk-significant severe accident sequences have recently been investigated using the VICTORIA 2.0 code. The focus here is on how various chemistry options affect the predictions. Additionally, the VICTORIA predictions are compared with ones made using the MELCOR code. The three sequences are a station blackout in a GE BWR and steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) and pump-seal LOCA sequences in a 3-loop Westinghouse PWR. These sequences cover a range of system pressures, from fully depressurized to full system pressure. The chief results of this study are the fission product fractions that are retained in the core, RCS, secondary, and containment and the fractions that are released into the environment

  13. 15. Sensitivity in visualizing vegetations in cardiac lead-induced endocarditis: A comparative study between transesophageal vs. transthoracic echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. AlFagih

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite advancement in sterile cardiac device implantation techniques, wound infections and/or bacteremia remain a significant problem. The presence of a vegetation in lead-induced endocarditis (LIE is a critical factor that determines the management. Transthoracic (TTE and Transesophageal (TEE Echocardiography are two different cardiac modalities that are used for the detection of lead vegetation. However, it is not yet clear which of the two has the highest diagnostic accuracy. We aim to identify which of the two has the highest sensitivity. In addition, we aim to correlate the existence of a vegetation with blood and wound culture results. We conducted a chart review in 113 patients whom underwent lead extraction at Prince Sultan Cardiac Center in Saudi Arabia during the period of Jan, 2002 to Jul, 2015. Six patients underwent lead extraction twice, increasing the number to be a total of 119 cases. Out of the study cohort, we include 38 patients who had both TTE and TEE done prior to lead extraction. Data regarding TTE, TEE, as well as blood and wound cultures were collected from echocardiography and microbiology lab reports using a well-structured case report form.Of the study population, 21 patients (55.3% had lead vegetations visualized either by TTE or TEE. Nineteen patients had vegetations detected by TEE, compared to 6 patients only when TTE was used. The sensitivity of TEE and TTE were 90.5% (CI: 69.6–98.8% and 28.5% (95% CI: 11.3–52.1%, respectively. Blood and wound culture results showed that in the presence of a vegetation, blood cultures were positive in 55% of the cases (P = 0.036 while only 44.4% of those with vegetations had a positive wound culture (P = 0.347. TEE has higher sensitivity in detecting vegetations compared to TTE in LIE. The presence of a vegetation is more likely to be associated with a positive blood culture than a positive wound culture. Further studies ought to measure the accuracy of different

  14. Cross-modal attention influences auditory contrast sensitivity: Decreasing visual load improves auditory thresholds for amplitude- and frequency-modulated sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaramitaro, Vivian M; Chow, Hiu Mei; Eglington, Luke G

    2017-03-01

    We used a cross-modal dual task to examine how changing visual-task demands influenced auditory processing, namely auditory thresholds for amplitude- and frequency-modulated sounds. Observers had to attend to two consecutive intervals of sounds and report which interval contained the auditory stimulus that was modulated in amplitude (Experiment 1) or frequency (Experiment 2). During auditory-stimulus presentation, observers simultaneously attended to a rapid sequential visual presentation-two consecutive intervals of streams of visual letters-and had to report which interval contained a particular color (low load, demanding less attentional resources) or, in separate blocks of trials, which interval contained more of a target letter (high load, demanding more attentional resources). We hypothesized that if attention is a shared resource across vision and audition, an easier visual task should free up more attentional resources for auditory processing on an unrelated task, hence improving auditory thresholds. Auditory detection thresholds were lower-that is, auditory sensitivity was improved-for both amplitude- and frequency-modulated sounds when observers engaged in a less demanding (compared to a more demanding) visual task. In accord with previous work, our findings suggest that visual-task demands can influence the processing of auditory information on an unrelated concurrent task, providing support for shared attentional resources. More importantly, our results suggest that attending to information in a different modality, cross-modal attention, can influence basic auditory contrast sensitivity functions, highlighting potential similarities between basic mechanisms for visual and auditory attention.

  15. vVICTORIA Console Development: Design and Fabrication of VICTORIA Console Emulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    successful set-up and readiness to conduct experimentation on facets of new Combat System concept development including equipment capabilities, system...émulateurs, faits de bois, de plastiques et de métaux légers, ont été fabriqués selon les données matérielles et les spécifications des consoles actuelles...mise sur pied du laboratoire d’évaluation de la capacité vVictoria et assureront que celui-ci est prêt pour les essais de nouveaux concepts de système

  16. Turning attention to clinician engagement in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Christine; Hudson, Robyn; Wallace, Euan

    2017-11-16

    The engagement of clinicians with employing organisations and with the broader health system results in better safer care for patients. Concerns about the adequacy of clinician engagement in the state of Victoria led the Victorian Department of Health and Human Services to commission a scoping study. During this investigation more than 100 clinicians were spoken with and 1800 responded to surveys. The result was creation of a clear picture of what engagement and disengagement looked like at all levels - from the clinical microsystem to state health policy making. Multiple interventions are possible to enhance clinician engagement and thus the care of future patients. A framework was developed to guide future Victorian work with four elements: setting the agenda, informing, involving and empowering clinicians. Concepts of work or employee engagement that are used in other industries don't directly translate to healthcare and thus the definition of engagement chosen for use centred on involvement. This was designed to encourage system managers to ensure clinicians are full participants in design, planning and evaluation and in all decisions that affect them and their patients.

  17. Efficient renewable energy scenarios study for Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, Graham

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the possible evolution of Victorian energy markets over the 1998-2030 period from technical, economic and environmental perspectives. The focus is on the technical and economic potential over the study period for renewable energy and energy efficiency to increase their share of energy markets, through their economic competitiveness with the non-renewables of oil, gas and fossil fulled electricity. The study identifies a range of energy options that have a lower impact on carbon dioxide emissions that current projections for the Victorian energy sector, together with the savings in energy, dollars and carbon dioxide emissions. In addition the macroeconomic implications of the energy paths are estimated. Specifically it examines a scenario (R-efficient renewable) where energy efficiency and renewable energy sources realise their estimated economic potential to displace non-renewable energy over the 1988-2030 period. In addition, a scenario (T-Toronto) is examined where energy markets are pushed somewhat harder, but again on an economic basis, so that what is called the Toronto target of reducing 1988 carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions by 20 per cent by 2005 is attained. It is concluded that over the next forty years there is substantial economic potential in Victoria for significant gains from energy efficiency in all sectors - residential, commercial, industrial and transport - and contributions from renewable energy both in those sectors and in electricity generations. 7 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Occupational skin disease in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Jennifer L; Williams, Jason D; Matheson, Melanie C; Palmer, Amanda M; Burgess, John A; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2016-05-01

    To describe the characteristics of patients with occupational skin disease (OSD) in a tertiary referral clinic in Victoria, Australia. A retrospective review was conducted of records from patients seen at the Occupational Dermatology Clinic in Melbourne, Australia between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2010. Of the 2894 people assessed in the clinic during the 18-year period, 44% were women and 56% were men. In all, 2177 (75%) were diagnosed with occupational skin disease (OSD). Of the patients with a work-related skin condition, 45% (n = 979) were considered to be atopic. The most common diagnosis in those with OSD was irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) (44%), followed by allergic contact dermatitis (33%) and endogenous eczema (11%). Women were significantly more likely to have soaps and detergents (P Occupational groups with the highest incidence of OSD were the hair and beauty professions (70 per 100 000), followed by machine and plant operators (38 per 100 000) and health-care workers (21 per 100 000). We confirm the importance of occupational contact dermatitis as the most common cause of OSD, with ICD being the most common diagnosis. There are differences in the causes of ICD between our group of male and female workers. For the first time in Australia, rates of OSD in certain industries have been calculated. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  19. Evidence for Non-Opponent Coding of Colour Information in Human Visual Cortex: Selective Loss of "Green" Sensitivity in a Subject with Damaged Ventral Occipito-Temporal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Franziska G; Plant, Gordon T; James-Galton, Merle; Barbur, John L

    2011-01-01

    Damage to ventral occipito-temporal extrastriate visual cortex leads to the syndrome of prosopagnosia often with coexisting cerebral achromatopsia. A patient with this syndrome resulting in a left upper homonymous quadrantanopia, prosopagnosia, and incomplete achromatopsia is described. Chromatic sensitivity was assessed at a number of locations in the intact visual field using a dynamic luminance contrast masking technique that isolates the use of colour signals. In normal subjects chromatic detection thresholds form an elliptical contour when plotted in the Commission Internationale d'Eclairage, (x-y), chromaticity diagram. Because the extraction of colour signals in early visual processing involves opponent mechanisms, subjects with Daltonism (congenital red/green loss of sensitivity) show symmetric increase in thresholds towards the long wavelength ("red") and middle wavelength ("green") regions of the spectrum locus. This is also the case with acquired loss of chromatic sensitivity as a result of retinal or optic nerve disease. Our patient's results were an exception to this rule. Whilst his chromatic sensitivity in the central region of the visual field was reduced symmetrically for both "red/green" and "yellow/blue" directions in colour space, the subject's lower left quadrant showed a marked asymmetry in "red/green" thresholds with the greatest loss of sensitivity towards the "green" region of the spectrum locus. This spatially localized asymmetric loss of "green" but not "red" sensitivity has not been reported previously in human vision. Such loss is consistent with selective damage of neural substrates in the visual cortex that process colour information, but are spectrally non-opponent.

  20. Luminol functionalized gold nanoparticles as colorimetric and chemiluminescent probes for visual, label free, highly sensitive and selective detection of minocycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Peng, Rufang

    2014-11-01

    In this work, luminol functionalized gold nanoparticles (LuAuNPs) were used as colorimetric and chemiluminescent probes for visual, label free, sensitive and selective detection of minocycline (MC). The LuAuNPs were prepared by simple one-pot reduction of HAuCl4 with luminol, which exhibited a good chemiluminescence (CL) activity owing to the presence of luminol molecules on their surface and surface plasmon resonance absorption. In the absence of MC, the color of LuAuNPs was wine red and their size was relatively small (˜25 nm), which could react with silver nitrate, producing a strong CL emission. Upon the addition of MC at acidic buffer solutions, the electrostatic interaction between positively charged MC and negatively charged LuAuNPs caused the aggregation of LuAuNPs, generating a purple or blue color. Simultaneously, the aggregated LuAuNPs did not effectively react with silver nitrate, producing a weak CL emission. The signal change was linearly dependent on the logarithm of MC concentration in the range from 30 ng to 1.0 μg for colorimetric detection and from 10 ng to 1.0 μg for CL detection. With colorimetry, a detection limit of 22 ng was achieved, while the detection limit for CL detection modality was 9.7 ng.

  1. Luminol functionalized gold nanoparticles as colorimetric and chemiluminescent probes for visual, label free, highly sensitive and selective detection of minocycline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yi; Peng, Rufang

    2014-01-01

    In this work, luminol functionalized gold nanoparticles (LuAuNPs) were used as colorimetric and chemiluminescent probes for visual, label free, sensitive and selective detection of minocycline (MC). The LuAuNPs were prepared by simple one-pot reduction of HAuCl 4 with luminol, which exhibited a good chemiluminescence (CL) activity owing to the presence of luminol molecules on their surface and surface plasmon resonance absorption. In the absence of MC, the color of LuAuNPs was wine red and their size was relatively small (∼25 nm), which could react with silver nitrate, producing a strong CL emission. Upon the addition of MC at acidic buffer solutions, the electrostatic interaction between positively charged MC and negatively charged LuAuNPs caused the aggregation of LuAuNPs, generating a purple or blue color. Simultaneously, the aggregated LuAuNPs did not effectively react with silver nitrate, producing a weak CL emission. The signal change was linearly dependent on the logarithm of MC concentration in the range from 30 ng to 1.0 μg for colorimetric detection and from 10 ng to 1.0 μg for CL detection. With colorimetry, a detection limit of 22 ng was achieved, while the detection limit for CL detection modality was 9.7 ng. (paper)

  2. State Electricity Commission of Victoria. Annual report 1984-1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The State Electricity Commission of Victoria is a body corporate first constituted under the Electricity Commissioner's Act 1918. It now operates under the State Electricity Commission Act 1958. It generates, transmits and distributes electricity throughout Victoria's 228,000 square kilometres and supplies directly to 1.424 million customers. In addition 277,800 customers are supplied by eleven municipal authorities which purchase electricity in bulk from the Commission. The Commission also has a regulatory responsibility to ensure the safe use of electricity. It employs 22,518 people. The installed capacity of generators in the Commission's system, plus Victoria's share of Snowy and Hume generation, totalled 6603 MW at 30 June 1985 and the main transmission system comprises 500 kV, 300 kV and 220 kV lines. Corporate objectives have been developed in seven broad areas: customers,employee, finance, ntural resources, environment, conservationand community. These areas of activity are detailed in this report.

  3. Funding Victoria's public hospitals: the casemix policy of 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Peter; Duckett, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    On 1 July 1993 Victoria became the first Australian state to use casemix information to set budgets for its public hospitals commencing with casemix funding for inpatient services. Victoria's casemix funding approach now embraces inpatient, outpatient and rehabilitation services.

  4. Cross-sectional study assessing the addition of contrast sensitivity to visual acuity when testing for fitness to drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreng, Lucie; Favrat, Bernard; Borruat, François-Xavier; Vaucher, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to quantify the importance of loss of contrast sensitivity (CS) and its relationship to loss of visual acuity (VA), driving restrictions and daytime, on-road driving evaluations in drivers aged 70+. Design A predictive cross-sectional study. Setting Volunteer participants to a drivers’ refresher course for adults aged 70+ delivered by the Swiss Automobile Club in western Switzerland from 2011 to 2013. Participants 162 drivers, male and female, aged 70 years or older. Clinical predictors We used a vision screener to estimate VA and the The Mars Letter Contrast Sensitivity Test to test CS. Outcomes We asked drivers to report whether they found five driving restrictions useful for their condition; restrict driving to known roads, avoid driving on highways, avoid driving in the dark, avoid driving in dense traffic and avoid driving in fog. All participants also underwent a standardised on-road evaluation carried out by a driving instructor. Results Moderate to severe loss of CS for at least one eye was frequent (21.0% (95% CI 15.0% to 28.1%)) and often isolated from a loss of VA (11/162 cases had a VA ≥0.8 decimal and a CS of ≤1.5 log(CS); 6.8% (95% CI 3.4% to 11.8%)). Drivers were more likely (R2=0.116, P=0.004) to report a belief that self-imposed driving restrictions would be useful if they had reduced CS in at least one eye. Daytime evaluation of driving performance seems limited in its ability to correctly identify difficulties related to CS loss (VA: R2=0.004, P=0.454; CS: R2=0.006, P=0.332). Conclusion CS loss is common for older drivers. Screening CS and referring for cataract surgery even in the absence of VA loss could help maintain mobility. Reduced CS and moderate reduction of VA were both poor predictors of daytime on-road driving performances in this research study. PMID:29374663

  5. The temporal evolution of electromagnetic markers sensitive to the capacity limits of visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Daniel J; Cusack, Rhodri

    2011-01-01

    An electroencephalographic (EEG) marker of the limited contents of human visual short-term memory (VSTM) has previously been described. Termed contralateral delay activity, this consists of a sustained, posterior, negative potential that correlates with memory load and is greatest contralateral to the remembered hemifield. The current investigation replicates this finding and uses magnetoencephalography (MEG) to characterize its magnetic counterparts and their neural generators as they evolve throughout the memory delay. A parametric manipulation of memory load, within and beyond capacity limits, allows separation of signals that asymptote with behavioral VSTM performance from additional responses that contribute to a linear increase with set-size. Both EEG and MEG yielded bilateral signals that track the number of objects held in memory, and contralateral signals that are independent of memory load. In MEG, unlike EEG, the contralateral interaction between hemisphere and item load is much weaker, suggesting that bilateral and contralateral markers of memory load reflect distinct sources to which EEG and MEG are differentially sensitive. Nonetheless, source estimation allowed both the bilateral and the weaker contralateral capacity-limited responses to be localized, along with a load-independent contralateral signal. Sources of global and hemisphere-specific signals all localized to the posterior intraparietal sulcus during the early delay. However the bilateral load response peaked earlier and its generators shifted later in the delay. Therefore the hemifield-specific response may be more closely tied to memory maintenance while the global load response may be involved in initial processing of a limited number of attended objects, such as their individuation or consolidation into memory.

  6. The temporal evolution of electromagnetic markers sensitive to the capacity limits of visual short-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel James Mitchell

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An electroencephalographic (EEG marker of the limited contents of human visual short-term memory (VSTM has previously been described. Termed contralateral delay activity (CDA, this consists of a sustained, posterior, negative potential that correlates with memory load and is greatest contralateral to the remembered hemifield. The current investigation replicates this finding and uses magnetoencephalography (MEG to characterise its magnetic counterparts and their neural generators as they evolve throughout the memory delay. A parametric manipulation of memory load, within and beyond capacity limits, allows separation of signals that asymptote with behavioural VSTM performance from additional responses that contribute to a linear increase with set-size. Both EEG and MEG yielded bilateral signals that track the number of objects held in memory, and contralateral signals that are independent of memory load. In MEG, unlike EEG, the contralateral interaction between hemisphere and item load is much weaker, suggesting that bilateral and contralateral markers of memory load reflect distinct sources to which EEG and MEG are differentially sensitive. Nonetheless, source estimation allowed both the bilateral and the weaker contralateral capacity-limited responses to be localised, along with a load-independent contralateral signal. Sources of global and hemisphere-specific signals all localised to the posterior intraparietal sulcus during the early delay. However the bilateral load response peaked earlier and its generators shifted later in the delay. Therefore the hemifield-specific response may be more closely tied to memory maintenance while the global load response may be involved in initial processing of a limited number of attended objects, such as their individuation or consolidation into memory.

  7. Flow visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Merzkirch, Wolfgang

    1974-01-01

    Flow Visualization describes the most widely used methods for visualizing flows. Flow visualization evaluates certain properties of a flow field directly accessible to visual perception. Organized into five chapters, this book first presents the methods that create a visible flow pattern that could be investigated by visual inspection, such as simple dye and density-sensitive visualization methods. It then deals with the application of electron beams and streaming birefringence. Optical methods for compressible flows, hydraulic analogy, and high-speed photography are discussed in other cha

  8. Victoria Law School Ten Years On—A Time to Pause and Reflect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Clarke

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available On 4 November 2010, a large and distinguished audience assembled at the Queen Street Campus of Victoria University to celebrate the tenth anniversary of the founding of Victoria Law School. This Foreword records the diverse achievements of Victoria Law School over the past decade.

  9. Victoria Law School Ten Years On—A Time to Pause and Reflect

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Clarke

    2013-01-01

    On 4 November 2010, a large and distinguished audience assembled at the Queen Street Campus of Victoria University to celebrate the tenth anniversary of the founding of Victoria Law School. This Foreword records the diverse achievements of Victoria Law School over the past decade.

  10. The diversity of benthic mollusks of Lake Victoria and Lake Burigi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molluscan diversity, abundance and distribution in sediments of Lake Victoria and its satellite lake, Lake Burigi, were investigated. The survey was carried out in January and February 2002 for Lake Victoria and in March and April 2002 for Lake Burigi. Ten genera were recorded from four zones of Lake Victoria while only ...

  11. Nutritional composition and shelflife of the lake victoria nile perch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nile perch, the most important commercial fish species from the Lake Victoria fishery, contributes about 67% of Kenya's total annual fish export earnings. Despite the Nile perch being an important foreign exchange earner, little information is available on its nutritional composition and shelf life on ice, information that is ...

  12. Early warnings of hazardous thunderstorms over Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, Wim; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Bedka, Kristopher; Semazzi, Fredrick H. M.; Lhermitte, Stef; Willems, Patrick; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-07-01

    Weather extremes have harmful impacts on communities around Lake Victoria in East Africa. Every year, intense nighttime thunderstorms cause numerous boating accidents on the lake, resulting in thousands of deaths among fishermen. Operational storm warning systems are therefore crucial. Here we complement ongoing early warning efforts based on numerical weather prediction, by presenting a new satellite data-driven storm prediction system, the prototype Lake Victoria Intense storm Early Warning System (VIEWS). VIEWS derives predictability from the correlation between afternoon land storm activity and nighttime storm intensity on Lake Victoria, and relies on logistic regression techniques to forecast extreme thunderstorms from satellite observations. Evaluation of the statistical model reveals that predictive power is high and independent of the type of input dataset. We then optimise the configuration and show that false alarms also contain valuable information. Our results suggest that regression-based models that are motivated through process understanding have the potential to reduce the vulnerability of local fishing communities around Lake Victoria. The experimental prediction system is publicly available under the MIT licence at http://github.com/wthiery/VIEWS.

  13. ('fingerponds\\') in the wetlands of Lake Victoria, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential effect on ecosystem integrity of the use of natural wetlands for seasonal wetland fishponds ('fingerponds\\'), integrated with vegetable production for livelihood demands, was evaluated using experimental sites at Lake Victoria, Kenya. Soluble reactive phosphorous and total phosphorus, ammonium, nitrate and ...

  14. Job-Sharing at the Greater Victoria Public Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Don

    1978-01-01

    Describes the problems associated with the management of part-time library employees and some solutions afforded by a job sharing arrangement in use at the Greater Victoria Public Library. This is a voluntary work arrangement, changing formerly full-time positions into multiple part-time positions. (JVP)

  15. Transactional sex in the fishing communities along Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study describes the nature, context and implications of a unique form of transactional sexual relationships in the fishing communities along Lake Victoria in Kisumu County, Kenya. We conducted 12 focus group discussions and 17 key informant interviews among fishermen, fishmongers and fish transporters in Kisumu.

  16. Study of genetic variation in population of Bipolaris victoriae, the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... Isolates of Bipolaris victoriae were analysed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) techniques ... According to the protocol, samples ... and fungus species. But some of the isolates of fungus with high genetic similarity have the same origin (Figure. 1). Weikert et al. (2002) reported that species of ...

  17. Lake Victoria's Water Budget and the Potential Effects of Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the Lake Victoria water budget for the period 1950-2004 and findings of a study on potential climate change impact on the lake's Hydrology through the 21st Century. The mass balance components are computed from measured and simulated data. A2 and B2 emission scenarios of the Special Report ...

  18. Aboriginal Students in Victoria. ACER Research Monograph No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lemos, Marion M.

    An estimated 80%-90% of all Aboriginal students enrolled in the primary and secondary schools of Victoria, Australia, were tested and surveyed to determine their numbers, distribution, attendance, achievement, attitudes, and school leaving patterns. Most of the 1244 Aboriginals surveyed attended state schools and 75% were schooled in rural areas.…

  19. Late-life depression and the death of Queen Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Robert C

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate relationships between the death of Queen Victoria and the depressive episode she experienced during the last year of her life. The last volume of Queen Victoria's personal Journal was reviewed from a geriatrician's perspective, tracing the onset and course of depressive symptoms from entries beginning on 17 August 1900 and ending on 13 January 1901, 9 days before her death. The Queen's own words are supplemented with observations from contemporaneous secondary sources. The antecedents of Queen Victoria's late-life depression, including multiple losses, disabilities, and chronic pain, taken together with the presentation of vegetative, affective, and late cognitive symptoms, suggested the presence of a distinctively geriatric major depressive disorder. The absence of any other medical condition to explain the clinical picture seemed probable but not certain. Although historians and biographers have long been aware of Queen Victoria's final depression, the emphasis has mostly been on her earlier and prolonged mourning for her husband Prince Albert. Re-examined now, the Queen's Journal suggests that a severe late-life depressive episode occurring approximately in her last 5 months contributed meaningfully to her death. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Fishing Business Arrangements and Sustainability in Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article an attempt is made to analyse the existing production relations between the owners of the vessels and the crewmembers and the concern for sustainability. Our results found that the existing sharing system in Lake Victoria poses a big challenge in as far as sustainability is concerned. Some of the system such ...

  1. 3D DIGITAL CADASTRE JOURNEY IN VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shojaei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Land development processes today have an increasing demand to access three-dimensional (3D spatial information. Complex land development may need to have a 3D model and require some functions which are only possible using 3D data. Accordingly, the Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM, as a national body in Australia provides leadership, coordination and standards for surveying, mapping and national datasets has developed the Cadastre 2034 strategy in 2014. This strategy has a vision to develop a cadastral system that enables people to readily and confidently identify the location and extent of all rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to land and real property. In 2014, the land authority in the state of Victoria, Australia, namely Land Use Victoria (LUV, has entered the challenging area of designing and implementing a 3D digital cadastre focused on providing more efficient and effective services to the land and property industry. LUV has been following the ICSM 2034 strategy which requires developing various policies, standards, infrastructures, and tools. Over the past three years, LUV has mainly focused on investigating the technical aspect of a 3D digital cadastre. This paper provides an overview of the 3D digital cadastre investigation progress in Victoria and discusses the challenges that the team faced during this journey. It also addresses the future path to develop an integrated 3D digital cadastre in Victoria.

  2. Total mercury concentration in common fish species of Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total mercury (THg) concentration was analysed in muscles of common fish species of Lake Victoria in the eastern and southern parts of the lake using cold vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric technique. Mercury concentration in all fish species was generally lower than the WHO maximum allowable ...

  3. Reconstruction of Late Pleistocene Paleoenvironments using bulk geochemistry of paleosols from the Lake Victoria Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverly, Emily J.; Peppe, Daniel J.; Driese, Steven G.; Blegen, Nick; Faith, J. Tyler; Tryon, Christian A.; Stinchcomb, Gary E.

    2017-11-01

    The impact of changing environments on the evolution and dispersal of Homo sapiens is highly debated, but few data are available from equatorial Africa. Lake Victoria is the largest freshwater lake in the tropics and is currently a biogeographic barrier between the eastern and western branches of the East African Rift. The lake has previously desiccated at 17 ka and again at 15 ka, but little is known from this region prior to the Last Glacial Maximum. The Pleistocene terrestrial deposits on the northeast coast of Lake Victoria (94 to 36 ka) are ideal for paleoenvironmental reconstructions where volcaniclastic deposits (tuffs), fluvial deposits, tufa, and paleosols are exposed, which can be used to reconstruct Critical Zones (CZ) of the past (paleo-CZs). The paleo-CZ is a holistic concept that reconstructs the entire landscape using geologic records of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, and pedosphere (the focus of this study). New paleosol-based mean annual precipitation (MAP) proxies from Karungu, Rusinga Island, and Mfangano Island indicate an average MAP of 750108 mm yr-1 (CALMAG), 800182 mm yr-1 (CIA-K), and 1010228 mm yr-1 (PPM1.0) with no statistical difference throughout the 11 m thick sequence. This corresponds to between 54 and 72% of modern precipitation. Tephras bracketing these paleosols have been correlated across seven sites, and sample a regional paleo-CZ across a 55 km transect along the eastern shoreline of the modern lake. Given the sensitivity of Lake Victoria to precipitation, it is likely that the lake was significantly smaller than modern between 94 ka and 36 ka. This would have removed a major barrier for the movement of fauna (including early modern humans) and provided a dispersal corridor across the equator and between the rifts. It is also consistent with the associated fossil faunal assemblage indicative of semi-arid grasslands. During the Late Pleistocene, the combined geologic and paleontological evidence suggests a

  4. Reconstruction of Late Pleistocene Paleoenvironments Using Bulk Geochemistry of Paleosols from the Lake Victoria Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Beverly

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of changing environments on the evolution and dispersal of Homo sapiens is highly debated, but few data are available from equatorial Africa. Lake Victoria is the largest freshwater lake in the tropics and is currently a biogeographic barrier between the eastern and western branches of the East African Rift. The lake has previously desiccated at ~17 ka and again at ~15 ka, but little is known from this region prior to the Last Glacial Maximum. The Pleistocene terrestrial deposits on the northeast coast of Lake Victoria (94–36 ka are ideal for paleoenvironmental reconstructions where volcaniclastic deposits (tuffs, fluvial deposits, tufa, and paleosols are exposed, which can be used to reconstruct Critical Zones (CZ of the past (paleo-CZs. The paleo-CZ is a holistic concept that reconstructs the entire landscape using geologic records of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, and pedosphere (the focus of this study. New paleosol-based mean annual precipitation (MAP proxies from Karungu, Rusinga Island, and Mfangano Island indicate an average MAP of 750 ± 108 mm year−1 (CALMAG, 800 ± 182 mm year−1 (CIA-K, and 1,010 ± 228 mm year−1 (PPM1.0 with no statistical difference throughout the 11 m thick sequence. This corresponds to between 54 and 72% of modern precipitation. Tephras bracketing these paleosols have been correlated across seven sites, and sample a regional paleo-CZ across a ~55 km transect along the eastern shoreline of the modern lake. Given the sensitivity of Lake Victoria to precipitation, it is likely that the lake was significantly smaller than modern between 94 and 36 ka. This would have removed a major barrier for the movement of fauna (including early modern humans and provided a dispersal corridor across the equator and between the rifts. It is also consistent with the associated fossil faunal assemblage indicative of semi-arid grasslands. During the Late Pleistocene, the combined geologic and

  5. No fixed place of birth: unplanned BBAs in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLelland, Gayle; McKenna, Lisa; Archer, Frank

    2013-02-01

    the primary objective-to present data on the incidence of unplanned births before arrival (BBAs) in Victoria between 1991 and 2008. The secondary objective-to provide an extensive literature review highlighting the issues surrounding an unplanned BBA. the incidence of BBAs in Victoria published in the relevant government reports. data were extracted from published government reports pertaining to perinatal statistics in Victoria-The Australian Institute of Health and Wellbeing and the Perinatal Data Collection Unit of Victoria. Data on place of birth for each year from both sources was identified and tabulated. Comparisons between the data sources were undertaken to provide a picture of the scope of out of hospital birth. the incidence and absolute numbers of unplanned birth before arrival (BBA) to hospital in Victoria, are low compared to the total births. However, this number is comparable to unplanned BBAs in other developed countries with similar health systems. The incidence of unplanned BBAs has slowly but steadily doubled since 1991-2008. The two data sources almost mirror each other except for 1999 when there was an unexplained difference in the reported incidence in unplanned BBAs. Maternal and neonatal outcomes are disproportionally much poorer after unplanned BBAs than either planned home births or in hospital births. Various maternal factors can increase the risk of an unplanned BBA. multiple approaches should be adopted to manage unplanned BBAs. Antenatal screening should be undertaken to identify the women most at risk. Strategies can be developed that will reduce poor neonatal and maternal outcomes, including education for women and their partners on immediate management of the newborn; ensuring paramedics have current knowledge on care during childbirth; and maternity and ambulance services should develop management plans for care of women having unplanned BBAs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Visual-haptic integration with pliers and tongs: signal ‘weights’ take account of changes in haptic sensitivity caused by different tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie eTakahashi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available When we hold an object while looking at it, estimates from visual and haptic cues to size are combined in a statistically optimal fashion, whereby the ‘weight’ given to each signal reflects their relative reliabilities. This allows object properties to be estimated more precisely than would otherwise be possible. Tools such as pliers and tongs systematically perturb the mapping between object size and the hand opening. This could complicate visual-haptic integration because it may alter the reliability of the haptic signal, thereby disrupting the determination of appropriate signal weights. To investigate this we first measured the reliability of haptic size estimates made with virtual pliers-like tools (created using a stereoscopic display and force-feedback robots with different ‘gains’ between hand opening and object size. Haptic reliability in tool use was straightforwardly determined by a combination of sensitivity to changes in hand opening and the effects of tool geometry. The precise pattern of sensitivity to hand opening, which violated Weber’s law, meant that haptic reliability changed with tool gain. We then examined whether the visuo-motor system accounts for these reliability changes. We measured the weight given to visual and haptic stimuli when both were available, again with different tool gains, by measuring the perceived size of stimuli in which visual and haptic sizes were varied independently. The weight given to each sensory cue changed with tool gain in a manner that closely resembled the predictions of optimal sensory integration. The results are consistent with the idea that different tool geometries are modelled by the brain, allowing it to calculate not only the distal properties of objects felt with tools, but also the certainty with which those properties are known. These findings highlight the flexibility of human sensory integration and tool-use, and potentially provide an approach for optimising the

  7. Simulated self-motion in a visual gravity field: sensitivity to vertical and horizontal heading in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indovina, Iole; Maffei, Vincenzo; Pauwels, Karl; Macaluso, Emiliano; Orban, Guy A; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2013-05-01

    Multiple visual signals are relevant to perception of heading direction. While the role of optic flow and depth cues has been studied extensively, little is known about the visual effects of gravity on heading perception. We used fMRI to investigate the contribution of gravity-related visual cues on the processing of vertical versus horizontal apparent self-motion. Participants experienced virtual roller-coaster rides in different scenarios, at constant speed or 1g-acceleration/deceleration. Imaging results showed that vertical self-motion coherent with gravity engaged the posterior insula and other brain regions that have been previously associated with vertical object motion under gravity. This selective pattern of activation was also found in a second experiment that included rectilinear motion in tunnels, whose direction was cued by the preceding open-air curves only. We argue that the posterior insula might perform high-order computations on visual motion patterns, combining different sensory cues and prior information about the effects of gravity. Medial-temporal regions including para-hippocampus and hippocampus were more activated by horizontal motion, preferably at constant speed, consistent with a role in inertial navigation. Overall, the results suggest partially distinct neural representations of the cardinal axes of self-motion (horizontal and vertical). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigation of a steam generator tube rupture sequence using VICTORIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixler, N.E.; Erickson, C.M.; Schaperow, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    VICTORIA-92 is a mechanistic computer code for analyzing fission product behavior within the reactor coolant system (RCS) during a severe reactor accident. It provides detailed predictions of the release of radionuclides and nonradioactive materials from the core and transport of these materials within the RCS. The modeling accounts for the chemical and aerosol processes that affect radionuclide behavior. Coupling of detailed chemistry and aerosol packages is a unique feature of VICTORIA; it allows exploration of phenomena involving deposition, revaporization, and re-entrainment that cannot be resolved with other codes. The purpose of this work is to determine the attenuation of fission products in the RCS and on the secondary side of the steam generator in an accident initiated by a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR). As a class, bypass sequences have been identified in NUREG-1150 as being risk dominant for the Surry and Sequoyah pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants

  9. Hospital capacity and management preparedness for pandemic influenza in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Ben; Barr, Ian; Robinson, Priscilla

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate acute hospital pandemic influenza preparedness in Victoria, Australia, particularly focussing on planning and management efforts. A prospective study was conducted by questionnaire and semi-structured interview of health managers across the Victorian hospital system from July to October 2011. Participants with responsibility for emergency management, planning and operations were selected from every hospital in Victoria with an emergency department to complete a questionnaire (response rate 22/43 = 51%). Each respondent was invited to participate in a phone-based semi-structured interview (response rate 11/22 = 50%). Rural/regional hospitals demonstrated higher levels of clinical (86%) and non-clinical (86%) staff contingency planning than metropolitan hospitals (60% and 40% respectively). Pandemic plans were not being sufficiently tested in exercises or drills, which is likely to undermine their effectiveness. All respondents reported hand hygiene and standard precautions programs in place, although only one-third (33%) of metropolitan respondents and no rural/regional respondents reported being able to meet patient needs with high levels of staff absenteeism. Almost half Victoria's healthcare workers were unvaccinated against influenza. Hospitals across Victoria demonstrated different levels of influenza pandemic preparedness and planning. If a more severe influenza pandemic than that of 2009 arose, Victorian hospitals would struggle with workforce and infrastructure problems, particularly in rural/regional areas. Staff absenteeism threatens to undermine hospital pandemic responses. Various strategies, including education and communication, should be included with in-service training to provide staff with confidence in their ability to work safely during a future pandemic. © 2014 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  10. Energy and Environment in the Lake Victoria basin.

    OpenAIRE

    Arungu-Olende, S.

    2006-01-01

    The local and national economies of Lake Victoria basin communities are heavily dependent on energy that fuels agriculture, industry, commerce, transportation and other economic activities; and powers our houses, offices, hospitals and buildings. Energy is therefore key to facilitating the development income generating opportunities, improving living standards, reducing poverty, and ensuring the protection of the environment. The development and use of various forms of renewable and non-renew...

  11. State Electricity Commission of Victoria annual report 1983-1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The State Electricity Commission of Victoria (SECV) generates, transmits and distributes electricity throughout Victoria's 228,000 square kilometres and supplies directly to 1.390 million customers. In addition, 278,500 customers are supplied by eleven municipal authorities which purchase electricity in bulk from the Commission. The Commission also has a responsibility to ensure the safe use of electricity. The Commission's mission statement is 'to provide cost effective energy and services and to act at all times in the best interests of the people of Victoria by being a responsible, adaptive, financially sound and efficient public utility'. The mission statement is the foundation for all activities and should provide the Commission with a sense of direction and unity of purpose. Corporate objectives have been developed in the following seven broad areas: customer, employee, finance, natural resources, environment, conservation and community. Each objective has been translated into a series of specific goals, the achievement of which will be monitored. Details relating to these areas of activity are detailed in this report.

  12. Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity are two important factors affecting vision-related quality of life in advanced age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Miin; Selivanova, Alexandra; Shin, Hyun Joon; Miller, Joan W; Jackson, Mary Lou

    2018-01-01

    Vision loss from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has a profound effect on vision-related quality of life (VRQoL). The pupose of this study is to identify clinical factors associated with VRQoL using the Rasch- calibrated NEI VFQ-25 scales in bilateral advanced AMD patients. We retrospectively reviewed 47 patients (mean age 83.2 years) with bilateral advanced AMD. Clinical assessment included age, gender, type of AMD, high contrast visual acuity (VA), history of medical conditions, contrast sensitivity (CS), central visual field loss, report of Charles Bonnet Syndrome, current treatment for AMD and Rasch-calibrated NEI VFQ-25 visual function and socioemotional function scales. The NEI VFQ visual function scale includes items of general vision, peripheral vision, distance vision and near vision-related activity while the socioemotional function scale includes items of vision related-social functioning, role difficulties, dependency, and mental health. Multiple regression analysis (structural regression model) was performed using fixed item parameters obtained from the one-parameter item response theory model. Multivariate analysis showed that high contrast VA and CS were two factors influencing VRQoL visual function scale (β = -0.25, 95% CI-0.37 to -0.12, p<0.001 and β = 0.35, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.46, p<0.001) and socioemontional functioning scale (β = -0.2, 95% CI -0.37 to -0.03, p = 0.023, and β = 0.3, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.43, p = 0.001). Central visual field loss was not assoicated with either VRQoL visual or socioemontional functioning scale (β = -0.08, 95% CI-0.28 to 0.12,p = 0.44 and β = -0.09, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.16, p = 0.50, respectively). In patients with vision impairment secondary to bilateral advanced AMD, high contrast VA and CS are two important factors affecting VRQoL.

  13. Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity are two important factors affecting vision-related quality of life in advanced age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivanova, Alexandra; Shin, Hyun Joon; Miller, Joan W.; Jackson, Mary Lou

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Vision loss from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has a profound effect on vision-related quality of life (VRQoL). The pupose of this study is to identify clinical factors associated with VRQoL using the Rasch- calibrated NEI VFQ-25 scales in bilateral advanced AMD patients. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 47 patients (mean age 83.2 years) with bilateral advanced AMD. Clinical assessment included age, gender, type of AMD, high contrast visual acuity (VA), history of medical conditions, contrast sensitivity (CS), central visual field loss, report of Charles Bonnet Syndrome, current treatment for AMD and Rasch-calibrated NEI VFQ-25 visual function and socioemotional function scales. The NEI VFQ visual function scale includes items of general vision, peripheral vision, distance vision and near vision-related activity while the socioemotional function scale includes items of vision related-social functioning, role difficulties, dependency, and mental health. Multiple regression analysis (structural regression model) was performed using fixed item parameters obtained from the one-parameter item response theory model. Results Multivariate analysis showed that high contrast VA and CS were two factors influencing VRQoL visual function scale (β = -0.25, 95% CI-0.37 to -0.12, p<0.001 and β = 0.35, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.46, p<0.001) and socioemontional functioning scale (β = -0.2, 95% CI -0.37 to -0.03, p = 0.023, and β = 0.3, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.43, p = 0.001). Central visual field loss was not assoicated with either VRQoL visual or socioemontional functioning scale (β = -0.08, 95% CI-0.28 to 0.12,p = 0.44 and β = -0.09, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.16, p = 0.50, respectively). Conclusion In patients with vision impairment secondary to bilateral advanced AMD, high contrast VA and CS are two important factors affecting VRQoL. PMID:29746512

  14. Schizophrenia spectrum participants have reduced visual contrast sensitivity to chromatic (red/green and luminance (light/dark stimuli: new insights into information processing, visual channel function and antipsychotic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Suzanne Cadenhead

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Individuals with schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses have deficient visual information processing as assessed by a variety of paradigms including visual backward masking, motion perception and visual contrast sensitivity (VCS. In the present study, the VCS paradigm was used to investigate potential differences in magnocellular (M versus parvocellular (P channel function that might account for the observed information processing deficits of schizophrenia spectrum patients. Specifically, VCS for near threshold luminance (black/white stimuli is known to be governed primarily by the M channel, while VCS for near threshold chromatic (red/green stimuli is governed by the P channel. Methods: VCS for luminance and chromatic stimuli (counterphase-reversing sinusoidal gratings, 1.22 c/deg, 8.3 Hz was assessed in 53 patients with schizophrenia (including 5 off antipsychotic medication, 22 individuals diagnosed with schizotypal personality disorder and 53 healthy comparison subjects. Results: Schizophrenia spectrum groups demonstrated reduced VCS in both conditions relative to normals, and there was no significant group by condition interaction effect. Post-hoc analyses suggest that it was the patients with schizophrenia on antipsychotic medication as well as SPD participants who accounted for the deficits in the luminance condition. Conclusions: These results demonstrate visual information processing deficits in schizophrenia spectrum populations but do not support the notion of selective abnormalities in the function of subcortical channels as suggested by previous studies. Further work is needed in a longitudinal design to further assess VCS as a vulnerability marker for psychosis as well as the effect of antipsychotic agents on performance in schizophrenia spectrum populations.

  15. Positive selection of a duplicated UV-sensitive visual pigment coincides with wing pigment evolution in Heliconius butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Briscoe, Adriana D.; Bybee, Seth M.; Bernard, Gary D.; Yuan, Furong; Sison-Mangus, Marilou P.; Reed, Robert D.; Warren, Andrew D.; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2010-01-01

    The butterfly Heliconius erato can see from the UV to the red part of the light spectrum with color vision proven from 440 to 640 nm. Its eye is known to contain three visual pigments, rhodopsins, produced by an 11-cis-3-hydroxyretinal chromophore together with long wavelength (LWRh), blue (BRh) and UV (UVRh1) opsins. We now find that H. erato has a second UV opsin mRNA (UVRh2)—a previously undescribed duplication of this gene among Lepidoptera. To investigate its evolutionary origin, we scre...

  16. A Baseline Air Quality Assessment Onboard a Victoria Class Submarine: HMCS Windsor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Severs, Y. D

    2006-01-01

    .... This trial thus represents a baseline habitability evaluation of Canada's Victoria class submarines to confirm compliance with the current maximum permissible contaminant limits stipulated in the Air...

  17. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of energy and visual performances of office building with external venetian blind shading in hot-dry climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ramkishore; Lazarus, I.J.; Kishore, V.V.N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Various alternatives of glazing and venetian blind were simulated for office space. • Daylighting and energy performances were assessed for each alternative. • Large uncertainties were estimated in the energy consumptions and UDI values. • Glazing design parameters were prioritised by performing sensitivity analysis. • WWR, glazing type, blind orientation and slat angle were identified top in priority. - Abstract: Fenestration has become an integral part of the buildings and has a significant impact on the energy and indoor visual performances. Inappropriate design of the fenestration component may lead to low energy efficiency and visual discomfort as a result of high solar and thermal heat gains, excessive daylight and direct sunlight. External venetian blind has been identified as one of the effective shading devices for controlling the heat gains and daylight through fenestration. This study explores uncertainty and sensitivity analyses to identify and prioritize the most influencing parameters for designing glazed components that include external shading devices for office buildings. The study was performed for hot-dry climate of Jodhpur (Latitude 26° 180′N, longitude 73° 010′E) using EnergyPlus, a whole building energy simulation tool providing a large number of inputs for eight façade orientations. A total 150 and 845 data points (for each orientation) for input variables were generated using Hyper Cubic Sampling and extended FAST methods for uncertainty and sensitivity analyses respectively. Results indicated a large uncertainty in the lighting, HVAC, source energy consumptions and useful daylight illuminance (UDI). The estimated coefficients of variation were highest (up to 106%) for UDI, followed by lighting energy (up to 45%) and HVAC energy use (around 33%). The sensitivity analysis identified window to wall ratio, glazing type, blind type (orientation of slats) and slat angle as highly influencing factors for energy and

  18. A specific and sensitive method for visualization of tumor necrosis factor in the murine central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertsen, K L; Drøjdahl, N; Owens, T

    2001-01-01

    -PCR and Western blot analysis on homogenates prepared from microdissected brain regions. Advantages and disadvantages of the methods are discussed with emphasis on the specificity and sensitivity of the histological procedures. Our strategy for detection of TNF mRNA and protein provides a solid basis...... for clarifying the cellular synthesis, regulation and function of TNF in the normal, injured or diseased CNS. Furthermore, the methodology can readily be applied in studies of other cytokines and growth factors in the CNS....

  19. Increasing deaths involving oxycodone, Victoria, Australia, 2000-09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintoul, Angela C; Dobbin, Malcolm D H; Drummer, Olaf H; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2011-08-01

    In light of an emerging epidemic identified in the United States and Canada, to identify trends in fatal drug toxicity involving oxycodone and the demographic characteristics and indicators of socioeconomic disadvantage of the deceased. Population-based observational study in Victoria, Australia. Decedents whose death was reported to the Victorian Coroner between 2000 and 2009 and where oxycodone was detected. Association between supply of oxycodone and deaths. Demographic characteristics of decedents. Rate ratios of the rural or metropolitan location and socioeconomic indicators of disadvantage of the deceased. Supply to Victoria has increased nine-fold from 7.5 mg per capita in 2000 to 67.5 mg per capita in 2009. Detection of oxycodone in deaths reported to the Victorian Coroner has increased from 4 (0.08/100,000 population) in 2000 to 97 (1.78/100,000 population) in 2009-a 21-fold increase in deaths. Of the 320 cases described, 53.8% (172) were the result of drug toxicity. Of these, 52.3% were unintentional and 19.8% intentional self-harm; the remaining 27.9% are either still under investigation by the coroner or intent is unknown. Drug toxicity deaths were overrepresented in both rural areas and areas indexed with high levels of disadvantage. The substantial increase in the number of deaths involving oxycodone is strongly and significantly associated with the increase in supply. Most drug toxicity deaths involving oxycodone were unintentional. This newly identified trend in fatalities in Victoria supports concerns that a pattern of increasing deaths involving oxycodone is emerging globally.

  20. Reforming Victoria's primary health and community service sector: rural implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, K

    2000-01-01

    In 1999 the Victorian primary care and community support system began a process of substantial reform, involving purchasing reforms and a contested selection process between providers in large catchment areas across the State. The Liberal Government's electoral defeat in September 1999 led to a review of these reforms. This paper questions the reforms from a rural perspective. They were based on a generic template that did not consider rural-urban differences in health needs or other differences including socio-economic status, and may have reinforced if not aggravated rural-urban differences in the quality of and access to primary health care in Victoria.

  1. A recovery-based outreach program in rural Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Radha; Browne, Mark Oakley

    2007-04-01

    A recovery-based outreach program for people with severe mental illness in regional Victoria is described. The paper covers a description of the program, the services provided and outcomes achieved. The program emphasized active collaboration between patients and clinicians as outlined in the collaborative recovery model and recognized that recovery from mental illness is an individual, personal process. The program provided service to 108 people over 3 years and had a positive impact on clinicians, patients and carers. The benefits of recovery orientation, multidisciplinary teams, collaborative relationships and carer involvement are discussed. The paper highlights the need for a focus on recovery and comprehensive care for people with severe mental illness.

  2. Royal Ageing: The Queen Mother and Queen Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Mike Hepworth

    2002-01-01

    This paper is a reflection on the contribution of the image of the Queen Mother to the cultural construction of role models of positive ageing. The interest lies in the Queen Mother's performance in public of her roles as woman and royal personage particularly as she grew older. It is suggested that cultural analysis of the icon of the Queen Mother as a blend of gender and power suggests certain significant parallels with the imagery cultivated around the career of Queen Victoria in the later...

  3. Radon in an underground cave system in Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedt, J.C.; Boal, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Radon levels in a cave system in Victoria have been measured. The variation of radon and radon progeny levels with time, position throughout the cave and season have been determined. The radiation exposure of tour guides were estimated. The data is being used to develop a radiation management plan for the tour guides. Radon concentration within a cave system was proven to be dependent to a large extent upon the rate of air exchange with outside. Cave ventilation is the single most important factor in determining if there is diurnal variation in the radon concentration

  4. Measuring the cost of leaving care in Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Forbes; Brett Inder; Sunitha Raman

    2006-01-01

    On any given night in Victoria, around 4,000 children and young people live under the care and protection of the State. For many young people, this care extends over a long period of time, sometimes until their 18th birthday. It is well documented that young people leaving State care often lack the social and economic resources to assist them in making the transition into independent living. As a consequence, the long-term life outcomes from this group are frequently very poor. A recent repor...

  5. A comparison of the sensitivity of EQ-5D, SF-6D and TTO utility values to changes in vision and perceived visual function in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozzani Fiammetta Maria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic viability of treatments for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG should be assessed objectively to prioritise health care interventions. This study aims to identify the methods for eliciting utility values (UVs most sensitive to differences in visual field and visual functioning in patients with POAG. As a secondary objective, the dimensions of generic health-related and vision-related quality of life most affected by progressive vision loss will be identified. Methods A total of 132 POAG patients were recruited. Three sets of utility values (EuroQoL EQ-5D, Short Form SF-6D, Time Trade Off and a measure of perceived visual functioning from the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ-25 were elicited during face-to-face interviews. The sensitivity of UVs to differences in the binocular visual field, visual acuity and visual functioning measures was analysed using non-parametric statistical methods. Results Median utilities were similar across Integrated Visual Field score quartiles for EQ-5D (P = 0.08 whereas SF-6D and Time-Trade-Off UVs significantly decreased (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively. The VFQ-25 score varied across Integrated Visual Field and binocular visual acuity groups and was associated with all three UVs (P ≤ 0.001; most of its vision-specific sub-scales were associated with the vision markers. The most affected dimension was driving. A relationship with vision markers was found for the physical component of SF-36 and not for any dimension of EQ-5D. Conclusions The Time-Trade-Off was more sensitive than EQ-5D and SF-6D to changes in vision and visual functioning associated with glaucoma progression but could not measure quality of life changes in the mildest disease stages.

  6. 3D Isotropic MR Culprit Plaque Visualization of Carotid Plaque Edema and Hemorrhage with Motion Sensitized Blood Suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søvsø Szocska Hansen, Esben; Pedersen, Steen Fjord; Bloch, Lars Ø.

    2014-01-01

    hemorrhage and plaque edema may represent advanced stages of atherosclerosis[1, 2]. In this study, we present a novel multi-contrast 3D motion sensitized black-blood CMR imaging sequence, which detects both plaque edema and hemorrhage with positive contrast. Subjects and Methods The 3D imaging sequence...... to lumen was 39.74±6.75. Discussion/Conclusion In conclusion, the proposed 3D isotropic multi-contrast CMR technique detects plaque edema and hemorrhage with positive contrast and excellent black-blood contrast, which may facilitate evaluation of carotid atherosclerosis. Ongoing studies will include CMR...

  7. Eesti NATO Ühing juurutab demokraatlikke väärtusi / Victoria Punga ; interv. Aive Antsov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Punga, Victoria, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti NATO Ühingu tegevjuht organisatsiooni eesmärkidest, projektidest, koostööst teiste riikidega ning kaitsepoliitika ja majanduse seostest. Lisa: Väljavõte Victoria CVst; Eesti kaitsepoliitika viis plussi Victoria meelest

  8. What can we learn from learning models about sensitivity to letter-order in visual word recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Itamar; Armstrong, Blair C.; Frost, Ram

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on the effects of letter transposition in Indo-European Languages has shown that readers are surprisingly tolerant of these manipulations in a range of tasks. This evidence has motivated the development of new computational models of reading that regard flexibility in positional coding to be a core and universal principle of the reading process. Here we argue that such approach does not capture cross-linguistic differences in transposed-letter effects, nor do they explain them. To address this issue, we investigated how a simple domain-general connectionist architecture performs in tasks such as letter-transposition and letter substitution when it had learned to process words in the context of different linguistic environments. The results show that in spite of of the neurobiological noise involved in registering letter-position in all languages, flexibility and inflexibility in coding letter order is also shaped by the statistical orthographic properties of words in a language, such as the relative prevalence of anagrams. Our learning model also generated novel predictions for targeted empirical research, demonstrating a clear advantage of learning models for studying visual word recognition. PMID:25431521

  9. Victoria suudlus teeb maapoisist printsi, kuid mitte tulevase kuninga / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2010-01-01

    Printsess Victoria tulevasest abikaasast Daniel Westlingist, printsess Madelaine'i kihluse lõpetamisest, Bernadotte'ide dünastia asutajast Jean Bernadotte'ist. Monarhia toetajate vähenemisest Rootsis. Printsess Victoria ja Daniel Westlingi pulmatseremooniast 19. juunil

  10. 78 FR 48318 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Victoria County, 1997 8...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... pollution. Inclusion of Victoria County in 30 TAC Chapter 115 volatile organic compounds (VOC) rules for the... vessels, and marine vessels would be required to vent to a control device until the VOC concentration of... Victoria County in 30 TAC Chapter 114 rule for Texas Low Emission Diesel (TxLED) compliant marine diesel...

  11. Formula-Based Public School Funding System in Victoria: An Empirical Analysis of Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaranayake, Bandara

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the formula-based school funding system in the state of Victoria, Australia, where state funds are directly allocated to schools based on a range of equity measures. The impact of Victoria' funding system for education in terms of alleviating inequality and disadvantage is contentious, to say the least. It is difficult to…

  12. Informal waste harvesting in Victoria Falls town, Zimbabwe: Socio-economic benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masocha, M.

    2006-01-01

    Waste harvesting, which occurs mostly but not exclusively at open waste dumps in Zimbabwe, constitutes one of the most important survival options for the urban poor. This paper analyses and discusses socio-economic benefits of informal waste harvesters in Victoria Falls town. Victoria Falls town has

  13. Genetic analyses of resistance against Leptopilina victoriae in Drosophila bipectinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigahira, Tomohiro; Kohyama, Tetsuo I; Suwito, Awit; Kimura, Masahito T

    2015-06-01

    Drosophila bipectinata from Iriomote-jima (IR) is susceptible to the endoparasitoid Leptopilina victoriae from Kota Kinabalu (L. victoriae KK), but D. bipectinata from Kota Kinabalu (KK) and Bogor (BG) is resistant. The cross experiments between the resistant (KK) and susceptible (IR) populations of D. bipectinata suggested that the resistance to this parasitoid is a dominant trait and controlled by a single locus or few linked loci on an autosome. In the AFLP analysis using the IR, KK and BG populations of D. bipectinata and the resistant and susceptible populations derived from a mixed population of these three geographic populations, a DNA fragment almost specific to susceptible flies was detected. It also revealed that genes from the IR population were more frequently maintained in the mixed population compared with those from the KK and BG populations, suggesting that at least a number of genes from the IR population are more advantageous under the laboratory conditions. This explains our previous results that the resistance was lowered in the mixed population although the resistance itself is suggested to incur only low costs; i.e., the resistance gene(s) from the KK and BG populations would have been linked with some genes that are disadvantageous under the laboratory conditions.

  14. Surviving neoliberalism, maintaining values: Community health mergers in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussy, Véronique; Livingstone, Charles

    2018-04-01

    Independent, not-for-profit community health services in the state of Victoria, Australia, provide one of that country's few models of comprehensive primary health care (PHC). Recent amalgamations among some such agencies created regional-sized community health organisations, in a departure from this sector's traditionally small local structure. This study explored the motivations, desired outcomes, and decision-making process behind these mergers. Qualitative exploratory study was based on 26 semistructured interviews with key informants associated with 2 community health mergers, which took place in 2014 in Victoria, Australia. Thematic data analysis was influenced by concepts derived from institutional theory. Becoming bigger by merging was viewed as the best way to respond to mounting external pressures, such as increasingly neoliberal funding mechanisms, perceived as threatening survival. Desired outcomes were driven by comprehensive PHC values, and related to creating organisational capacity to continue providing quality services to disadvantaged communities. This study offers insights into decision-making processes geared towards protecting the comprehensiveness of PHC service delivery for disadvantaged communities, ensuring financial viability, and surviving neoliberal economic policy whilst preserving communitarian values. These are relevant to an international audience, within a global context of rising health inequities, increasingly tight fiscal environments, and growing neoliberal influences on health policymaking and funding. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. VICTORIA PARK: A DEMOCTRATIC PUBLIC OPEN SPACE FOR INDONESIA DOMESTIC HELPERS (TKW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmonangan Manurung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Victoria Park is the largest city park in Hong Kong. This city park is not only known in Hong Kong, but also very well known in Indonesia as a gathering place for Indonesia domestic helpers (TKW in Hong Kong. This research tried to find out some determinant factors that have been affected the public open spac of Victoria Park to be a gathering place for thousands of TKW in Sunday and holidays as their day off. In order to get the results of research, some methodological research had been conducted such as: observation (survey, mapping, interviews and literature studies. The results showed that Victoria Park has a number of factors capable of meeting the needs of domestic help-ers in Hong Kong, these factors consist of internal factors and external factors. Internally, the character and functions held Victoria Park became a very influential factor, while externally, the accessibility and support functions around Victoria Park also has a considerable influence.

  16. The PM1 neurons, movement sensitive centrifugal visual brain neurons in the locust: anatomy, physiology, and modulation by identified octopaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Michael

    2009-02-01

    The locust's optic lobe contains a system of wide-field, multimodal, centrifugal neurons. Two of these cells, the protocerebrum-medulla-neurons PM4a and b, are octopaminergic. This paper describes a second pair of large centrifugal neurons (the protocerebrum-medulla-neurons PM1a and PM1b) from the brain of Locusta migratoria based on intracellular cobalt fills, electrophysiology, and immunocytochemistry. They originate and arborise in the central brain and send processes into the medulla of the optic lobe. Double intracellular recording from the same cell suggests input in the central brain and output in the optic lobe. The neurons show immunoreactivity to gamma-amino-butyric acid and its synthesising enzyme, glutamate decarboxylase. The PM1 cells are movement sensitive and show habituation to repeated visual stimulation. Bath application of octopamine causes the response to dishabituate. A very similar effect is produced by electrical stimulation of one of an octopaminergic PM4 neuron. This effect can be blocked by application of the octopamine antagonists, mianserin and phentolamine. This readily accessible system of four wide-field neurons provides a system suitable for the investigation of octopaminergic effects on the visual system at the cellular level.

  17. Improvement of uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA and contrast sensitivity (UCCS with perceptual learning and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS in individuals with mild myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca eCamilleri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual learning has been shown to produce an improvement of visual acuity (VA and contrast sensitivity (CS both in subjects with amblyopia and refractive defects such as myopia or presbyopia. Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS has proven to be efficacious in accelerating neural plasticity and boosting perceptual learning in healthy participants. In this study we investigated whether a short behavioural training regime using a contrast detection task combined with online tRNS was as effective in improving visual functions in participants with mild myopia compared to a two-month behavioural training regime without tRNS (Camilleri et al., 2014. After two weeks of perceptual training in combination with tRNS, participants showed an improvement of 0.15 LogMAR in uncorrected VA (UCVA that was comparable with that obtained after eight weeks of training with no tRNS, and an improvement in uncorrected CS (UCCS at various spatial frequencies (whereas no UCCS improvement was seen after eight weeks of training with no tRNS. On the other hand, a control group that trained for two weeks without stimulation did not show any significant UCVA or UCCS improvement. These results suggest that the combination of behavioural and neuromodulatory techniques can be fast and efficacious in improving sight in individuals with mild myopia.

  18. Sensitivity of the autonomic nervous system to visual and auditory affect across social and non-social domains in Williams syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maaria Järvinen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Although individuals with Williams syndrome (WS typically demonstrate an increased appetitive social drive, their social profile is characterized by dissociations, including socially fearless behavior coupled with anxiousness, and distinct patterns of peaks and valleys of ability. The aim of this study was to compare the processing of social and non-social visually and aurally presented affective stimuli, at the levels of behavior and autonomic nervous system (ANS responsivity, in individuals with WS contrasted with a typically developing (TD group, with the view of elucidating the highly sociable and emotionally sensitive predisposition noted in WS. Behavioral findings supported previous studies of enhanced competence in processing social over non-social stimuli by individuals with WS; however, the patterns of ANS functioning underlying the behavioral performance revealed a surprising profile previously undocumented in WS. Specifically, increased heart rate (HR reactivity, and a failure for electrodermal activity (EDA to habituate were found in individuals with WS contrasted with the TD group, predominantly in response to visual social-affective stimuli. Within the auditory domain, greater arousal linked to variation in heart beat period was observed in relation to music stimuli in individuals with WS. Taken together, the findings suggest that the pattern of ANS response in WS is more complex than previously noted, with increased arousal to face and music stimuli potentially underpinning the heightened behavioral emotionality to such stimuli. The lack of habituation may underlie the increased affiliation and attraction to faces characterizing individuals with WS. Future research directions are suggested.

  19. Sensitivity of the Autonomic Nervous System to Visual and Auditory Affect Across Social and Non-Social Domains in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Anna; Dering, Benjamin; Neumann, Dirk; Ng, Rowena; Crivelli, Davide; Grichanik, Mark; Korenberg, Julie R.; Bellugi, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Although individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) typically demonstrate an increased appetitive social drive, their social profile is characterized by dissociations, including socially fearless behavior coupled with anxiousness, and distinct patterns of “peaks and valleys” of ability. The aim of this study was to compare the processing of social and non-social visually and aurally presented affective stimuli, at the levels of behavior and autonomic nervous system (ANS) responsivity, in individuals with WS contrasted with a typically developing (TD) group, with the view of elucidating the highly sociable and emotionally sensitive predisposition noted in WS. Behavioral findings supported previous studies of enhanced competence in processing social over non-social stimuli by individuals with WS; however, the patterns of ANS functioning underlying the behavioral performance revealed a surprising profile previously undocumented in WS. Specifically, increased heart rate (HR) reactivity, and a failure for electrodermal activity to habituate were found in individuals with WS contrasted with the TD group, predominantly in response to visual social affective stimuli. Within the auditory domain, greater arousal linked to variation in heart beat period was observed in relation to music stimuli in individuals with WS. Taken together, the findings suggest that the pattern of ANS response in WS is more complex than previously noted, with increased arousal to face and music stimuli potentially underpinning the heightened behavioral emotionality to such stimuli. The lack of habituation may underlie the increased affiliation and attraction to faces characterizing individuals with WS. Future research directions are suggested. PMID:23049519

  20. Quantitative and Visual Assessments toward Potential Sub-mSv or Ultrafast FDG PET Using High-Sensitivity TOF PET in PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Spencer C; Bahroos, Emma; Hawkins, Randall A; Nardo, Lorenzo; Ravanfar, Vahid; Capbarat, Emily V; Seo, Youngho

    2018-06-01

    Newer high-performance time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) systems have the capability to preserve diagnostic image quality with low count density, while maintaining a high raw photon detection sensitivity that would allow for a reduction in injected dose or rapid data acquisition. To assess this, we performed quantitative and visual assessments of the PET images acquired using a highly sensitive (23.3 cps/kBq) large field of view (25-cm axial) silicon photomultiplier (SiPM)-based TOF PET (400-ps timing resolution) integrated with 3 T-MRI in comparison to PET images acquired on non-TOF PET/x-ray computed tomography (CT) systems. Whole-body 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro-D-glucose ([ 18 F]FDG) PET/CT was acquired for 15 patients followed by whole body PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with an average injected dose of 325 ± 84 MBq. The PET list mode data from PET/MRI were reconstructed using full datasets (4 min/bed) and reduced datasets (2, 1, 0.5, and 0.25 min/bed). Qualitative assessment between PET/CT and PET/MR images were made. A Likert-type scale between 1 and 5, 1 for non-diagnostic, 3 equivalent to PET/CT, and 5 superior quality, was used. Maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUV max and SUV mean ) of normal tissues and lesions detected were measured and compared. Mean visual assessment scores were 3.54 ± 0.32, 3.62 ± 0.38, and 3.69 ± 0.35 for the brain and 3.05 ± 0.49, 3.71 ± 0.45, and 4.14 ± 0.44 for the whole-body maximum intensity projections (MIPs) for 1, 2, and 4 min/bed PET/MR images, respectively. The SUV mean values for normal tissues were lower and statistically significant for images acquired at 4, 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.25 min/bed on the PET/MR, with values of - 18 ± 28 % (p PET/MR datasets. High-sensitivity TOF PET showed comparable but still better visual image quality even at a much reduced activity in comparison to lower-sensitivity non-TOF PET. Our data translates to a seven times

  1. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of sFAT-1 Transgenic Pigs by Visual Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Chenyu; Yang, Yalan; Li, Xunbi; Zheng, Xinmin; Ren, Hongyan; Li, Kui; Zhou, Rong

    2016-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) livestock have the potential to contribute to improving the environment and human health, with consumption of fewer resources and reduced waste production. However, the transgene process also poses risks. The safety assessment and control of transgenic animal products have drawn wide attention, and the relevant regulations and technology are being developed. Quick testing technology plays a significant role in on-site and customs sampling. Nowadays, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was widely applied in nucleic acid analysis because of its simplicity, rapidity, high efficiency and specificity. In this study, a specific, sensitive detection system for detecting sFAT-1 transgenic pigs was designed. A set of six primers including two loop primers was designed for the target sequence. The DNA samples were amplified in less than 1 h at the optimized temperature and detecting by both Nephelometer LA-320c and unaided eyes directly adding calcein. The detection limit of sFAT-1 LAMP was as low as 1.26 ng/μL. Furthermore, blind tests of transgenic and non-transgenic DNA samples were all correctly detected. Hence, the results in this study demonstrated that LAMP is a very useful tool for transgenic detection.

  2. Victoria Symptom Validity Test performance in children and adolescents with neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Brian L

    2012-12-01

    It is becoming increasingly more important to study, use, and promote the utility of measures that are designed to detect non-compliance with testing (i.e., poor effort, symptom non-validity, response bias) as part of neuropsychological assessments with children and adolescents. Several measures have evidence for use in pediatrics, but there is a paucity of published support for the Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT) in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the performance on the VSVT in a sample of pediatric patients with known neurological disorders. The sample consisted of 100 consecutively referred children and adolescents between the ages of 6 and 19 years (mean = 14.0, SD = 3.1) with various neurological diagnoses. On the VSVT total items, 95% of the sample had performance in the "valid" range, with 5% being deemed "questionable" and 0% deemed "invalid". On easy items, 97% were "valid", 2% were "questionable", and 1% was "invalid." For difficult items, 84% were "valid," 16% were "questionable," and 0% was "invalid." For those patients given two effort measures (i.e., VSVT and Test of Memory Malingering; n = 65), none was identified as having poor test-taking compliance on both measures. VSVT scores were significantly correlated with age, intelligence, processing speed, and functional ratings of daily abilities (attention, executive functioning, and adaptive functioning), but not objective performance on the measure of sustained attention, verbal memory, or visual memory. The VSVT has potential to be used in neuropsychological assessments with pediatric patients.

  3. State Electricity Commission of Victoria annual report 1991/92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The 73rd annual report of the State Electricity Commission (SEC) of Victoria covers the financial year ended 30 June 1992. A total revenue of 3,300 million dollars and a net profit of 155.7 million dollars was recorded. There was continued improvement in employee productivity. Progress was made on the Victorian Power Pool (VicPool) pooling arrangement in anticipation of open access to the power grid. A 3-year business plan was formulated and corporate strategy revised. The Strategic Research Program on brown coal technologies, aimed at reducing costs of electricity and emissions of CO[sub 2], continued. Environmental activities continued in the areas of renewable energy source development, air quality monitoring, acid rain, water management, land rehabilitation and improvements to powerlines. The report includes statistical data on customer statistics, electricity sales, power stations, brown coal and briquette production and financial sales.

  4. Myxomatosis in the Mallee region of Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, R C; Edmonds, J W; Nolan, I F; Gocs, A

    1978-10-01

    Sharp reductions in the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.)) population in the Mallee are associated with annual myxomatosis epizootics. The extent to which the population reductions are the direct result of the epizootics varies with time of epizootic occurrence. All grazing animals in the Mallee are under nutritional stress each summer and autumn. When the epizootic occurs during the early summer heavy losses occur in a previously healthy population. Similar losses which occur in the late summer and autumn are the result of a nutritional stress - epizootic complex. The end result in each case is a population reduction of about 80%. This reduction occurs in a population which is the most resistant to myxomatosis known in Victoria and in association with epizootics caused by field strains of myxoma virus of moderate virulence only. The earlier summer epizootics are of considerable economic importance because they sharply reduce the pressure on the limited food available for other grazing animals.

  5. Isotopic character of Cambro-Ordovician plutonism, southern Victoria Land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, S.C.; Parkinson, D.L.; Allibone, A.H.; Cooper, A.F.

    2000-01-01

    Previous mapping of granitoid rocks in the Dry Valleys area of southern Victoria Land, Antarctica, identified the calc-alkaline (DV1a), adakitic (DV1b), and monzonitic (DV2) suites. A fourth older suite comprising alkaline gabbro, syenite, and A-type granite occurs in the Mt Dromedary area c. 80 km to the south. U-Pb zircon dating of Bonney Pluton, the largest calc-alkaline DV1a intrusion, indicates emplacement of this regional-scale body at 505 +/- 2 Ma. Pb-loss and inherited zircon were common to Bonney Pluton analyses of this study. U-Pb dating of monazite from Valhalla Pluton, a principal DV1b suite adakitic intrusion, indicates emplacement at 488 +/- 2 Ma. The Bonney Pluton age constrains the peak of calc-alkaline plutonism at 505 Ma and the Valhalla Pluton age records the major pulse of adakitic plutonism that is inferred to mark the final stages of subduction c. 490 Ma along this section of the East Antarctic margin. Nd and Sr isotope data for the calc-alkaline DV1a suite and adakitic DV1b suite define distinct ranges for each suite, supporting their subdivision on the basis of field relationships, petrography, and whole-rock geochemistry. Calc-alkaline DV1a suite granite magmas have eNd(T) = -4.2 to -6.1 and Sri = 0.7071-0.7079, whereas the adakitic DV1b suite rocks have a wider range of eNd(T) = -1.9 to -7.2 and Sri = 0.7065-0.7097. The isotopic data suggest a significant mantle component and subordinate crustal component in the source region of both suites. Time-dependent variations in the isotopic ratios of DV1a and DV1b suites imply a progressive increase in the proportion of more radiogenic material in the source region of the granitoid rocks, either mantle- or crust-derived material. Larger adakitic DV1b plutons are more 'evolved' than equivalent, smaller plutons of the same DV1b suite. Vanda Dikes and monzonitic DV2 suite intrusions are characterised by particularly low Sri = 0.7044-0.7067 and near-constant eNd(T) = -4.8 to -5.3, which indicate a

  6. The radiocarbon dating project at Aboriginal Affairs, Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, M.C.S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this project has been to publish a complete list of the age estimates relating to the archaeological sites in the State of Victoria from 1951 to 1995, and to assess the value and the limitations of this information for interpreting the prehistory of this region. This project has recorded 476 dates coming from 14 laboratories, and ranging in age from the time of European settlement to the limit of the technique at around 40,000 years BP. However, the available evidence indicates that large discrepancies may exist in these results, and this has lead to the recommendation that this data should not be used in research projects requiring dating accuracies of less than a few hundred years

  7. The State Electricity Commission of Victoria and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoy, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The State Electricity Commission of Victoria is examining how the greenhouse issue may affect its electricity supply system in the future. Possible generation scenarios for 2005 are presented in order to show how the Toronto goal of a 20% reduction on 1988 levels of CO 2 emissions could be achieved. The main approaches to achieving these emission reductions include energy conservation and cogeneration, new gas-fired plant, use of renewable energy, reduction of energy system losses, retirement of older brown coal plant and an extensive tree planting program. It is estimated that achieving the Toronto goal would require electricity prices to rise by 1% to 1.5%, on average, each year by more than they otherwise would have, for the next 15 years. 12 refs., 3 tabs

  8. Layers of 'Cabo Frio' in 'Victoria Crater' (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This view of 'Victoria crater' is looking southeast from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cabo Frio.' The small crater in the right foreground, informally known as 'Sputnik,' is about 20 meters (about 65 feet) away from the rover, the tip of the spectacular, layered, Cabo Frio promontory itself is about 200 meters (about 650 feet) away from the rover, and the exposed rock layers are about 15 meters (about 50 feet) tall. This is an enhanced false color rendering of images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  9. Layers of 'Cabo Frio' in 'Victoria Crater' (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This view of 'Victoria crater' is looking southeast from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cabo Frio.' The small crater in the right foreground, informally known as 'Sputnik,' is about 20 meters (about 65 feet) away from the rover, the tip of the spectacular, layered, Cabo Frio promontory itself is about 200 meters (about 650 feet) away from the rover, and the exposed rock layers are about 15 meters (about 50 feet) tall. This is a red-blue stereo anaglyph generated from images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 430-nanometer filters.

  10. Water and waste water management Generation Victoria - Latrobe Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmore, G. [Hazelwood Power Corporation, VIC (Australia); Pacific Power (International) Pty. Ltd., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    Water is a necessary resource for coal fired power plant and waste water is generated. The efficient management of water and waste water systems becomes an important operational environmental factor. This paper describes the development and implementation of a ten year water and waste water management strategy for the Latrobe Valley Group of brown coal fired power stations in Victoria. In early 1991, a team was put together of representatives from each power site to develop the strategy entitled `SECV Latrobe Valley Water and Wastewater Management Strategy`. The strategy was developed with extensive public consultation, which was a factor in protracting the process such that the final document was not promulgated until late 1992. However, the final comprehensive document endorsed and agreed by management, has since attracted favourable comment as a model of its type. (author). 2 figs.

  11. Water and waste water management Generation Victoria - Latrobe Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longmore, G.

    1995-01-01

    Water is a necessary resource for coal fired power plant and waste water is generated. The efficient management of water and waste water systems becomes an important operational environmental factor. This paper describes the development and implementation of a ten year water and waste water management strategy for the Latrobe Valley Group of brown coal fired power stations in Victoria. In early 1991, a team was put together of representatives from each power site to develop the strategy entitled 'SECV Latrobe Valley Water and Wastewater Management Strategy'. The strategy was developed with extensive public consultation, which was a factor in protracting the process such that the final document was not promulgated until late 1992. However, the final comprehensive document endorsed and agreed by management, has since attracted favourable comment as a model of its type. (author). 2 figs

  12. Changes in cytochrome-oxidase oxidation in the occipital cortex during visual simulation: improvement in sensitivity by the determination of the wavelength dependence of the differential pathlength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl-Bareis, Matthias; Nolte, Christian; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Horst, Susanne; Scholz, J.; Obrig, Hellmuth; Villringer, Arno

    1998-01-01

    In this study we assess changes in the hemoglobin oxygenation (oxy-Hb, deoxy-Hb) and the Cytochrome-C-Oxidase redox state (Cyt-ox) in the occipital cortex during visual stimulation by near infrared spectroscopy. For the calculation of changes in oxy-Hb, deoxy-Hb and Cyt-ox from attenuation data via a modified Beer-Lambert equation, the wavelength dependence of the differential pathlength factor (DPF), i.e. the ratio of the mean optical pathlength and the physical light-source-detector separation, has to be taken into account. The wavelength dependence of the DPF determines the crosstalk between the different concentrations and is therefore essential for a high sensitivity. Here a simple method is suggested to estimate the wavelength dependence of the DPF((lambda) ) from pulse induced attenuation changes measured on the head of adult humans. The essence is that the DPF is the ratio of the attenuation changes over absorption coefficient changes and the spectral form of the pulse correlated absorption coefficient change is proportional to the extinction coefficient of blood. Indicators for the validity of the DPF((lambda) ) derived for wavelengths between 700 and 970 nm are the stability of the calculated oxy-Hb, deoxy-Hb and Cyt-ox signals with variations of the wavelength range included for their calculation and its overall agreement with the data available from the literature. The DPF derived from pulse measurements was used for the analysis of attenuation data from cortical stimulations. We show that Cyt-ox in the occipital cortex of human subjects is transiently oxidized during visual stimulation.

  13. Highly sensitive colour change system within slight differences in metal ion concentrations based on homo-binuclear complex formation equilibrium for visual threshold detection of trace metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuguchi, Hitoshi; Atsumi, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Keigo; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Kudo, Yuki; Endo, Masatoshi; Yokota, Fumihiko; Shida, Junichi; Yotsuyanagi, Takao

    2004-01-01

    A new technique of expressing slight differences in metal ion concentrations by clear difference in colour was established for visual threshold detection of trace metal ions. The proposed method is based on rapid change of the mole fraction of the homo-binuclear complex (M 2 L) about a ligand in a narrow range of the total metal ion concentration (M T ) in a small excess, in case the second metal ion is bound to the reagent molecule which can bind two metal ions. Theoretical simulations showed that the highly sensitive colour change within slight differences in metal ion concentrations would be realized under the following conditions: (i) both of the stepwise formation constants of complex species are sufficiently large; (ii) the stepwise formation constant of the 1:1 complex (ML) is larger than that of M 2 L; and (iii) the absorption spectrum of M 2 L is far apart from the other species in the visible region. Furthermore, the boundary of the colour region in M T would be readily controlled by the total ligand concentration (L T ). Based on this theory, the proposed model was verified with the 3,3'-bis[bis(carboxymethyl)amino]methyl derivatives of sulphonephthalein dyes such as xylenol orange (XO), methylthymol blue (MTB), and methylxylenol blue (MXB), which can bind two metal ions at both ends of a π-electron conjugated system. The above-mentioned model was proved with the iron(III)-XO system at pH 2. In addition, MTB and MXB were suitable reagents for the visual threshold detection of trivalent metal ions such as iron(III), aluminium(III), gallium(III) and indium(III) ion in slightly acidic media. The proposed method has been applied successfully as a screening test for aluminium(III) ion in river water sampled at the downstream area of an old mine

  14. Critical Comments on Brian Victoria's "Engaged Buddhism: Skeleton in the Closet?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Miyata

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In "Engaged Buddhism: A Skeleton in the Closet?" (Vol. 2 Brian Daizen Victoria claims, among other things, that Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871-1944, founder of the Soka Kyoiku Gakkai (forebear of the Soka Gakkai and Soka Gakkai International, was an active supporter of the Japanese wars of aggression. In this response, Koichi Miyata argues that Victoria's claims rest on the highly selective use of quotes, and ignore key interpretative issues associated with Japanese imperial fascism and its underlying belief structures. Miyata discusses the significance of Makiguchi's arrest and imprisonment under a law specifically aimed at opponents of the war efforts, in his analysis of critical lapses in Victoria's article.

  15. Evidence for Non-Opponent Coding of Colour Information in Human Visual Cortex: Selective Loss of “Green” Sensitivity in a Subject with Damaged Ventral Occipito-Temporal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Franziska G.; Plant, Gordon T.; James-Galton, Merle; Barbur, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Damage to ventral occipito-temporal extrastriate visual cortex leads to the syndrome of prosopagnosia often with coexisting cerebral achromatopsia. A patient with this syndrome resulting in a left upper homonymous quadrantanopia, prosopagnosia, and incomplete achromatopsia is described. Chromatic sensitivity was assessed at a number of locations in the intact visual field using a dynamic luminance contrast masking technique that isolates the use of colour signals. In normal subjects chromatic detection thresholds form an elliptical contour when plotted in the Commission Internationale d’Eclairage, (x-y), chromaticity diagram. Because the extraction of colour signals in early visual processing involves opponent mechanisms, subjects with Daltonism (congenital red/green loss of sensitivity) show symmetric increase in thresholds towards the long wavelength (“red”) and middle wavelength (“green”) regions of the spectrum locus. This is also the case with acquired loss of chromatic sensitivity as a result of retinal or optic nerve disease. Our patient’s results were an exception to this rule. Whilst his chromatic sensitivity in the central region of the visual field was reduced symmetrically for both “red/green” and “yellow/blue” directions in colour space, the subject’s lower left quadrant showed a marked asymmetry in “red/green” thresholds with the greatest loss of sensitivity towards the “green” region of the spectrum locus. This spatially localized asymmetric loss of “green” but not “red” sensitivity has not been reported previously in human vision. Such loss is consistent with selective damage of neural substrates in the visual cortex that process colour information, but are spectrally non-opponent. PMID:27956924

  16. Ictal headache and visual sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piccioli, M.; Parisi, P.; Tisei, P.; Villa, M. P.; Buttinelli, C.; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenite, D. G. A.

    Migrainous headache is reported by patients with photosensitive epilepsy, whereas their relatives complain more often about headache than the relatives of patients with other types of epilepsy. We therefore investigated whether headache itself could be an epileptic symptom related to

  17. Did the use of chloroform by Queen Victoria influence its acceptance in obstetric practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, H; Connor, T

    1996-10-01

    Examination of contemporaneous publications suggests that the use of chloroform by Queen Victoria in 1853 did not result in the major breakthrough in the acceptability of obstetric anaesthesia with which the event has been credited by some later writers.

  18. Conserved Receptor-Binding Domains of Lake Victoria Marburgvirus and Zaire Ebolavirus Bind a Shared Receptor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuhn, Jens H; Radoshitzky, Sheli R; Guth, Alexander C; Warfield, Kelly L; Li, Wenhui; Vincent, Martin J; Towner, Jonathan S; Nichol, Stuart T; Bavari, Sina; Choe, Hyeryun

    2006-01-01

    .... Both fragments specifically inhibited replication of infectious Zaire ebolavirus, as well as entry of retroviruses pseudotyped with either Lake Victoria marburgvirus or Zaire ebolavirus GP(sub 1,2...

  19. Mitigation of environmental problems in Lake Victoria, East Africa: causal chain and policy options analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odada, Eric O; Olago, Daniel O; Kulindwa, Kassim; Ntiba, Micheni; Wandiga, Shem

    2004-02-01

    Lake Victoria is an international waterbody that offers the riparian communities a large number of extremely important environmental services. Over the past three decades or so, the lake has come under increasing and considerable pressure from a variety of interlinked human activities such as overfishing, species introductions, industrial pollution, eutrophication, and sedimentation. In this paper we examine the root causes for overfishing and pollution in Lake Victoria and give possible policy options that can help remediate or mitigate the environmental degradation.

  20. Victoria Stodden: Scholarly Communication in the Era of Big Data and Big Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Stodden, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Victoria Stodden gave the keynote address for Open Access Week 2015. "Scholarly communication in the era of big data and big computation" was sponsored by the University Libraries, Computational Modeling and Data Analytics, the Department of Computer Science, the Department of Statistics, the Laboratory for Interdisciplinary Statistical Analysis (LISA), and the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute. Victoria Stodden is an associate professor in the Graduate School of Library and Information Scien...

  1. Validation of New Crack Monitoring Technique for Victoria Class High-Pressure Air Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Defence Research and Development Canada Recherche et développement pour la défense Canada Validation of new crack monitoring technique for Victoria ...Validation of new crack monitoring technique for Victoria class high-pressure air bottles Ian Thompson John R. MacKay Defence Research and Development...Canada Scientific Report DRDC-RDDC-2014-R81 June 2014 © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada (Department of National Defence), 2014 © Sa Majesté

  2. Analysis of an Organisation: A University of the Third Age (U3A), Mornington, Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is two fold: to look at Mornington U3A in organisational terms and then look at U3AM as a loosely coupled system. One outcome of the study would be to undertake further analyses of U3As in Victoria to determine the levels of bureaucracy under which each operates. Questions to be asked: are U3As in Victoria operating as…

  3. Las pinturas esquemáticas de la Cueva de Victoria (Rincón de la Victoria, Málaga : propuesta interpretativa del friso A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Maura Mijares

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se recoge en este artículo nuestra reciente revisión del conjunto pictórico postpaleolítico de la cueva de la Victoria. A partir de una documentación exhaustiva de los motivos representados y del análisis de su iconografía se proponen hipótesis de carácter interpretativo.In this article we gather the recent revision of the postpalaeolithic pictorial collection in the cave of la Victoria. Starting from an exhaustive documentation of the motifs and the analysis of its iconography, we propose some interpretative hypothesis.

  4. A once in a generation upgrade to ICT systems used for public transport in Victoria; Umfassende Modernisierung. Neue ICT-Systeme fuer den SPNV in Victoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerton, Richard [Funkwerk Information Technologies York Ltd., York (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Funkwerk IT is supplying a state-of-the-art timetable and fleet planning and management system to the Australian State of Victoria. Through its agency, the Department of Transport, Victoria is undertaking a once in a generation upgrade to key ICT systems that are used for operational control of the metropolitan and regional rail networks. The new system requires a tight coupling of both planning and real-time management systems. Using its products TrainPlan, ResourcePlan and ResourceManager Funkwerk IT provides an ideal platform to cover these requirements. (orig.)

  5. The bone microstructure of polar "hypsilophodontid" dinosaurs from Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Holly N; Rich, Thomas H; Vickers-Rich, Patricia

    2018-01-18

    High-latitude (i.e., "polar") Mesozoic fauna endured months of twilight and relatively low mean annual temperatures. Yet non-avian dinosaurs flourished in this taxing environment. Fossils of basal ornithopod dinosaurs ("hypsilophodontids") are common in the Early Cretaceous high-latitude sediments of Victoria, Australia, and four taxa have been described; although their ontogenetic histories are largely unexplored. In the present study, eighteen tibiae and femora were utilized in the first multi-specimen ontogenetic histological analysis of Australian polar hypsilophodontids. The sample consists of eleven individuals from the Flat Rocks locality (Late Valanginian or Barremian), and five from the Dinosaur Cove locality (Albian). In both groups, growth was most rapid during the first three years, and skeletal maturity occurred between five and seven years. There is a weak asymptotic trend in a plot of growth mark count versus femur length, with considerable individual variation. Histology suggests two genera are present within the Dinosaur Cove sample, but bone microstructure alone could not distinguish genera within the Flat Rocks sample, or across the two geologically separate (~ 26 Ma) localities. Additional histologic sampling, combined with morphological analyses, may facilitate further differentiation between ontogenetic, individual, and species variation.

  6. Sand dune movement in the Victoria Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Mary C.; Ewing, Ryan C.; Finnegan, David; McGowan, Hamish A.

    2009-08-01

    We use vertical aerial photographs and LiDAR topographic survey data to estimate dune migration rates in the Victoria Valley dunefield, Antarctica, between 1961 and 2001. Results confirm that the dunes migrated an average of 1.5 m/year. These values are consistent with other estimates of dune migration from cold climate deserts and are significantly lower than estimates from warm deserts. Dune migration rates are retarded by the presence of entrained ice, soil moisture and a reversing wind regime. Dune absorption, merging and limb extension are apparent from the time-series images and account for significant changes in dune form and the field-scale dune pattern. Dune-field pattern analysis shows an overall increase in dune-field organization with an increase in mean dune spacing and a reduction in total crest length and defect density. These data suggest that dunes in other cold desert environments on Earth, Mars or Titan, that may also have inter-bedded frozen laminae, still have the potential to migrate and organize, albeit at lower rates than dunes in warm deserts.

  7. The Victoria and Alfred Waterfront as playground for Capetonians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanette Ferreira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper contributes to the exploration and understanding of the social geographies of public space in the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront (V&AW in Cape Town. The aim is to understand Capetonians’ (visitors and employees perceptions of the V&AW as public, leisure, shopping and working spaces. The appropriate literature on waterfront developments in providing public, working and leisure space is reviewed. Two questionnaire surveys (visitors and employees as well as eight unstructured interviews with important role players in the tourism industry of Cape Town were conducted. Findings revealed the most important reasons for Capetonians to visit or use certain spaces in the V&AW, the public open spaces they liked and how they perceived the V&AW as an inclusive space. The research also sought the respondents’ views on how the certain public spaces can be improved; what new activities and retail shops can be introduced; their opinions about the affordability of restaurants and parking; and how the V&AW can improve to cater for the needs of the Waterfront’s employees. Recommendations are made for making the V&AW more functional and accessible to Capetonians.

  8. Visualization of the Invisible, Explanation of the Unknown, Ruggedization of the Unstable: Sensitivity Analysis, Virtual Tryout and Robust Design through Systematic Stochastic Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwickl, Titus; Carleer, Bart; Kubli, Waldemar

    2005-01-01

    In the past decade, sheet metal forming simulation became a well established tool to predict the formability of parts. In the automotive industry, this has enabled significant reduction in the cost and time for vehicle design and development, and has helped to improve the quality and performance of vehicle parts. However, production stoppages for troubleshooting and unplanned die maintenance, as well as production quality fluctuations continue to plague manufacturing cost and time. The focus therefore has shifted in recent times beyond mere feasibility to robustness of the product and process being engineered. Ensuring robustness is the next big challenge for the virtual tryout / simulation technology.We introduce new methods, based on systematic stochastic simulations, to visualize the behavior of the part during the whole forming process -- in simulation as well as in production. Sensitivity analysis explains the response of the part to changes in influencing parameters. Virtual tryout allows quick exploration of changed designs and conditions. Robust design and manufacturing guarantees quality and process capability for the production process. While conventional simulations helped to reduce development time and cost by ensuring feasible processes, robustness engineering tools have the potential for far greater cost and time savings.Through examples we illustrate how expected and unexpected behavior of deep drawing parts may be tracked down, identified and assigned to the influential parameters. With this knowledge, defects can be eliminated or springback can be compensated e.g.; the response of the part to uncontrollable noise can be predicted and minimized. The newly introduced methods enable more reliable and predictable stamping processes in general

  9. Visualization of the Invisible, Explanation of the Unknown, Ruggedization of the Unstable: Sensitivity Analysis, Virtual Tryout and Robust Design through Systematic Stochastic Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwickl, Titus; Carleer, Bart; Kubli, Waldemar

    2005-08-01

    In the past decade, sheet metal forming simulation became a well established tool to predict the formability of parts. In the automotive industry, this has enabled significant reduction in the cost and time for vehicle design and development, and has helped to improve the quality and performance of vehicle parts. However, production stoppages for troubleshooting and unplanned die maintenance, as well as production quality fluctuations continue to plague manufacturing cost and time. The focus therefore has shifted in recent times beyond mere feasibility to robustness of the product and process being engineered. Ensuring robustness is the next big challenge for the virtual tryout / simulation technology. We introduce new methods, based on systematic stochastic simulations, to visualize the behavior of the part during the whole forming process — in simulation as well as in production. Sensitivity analysis explains the response of the part to changes in influencing parameters. Virtual tryout allows quick exploration of changed designs and conditions. Robust design and manufacturing guarantees quality and process capability for the production process. While conventional simulations helped to reduce development time and cost by ensuring feasible processes, robustness engineering tools have the potential for far greater cost and time savings. Through examples we illustrate how expected and unexpected behavior of deep drawing parts may be tracked down, identified and assigned to the influential parameters. With this knowledge, defects can be eliminated or springback can be compensated e.g.; the response of the part to uncontrollable noise can be predicted and minimized. The newly introduced methods enable more reliable and predictable stamping processes in general.

  10. Mini-FLOTAC and Kato-Katz: helminth eggs watching on the shore of Lake Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barda, Beatrice; Zepherine, Henry; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Burioni, Roberto; Clementi, Massimo; Albonico, Marco

    2013-07-31

    One of the challenges for monitoring helminth control programmes based on preventive chemotherapy is the lack of a copro-parasitological gold-standard method that combines good sensitivity with quantitative performance, low cost, and easy-to-learn technique.The aim of our study was to evaluate and compare, the WHO recommended quantitative diagnostic technique (Kato-Katz) and the Mini-FLOTAC. Mini-FLOTAC is an innovative method based on floatation of helminths eggs with two different solutions (FS2 and FS7) using a close system (Fill-FLOTAC) with 5% fixative. Kato-Katz was performed following WHO recommendation. The study was carried out in a rural part of Tanzania, close to Lake Victoria, where the laboratory facilities are fairly scarce, and the basic technique used in the local laboratory (direct smear) was taken as reference standard. 201 children were screened for intestinal helminths and 91% of them were found to be positive. The agreement among the three techniques was calculated with k Cohen coefficient and was fairly good (k = 0.4), although the Mini-FLOTAC results were more sensitive for hookworm (98%) with FS2, and for S.mansoni (90%) with FS7 followed by Kato-Katz (91% and 60% respectively) and direct smear (30% and 10% respectively). A good agreement was found between Mini-FLOTAC and Kato-Katz (k = 0.81) with FS7 (k = 0.76) for hookworm diagnosis and a fairly good one for S.mansoni diagnosis (k = 0.5). For both infections we had a poor agreement between the two quantitative techniques and the direct smear (kMcMaster) and in different settings where other soil-transmitted helminths are also endemic.

  11. Travel Destinations and Sexual Behavior as Indicators of Antibiotic Resistant Shigella Strains--Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Courtney R; Sutton, Brett; Valcanis, Mary; Kirk, Martyn; Walker, Cathryn; Lalor, Karin; Stephens, Nicola

    2016-03-15

    Knowledge of relationships between antibiotic susceptibility of Shigella isolates and travel destination or other risk factors can assist clinicians in determining appropriate antibiotic therapy prior to susceptibility testing. We describe relationships between resistance patterns and risk factors for acquisition in Shigella isolates using routinely collected data for notified cases of shigellosis between 2008 and 2012 in Victoria, Australia. We included all shigellosis patients notified during the study period, where Shigella isolates were tested for antimicrobial sensitivity using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoints. Cases were interviewed to collect data on risk factors, including recent travel. Data were analyzed using Stata 13.1 to examine associations between risk factors and resistant strains. Of the 500 cases of shigellosis, 249 were associated with overseas travel and 210 were locally acquired. Forty-six of 51 isolates of Indian origin displayed decreased susceptibility or resistance to ciprofloxacin. All isolates of Indonesian origin were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Twenty-six travel-related isolates were resistant to all tested oral antimicrobials. Male-to-male sexual contact was the primary risk factor for 80% (120/150) of locally acquired infections among adult males, characterized by distinct periodic Shigella sonnei outbreaks. Clinicians should consider travel destination as a marker for resistance to common antimicrobials in returning travelers, where severe disease requires empirical treatment prior to receipt of individual sensitivity testing results. Repeated outbreaks of locally acquired shigellosis among men who have sex with men highlight the importance of prevention and control measures in this high-risk group. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada: Considering an Active Leech River Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukovica, J.; Molnar, S.; Ghofrani, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Leech River fault is situated on Vancouver Island near the city of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. The 60km transpressional reverse fault zone runs east to west along the southern tip of Vancouver Island, dividing the lithologic units of Jurassic-Cretaceous Leech River Complex schists to the north and Eocene Metchosin Formation basalts to the south. This fault system poses a considerable hazard due to its proximity to Victoria and 3 major hydroelectric dams. The Canadian seismic hazard model for the 2015 National Building Code of Canada (NBCC) considered the fault system to be inactive. However, recent paleoseismic evidence suggests there to be at least 2 surface-rupturing events to have exceeded a moment magnitude (M) of 6.5 within the last 15,000 years (Morell et al. 2017). We perform a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) for the city of Victoria with consideration of the Leech River fault as an active source. A PSHA for Victoria which replicates the 2015 NBCC estimates is accomplished to calibrate our PSHA procedure. The same seismic source zones, magnitude recurrence parameters, and Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) are used. We replicate the uniform hazard spectrum for a probability of exceedance of 2% in 50 years for a 500 km radial area around Victoria. An active Leech River fault zone is then added; known length and dip. We are determining magnitude recurrence parameters based on a Gutenberg-Richter relationship for the Leech River fault from various catalogues of the recorded seismicity (M 2-3) within the fault's vicinity and the proposed paleoseismic events. We seek to understand whether inclusion of an active Leech River fault source will significantly increase the probabilistic seismic hazard for Victoria. Morell et al. 2017. Quaternary rupture of a crustal fault beneath Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. GSA Today, 27, doi: 10.1130/GSATG291A.1

  13. The epidemiology of hip fractures across western Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Kara L; Sajjad, Muhammad A; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Kotowicz, Mark A; Livingston, Patricia M; Khasraw, Mustafa; Hakkennes, Sharon; Dunning, Trisha L; Brumby, Susan; Page, Richard S; Pedler, Daryl; Sutherland, Alasdair; Venkatesh, Svetha; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Williams, Lana J; Pasco, Julie A

    2018-03-01

    Hip fractures are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Hip fracture incidence varies across different levels of accessibility/remoteness and socioeconomic status (SES). As part of the Ageing, Chronic Disease and Injury Study, we aimed to map the pattern of hip fractures across the western region of the Australian state of Victoria, which contains a range of remoteness levels and SES. Data on hip fractures resulting in hospital admission were extracted from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset (VAED) for men and women aged 40+years during 2010-2013 inclusive. An age-adjusted incidence rate (per 10,000population/year) was calculated for the entire region. Crude incidence rates and length of acute care hospital stay (excluding rehabilitation) were calculated for each Local Government Area (LGA). The impact of aggregated age, accessibility/remoteness index of Australia (ARIA) and SES on hip fracture rates aggregated across LGAs was determined using Poisson regression. For men, the age-standardised rate of hospitalisations for hip fracture across the whole region was 19.2 per 10,000population/year (95%CI 18.0-20.4) and for women, 40.0 (95%CI 38.3-41.7). The highest incidence rates for both sexes occurred in the less accessible LGAs of Yarriambiack and Hindmarsh, as well as the LGA with the lowest SES, Central Goldfields. In both sexes, approximately two thirds of individuals were discharged from acute hospital care within 14days. Increasing age, higher remoteness and lower SES were all associated with higher hip fracture rates. Crude incidence rates varied by location. Given that a high proportion of patients had acute hospital care of ≤14days, and accessibility and SES were associated with hip fracture rates, these results can inform policy and provide a model for other groups to conduct similar research in their local environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of cruise ship emissions in Victoria, BC, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplawski, Karla; Setton, Eleanor; McEwen, Bryan; Hrebenyk, Dan; Graham, Mark; Keller, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Characterization of the effects of cruise ship emissions on local air quality is scarce. Our objective was to investigate community level concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and sulphur dioxide (SO 2) associated with cruise ships in James Bay, Victoria, British Columbia (BC), Canada. Data obtained over four years (2005-2008) at the nearest air quality network site located 3.5 km from the study area, a CALPUFF modeling exercise (2007), and continuous measurements taken in the James Bay community over a three-month period during the 2009 cruise ship season were examined. Concentrations of PM 2.5 and nitrogen oxide (NO) were elevated on weekends with ships present with winds from the direction of the terminal to the monitoring station. SO 2 displayed the greatest impact from the presence of cruise ships in the area. Network data showed peaks in hourly SO 2 when ships were in port during all years. The CALPUFF modeling analysis found predicted 24-hour SO 2 levels to exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines of 20 μg m -3 for approximately 3% of 24-hour periods, with a maximum 24-hour concentration in the community of 41 μg m -3; however, the CALPUFF model underestimated concentrations when predicted and measured concentrations were compared at the network site. Continuous monitoring at the location in the community predicted to experience highest SO 2 concentrations measured a maximum 24-hour concentration of 122 μg m -3 and 16% of 24-hour periods were above the WHO standard. The 10-minute concentrations of SO 2 reached up to 599 μg m -3 and exceeded the WHO 10-minute SO 2 guideline (500 μg m -3) for 0.03% of 10-minute periods. No exceedences of BC Provincial or Canadian guidelines or standards were observed.

  15. Regional nitrogen budget of the Lake Victoria Basin, East Africa: syntheses, uncertainties and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minghua; Brandt, Patric; Pelster, David; Rufino, Mariana C.; Robinson, Timothy; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    Using the net anthropogenic nitrogen input (NANI) approach we estimated the N budget for the Lake Victoria Basin in East Africa. The NANI of the basin ranged from 887 to 3008 kg N km-2 yr-1 (mean: 1827 kg N km-2 yr-1) for the period 1995-2000. The net nitrogen release at basin level is due primarily to livestock and human consumption of feed and foods, contributing between 69% and 85%. Atmospheric oxidized N deposition contributed approximately 14% to the NANI of the Lake Victoria Basin, while either synthetic N fertilizer imports or biological N fixations only contributed less than 6% to the regional NANI. Due to the low N imports of feed and food products (export to Lake Victoria accounted for 16%, which is much lower than for watersheds located in Europe and USA (25%). A significant reduction of the uncertainty of our N budget estimate for Lake Victoria Basin would be possible if better data on livestock systems and riverine N export were available. Our study indicates that at present soil N mining is the main source of nitrogen in the Lake Victoria Basin. Thus, sustainable N management requires increasing agricultural N inputs to guarantee food security and rehabilitation and protection of soils to minimize environmental costs. Moreover, to reduce N pollution of the lake, improving management of human and animal wastes needs to be carefully considered in future.

  16. Identifying Water Insecurity Hotspots in the Lake Victoria Basin of Eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricope, N. G.; Shukla, S.; Linard, C.; Gaughan, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Lake Victoria Basin (LVB), one of Africa's most populated transboundary watersheds and home to more than 30 million inhabitants, is increasingly challenged by both water quality problems and water quantity shortages against a backdrop of climate variability and change; and other environmental challenges. As a result of pollution, droughts, more erratic rainfall, heightened demand for water for both consumption and agricultural needs as well as differences in water allocation among the riverine countries of Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, Rwanda and Burundi, many parts of this region are already experiencing water scarcity on a recurrent basis. Furthermore, given projected annual population growth rates of 2.5 to 3.5% for the next 20 years, water shortages are likely to be exacerbated in the future. Analyzing historical changes in the water resources of this region is hence important to identify "hot spots" that might be most sensitive to future changes in climate and demography. In this presentation, we report the findings of a comprehensive analysis performed to (i) examine changes in water resources of LVB in recent decades and (ii) identify overlap between regions of significant changes in water resources with land cover changes and high population centers that are also projected to grow the fastest over the coming decades. We first utilize several satellite, stations and model(s) based climatic and hydrologic datasets to assess changes in water resources in this region. We then use a quality-controlled Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover product to identify areas of significant land cover changes. Simultaneously we use projections of gridded population density based on differential growth rates for rural and urban population to estimate fastest projected human population growth for 2030 and 2050 relative to 2010 data. Using the outcomes of these change analysis we identify water insecurity hotspots in the LVB.

  17. Fish as bioindicators in aquatic environmental pollution assessment: A case study in Lake Victoria wetlands, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naigaga, I.; Kaiser, H.; Muller, W. J.; Ojok, L.; Mbabazi, D.; Magezi, G.; Muhumuza, E.

    Growing human population and industrialization have led to the pollution of most aquatic ecosystems and consequent deterioration in environmental water quality. Indicator organisms are needed to improve assessment programmes on the ecological impacts of anthropogenic activities on the aquatic environment. Fish have been widely documented as useful indicators of environmental water quality because of their differential sensitivity to pollution. This study investigated the environmental water quality of selected wetland ecosystems using fish as biological indicators. Fish community structure in relation to water quality was assessed in five wetlands along the shoreline of Lake Victoria from August 2006 to June 2008. Four urban wetlands were variedly impacted by anthropogenic activities while one rural wetland was less impacted, and served as a reference site. Fish species diversity, abundance and richness were assessed, and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to evaluate the relationship between the fish communities and environmental variables. Results revealed that urban effluent impacted negatively on water quality and consequently the fish community structure. A total of 29 fish species were recorded throughout the study with the lowest number of 15 species recorded in the most impacted site. Shannon diversity and Margalef species richness indices were highest at the references site and lowest at the most impacted site. Wetland haplochromis species dominated the reference site, while oreochromis species dominated the most impacted site. The inshore locations registered higher species diversity and low species richness than the offshore locations. Low dissolved oxygen, pH, secchi depth and high electrical conductivity, total phosphorous, and total nitrogen were strongly associated with the effluent-impacted sites and greatly influenced the fish community structure. This study recommends the use of fish as valuable biological indicators in aquatic

  18. Excessive sensitivity to uncertain visual input in L-dopa induced dyskinesias in Parkinson’s disease: further implications for cerebellar involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James eStevenson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available When faced with visual uncertainty during motor performance, humans rely more on predictive forward models and proprioception and attribute lesser importance to the ambiguous visual feedback. Though disrupted predictive control is typical of patients with cerebellar disease, sensorimotor deficits associated with the involuntary and often unconscious nature of L-dopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson’s disease (PD suggests dyskinetic subjects may also demonstrate impaired predictive motor control. Methods: We investigated the motor performance of 9 dyskinetic and 10 non-dyskinetic PD subjects on and off L-dopa, and of 10 age-matched control subjects, during a large-amplitude, overlearned, visually-guided tracking task. Ambiguous visual feedback was introduced by adding ‘jitter’ to a moving target that followed a Lissajous pattern. Root mean square (RMS tracking error was calculated, and ANOVA, robust multivariate linear regression and linear dynamical system analyses were used to determine the contribution of speed and ambiguity to tracking performance. Results: Increasing target ambiguity and speed contributed significantly more to the RMS error of dyskinetic subjects off medication. L-dopa improved the RMS tracking performance of both PD groups. At higher speeds, controls and PDs without dyskinesia were able to effectively de-weight ambiguous visual information. Conclusions: PDs’ visually-guided motor performance degrades with visual jitter and speed of movement to a greater degree compared to age-matched controls. However, there are fundamental differences in PDs with and without dyskinesia: subjects without dyskinesia are generally slow, and less responsive to dynamic changes in motor task requirements but, PDs with dyskinesia there was a trade-off between overall performance and inappropriate reliance on ambiguous visual feedback. This is likely associated with functional changes in posterior parietal-ponto-cerebellar pathways.

  19. Analyses of CsI aerosol deposition tests in WIND project with ART and VICTORIA codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuchi, Y.; Shibazaki, H.; Kudo, T.

    2000-01-01

    Deposition behavior of cesium iodide (CsI) was analyzed with ART and VICTORIA-92 codes for a test of the aerosol re-vaporization test series performed in WIND project at JAERI. In the test analyzed, CsI aerosol was injected into piping of test section where metaboric acid (HBO 2 ) was placed in advance on the floor area. It was confirmed in the present analysis that similar results on the CsI deposition were obtained between ART and VICTORIA when influences of chemical interactions were negligibly small. The analysis with VICTORIA agreed satisfactorily with the test results in analytical cases that cesium metaborate (CsBO 2 ) was injected into the test section instead of CsI to simulate the pre-existence of HBO 2 effect. (author)

  20. Understanding virtual water flows: A multiregion input-output case study of Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Manfred

    2009-09-01

    This article explains and interprets virtual water flows from the well-established perspective of input-output analysis. Using a case study of the Australian state of Victoria, it demonstrates that input-output analysis can enumerate virtual water flows without systematic and unknown truncation errors, an issue which has been largely absent from the virtual water literature. Whereas a simplified flow analysis from a producer perspective would portray Victoria as a net virtual water importer, enumerating the water embodiments across the full supply chain using input-output analysis shows Victoria as a significant net virtual water exporter. This study has succeeded in informing government policy in Australia, which is an encouraging sign that input-output analysis will be able to contribute much value to other national and international applications.

  1. Urbanization and mental health: psychiatric morbidity, suicide and violence in the State of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupinski, J

    1979-06-01

    Australia is one of the most urbanized countries in the world with over 85% of the population living in metropolitan and other urban areas. More important, the change from a predominantly rural society to an urbanized society has occurred within the last 100 years. To assess the effects of urbanization on mental health, rates of admissions to psychiatric institutions, suicides and violent crime in Victoria have been analysed for the last hundred years. Data on admissions to psychiatric facilities in Victoria from metropolitan, other urban and rural areas, as well as results of community health surveys carried out in metropolitan and rural areas were compared to examine for evidence of urban-rural differences in psychiatric morbidity. The findings do not support the notion that the level of psychiatric and psychosocial disorders in Victoria are related to urbanization or to urban living.

  2. VICTORIA: A mechanistic model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heams, T.J.; Williams, D.A.; Johns, N.A.; Mason, A.; Bixler, N.E.; Grimley, A.J.; Wheatley, C.J.; Dickson, L.W.; Osborn-Lee, I.; Domagala, P.; Zawadzki, S.; Rest, J.; Alexander, C.A.; Lee, R.Y.

    1992-12-01

    The VICTORIA model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a light water reactor during a severe accident is described. It has been developed by the USNRC to define the radionuclide phenomena and processes that must be considered in systems-level models used for integrated analyses of severe accident source terms. The VICTORIA code, based upon this model, predicts fission product release from the fuel, chemical reactions involving fission products, vapor and aerosol behavior, and fission product decay heating. Also included is a detailed description of how the model is implemented in VICTORIA, the numerical algorithms used, and the correlations and thermochemical data necessary for determining a solution. A description of the code structure, input and output, and a sample problem are provided

  3. Levels of toxic metals in multisectoral samples from Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongeri, D M K; Lalah, J O; Wandiga, S O; Schramm, K W; Michalke, B

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the distribution and sources of inputs of trace metals including Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb from various sources as well as Fe which is widely used in the construction industry, into Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria were investigated. The sampling sites were located up streams and down streams of four rivers (Sio, Nyamasaria, Nyando and Sondu-Miriu), in four beaches along the lake (Port Victoria, Kisumu Car Wash, Dunga and Hippo point beaches) and in three estates (Nyamasaria, Migosi and Nyawita) in Kisumu city, covering potential agrochemical and industrial sources and drinking water points, respectively. The concentrations (in microg/L) of trace metals analysed in the lake and river waters ranged from Car Wash area. The study confirmed that the concentrations of the metals accumulate downstream in the rivers both in water and sediment and these rivers are major sources of the heavy metal load into Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria.

  4. Chemodenitrification in the cryoecosystem of Lake Vida, Victoria Valley, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, N E; Gandhi, H; Trubl, G; Murray, A E

    2016-11-01

    Lake Vida, in the Victoria Valley of East Antarctica, is frozen, yet harbors liquid brine (~20% salt, >6 times seawater) intercalated in the ice below 16 m. The brine has been isolated from the surface for several thousand years. The brine conditions (permanently dark, -13.4 °C, lack of O 2 , and pH of 6.2) and geochemistry are highly unusual. For example, nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is present at a concentration among the highest reported for an aquatic environment. Only a minor 17 O anomaly was observed in N 2 O, indicating that this gas was predominantly formed in the lake. In contrast, the 17 O anomaly in nitrate (NO3-) in Lake Vida brine indicates that approximately half or more of the NO3- present is derived from atmospheric deposition. Lake Vida brine was incubated in the presence of 15 N-enriched substrates for 40 days. We did not detect microbial nitrification, dissimilatory reduction of NO3- to ammonium (NH4+), anaerobic ammonium oxidation, or denitrification of N 2 O under the conditions tested. In the presence of 15 N-enriched nitrite (NO2-), both N 2 and N 2 O exhibited substantial 15 N enrichments; however, isotopic enrichment declined with time, which is unexpected. Additions of 15 N-NO2- alone and in the presence of HgCl 2 and ZnCl 2 to aged brine at -13 °C resulted in linear increases in the δ 15 N of N 2 O with time. As HgCl 2 and ZnCl 2 are effective biocides, we interpret N 2 O production in the aged brine to be the result of chemodenitrification. With this understanding, we interpret our results from the field incubations as the result of chemodenitrification stimulated by the addition of 15 N-enriched NO2- and ZnCl 2 and determined rates of N 2 O and N 2 production of 4.11-41.18 and 0.55-1.75 nmol L -1  day -1 , respectively. If these rates are representative of natural production, the current concentration of N 2 O in Lake Vida could have been reached between 6 and 465 years. Thus, chemodenitrification alone is sufficient to explain the

  5. Stroke Incidence in Victoria, Australia—Emerging Improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin B. Clissold

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEvidence of a decline in the incidence of stroke has emerged from population-based studies. These have included retrospective and prospective cohorts. However, in Australia and other countries, government bodies and stroke foundations predict a rise in the prevalence of stroke that is anticipated to increase the burden of stroke across the entire domain of care. This increase in prevalence must be viewed as different from the decline in incidence being observed, a measure of new stroke cases. In Victoria, all public emergency department visits and public and private hospital admissions are reported to the Department of Health and Human Services and include demographic, diagnostic, and procedural/treatment information.MethodsWe obtained data from financial years 1997/1998 to 2007/2008 inclusive, for all cases with a primary stroke diagnosis (ICD-10-AM categories with associated data fields. Incident cases were established by using a 5-year clearance period.ResultsFrom 2003/2004 to 2007/2008 inclusive, there were 53,425 patients with a primary stroke or TIA diagnosis. The crude incident stroke rate for first ever stroke was 211 per 100,000 per year (95% CI 205–217 [females—205 per 100,000 per year (95% CI 196–214 and males—217 per 100,000 per year (95% CI 210–224]. The overall stroke rates were seen to significantly decline over the period [males (per 100,000 per year 227 in 2003/2004 to 202 in 2007/2008 (p = 0.0157 and females (per 100,000 per year 214 in 2003/2004 to 188 in 2007/2008 (p = 0.0482]. Ischemic stroke rates also appeared to decline; however, this change was not significant.ConclusionThese results demonstrate a significant decline in stroke incidence during the study period and may suggest evidence for effectiveness of primary and secondary prevention strategies in cerebrovascular risk factor management.

  6. Stratigraphic architecture of bedrock reference section, Victoria Crater, Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Lauren A.; Grotzinger, John P.; Hayes, Alex G.; Rubin, David M.; Squyres, Steve W.; Bell, James F.; Herkenhoff, Ken E.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has investigated bedrock outcrops exposed in several craters at Meridiani Planum, Mars, in an effort to better understand the role of surface processes in its geologic history. Opportunity has recently completed its observations of Victoria crater, which is 750 m in diameter and exposes cliffs up to ~15 m high. The plains surrounding Victoria crater are ~10 m higher in elevation than those surrounding the previously explored Endurance crater, indicating that the Victoria crater exposes a stratigraphically higher section than does the Endurance crater; however, Victoria strata overlap in elevation with the rocks exposed at the Erebus crater. Victoria crater has a well-developed geomorphic pattern of promontories and embayments that define the crater wall and that reveal thick bedsets (3–7m) of large-scale cross-bedding, interpreted as fossil eolian dunes. Opportunity was able to drive into the crater at Duck Bay, located on the western margin of Victoria crater. Data from the Microscopic Imager and Panoramic Camera reveal details about the structures, textures, and depositional and diagenetic events that influenced the Victoria bedrock. A lithostratigraphic subdivision of bedrock units was enabled by the presence of a light-toned band that lines much of the upper rim of the crater. In ascending order, three stratigraphic units are named Lyell, Smith, and Steno; Smith is the light-toned band. In the Reference Section exposed along the ingress path at Duck Bay, Smith is interpreted to represent a zone of diagenetic recrystallization; however, its upper contact also coincides with a primary erosional surface. Elsewhere in the crater the diagenetic band crosscuts the physical stratigraphy. Correlation with strata present at nearby promontory Cape Verde indicates that there is an erosional surface at the base of the cliff face that corresponds to the erosional contact below Steno. The erosional contact at the base of Cape Verde

  7. Early Retinal Defects in Fmr1−/y Mice: Toward a Critical Role of Visual Dys-Sensitivity in the Fragile X Syndrome Phenotype?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Perche

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X Syndrome (FXS is caused by a deficiency in Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP leading to global sensorial abnormalities, among which visual defects represent a critical part. These visual defects are associated with cerebral neuron immaturity especially in the primary visual cortex. However, we recently demonstrated that retinas of adult Fmr1−/y mice, the FXS murine model, present molecular, cellular and functional alterations. However, no data are currently available on the evolution pattern of such defects. As retinal stimulation through Eye Opening (EO is a crucial signal for the cerebral visual system maturation, we questioned the precocity of molecular and functional retinal phenotype. To answer this question, we studied the retinal molecular phenotype of Fmr1−/y mice before EO until adult age and the consequences of the retinal loss of Fmrp on retinal function in young and adult mice. We showed that retinal molecular defects are present before EO and remain stable at adult age, leading to electrophysiological impairments without any underlying structural changes. We underlined that loss of Fmrp leads to a wide range of defects in the retina, settled even before EO. Our work demonstrates a critical role of the sensorial dysfunction in the Fmr1−/y mice overall phenotype, and provides evidence that altered peripheral perception is a component of the sensory processing defect in FXS conditions.

  8. Early Retinal Defects in Fmr1-/y Mice: Toward a Critical Role of Visual Dys-Sensitivity in the Fragile X Syndrome Phenotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perche, Olivier; Felgerolle, Chloé; Ardourel, Maryvonne; Bazinet, Audrey; Pâris, Arnaud; Rossignol, Rafaëlle; Meyer-Dilhet, Géraldine; Mausset-Bonnefont, Anne-Laure; Hébert, Betty; Laurenceau, David; Montécot-Dubourg, Céline; Menuet, Arnaud; Bizot, Jean-Charles; Pichon, Jacques; Ranchon-Cole, Isabelle; Briault, Sylvain

    2018-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is caused by a deficiency in Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) leading to global sensorial abnormalities, among which visual defects represent a critical part. These visual defects are associated with cerebral neuron immaturity especially in the primary visual cortex. However, we recently demonstrated that retinas of adult Fmr1 -/y mice, the FXS murine model, present molecular, cellular and functional alterations. However, no data are currently available on the evolution pattern of such defects. As retinal stimulation through Eye Opening (EO) is a crucial signal for the cerebral visual system maturation, we questioned the precocity of molecular and functional retinal phenotype. To answer this question, we studied the retinal molecular phenotype of Fmr1 -/y mice before EO until adult age and the consequences of the retinal loss of Fmrp on retinal function in young and adult mice. We showed that retinal molecular defects are present before EO and remain stable at adult age, leading to electrophysiological impairments without any underlying structural changes. We underlined that loss of Fmrp leads to a wide range of defects in the retina, settled even before EO. Our work demonstrates a critical role of the sensorial dysfunction in the Fmr1 -/y mice overall phenotype, and provides evidence that altered peripheral perception is a component of the sensory processing defect in FXS conditions.

  9. Early Retinal Defects in Fmr1−/y Mice: Toward a Critical Role of Visual Dys-Sensitivity in the Fragile X Syndrome Phenotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perche, Olivier; Felgerolle, Chloé; Ardourel, Maryvonne; Bazinet, Audrey; Pâris, Arnaud; Rossignol, Rafaëlle; Meyer-Dilhet, Géraldine; Mausset-Bonnefont, Anne-Laure; Hébert, Betty; Laurenceau, David; Montécot-Dubourg, Céline; Menuet, Arnaud; Bizot, Jean-Charles; Pichon, Jacques; Ranchon-Cole, Isabelle; Briault, Sylvain

    2018-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is caused by a deficiency in Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) leading to global sensorial abnormalities, among which visual defects represent a critical part. These visual defects are associated with cerebral neuron immaturity especially in the primary visual cortex. However, we recently demonstrated that retinas of adult Fmr1−/y mice, the FXS murine model, present molecular, cellular and functional alterations. However, no data are currently available on the evolution pattern of such defects. As retinal stimulation through Eye Opening (EO) is a crucial signal for the cerebral visual system maturation, we questioned the precocity of molecular and functional retinal phenotype. To answer this question, we studied the retinal molecular phenotype of Fmr1−/y mice before EO until adult age and the consequences of the retinal loss of Fmrp on retinal function in young and adult mice. We showed that retinal molecular defects are present before EO and remain stable at adult age, leading to electrophysiological impairments without any underlying structural changes. We underlined that loss of Fmrp leads to a wide range of defects in the retina, settled even before EO. Our work demonstrates a critical role of the sensorial dysfunction in the Fmr1−/y mice overall phenotype, and provides evidence that altered peripheral perception is a component of the sensory processing defect in FXS conditions. PMID:29681800

  10. Stress Sensitive Healthy Females Show Less Left Amygdala Activation in Response to Withdrawal-Related Visual Stimuli under Passive Viewing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeken, Chris; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; De Raedt, Rudi; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; De Mey, Johan; Bossuyt, Axel; Luypaert, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The amygdalae are key players in the processing of a variety of emotional stimuli. Especially aversive visual stimuli have been reported to attract attention and activate the amygdalae. However, as it has been argued that passively viewing withdrawal-related images could attenuate instead of activate amygdalae neuronal responses, its role under…

  11. Employment Shifts in the Technical and Further Education Workforce in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Chandra

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes changes in Technical and Further Education (TAFE) work force in Victoria, Australia, that occurred during the period 1993-98. Main changes include increased participation of women, significant growth in part-time employment, decline in full-time (mainly male) employment, and an increased use of seasonal teachers. (Includes 10 figures and…

  12. Perception of Aquaculture Education to Support Further Growth of Aquaculture Industry in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awal, Sadiqul; Christie, Andrew; Watson, Matthew; Hannadige, Asanka G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The central aim of this study was to determine the perception of aquaculture educational provisions in the state of Victoria, and whether they are sufficient to ultimately support further growth of the industry. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires were formulated and distributed to participants in a variety of ways, including via…

  13. Dietary shifts in Brycinus sadleri (Pisces : Characidae) from southern Lake Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanink, J.H.; Joordens, J.C.A.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the diet of Brycinus sadleri in Lake Victoria after extensive environmental changes during the 1980s. To check for diet expansion following these changes, as observed in some other fish species, we compared our results with data from the 1950s. Stomach contents were analysed in relation

  14. Diel vertical migration of major fish-species in Lake Victoria, East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, P.C.; Wanink, J.H.; Witte, F.; Katunzi, E.F.B.; Berger, M.R.; Postma, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding of migration patterns is essential in the interpretation of hydro-acoustic stock assessment data of partly demersal partly pelagic fish stocks. In this paper we provide this kind of information for some species that were common in the Mwanza Gulf of Lake Victoria in the 1980s, before

  15. Diel vertical migration of major fish-species in Lake Victoria, East Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, KPC; Wanink, JH; Witte, F; Katunzi, EFB; Berger, MR; Postma, DJ

    2004-01-01

    Understanding of migration patterns is essential in the interpretation of hydro-acoustic stock assessment data of partly demersal partly pelagic fish stocks. In this paper we provide this kind of information for some species that were common in the Mwanza Gulf of Lake Victoria in the 1980s, before

  16. Communicating Risk with Parents: Exploring the Methods and Beliefs of Outdoor Education Coordinators in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallat, Clare

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the risk communication strategies currently being employed by seven outdoor education co-ordinators in Government schools in Victoria, Australia. Of particular interest are the beliefs and assumptions held by these co-ordinators in relation to communicating risk with parents. Current policy stipulates that parents must be…

  17. medical recipients of the victoria cross during the anglo-boer war

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ofall orders ofchivalry - the most enviable order ofthe. Victoria Cross.' MEDICAL .... Major Babtie, a Scot by birth, obtained his Bachelor of Medicine in 1880 and entered the Army ..... a personality type that is given to this kind of action? Will one.

  18. Supervision and Satisfaction among School Psychologists: An Empirical Study of Professionals in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielking, Monica; Moore, Susan; Jimerson, Shane R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the supervision arrangements and job satisfaction among school psychologists in Victoria, Australia. Participation in professional supervision was explored in relation to the type of employment and job satisfaction. The results revealed that the frequency of participation in supervision activities was less than optimal, with…

  19. Water hyacinth hotspots in the Ugandan waters of Lake Victoria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water hyacinth invaded Lake Victoria in the 1980s and, by 1998, had attained peak coverage of approximately 2 000 ha in the Ugandan waters of the lake. Control interventions, especially via biological means, significantly reduced the weed's coverage to non-nuisance levels (<10 ha) by 1999. Although resurgence was ...

  20. Nile perch fish processing waste along Lake Victoria in East Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In East Africa, Nile perch fish processing into chilled fish fillet for export along Lake Victoria generate large proportions of both solid and liquid wastes. However, no thorough auditing and characterization of the waste has been done that would guide potential value addition through bioconversions and waste management.

  1. "Embodied Knowing": Exploring the Founding of the Melbourne Rudolf Steiner School in 1970S Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Education in Victoria, Australia not only underwent significant change in the 1970s, but was witness to a widespread educational reform project. Whilst exploration of the more widespread alternatives has been of some interest, the smaller progressive traditions that emerged in some ways "alongside" the broader reforms have rarely been…

  2. The Killing of the Workers' Educational Association of Victoria: A Myth Challenged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadswell, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    On 21 March 1941, the Council of the Workers' Educational Association of Victoria, Australia, (the Association) voted the organisation out of existence. The demise was in no way contemplated, and there was no practical reason why the Council acted in the way it did. This paper is the story of the destruction of a successful adult education…

  3. Existence versus extinction : Human-hippo conflicts in Lake Victoria Area, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, A.W.C.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    This PhD dissertation examines the role of different organisations and affected communities in human-wildlife governance, with a focus on human-hippo conflicts in Lake Victoria Area, Kenya. The hippo population in this area is under pressure due to human activities that impact on the wetland

  4. Nile perch fish processing waste along Lake Victoria in East Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nile perch fish processing waste along Lake Victoria in East Africa: Auditing and characterization. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  5. Collapse and reorganization of a food web of Mwanza Gulf, Lake Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Downing, A.S.; Van Nes, E.H.; Janse, J.H.; Witte, F.; Cornelissen, I.J.M.; Scheffer, M.; Mooij, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Lake Victoria (in East Africa) is the world's second largest fresh-water system. Over the past century the ecosystem has undergone drastic changes. Some 30 years after the introduction of Nile perch and tilapia in the 1950s, the highly diverse community of native haplochromines collapsed, leaving a

  6. Chlamydia pecorum Infection in Free-ranging Koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) on French Island, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legione, Alistair R; Amery-Gale, Jemima; Lynch, Michael; Haynes, Leesa; Gilkerson, James R; Sansom, Fiona M; Devlin, Joanne M

    2016-04-28

    We detected Chlamydia pecorum in two koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) from a closed island population in Victoria, Australia, previously free of Chlamydia infection. The ompA and multilocus sequence type were most closely related to published isolates of livestock rather than koala origin, suggesting potential cross-species transmission of C. pecorum .

  7. Focus on Form and Corrective Feedback Research at the University of Victoria, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sibo; Nassaji, Hossein

    2018-01-01

    The Department of Linguistics at University of Victoria (UVic) in Canada has a long-standing tradition of empirical approaches to the study of theoretical and applied linguistics. As part of the Faculty of Humanities, the department caters to students with a wide range of backgrounds and interests, and provides crucial language teaching support in…

  8. Lake Victoria wetlands and the ecology of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Linne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balirwa, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    An ecological study of wetlands was undertaken in northern Lake Victoria (East Africa) between 1993 and 1996 with a major aim of characterising shallow vegetation-dominated interface habitats, and evaluating their importance for fish, in particular, for the stocked and socio-economically

  9. Eutrophication, Nile perch and food-web interactions in south-east Lake Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing eutrophication, the introduction of Nile perch (Lates niloticus) and the increasing fishing pressure has changed Lake Victoria tremendously the last century. Since the 1960s, eutrophication increased primary production, enabling an increase in fish production. However,

  10. The table grape 'Victoria' with a long shaped berry: a potential mutation with attractive characteristics for consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Giuseppe; Gallotta, Alessandra; Pacucci, Carmela; Matarrese, Angela Maria Stella; Mazzeo, Andrea; Giancaspro, Angelica; Gadaleta, Agata; Piazzolla, Francesca; Colelli, Giancarlo

    2017-12-01

    Puglia is the most important region in Italy for table grape production. Since consumers look for new products, the number of table grape varieties has greatly increased in recent years. In a survey in the Puglia region, we identified several years ago a potential mutation of the cv. Victoria. We described this accession in comparison with the standard Victoria for some amphelographic traits. All the characteristics were very similar to the standard Victoria except for the berry shape, which was significantly more elongated. Moreover, the berry of the mutated Victoria showed higher firmness, lightness and chroma than the standard one, with a more intense yellow colour of the skin (appreciated by consumers). The molecular characterisation with 25 SSR markers showed that normal and mutant Victoria were genetically identical at all the analysed loci, thus suggesting that the two accessions could be considered as clones with the difference in berry shape probably due to a somatic mutation. This mutation of the cv. Victoria may have interesting perspective for the market since consumers are always attracted by different shape and colour of the fruits (consumers buy with eyes). This accession can be an alternative clone of the already known standard Victoria. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Environmental monitoring near the Macaulay Point and Clover Point marine sewage outfalls at Victoria, British Columbia in 1989 and 1990. Regional data report No. DR 92-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colodey, A G; Salmon, R A; Lim, P G

    1992-01-01

    The marine environment surrounding the Capital Region district (CRD) of British Columbia that includes the City of Victoria has been monitored by municipal, provincial, and federal authorities over the past 20 years to determine the impact of wastewater discharges. This report presents data from limited sampling conducted near the main CRD deep-water outfalls at Clover and Macaulay Points, the Canadian Department of National Defence septic tank outfall off Belmont and Esquimault Lagoon, and reference locations on Constance Bank and Discovery Island. Samples for this study were collected in April and October 1989, and April 1990. Parameters investigated were sediment and biota trace metals, sediment particle size, sediment volatile residues, visual descriptions of sediment, bacterial counts, water conductivity, temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen.

  12. Nicotine deprivation elevates neural representation of smoking-related cues in object-sensitive visual cortex: a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havermans, Anne; van Schayck, Onno C P; Vuurman, Eric F P M; Riedel, Wim J; van den Hurk, Job

    2017-08-01

    In the current study, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to investigate whether tobacco addiction biases basic visual processing in favour of smoking-related images. We hypothesize that the neural representation of smoking-related stimuli in the lateral occipital complex (LOC) is elevated after a period of nicotine deprivation compared to a satiated state, but that this is not the case for object categories unrelated to smoking. Current smokers (≥10 cigarettes a day) underwent two fMRI scanning sessions: one after 10 h of nicotine abstinence and the other one after smoking ad libitum. Regional blood oxygenated level-dependent (BOLD) response was measured while participants were presented with 24 blocks of 8 colour-matched pictures of cigarettes, pencils or chairs. The functional data of 10 participants were analysed through a pattern classification approach. In bilateral LOC clusters, the classifier was able to discriminate between patterns of activity elicited by visually similar smoking-related (cigarettes) and neutral objects (pencils) above empirically estimated chance levels only during deprivation (mean = 61.0%, chance (permutations) = 50.0%, p = .01) but not during satiation (mean = 53.5%, chance (permutations) = 49.9%, ns.). For all other stimulus contrasts, there was no difference in discriminability between the deprived and satiated conditions. The discriminability between smoking and non-smoking visual objects was elevated in object-selective brain region LOC after a period of nicotine abstinence. This indicates that attention bias likely affects basic visual object processing.

  13. Visual functions and disability in diabetic retinopathy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri Shankar Shrestha

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Impairment of near visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and peripheral visual field correlated significantly with different types of visual disability. Hence, these clinical tests should be an integral part of the visual assessment of diabetic eyes.

  14. Determination of selected antibiotics in the Victoria Harbour and the Pearl River, South China using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Weihai; Zhang Gan; Zou Shichun; Li Xiangdong; Liu Yuchun

    2007-01-01

    Nine selected antibiotics in the Victoria Harbour of Hong Kong and the Pearl River at Guangzhou, South China, were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that the concentrations of antibiotics were mainly below the limit of quantification (LOQ) in the marine water of Victoria Harbour. However, except for amoxicillin, all of the antibiotics were detected in the Pearl River during high and low water seasons with the median concentrations ranging from 11 to 67 ng/L, and from 66 to 460 ng/L, respectively; and the concentrations in early spring were about 2-15 times higher than that in summer with clearer diurnal variations. It was suggested that the concentrations of antibiotics in the high water season were more affected by wastewater production cycles due to quick refreshing rate, while those in the low water season may be more sensitive to the water column dynamics controlled by tidal processes in the river. - Antibiotics were found at high concentrations in an urban reach of Pearl River in southern China with contrast diurnal variations between the high and low water seasons

  15. Prevalence, seasonality, and growth of enterococci in raw and pasteurized milk in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Catherine M; Britz, Margaret L; Gobius, Kari S; Craven, Heather M

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence, seasonality, and species variety of enterococci present in raw milk factory silos and pasteurized milk in 3 dairying regions in Victoria, Australia, over a 1-yr period. Additionally, the growth ability of thermoduric enterococci isolated in this study (Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, E. hirae, and E. durans) was determined in milk at temperatures likely to occur during storage, transport, and distribution, and before domestic consumption (4 and 7°C). Enterococci were detected in 96% of 211 raw milk samples, with an average count of 2.48 log10 cfu/mL. Counts were significantly lower in winter than summer (average 1.84 log10 cfu/mL) and were different between factories but not regions. Enterococcus faecalis was the most prevalent species isolated from raw milk in every factory, comprising between 61.5 and 83.5% of enterococcal species across each season. Enterococci were detected in lower numbers in pasteurized milk than in raw milk and were below the limit of detection on spread plates (pasteurization. Residual viable cells were only detected following enrichment using 100-mL samples of milk, with 20.8% of the samples testing positive; this equated to a decrease in the average raw milk enterococci count of >4 log10 cfu/mL following pasteurization. Although E. faecalis predominated in raw milk and E. durans was found in only 2.9% of raw milk samples, E. durans was the most prevalent species detected in pasteurized milk. The detection of enterococci in the pasteurized milk did not correlate with higher enterococci counts in the raw milk. This suggested that the main enterococci populations in raw milk were heat-sensitive and that thermoduric enterococci survived pasteurization in a small numbers of instances. All of the thermoduric enterococci that were assessed for growth at likely refrigeration temperatures were able to grow at both 4 and 7°C in sterile milk, with generation times of 35 to 41h and 16 to 22h, respectively

  16. Australian doctors and the visual arts. Part 5. Doctor-artists in South Australia, Tasmania, Western Australia and Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D G

    1986-11-17

    The contributions of Australian doctors to the visual arts are being described in a series of six articles. Work from doctors in New South Wales and Victoria has been covered previously. Now activities in South Australia, Tasmania, Western Australia, Queensland and the Northern Territory are presented.

  17. Species-specific relationships between water transparency and male coloration within and between two closely related Lake Victoria cichlid species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castillo Cajas, Ruth F; Selz, Oliver M; Ripmeester, Erwin A P; Seehausen, Ole; Maan, Martine E

    2012-01-01

    Environmental variation in signalling conditions affects animal communication traits, with possible consequences for sexual selection and reproductive isolation. Using spectrophotometry, we studied how male coloration within and between populations of two closely related Lake Victoria cichlid

  18. Comparing electricity distribution network revenues and costs in New South Wales, Great Britain and Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountain, Bruce; Littlechild, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    A decade ago, electricity distribution network revenues per customer in New South Wales (NSW) were twice those in Great Britain (GB). Recent price controls imply that by 2014 they will be nearly four times as high. This paper examines possible reasons for this. The main reason does not seem to be geography, operating environment or industry structure. GB and Victoria have managed to accommodate increasing demand at broadly constant or even declining costs and revenues while delivering higher quality of service, while NSW has not. The regulatory framework and the practice of the regulatory body within that framework seem relevant. Australian regulators have not used benchmarking techniques as the GB regulator has. Perhaps the most important explanatory factor is private ownership in GB and Victoria compared to state ownership in NSW. This could also impact on the nature and effectiveness of regulation. (author)

  19. Towards understanding hydroclimatic change in Victoria, Australia – preliminary insights into the "Big Dry"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kiem

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1990s the majority of Victoria, Australia, has experienced severe drought conditions (i.e. the "Big Dry" characterized by streamflow that is the lowest in approximately 80 years of record. While decreases in annual and seasonal rainfall totals have also been observed, this alone does not seem to explain the observed reduction in flow. In this study, we investigate the large-scale climate drivers for Victoria and demonstrate how these modulate the regional scale synoptic patterns, which in turn alter the way seasonal rainfall totals are compiled and the amount of runoff per unit rainfall that is produced. The hydrological implications are significant and illustrate the need for robust hydrological modelling, that takes into account insights into physical mechanisms that drive regional hydroclimatology, in order to properly understand and quantify the impacts of climate change (natural and/or anthropogenic on water resources.

  20. Use of regionalisation approach to develop fire frequency curves for Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khastagir, Anirban; Jayasuriya, Niranjali; Bhuyian, Muhammed A.

    2017-11-01

    It is important to perform fire frequency analysis to obtain fire frequency curves (FFC) based on fire intensity at different parts of Victoria. In this paper fire frequency curves (FFCs) were derived based on forest fire danger index (FFDI). FFDI is a measure related to fire initiation, spreading speed and containment difficulty. The mean temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and areal extent of open water (LC2) during summer months (Dec-Feb) were identified as the most important parameters for assessing the risk of occurrence of bushfire. Based on these parameters, Andrews' curve equation was applied to 40 selected meteorological stations to identify homogenous stations to form unique clusters. A methodology using peak FFDI from cluster averaged FFDIs was developed by applying Log Pearson Type III (LPIII) distribution to generate FFCs. A total of nine homogeneous clusters across Victoria were identified, and subsequently their FFC's were developed in order to estimate the regionalised fire occurrence characteristics.

  1. Critical influences on succession management for non-commissioned ranks within Victoria police

    OpenAIRE

    Owbridge, Lynne Michelle

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines issues affecting succession management within noncommissioned ranks (NCRs) of policing services. Using Victoria Police (VicPol) as a case study, this research explored the organisation's capacity to build individual and organisational capability through adequate recruitment of new police, professional learning, and retaining talent within NCRs. A grounded theory approach was used to explore VicPol's recruitment, foundation training, transfer, promotion, ...

  2. NAPLAN Scores as Predictors of Access to Higher Education in Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Brendan Houng; Moshe Justman

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which year-9 performance on the National Assessment Program—Language Arts and Numeracy (NAPLAN) predicts access to higher education as determined by subsequent achievement on year-12 Victoria Certificate of Education (VCE) exams. VCE performance is measured via three binary indicators: achieving an Australian tertiary admission rank (ATAR) above 50 ("ATAR50"), above 70 ("ATAR70"), and above 90 ("ATAR90"); and two continuous indicators: ATAR and the Tertiary E...

  3. A Bottom-Up Understanding of Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated Fishing in Lake Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Luomba

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU fishing is a major concern in fisheries management around the world. Several measures have been taken to address the problem. In Lake Victoria, the alleviation of IUU fishing is implemented through the Regional Plan of Action (RPOA-IUU, which restricts use of certain fishing gear, as well as prohibits fishing in closed areas and during closed seasons. Despite the long-term efforts to monitor and control what goes on in the fisheries, IUU fishing has persisted in Lake Victoria. Inspired by interactive governance theory, this paper argues that the persistence of IUU fishing could be due to different images that stakeholders have about the situation, rather than the lack of management competency. Through structured interviews with 150 fisheries stakeholders on Ijinga Island in the southeastern part of Lake Victoria, Tanzania, using paired comparison questionnaires, the study elicits stakeholders’ perspective about the severity of different locally-pertinent fishing-related activities. The results show that while fisheries stakeholder groups agree on their judgments about certain fishing gears, some differences are also apparent. For instance, fisheries managers and scientists do not always agree with fishing people about what activities cause the most damage to fisheries resources and ecosystem. Further, they tend to consider some IUU fishing-related activities less damaging than some non-IUU fishing. Such disparity creates governability challenges, pointing to the need to revisit relevant regulatory measures and to make them consistent with the knowledge and judgments of all stakeholders. Based on these findings, we discuss governing interventions that may contribute to addressing IUU fishing in Lake Victoria and elsewhere.

  4. Satellite-Based Assessment of the spatial extent of Aquatic Vegetation in Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, W.; Aligeti, N.; Jeyaprakash, T.; Martins, M.; Stodghill, J.; Winstanley, H.

    2011-12-01

    Lake Victoria in Africa is the second largest freshwater lake in the world and is known for its abundance of aquatic wildlife. In particular over 200 different fish species are caught and sold by local fisherman. The lake is a major contributor to the local economy as a corridor of transportation, source of drinking water, and source of hydropower. However, the invasion of aquatic vegetation such as water hyacinth in the lake has disrupted each of these markets. Aquatic vegetation now covers a substantial area of the coastline blocking waterways, disrupting hydropower, hindering the collection of drinking water and decreasing the profitability of fishing. The vegetation serves as a habitat for disease carrying mosquitoes as well as snakes and snails that spread the parasitic disease bilharzia. The current control measures of invasive aquatic vegetation rely on biological, chemical and mechanical control. The objective of this study was to utilize remote sensing to map aquatic vegetation within Lake Victoria from 2000 to 2011. MODIS, Landsat 4-5TM, and Landsat 7-ETM imagery was employed to perform change detections in vegetation and identify the extent of aquatic vegetation throughout the years. The efficiency of containment efforts were evaluated and ideal time for application of such efforts were suggested. A methodology for aquatic vegetation surveillance was created. The results of this project were presented as a workshop to the Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization, SERVIR, and other partner organizations. The workshop provided instruction into the use of NASA and other satellite derived products. Time series animations of the spatial extent of aquatic vegetation within the lake were created. By identifying seasons of decreased aquatic vegetation, ideal times to employ control efforts were identified. SERVIR will subsequently utilize the methodologies and mapping results of this study to develop operational aquatic vegetation surveillance for Lake Victoria.

  5. Hospital-treated injuries from horse riding in Victoria, Australia: time to refocus on injury prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Siobhán; Hitchens, Peta L; Fortington, Lauren V

    2018-01-01

    The most recent report on hospital-treated horse-riding injuries in Victoria was published 20 years ago. Since then, injury countermeasures and new technology have aimed to make horse riding safer for participants. This study provides an update of horse-riding injuries that required hospital treatment in Victoria and examines changes in injury patterns compared with the earlier study. Horse-riding injuries that required hospital treatment (hospital admission (HA) or emergency department (ED) presentations) were extracted from routinely collected data from public and private hospitals in Victoria from 2002-2003 to 2015-2016. Injury incidence rates per 100 000 Victorian population per financial year and age-stratified and sex-stratified injury incidence rates are presented. Poisson regression was used to examine trends in injury rates over the study period. ED presentation and HA rates were 31.1 and 6.6 per 100 000 person-years, increasing by 28.8% and 47.6% from 2002 to 2016, respectively. Female riders (47.3 ED and 10.1 HA per 100 000 person-years) and those aged between 10 and 14 years (87.8 ED and 15.7 HA per 100 000 person-years) had the highest incidence rates. Fractures (ED 29.4%; HA 56.5%) and head injuries (ED 15.4%; HA 18.9%) were the most common injuries. HA had a mean stay of 2.6±4.1 days, and the mean cost per HA was $A5096±8345. Horse-riding injuries have remained similar in their pattern (eg, types of injuries) since last reported in Victoria. HA and ED incidence rates have increased over the last 14 years. Refocusing on injury prevention countermeasures is recommended along with a clear plan for implementation and evaluation of their effectiveness in reducing injury.

  6. A real-options analysis of wine grape farming in north west Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Seyoum, Emayenesh; Chan, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a use of a real-options valuation methodology to analyse wine grape farm investment under price and yield uncertainty. Revenue levels to incentivise entry and exit were calculated for three different sizes of wine grape farms in North West Victoria. The modelling identified lower exit and higher entry triggers than indicated by conventional net present value calculation. The wide gap of estimated indeterminacy in farm investment highlights the intertwined influence of numer...

  7. ‘A token of their love’: Queen Victoria Memorials in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Stocker, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the four metropolitan sculptural memorials to Queen Victoria in late-colonial New Zealand, which all immediately precede the colony’s Dominion status (1907). In chronological order, they were erected in Auckland, Christchurch, Wellington, and Dunedin. While the Auckland memorial was unveiled within the Queen’s lifetime, her death in 1901 catalysed the commission of more ambitious counterparts in Wellington and Dunedin, and a degree of intercity rivalry was...

  8. A Review of the Taxation of Property: Local Government Rates in Victoria 1

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, David T.

    1993-01-01

    The paper reviews the taxation of property in Victoria and in particular the method of raising revenue for local government from rural landowners. A major contradiction between the apparent philosophical basis and its application is identified. A modification to the existing method of calculation is suggested based on the use value of rural land. The advantages and disadvantages of the use value modification are discussed and compared to the system of property taxes presently used. The use me...

  9. B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination in Lake Victoria cichlid fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohta Yoshida

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The endemic cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria are a model system for speciation through adaptive radiation. Although the evolution of the sex-determination system may also play a role in speciation, little is known about the sex-determination system of Lake Victoria cichlids. To understand the evolution of the sex-determination system in these fish, we performed cytogenetic analysis in 11 cichlid species from Lake Victoria. B chromosomes, which are present in addition to standard chromosomes, were found at a high prevalence rate (85% in these cichlids. In one species, B chromosomes were female-specific. Cross-breeding using females with and without the B chromosomes demonstrated that the presence of the B chromosomes leads to a female-biased sex ratio in this species. Although B chromosomes were believed to be selfish genetic elements with little effect on phenotype and to lack protein-coding genes, the present study provides evidence that B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination. FISH analysis using a BAC clone containing B chromosome DNA suggested that the B chromosomes are derived from sex chromosomes. Determination of the nucleotide sequences of this clone (104.5 kb revealed the presence of several protein-coding genes in the B chromosome, suggesting that B chromosomes have the potential to contain functional genes. Because some sex chromosomes in amphibians and arthropods are thought to be derived from B chromosomes, the B chromosomes in Lake Victoria cichlids may represent an evolutionary transition toward the generation of sex chromosomes.

  10. Adverse events in surgical inpatients: A comparative analysis of public hospitals in Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Katharina Hauck; Xueyan Zhao; Terri Jackson

    2010-01-01

    We compare adverse event rates for surgical inpatients across 36 public hospitals in the state of Victoria, Australia, conditioning on differences in patient complexity across hospitals. We estimate separate models for elective and emergency patients which stay at least one night in hospitals, using fixed effects complementary log-log models to estimate AEs as a function of patient and episode characteristics, and hospital effects. We use 4 years of patient level administrative hospital data ...

  11. The reduction of the intrapartum still birth rate at the Queen Victoria Memorial Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, I; Chang, A; Renou, P; Wood, C

    1977-06-18

    A significant reduction in intrapartum anoxic fetal deaths has occurred at the Queen Victoria Memorial Hospital over the last ten years. The possible explanations for this include a variety of factors, which may either improve the health of the population presenting to the hospital, or improve obstetric care. Epidemiological evidence suggests that the use of fetal diagnostic techniques has contributed to the reduction of intrapartum anoxic still births.

  12. The origins of the Frente para la Victoria in Argentina (1988-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela SOSA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reconstructs the trajectory of the Frente para la Victoria in the Argentinean province of Santa Cruz between 1988 y 2003. Period during which this political force was formed, forged its main attributes and amass the political capital that allow it to reach the presidency of the Nation in 2003, position that holds to December 2015. This organization was built outside the dominant structures and groups of the provincial politics.

  13. Potentially avoidable hospitalisation for constipation in Victoria, Australia in 2010-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Humaira; Ansari, Zahid; Hutson, John M; Southwell, Bridget R

    2014-07-11

    When primary care of constipation fails, the patient may need emergency hospitalisation for disimpaction. This study aimed to provide population-based data on the number of unplanned admissions and the cost to the healthcare system for constipation in Victoria, Australia in financial year 2010-11. The Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset was examined to find the number of emergency hospital separations coded as constipation (ICD-10-AM Code K390). An estimate of costs was determined from the number of weighted inlier equivalent separations (WIES) multiplied by the WEIS price, used by the Victorian Government for funding purposes. There were 3978 emergency separations for constipation in Victoria in 2010-2011, 92% in public hospitals. Fifty-five percent were female and 38% > 75 years old. One third stayed overnight and 1/3 more than 1 day. The emergency bed day rate was 7.1 per 10,000 of population. The estimate of cost, based on WEIS, was approximately $8.3 million. Potential savings could be made by reducing the number of separations in 6 Local Government Areas (LGAs). This study shows that the burden (in number of admissions, emergency bed days and overall direct costs) in managing emergency admissions for constipation in Victoria, Australia, is very significant and likely to be similar in other developed countries. Improved primary healthcare and alternative ways to achieve faecal disimpaction without emergency admission could save the public health system a proportion of this $8.3 million.

  14. Parameterization of the inherent optical properties of Murchison Bay, Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okullo, Willy; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Hamre, Børge; Frette, Øyvind; Sørensen, K.; Stamnes, Jakob J.; Steigen, Andreas; Stamnes, Knut

    2007-12-01

    Lake Victoria, Africa's largest freshwater lake, suffers greatly from negative changes in biomass of species of fish and also from severe eutrophication. The continuing deterioration of Lake Victoria's ecological functions has great long-term consequences for the ecosystem benefits it provides to the countries bordering its shores. However, knowledge about temporal and spatial variations of optical properties and how they relate to lake constituents is important for a number of reasons such as remote sensing, modeling of underwater light fields, and long-term monitoring of lake waters. Based on statistical analysis of data from optical measurements taken during half a year of weekly cruises in Murchison Bay, Lake Victoria, we present a three-component model for the absorption and a two-component model for the scattering of light in the UV and the visible regions of the solar spectrum along with tests of their ranges of validity. The three-component input to the model for absorption is the chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), total suspended materials concentrations, and yellow substance absorption, while the two-component input to the model for scattering is the Chl-a concentration and total suspended materials.

  15. Determination of sensitivity, specificity and cut off point of visual- Motor Bender Gestalt Test in the diagnosis of traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    tayebeh Rezaie nasab

    2013-02-01

    Results: In this study, cut-off point was calculated as 6.5%, sensitivity as 55.8%, characteristic as 81.2%, and the area under the Roc curve as 0.69. Moreover, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and efficiency were 95.08%, 22.03%, and 59.17%, respectively. Conclusion: Results of this study revealed that Bender Gestalt Test is relatively weak in diagnosis of mild TBI. Hence, its characteristic is high and it was successful in diagnosing healthy individuals.

  16. The ribs unfolded - a CT visualization algorithm for fast detection of rib fractures: effect on sensitivity and specificity in trauma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringl, Helmut; Lazar, Mathias; Toepker, Michael; Woitek, Ramona; Prosch, Helmut; Asenbaum, Ulrika; Balassy, Csilla; Toth, Daniel; Weber, Michael; Mang, Thomas; Hajdu, Stefan; Soza, Grzegorz; Wimmer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    To assess a radiologist's detection rate of rib fractures in trauma CT when reading curved planar reformats (CPRs) of the ribs compared to reading standard MPRs. Two hundred and twenty trauma CTs (146 males, 74 females) were retrospectively subjected to a software algorithm to generate CPRs of the ribs. Patients were split into two equal groups. Sixteen patients were excluded due to insufficient segmentation, leaving 107 patients in group A and 97 patients in group B. Two radiologists independently evaluated group A using CPRs and group B using standard MPRs. Two different radiologists reviewed both groups with the inverse methods setting. Results were compared to a standard of reference created by two senior radiologists. The reference standard identified 361 rib fractures in 61 patients. Reading CPRs showed a significantly higher overall sensitivity (P < 0.001) for fracture detection than reading standard MPRs, with 80.9 % (584/722) and 71.5 % (516/722), respectively. Mean reading time was significantly shorter for CPRs (31.3 s) compared to standard MPRs (60.7 s; P < 0.001). Using CPRs for the detection of rib fractures accelerates the reading of trauma patient chest CTs, while offering an increased overall sensitivity compared to conventional standard MPRs. (orig.)

  17. The ribs unfolded - a CT visualization algorithm for fast detection of rib fractures: effect on sensitivity and specificity in trauma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringl, Helmut; Lazar, Mathias; Toepker, Michael; Woitek, Ramona; Prosch, Helmut; Asenbaum, Ulrika; Balassy, Csilla; Toth, Daniel; Weber, Michael; Mang, Thomas [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Hajdu, Stefan [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Trauma Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Soza, Grzegorz; Wimmer, Andreas [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Computed Tomography, Forchheim (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    To assess a radiologist's detection rate of rib fractures in trauma CT when reading curved planar reformats (CPRs) of the ribs compared to reading standard MPRs. Two hundred and twenty trauma CTs (146 males, 74 females) were retrospectively subjected to a software algorithm to generate CPRs of the ribs. Patients were split into two equal groups. Sixteen patients were excluded due to insufficient segmentation, leaving 107 patients in group A and 97 patients in group B. Two radiologists independently evaluated group A using CPRs and group B using standard MPRs. Two different radiologists reviewed both groups with the inverse methods setting. Results were compared to a standard of reference created by two senior radiologists. The reference standard identified 361 rib fractures in 61 patients. Reading CPRs showed a significantly higher overall sensitivity (P < 0.001) for fracture detection than reading standard MPRs, with 80.9 % (584/722) and 71.5 % (516/722), respectively. Mean reading time was significantly shorter for CPRs (31.3 s) compared to standard MPRs (60.7 s; P < 0.001). Using CPRs for the detection of rib fractures accelerates the reading of trauma patient chest CTs, while offering an increased overall sensitivity compared to conventional standard MPRs. (orig.)

  18. The internal model: A study of the relative contribution of proprioception and visual information to failure detection in dynamic systems. [sensitivity of operators versus monitors to failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, C.; Wickens, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    The development of the internal model as it pertains to the detection of step changes in the order of control dynamics is investigated for two modes of participation: whether the subjects are actively controlling those dynamics or are monitoring an autopilot controlling them. A transfer of training design was used to evaluate the relative contribution of proprioception and visual information to the overall accuracy of the internal model. Sixteen subjects either tracked or monitored the system dynamics as a 2-dimensional pursuit display under single task conditions and concurrently with a sub-critical tracking task at two difficulty levels. Detection performance was faster and more accurate in the manual as opposed to the autopilot mode. The concurrent tracking task produced a decrement in detection performance for all conditions though this was more marked for the manual mode. The development of an internal model in the manual mode transferred positively to the automatic mode producing enhanced detection performance. There was no transfer from the internal model developed in the automatic mode to the manual mode.

  19. A high sensitivity 20Mfps CMOS image sensor with readout speed of 1Tpixel/sec for visualization of ultra-high speed phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, R.; Sugawa, S.

    2017-02-01

    Ultra-high speed (UHS) CMOS image sensors with on-chop analog memories placed on the periphery of pixel array for the visualization of UHS phenomena are overviewed in this paper. The developed UHS CMOS image sensors consist of 400H×256V pixels and 128 memories/pixel, and the readout speed of 1Tpixel/sec is obtained, leading to 10 Mfps full resolution video capturing with consecutive 128 frames, and 20 Mfps half resolution video capturing with consecutive 256 frames. The first development model has been employed in the high speed video camera and put in practical use in 2012. By the development of dedicated process technologies, photosensitivity improvement and power consumption reduction were simultaneously achieved, and the performance improved version has been utilized in the commercialized high-speed video camera since 2015 that offers 10 Mfps with ISO16,000 photosensitivity. Due to the improved photosensitivity, clear images can be captured and analyzed even under low light condition, such as under a microscope as well as capturing of UHS light emission phenomena.

  20. Comparison of mortality following hospitalisation for isolated head injury in England and Wales, and Victoria, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda J Gabbe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI remains a leading cause of death and disability. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines recommend transfer of severe TBI cases to neurosurgical centres, irrespective of the need for neurosurgery. This observational study investigated the risk-adjusted mortality of isolated TBI admissions in England/Wales, and Victoria, Australia, and the impact of neurosurgical centre management on outcomes. METHODS: Isolated TBI admissions (>15 years, July 2005-June 2006 were extracted from the hospital discharge datasets for both jurisdictions. Severe isolated TBI (AIS severity >3 admissions were provided by the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN and Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR for England/Wales, and Victoria, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare risk-adjusted mortality between jurisdictions. FINDINGS: Mortality was 12% (749/6256 in England/Wales and 9% (91/1048 in Victoria for isolated TBI admissions. Adjusted odds of death in England/Wales were higher compared to Victoria overall (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.6, 2.5, and for cases <65 years (OR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.51, 3.69. For severe TBI, mortality was 23% (133/575 for TARN and 20% (68/346 for VSTR, with 72% of TARN and 86% of VSTR cases managed at a neurosurgical centre. The adjusted mortality odds for severe TBI cases in TARN were higher compared to the VSTR (OR 1.45, 95% CI: 0.96, 2.19, but particularly for cases <65 years (OR 2.04, 95% CI: 1.07, 3.90. Neurosurgical centre management modified the effect overall (OR 1.12, 95% CI: 0.73, 1.74 and for cases <65 years (OR 1.53, 95% CI: 0.77, 3.03. CONCLUSION: The risk-adjusted odds of mortality for all isolated TBI admissions, and severe TBI cases, were higher in England/Wales when compared to Victoria. The lower percentage of cases managed at neurosurgical centres in England and Wales was an explanatory factor, supporting the changes made to the NICE

  1. Production and repair of chromosome damage in an X-ray sensitive CHO mutant visualized and analysed in interphase using the technique of premature chromosome condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliakis, G.E.; Pantelias, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    Production of chromosome damage per unit of absorbed radiation dose was in xrs-5 cells larger by a factor of 2.6 than in CHO cells (5.2 breaks per cell per Gy). Changes in chromatin structure, associated with the radiation-sensitive pheno-type of xrs-5 cells, that increase the probability of conversion of a DNA double-strand break (dsb) to a chromosome break are invoked to explain this. Repair of chromosome breaks as measured in plateau-phase G 1 cells was deficient in xrs-5 cells and the number of residual chromosome breaks practically identical to the number of lethal lesions calculated from survival data, suggesting that non-repaired chromosome breaks are likely to be manifestations of lethal events in the cell. The yield of ring chromosomes scored after a few hours of repair was higher by a factor of three in xrs-5 compared with CHO cells. (author)

  2. A visual dual-aptamer logic gate for sensitive discrimination of prion diseases-associated isoform with reusable magnetic microparticles and fluorescence quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Sai Jin; Hu, Ping Ping; Chen, Li Qiang; Zhen, Shu Jun; Peng, Li; Li, Yuan Fang; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Molecular logic gates, which have attracted increasing research interest and are crucial for the development of molecular-scale computers, simplify the results of measurements and detections, leaving the diagnosis of disease either "yes" or "no". Prion diseases are a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders that happen in human and animals. The main problem with a diagnosis of prion diseases is how to sensitively and selectively discriminate and detection of the minute amount of PrP(Res) in biological samples. Our previous work had demonstrated that dual-aptamer strategy could achieve highly sensitive and selective discrimination and detection of prion protein (cellular prion protein, PrP(C), and the diseases associated isoform, PrP(Res)) in serum and brain. Inspired by the advantages of molecular logic gate, we further conceived a new concept for dual-aptamer logic gate that responds to two chemical input signals (PrP(C) or PrP(Res) and Gdn-HCl) and generates a change in fluorescence intensity as the output signal. It was found that PrP(Res) performs the "OR" logic operation while PrP(C) performs "XOR" logic operation when they get through the gate consisted of aptamer modified reusable magnetic microparticles (MMPs-Apt1) and quantum dots (QDs-Apt2). The dual-aptamer logic gate simplifies the discrimination results of PrP(Res), leaving the detection of PrP(Res) either "yes" or "no". The development of OR logic gate based on dual-aptamer strategy and two chemical input signals (PrP(Res) and Gdn-HCl) is an important step toward the design of prion diseases diagnosis and therapy systems.

  3. A visual dual-aptamer logic gate for sensitive discrimination of prion diseases-associated isoform with reusable magnetic microparticles and fluorescence quantum dots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Jin Xiao

    Full Text Available Molecular logic gates, which have attracted increasing research interest and are crucial for the development of molecular-scale computers, simplify the results of measurements and detections, leaving the diagnosis of disease either "yes" or "no". Prion diseases are a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders that happen in human and animals. The main problem with a diagnosis of prion diseases is how to sensitively and selectively discriminate and detection of the minute amount of PrP(Res in biological samples. Our previous work had demonstrated that dual-aptamer strategy could achieve highly sensitive and selective discrimination and detection of prion protein (cellular prion protein, PrP(C, and the diseases associated isoform, PrP(Res in serum and brain. Inspired by the advantages of molecular logic gate, we further conceived a new concept for dual-aptamer logic gate that responds to two chemical input signals (PrP(C or PrP(Res and Gdn-HCl and generates a change in fluorescence intensity as the output signal. It was found that PrP(Res performs the "OR" logic operation while PrP(C performs "XOR" logic operation when they get through the gate consisted of aptamer modified reusable magnetic microparticles (MMPs-Apt1 and quantum dots (QDs-Apt2. The dual-aptamer logic gate simplifies the discrimination results of PrP(Res, leaving the detection of PrP(Res either "yes" or "no". The development of OR logic gate based on dual-aptamer strategy and two chemical input signals (PrP(Res and Gdn-HCl is an important step toward the design of prion diseases diagnosis and therapy systems.

  4. Digoxigenylated wheat germ agglutinin visualized with alkaline phosphatase-labeled anti-digoxigenin antibodies--a new, sensitive technique with the potential for single and double tracing of neuronal connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veh, R W

    1991-01-02

    For double tracing experiments, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) molecules labeled with two different haptens are desirable. In the present report the suitability of digoxigenylated WGA (DIG-WGA) for retrograde tracing was investigated. For this purpose the new tracer was pressure injected into rat brains and the transported DIG-WGA visualized via its digoxigenyl group with an alkaline phosphatase linked anti DIG antibody in permanently stained sections of high quality. With fixatives containing 2.5% glutaraldehyde only few positive cells were found. However, at milder fixation conditions (4% paraformaldehyde, 0.05% glutaraldehyde 0.2% picric acid, 30 min) retrogradely labeled cells were detected with a sensitivity comparable to tetramethylbenzidine protocols for conventional WGA-HRP (horseradish peroxidase) tracing. Preliminary experiments suggest excellent suitability for double labeling.

  5. T1 weighted brain images at 7 Tesla unbiased for Proton Density, T2* contrast and RF coil receive B1 sensitivity with simultaneous vessel visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Moortele, Pierre-François; Auerbach, Edwards J; Olman, Cheryl; Yacoub, Essa; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Moeller, Steen

    2009-06-01

    At high magnetic field, MR images exhibit large, undesirable signal intensity variations commonly referred to as "intensity field bias". Such inhomogeneities mostly originate from heterogeneous RF coil B(1) profiles and, with no appropriate correction, are further pronounced when utilizing rooted sum of square reconstruction with receive coil arrays. These artifacts can significantly alter whole brain high resolution T(1)-weighted (T(1)w) images that are extensively utilized for clinical diagnosis, for gray/white matter segmentation as well as for coregistration with functional time series. In T(1) weighted 3D-MPRAGE sequences, it is possible to preserve a bulk amount of T(1) contrast through space by using adiabatic inversion RF pulses that are insensitive to transmit B(1) variations above a minimum threshold. However, large intensity variations persist in the images, which are significantly more difficult to address at very high field where RF coil B(1) profiles become more heterogeneous. Another characteristic of T(1)w MPRAGE sequences is their intrinsic sensitivity to Proton Density and T(2)(*) contrast, which cannot be removed with post-processing algorithms utilized to correct for receive coil sensitivity. In this paper, we demonstrate a simple technique capable of producing normalized, high resolution T(1)w 3D-MPRAGE images that are devoid of receive coil sensitivity, Proton Density and T(2)(*) contrast. These images, which are suitable for routinely obtaining whole brain tissue segmentation at 7 T, provide higher T(1) contrast specificity than standard MPRAGE acquisitions. Our results show that removing the Proton Density component can help in identifying small brain structures and that T(2)(*) induced artifacts can be removed from the images. The resulting unbiased T(1)w images can also be used to generate Maximum Intensity Projection angiograms, without additional data acquisition, that are inherently registered with T(1)w structural images. In addition

  6. T1 weighted Brain Images at 7 Tesla Unbiased for Proton Density, T2* contrast and RF Coil Receive B1 Sensitivity with Simultaneous Vessel Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Moortele, Pierre-François; Auerbach, Edwards J.; Olman, Cheryl; Yacoub, Essa; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Moeller, Steen

    2009-01-01

    At high magnetic field, MR images exhibit large, undesirable signal intensity variations commonly referred to as “intensity field bias”. Such inhomogeneities mostly originate from heterogeneous RF coil B1 profiles and, with no appropriate correction, are further pronounced when utilizing rooted sum of square reconstruction with receive coil arrays. These artifacts can significantly alter whole brain high resolution T1-weighted (T1w) images that are extensively utilized for clinical diagnosis, for gray/white matter segmentation as well as for coregistration with functional time series. In T1 weighted 3D-MPRAGE sequences, it is possible to preserve a bulk amount of T1 contrast through space by using adiabatic inversion RF pulses that are insensitive to transmit B1 variations above a minimum threshold. However, large intensity variations persist in the images, which are significantly more difficult to address at very high field where RF coil B1 profiles become more heterogeneous. Another characteristic of T1w MPRAGE sequences is their intrinsic sensitivity to Proton Density and T2* contrast, which cannot be removed with post-processing algorithms utilized to correct for receive coil sensitivity. In this paper, we demonstrate a simple technique capable of producing normalized, high resolution T1w 3D-MPRAGE images that are devoid of receive coil sensitivity, Proton Density and T2* contrast. These images, which are suitable for routinely obtaining whole brain tissue segmentation at 7 Tesla, provide higher T1 contrast specificity than standard MPRAGE acquisitions. Our results show that removing the Proton Density component can help identifying small brain structures and that T2* induced artifacts can be removed from the images. The resulting unbiased T1w images can also be used to generate Maximum Intensity Projection angiograms, without additional data acquisition, that are inherently registered with T1w structural images. In addition, we introduce a simple technique

  7. "In situ" observation of the role of chloride ion binding to monkey green sensitive visual pigment by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Kota; Furutani, Yuji; Iwaki, Masayo; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Imai, Hiroo; Kandori, Hideki

    2018-01-31

    Long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) pigment possesses a chloride binding site in its protein moiety. The binding of chloride alters the absorption spectra of LWS; this is known as the chloride effect. Although the two amino acid substitutions of His197 and Lys200 influence the chloride effect, the molecular mechanism of chloride binding, which underlies the spectral tuning, has yet to be clarified. In this study, we applied ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to monkey green (MG) pigment to gain structural information of the chloride binding site. The results suggest that chloride binding stabilizes the β-sheet structure on the extracellular side loop with perturbation of the retinal polyene chain, promotes a hydrogen bonding exchange with the hydroxyl group of Tyr, and alters the protonation state of carboxylate. Combining with the results of the binding analyses of various anions (Br - , I - and NO 3 - ), our findings suggest that the anion binding pocket is organized for only Cl - (or Br - ) to stabilize conformation around the retinal chromophore, which is functionally relevant with absorbing long wavelength light.

  8. Integrating remote sensing approach with pollution monitoring tools for aquatic ecosystem risk assessment and management: a case study of Lake Victoria (Uganda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focardi, Silvia; Corsi, Ilaria; Mazzuoli, Stefania; Vignoli, Leonardo; Loiselle, Steven A; Focardi, Silvano

    2006-11-01

    Aquatic ecosystems around the world, lake, estuaries and coastal areas are increasingly impacted by anthropogenic pollutants through different sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban discharges, atmospheric deposition and terrestrial drainage. Lake Victoria is the second largest lake in the world and the largest tropical lake. Bordered by Tanzania, Uganda, and Kenya, it provides a livelihood for millions of Africans in the region. However, the lake is under threat from eutrophication, a huge decline in the number of native fish species caused by several factors including loss of biodiversity, over fishing and pollution has been recently documented. Increasing usage of pesticides and insecticides in the adjacent agricultural areas as well as mercury contamination from processing of gold ore on the southern shores are currently considered among the most emergent phenomena of chemical contamination in the lake. By the application of globally consistent and comprehensive geospatial data-sets based on remote sensing integrated with information on heavy metals accumulation and insecticides exposure in native and alien fish populations, the present study aims at assessing the environmental risk associated to the contamination of the Lake Victoria water body on fish health, land cover distribution, biodiversity and the agricultural area surrounding the lake. By the elaboration of Landsat 7 TM data of November 2002 and Landsat 7 TM 1986 we have calculated the agriculture area which borders the Lake Victoria bay, which is an upland plain. The resulting enhanced nutrient loading to the soil is subsequently transported to the lake by rain or as dry fall. The data has been inserted in a Geographical information System (ARCGIS) to be upgraded and consulted. Heavy metals in fish fillets showed concentrations rather low except for mercury being higher than others as already described in previous investigations. In the same tissue, cholinesterases activity (ChE) as an

  9. Math for visualization, visualizing math

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van J.J.; Hart, G.; Sarhangi, R.

    2013-01-01

    I present an overview of our work in visualization, and reflect on the role of mathematics therein. First, mathematics can be used as a tool to produce visualizations, which is illustrated with examples from information visualization, flow visualization, and cartography. Second, mathematics itself

  10. Visual art and visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.

    2015-01-01

    Visual art and visual perception ‘Visual art’ has become a minor cul-de-sac orthogonal to THE ART of the museum directors and billionaire collectors. THE ART is conceptual, instead of visual. Among its cherished items are the tins of artist’s shit (Piero Manzoni, 1961, Merda d’Artista) “worth their

  11. Monitoring geodynamic activity in the Victoria Land, East Antarctica: Evidence from GNSS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanutta, A.; Negusini, M.; Vittuari, L.; Cianfarra, P.; Salvini, F.; Mancini, F.; Sterzai, P.; Dubbini, M.; Galeandro, A.; Capra, A.

    2017-10-01

    GNSS networks in Antarctica are a fundamental tool to define actual crustal displacements due to geological and geophysical processes and to constrain the glacial isostatic models (GIA). A large network devoted to the detection and monitoring of crustal deformations in the Northern Victoria Land (Victoria Land Network for DEFormation control - VLNDEF), was monumented during the 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 field campaigns, as part of Italian National Program for Antarctic Research and surveyed periodically during the Southern summer seasons. In this paper, GPS observations of VLNDEF collected over a more than 15-year span, together with various selected POLENET sites and more than 70 IGS stations, were processed with Bernese Software, using a classical double difference approach. A solution was obtained combining NEQs by means of ADDNEQ2/FODITS tools embedded in Bernese Software. All the Antarctic sites were kept free and a subset of 50 IGS stations were used to frame VLNDEF into ITRF2008. New evidence provided by analysis of GPS time series for the VLNDEF network is presented; also displacements along the vertical component are compared with the recently published GIA models. The absolute velocities indicate an overall displacement of the northern Victoria Land region along the south-east direction (Ve = 10.6 mm/yr, Vn = -11.5 mm/yr) and an average uplift rate of Vu = 0.5 mm/yr. Two GIA models have been analyzed: ICE-6G_C-VM5a proposed by Argus et al. (2014), Peltier et al. (2015) and W12A_v1 by Whitehouse et al. (2012a,b). Up rates, predicted over the VLNDEF sites by the mentioned GIA models, have been extracted and compared with those observed. A preliminary comparison with GPS-derived vertical rates shows that the Victoria Land ICE-6G_C-VM5 and W12A_v1 GIA models predict overestimated uplift rates of 0.7 and 0.9 mm/yr weighted mean residuals respectively. The mean horizontal relative motions within the Victoria Land (VL) area are in most cases negligible, while only

  12. Potentially avoidable hospitalisation for constipation in Victoria, Australia in 2010–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background When primary care of constipation fails, the patient may need emergency hospitalisation for disimpaction. This study aimed to provide population-based data on the number of unplanned admissions and the cost to the healthcare system for constipation in Victoria, Australia in financial year 2010–11. Methods The Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset was examined to find the number of emergency hospital separations coded as constipation (ICD-10-AM Code K390). An estimate of costs was determined from the number of weighted inlier equivalent separations (WIES) multiplied by the WEIS price, used by the Victorian Government for funding purposes. Results There were 3978 emergency separations for constipation in Victoria in 2010–2011, 92% in public hospitals. Fifty-five percent were female and 38% > 75 years old. One third stayed overnight and 1/3 more than 1 day. The emergency bed day rate was 7.1 per 10,000 of population. The estimate of cost, based on WEIS, was approximately $8.3 million. Potential savings could be made by reducing the number of separations in 6 Local Government Areas (LGAs). Conclusions This study shows that the burden (in number of admissions, emergency bed days and overall direct costs) in managing emergency admissions for constipation in Victoria, Australia, is very significant and likely to be similar in other developed countries. Improved primary healthcare and alternative ways to achieve faecal disimpaction without emergency admission could save the public health system a proportion of this $8.3 million. PMID:25015386

  13. Malaria vectors in Lake Victoria and adjacent habitats in western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Minakawa

    Full Text Available The prevalence of malaria among the residents of the Lake Victoria basin remains high. The environment associated with the lake may maintain a high number of malaria vectors. Lake habitats including water hyacinths have been suspected to be the source of vectors. This study investigated whether malaria vectors breed in the lake habitats and adjacent backwater pools. Anopheline larvae were collected within the littoral zone of the lake and adjacent pools located along approximately 24.3 km of the lakeshore in western Kenya, and their breeding sites characterized. Three primary vector species, Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles funestus s.s., and three potential vectors, were found in the lake habitats. Unexpectedly, An. arabiensis was the most dominant vector species in the lake sampling sites. Its habitats were uncovered or covered with short grass. A potential secondary malaria vector, Anopheles rivulorum, dominated the water hyacinths in the lake. Most breeding sites in the lake were limited to areas that were surrounded by tall emergent plants, including trees, and those not exposed to waves. Nearly half of adjacent habitats were lagoons that were separated from the lake by sand bars. Lagoons contained a variety of microhabitats. Anopheles arabiensis dominated open habitats, whereas An. funestus s.s. was found mainly in vegetated habitats in lagoons. The current study confirmed that several breeding sites are associated with Lake Victoria. Given that Lake Victoria is the second largest lake in the world, the lake related habitats must be extensive; therefore, making targeted vector control difficult. Further exploration is necessary to estimate the effects of lake associated habitats on malaria transmission so as to inform a rational decision-making process for vector control.

  14. A review of mercury in Lake Victoria, East Africa: implications for human and ecosystem health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linda; Dixon, D G; Hecky, R E

    2003-01-01

    Lake Victoria, East Africa, has been the site of many recent studies measuring mercury (Hg) concentrations in water, fish, sediment, soil, and humans. Most of these studies were motivated by concerns about Hg contamination from processing of gold ore on the southern shores. Total Hg (THg) concentrations in fish were usually below permissible World Health Organization (WHO) concentrations and international marketing limits and do not threaten the lucrative export industry. Nile perch 3-10 kg and most >10 kg had THg concentrations above the WHO threshold concentrations for at-risk groups (200 ng/g). Elevated THg concentrations in large Nile perch are not of major concern because Nile perch are rarely consumed by the people living on Lake Victoria and very large Nile perch are becoming increasingly rare in catches. Water THg concentrations were below Canadian drinking water guidelines but were elevated relative to those in the northern Great Lakes. Sediment and soil THg concentrations were within inter-national guidelines and are comparable to those in northern latitudes but are lower than those in the Amazon basin. Biomass burning and soil erosion are estimated to be the major sources of THg for the lake and probably constitute a larger source of THg than gold mining in Tanzania.THg concentrations in urine and hair from human volunteers indicate that while gold miners and frequent skin-bleaching cream users are at risk of inorganic mercury poisoning, the rest of the population, including fishermen, is not. Human exposure assessments demonstrated that fish consumption and soil geophagy constitute major sources of THg for humans, but the total estimated daily intake of THg was below the Health Canada tolerable daily intake (TDI) limits. The use of beauty creams containing high inorganic Hg concentrations, however, caused the estimated THg exposure to exceed the TDI. The high THg content in the hair of regular cream users supports this assessment. The nutritional

  15. Birth centre confinement at the Queen Victoria Medical Centre. I. Obstetric and neonatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J; Hudson, H; Lumley, J; Morris, N; Rao, J; Spensley, J

    1981-10-03

    A review of hte first 175 confinements at the Queen Victoria Medical Centre Birth Centre is presented. The design, structure and function of hte Birth Centre is described and the safety of the programme demonstrated. Seventy-four pregnancies (42%) accepted for Birth Centre confinement required transfer because of antepartum or intrapartum complications. There were satisfactory obstetric and neonatal outcomes in all pregnancies. The first year's experience has allowed a reassessment of the risk factors, which will permit greater use of the Birth Centre without any increases risk to mothers or babies.

  16. Birth centre confinement at the Queen Victoria Medical Centre: four years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, N; Campbell, J; Biro, M A; Lumley, J; Rao, J; Spensley, J

    1986-06-09

    A review of the first four years of the functioning of the birth centre at the Queen Victoria Medical Centre is presented. In that time, 1040 pregnant women were accepted for confinement there. Of these, 52 withdrew for non-obstetric reasons, while 470 were transferred to alternative obstetrical care--274 because of antepartum complications and 196 because of intrapartum problems. Therefore, 518 women were delivered in the birth centre. The care of the women is entrusted almost entirely to a team of midwives and this review demonstrates an enviable safety record.

  17. Gambling revenues as a public administration issue: electronic gaming machines in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickernell, David; Keast, Robyn; Brown, Kerry; Yousefpour, Nina; Miller, Chris

    2013-12-01

    Gambling activities and the revenues derived have been seen as a way to increase economic development in deprived areas. There are also, however, concerns about the effects of gambling in general and electronic gaming machines (EGMs) in particular, on the resources available to the localities in which they are situated. This paper focuses on the factors that determine the extent and spending of community benefit-related EGM-generated resources within Victoria, Australia, focusing in particular on the relationships between EGM activity and socio-economic and social capital indicators, and how this relates to the community benefit resources generated by gaming.

  18. Health (Radiation Safety) Act 1983 (Victoria) No. 9889 of 17 May 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Act amends the Health Act 1958 by adding a new Section entitled ''Radiation Safety''. In addition to establishing guidelines for the registration and licensing of certain radiation apparatus and sealed radioactive sources, this new Section authorises the Governor in Council to make regulations concerning, inter alia, transport and disposal of radioactive substances and public health and safety. The Act also sets up a Radiation Advisory Committee and a Radiographers and Radiation Technologists Registration Board of Victoria and amends the Nuclear Activities (Prohibitions) Act 1983 in respect of certain licensing provisions. (NEA) [fr

  19. Visual field

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your visual field. How the Test is Performed Confrontation visual field exam. This is a quick and ... to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A. ...

  20. VICTORIA: A mechanistic model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system under severe accident conditions. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heams, T J [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, D A; Johns, N A; Mason, A [UKAEA, Winfrith, (England); Bixler, N E; Grimley, A J [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wheatley, C J [UKAEA, Culcheth (England); Dickson, L W [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada); Osborn-Lee, I [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Domagala, P; Zawadzki, S; Rest, J [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Alexander, C A [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Lee, R Y [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The VICTORIA model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a light water reactor during a severe accident is described. It has been developed by the USNRC to define the radionuclide phenomena and processes that must be considered in systems-level models used for integrated analyses of severe accident source terms. The VICTORIA code, based upon this model, predicts fission product release from the fuel, chemical reactions involving fission products, vapor and aerosol behavior, and fission product decay heating. Also included is a detailed description of how the model is implemented in VICTORIA, the numerical algorithms used, and the correlations and thermochemical data necessary for determining a solution. A description of the code structure, input and output, and a sample problem are provided.

  1. La construcción de legitimidad del Frente para la Victoria (1988-1991 Frente para la Victoria's construction of legitimacy (1988-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Sosa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo aborda la construcción de legitimidad del Frente para la Victoria (FV en el escenario político de Santa Cruz desde su nacimiento en 1988 hasta llegar a la gobernación en 1991. Se identifican tres fuentes de legitimidad construidas de manera alternativa al debilitamiento de la credibilidad de los partidos políticos tradicionales: la UCR, el PJ, el PI y el MID, entre otros. En este contexto, el Frente para la Victoria desplegó sus estrategias de legitimación apelando a la unidad de lo diverso y sumando referentes individuales de todo el arco político. Por otro lado, apeló a través de sus discursos y la conformación de los elencos y organizaciones a representar la fragmentación social propia de una sociedad compuesta por capas migratorias y, por último, construyó una novedosa oferta política a-partidaria acorde a las representaciones de la crisis estatal a mediados del '80 a partir de la reivindicación de los valores de la gestión, la eficiencia, el orden, el trabajo y la gobernabilidad. Sus estrategias de legitimación muestran cómo la primera etapa de construcción de poder político del FV fue efecto de su trayectoria en la frontera de los débiles grupos sociales y políticos.O trabalho aborda a construção de legitimidade do Frente para la Victoria (FV no cenário político de Santa Cruz desde seu nascimento em 1988 até chegar ao governo em 1991. Identificam-se três fontes de legitimidade construídas de maneira alternativa ao enfraquecimento da credibilidade dos partidos políticos tradicionais: a UCR, o PJ, o PI e o MID, entre outros. Neste contexto, o Frente para la Victoria desdobrou suas estratégias de legitimação apelando à unidade do que for diverso e somando referências individuais de todo o arco político. Por outro lado, apelou, através de seus discursos e a conformação dos elencos e organizações, a representar a fragmentação social própria de uma sociedade composta por camadas migrat

  2. Influence of the Pearl River estuary and vertical mixing in Victoria Harbor on water quality in relation to eutrophication impacts in Hong Kong waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kedong; Harrison, Paul J

    2007-06-01

    This study presents water quality parameters such as nutrients, phytoplankton biomass and dissolved oxygen based on 11 years of water quality data in Victoria Harbor and examined how the Pearl River estuary discharge in summer and year round sewage discharge influenced these parameters. Nutrients in Victoria Harbor were strongly influenced by both the Pearl River and sewage effluent, as indicated by the high NO(3) inputs from the Pearl River in summer and higher NH(4) and PO(4) in Victoria Harbor than both its sides. N:P ratios were low in the dry season, but increased to >16:1 in the wet season, suggesting that P is potentially the most limiting nutrient in this area during the critical period in the summer. Although there were generally high nutrients, the phytoplankton biomass was not as high as one would expect in Victoria Harbor. In fact, there were high concentrations of chl near the bottom well below the photic zone. Salinity near the bottom was lower in Victoria Harbor than at the two entrances to Victoria Harbor, suggesting strong vertical mixing within Victoria Harbor. Therefore, strong vertical mixing and horizontal advection appear to play an important role in significantly reducing eutrophication impacts in Victoria Harbor. Consequently, dissolved oxygen near the bottom was low in summer, but only occasionally dipped to 2 mgL(-1) despite the high organic loading from sewage effluent.

  3. Association between visual impairment and patient-reported visual disability at different stages of cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Rojas, E Ruthy; Comas, Mercè; Sala, Maria; Castells, Xavier

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate the association between visual impairment (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, stereopsis) and patient-reported visual disability at different stages of cataract surgery. A cohort of 104 patients aged 60 years and over with bilateral cataract was assessed preoperatively, after first-eye surgery (monocular pseudophakia) and after second-eye surgery (binocular pseudophakia). Partial correlation coefficients (PCC) and linear regression models were calculated. In patients with bilateral cataracts, visual disability was associated with visual acuity (PCC = -0.30) and, to a lesser extent, with contrast sensitivity (PCC = 0.16) and stereopsis (PCC = -0.09). In monocular and binocular pseudophakia, visual disability was more strongly associated with stereopsis (PCC = -0.26 monocular and -0.51 binocular) and contrast sensitivity (PCC = 0.18 monocular and 0.34 binocular) than with visual acuity (PCC = -0.18 monocular and -0.18 binocular). Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis accounted for between 17% and 42% of variance in visual disability. The association of visual impairment with patient-reported visual disability differed at each stage of cataract surgery. Measuring other forms of visual impairment independently from visual acuity, such as contrast sensitivity or stereopsis, could be important in evaluating both needs and outcomes in cataract surgery. More comprehensive assessment of the impact of cataract on patients should include measurement of both visual impairment and visual disability.

  4. Three Licentiates of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh who were decorated with the Victoria Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, M H

    2011-08-01

    Since the Victoria Cross was introduced in January 1856 by Queen Victoria to reward acts of valour in the face of the enemy, initially during the Crimean War, over 1350 medals have been awarded. Of these, three were awarded to medical officers who had previously gained the Licentiate Diploma of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (LRCS Edin) - Valentine Munbee McMaster on 25 September 1857, Henry Thomas Sylvester on 20 November 1857 (although the acts of valour for which he was awarded his VC occurred on two occasions in September 1855) and Campbell Mellis (or Millis) Douglas on 7 May 1867.

  5. Data visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Azzam, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Do you communicate data and information to stakeholders? In Part 1, we introduce recent developments in the quantitative and qualitative data visualization field and provide a historical perspective on data visualization, its potential role in evaluation practice, and future directions. Part 2 delivers concrete suggestions for optimally using data visualization in evaluation, as well as suggestions for best practices in data visualization design. It focuses on specific quantitative and qualitative data visualization approaches that include data dashboards, graphic recording, and geographic information systems (GIS). Readers will get a step-by-step process for designing an effective data dashboard system for programs and organizations, and various suggestions to improve their utility.

  6. The spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals in sediments of Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Chloe Wing-yee; Ip, Carman Ching-man; Zhang Gan; Shin, Paul K.S.; Qian Peiyuan; Li Xiangdong

    2008-01-01

    Victoria Harbour has received substantial loadings of pollutants from industrial and municipal wastewater discharged since the 1950s. Inputs of contaminants have declined dramatically during the last two decades as a result of better controls at the source and improved wastewater treatment facilities. To assess the spatial and temporal changes of metal contaminants in sediments in Victoria Harbour, core and grab sediments were collected. The central harbour areas were generally contaminated with heavy metals. The spatial distribution of trace metals can probably be attributed to the proximity of major urban and industrial discharge points, and to the effect of tidal flushing in the harbour. In the sediment cores, the highest concentrations of trace metals were observed to have accumulated during the 1950s-1980s, corresponding with the period of rapid urban and industrial development in Hong Kong. From the late 1980s, there has been a major decline in the concentrations of trace metals, due to a reduction in industrial activities and to the enactment of wastewater pollution controls in the territory. The Pb isotopic compositions of the sediments revealed the anthropogenic inputs of Pb to the harbour. The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios varied from 1.154 to 1.190, which were lower than those of background geological materials in Hong Kong ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb: 1.201-1.279). The data also indicated that the Pb in the harbour sediments most likely originated from mixed sources, including the leaded gasoline used in the past and other anthropogenic sources

  7. Reconstruction of a semi-arid late Pleistocene paleocatena from the Lake Victoria region, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverly, Emily J.; Driese, Steven G.; Peppe, Daniel J.; Arellano, L. Nicole; Blegen, Nick; Faith, J. Tyler; Tryon, Christian A.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of changing environment on the evolution of Homo sapiens is heavily debated, but few data are available from equatorial Africa prior to the last glacial maximum. The Karungu deposits on the northeast coast of Lake Victoria are ideal for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and are best studied at the Kisaaka site near Karunga in Kenya (94 to > 33 ka) where paleosols, fluvial deposits, tufa, and volcaniclastic deposits (tuffs) are exposed over a 2 km transect. Three well-exposed and laterally continuous paleosols with intercalated tuffs allow for reconstruction of a succession of paleocatenas. The oldest paleosol is a smectitic paleo-Vertisol with saline and sodic properties. Higher in the section, the paleosols are tuffaceous paleo-Inceptisols with Alfisol-like soil characteristics (illuviated clay). Mean annual precipitation (MAP) proxies indicate little change through time, with an average of 764 ± 108 mm yr- 1 for Vertisols (CALMAG) and 813 ± 182 to 963 ± 182 mm yr- 1 for all paleosols (CIA-K). Field observations and MAP proxies suggest that Karungu was significantly drier than today, consistent with the associated faunal assemblage, and likely resulted in a significantly smaller Lake Victoria during the late Pleistocene. Rainfall reduction and associated grassland expansion may have facilitated human and faunal dispersals across equatorial East Africa.

  8. Out of the ashes: the new bachelor of midwifery curriculum at Victoria University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Mary; Kruger, Gina; Brown, Vera

    2007-09-01

    In the past decade, midwifery education has changed significantly in Australia. Previously, a nursing qualification (division 1) was required for entry into midwifery programs and on completion, graduands obtained a postgraduate diploma of midwifery. More recently, bachelor of midwifery programs have also been offered in Australia and currently, a considerable percentage of midwives are prepared for practice in this way. In Victoria, the bachelor of midwifery has been available since 2002, and at this time the third group of graduands are poised to enter the field. Implementation of the bachelor of midwifery program has given rise to many concerns about the development and applicability of this course. Concerns include: complexities of registration with a regulatory board set up primarily for nursing registration; concerns about readiness for practice among bachelor of midwifery graduands; escalating requirements within midwifery courses; and difficulties with meeting course requirements. As this course comes of age in Victoria, it is useful to reflect on some of the challenges encountered along the way. Thus, this paper reports on the journey of one university as it approaches the end of a first year of implementing an independent bachelor of midwifery program, following 5 years involvement as a consortium partner. In particular, it addresses concerns and difficulties encountered during early implementation of the program and then outlines strategies used to improve and strengthen the course. The basic premise of the paper is lessons learnt along the way.

  9. Design of a small nuclear reactor for extending the operational envelope of the Victoria Class Submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, C.J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to conceptually design a small, inherently safe, quasi-homogeneous nuclear reactor that will provide enough power to maintain the hotel load of the Victoria Class Submarine and extend her operational envelope. This research is in its early stages. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background of the research, present results found to date, and indicate the direction of the research over the next two years. The Canadian Forces has recently acquired four U.K. built Upholder Class submarines to replace the ageing Oberon Class submarines purchased in the early 1960's. The Upholders, like the Oberons, are diesel-electric powered. The Upholders were renamed the Victoria Class upon commissioning in Canada. Submarines are strategic military weapons that have several roles including: intelligence gathering, inflicting surprise attacks, controlling shipping lanes and covert operations. For each of these roles the submarine must remain undetected. To remain undetected, it is imperative that the submarine remains submerged. To remain submerged and continue to function, a submarine requires an air-independent power generation system, such as a nuclear reactor. (author)

  10. The Fontaine Pluton : an early Ross Orogeny calc-alkaline gabbro from southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottle, J.M.; Cooper, A.F.

    2006-01-01

    The Fontaine Pluton is a previously undescribed mafic intrusion outcropping at Fontaine Bluff on the south side of the Carlyon Glacier in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. It is the southern-most member of a laterally extensive mafic suite emplaced at mid-crustal depths during the initial stages of the Ross Orogeny. The pluton comprises recrystallised hornblende-biotite gabbro, which in places shows well-defined centimetre to metre scale primary igneous layering. Recrystallised ultramafic enclaves composed of amphibole-chlorite-talc are inferred to be remnants of a chemically and mineralogically distinct cumulate fraction. The intrusion has a 87 Sr/ 86 Sr (i) ratio of 0.70679 and a 143 Nd/ 144 Nd (i) ratio of 0.51187 (εNd (i) = -1.2). This, coupled with other geochemical data, implies that the Fontaine Pluton was formed by c. 15% partial melting of a depleted mantle source that was subsequently contaminated by continental crust. Preliminary U-Pb geochronology on zircon suggests an emplacement age for the pluton of 546 ± 10 Ma. These new data indicate that Ross Orogeny magmatism in this area of southern Victoria Land was initiated in the late Neoproterozoic along a subducting plate margin. (author). 55 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity......, and measurements are highly reliable. As the method is theoretically founded, it also has high validity. TVA-based assessment has recently been used to investigate a broad range of neuropsychological and neurological conditions. We present the method, including the experimental paradigm and practical guidelines...... to patient testing, and review existing TVA-based patient studies organized by lesion anatomy. Lesions in three anatomical regions affect visual capacity: The parietal lobes, frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and extrastriate cortex. Visual capacity thus depends on large, bilaterally distributed anatomical...

  12. Visual Literacy and Visual Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortin, John A.

    It is proposed that visual literacy be defined as the ability to understand (read) and use (write) images and to think and learn in terms of images. This definition includes three basic principles: (1) visuals are a language and thus analogous to verbal language; (2) a visually literate person should be able to understand (read) images and use…

  13. Visual Literacy and Visual Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaris, Paul

    Familiarity with specific images or sets of images plays a role in a culture's visual heritage. Two questions can be asked about this type of visual literacy: Is this a type of knowledge that is worth building into the formal educational curriculum of our schools? What are the educational implications of visual literacy? There is a three-part…

  14. Basic study on an energy conversion system using boiling two-phase flows of temperature-sensitive magnetic fluid. Theoretical analysis based on thermal nonequilibrium model and flow visualization using ultrasonic echo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimoto, Jun; Kamiyama, Shinichi; Okubo, Masaaki.

    1995-01-01

    Effects of magnetic field on the characteristics of boiling two-phase pipe flow of temperature-sensitive magnetic fluid are clarified in detail both theoretically and experimentally. Firstly, governing equations of two-phase magnetic fluid flow based on the thermal nonequilibrium two-fluid model are presented and numerically solved considering evaporation and condensation between gas- and liquid-phases. Next, behaviour of vapor bubbles is visualized with ultrasonic echo in the region of nonuniform magnetic field. This is recorded and processed with an image processor. As a result, the distributions of void fraction in the two-phase flow are obtained. Furthermore, detailed characteristics of the two-phase magnetic fluid flow are investigated using a small test loop of the new energy conversion system. From the numerical and experimental results, it is known that the precise control of the boiling two-phase flow and bubble generation is possible by using the nonuniform magnetic field effectively. These fundamental studies on the characteristics of two-phase magnetic fluid flow will contribute to the development of the new energy conversion system using a gas-liquid boiling two-phase flow of magnetic fluid. (author)

  15. Relating Standardized Visual Perception Measures to Simulator Visual System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Sweet, Barbara T.

    2013-01-01

    Human vision is quantified through the use of standardized clinical vision measurements. These measurements typically include visual acuity (near and far), contrast sensitivity, color vision, stereopsis (a.k.a. stereo acuity), and visual field periphery. Simulator visual system performance is specified in terms such as brightness, contrast, color depth, color gamut, gamma, resolution, and field-of-view. How do these simulator performance characteristics relate to the perceptual experience of the pilot in the simulator? In this paper, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity will be related to simulator visual system resolution, contrast, and dynamic range; similarly, color vision will be related to color depth/color gamut. Finally, we will consider how some characteristics of human vision not typically included in current clinical assessments could be used to better inform simulator requirements (e.g., relating dynamic characteristics of human vision to update rate and other temporal display characteristics).

  16. Molecular records of climate variability and vegetation response since the Late Pleistocene in the Lake Victoria basin, East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berke, M.A.; Johnson, T.C.; Werne, J.P.; Grice, K.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    New molecular proxies of temperature and hydrology are helping to constrain tropical climate change and elucidate possible forcing mechanisms during the Holocene. Here, we examine a similar to 14,000 year record of climate variability from Lake Victoria, East Africa, the world's second largest

  17. Neutron activation analysis on sediments from Victoria Land, Antarctica. Multi-elemental characterization of potential atmospheric dust sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccolo, G.; Maggi, V.; Baroni, C.; Clemenza, M.; Motta, A.; Nastasi, M.; Previtali, E.; University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan; Delmonte, B.; Salvatore, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    The elemental composition of 40 samples of mineral sediments collected in Victoria Land, Antarctica, in correspondence of ice-free sites, is presented. Concentration of 36 elements was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA. The selection of 6 standard reference materials and the development of a specific analytical procedure allowed to reduce measurements uncertainties and to verify the reproducibility of the results. The decision to analyze sediment samples from Victoria Land ice-free areas is related to recent investigations regarding mineral dust content in the TALos Dome ICE core (159deg11'E; 72deg49'S, East Antarctica, Victoria Land), in which a coarse local fraction of dust was recognized. The characterization of Antarctic potential source areas of atmospheric mineral dust is the first step to identify the active sources of dust for the Talos Dome area and to reconstruct the atmospheric pathways followed by air masses in this region during different climatic periods. Principal components analysis was used to identify elements and samples correlations; attention was paid specially to rare earth elements (REE) and incompatible/compatible elements (ICE) in respect to iron, which proved to be the most discriminating elemental groups. The analysis of REE and ICE concentration profiles supported evidences of chemical weathering in ice-free areas of Victoria Land, whereas cold and dry climate conditions of the Talos Dome area and in general of East Antarctica. (author)

  18. Possible implications of Rabbit Calicivirus Disease for malleefowl Leipoa ocellata Gould in the north-west of Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandell, P.

    1999-01-01

    Parks Victoria and the Department of Natural Resources & Environment (NRE) are collaborating with agencies from the other States and the Commonwealth of Australia in a national program of detailed monitoring and surveillance of the effects of Rabbit Calicivirus Disease (RCD). A component of the

  19. Victoria Khiterer. Jewish City or Inferno of Russian Israel? A History of the Jews in Kiev Before February 1917.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly St. Julian-Varnon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Book review of Victoria Khiterer. Jewish City or Inferno of Russian Israel? A History of the Jews in Kiev Before February 1917. Academic Studies Press, 2016. Jews of Russia and Eastern Europe and Their Legacy, series editor, Maxim D. Shrayer. xx, 474 pp. Illustrations. Tables. Maps. Appendix. Bibliography. Index. $89.00, cloth.

  20. Language in the Workplace Project and Workplace Communication for Skilled Migrants Course at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bres, Julia; Holmes, Janet; Joe, Angela; Marra, Meredith; Newton, Jonathan; Riddiford Nicky; Vine, Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    The School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies (LALS) at Victoria University of Wellington conducts research and teaching in Linguistics, Applied Linguistics, Writing and Deaf Studies. It incorporates a Deaf Studies Research Unit, which undertakes research on topics relating to deaf people and their language in New Zealand, and the New…

  1. The Development and Use of Individual Learning Plans for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P. Margaret; Byrnes, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the Individual Learning Plans of eighty-eight students who were deaf and hard of hearing attending facilities and schools for the deaf in Victoria Australia. The students' assessment and planning portfolios were scrutinised for evidence of formal and informal assessment used to generate goals for the Individual Learning…

  2. Marching Backwards into the Future: The Introduction of the English Creative Music Movement in State Secondary Schools in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Harry

    2014-01-01

    In 1910, Victoria established an elite form of state secondary education that remained essentially unchanged until the introduction of a progressive curriculum during the late 1960s. This radical and voluntary curriculum introduced child-centred learning and personal development skills to state secondary schools. Many state secondary music…

  3. The Meaning of ‘General Paralysis of the Insane’ in Victoria, Australia; 1886 to 1906

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts, Phillip

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conclusion to the meaning of the historical diagnosis “general paralysis of the insane” in nineteenth century Victorian Registrar General”s reports. Most studies suggest that in the past the diagnosis refers to neuro-syphilis, and while after 1906 this is not disputed, this paper will show that the diagnosis had a much broader meaning incorporating many forms of degenerative brain disease during the study period (Victoria 1886 to 1906. It is acknowledged, however, that the use of this diagnosis may have varied dramatically in the past based on a doctor’s education and/or background. This conclusion has been arrived at by analysing both government and general hospital records on the Australian, Victorian population. This paper also presents methods for determining the meaning of obsolete medical diagnoses where the definition is poorly understood.En este trabajo presenta una conclusión sobre el significado de la “parálisis general de los locos” como diagnóstico en los informes del Victorian Registrar General durante el siglo XIX. La mayoría de los estudios sugieren que en el pasado el diagnóstico se refiere a la neuro-sífilis, y aunque después de 1906 no se discute, este trabajo mostrará que el diagnóstico tiene un significado mucho más amplio e incorpora muchas formas de enfermedad degenerativa del cerebro durante el período de estudio (Victoria 1886 a 1906. Se reconoce, sin embargo, que el uso de este diagnóstico puede haber variado drásticamente en el pasado dependiendo de la formación y del ambiente médico. Se ha llegado a esta conclusión mediante el análisis de los registros hospitalarios de la población de Victoria, Australia. Este documento también presenta métodos para determinar el significado de los diagnósticos médicos obsoletos cuya definición es confusa.

  4. Poética de la autotraducción: María Victoria Atencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Martínez, María Isabel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-translation is an ancient but poorly researched practice. This article analyses an exceptional case: the reflection on self-translation as exposed in poetry. A case in point is the poem «Voz traducida», from the poetry collection De la llama en que arde (1988. Indeed, the poem selected for examination was written by M.ª Victoria Atencia (Málaga, 1931, an expert both in writing poetry and in translating literature. Her book of poems also contains an original text, «Rosas», in Galician, and its corresponding Spanish translation. Both translation and reflection are complementary in her compositions. These poetic creations attest to the fact that artfulness works as a depiction of the next creation. Furthermore, this study will deeply explore the poet’s most important literary thoughts.La autotraducción es una práctica antigua, pero poco estudiada. El presente artículo analiza un caso excepcional: la reflexión sobre la autotraducción expuesta en la lírica. Para ello, se analiza el poema de M.ª Victoria Atencia «Voz traducida», perteneciente al libro titulado De la llama en que arde (1988. Es un ejemplo de que la tarea de traducir funciona como un motivo que origina una nueva creación. Además, permite que el lector conozca facetas importantes del pensamiento literario de la escritora. M.ª Victoria Atencia, además de poeta, es una experta traductora. El libro contiene también dos versiones del poema «Rosas», en gallego y en español, pruebas de la dimensión práctica de los planteamientos teóricos de la autora y de su coherencia estética. Ambas facetas, la traducción y la reflexión, son complementarias en la obra de la autora.

  5. A decreasing trend in fall-related hip fracture incidence in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, E; Clapperton, A

    2013-01-01

    In Victoria, Australia, the age-standardised incidence of fall-related hip fracture hospitalisations decreased significantly by 25% over the period 1998/1999-2008/2009. Significant decreases in fall-related hip fractures were observed in males and females, across all 5-year age groups, in Australian-born and overseas-born Victorians, in all socio-economic quintiles and in community-dwelling older people. The study aim was to investigate trends in the incidence of fall-related and hip fracture hospitalisations among Victorians aged 65 years and older overall and by age, gender, country of birth, socio-economic status (SES) and location of the event (home, residential care institution, etc.) over the 11-year period 1998/1999 to 2008/2009. Annual counts and age-standardised rates for fall-related hospitalisations among people aged 65 years and older were estimated using Victorian hospital admissions data. The statistical significance of changes in trends over time were analysed using a log-linear regression model of the rate data assuming a Poisson distribution of cases. Although the age-standardised incidence of fall-related hospitalisations increased significantly by 13% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9% to 18%) in Victoria, the age-standardised incidence of fall-related hip fracture hospitalisations decreased from 600/100,000 in 1998/1999 to 467/100,000 in 2008/2009 - an estimated overall reduction of 25% (95% CI, -29% to -22%). By contrast, the age-standardised incidence of fall-related hospitalisations for fractures at other body sites either increased significantly or showed no significant change. Significant decreases in fall-related hip fractures were observed in both males and females, across all 5-year age groups, in both Australian-born and overseas-born Victorians, in all socio-economic quintiles and in community-dwelling older people but not in people living in residential care facilities. Despite the downward trend in the age-standardised incidence of

  6. Traffic Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picozzi, Matteo; Verdezoto, Nervo; Pouke, Matti

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a space-time visualization to provide city's decision-makers the ability to analyse and uncover important "city events" in an understandable manner for city planning activities. An interactive Web mashup visualization is presented that integrates several visualization...... techniques to give a rapid overview of traffic data. We illustrate our approach as a case study for traffic visualization systems, using datasets from the city of Oulu that can be extended to other city planning activities. We also report the feedback of real users (traffic management employees, traffic police...

  7. Visualization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  8. Distributed Visualization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Distributed Visualization allows anyone, anywhere, to see any simulation, at any time. Development focuses on algorithms, software, data formats, data systems and...

  9. Visual masking & schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Herzog

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual masking is a frequently used tool in schizophrenia research. Visual masking has a very high sensitivity and specificity and masking paradigms have been proven to be endophenotypes. Whereas masking is a powerful technique to study schizophrenia, the underlying mechanisms are discussed controversially. For example, for more than 25 years, masking deficits of schizophrenia patients were mainly attributed to a deficient magno-cellular system (M-system. Here, we show that there is very little evidence that masking deficits are magno-cellular deficits. We will discuss the magno-cellular and other approaches in detail and highlight their pros and cons.

  10. Improving visual perception through neurofeedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharnowski, Frank; Hutton, Chloe; Josephs, Oliver; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Rees, Geraint

    2012-01-01

    Perception depends on the interplay of ongoing spontaneous activity and stimulus-evoked activity in sensory cortices. This raises the possibility that training ongoing spontaneous activity alone might be sufficient for enhancing perceptual sensitivity. To test this, we trained human participants to control ongoing spontaneous activity in circumscribed regions of retinotopic visual cortex using real-time functional MRI based neurofeedback. After training, we tested participants using a new and previously untrained visual detection task that was presented at the visual field location corresponding to the trained region of visual cortex. Perceptual sensitivity was significantly enhanced only when participants who had previously learned control over ongoing activity were now exercising control, and only for that region of visual cortex. Our new approach allows us to non-invasively and non-pharmacologically manipulate regionally specific brain activity, and thus provide ‘brain training’ to deliver particular perceptual enhancements. PMID:23223302

  11. LAKE VICTORIA AND THE COMMON PROPERTY DEBATE: IS THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS A THREAT TO ITS FUTURE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Ochieng OGELLO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lake Victoria is the largest among the African Great Lakes in East African region that are believed to have both dynamic and fragile aquatic ecosystems. Within two decades, the lake has experienced extensive resource exploitation leading to constrained productivity and drastic decline of native biodiversity. Intensive non-selective fishing, catchment vegetation degradation, industrial and agricultural pollution, the introduction of exotic species and uneven patchwork of governmental laws are some of the reasons for the current ecological woes facing Lake Victoria. This paper intends to stimulate recognition of Lake Victoria and its catchment as a lived Com­mons, to be shared, protected, managed and enjoyed by all who live around it. The paper compares the original biodiversity status of the lake with the current status and discusses the role of unlimited access as a function of the loss of the Lake’s biological wealth. The Lake’s water resource base, fishery, wetlands and other aquatic resources have been exhaustively discussed. In this review, we uphold the Hardin’s school of thought that freedom of the commoners causes resource overuse leading to poverty. Therefore, limiting freedom could be essential. However, there is need for provision of alternative means of survival since people with no choices would continue over-exploiting ecosystems even under limited access. The Lake Victoria basin commons should be protected by strict legal and clear political frame­work based on public trust doctrine, reinforced in law that the Lake is vital for the survival of people, plants and animals living on or near it and therefore must be protected for the common good. The political jurisdictions should consider governing the Lake basin as one integrated watershed. It is our fervent hope that bordering communities will secure grass root movements to protect and nurture Lake Victoria and its environs for the benefit of the present and future

  12. The burden of hospitalised fall-related injury in community-dwelling older people in Victoria: a database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Trang; Day, Lesley; Finch, Caroline F

    2014-04-01

    To estimate the burden of hospitalised fall-related injury in community-dwelling older people in Victoria. We analysed fall-related, person-identifying hospital discharge data and patient-level hospital treatment costs for community-dwelling older people aged 65+ years from Victoria between 1 July 2005 and 30 June 2008, inclusive. Key outcomes of interest were length of stay (LOS)/episode, cumulative LOS (CLOS)/patient and inpatient costs. The burden of hospitalised fall-related injury in community-dwelling older people aged 65+ years in Victoria was 284,781 hospital bed days in 2005-06, rising to 310,031 hospital bed days in 2007-08. Seventy-one per cent of episodes were multiday. One in 15 acute care episodes was a high LOS outlier and 14% of patients had ≥1 episode classified as high LOS outlier. The median CLOS/patient was nine days (interquartile range 2-27). The annual costs of inpatient care, in June 2009 prices, for fall-related injury in community-dwelling people aged 65+ years in Victoria rose from $213 million in 2005-06 to $237 million in 2007-08. The burden of hospitalised fall-related injury in community-dwelling older women, people aged 85+ years and those with comorbidity was considerable. The burden of hospitalised fall-related injury in community-dwelling older people aged 65+ years in Victoria is significantly more than previously projected. Importantly, this study identifies that women, patients with comorbidity and those aged 85+ years account for a considerable proportion of this burden. A corresponding increase in falls prevention effort is required to ensure that the burden is properly addressed. © 2014 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  13. A pharyngeal jaw evolutionary innovation facilitated extinction in Lake Victoria cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Matthew D; Borstein, Samuel R; Neches, Russell Y; Buescher, Heinz H; Seehausen, Ole; Wainwright, Peter C

    2015-11-27

    Evolutionary innovations, traits that give species access to previously unoccupied niches, may promote speciation and adaptive radiation. Here, we show that such innovations can also result in competitive inferiority and extinction. We present evidence that the modified pharyngeal jaws of cichlid fishes and several marine fish lineages, a classic example of evolutionary innovation, are not universally beneficial. A large-scale analysis of dietary evolution across marine fish lineages reveals that the innovation compromises access to energy-rich predator niches. We show that this competitive inferiority shaped the adaptive radiation of cichlids in Lake Tanganyika and played a pivotal and previously unrecognized role in the mass extinction of cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria after Nile perch invasion. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Reality check of laboratory service effectiveness during pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catton, Michael; Druce, Julian; Papadakis, Goergina; Tran, Thomas; Birch, Christopher

    2011-06-01

    In Australia, the outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 began in Melbourne, Victoria; in the first 17 days, the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory detected 977 cases. Although the laboratory had a pandemic plan in place, a retrospective evaluation found 3 major variations from plan assumptions: 1) higher peak demand not limited by a case definition, 2) prolonged peak demand because containment attempts continued despite widespread influenza, and 3) unexpected influence of negative test results on public health actions. Although implementation of the plan was generally successful, the greatest challenges were limited availability of skilled staff and test reagents. Despite peak demand of 1,401 tests per day, results were provided within the usual 24 hours of specimen receipt; however, turnaround time seemed slower because of slow transport times (>3 days for 45% of specimens). Hence, effective laboratory capability might be enhanced by speeding transport of specimens and improving transmission of clinical data.

  15. Intestinal schistosomiasis among preschool children along the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalugwa, A.; Olsen, Annette; Tukahebwa, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by Schistosoma trematode parasites, affects hundreds of millions of people and accounts for more than 40% of the global health burden due to neglected tropical diseases. In Uganda, intestinal schistosomiasis is endemic in 73 out of 112 districts and about 55......% of the population of 36 million individuals are at risk. There is scanty information on the status and burden of schistosomiasis in preschool children less than six years of age in Uganda. This study aimed to assess the status of Schistosoma mansoni infections in children aged 1-5 years in Uganda. S. mansoni...... prevalence and intensity of infection were examined in 3058 children from 5 districts along Lake Victoria shoreline, eastern Uganda. For each child one stool sample was collected on three consecutive days. The Kato-Katz technique was used to prepare stool smears on slides for microscopic examination. Short...

  16. Gastropod diversity, distribution and abundance in habitats with and without anthropogenic disturbances in Lake Victoria, Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, C. N.; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Madsen, Henry

    2013-01-01

    We investigated freshwater gastropod diversity, abundance and distribution in habitats with and without anthropogenic disturbance in two localities, Ndere in the Winam Gulf and Mbita Point, Lake Victoria, Kenya, from May 2002 to January 2004. A total of 133 984 gastropod specimens belonging to 15...... species were recorded, 14 from Mbita and 12 from Ndere. Two species, Ferrissia kavirondica and Cleopatra cridlandi, which were recorded only from undisturbed habitats, could be indicators of least disturbed habitats. Water chemistry did differ between fish landing sites and undisturbed habitats at some......, while other species may not tolerate these changes. In order to protect gastropod diversity and avoid dominance of intermediate hosts, such as B. choanomphala, a management plan for the use of these fish landing sites should be developed. This could include rules on how to dispose of fish remnants...

  17. Stability and change in adult personality over 6 years: findings from the Victoria Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Brent J; Hertzog, Christopher; Hultsch, David F; Dixon, Roger A

    2003-05-01

    Data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study were used to examine the 6-year longitudinal stability of personality in older adults. Personality was measured with the NEO Personality Inventory. The longitudinal sample consisted of 223 adults initially ranging from 55 to 85 years of age. Longitudinal confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the stability of individual differences in change over time, and the stability of the longitudinal factor structure. The results indicated both substantial stability at the level of individual differences in change, as well as significant individual differences in change that were related to age and gender. Finally, the factor structure of personality was invariant over time but did not approximate simple structure for the five dimensions of personality. Our study of 6-year personality development provided both (a). a confirmation of early significant stability findings and (b). unique evidence for significant individual differences in late adulthood.

  18. Microbial quality and safety of fresh and dried Rastrineobola argentea from Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baniga, Zebedayo; Dalsgaard, Anders; Mhongole, Ofred J

    2017-01-01

    the bacteriological quality of fresh and dried sardines from Lake Victoria. Sardine samples were randomly collected from main landing sites and retail markets in the city of Mwanza. Total viable counts (TVC) in fresh sardines were in the range of 5.18–7.90 log10 cfu/g while those dried on racks contained 3.......13–4.85 log10 cfu/g which were 0.75% of those dried on sand with 4.80–7.13 log10 cfu/g (p .../g and those dried on sand contained 1.18–3.32 log10 mpn/g, however, sardines dried on racks, did not contain any E. coli. Similar findings were found in the two types of dried sardines from the retail markets. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in fresh R. argentea was 25% (n = 40), sand dried sardines at landing...

  19. Assessment of deep electrical conductivity features of Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica under other geophysical constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Caneva

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The lithospheric and crustal structure of the Victoria Land continental block (Antarctica has been studied by geological and geophysical surveys. Among them magnetovariational investigations (MV have been addressed to highlight the deep electrical conductivity patterns which contribute to the understanding of continental rifting and tectonic setting of the region. The hypothetical event map for H linearly polarized perpendicular to the coast indicates a possible broad coast parallel conductivity anomaly zone. Despite the coast effect, this feature could be related to the deep upper mantle thermal anomaly leading to Cenozoic uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains rift flank. However, both the hypothetic event map polarized parallel to the coast and the induction arrows suggest that the area of enhanced conductivity may be confined to the Deep Freeze Range crustal block along the western flank of the Mesozoic Rennick Graben. We also discuss the possible association between increased conductivity over the Southern Cross block and extensive Cenozoic alkaline plutonism.

  20. Seismicity and arrival-time residuals from the Victoria Earthquake of June 9, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, V.; Frez, J.

    1981-01-01

    Hypocenter distribution in space and time of the aftershock activity from the Victoria Earthquake of June 9, 1980 was studied. It was concluded that the main event excited aftershocks in several pre-existing nests at the northwest end of the Cerro Prieto Fault, but no significant activity occurred at the immediate neighborhood of the main event. The depth of the aftershocks increases with the distance from the northwest end of the fault and this feature might be related with the higher temperatures and the spreading center located between the ends of the Imperial and Cerro Prieto Faults. The significance of the arrival-times residuals for local and regional stations is discussed both for P and S-waves and the importance of obtaining station corrections is emphasized. The non-uniqueness in determining a structure which minimizes the residuals is illustrated. Two different structures which satisfy the local data are presented.

  1. Was Queen Victoria depressed? 1. Natural history and differential diagnosis of presenting problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powles, W E; Alexander, M G

    1987-02-01

    For some years we have speculated as to whether Queen Victoria suffered a definable psychiatric illness in her notorious and prolonged seclusion after the Prince Consort's death. We here summarize criteria for grief and depression from three authorities. Against these, we examine the natural history of the Queen's bereavement and restitution. We find that her suffering and her portrayal of the role of widow were related to her personal style and were culturally accepted. Her self-esteem, ego functions, and object relatedness were preserved. While some clinicians might favour a diagnosis of Dysthymic Disorder, we find the evidence strongly in favour of an intense, prolonged, normal human grief (Uncomplicated Bereavement of DSM III) coloured by a romantic and histrionic personal style. Intensity and duration do not, in this case, establish a diagnosis of depression.

  2. Cardboard Boxes and Invisible Fences: Homelessness and Public Space in City of Victoria v. Adams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Buhler

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the recent decision of the British Columbia Supreme Court in City of Victoria v. Adams. Specifically, the paper considers three interlocking themes that emerge from the decision: (1 the nature of “public space” in the context of homelessness; (2 the autonomy of homeless individuals; and (3 the meaning and value of the “homeless body.” With reference to each theme, the paper explores how the judgment in Adams grapples with the purportedly normative “Law and Economics”- type arguments put forth by the City of Victoria. By drawing on insights from Critical Legal Studies theory and feminist jurisprudence, the paper shows that Adams subverts and destabilizes certain “normative” perspectives about public space and homelessness. However, the paper goes on to argue that in its conflation of “cardboard box” shelters with the “invisible fences” envisioned by Justice Wilson in Morgentaler, Adams presents an ambiguous victory for anti-poverty advocates. The paper argues that the decision may serve to increase barriers for a broader and more progressive understanding of section 7 in the future. Dans cet article, on analyse le jugement récent de la Cour Suprême de la Colombie Britannique dans City of Victoria v. Adams. Plus précisément, on considère trois thèmes qui ressortent du jugement et qui s’entrecroisent : (1 la nature d’«espace public» dans le contexte de l’itinérance; (2 l’autonomie des sans-abri; et (3 la signification et la valeur du «corps sans abri». En rapport avec chaque thème, on explore comment l’arrêt Adams compose avec les arguments supposément normatifs du genre «La Loi et l’Économie» avancés par la ville de Victoria. En s’inspirant de perceptions tirées de la théorie des Critical Legal Studies et de la jurisprudence féministe, l’auteure démontre que l’arrêt Adams subvertit et déséquilibre certaines perspectives «normatives» au sujet de l

  3. Writing history: case study of the university of Victoria School of Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaia, Margaret R; Young, Lynne

    2013-04-23

    A historical examination of a nursing curriculum is a bridge between past and present from which insights to guide curriculum development can be gleaned. In this paper, we use the case study method to examine how the University of Victoria School of Nursing (UVic SON), which was heavily influenced by the ideology of second wave feminism, contributed to a change in the direction of nursing education from task-orientation to a content and process orientation. This case study, informed by a feminist lens, enabled us to critically examine the introduction of a "revolutionary" caring curriculum at the UVic SON. Our research demonstrates the fault lines and current debates within which a feminist informed curriculum continues to struggle for legitimacy and cohesion. More work is needed to illuminate the historical basis of these debates and to understand more fully the complex landscape that has constructed the social and historical position of women and nursing in Canadian society today.

  4. Radium in potable waters from Central Victoria, Australia - an application of the Australian drinking water guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinker, R.A.; Smith, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    Determinations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra in potable mineral waters from springs located in the Daylesford-Hepburn region of Victoria, Australia are presented. Concentrations ranged from 230-810 mBq L -1 for 226 Ra and 200-800 mBq L -1 for 226 Ra. These levels approach or exceed the guideline limits recommended in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines. The annual committed effective dose and health risks from radium in potable water is discussed. Assuming consumption of 2 L per day the average annual committed effective dose received from 226 Ra was 0.087 mSv y -1 and from 226 Ra was 0.10 mSv y -1

  5. Suffering by comparison: Twitter users' reactions to the Victoria's Secret Fashion Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisler, Joan C; Fung, Kaitlin T; Lopez, Alexandra M; Gorman, Jennifer A

    2013-09-01

    Social comparison theory suggests that evaluating the self in comparison with others (e.g., peers, celebrities, models) can influence body image. Experimental studies that have tested effects of viewing idealized images in the media often show that women feel worse about themselves after seeing images that illustrate the beauty ideal. Twitter presents a naturally occurring opportunity to study viewers' reactions. An analysis was conducted of 977 tweets sent immediately before and during the 2011 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show that reference the show. Although the majority were idiosyncratic remarks, many tweets contain evidence of upward social comparisons to the fashion models. There were tweets about body image, eating disorders, weight, desires for food or alcohol, and thoughts about self-harm. The results support social comparison theory, and suggest that vulnerable viewers could experience negative affect, or even engage in harmful behaviors, during or after viewing the show or others like it. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Accession of non-nitrogenous ions dissolved in rainwater to soils in Victoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, J T; Leslie, T I

    1958-01-01

    Analyses of rainwater samples from 24 stations in Victoria have shown that with increasing distance from the coast there is a sharp decrease in the influence of the ocean on the nature of the dissolved ions. About 150 miles inland the ionic ratio of sodium to potassium falls below 10, that of sodium to chloride exceeds unity, and calcium becomes the dominant cation. This is considered to reflect the influence of terrestrial material such as the dry surface of soils. As soils also contain sodium and chloride ions, the common assumption that all the chloride in the rain is derived from the ocean is unjustified, hence calculations of the net accession of salts are unwarranted. In southern Australia, sulphate ions are present in much smaller amounts than in other countries and this may contribute to the observed deficiencies of sulphur in plant nutrition. Details are given of the method of collecting the rainwater and of its analysis.

  7. Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Visual Impairment KidsHealth / For Teens / Visual Impairment What's in ...

  8. Visual attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, K.K.; Horowitz, T.S.; Howe, P.; Pedersini, R.; Reijnen, E.; Pinto, Y.; Wolfe, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    A typical visual scene we encounter in everyday life is complex and filled with a huge amount of perceptual information. The term, ‘visual attention’ describes a set of mechanisms that limit some processing to a subset of incoming stimuli. Attentional mechanisms shape what we see and what we can act

  9. A Paramedic-staffed Helicopter Emergency Medical Service's Response to Winch Missions in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadley, Ben; Heschl, Stefan; Andrew, Emily; de Wit, Anthony; Bernard, Stephen A; Smith, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Winching emergency medical care providers from a helicopter to the scene enables treatment of patients in otherwise inaccessible locations, but is not without risks. The objective of this study was to define characteristics of winch missions undertaken by Intensive Care Flight Paramedics (ICFP) in Victoria, Australia with a focus on extraction methods and clinical care delivered at the scene. A retrospective data analysis was performed to identify all winch missions between November 2010 and March 2014. Demographic data, winch characteristics, physiological parameters, and interventions undertaken on scene by the ICFP were extracted. Out of 5,003 missions in the study period, 125 were identified as winch operations. Winter missions were significantly less frequent than those of any other season. Patients were predominantly male (78.4%) and had a mean age of 38 years (±17.6). A total of 109 (87.2%) patients were identified as experiencing trauma with a mean Revised Trauma Score of 7.5288, and isolated limb fractures were the most frequently encountered injury. Falls and vehicle-related trauma were the most common mechanisms of injury. The total median scene duration was 49 minutes (IQR 23-91). Sixty-three patients (50.4%) were extracted using a stretcher, 45 (36.0%) using a hypothermic strop, and 6 (4.8%) via normal rescue strop. Eleven patients (8.8%) were not winched to the helicopter. Vascular access (38.4%), analgesia (44.0%), and anti-emetic administration (28.8%) were the most frequent clinical interventions. Forty-nine patients (39.2%) did not receive any clinical intervention prior to winch extraction. Winch operations in Victoria, Australia consisted predominantly of patients with minor to moderate traumatic injuries. A significant proportion of patients did not require any clinical treatment prior to winching, and among those who did, analgesia was the most frequent intervention. Advanced medical procedures were rarely required prior to winch extraction.

  10. The job satisfaction of female sex workers working in licensed brothels in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilardi, Jade E; Miller, Amanda; Hocking, Jane S; Keogh, Louise; Cummings, Rosey; Chen, Marcus Y; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Fairley, Christopher K

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have examined sex workers' attitudes to work but not their levels of job satisfaction compared with other occupations. The job satisfaction levels and standards of living of sex workers in licensed brothels in Victoria were compared with Australian women. Responses to a questionnaire that included questions about sex work and their "most likely alternative job." Survey data was compared with identical questions from the Households, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey. A structured survey was undertaken with sex workers in Victoria attending a a sexual health service. Of the 112 sex workers who agreed to participate in the study, 85 (76%) completed the survey. The median years women had been working as sex workers was three (range 0.1-18). The main reasons women started sex work was because "they needed the money" (69%), were attracted to the flexible hours (44%) or had a particular goal in mind (43%). The two biggest concerns women had about sex work were their safety (65%) and the risk of sexually transmitted infections (65%). When compared with the median job satisfaction scores of Australian women working in sex workers' "most likely alternative jobs," 50% of sex workers reported a higher median satisfaction score for sex work in relation to hours worked, 47% in relation to flexibility, 43% in relation to total pay, 26% in relation to job security, 19% in relation to the work itself, and 25% in relation to overall job satisfaction. Women reported that they primarily do sex work for financial gain although a significant minority prefer it to other work they would be likely to do. These results should be interpreted in the context that the presence of personality disorders that are common among sex workers were not measured in this study. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  11. The spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals in sediments of Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chloe Wing-yee; Ip, Carman Ching-man [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Zhang Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Shin, Paul K.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Qian Peiyuan [Department of Biology and Coastal Marine Laboratory, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Li Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)], E-mail: cexdli@polyu.edu.hk

    2008-07-01

    Victoria Harbour has received substantial loadings of pollutants from industrial and municipal wastewater discharged since the 1950s. Inputs of contaminants have declined dramatically during the last two decades as a result of better controls at the source and improved wastewater treatment facilities. To assess the spatial and temporal changes of metal contaminants in sediments in Victoria Harbour, core and grab sediments were collected. The central harbour areas were generally contaminated with heavy metals. The spatial distribution of trace metals can probably be attributed to the proximity of major urban and industrial discharge points, and to the effect of tidal flushing in the harbour. In the sediment cores, the highest concentrations of trace metals were observed to have accumulated during the 1950s-1980s, corresponding with the period of rapid urban and industrial development in Hong Kong. From the late 1980s, there has been a major decline in the concentrations of trace metals, due to a reduction in industrial activities and to the enactment of wastewater pollution controls in the territory. The Pb isotopic compositions of the sediments revealed the anthropogenic inputs of Pb to the harbour. The {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios varied from 1.154 to 1.190, which were lower than those of background geological materials in Hong Kong ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb: 1.201-1.279). The data also indicated that the Pb in the harbour sediments most likely originated from mixed sources, including the leaded gasoline used in the past and other anthropogenic sources.

  12. The Green Dialysis Survey: Establishing a Baseline for Environmental Sustainability across Dialysis Facilities in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Katherine A; Gleeson, Alice; Holt, Stephen G; Agar, John Wm

    2017-11-02

    The Green Dialysis Survey aimed to 1) establish a baseline for environmental sustainability (ES) across Victorian dialysis facilities, and 2) guide future initiatives to reduce the environmental impact of dialysis delivery. Nurse unit managers of all Victorian public dialysis facilities received an online link to the survey, which asked 107 questions relevant to the ES of dialysis services. Responses were received from 71/83 dialysis facilities in Victoria (86%), representing 628/660 dialysis chairs (95%). Low energy lighting was present in 13 facilities (18%), 18 (25%) recycled reverse osmosis water and 7 (10%) reported use of renewable energy. Fifty-six facilities (79%) performed comingled recycling but only 27 (38%) recycled polyvinyl chloride plastic. A minority educated staff in appropriate waste management (n=30;42%) or formally audited waste generation and segregation (n=19;27%). Forty-four (62%) provided secure bicycle parking but only 33 (46%) provided shower and changing facilities. There was limited use of tele- or video-conferencing to replace staff meetings (n=19;27%) or patient clinic visits (n=13;18%). A minority considered ES in procurement decisions (n=28;39%) and there was minimal preparedness to cope with climate change. Only 39 services (49%) confirmed an ES policy and few had ever formed a green group (n=14; 20%) or were currently undertaking a green project (n=8;11%). Only 15 facilities (21%) made formal efforts to raise awareness of ES. This survey provides a baseline for practices that potentially impact the environmental sustainability of dialysis units in Victoria, Australia. It also identifies achievable targets for attention. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Two new species of zooplanktivorous haplochromine cichlids from Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnix de Zeeuw

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of zooplanktivorous haplochromine cichlids from Lake Victoria, Tanzania, are described and illustrated. These species closely resemble each other. Their affinities to other zooplanktivorous haplochromines from Lake Victoria are discussed. Haplochromis argens sp. n., which featured under nicknames (mainly H. “argens” in more than 50 papers, was caught both in the Mwanza Gulf and the Emin Pasha Gulf, whereas H. goldschmidti sp. n. was only found in the Emin Pasha Gulf. Of the latter species only males are available, but it seems unlikely that it represents a case of male colour polymorphism as several presumably unrelated characters differ in sympatry between the two species, suggesting that there is no gene flow. Statistical analysis revealed that the overall difference between the two species is greater than that between the populations from the two locations. Body depth of the two species in sympatry in the Emin Pasha Gulf was more similar than that of H. goldschmidti sp. n. and the allopatric population of H. argens sp. n. from the Mwanza Gulf, which may indicate an overall environmental effect. However, several measurements related to the width of snout and mouth differed more between the populations of the two species in sympatry than between the allopatric populations. In contrast to a group of zooplanktivorous species that recovered successfully after environmental changes in the lake, H. argens sp. n. is among a group that became extremely rare and probably is in danger of extinction; the conservation status of H. goldschmidti sp. n. is currently unknown.

  14. Simulation of Lake Victoria Circulation Patterns Using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrispine Nyamweya

    Full Text Available Lake Victoria provides important ecosystem services including transport, water for domestic and industrial uses and fisheries to about 33 million inhabitants in three East African countries. The lake plays an important role in modulating regional climate. Its thermodynamics and hydrodynamics are also influenced by prevailing climatic and weather conditions on diel, seasonal and annual scales. However, information on water temperature and circulation in the lake is limited in space and time. We use a Regional Oceanographic Model System (ROMS to simulate these processes from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2014. The model is based on real bathymetry, river runoff and atmospheric forcing data using the bulk flux algorithm. Simulations show that the water column exhibits annual cycles of thermo-stratification (September-May and mixing (June-August. Surface water currents take different patterns ranging from a lake-wide northward flow to gyres that vary in size and number. An under flow exists that leads to the formation of upwelling and downwelling regions. Current velocities are highest at the center of the lake and on the western inshore waters indicating enhanced water circulation in those areas. However, there is little exchange of water between the major gulfs (especially Nyanza and the open lake, a factor that could be responsible for the different water quality reported in those regions. Findings of the present study enhance understanding of the physical processes (temperature and currents that have an effect on diel, seasonal, and annual variations in stratification, vertical mixing, inshore-offshore exchanges and fluxes of nutrients that ultimately influence the biotic distribution and trophic structure. For instance information on areas/timing of upwelling and vertical mixing obtained from this study will help predict locations/seasons of high primary production and ultimately fisheries productivity in Lake Victoria.

  15. Intended and unintended consequences of abortion law reform: perspectives of abortion experts in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, L A; Newton, D; Bayly, C; McNamee, K; Hardiman, A; Webster, A; Bismark, M

    2017-01-01

    In Victoria, Australia, abortion was decriminalised in October 2008, bringing the law in line with clinical practice and community attitudes. We describe how experts in abortion service provision perceived the intent and subsequent impact of the 2008 Victorian abortion law reform. Experts in abortion provision in Victoria were recruited for a qualitative semi-structured interview about the 2008 law reform and its perceived impact, until saturation was reached. Nineteen experts from a range of health care settings and geographic locations were interviewed in 2014/2015. Thematic analysis was conducted to summarise participants' views. Abortion law reform, while a positive event, was perceived to have changed little about the provision of abortion. The views of participants can be categorised into: (1) goals that law reform was intended to address and that have been achieved; (2) intent or hopes of law reform that have not been achieved; (3) unintended consequences; (4) coincidences; and (5) unfinished business. All agreed that law reform had repositioned abortion as a health rather than legal issue, had shifted the power in decision making from doctors to women, and had increased clarity and safety for doctors. However, all described outstanding concerns; limited public provision of surgical abortion; reduced access to abortion after 20 weeks; ongoing stigma; lack of a state-wide strategy for equitable abortion provision; and an unsustainable workforce. Law reform, while positive, has failed to address a number of significant issues in abortion service provision, and may have even resulted in a 'lull' in action. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Perceptions about interventions to control schistosomiasis among the Lake Victoria island communities of Koome, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E Sanya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Praziquantel-based mass treatment is the main approach to controlling schistosomiasis mansoni in endemic areas. Interventions such as provision and use of safe water, minimising contact with infested water, disposal of stool in latrines and snail control provide key avenues to break the transmission cycle and can sustain the benefits of mass treatment in the long term. Efforts are also being made to develop a schistosomiasis vaccine which, if effective, might reduce the incidence of re-infection after treatment. However, any interventions deployed need to be acceptable to, and sustainable by, the target communities.In this qualitative study, we investigated the perceptions of six Lake Victoria island communities of Koome, Uganda, about interventions to control Schistosoma mansoni infection and their willingness to participate in Schistosoma vaccine trials. Thirty-two in-depth interviews, 12 key informant interviews and 10 focus group discussions were conducted. Data were analysed using a thematic content approach.Intestinal schistosomiasis was not regarded as a serious health problem because a mass treatment programme is in place. However, the communities lack safe water sources and latrines. Mass treatment with praziquantel, safe water supplies and use of toilets were deemed the most acceptable interventions by the participants. The communities are willing to participate in Schistosoma vaccine trials.Knowledge of a community's perception about interventions to control schistosomiasis can be valuable to policy makers and programme implementers intending to set up interventions co-managed by the community members. In this study, the views of the Lake Victoria island communities of Koome are presented. This study also provides data to guide further work on alternative interventions such as Schistosoma vaccine trials in these communities.

  17. Perceptions about interventions to control schistosomiasis among the Lake Victoria island communities of Koome, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanya, Richard E; Tumwesige, Edward; Elliott, Alison M; Seeley, Janet

    2017-10-01

    Praziquantel-based mass treatment is the main approach to controlling schistosomiasis mansoni in endemic areas. Interventions such as provision and use of safe water, minimising contact with infested water, disposal of stool in latrines and snail control provide key avenues to break the transmission cycle and can sustain the benefits of mass treatment in the long term. Efforts are also being made to develop a schistosomiasis vaccine which, if effective, might reduce the incidence of re-infection after treatment. However, any interventions deployed need to be acceptable to, and sustainable by, the target communities. In this qualitative study, we investigated the perceptions of six Lake Victoria island communities of Koome, Uganda, about interventions to control Schistosoma mansoni infection and their willingness to participate in Schistosoma vaccine trials. Thirty-two in-depth interviews, 12 key informant interviews and 10 focus group discussions were conducted. Data were analysed using a thematic content approach. Intestinal schistosomiasis was not regarded as a serious health problem because a mass treatment programme is in place. However, the communities lack safe water sources and latrines. Mass treatment with praziquantel, safe water supplies and use of toilets were deemed the most acceptable interventions by the participants. The communities are willing to participate in Schistosoma vaccine trials. Knowledge of a community's perception about interventions to control schistosomiasis can be valuable to policy makers and programme implementers intending to set up interventions co-managed by the community members. In this study, the views of the Lake Victoria island communities of Koome are presented. This study also provides data to guide further work on alternative interventions such as Schistosoma vaccine trials in these communities.

  18. Biological Diversity and Resilience: Lessons from the Recovery of Cichlid Species in Lake Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex O. Awiti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental feature of the Anthropocene is the inexorable erosion of the self-repairing capacity or adaptive renewal of natural systems because of natural perturbation, exploitation, or management failure. The concept of resilience offers a systematic framework for understanding the dynamics and variables that govern response dynamics of ecosystems. Resilience of haplochromine cichlids is assessed using limnological and biodiversity changes in Lake Victoria, the world's second largest freshwater lake, over the last five decades. The review explores the resurgence of the haplochromine cichlids using Holling's adaptive renewal cycle and attempts to illustrate how resilience-based management approaches might learn from an inadvertent management experiment. The introduction in the 1980s of the Nile perch (Lates niloticus, a fecund and voracious predator of the endemic phytoplankton feeding haplochromine cichlids, anthropogenic eutrophication, and deep water hypoxia have combined in a synergistic way to increase the vulnerability of the lake ecosystem to perturbations that were hitherto absorbed. However, the upsurge in commercial Nile perch fishing appears to be enabling the resurgence of the haplochromine cichlids. The resurgence of haplochromine cichlids is characterized by phenotypic plasticity, ecological and life history traits and demonstrates the critical role of response diversity in the maintenance of systems resilience. Resilience of the haplochromine cichlids resides in the requisite functional response diversity and habitat diversity that provide the resources for renewal and regeneration. This paper concludes that management of Nile perch fisheries and control of nutrient loading into Lake Victoria could halt or reverse eutrophication, hence offer the best promise for a diverse, productive, and resilient social-ecological system.

  19. Tsetse fly (G. f. fuscipes distribution in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugenyi Albert

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes, the causative agent of human and animal African trypanosomiasis. The tsetse vector is extensively distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosomiasis maintenance is determined by the interrelationship of three elements: vertebrate host, parasite and the vector responsible for transmission. Mapping the distribution and abundance of tsetse flies assists in predicting trypanosomiasis distributions and developing rational strategies for disease and vector control. Given scarce resources to carry out regular full scale field tsetse surveys to up-date existing tsetse maps, there is a need to devise inexpensive means for regularly obtaining dependable area-wide tsetse data to guide control activities. In this study we used spatial epidemiological modelling techniques (logistic regression involving 5000 field-based tsetse-data (G. f. fuscipes points over an area of 40,000 km2, with satellite-derived environmental surrogates composed of precipitation, temperature, land cover, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI and elevation at the sub-national level. We used these extensive tsetse data to analyse the relationships between presence of tsetse (G. f. fuscipes and environmental variables. The strength of the results was enhanced through the application of a spatial autologistic regression model (SARM. Using the SARM we showed that the probability of tsetse presence increased with proportion of forest cover and riverine vegetation. The key outputs are a predictive tsetse distribution map for the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda and an improved understanding of the association between tsetse presence and environmental variables. The predicted spatial distribution of tsetse in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda will provide significant new information to assist with the spatial targeting of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control.

  20. Perceptions of prescribed burning in a local forest community in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Tina; Oliveras, Immaculada

    2006-11-01

    The general perceptions of prescribed burning were elicited from forest users for an area that has been subject to this form of land management for at least 20 years. The largest group consisted of local residents living in and around the Wombat State Forest with two smaller groups of students from a nearby university campus and local professional land managers. A questionnaire was given to each participant in order to explore how the forest was used, to determine the level of knowledge of burning in the targeted forest and Victoria and the perception of the appearance, effectiveness of protection, and accessibility to the forest after prescribed burning. Generally all groups had similar responses with community members having stronger views on the effectiveness and practicalities of prescribed burning, whereas students were more neutral in their opinions. All participants claimed knowledge of prescribed burning activities within Victoria, but fewer had experience of planned fires in the Wombat State Forest. All groups agreed that areas that had not been recently burned had a better appearance than those that had, but this result may have included a range of value judgments. Land managers had a greater understanding of the ecological importance of season and timing of burning; however, some students and community members were equally knowledgeable. Prescribed burning did not impede access to the forest, nor did smoke from prescribed burns pose any great problem. The majority of the participants felt that the amount of prescribed burning done in the forest was adequate for engendering a feeling of protection to life and property, yet many were still suspicious of this management practice. These initial findings indicate several areas in which further research would be useful including the efficacy of education programs for community members and improved communication of burn plans by land managers.

  1. Simulation of Lake Victoria Circulation Patterns Using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamweya, Chrispine; Desjardins, Christopher; Sigurdsson, Sven; Tomasson, Tumi; Taabu-Munyaho, Anthony; Sitoki, Lewis; Stefansson, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Lake Victoria provides important ecosystem services including transport, water for domestic and industrial uses and fisheries to about 33 million inhabitants in three East African countries. The lake plays an important role in modulating regional climate. Its thermodynamics and hydrodynamics are also influenced by prevailing climatic and weather conditions on diel, seasonal and annual scales. However, information on water temperature and circulation in the lake is limited in space and time. We use a Regional Oceanographic Model System (ROMS) to simulate these processes from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2014. The model is based on real bathymetry, river runoff and atmospheric forcing data using the bulk flux algorithm. Simulations show that the water column exhibits annual cycles of thermo-stratification (September-May) and mixing (June-August). Surface water currents take different patterns ranging from a lake-wide northward flow to gyres that vary in size and number. An under flow exists that leads to the formation of upwelling and downwelling regions. Current velocities are highest at the center of the lake and on the western inshore waters indicating enhanced water circulation in those areas. However, there is little exchange of water between the major gulfs (especially Nyanza) and the open lake, a factor that could be responsible for the different water quality reported in those regions. Findings of the present study enhance understanding of the physical processes (temperature and currents) that have an effect on diel, seasonal, and annual variations in stratification, vertical mixing, inshore-offshore exchanges and fluxes of nutrients that ultimately influence the biotic distribution and trophic structure. For instance information on areas/timing of upwelling and vertical mixing obtained from this study will help predict locations/seasons of high primary production and ultimately fisheries productivity in Lake Victoria.

  2. Visual Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Flensborg, Ingelise

    2010-01-01

    The intrinsic breadth of various types of images creates new possibilities and challenges for visual education. The digital media have moved the boundaries between images and other kinds of modalities (e.g. writing, speech and sound) and have augmented the possibilities for integrating the functi......The intrinsic breadth of various types of images creates new possibilities and challenges for visual education. The digital media have moved the boundaries between images and other kinds of modalities (e.g. writing, speech and sound) and have augmented the possibilities for integrating...... to emerge in the interlocutory space of a global visual repertoire and diverse local interpretations. The two perspectives represent challenges for future visual education which require visual competences, not only within the arts but also within the subjects of natural sciences, social sciences, languages...

  3. Visual cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label “visual cognition” is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. PMID:21329719

  4. Visual cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-07-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label "visual cognition" is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Visual dysfunction, neurodegenerative diseases, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Gregory R; Owsley, Cynthia

    2003-08-01

    The four most common sight-threatening conditions in older adults in North America are cataract, ARM, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. Even in their moderate stages, these conditions cause visual sensory impairments and reductions in health-related quality of life, including difficulties in daily tasks and psychosocial problems. Many older adults are free from these conditions, yet still experience a variety of visual perceptual problems resulting from aging-related changes in the optics of the eye and degeneration of the visual neural pathways. These problems consist of impairments in visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color discrimination, temporal sensitivity, motion perception, peripheral visual field sensitivity, and visual processing speed. PD causes a progressive loss of dopaminergic cells predominantly in the retina and possibly in other areas of the visual system. This retinal dopamine deficiency produces selective spatial-temporal abnormalities in retinal ganglion cell function, probably arising from altered receptive field organization in the PD retina. The cortical degeneration characteristics of AD, including neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques, also are present in the visual cortical areas, especially in the visual association areas. The most prominent electrophysiologic change in AD is a delay in the P2 component of the flash VEP. Deficits in higher-order visual abilities typically are compromised in AD, including problems with visual attention, perceiving structure from motion, visual memory, visual learning, reading, and object and face perception. There have been reports of a visual variant of AD in which these types of visual problems are the initial and most prominent signs of the disease. Visual sensory impairments (e.g., contrast sensitivity or achromatopsia) also have been reported but are believed more reflective of cortical disturbances than of AD-associated optic neuropathy.

  6. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.

  7. Visual search, visual streams, and visual architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M

    1991-10-01

    Most psychological, physiological, and computational models of early vision suggest that retinal information is divided into a parallel set of feature modules. The dominant theories of visual search assume that these modules form a "blackboard" architecture: a set of independent representations that communicate only through a central processor. A review of research shows that blackboard-based theories, such as feature-integration theory, cannot easily explain the existing data. The experimental evidence is more consistent with a "network" architecture, which stresses that: (1) feature modules are directly connected to one another, (2) features and their locations are represented together, (3) feature detection and integration are not distinct processing stages, and (4) no executive control process, such as focal attention, is needed to integrate features. Attention is not a spotlight that synthesizes objects from raw features. Instead, it is better to conceptualize attention as an aperture which masks irrelevant visual information.

  8. Relationship between contrast sensitivity test and disease severity in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler García, A; González Gómez, A; Figueroa-Ortiz, L C; García-Ben, A; García-Campos, J

    2014-09-01

    To assess the importance of the Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity test in multiple sclerosis patients according to the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). A total of 62 patients with multiple sclerosis were included in a retrospective study. Patients were enrolled from the Neurology Department to Neuroophthalmology at Virgen de la Victoria Hospital. Patients were classified into 3 groups according to EDSS: group A) lower than 1.5, group B) between 1.5 and 3.5 and group C) greater than 3.5. Visual acuity and monocular and binocular contrast sensitivity were performed with Snellen and Pelli-Robson tests respectively. Twelve disease-free control participants were also recruited. Correlations between parameter changes were analyzed. The mean duration of the disease was 81.54±35.32 months. Monocular and binocular Pelli-Robson mean values in the control group were 1.82±0.10 and 1.93±0.43 respectively, and 1.61±0.29 and 1.83±0.19 in multiple sclerosis patients. There were statistically significant differences in the monocular analysis for a level of significance P<.05. Mean monocular and binocular Pelli-Robson values in relation to gravity level were, in group A: 1.66±0.24 and 1.90±0.98, group B: 1.64±0.21 and 1.82±0.16, and group C: 1.47±0.45 and 1.73±0.32 respectively. Group differences were statistically significant in both tests: P=.05 and P=.027. Monocular and binocular contrast discrimination analyzed using the Pelli-Robson test was found to be significantly lower when the severity level, according EDSS, increases in multiple sclerosis patients. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Community genetics reveal elevated levels of sympatric gene flow among morphologically similar but not among morphologically dissimilar species of Lake Victoria cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konijnendijk, N.; Joyce, D.A.; Mrosso, H.D.J.; Egas, M.; Seehausen, O.

    2011-01-01

    We examined genetic structure among five species of Lake Victoria haplochromine cichlids in four island communities, using a full factorial sampling design that compared genetic differentiation between pairs of species and populations of varying morphological similarity and geographical proximity.

  10. The near boiling reactor: design of a small nuclear reactor for extending the operational envelope of the Victoria Class Submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, C.; Bonin, H.

    2005-01-01

    A small, inherently safe nuclear reactor that will provide enough power to maintain the hotel load of the Victoria Class Submarine and extend her operational envelope, has been conceptually designed. The final reactor concept, named the Near Boiling (NB) Reactor, employs TRISO fuel particles in Zirconium cladded fuel rods. The reactor is light water moderated and cooled. The core life is specifically designed to coincide with the refit cycle of the Victoria Class Submarine. The reactor employs a simple and reliable control and shut down system that requires little intervention on the part of the submarine's crew. Also, a kinetic model is developed that demonstrates the inherent safety features of the reactor during several accident scenarios. (author)

  11. The near boiling reactor: design of a small nuclear reactor for extending the operational envelope of the Victoria Class Submarine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, C.; Bonin, H. [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: chris.cole@rmc.ca; bonin-h@rmc.ca

    2005-07-01

    A small, inherently safe nuclear reactor that will provide enough power to maintain the hotel load of the Victoria Class Submarine and extend her operational envelope, has been conceptually designed. The final reactor concept, named the Near Boiling (NB) Reactor, employs TRISO fuel particles in Zirconium cladded fuel rods. The reactor is light water moderated and cooled. The core life is specifically designed to coincide with the refit cycle of the Victoria Class Submarine. The reactor employs a simple and reliable control and shut down system that requires little intervention on the part of the submarine's crew. Also, a kinetic model is developed that demonstrates the inherent safety features of the reactor during several accident scenarios. (author)

  12. Outbreaks of sarcoptic mange in free-ranging koala populations in Victoria and South Australia: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, K N; Whiteley, P L; Woolford, L; Duignan, P J; Bacci, B; Lathe, S; Boardman, W; Scheelings, T F; Funnell, O; Underwood, G; Stevenson, M A

    2017-07-01

    To describe outbreaks of sarcoptic mange caused by Sarcoptes scabiei in free-ranging koalas in Victoria (December 2008 to November 2015) and South Australia (October 2011 to September 2014). Koalas affected by mange-like lesions were reported by wildlife carers, veterinary practitioners or State Government personnel to the Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences at The University of Melbourne and the School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences at The University of Adelaide. Skin scrapings were taken from live and dead koalas and S. scabiei mites were identified. Tissues from necropsied koalas were examined histologically. Outbreaks of sarcoptic mange were found to occur in koalas from both Victoria (n = 29) and South Australia (n = 29) for the first time. The gross pathological and histopathological changes are described. We present the first reported cases of sarcoptic mange outbreaks in free-ranging koalas. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  13. Visualizing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, F.; van Gils, A.; Hagenaars, G.; Donchyts, G.; Eisemann, E.; van Velzen, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    A compelling visualization is captivating, beautiful and narrative. Here we show how melding the skills of computer graphics, art, statistics, and environmental modeling can be used to generate innovative, attractive and very informative visualizations. We focus on the topic of visualizing forecasts and measurements of water (water level, waves, currents, density, and salinity). For the field of computer graphics and arts, water is an important topic because it occurs in many natural scenes. For environmental modeling and statistics, water is an important topic because the water is essential for transport, a healthy environment, fruitful agriculture, and a safe environment.The different disciplines take different approaches to visualizing water. In computer graphics, one focusses on creating water as realistic looking as possible. The focus on realistic perception (versus the focus on the physical balance pursued by environmental scientists) resulted in fascinating renderings, as seen in recent games and movies. Visualization techniques for statistical results have benefited from the advancement in design and journalism, resulting in enthralling infographics. The field of environmental modeling has absorbed advances in contemporary cartography as seen in the latest interactive data-driven maps. We systematically review the design emerging types of water visualizations. The examples that we analyze range from dynamically animated forecasts, interactive paintings, infographics, modern cartography to web-based photorealistic rendering. By characterizing the intended audience, the design choices, the scales (e.g. time, space), and the explorability we provide a set of guidelines and genres. The unique contributions of the different fields show how the innovations in the current state of the art of water visualization have benefited from inter-disciplinary collaborations.

  14. Hydroclimatology of Lake Victoria region using hydrologic model and satellite remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Khan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of hydro-climatology at a range of temporal scales is important in understanding and ultimately mitigating the potential severe impacts of hydrological extreme events such as floods and droughts. Using daily in-situ data over the last two decades combined with the recently available multiple-years satellite remote sensing data, we analyzed and simulated, with a distributed hydrologic model, the hydro-climatology in Nzoia, one of the major contributing sub-basins of Lake Victoria in the East African highlands. The basin, with a semi arid climate, has no sustained base flow contribution to Lake Victoria. The short spell of high discharge showed that rain is the prime cause of floods in the basin. There is only a marginal increase in annual mean discharge over the last 21 years. The 2-, 5- and 10- year peak discharges, for the entire study period showed that more years since the mid 1990's have had high peak discharges despite having relatively less annual rain. The study also presents the hydrologic model calibration and validation results over the Nzoia basin. The spatiotemporal variability of the water cycle components were quantified using a hydrologic model, with in-situ and multi-satellite remote sensing datasets. The model is calibrated using daily observed discharge data for the period between 1985 and 1999, for which model performance is estimated with a Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSCE of 0.87 and 0.23% bias. The model validation showed an error metrics with NSCE of 0.65 and 1.04% bias. Moreover, the hydrologic capability of satellite precipitation (TRMM-3B42 V6 is evaluated. In terms of reconstruction of the water cycle components the spatial distribution and time series of modeling results for precipitation and runoff showed considerable agreement with the monthly model runoff estimates and gauge observations. Runoff values responded to precipitation events that occurred across the catchment during the wet season from March to

  15. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from raw milk sources in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Kate; Moore, Sean C; McAuley, Catherine M; Fegan, Narelle; Fox, Edward M

    2016-07-29

    Highly pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus can cause disease in both humans and animals. In animal species, including ruminants, S. aureus may cause severe or sub-clinical mastitis. Dairy animals with mastitis frequently shed S. aureus into the milk supply which can lead to food poisoning in humans. The aim of this study was to use genotypic and immunological methods to characterize S. aureus isolates from milk-related samples collected from 7 dairy farms across Victoria. A total of 30 S. aureus isolates were collected from milk and milk filter samples from 3 bovine, 3 caprine and 1 ovine dairy farms across Victoria, Australia. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) identified 11 distinct pulsotypes among isolates; all caprine and ovine isolates shared greater than 80 % similarity regardless of source. Conversely, bovine isolates showed higher diversity. Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) identified 5 different sequence types (STs) among bovine isolates, associated with human or ruminant lineages. All caprine and ovine isolates were ST133, or a single allele variant of ST133. Two new novel STs were identified among isolates in this study (ST3183 and ST3184). With the exception of these 2 new STs, eBURST analysis predicted all other STs to be founding members of their associated clonal complexes (CCs). Analysis of genetic markers revealed a diverse range of classical staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE) among isolates, with 11 different SEs identified among bovine isolates, compared with just 2 among caprine and ovine isolates. None of the isolates contained mecA, or were resistant to oxacillin. The only antibiotic resistance identified was that of a single isolate resistant to penicillin; this isolate also contained the penicillin resistance gene blaZ. Production of SE was observed at 16 °C and/or 37 °C in milk, however no SE production was detected at 12 °C. Although this study characterized a limited number of isolates, bovine-associated isolates

  16. Modelling nitrogen transformation and removal in mara river basin wetlands upstream of lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Aloyce W.; Muraza, Marwa; Norbert, Joel

    2018-06-01

    Lake Victoria, the largest lake in Africa, is a resource of social-economic potential in East Africa. This lake receives water from numerous tributaries including Mara River, which contributes about 4.8% of the total Lake water inflow. Unfortunately, Mara River basin faces environmental problems because of intensive settlement, agriculture, overgrazing in the basin and mining activities, which has lead to water pollution in the river, soil erosion and degradation, decreased soil fertility, loss of vegetation cover, decreased water infiltration capacity and increased sedimentation. One of the pollutants carried by the river includes nitrogen, which has contributed to ecological degradation of the Lake Victoria. Therefore this research work was intended to determine the effectiveness of Mara River wetland for removal of nitrogen and to establish nitrogen removal mechanisms in the wetland. To predict nitrogen removal in the wetland, the dynamics of nitrogen transformation was studied using a conceptual numerical model that takes into account of various processes in the system using STELLA II version 9.0®2006 software. Samples of model input from water, plants and sediments were taken for 45 days and were analyzed for pH, temperature, and DO in situ and chemical parameters such as NH3-N, Org-N, NO2-N, and NO3-N were analyzed in the laboratory in accordance with Standard methods. For plants, the density, dominance, biomass productivity and TN were determined and for sediments TN was analyzed. Inflow into the wetland was determined using stage-discharge relationship and was found to be 734,400 m3/day and the average wetland volume was 1,113,500 m3. Data collected by this study were used for model calibration of nitrogen transformation in this wetland while data from another wetland were used for model validation. It was found that about 37.8% of total nitrogen was removed by the wetland system largely through sedimentation (26.6%), plant uptake (6.6%) and

  17. PODA DE RAMAS MIXTAS Y RALEO DE FRUTOS: PRÁCTICAS CULTURALES INDEPENDIENTES EN DURAZNO 'VICTORIA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Zegbe-Domínguez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El durazno requiere de la poda (en particular, el despunte de las ramas mixtas, DRM y el raleo de frutos (RF para una producción comercial de fruta. En la estación de crecimiento del 2004-05, se estudió la interacción entre DRM y RF en durazno cultivar 'Victoria' sobre el rendimiento, distribución de la fruta por tamaños, calidad del fruto, crecimiento de fruto y brote, además del peso especifico de la hoja. El experimento se llevó a cabo en el Campo Experimental Zacatecas con árboles de 20 años e injertados en patrones francos. Los factores estudiados fueron: el DRM y el RF, ambos factores con dos niveles; sin y con DRM y sin y con RF. El análisis estadístico no detectó interacción significativa (P 5.1 cm con relación a árboles testigo (sin DRM. El crecimiento del fruto y la longitud de brote fueron significativamente (P<0.05 mayores en comparación con los árboles testigo, pero tanto el rendimiento como la eficiencia productiva fueron reducidos (P<0.05 cuando se aplicó el DRM. El peso medio del fruto, el mesocarpio y el endocarpio fue significativamente mayor en frutos con DRM. Sin embargo, la firmeza, concentración de sólidos solubles totales, concentración de materia seca del fruto y el peso específico de hoja fue estadísticamente (P<0.05 igual entre frutos sin y con DRM. Los resultados sugieren que el durazno 'Victoria' puede prescindir del raleo de frutos, y por consiguiente, esto reduciría costos de producción. Ambos factores merecen ser estudiados en otros cultivares de durazno cuyas estructuras reproductivas tengan mayor habilidad en la utilización de foto asimilados.

  18. Visual comparison for information visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Gleicher, M.; Albers, D.; Walker, R.; Jusufi, I.; Hansen, C. D.; Roberts, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Data analysis often involves the comparison of complex objects. With the ever increasing amounts and complexity of data, the demand for systems to help with these comparisons is also growing. Increasingly, information visualization tools support such comparisons explicitly, beyond simply allowing a viewer to examine each object individually. In this paper, we argue that the design of information visualizations of complex objects can, and should, be studied in general, that is independently of what those objects are. As a first step in developing this general understanding of comparison, we propose a general taxonomy of visual designs for comparison that groups designs into three basic categories, which can be combined. To clarify the taxonomy and validate its completeness, we provide a survey of work in information visualization related to comparison. Although we find a great diversity of systems and approaches, we see that all designs are assembled from the building blocks of juxtaposition, superposition and explicit encodings. This initial exploration shows the power of our model, and suggests future challenges in developing a general understanding of comparative visualization and facilitating the development of more comparative visualization tools. © The Author(s) 2011.

  19. Visual comparison for information visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Gleicher, M.

    2011-09-07

    Data analysis often involves the comparison of complex objects. With the ever increasing amounts and complexity of data, the demand for systems to help with these comparisons is also growing. Increasingly, information visualization tools support such comparisons explicitly, beyond simply allowing a viewer to examine each object individually. In this paper, we argue that the design of information visualizations of complex objects can, and should, be studied in general, that is independently of what those objects are. As a first step in developing this general understanding of comparison, we propose a general taxonomy of visual designs for comparison that groups designs into three basic categories, which can be combined. To clarify the taxonomy and validate its completeness, we provide a survey of work in information visualization related to comparison. Although we find a great diversity of systems and approaches, we see that all designs are assembled from the building blocks of juxtaposition, superposition and explicit encodings. This initial exploration shows the power of our model, and suggests future challenges in developing a general understanding of comparative visualization and facilitating the development of more comparative visualization tools. © The Author(s) 2011.

  20. Neoliberal policies and urban reconfigurations. Victoria, San Fernando, province of Buenos Aires, a city understood from theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ester Donadío

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to explain from a theoretical conceptual approach the particularities that exist in Victoria, San Fernando, Buenos Aires, from its urban production. Through a series of field works, semi-structured interviews and observations, it was possible to perceive that in this locality, there are three logics of city production, market, state and necessity, according to Abramo, P. (2002. The post-development cities of Latin America, a space in which constant tensions are generated that alter the harmonious development of daily life and the interaction of those who inhabit the area. On the other hand, it is also perceived that the inhabitants naturalize that way of life, their spatial disposition, the progressive privatization of public areas and the proliferation of closed housing estates. Here is a quote that we have heard repeatedly in interviews with the neighbors: "No one in Victoria gives a ball to anyone." At the moment of understanding Victoria from the theory, we take into account such concepts as the "heterotopy" of Foucault M. (1967 - understood as the juxtaposition of spaces that would be incompatible -the term "com-fusa city" (Abramo P. - as an urban structure that interweaves two traditional models (the Mediterranean compact and the Anglo-Saxon diffused, the notion of "privatopia" by I.Rodriguez Chumillas (2005 and E. Mckenzie (1994 as private spatial consolidation, and finally the concepts: informative and dual cities of R Castells (1995 terms that emerge from the process of globalization, which may be useful to think about the reality of Victoria .

  1. The population structure of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes in the Lake Victoria basin in Uganda: implications for vector control

    OpenAIRE

    Hyseni, Chaz; Kato, Agapitus B; Okedi, Loyce M; Masembe, Charles; Ouma, Johnson O; Aksoy, Serap; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Glossina fuscipes fuscipes is the primary vector of trypanosomiasis in humans and livestock in Uganda. The Lake Victoria basin has been targeted for tsetse eradication using a rolling carpet initiative, from west to east, with four operational blocks (3 in Uganda and 1 in Kenya), under a Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC). We screened tsetse flies from the three Ugandan PATTEC blocks for genetic diversity at 15 microsatellite loci from con...

  2. Factors relating to hospitalisation and economic burden of paediatric constipation in the state of Victoria, Australia, 2002-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Humaira; Ansari, Zahid; Lim, Tracy; Hutson, John M; Southwell, Bridget R

    2014-12-01

    Constipation is common, with severe symptoms requiring hospitalisation. Constipation can be a primary (present at admission and requires treatment or investigation) or principal (first listed) diagnosis for hospitalisation. In the USA, constipation is the second most common ambulatory care digestive diagnosis with total costs >US$1.7 billion/year. Incidence of hospitalisation for constipation in children peaks at toilet-training age. This study determined the burden of paediatric constipation to hospital care in Victoria, Australia. The Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset was analysed retrospectively, examining hospital admissions with a primary diagnosis of constipation in the 7-year period 2002/2003 to 2008/2009. For children, constipation was recorded as a primary diagnosis in 8688 admissions (3.6/1000 of population). In-hospital prevalence was ∼1.0%. Mean length of stay was 4.4 days (median 1.0, range 0-993, standard deviation 16.7). There were 1121 readmissions in 668 children. Average treatment cost was A$4235/admission (median A$1461, range A$0-$278 816), with annual costs of ∼A$5 505 500. Children in the highest socio-economic area had ∼50% fewer admissions (P disadvantage, public hospital, planned admission, longer length of stay and association with other medical conditions. This study identified that constipation in children is a significant cost burden in Victoria (costing public hospitals ∼A$5.5 million/year). Hospitalisation in Victoria is 10-fold higher than in the USA with 10% readmissions within a month. We conclude that strategies aimed at reducing hospitalisation for constipation could result in significant savings for the paediatric public health system in Victoria, Australia. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  3. The management of forensic patients in Victoria: the more things change, the more they remain the same

    OpenAIRE

    Ruffles, Janet

    2017-01-01

    The introduction, in 1997, of the Crimes (Menta/Impairment and Unfitness to be Tried) Act 1997 (Vic) (CMIA) marked dramatic legal and procedural changes to the common law system governing the post-acquittal detention of persons found not guilty by reason of insanity in Victoria which had endured for almost 200 years. The CMIA's express aim to restore the balance between community safety and the rights of persons found not guilty by reason of mental impairment (NGRMI) (as the ve...

  4. Las guerras de las mujeres en la guerra :[homenaje a la teórica deminista Victoria Sau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Pérez González

    2011-12-01

    This paper pays tribute to the work of the feminist theorist Victoria Sau. The article relies on the three mythological or literary figures used by the author to exemplify the different stages of feminism -Cassandra, Antigone and Lysistrata- in order to review the roles played in different moments and places by women in war, understood as a defence mechanism intended to preserve the patriarchal system. As long as this mechanism is not dismantled, these roles will not disappear.

  5. Visual ergonomics in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshel, Jeffrey R

    2007-10-01

    This article provides information about visual function and its role in workplace productivity. By understanding the connection among comfort, health, and productivity and knowing the many options for effective ergonomic workplace lighting, the occupational health nurse can be sensitive to potential visual stress that can affect all areas of performance. Computer vision syndrome-the eye and vision problems associated with near work experienced during or related to computer use-is defined and solutions to it are discussed.

  6. Temporal associations with declining Trichomonas vaginalis diagnosis rates among women in the state of Victoria, Australia, 1947 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrone, John; Fairley, Christopher K; Saville, Marian; Bradshaw, Catriona; Bowden, Francis J; Horvath, Leonie B; Donovan, Basil; Chen, Marcus; Hocking, Jane S

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the temporal associations between Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) diagnoses in women at a large urban sexual health clinic and a major Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening laboratory in Victoria, Australia with Pap smear screening rates and the introduction of nitroimidazole treatments. An ecological analysis of TV diagnosis rates at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre and the Victorian Cytology Service, Pap smear screening rates and nitroimidazole prescription data. Diagnoses of TV at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre peaked in the 1950s at 20% to 30% and then rapidly declined through the 1960s and 1970s to below 1% in 1990. A similar pattern was observed at the Victorian Cytology Service. Metronidazole prescribing and opportunistic Pap smear screening began in Victoria in the 1960s coinciding with declining TV. The availability of tinidazole in 1976 led to further declines in TV in the late 1970s. A national cervical screening program introduced in 1991 was temporally associated with further declines in TV. Our analyses suggest that the introduction of metronidazole was associated with a large reduction in TV among Victorian women in the 1960s. The subsequent availability of tinidazole and increased Pap smear screening may have contributed to the current low TV prevalence in Victoria.

  7. Late holocene trends of phytoplankton productivity and anoxia as inferred from diatom and geochemical proxies in Lake Victoria, Eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andama, M.; Lejju, J. B.; Tolo, C. U.

    2013-11-01

    Lake Victoria ecosystem has undergone major ecological changes in the recent decades. Sedimentary diatom analysis and Fe / Mn determined by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) have provided phytoplankton (diatom) productivity and the resultant anoxia (Fe / Mn) in Lake Victoria at Napoleon Gulf during the late Holocene (1778 cal yr BP (calibrated years before present) to 2008 AD) with radiocarbon dates determined using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry standard method. The results showed that increased total diatom counts in Napoleon Gulf during the late Holocene correspond with increased Fe / Mn ratio (anoxia) in some of the profiles and not in others and in most cases those that correspond correlate very well with increased eutrophication from nitrate input (Total Nitrogen, TN). Therefore slightly increased anoxia not related to increased diatom productivity was recorded in Lake Victoria at Napoleon Gulf from the period 1778 to 1135 cal yr BP. There was slightly increased diatom productivity at Napoleon Gulf from the period 857 to 758 cal yr BP but it did not increase anoxia in the lake. The period 415 cal yr BP to 2008 AD recorded increased anoxia at Napoleon Gulf related to high diatom productivity especially from 415 to 390 cal yr BP and 191 cal yr BP to 2008 AD.

  8. Sir James Reid and the Death of Queen Victoria: An Early Model for End-of-Life Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Robert C

    2015-12-01

    An appraisal of the last ten days of Queen Victoria's life, viewed primarily from the perspective of her personal physician, Sir James Reid, is presented. Sir James' clinical encounters with his patient and the Royal Family are examined to reveal his strategic and medical thinking and gauge his level of success in basic palliative aims. It was found that the lack of effective medical interventions, tensions within the Royal Family, the importance of his post to Sir James' professional career, and the political ramifications unavoidably connected with the illness of a head of state, all presented challenges to Reid's efforts to ease the physical and emotional pain of Queen Victoria's dying. Key features of Sir James' approach included reliance on physician-patient and physician-family relationships, emphasis on emotional support for the patient, and the careful selection of interventions for the family. In the first years of the 20th century, an era when the contemporary concepts of palliative care, hospice, and family dynamics did not exist, Sir James' management of the Queen's final illness suggested an early model for end-of-life care. By the end of Queen Victoria's life, Sir James was seen to have preserved his patient's comfort and dignity, at the same time advancing family and societal acceptance of the death of this matriarchal figure. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Can a Skin Cancer Control Program make a Difference? A Profile of the SUNSMART Programme in Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, C.; Dobbinson, S.; Montague, M.

    2000-01-01

    SunSmart is a programme of the Anti-Cancer Council of Victoria. It is an evidence-based health promotion programme where decisions about the form and content of the programme are influenced by available evidence and community consultation processes. A systematic evaluation and research strategy is in place to ensure that as much information as possible is available on process, impact and outcomes. Over the past 19 years the Anti-Cancer Council of Victoria has made a substantial impact in Victoria in relation to sun protection. It is one of the very few campaigns that has been able to demonstrate substantial changes not only in behaviour and attitudes but also in the downturn of skin cancer rates. Substantial sustainable changes have also occurred in the physical landscape as public authorities and commercial operators design their environment to be as sun protective as possible. This paper focuses on the key strategies that have encouraged positive change in the behaviour and attitudes of the Victorian population and the research that has documented the outcomes. (author)

  10. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of research papers on visual cognition first appeared as a special issue of Cognition: International Journal of Cognitive Science. The study of visual cognition has seen enormous progress in the past decade, bringing important advances in our understanding of shape perception, visual imagery, and mental maps. Many of these discoveries are the result of converging investigations in different areas, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology. This volume is intended to highlight a sample of work at the cutting edge of this research area for the benefit of students and researchers in a variety of disciplines. The tutorial introduction that begins the volume is designed to help the nonspecialist reader bridge the gap between the contemporary research reported here and earlier textbook introductions or literature reviews.

  11. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book The Transformer written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process...... of transformation with reference to Marie Neurath’s sketches on the Bilston Project. The material has been collected at the Otto and Marie Neurath Collection housed at the University of Reading, UK. By using data visualization as a research method to look directly into the process of transformation, the project...

  12. Preventing childhood obesity: the sentinel site for obesity prevention in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, A Colin; Simmons, Anne; Sanigorski, Andrea M; Kremer, Peter J; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2008-12-01

    In spite of greater awareness of the need for action to reduce obesity, the evidence on sustainable community approaches to prevent childhood and adolescent obesity is surprisingly sparse. This paper describes the design and methodological components of the Sentinel Site for Obesity Prevention, a demonstration site in the Barwon-South West region of Victoria, Australia, that aims to build the programs, skills and evidence necessary to attenuate and eventually reverse the obesity epidemic in children and adolescents. The Sentinel Site for Obesity Prevention is based on a partnership between the region's university (Deakin University) and its health, education and local government agencies. The three basic foundations of the Sentinel Site are: multi-strategy, multi-setting interventions; building community capacity; and undertaking program evaluations and population monitoring. Three intervention projects have been supported that cover different age groups (preschool: 2-5 years, primary school: 5-12 years, secondary school: 13-17 years), but that have many characteristics in common including: community participation and ownership of the project; an intervention duration of at least 3 years; and full evaluations with impact (behaviours) and outcome measures (anthropometry) compared with regionally representative comparison populations. We recommend the Sentinel Site approach to others for successfully building evidence for childhood obesity prevention and stimulating action on reducing the epidemic.

  13. Reconstructed plutonium fallout in the GV7 firn core from Northern Victoria Land, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, H.; Han, Y.; Kang, J.; Lee, K.; Hong, S.; Hur, S. D.; Narcisi, B.; Frezzotti, M.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric nuclear explosions during the period from the 1940s to the 1980s are the major anthropogenic source of plutonium (Pu) in the environment. In this work, we analyzed fg g-1 levels of artificial Pu, released predominantly by atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. We measured 351 samples which collected a 78 m-depth fire core at the site of GV7 (S 70°41'17.1", E 158°51'48.9", 1950 m a.s.l.), Northern Victoria Land, East Antarctica. To determine the Pu concentration in the samples, we used an inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry coupled with an Apex high-efficiency sample introduction system, which has the advantages of small sample consumption and simple sample preparation. We reconstructed the firn core Pu fallout record for the period after 1954 CE shows a significant fluctuation in agreement with past atmospheric nuclear testing. These data will contribute to ice core research by providing depth-age information.

  14. Paediatric slow-speed non-traffic fatalities: Victoria, Australia, 1985-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P; Nolan, T

    1997-11-01

    An important group of fatal incidents are slow-speed pedestrian non-traffic incidents to children, which account for 14% of accidental deaths from all causes in Victorian children under 5 years of age between 1985 and 1995, and 12% of pedestrian deaths of all ages. In Victoria, Australia, the database of the state Consultative Council on Obstetric and Paediatric Morbidity and Mortality was utilised to identify paediatric slow-speed pedestrian non-traffic-accident deaths in the local population. Additional data relating to the car and its driver, the child, and the circumstances of the incident were abstracted from records kept by the State Coroner and the Victorian compulsory third party traffic injury insurance organisation. Twenty eight Victorian children were identified who had died in one of three types of incident (driverless cars, child interacting with the vehicle and driver, and drivers who were unaware of the child's proximity). These incidents were more common in rural areas compared with urban, usually occurring at the child's home. The child was with or near an adult on all occasions. The vehicle was usually being driven by a relative, and was reversing in a higher proportion of 'unaware' incidents compared with the 'interactive' type. The association of 'off-road' family vehicles and trucks with these incidents appears to be increasing, especially in recent years. These findings suggest some countermeasures, including the separation of vehicle driveways from children's play areas, and object vicinity ultrasonic warning devices for vehicles.

  15. Structuring the Environmental Experience Design Research Framework through Selected Aged Care Facility Data Analyses in Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans relate to the living environment physically and psychologically. Environmental psychology has a rich developed history while experience design emerged recently in the industrial design domain. Nonetheless, these approaches have barely been merged, understood or implemented in architectural design practices. This study explored the correlation between experience design and environmental psychology. Moreover, it conducted literature reviews on theories about emotion, user experience design, experience design and environmental psychology, followed by the analyses of spatial settings and environmental quality data of a selected aged care facility in Victoria, Australia, as a case study. Accordingly, this study led to proposing a research framework on environmental experience design (EXD. It can be defined as a deliberate attempt that affiliates experience design and environmental psychology with creation of the built environment that should accommodate user needs and demands. The EXD research framework proposed in this study was tailored for transforming related design functions into the solutions that contribute to improving the built environment for user health and wellbeing.

  16. Public values for integration in natural disaster management and planning: A case study from Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawluk, Andrea; Ford, Rebecca M; Neolaka, Fendi L; Williams, Kathryn J

    2017-01-01

    Values can be useful for identifying what is important to individuals and communities, yet there is currently not a coherent way to conceptualize, identify, and organize the breadth of values that can be affected by a natural disaster. This research proposes a conceptual framework for how to conceptualize, identify, and organize values, and proposes a concrete, tangible value called the valued entity. The framework is applied in two studies of bushfire in Victoria, Australia: 112 submissions from individuals to the 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission and interviews with 30 members of the public in bushfire risk landscapes. Our findings suggest that: what people value ranges from abstract to concrete; prevalent abstract values include benevolence and universalism; prevalent mid-level valued attributes include natural attributes of landscapes and human life and welfare; prevalent valued entities are people and properties close to the person. Comparison between the two studies suggests people with more recent experience with bushfire refer less to the importance of natural places and natural attributes. The conceptual framework can act as a boundary object to facilitate researchers and policy-makers understanding the breadth of values affected by natural disaster events and management actions and how governance can better consider values at different scales. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of V1R receptor (ora) genes in Lake Victoria cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Tomoki; Nikaido, Masato; Suzuki, Hikoyu; Hagino-Yamagishi, Kimiko; Okada, Norihiro

    2012-05-15

    Although olfaction could play a crucial role in underwater habitats by allowing fish to sense a variety of nonvolatile chemical signals, the importance of olfaction in species-rich cichlids is still controversial. In particular, examining whether cichlids rely on olfaction for reproduction is of primary interest to understand the mechanisms of speciation. In the present study, we explored the V1R (also known as ora) genes, which are believed to encode reproductive pheromone receptors in fish, in the genomes of Lake Victoria cichlids. By screening a bacterial artificial chromosome library, we identified all six intact V1R genes (V1R1 to V1R6) that have been reported in other teleost fish. Furthermore, RT-PCR and in situ hybridization analyses showed that all of the V1R genes were expressed in the olfactory epithelium, indicating that these receptors are functional in cichlids. These observations indicate that cichlids use V1R-mediated olfaction in some ways for their social behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Influenza C infections in Western Australia and Victoria from 2008 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelley, Lauren; Levy, Avram; Deng, Yi-Mo; Spirason, Natalie; Lang, Jurissa; Buettner, Iwona; Druce, Julian; Blyth, Chris; Effler, Paul; Smith, David; Barr, Ian G

    2016-11-01

    Influenza C is usually considered a minor cause of respiratory illness in humans with many infections being asymptomatic or clinically mild. Large outbreaks can occur periodically resulting in significant morbidity. This study aimed at analyzing the available influenza C clinical samples from two widely separated states of Australia, collected over a 7-year period and to compare them with influenza C viruses detected in other parts of the world in recent years. Between 2008 and 2014, 86 respiratory samples that were influenza C positive were collected from subjects with influenza-like illness living in the states of Victoria and Western Australia. A battery of other respiratory viruses were also tested for in these influenza C-positive samples. Virus isolation was attempted on all of these clinical samples, and gene sequencing was performed on all influenza C-positive cultures. Detections of influenza C in respiratory samples were sporadic in most years studied, but higher rates of infection occurred in 2012 and 2014. Many of the patients with influenza C had coinfections with other respiratory pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion (HE) gene found that most of the viruses grouped in the C/Sao Paulo/378/82 clade with the remainder grouping in the C/Kanagawa/1/76 clade. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. DISSOLVED OXYGEN MODELLING USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK: A CASE OF RIVER NZOIA, LAKE VICTORIA BASIN, KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Kimutai Kanda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available River Nzoia in Kenya, due to its role in transporting industrial and municipal wastes in addition to agricultural runoff to Lake Victoria, is vulnerable to pollution. Dissolved oxygen is one of the most important indicators of water pollution. Artificial neural network (ANN has gained popularity in water quality forecasting. This study aimed at assessing the ability of ANN to predict dissolved oxygen using four input variables of temperature, turbidity, pH and electrical conductivity. Multilayer perceptron network architecture was used in this study. The data consisted of 113 monthly values for the input variables and output variable from 2009–2013 which were split into training and testing datasets. The results obtained during training and testing were satisfactory with R2 varying from 0.79 to 0.94 and RMSE values ranging from 0.34 to 0.64 mg/l which imply that ANN can be used as a monitoring tool in the prediction of dissolved oxygen for River Nzoia considering the non-correlational relationship of the input and output variables. The dissolved oxygen values follow seasonal trend with low values during dry periods.

  20. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Municipal Wastewater and the Marine Receiving Environment Near Victoria Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Krogh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Concerns over the fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP within the environment have been growing with the advent of more precise analytical methods. The discharge of municipal wastewater has been identified as a significant source of these contaminants, particularly where wastewater treatment is minimal. Here we present results from a comprehensive monitoring regime located around Victoria, BC, Canada. Samples were collected between 2009 and 2016 from a variety of sources including marine water, sediment and biota adjacent to two major untreated sewage outfalls, as well as the sewage itself. PPCP concentrations within the untreated sewage were high, and the sediment surrounding the outfalls showed corresponding contamination. However, this contamination dropped quickly with distance from the outfall such that by 800 m distance most PPCPs were below detection limits. Tissue samples of resident Northern Horse mussels (Modiolus modiolus collected adjacent to one of the major sewage outfalls showed high single sample concentrations of the antimicrobial triclosan (317 ng g−1 dry weight, the antibiotic ciprofloxacin (176 ng g−1 dry weight, as well as the antidepressant sertraline (84.1 ng g−1 dry weight. Reference stations from around the region showed very low concentrations of contamination with almost all PPCP concentrations being below detection limits. Within the sewage, concentrations were largely stable overtime, with the exception of triclosan and triclocarban which both showed declines over the study period.

  1. Liturgy and Music in Hereford Cathedral in the Time of Queen Victoria and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Murdoch

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Victorian Gothic Revival and its focus on liturgical neo-medievalism inspired the 1860s restoration of the medieval Hereford Cathedral. In this restoration, the new screen played a central part. Designed by George Gilbert Scott and manufactured by the firm of Francis Skidmore in Coventry, the screen was commissioned in order to re-unite the choir with the nave. The symbolism and colours decorating the screen harmonized with the medieval and later features of the cathedral, including the high altar reredos, organ pipes, and floor tiles. Hereford Cathedral Library preserves historical accounts of the interior and original music manuscripts by Edward Elgar and Frederick Ouseley that illustrate, with the musical inserts provided, the rich tradition of choral music and liturgy which continues to this day with key liturgies and the annual Three Choirs Festival linking Gloucester, Hereford, and Worcester. Memorials and stained-glass windows dedicated to successive precentors embellish the musical vocabulary of the interior. In focusing on the musical culture connected with Hereford Cathedral, this essay seeks to enrich the interpretation of the restored Hereford Screen in its secular setting at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

  2. Comparison of stress in anaesthetic trainees between Hong Kong and Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, A C L; Irwin, M G; Lee, P W H; Lee, T H W; Man, S E

    2008-11-01

    A postal survey was sent to anaesthetic trainees in Hong Kong and Victoria, Australia to compare work-related stress levels. Demographic data were collected. Anaesthetist-specific stressors, Maslach Burnout Inventory and Global Job Satisfaction scores were used for psychological testing. The response rates from Hong Kong and Melbourne were 64 of 133 (48.1%) and 108 of 196 (55.1%), respectively. Victorian respondents were older with greater family commitments, but more advanced in fulfilling training requirements. Hong Kong respondents, being faced with both the challenge of dual College requirements, exhibited consistently higher indices of stress (P stress scores observed in Hong Kong trainees related to service provision and a perceived lack of resources. Despite the complex nature of stress, its antecedents and manifestations, an inverse relationship between emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction was evident in correlation analysis (P stress was present in some trainees in both areas. Hong Kong trainees may benefit from local development to address mental wellbeing as being important to fulfil this highly competitive training program.

  3. Selection of electrogenic bacteria for microbial fuel cell in removing Victoria blue R from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Tsai, Teh-Hua; Wu, Pei-Ssu; Tsao, Shuo-En; Huang, Yu-Shan; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2018-01-28

    This study was conducted to select electrogenic bacteria from wastewater sludge. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in the microbial fuel cell (MFC) during the decomposition process of organic pollutants. Five culturable bacteria strains - namely, Bacillus subtilis, Flavobacterium sp., Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter freundii, and Stenotrophomonas sp. - have a double potential in dye removal and electricity generation. We inoculated the mixed electrogenic bacteria at a specific ratio and treated them with a triphenylmethane dye, Victoria blue R (VBR), to evaluate their electricity generation ability for the artificial and real wastewater. The results of the VBR shock-loading experiment indicated that the inoculated MFC could adapt to shock loading in 1-2 days and exhibited high removal efficiency (95-100%) for 100-800 mg L -1 VBR with a power density of 8.62 ± 0.10 to 34.81 ± 0.25 mW m -2 . The selected electrogenic bacteria in the MFC could use VBR as only electron donor for power generation. The matrix effects of the real wastewater on VBR removal and electricity generation of MFC were insignificant. VBR degradation by the electrogenic bacteria involves a stepwise demethylation process to yield partially dealkylated VBR species. In addition, these results demonstrate the feasibility of inoculating culturable bacteria strains to develop an efficient MFC for purifying wastewater.

  4. Scenario-based water resources planning for utilities in the Lake Victoria region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vishal K.; Aslam, Omar; Dale, Larry; Miller, Norman; Purkey, David R.

    Urban areas in the Lake Victoria (LV) region are experiencing the highest growth rates in Africa. As efforts to meet increasing demand accelerate, integrated water resources management (IWRM) tools provide opportunities for utilities and other stakeholders to develop a planning framework comprehensive enough to include short term (e.g. landuse change), as well as longer term (e.g. climate change) scenarios. This paper presents IWRM models built using the Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) decision support system, for three towns in the LV region - Bukoba (Tanzania), Masaka (Uganda), and Kisii (Kenya). Each model was calibrated under current system performance based on site visits, utility reporting and interviews. Projected water supply, demand, revenues and costs were then evaluated against a combination of climate, demographic and infrastructure scenarios up to 2050. Our results show that water supply in all three towns is currently infrastructure limited; achieving existing design capacity could meet most projected demand until 2020s in Masaka beyond which new supply and conservation strategies would be needed. In Bukoba, reducing leakages would provide little performance improvement in the short-term, but doubling capacity would meet all demands until 2050. In Kisii, major infrastructure investment is urgently needed. In Masaka, streamflow simulations show that wetland sources could satisfy all demand until 2050, but at the cost of almost no water downstream of the intake. These models demonstrate the value of IWRM tools for developing water management plans that integrate hydroclimatology-driven supply to demand projections on a single platform.

  5. Impact of improved laboratory compliance on notification of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S C; MacEachern, A; Stevenson, E

    1997-02-01

    Although regulations in Victoria require notification of chlamydia infection by both clinician and laboratory, review found many reports that were notified only by one source (i.e., were unmatched). To identify problems with the notification system and to improve the quality of surveillance for this disease. All notified cases of chlamydia diagnosed in January or February 1995 were followed up by contacting diagnosing doctors. Identified noncompliant laboratories were asked to provide a list of all diagnoses for the period and institute ongoing reporting. Notification data were reviewed for timeliness and completeness. Clinicians never notified without laboratory confirmation. Soliciting laboratory reports increased total notifications by 30%, and there was a highly significant improvement in reporting by both clinicians and laboratories. Reasons for failure to notify by clinicians included an assumption by some clinicians that laboratories would notify and ignorance that notification was required. Notified cases generally are now accompanied by a laboratory report, and although nonnotification by clinicians continues, notification has improved. Further improvements in clinician notification may depend on doctors knowing that public health action results from reporting. An alternative to requiring doctors' time to be spent in duplicate notification would be to strengthen laboratory reporting and then check that adequate treatment and partner notification has occurred through contact with the diagnosing doctor.

  6. Economic, social and resource management factors influencing groundwater trade: Evidence from Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bruce; Webb, John; Stott, Kerry; Cheng, Xiang; Wilkinson, Roger; Cossens, Brendan

    2017-07-01

    In Victoria, Australia, most groundwater resources are now fully allocated and opportunities for new groundwater development can only occur through trading of license entitlements. Groundwater usage has rarely exceeded 50% of the available licensed volume, even in the 2008/9 drought year, and 50 to 70% of individual license holders use less than 5% of their allocation each year. However, little groundwater trading is occurring at present. Interviews were conducted with groundwater license holders and water brokers to investigate why the Victorian groundwater trade market is underdeveloped. Responses show there is a complex mix of social, economic, institutional and technical reasons. Barriers to trade are influenced by the circumstances of each groundwater user, administrative process and resource management rules. Water brokers deal with few trades at low margins and noted unrealistic selling prices and administrative difficulties. Irrigators who have successfully traded identify that there are few participants in trading, technical appraisals are expensive and administrative requirements and fees are burdensome, especially when compared to surface water trading. Opportunities to facilitate trade include groundwater management plan refinement and improved information provision. Simplifying transaction processes and costs, demonstrating good resource stewardship and preventing third party impacts from trade could address some concerns raised by market participants. There are, however, numerous individual circumstances that inhibit groundwater trading, so it is unlikely that policy and process changes alone could increase usage rates without greater demand for groundwater or more favourable farming economic circumstances.

  7. Corporatization as a means of improving water quality: the experience in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Narelle

    Factors including fragmentation, a lack of direction, poor accountability, poor water quality, and a sizable state government subsidy contributed to the rural water industry in Victoria, Australia, in 1993. In 1993 the state government set out parameters for reform to change the size, structure, performance, and culture of the water industry. The path taken was not privatization, but corporatization. Tools used included amalgamation of organizations; separating water provisions from local government; changing the composition and reporting mechanisms of the boards; establishing clear benchmarks and performance criteria; making information publicly available; and providing a commercial orientation. The outcomes of the reforms were to be a focus on water quality and effluent management. In 2001, 15 water authorities were in place. There were significant improvements in accountability, finances, and performance. The authorities provided information on performance to both the state and the public. Reductions of operating costs have been in the range of 20-35%, with savings put back into new infrastructure. Water quality has significantly improved in a number of parameters and effluent management has also improved. This paper describes the challenges faced before the reform process, the reforms initiated, and the outcomes. It argues that privatization is not the only path to improvement: Developing a corporate structure and accountability can also deliver substantial improvements.

  8. Highly Heterogeneous Soil Bacterial Communities around Terra Nova Bay of Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyoun Soo; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ji Hee; Lee, Joohan; Choi, Taejin; Ahn, Tae Seok; Kim, Ok-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Given the diminished role of biotic interactions in soils of continental Antarctica, abiotic factors are believed to play a dominant role in structuring of microbial communities. However, many ice-free regions remain unexplored, and it is unclear which environmental gradients are primarily responsible for the variations among bacterial communities. In this study, we investigated the soil bacterial community around Terra Nova Bay of Victoria Land by pyrosequencing and determined which environmental variables govern the bacterial community structure at the local scale. Six bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, were dominant, but their relative abundance varied greatly across locations. Bacterial community structures were affected little by spatial distance, but structured more strongly by site, which was in accordance with the soil physicochemical compositions. At both the phylum and species levels, bacterial community structure was explained primarily by pH and water content, while certain earth elements and trace metals also played important roles in shaping community variation. The higher heterogeneity of the bacterial community structure found at this site indicates how soil bacterial communities have adapted to different compositions of edaphic variables under extreme environmental conditions. Taken together, these findings greatly advance our understanding of the adaption of soil bacterial populations to this harsh environment. PMID:25799273

  9. Newborn transport in South Australia, 1978-80: experience of the Queen Victoria Hospital, Adelaide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A G; Fitzgerald, A M; Dahlenburg, G W

    1982-01-23

    389 infants were transported to the Queen Victoria Hospital, Adelaide between 1978 and 1980. Twenty-three percent (99) of the infants were ventilated, and 49% (189) received intravenous or intra-arterial therapy. Fifty-six percent (217) of the infants required transport because of prematurity; 11% (46) because of perinatal asphyxia in babies weighing more than 2,500 g. Only one baby died during transport, while 14% of the babies died subsequently. A core temperature of less than 36 degrees C in either hospital is important; a cold baby is 3.5 times more likely to die (X2=25.46, P less than 0.001). The transport of babies over distances greater than 300 kilometres is peculiar to Australia. Significantly more of these babies were cold than those retrieved from hospitals near Adelaide (X2=4.7, P less than 0.05), and significantly more died. Difficulty in transferring mothers in preterm labour may be another reason these babies did relatively badly. Better education and facilities will be important if we are to improve their survival chances.

  10. Microbiological Safety and Food Handling Practices of Seed Sprout Products in the Australian State of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, Sally; Goldsmith, Paul; Haines, Heather

    2015-07-01

    Seed sprouts have been implicated as vehicles for numerous foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Seed sprouts pose a unique food safety concern because of the ease of microbiological seed contamination, the inherent ability of the sprouting process to support microbial growth, and their consumption either raw or lightly cooked. To examine seed sprout safety in the Australian state of Victoria, a survey was conducted to detect specific microbes in seed sprout samples and to investigate food handling practices relating to seed sprouts. A total of 298 seed sprout samples were collected from across 33 local council areas. Escherichia coli was detected in 14.8%, Listeria spp. in 12.3%, and Listeria monocytogenes in 1.3% of samples analyzed. Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the samples. A range of seed sprout handling practices were identified as potential food safety issues in some food businesses, including temperature control, washing practices, length of storage, and storage in proximity to unpackaged ready-to-eat potentially hazardous foods.

  11. Short-term droughts forecast using Markov chain model in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, Siti Nazahiyah; Jayasuriya, Niranjali; Bhuiyan, Muhammed A.

    2017-07-01

    A comprehensive risk management strategy for dealing with drought should include both short-term and long-term planning. The objective of this paper is to present an early warning method to forecast drought using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and a non-homogeneous Markov chain model. A model such as this is useful for short-term planning. The developed method has been used to forecast droughts at a number of meteorological monitoring stations that have been regionalised into six (6) homogenous clusters with similar drought characteristics based on SPI. The non-homogeneous Markov chain model was used to estimate drought probabilities and drought predictions up to 3 months ahead. The drought severity classes defined using the SPI were computed at a 12-month time scale. The drought probabilities and the predictions were computed for six clusters that depict similar drought characteristics in Victoria, Australia. Overall, the drought severity class predicted was quite similar for all the clusters, with the non-drought class probabilities ranging from 49 to 57 %. For all clusters, the near normal class had a probability of occurrence varying from 27 to 38 %. For the more moderate and severe classes, the probabilities ranged from 2 to 13 % and 3 to 1 %, respectively. The developed model predicted drought situations 1 month ahead reasonably well. However, 2 and 3 months ahead predictions should be used with caution until the models are developed further.

  12. Some antarctic lacustrine sediments from northern Victoria Land investigation by Moessbauer spectroscopy, INNA and XRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stievano, L.; Bertelle, M.; Leotta, G.; Calogero, S.; Constantinescu, S.; Oddone, M.

    1999-01-01

    Fifteen lacustrine sediments, sampled during the 1994-1995 Austral summer in Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica), were characterised by 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, instrumental neutron activation analysis and X-ray diffraction. These sediments are related to the intrusive rocks from Granite Harbour, to the metamorphic rocks of the Complex of Wilson Terrane and the volcanic rocks from Mc Murdo. The samples contain quartz, alkaline feldspars, plagioclases, amphiboles, biotite, chlorite and muscovite except for the sediments of volcanic origin that contain alkaline feldspars, plagioclases and pyroxenes. The paramagnetic components of the Moessbauer spectra were assigned mainly to the iron sides in biotites except for those displayed from the sediments of volcanic origin assigned mainly to pyroxenes. Moessbauer spectra at room temperature do not display magnetic ordering except for those of the sediments of volcanic origin containing bulk magnetite, hematite and goethite. Moessbauer spectra collected at the liquid helium temperature always exhibit magnetic ordering. This spectral difference has been attributed to the different dimensions of the iron oxide particles in the sediments. The scarce weathering involves a partial transformation of magnetite in hematite and goethite in the sediment of volcanic origin. In the remaining sediments a partial hydrolysis of biotite together with a partial oxidation of iron (II) retained in silicates is present. (authors)

  13. The master potter and the rejected pots: eugenic legislation in Victoria, 1918-1939.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R L

    1999-01-01

    In the period since Carol Bacchi introduced eugenics into Australian historiography in 1980, much has been written that has increased our understanding of the role eugenics played in the development of Australian society in the first half of this century. It is now generally recognised that eugenics developed after the first world war from a relatively simplistic scientific justification of racist and class-biased social Darwinism into a movement concerned with using environmental reforms to help a wide range of Australians reach their full potential. In the interwar years the reform eugenicists (as they have been named) were active in a wide range of environmental movements including health reforms, slum clearance and educational improvements. The corollary of reform eugenics was based on the belief that heredity was an impassable obstacle for some: mental deficients were not considered to be racially 'fit' or 'efficient' enough to benefit from the reforms. Whilst this side of reform eugenics is well known in other countries (sterilisation programmes in Germany, the United States and Scandinavia being examples), it is yet to receive much attention so far in the discussion about Australia in the interwar years. This article argues that the attempt of a group of influential reform eugenicists in Victoria in the interwar years to institute legislation aimed at denying a significant proportion of the population the most basic rights of citizenship (including the right to reproduce) redresses the imbalance in our understanding of reform eugenics in the interwar years.

  14. Potential immediate hypersensitivity reactions following immunization in preschool aged children in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, C-M; Clothier, H J; Perrett, K P

    2018-04-06

    Immediate hypersensitivity reactions (IHR) are rare but potentially serious adverse events following immunization (AEFI). Surveillance of Adverse Events following Vaccination in the Community (SAEFVIC) is an enhanced passive surveillance system that collects, analyses and reports information about AEFI in Victoria, Australia. We describe the incidence, timing and type of potential IHR following vaccination in preschool children reported over an 8-year period. A total of 2110 AEFI were reported in 1620 children, of which 23.5% (496) were classified as potential IHR. Of these, 37.1% (184) were suspected to be IgE-mediated, (including anaphylaxis, angioedema and/or urticaria) and 83.5% (414) occurred within 15 minutes of vaccination. The incidence of potential IHR was 5.4 per 100,000 doses, with that of suspected IgE-mediated IHR being 2.0 per 100,000 doses. The incidence of anaphylaxis was extremely low (0.13 per 100,000 doses) and is consistent with other published studies. Potential IHR following immunization should be reported to appropriate local pharmacovigilance systems and patients reviewed by specialists able to evaluate, investigate and manage future vaccinations.

  15. Sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003741.htm Sensitivity analysis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sensitivity analysis determines the effectiveness of antibiotics against microorganisms (germs) ...

  16. Visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Karla K; Horowitz, Todd S; Howe, Piers; Pedersini, Roccardo; Reijnen, Ester; Pinto, Yair; Kuzmova, Yoana; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2011-09-01

    A typical visual scene we encounter in everyday life is complex and filled with a huge amount of perceptual information. The term, 'visual attention' describes a set of mechanisms that limit some processing to a subset of incoming stimuli. Attentional mechanisms shape what we see and what we can act upon. They allow for concurrent selection of some (preferably, relevant) information and inhibition of other information. This selection permits the reduction of complexity and informational overload. Selection can be determined both by the 'bottom-up' saliency of information from the environment and by the 'top-down' state and goals of the perceiver. Attentional effects can take the form of modulating or enhancing the selected information. A central role for selective attention is to enable the 'binding' of selected information into unified and coherent representations of objects in the outside world. In the overview on visual attention presented here we review the mechanisms and consequences of selection and inhibition over space and time. We examine theoretical, behavioral and neurophysiologic work done on visual attention. We also discuss the relations between attention and other cognitive processes such as automaticity and awareness. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 503-514 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.127 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Visualizing Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    The importance of visualisation and multiple representations in mathematics has been stressed, especially in a context of problem solving. Hanna and Sidoli comment that "Diagrams and other visual representations have long been welcomed as heuristic accompaniments to proof, where they not only facilitate the understanding of theorems and their…

  18. Differential Survival between Visual Environments Supports a Role of Divergent Sensory Drive in Cichlid Fish Speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maan, Martine E; Seehausen, Ole; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2017-01-01

    Identifying the selective forces that initiate ecological speciation is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Sensory drive has been implicated in speciation in various taxa, largely based on phenotype-environment correlations and signatures of selection in sensory genes. Here, we present a reciprocal transplant experiment revealing species differences in performance in alternative visual environments, consistent with speciation by divergent sensory drive. The closely related cichlids Pundamilia pundamilia and Pundamilia nyererei inhabit different visual environments in Lake Victoria and show associated differences in visual system properties. Mimicking the two light environments in the laboratory, we find a substantial reduction in survival of both species when reared in the other species' visual environment. This implies that the observed differences in Pundamilia color vision are indeed adaptive and substantiates the implicit assumption in sensory drive speciation models that divergent environmental selection is strong enough to drive divergence in sensory properties.

  19. Visual function of cataract with high myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Tao Ren

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cataract with high myopia is research priority associated with the large amount of high myopia patients. The unaided visual acuity and the best-corrected visual acuity are partial for the visual acuity of the patients with cataract. The mechanism and clinical significance of modern visual function measurements associated with cataract and high myopia, including accommodation and convergence, stereoscopic vision, contrast sensitivity, have been introduced. These measurements could be of great value in early diagnosis of cataract, assessment of surgical indication, customized intraocular lens(IOLselection and evaluation of visual performance after IOL implantation. They could also be helpful to the analysis of postoperative impaired visual function and its management. Having an adequate understanding of the contents and significance of visual function was helpful to the improvement of cataract surgery techniques and postoperative visual acuity.

  20. Modification of visual function by early visual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, C

    1976-07-01

    Physiological experiments, involving recording from the visual cortex in young kittens and monkeys, have given new insight into human developmental disorders. In the visual cortex of normal cats and monkeys most neurones are selectively sensitive to the orientation of moving edges and they receive very similar signals from both eyes. Even in very young kittens without visual experience, most neurones are binocularly driven and a small proportion of them are genuinely orientation selective. There is no passive maturation of the system in the absence of visual experience, but even very brief exposure to patterned images produces rapid emergence of the adult organization. These results are compared to observations on humans who have "recovered" from early blindness. Covering one eye in a kitten or a monkey, during a sensitive period early in life, produces a virtually complete loss of input from that eye in the cortex. These results can be correlated with the production of "stimulus deprivation amblyopia" in infants who have had one eye patched. Induction of a strabismus causes a loss of binocularity in the visual cortex, and in humans it leads to a loss of stereoscopic vision and binocular fusion. Exposing kittens to lines of one orientation modifies the preferred orientations of cortical cells and there is an analogous "meridional amblyopia" in astigmatic humans. The existence of a sensitive period in human vision is discussed, as well as the possibility of designing remedial and preventive treatments for human developmental disorders.

  1. The Puzzle of Visual Development: Behavior and Neural Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiorpes, Lynne

    2016-11-09

    The development of visual function takes place over many months or years in primate infants. Visual sensitivity is very poor near birth and improves over different times courses for different visual functions. The neural mechanisms that underlie these processes are not well understood despite many decades of research. The puzzle arises because research into the factors that limit visual function in infants has found surprisingly mature neural organization and adult-like receptive field properties in very young infants. The high degree of visual plasticity that has been documented during the sensitive period in young children and animals leaves the brain vulnerable to abnormal visual experience. Abnormal visual experience during the sensitive period can lead to amblyopia, a developmental disorder of vision affecting ∼3% of children. This review provides a historical perspective on research into visual development and the disorder amblyopia. The mismatch between the status of the primary visual cortex and visual behavior, both during visual development and in amblyopia, is discussed, and several potential resolutions are considered. It seems likely that extrastriate visual areas further along the visual pathways may set important limits on visual function and show greater vulnerability to abnormal visual experience. Analyses based on multiunit, population activity may provide useful representations of the information being fed forward from primary visual cortex to extrastriate processing areas and to the motor output. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3611384-10$15.00/0.

  2. Procedural skills practice and training needs of doctors, nurses, midwives and paramedics in rural Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, David; Shepherd, Irwyn; McGrail, Matthew; Kassell, Lisa; Connolly, Marnie; Williams, Brett; Nestel, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Procedural skills are a significant component of clinical practice. Doctors, nurses, midwives and paramedics are trained to use a variety of procedural skills. Rural clinicians in particular are often required to maintain competence in some procedural skills that are used infrequently, and which may require regular and repeated rehearsal. This paper reports on a research project conducted in Gippsland, Victoria, to ascertain the frequency of use, and relevance to clinical practice, of a range of skills in the fields of medicine, nursing, midwifery, and paramedic practice. The project also gathered data on the attitudes of clinicians regarding how frequently and by what means they thought they needed to practice these skills with a particular focus on the use of simulation as an educational method. Methods The research was conducted following identification of a specific set of procedural skills for each professional group. Skills were identified by an expert steering committee. We developed online questionnaires that consisted of two parts: 1) demographic and professional characteristics, and 2) experience of procedural skills and perceived training needs. We sought to invite all practicing clinicians (doctors, nurses, midwives, paramedics) working in Gippsland. Online surveys were distributed between November 2011 and April 2012 with three follow-up attempts. The Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee approved the study. Results Valid responses were received from 58 doctors, 94 nurses, 46 midwives, and 30 paramedics, whom we estimate to represent not more than 20% of current clinicians within these professions. This response rate reflected some of the difficulties experienced in the conduct of the research. Results were tabulated for each professional group across the range of skills. There was significant correlation between the frequency of certain skills and confidence with maintenance of these skills. This did not necessarily correlate

  3. Application of Satellite Observations to Manage Natural Disasters in the Lake Victoria Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Policelli, F.; Irwin, D.; Korme, Tesfaye; Adler, Bob; Hong, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Lake Victoria, the second largest fresh water lake in the Eastern part of Africa is a vital natural resource for the economic well being and prosperity of over 30 million people located in riparian regions of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania. It covers a large area of about 68,870 km2 and produces a GDP of about US $30 billion per year. The region is also very much prone to natural disasters such as severe floods during heavy precipitation periods in the Eastern part of Africa. In addition to floods, the precipitation also produces large infestations of mosquito larvae due to the standing water in many areas. This further causes multiple vector borne diseases such as Malaria, Rift Valley Fever and more. These problems are of serious concern and require active and aggressive surveillance and management to minimize the loss of human and animal lives and property damage. Satellite imagery and observations along with the in situ measurements provide a great tool to analyze and study this area and inform the policy makers to make calculated policy decisions which are more beneficial to the environment. Recently, NASA and USAID have joined forces with the Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) located in Nairobi, Kenya to utilize multiple NASA sensors such as TRMM, SRTM and MODIS to develop flood potential maps for the Lake Victoria Basin. The idea is to generate a flood forecasts and "nowcasts" that can be sent to the disaster management organizations of Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania. Post flood event satellite imagery is becoming a common tool to assess the areas inundated by flooding. However, this work is unique undertaking by utilizing land imaging and atmospheric satellites to build credible flood potential maps. At same time, we are also studying the potential occurrence and spread of Rift Valley Fever disease based on the short term climate records and precipitation data. These activities require multi-nation coordination and agreements and

  4. Procedural skills practice and training needs of doctors, nurses, midwives and paramedics in rural Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, David; Shepherd, Irwyn; McGrail, Matthew; Kassell, Lisa; Connolly, Marnie; Williams, Brett; Nestel, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Procedural skills are a significant component of clinical practice. Doctors, nurses, midwives and paramedics are trained to use a variety of procedural skills. Rural clinicians in particular are often required to maintain competence in some procedural skills that are used infrequently, and which may require regular and repeated rehearsal. This paper reports on a research project conducted in Gippsland, Victoria, to ascertain the frequency of use, and relevance to clinical practice, of a range of skills in the fields of medicine, nursing, midwifery, and paramedic practice. The project also gathered data on the attitudes of clinicians regarding how frequently and by what means they thought they needed to practice these skills with a particular focus on the use of simulation as an educational method. The research was conducted following identification of a specific set of procedural skills for each professional group. Skills were identified by an expert steering committee. We developed online questionnaires that consisted of two parts: 1) demographic and professional characteristics, and 2) experience of procedural skills and perceived training needs. We sought to invite all practicing clinicians (doctors, nurses, midwives, paramedics) working in Gippsland. Online surveys were distributed between November 2011 and April 2012 with three follow-up attempts. The Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee approved the study. Valid responses were received from 58 doctors, 94 nurses, 46 midwives, and 30 paramedics, whom we estimate to represent not more than 20% of current clinicians within these professions. This response rate reflected some of the difficulties experienced in the conduct of the research. Results were tabulated for each professional group across the range of skills. There was significant correlation between the frequency of certain skills and confidence with maintenance of these skills. This did not necessarily correlate with perceptions of

  5. A statewide review of postnatal care in private hospitals in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forster Della A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns have been raised in Australia and internationally regarding the quality and effectiveness of hospital postnatal care, although Australian women receiving postnatal care in the private maternity sector rate their satisfaction with care more highly than women receiving public maternity care. In Victoria, Australia, two-thirds of women receive their maternity care in the public sector and the remainder in private health care sector. A statewide review of public hospital postnatal care in Victoria from the perspective of care providers found many barriers to care provision including the busyness of postnatal wards, inadequate staffing and priority being given to other episodes of care; however the study did not include private hospitals. The aim of this study was replicate the review in the private sector, to explore the structure and organisation of postnatal care in private hospitals and identify those aspects of care potentially impacting on women's experiences and maternal and infant care. This provides a more complete overview of the organisational structures and processes in postnatal care in all Victorian hospitals from the perspective of care providers. Methods A mixed method design was used. A structured postal survey was sent to all Victorian private hospitals (n = 19 and key informant interviews were undertaken with selected clinical midwives, maternity unit managers and obstetricians (n = 11. Survey data were analysed using descriptive statistics and interview data analysed thematically. Results Private hospital care providers report that postnatal care is provided in very busy environments, and that meeting the aims of postnatal care (breastfeeding support, education of parents and facilitating rest and recovery for women following birth was difficult in the context of increased acuity of postnatal care; prioritising of other areas over postnatal care; high midwife-to-woman ratios; and the number and

  6. Visual Storytelling

    OpenAIRE

    Ting-Hao; Huang; Ferraro, Francis; Mostafazadeh, Nasrin; Misra, Ishan; Agrawal, Aishwarya; Devlin, Jacob; Girshick, Ross; He, Xiaodong; Kohli, Pushmeet; Batra, Dhruv; Zitnick, C. Lawrence; Parikh, Devi; Vanderwende, Lucy; Galley, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the first dataset for sequential vision-to-language, and explore how this data may be used for the task of visual storytelling. The first release of this dataset, SIND v.1, includes 81,743 unique photos in 20,211 sequences, aligned to both descriptive (caption) and story language. We establish several strong baselines for the storytelling task, and motivate an automatic metric to benchmark progress. Modelling concrete description as well as figurative and social language, as prov...

  7. Flow visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    Flow visualization techniques are reviewed, with particular attention given to those applicable to liquid helium flows. Three techniques capable of obtaining qualitative and quantitative measurements of complex 3D flow fields are discussed including focusing schlieren, particle image volocimetry, and holocinematography (HCV). It is concluded that the HCV appears to be uniquely capable of obtaining full time-varying, 3D velocity field data, but is limited to the low speeds typical of liquid helium facilities. 8 refs

  8. Three-dimensional structure and stoichiometry of Helmintosporium victoriae190S totivirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caston, Jose R.; Luque, Daniel; Trus, Benes L.; Rivas, German; Alfonso, Carlos; Gonzalez, Jose M.; Carrascosa, Jose L.; Annamalai, Padmanaban; Ghabrial, Said A.

    2006-01-01

    Most double-stranded RNA viruses have a characteristic capsid consisting of 60 asymmetric coat protein dimers in a so-called T = 2 organization, a feature probably related to their unique life cycle. These capsids organize the replicative complex(es) that is actively involved in genome transcription and replication. Available structural data indicate that their RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDRP) is packaged as an integral capsid component, either as a replicative complex at the pentameric vertex (as in reovirus capsids) or as a fusion protein with the coat protein (as in some totivirus). In contrast with members of the family Reoviridae, there are two well-established capsid arrangements for dsRNA fungal viruses, exemplified by the totiviruses L-A and UmV and the chrysovirus PcV. Whereas L-A and UmV have a canonical T = 2 capsid, the PcV capsid is based on a T = 1 lattice composed of 60 capsid proteins. We used cryo-electron microscopy combined with three-dimensional reconstruction techniques and hydrodynamic analysis to determine the structure at 13.8 A resolution of Helminthosporium victoriae 190S virus (Hv190SV), a totivirus isolated from a filamentous fungus. The Hv190SV capsid has a smooth surface and is based on a T = 2 lattice with 60 equivalent dimers. Unlike the RDRP of some other totiviruses, which are expressed as a capsid protein-RDRP fusion protein, the Hv190SV RDRP is incorporated into the capsid as a separate, nonfused protein, free or non-covalently associated to the capsid interior

  9. Nd-Sr isotopic and geochemical systematics in Cambrian boninites and tholeiites from Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. R.; Crawford, A. J.; McCulloch, M. T.

    1984-11-01

    Rocks with boninitic affinities have been recognised in a number of “ophiolites”, including the Cambrian Heathcote and Mt Wellington Greenstone Belts of Victoria. Boninites and high-Mg andesites from the Heathcote Greenstone Belt show a restricted range of initial ɛ Nd values of between +3.3 to +5.8. Extremely refractory boninites from the Mt Wellington Greenstone Belt have ɛ Nd ranging from +1.3 to -9. Ti/Zr is positively correlated with Sm/Nd with the Heathcote lavas generally possessing greater depletion of Ti and enrichment of Zr relative to the middle and heavy REE with increasing LREE/HREE. These data are consistent with the generation of boninites by partial melting of refractory peridotite following invasion by LREE- and Zr-enriched, low ɛ Nd fluids. Tholeiites overlying the boninites in both greenstone belts have flat REE patterns and ɛ Nd˜+5, lower than that anticipated for lavas derived from depleted MORB source reservoirs in the Cambrian, suggesting that their source was also contaminated by a LREE-enriched, low ɛ Nd component similar to that involved in the generation of the Howqua boninites. The added components have characteristics compatible with their derivation from subducted altered oceanic crust and/or from wet subducted sediments. The identification of boninites and other low-Ti lavas in the Victorian greenstone belts is strong evidence for island arc development in southeastern Australia during the Lower Cambrian and provides further support for a subduction-related origin for many ophiolites.

  10. An isotopic study of nitrate pollution of groundwater in Victoria, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changkakoti, A.; Lawrence, C.R.; Cherstnova, L.; Chalk, P.; Krouse, H.R.

    1997-01-01

    Nitrate in groundwater can be a hard to human and animal health and contribute to the development of algal blooms and subsequent eutrophication of wetlands. Its presence is widespread throughout Australia and its levels overall appear to be increasing. A variety of sources of nitrate contamination of groundwater are known. These include nitrogen fixing plants, termites, animal wastes, industrial wastes, domestic wastes, sewage and fertilizers. In Victoria, nitrate-rich groundwaters have been reported from a number of localities, some of which include Colac, Nepean Peninsula, Shepparton, Deer Park, Benalla and Winchelsea. A multi-isotope method was developed to determine the probable source of pollution in these localities. Changes in the natural abundance ratio of the stable isotopes of nitrogen, 14 N and 15 N, and the differences in the isotopic ratios ( 15 N/ 14 N) of nitrate from various sources, form the basis of the N-isotope technique for source identification. Differences in the isotopic ratios of oxygen ( 18 O/ 16 O) and hydrogen (D/H) of polluted and unpolluted waters form the basis for the oxygen and hydrogen isotope technique to investigate pollution problems of groundwater. Sites which included clover, industrial wastes, animal and human wastes and fertilized sources, were selected after reviewing existing databases on nitrate concentration, earlier reports and access to a suitable network of bores for collecting reliable samples. The nitrate concentration ranged from less than 1 mg/L to in excess of 22.0 mg/L, whilst ammonium levels in most samples were less than 1 mg/L. The δ 15 N values of the various source types ranged from 8.8 to 19.0 per mill (pastures). The δ 18 O and δD data indicate seawater incursion in the coastal areas of the Nepean Peninsular. The results agree with published data on similar sources from elsewhere in the world, and indicate the potential use of this methodology in groundwater pollution studies in Australia

  11. Origins of igneous microgranular enclaves in granites: the example of Central Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, J. D.; Elburg, M. A.; Harris, C.

    2017-10-01

    To investigate their genesis and relations with their host rocks, we study igneous microgranular enclaves (IMEs) in the c. 370 Ma, post-orogenic, high-level, felsic plutons and volcanic rocks of Central Victoria, Australia. The IMEs are thermally quenched magma globules but are not autoliths, and they do not form mixing series with their host magmas. These IMEs generally represent hybrids between mantle-derived magmas and very high- T crust-derived melts, modified by fractionation, ingestion of host-derived crystals and, to a lesser extent, by chemical interactions with their hosts. Isotopic and elemental evidence suggests that their likely mafic progenitors formed by partial melting of subcontinental mantle, but that the IME suites from different felsic host bodies did not share a common initial composition. We infer that melts of heterogeneous mantle underwent high- T hybridisation with melts from a variety of crustal rocks, which led to a high degree of primary variability in the IME magmas. Our model for the formation of the Central Victorian IMEs is likely to be applicable to other occurrences, especially in suites of postorogenic granitic magmas emplaced in the shallow crust. However, there are many different origins for the mingled magma globules that we call IMEs, and different phenomena seem to occur in differing tectonic settings. The complexity of IME formation means that it is difficult to unravel the petrogenesis of these products of chaotic magma processes. Nevertheless, the survival of fine-grained, non-equilibrium mineralogy and texture in the IMEs suggests that their tenure in the host magmas must have been geologically brief.

  12. Exploring Service Providers' Perspectives in Improving Childhood Obesity Prevention among CALD Communities in Victoria, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Cyril

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity rates have been increasing disproportionately among disadvantaged communities including culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD migrant groups in Australia due to their poor participation in the available obesity prevention initiatives. We sought to explore service providers' perceptions of the key factors influencing the participation of CALD communities in the existing obesity prevention services and the service requirements needed to improve CALD communities' participation in these services.We conducted a qualitative study using focus group discussions involving fifty-nine service providers from a range of services, who are involved in the health and wellbeing of children from CALD groups living in four socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia.Thematic analysis of the data showed three major themes including community-level barriers to CALD engagement in childhood obesity prevention services; service-level barriers to the delivery of these services; and proposed changes to current childhood obesity prevention approaches. Integrating obesity prevention messages within existing programs, better coordination between prevention and treatment services and the establishment of a childhood obesity surveillance system, were some of the important changes suggested by service providers.This study has found that low CALD health literacy, lack of knowledge of cultural barriers among service providers and co-existing deficiencies in the structure and delivery of obesity prevention services negatively impacted the participation of CALD communities in obesity prevention services. Cultural competency training of service providers would improve their understanding of the cultural influences of childhood obesity and incorporate them into the design and development of obesity prevention initiatives. Service providers need to be educated on the pre-migratory health service experiences and health conditions of CALD

  13. The role of thermogenesis in the pollination biology of the Amazon waterlily Victoria amazonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Roger S; Matthews, Philip G D

    2006-12-01

    Several families of tropical plants have thermogenic flowers that show a 2-d protogynous sequence. Most are pollinated by large beetles that remain for the entire period in the flowers, where they compete for mates and feed. Active beetles require high body temperatures that they can achieve endogenously at great energy expense or attain passively and cheaply in a warm environment. Floral heating is therefore hypothesized to be a direct energy reward to endothermic beetles, in addition to its accepted role in enhancing scent production. This study measures the pattern of floral heat production (as temperature in 20 flowers and respiration rates in five flowers) in Victoria amazonica at field sites in Guyana and correlates floral temperatures with body temperatures necessary for activity in visiting Cyclocephala hardyi beetles. Thermogenesis occurred in a bimodal pattern, with peaks associated with the arrival and departure of beetles near sunset. Peak CO(2) production rates averaged 2.9 micromol s(-1), equivalent to a heat production of 1.4 W. Heat was generated mainly in the floral chamber on the first evening and by the stamen complex on the second. Mean chamber temperature remained between 29.3 and 34.7 degrees C during the first night, when ambient temperature was 23.5-25.2 degrees C. Beetles actively competed for mates and consumed stylar processes in the floral chamber, where their mean thoracic temperature was 33.2 degrees C. At the lower ambient temperatures outside of the flower, beetles capable of sustained flight had a similar mean temperature of 32.0 degrees C. Floral heating is not only associated with attraction, but continues throughout the night when beetles are active inside the flower and increases again when they leave. Floral chamber temperatures similar to activity temperatures of actively endothermic beetles imply that thermogenesis is an energy reward.

  14. Regional geology mapping using satellite-based remote sensing approach in Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, Amin Beiranvand; Park, Yongcheol; Park, Tae-Yoon S.; Hong, Jong Kuk; Hashim, Mazlan; Woo, Jusun; Ayoobi, Iman

    2018-06-01

    Satellite remote sensing imagery is especially useful for geological investigations in Antarctica because of its remoteness and extreme environmental conditions that constrain direct geological survey. The highest percentage of exposed rocks and soils in Antarctica occurs in Northern Victoria Land (NVL). Exposed Rocks in NVL were part of the paleo-Pacific margin of East Gondwana during the Paleozoic time. This investigation provides a satellite-based remote sensing approach for regional geological mapping in the NVL, Antarctica. Landsat-8 and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) datasets were used to extract lithological-structural and mineralogical information. Several spectral-band ratio indices were developed using Landsat-8 and ASTER bands and proposed for Antarctic environments to map spectral signatures of snow/ice, iron oxide/hydroxide minerals, Al-OH-bearing and Fe, Mg-OH and CO3 mineral zones, and quartz-rich felsic and mafic-to-ultramafic lithological units. The spectral-band ratio indices were tested and implemented to Level 1 terrain-corrected (L1T) products of Landsat-8 and ASTER datasets covering the NVL. The surface distribution of the mineral assemblages was mapped using the spectral-band ratio indices and verified by geological expeditions and laboratory analysis. Resultant image maps derived from spectral-band ratio indices that developed in this study are fairly accurate and correspond well with existing geological maps of the NVL. The spectral-band ratio indices developed in this study are especially useful for geological investigations in inaccessible locations and poorly exposed lithological units in Antarctica environments.

  15. Nuclear forensic analysis of uranium oxide powders interdicted in Victoria, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristo, Michael Joseph [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Keegan, Elizabeth; Colella, Michael [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Kirrawee, NSW (Australia); and others

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear forensic analysis was conducted on two uranium samples confiscated during a police investigation in Victoria, Australia. The first sample, designated NSR-F-270409-1, was a depleted uranium powder of moderate purity (∝ 1000 μg/g total elemental impurities). The chemical form of the uranium was a compound similar to K{sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 3}O{sub 4} . 4H{sub 2}O. While aliquoting NSR-F-270409-1 for analysis, the body and head of a Tineid moth was discovered in the sample. The second sample, designated NSR-F-270409-2, was also a depleted uranium powder. It was of reasonably high purity (∝ 380 μg/g total elemental impurities). The chemical form of the uranium was primarily UO{sub 3} . 2H{sub 2}O, with minor phases of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and UO{sub 2}. While aliquoting NSR-F-270409-2 for analysis, a metal staple of unknown origin was discovered in the sample. The presence of {sup 236}U and {sup 232}U in both samples indicates that the uranium feed stocks for these samples experienced a neutron flux at some point in their history. The reactor burn-up calculated from the isotopic composition of the uranium is consistent with that of spent fuel from natural uranium (NU) fueled Pu production. These nuclear forensic conclusions allow us to categorically exclude Australia as the origin of the material and greatly reduce the number of candidate sources.

  16. Exploring Service Providers' Perspectives in Improving Childhood Obesity Prevention among CALD Communities in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyril, Sheila; Green, Julie; Nicholson, Jan M.; Agho, Kingsley; Renzaho, Andre M. N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity rates have been increasing disproportionately among disadvantaged communities including culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) migrant groups in Australia due to their poor participation in the available obesity prevention initiatives. We sought to explore service providers’ perceptions of the key factors influencing the participation of CALD communities in the existing obesity prevention services and the service requirements needed to improve CALD communities’ participation in these services. Methods We conducted a qualitative study using focus group discussions involving fifty-nine service providers from a range of services, who are involved in the health and wellbeing of children from CALD groups living in four socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia. Results Thematic analysis of the data showed three major themes including community-level barriers to CALD engagement in childhood obesity prevention services; service-level barriers to the delivery of these services; and proposed changes to current childhood obesity prevention approaches. Integrating obesity prevention messages within existing programs, better coordination between prevention and treatment services and the establishment of a childhood obesity surveillance system, were some of the important changes suggested by service providers. Conclusion This study has found that low CALD health literacy, lack of knowledge of cultural barriers among service providers and co-existing deficiencies in the structure and delivery of obesity prevention services negatively impacted the participation of CALD communities in obesity prevention services. Cultural competency training of service providers would improve their understanding of the cultural influences of childhood obesity and incorporate them into the design and development of obesity prevention initiatives. Service providers need to be educated on the pre-migratory health service experiences and health

  17. Impacts of reclaimed water irrigation on soil antibiotic resistome in urban parks of Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue-Mei; Hu, Hang-Wei; Shi, Xiu-Zhen; Wang, Jun-Tao; Han, Li-Li; Chen, Deli; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-04-01

    The effluents from wastewater treatment plants have been recognized as a significant environmental reservoir of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Reclaimed water irrigation (RWI) is increasingly used as a practical solution for combating water scarcity in arid and semiarid regions, however, impacts of RWI on the patterns of ARGs and the soil bacterial community remain unclear. Here, we used high-throughput quantitative PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques to compare the diversity, abundance and composition of a broad-spectrum of ARGs and total bacteria in 12 urban parks with and without RWI in Victoria, Australia. A total of 40 unique ARGs were detected across all park soils, with genes conferring resistance to β-lactam being the most prevalent ARG type. The total numbers and the fold changes of the detected ARGs were significantly increased by RWI, and marked shifts in ARG patterns were also observed in urban parks with RWI compared to those without RWI. The changes in ARG patterns were paralleled by a significant effect of RWI on the bacterial community structure and a co-occurrence pattern of the detected ARG types. There were significant and positive correlations between the fold changes of the integrase intI1 gene and two β-lactam resistance genes (KPC and IMP-2 groups), but no significant impacts of RWI on the abundances of intI1 and the transposase tnpA gene were found, indicating that RWI did not improve the potential for horizontal gene transfer of soil ARGs. Taken together, our findings suggested that irrigation of urban parks with reclaimed water could influence the abundance, diversity, and compositions of a wide variety of soil ARGs of clinical relevance. Irrigation of urban parks with treated wastewater significantly increased the abundance and diversity of various antibiotic resistance genes, but did not significantly enhance their potential for horizontal gene transfer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  18. Exploring Service Providers' Perspectives in Improving Childhood Obesity Prevention among CALD Communities in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyril, Sheila; Green, Julie; Nicholson, Jan M; Agho, Kingsley; Renzaho, Andre M N

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity rates have been increasing disproportionately among disadvantaged communities including culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) migrant groups in Australia due to their poor participation in the available obesity prevention initiatives. We sought to explore service providers' perceptions of the key factors influencing the participation of CALD communities in the existing obesity prevention services and the service requirements needed to improve CALD communities' participation in these services. We conducted a qualitative study using focus group discussions involving fifty-nine service providers from a range of services, who are involved in the health and wellbeing of children from CALD groups living in four socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia. Thematic analysis of the data showed three major themes including community-level barriers to CALD engagement in childhood obesity prevention services; service-level barriers to the delivery of these services; and proposed changes to current childhood obesity prevention approaches. Integrating obesity prevention messages within existing programs, better coordination between prevention and treatment services and the establishment of a childhood obesity surveillance system, were some of the important changes suggested by service providers. This study has found that low CALD health literacy, lack of knowledge of cultural barriers among service providers and co-existing deficiencies in the structure and delivery of obesity prevention services negatively impacted the participation of CALD communities in obesity prevention services. Cultural competency training of service providers would improve their understanding of the cultural influences of childhood obesity and incorporate them into the design and development of obesity prevention initiatives. Service providers need to be educated on the pre-migratory health service experiences and health conditions of CALD communities to ensure

  19. Family Presence During Resuscitation (FPDR): Observational case studies of emergency personnel in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Joanne E; Miller, Nareeda; Giannis, Anita; Coombs, Nicole

    2017-07-01

    Family Presence During Resuscitation (FPDR), although not a new concept, remains inconsistently implemented by emergency personnel. Many larger metropolitan emergency departments (ED) have instigated a care coordinator role, however these personnel are often from a non-nursing background and have therefore limited knowledge about the clinical aspects of the resuscitation. In rural emergency departments there are simply not enough staff to allocate an independent role. A separate care coordinator role, who is assigned to care for the family and not take part in the resuscitation has been well documented as essential to the successful implementation of FPDR. One rural and one metropolitan emergency department in the state of Victoria, Australia were observed and data was collected on FPDR events. The participants consisted of resuscitation team members, including; emergency trained nurses, senior medical officers, general nurses and doctors. The participants were not told that the data would be recorded around interactions with family members or team discussions regarding family involvement in the resuscitation, following ethical approval involving limited disclosure of the aims of the study. Seventeen adult presentations (Metro n=9, Rural n=8) were included in this study and will be presented as resuscitation case studies. The key themes identified included ambiguity around resuscitation status, keeping the family informed, family isolation and inter-professional communication. During 17 adult resuscitation cases, staff were witnessed communicating with family, which was often limited and isolation resulted. Family were often uninformed or separated from their family member, however when a family liaison person was available it was found to be beneficial. This research indicated that staff could benefit from a designated family liaison role, formal policy and further education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Parental knowledge, beliefs and behaviours for oral health of toddlers residing in rural Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussy, M G; Waters, E B; Riggs, E M; Lo, S K; Kilpatrick, N M

    2008-03-01

    Little is known about the oral health of children under the age of four years. The determinants of early childhood caries (ECC) in this young age group are also not well understood despite a growing recognition that early interventions may deliver the greatest benefits. The aim of this study was to examine the oral health-related knowledge, attitudes and reported behaviours of parents of children aged 12-24 months living in rural areas of Victoria, Australia. A robust theoretical model was utilized to identify oral health-related behaviours and their antecedent and reinforcing conditions within the context of this specific population group. Two hundred and ninety-four parent/child dyads were recruited through their maternal and child health nurses as part of a larger intervention trial. Parents completed a self-report questionnaire. Knowledge regarding risk and protective factors amongst parents was variable and sometimes at odds with contemporary evidence. Knowledge of the role of early infection with S. mutans was very low, with high levels of behaviours that may promote early transmission reported. Tooth cleaning was reported by most parents at least sometimes, however a large proportion lacked confidence and this was significantly related to the frequency of the cleaning. Parents were confused about the fluoride status of their water supplies. Most parents believed fluoride toothpaste reduced the risk of ECC but did not know whether it should be used with toddlers. The results of this study have implications for efforts to prevent dental decay in this very young age group. Health care professionals other than dentists need support to provide information and promote confidence with regard to optimal fluoride exposure. Attention should also be given to the contribution of early contact with particular bacteria in oral health education and promotion programmes.

  1. Quality of care achievements of the Prostate Cancer Outcomes Registry-Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampurno, Fanny; Earnest, Arul; Kumari, Patabendi B; Millar, Jeremy L; Davis, Ian D; Murphy, Declan G; Frydenberg, Mark; Kearns, Paul A; Evans, Sue M

    2016-05-02

    To analyse the performance of the quality of prostate cancer (CaP) care over a 5-year period with reference to three quality indicators (QIs) reported by the Prostate Cancer Outcomes Registry-Victoria (PCOR-Vic):QI-1: Alignment with the modified Prostate Cancer Research International Active Surveillance (PRIAS) protocol guideline;QI-2: Timeliness of CaP care for men with high risk and locally advanced disease;QI-3: Positive surgical margins (PSMs) for organ-confined pathological T2 disease. Between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013, 4708 men diagnosed with CaP who met the QI-1, QI-2 or QI-3 inclusion criteria were recruited from Victorian hospitals.Outcome measures and statistical analysis: Trend analysis was conducted to monitor performance according to QI-1, QI-2 and QI-3. We used the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model to account for any inherent autocorrelation in the data when analysing the monthly incidence of each indicator. Differences in the annual figures for the indicators across years were also analysed by aggregating data by year and applying the ARIMA model. There was a downward trend over the 5 years in the percentage of men with low risk disease who underwent active treatment (45% to 34%; P = 0.024), an upward trend in the percentage of those with high risk and locally advanced disease who received active treatment within 12 months of diagnosis (88% to 93%; P = 0.181), and a decline in PSM rate in men with pathological T2 disease after radical prostatectomy (21% to 12%; P = 0.036). Limitations of the study include the fact that the improvement in the QIs was detected using PCOR-Vic as a single population, but there may be institutional variations in quality improvement. Over 2009-2013, the performance of the Victorian health system improved according to the three processes of care indicators reported by the PCOR-Vic.

  2. Waterparks are high risk for cryptosporidiosis: A case-control study in Victoria, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gooyer, Tanyth E; Gregory, Joy; Easton, Marion; Stephens, Nicola; Fearnley, Emily; Kirk, Martyn

    2017-06-30

    An increase in notifications of cryptosporidiosis was observed in Victoria between March and April 2015. Cases mostly resided in one metropolitan region and hypothesis-generating interviews identified common exposures to aquatic facilities. We conducted a case-control study to determine exposure source(s) and facilitate control measures. Laboratory-confirmed cases of cryptosporidiosis from the region of interest notified between 1 March and 23 April 2015 were included. Controls residing in the same region were recruited from participants in a population health survey and frequency matched (2 per case) by age group. Details of exposure to potential risk factors were collected using a standardised telephone questionnaire for the 14-days prior to illness for cases, and an analogous exposure period for controls. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to determine risk factors associated with illness using STATA SE 13.1. Thirty cases and 66 controls were included in the study. Half the cases were less than 12 years of age and 62% were female. Illness was most strongly associated with recreational water exposure at any waterpark (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=73.5; 95% confidence interval (CI):6.74-802), and specifically at Victorian waterparks (aOR=45.6; 95% CI:5.20-399). Cases were linked with attendance at either a waterpark in the region or an adjacent region. As a result of this investigation, hyperchlorination was completed at identified facilities and swim hygiene information distributed. This study reinforces the potential for recreational water facilities, particularly waterparks, to act as a transmission source of Cryptosporidium infections. Continued communication to patrons is required to ensure healthy swimming practice in Victorian aquatic facilities.

  3. Influence of voluntary standards and design modifications on trampoline injury in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Karen; Eager, David; D'Elia, Angelo; Day, Lesley

    2015-10-01

    To examine the influence of the voluntary Australian trampoline standard (AS 4989-2006) and market-driven design modifications on relevant trampoline injuries. Trend and intervention analysis on frequencies and proportions of hospital-treated trampoline-related injury in Victoria, Australia, extracted from the Victorian Emergency Minimum Dataset from 1 July 1999 to 30 June 2013. The injuries relevant to the AS were contact with spring and frame, and multiple-user injury. Falls from trampolines were relevant for netted trampolines, a market-driven modification. Frequency of all trampoline injuries increased by 11.4% (95% CI 10.0% to 11.7%) on average each year. Spring and frame, and fall injuries increased to a lesser extent (8.7%, 95% CI 6.9% to 9.8% and 7.3%, 95% CI 5.8% to 8.3%, respectively). Multiple-user injuries increased by 21.0% (95% CI 16.3% to 21.9%). As a proportion of all trampoline injuries, spring and frame injury and falls injury decreased, while multiple-user injuries increased. The intervention analysis showed no significant change in spring and frame injuries associated with the AS (p=0.17). A significant increase was found for multiple-user injuries (p=0.01), in particular for the 0-year to 4-year age group (ptrampolines appear to be associated with a decrease in falls from trampolines but an increase in injuries to multiple users. A mandated trampoline safety standard and a safety campaign including warnings about multiple users is recommended. Continued monitoring of injury data will be required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Making medicine; producing pleasure: A critical examination of medicinal cannabis policy and law in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Kari; Seear, Kate; Ritter, Alison

    2017-11-01

    Several jurisdictions around the world have introduced policies and laws allowing for the legal use of cannabis for therapeutic purposes. However, there has been little critical discussion of how the object of 'medicinal cannabis' is enacted in policy and practice. Informed by Carol Bacchi's poststructuralist approach to policy analysis and the work of science and technology studies scholars, this paper seeks to problematise the object of 'medicinal cannabis' and examine how it is constituted through governing practices. In particular, we consider how the making of the object of 'medicinal cannabis' might constrain or enact discourses of pleasure. As a case example, we take the Victorian Law Reform Commission's review of law reform options to allow people in the Australian state of Victoria to be treated with medicinal cannabis. Through analysis of this case example, we find that although 'medicinal cannabis' is constituted as a thoroughly medical object, it is also constituted as unique. We argue that medicinal cannabis is enacted in part through the production of another object (so-called 'recreational cannabis') and the social and political meanings attached to both. Although both 'substances' are constituted as distinct, 'medicinal cannabis' relies on the 'absent presence' of 'recreational cannabis' to define and shape what it is. However, we find that contained within this rendering of 'medicinal cannabis' are complex enactments of health and wellbeing, which open up discourses of pleasure. 'Medicinal cannabis' appears to challenge the idea that the effects of 'medicine' cannot be understood in terms of pleasure. As such, the making of 'medicinal cannabis' as a medical object, and its invocation of broad notions of health and wellbeing, expand the ways in which drug effects can be acknowledged, including pleasurable and desirable effects, helping us to think differently about both medicine and other forms of drug use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  5. Spatial resolution in visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shalom, Asaf; Ganel, Tzvi

    2015-04-01

    Representations in visual short-term memory are considered to contain relatively elaborated information on object structure. Conversely, representations in earlier stages of the visual hierarchy are thought to be dominated by a sensory-based, feed-forward buildup of information. In four experiments, we compared the spatial resolution of different object properties between two points in time along the processing hierarchy in visual short-term memory. Subjects were asked either to estimate the distance between objects or to estimate the size of one of the objects' features under two experimental conditions, of either a short or a long delay period between the presentation of the target stimulus and the probe. When different objects were referred to, similar spatial resolution was found for the two delay periods, suggesting that initial processing stages are sensitive to object-based properties. Conversely, superior resolution was found for the short, as compared with the long, delay when features were referred to. These findings suggest that initial representations in visual memory are hybrid in that they allow fine-grained resolution for object features alongside normal visual sensitivity to the segregation between objects. The findings are also discussed in reference to the distinction made in earlier studies between visual short-term memory and iconic memory.

  6. Garis dan Titik Berdasarkan Riset Visual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Kurniawati Homan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A design may not be created instantly, without going through a process of creation. At the beginning it all starts from nothing, blank. It requires a visual research to make a visual communication. Without a visual research, the design will not have a strong meaning to be communicated. When an idea is created, the next step is to generate the idea to become a design. The first thing a designer to do is drawing a line. Line is one of the design basic elements. In the journey to make a good design, a designer requires a visual record to assist her/him in remembering what is important. A visual record contains not only visual things seen by eyes, but also the perceived things. What is felt at the moment is important because it is easier to forget than visual memory. Sense is an important element in design. A good work will easily be communicated not only by visuals but also from senses. The study was conducted as an insight into the process of making a visual record of nirmana using visual recording method in the exploration of dots and dashes. This method was used to sharpen the sensitivity of students to dots and lines. Initially, the students visited a traditional market to do the visual research. After that, they created a visual record in the form of the composition of dots and lines in nirmana to remember the taste, smell, and visual experiences. 

  7. Strategic Actions for Increasing the Submission of Digital Cadastral Data by the Surveying Industry Based on Lessons Learned from Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Olfat

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ePlan, as a digital cadastral data initiative, is a collaborative program between the land authorities and the surveying industry which aims to replace paper and PDF cadastral plans and surveys with digital data. ePlan is currently operational in Australia, New Zealand and Singapore. ePlan was introduced in the State of Victoria in 2011 and has been operational in this jurisdiction for 2D plans since 2013. On average, one ePlan application is currently submitted to a digital plan lodgment portal every two weeks. The low uptake of ePlan is caused by several technical and non-technical challenges. This paper provides an overview of cadastral information transitioning from paper to digital in Victoria. The research methodology to identify the challenges in Victoria for the adoption of ePlan is then described. This is followed by a discussion on the identified challenges. The paper then proposes a generic framework of strategic actions to increase the uptake of digital cadastral data based on the lessons learned from Victoria. The initiatives suggested by this framework to address the ePlan challenges in Victoria and increase its uptake are also introduced. The paper concludes with a direction for future research.

  8. Regions of High Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Incidence and Low Bystander CPR Rates in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straney, Lahn D; Bray, Janet E; Beck, Ben; Finn, Judith; Bernard, Stephen; Dyson, Kylie; Lijovic, Marijana; Smith, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains a major public health issue and research has shown that large regional variation in outcomes exists. Of the interventions associated with survival, the provision of bystander CPR is one of the most important modifiable factors. The aim of this study is to identify census areas with high incidence of OHCA and low rates of bystander CPR in Victoria, Australia. We conducted an observational study using prospectively collected population-based OHCA data from the state of Victoria in Australia. Using ArcGIS (ArcMap 10.0), we linked the location of the arrest using the dispatch coordinates (longitude and latitude) to Victorian Local Government Areas (LGAs). We used Bayesian hierarchical models with random effects on each LGA to provide shrunken estimates of the rates of bystander CPR and the incidence rates. Over the study period there were 31,019 adult OHCA attended, of which 21,436 (69.1%) cases were of presumed cardiac etiology. Significant variation in the incidence of OHCA among LGAs was observed. There was a 3 fold difference in the incidence rate between the lowest and highest LGAs, ranging from 38.5 to 115.1 cases per 100,000 person-years. The overall rate of bystander CPR for bystander witnessed OHCAs was 62.4%, with the rate increasing from 56.4% in 2008-2010 to 68.6% in 2010-2013. There was a 25.1% absolute difference in bystander CPR rates between the highest and lowest LGAs. Significant regional variation in OHCA incidence and bystander CPR rates exists throughout Victoria. Regions with high incidence and low bystander CPR participation can be identified and would make suitable targets for interventions to improve CPR participation rates.

  9. The influence of climate variability on numbers of three waterbird species in Western Port, Victoria, 1973 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Lynda E.; Loyn, Richard H.

    2006-05-01

    Seasonal and annual movements of Australian waterbirds are generally more complex than those of their Northern Hemisphere counterparts, and long-term data are needed to understand their relationships with climatic variables. This paper explores a long-term (1973 2002) set of waterbird counts from coastal Victoria and relates them to climatic data at local and continental scales. Three species (Black Swan Cygnus atratus, White-faced Heron Egretta novaehollandiae and Grey Teal Anas gracilis) were chosen for this analysis. Black Swans have large local breeding populations near the study region; White-faced Herons have smaller local breeding populations and Grey Teal breed extensively in ephemeral inland floodplains, such as those in the Murray-Darling Basin. All showed significant relationships with streamflow, regional rainfall and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) at appropriate scales and time-lags, with streamflow explaining the most variance. Black Swans showed a strong seasonal cycle in abundance and local climate variables had the greatest influence on the counts. Numbers were positively correlated with streamflow in southern Victoria three to six seasons before each count. Broader-scale climatic patterns were more important for the other two species. Numbers of White-faced Herons were positively correlated with streamflow or rainfall over various parts of Australia seven to nine seasons before each count. Numbers of Grey Teal showed weak seasonal cycles, and were negatively correlated with rainfall in Victoria or the Murray-Darling Basin in the seasons before or during each count, and positively with streamflow in the Murray-Darling Basin 15 18 months before each count.

  10. Distribution and origin of authigenic smectite clays in Cape Roberts Project Core 3, Victoria Land Basin, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestas, A.W.; Wise, S.W.

    2007-01-01

    Of some 800 m of lower Oligocene marine sediments cored continuously from the seafloor in the Victoria Land Basin of Antarctica at Cape Roberts Site CRP-3, the lower 500 m exhibit authigenic smectite clay coats on shallow-water sandstone grains. A scanning electron microscope/EDS study of 46 fracture sections confirms that the distribution of the clay coats through the unit is not uniform or evenly distributed, but rather varies with depth, original porosity, and the kinds and abundance of source materials. Our results suggest that smectite emplacement resulted from in-situ, low-temperature burial diagenesis rather than hydrothermal or fault-focused thermobaric fluids.

  11. Una sorprendente victoria: Menem y su red de apoyo en las elecciones internas del peronismo de 1988

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín Baeza Belda

    2010-01-01

    1989 supuso para Argentina la llegada a la presidencia del justicialista Carlos Menem y el inicio de un sorprendente giro, dados los antecedentes de su partido, hacia políticas neoliberales. Como paso previo, sin embargo, Menem debió vencer en unas elecciones internas en las que partía, en principio, en clara desventaja ante el favorito Antonio Cafiero, gobernador de la provincia de Buenos Aires y líder de la llamada Renovación peronista. La sorprendente victoria de Menem en 1988 ha sido expl...

  12. Investigando a papá: un análisis del documental ‘Desobediencia debida’ de Victoria Reale (2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Maria Torres

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la película Desobediencia debida realizada en el año 2008 por la directora argentina Victoria Reale teniendo en cuenta algunas de sus particularidades con respecto a los demás documentales sobre la guerra de Malvinas por un lado, y, por el otro, haciendo especial hincapié en su relación con la serie de documentales dirigidos por la generación de los hijos de detenidos-desaparecidos durante la última dictadura militar.

  13. Allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ree, Ronald; Hummelshøj, Lone; Plantinga, Maud

    2014-01-01

    Allergic sensitization is the outcome of a complex interplay between the allergen and the host in a given environmental context. The first barrier encountered by an allergen on its way to sensitization is the mucosal epithelial layer. Allergic inflammatory diseases are accompanied by increased pe...

  14. Adapting the botanical landscape of Melbourne Gardens (Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria in response to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Entwisle

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Botanic gardens around the world maintain collections of living plants for science, conservation, education, beauty and more. These collections change over time – in scope and content – but the predicted impacts of climate change will require a more strategic approach to the succession of plant species and their landscapes. Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria has recently published a ‘Landscape Succession Strategy’ for its Melbourne Gardens, a spectacular botanical landscape established in 1846. The strategy recognizes that with 1.6 million visitors each year, responsibility for a heritage-listed landscape and the need to care for a collection of 8500 plant species of conservation and scientific importance, planting and planning must take into account anticipated changes to rainfall and temperature. The trees we plant today must be suitable for the climate of the twenty-second century. Specifically, the Strategy sets out the steps needed over the next twenty years to transition the botanic garden to one resilient to the climate modelled for 2090. The document includes a range of practical measures and achievable (and at times somewhat aspirational targets. Climate analogues will be used to identify places in Australia and elsewhere with conditions today similar to those predicted for Melbourne in 2090, to help select new species for the collection. Modelling of the natural and cultivated distribution of species will be used to help select suitable growth forms to replace existing species of high value or interest. Improved understanding of temperature gradients within the botanic garden, water holding capacity of soils and plant water use behaviour is already resulting in better targeted planting and irrigation. The goal is to retain a similar diversity of species but transition the collection so that by 2036 at least 75% of the species are suitable for the climate in 2090. Over the next few years we hope to provide 100% of irrigation water

  15. A problem-oriented approach to understanding adaptation: lessons learnt from Alpine Shire, Victoria Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Carolina

    2010-05-01

    Climate change is gaining attention as a significant strategic issue for localities that rely on their business sectors for economic viability. For businesses in the tourism sector, considerable research effort has sought to characterise the vulnerability to the likely impacts of future climate change through scenarios or ‘end-point' approaches (Kelly & Adger, 2000). Whilst useful, there are few demonstrable case studies that complement such work with a ‘start-point' approach that seeks to explore contextual vulnerability (O'Brien et al., 2007). This broader approach is inclusive of climate change as a process operating within a biophysical system and allows recognition of the complex interactions that occur in the coupled human-environmental system. A problem-oriented and interdisciplinary approach was employed at Alpine Shire, in northeast Victoria Australia, to explore the concept of contextual vulnerability and adaptability to stressors that include, but are not limited to climatic change. Using a policy sciences approach, the objective was to identify factors that influence existing vulnerabilities and that might consequently act as barriers to effective adaptation for the Shire's business community involved in the tourism sector. Analyses of results suggest that many threats, including the effects climate change, compete for the resources, strategy and direction of local tourism management bodies. Further analysis of conditioning factors revealed that many complex and interacting factors define the vulnerability and adaptive capacity of the Shire's tourism sector to the challenges of global change, which collectively have more immediate implications for policy and planning than long-term future climate change scenarios. An approximation of the common interest, i.e. enhancing capacity in business acumen amongst tourism operators, would facilitate adaptability and sustainability through the enhancement of social capital in this business community. Kelly, P

  16. Impacts of reclaimed water irrigation on soil antibiotic resistome in urban parks of Victoria, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Xue-Mei; Hu, Hang-Wei; Shi, Xiu-Zhen; Wang, Jun-Tao; Han, Li-Li; Chen, Deli; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The effluents from wastewater treatment plants have been recognized as a significant environmental reservoir of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Reclaimed water irrigation (RWI) is increasingly used as a practical solution for combating water scarcity in arid and semiarid regions, however, impacts of RWI on the patterns of ARGs and the soil bacterial community remain unclear. Here, we used high-throughput quantitative PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques to compare the diversity, abundance and composition of a broad-spectrum of ARGs and total bacteria in 12 urban parks with and without RWI in Victoria, Australia. A total of 40 unique ARGs were detected across all park soils, with genes conferring resistance to β-lactam being the most prevalent ARG type. The total numbers and the fold changes of the detected ARGs were significantly increased by RWI, and marked shifts in ARG patterns were also observed in urban parks with RWI compared to those without RWI. The changes in ARG patterns were paralleled by a significant effect of RWI on the bacterial community structure and a co-occurrence pattern of the detected ARG types. There were significant and positive correlations between the fold changes of the integrase intI1 gene and two β-lactam resistance genes (KPC and IMP-2 groups), but no significant impacts of RWI on the abundances of intI1 and the transposase tnpA gene were found, indicating that RWI did not improve the potential for horizontal gene transfer of soil ARGs. Taken together, our findings suggested that irrigation of urban parks with reclaimed water could influence the abundance, diversity, and compositions of a wide variety of soil ARGs of clinical relevance. One-sentence summary: Irrigation of urban parks with treated wastewater significantly increased the abundance and diversity of various antibiotic resistance genes, but did not significantly enhance their potential for horizontal gene transfer

  17. Evaluating Regional Scale Deforestation in the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, P.; Montenegro, A.; Beltrami, H.; Eby, M.

    2011-12-01

    Forests play a key role in influencing the Earths climate and at the same time are affected by changing climates. At this point it is estimated that 15-30% of Earths natural forests have already been converted to pasture or cropland. With such large amounts of forest being converted to cropland and grassland, it is important to determine the climatic effects of these actions. To date, most modelling efforts towards understanding the climatic effects of deforestation have simulated global deforestation or have been based on experiments where trees were removed from large areas, i.e. the entire Amazon or all forests above 50 N. Here we use the University of Victoria Earth System Climate model which contains a fully coupled carbon cycle, to evaluate the response to deforestation of 10%, 25%, 50% and 100% of the forested areas in three latitude bands: high (above 50°N), mid (above ± 30°) and low (between ± 30°). All simulations were transient simulations, allowing for changes to atmospheric forcings following the A2 emissions scenario. High latitude deforestation lead to cooling (-.05 °C to -0.45 °C) and increase in soil carbon (0.5 to 3 x 1014 kg) for all fractions of deforestation. Due in part to the increase in soil carbon, there was a decrease in atmospheric CO2 in the 50% (-20 ppm) and 100% (-60 ppm) high-latitude deforestation simulations. Low-latitude deforestation initially produced warming in all scenarios (0.1 to 0.25 °C), although all were colder (-0.05 to -0.1 °C) than the control by the end of the simulation. Atmospheric CO2 increased in all simulations (40 to 80 ppm), as well as soil carbon (2 to 16 x 1013 kg). Mid-latitude deforestation also lead to initial warming (0.01 to 0.1 °C) followed by cooling (-0.01 to -0.1 °C). Mid latitude deforestation also produced an increase in soil carbon (2 to 10 x 1013 kg), and atmospheric CO2 (0 to 25ppm). In all three latitude bands forest dieback was observed. Results range from 7% to 37% for high

  18. ‘A token of their love’: Queen Victoria Memorials in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Stocker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the four metropolitan sculptural memorials to Queen Victoria in late-colonial New Zealand, which all immediately precede the colony’s Dominion status (1907. In chronological order, they were erected in Auckland, Christchurch, Wellington, and Dunedin. While the Auckland memorial was unveiled within the Queen’s lifetime, her death in 1901 catalysed the commission of more ambitious counterparts in Wellington and Dunedin, and a degree of intercity rivalry was consciously articulated in advocacy for them. The memorials reflect a Pākeha (European New Zealand sense of identity as a loyal, pro-monarchical, and imperial colony, but also as a ‘Better Britain’, with a proud sense of prosperity and achievement. Local content features prominently in two of them, notably the signing with Māori of the Treaty of Waitangi (1840 in one of the reliefs for the capital city memorial (Wellington, and an ambitious celebration of fifty years of provincial achievement in the pedestal sculpture for the Christchurch counterpart. Due to a dearth of home-grown talent, together with the belief in the artistic superiority of Britain (often known at the time as ‘Home’, British sculptors were invariably commissioned for these memorials. Cost-effectiveness, prestige, and the ability to render a realistic likeness were all criteria behind the choice of artists, with Francis John Williamson commissioned for two of them (Auckland and Christchurch. In researching this article, extensive use has been made of primary newspaper sources to document the political context of the memorials. In all of them, particularly that of Christchurch, New Zealand’s loyalty to Britain in the South African War (1899–1902 was a leading issue. Artistic and aesthetic issues and analysis were less prominent, although there was a widespread belief that the Queen should be honoured for purely symbolic and not utilitarian causes. While emphasis is given

  19. Differences in the population structure of Neisseria meningitidis in two Australian states: Victoria and Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Mowlaboccus

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is the causative agent of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD. A recombinant vaccine called Bexsero® incorporates four subcapsular antigens (fHbp, NHBA, NadA and PorA which are used to assign a Bexsero® antigen sequence type (BAST to each meningococcal strain. The vaccine elicits an immune response against combinations of variants of these antigens which have been grouped into specific BAST profiles that have been shown to have different distributions within geographical locations thus potentially affecting the efficacy of the vaccine. In this study, invasive meningococcal disease isolates from the western seaboard of Australia (Western Australia; WA were compared to those from the south-eastern seaboard (Victoria; VIC from 2008 to 2012. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS of 131 meningococci from VIC and 70 meningococci from WA were analysed for MLST, FetA and BAST profiling. Serogroup B predominated in both jurisdictions and a total of 10 MLST clonal complexes (cc were shared by both states. Isolates belonging to cc22, cc103 and cc1157 were unique to VIC whilst isolates from cc60 and cc212 were unique to WA. Clonal complex 41/44 represented one-third of the meningococcal population in each state but the predominant ST was locally different: ST-6058 in VIC and ST-146 in WA. Of the 108 BAST profiles identified in this collection, only 9 BASTs were simultaneously observed in both states. A significantly larger proportion of isolates in VIC harboured alleles for the NHBA-2 peptide and fHbp-1, antigenic variants predicted to be covered by the Bexsero® vaccine. The estimate for vaccine coverage in WA (47.1% [95% CI: 41.1-53.1%] was significantly lower than that in VIC (66.4% [95% CI: 62.3-70.5%]. In conclusion, the antigenic structure of meningococci causing invasive disease in two geographically distinct states of Australia differed significantly during the study period which may affect vaccine effectiveness and highlights the

  20. Presentations to general practice before a cancer diagnosis in Victoria: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Karen; Bishop, James F; Cross, Hannah L; Chondros, Patty; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Emery, Jon D

    2016-07-18

    To assess variations in the number of general practitioner visits preceding a cancer diagnosis, and in the length of the interval between the patient first suspecting a problem and their seeing a hospital specialist. Analysis of data provided to the Cancer Patient Experience Survey (CPES; survey response rate, 37.7%) by 1552 patients with one of 19 cancer types and treated in one of five Victorian Comprehensive Cancer Centre hospitals, 1 October 2012 - 30 April 2013. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who had had three or more GP consultations about cancer-related health problems before being referred to hospital. The secondary outcome was the interval between the patient first suspecting a problem and their seeing a hospital specialist. 34% of the patients included in the final analyses (426 of 1248) had visited a GP at least three times before referral to a hospital doctor. The odds ratios (reference: rectal cancer; adjusted for age, sex, language spoken at home, and socio-economic disadvantage index score) varied according to cancer type, being highest for pancreatic cancer (3.2; 95% CI, 1.02-9.9), thyroid cancer (2.5; 95% CI, 0.9-6.6), vulval cancer (2.5; 95% CI, 0.7-8.7) and multiple myeloma (2.4; 95% CI, 1.1-5.5), and lowest for patients with breast cancer (0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.8), cervical cancer (0.5; 95% CI, 0.1-2.1), endometrial cancer (0.5; 95% CI, 0.2-1.4) or melanoma (0.7; 95% CI, 0.3-1.5). Cancer type also affected the duration of the interval from symptom onset to seeing a hospital doctor; it took at least 3 months for more than one-third of patients with prostate or colon cancer to see a hospital doctor. Certain cancer types were more frequently associated with multiple GP visits, suggesting they are more challenging to recognise early. In Victoria, longer intervals from the first symptoms to seeing a hospital doctor for colon or prostate cancer may reflect poorer community symptom awareness, later GP referral, or limited access to

  1. The application of soil-gas geochemistry to precisely locate La Victoria fault near Paracotos (Venezuela)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Rosales, P.A.; Cordoves, P.R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Measurements of radon (total radon, Radon-222 and Radon-220) and other soil-gases (CO 2 , O 2 and H 2 ) were performed routinely during 1998 and 1999 across a narrow valley near Paracotos, Venezuela in an attempt to precisely locate the La Victoria fault. The transect was about 300 meters long with eleven sampling points. The soil-gas probes were inserted to a depth of 45 cm in the beginning and later on completely to a depth of 63 cm. The radon sampling and measurements were accomplished with a Pylon AB-5 radiation monitor and Lucas scintillation cells. The other soil-gases were directly determined with an Anagas, CD95 monitor and an Infra-red Gas Analyzer (MKIIC) both coupled with a Hydrogen pod. The radon values for more than twenty different sampling periods over a two year period resulted with anomalous values between 75 and 150 meters along the transect. There were three consecutive anomalous values each time. But strangely, the anomalies of the radon values were in the form of a doublet at 116 and 141 meters rather than a simple single peak in the middle and the gas flow was similar for the sampling points between 75 and 150 meters. The graph of the relative CO 2 values were usually similar to the radon graphs but in some cases, the anomalous values were seen as a simple single peak and corresponded to the 141 meter sampling point. While the anomalous values of Hydrogen were usually in a form of a single peak that corresponded with 141 meter sampling point. Only a few times were values for Hydrogen higher than 100 ppm and detected at most of the sampling points, usually only one or two points resulted with small values near the 141 meter sampling point. Based on the radon values alone, we would have to conclude that the fault probably lies near or between the 116 and 141 meter sampling points, but with the additional data of the CO 2 and H 2 soil-gases one could say that the fault is probably near the 141 meter sampling point. Thus, we have

  2. A Record of Holocene Paleoclimate Evolution from Robertson Bay, Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesselman, C. R.; Truax, O.; Wilson, G. S.; Parker, R. L.; Yoo, K. C.; Lee, J. I.; Levy, R. H.; Mckay, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Regionally representative records of how Antarctica responded to the transition from the Last Glacial Maximum into the Holocene are an essential component of understanding the processes by which the Antarctic cryosphere responds to a changing climate. Here, we present a high-resolution record of Holocene Antarctic paleoclimate evolution from a previously unstudied section of the Victoria Land margin. In 2015 the Korea Polar Research Institute collected a 571 cm sediment core, GC57, from Robertson Bay, a protected embayment west of Cape Adare and adjacent to the outlet glaciers of the Transantarctic Mountains. Using diatom assemblages, bulk sediment geochemistry, and the magnetic properties of GC57, we aim to reconstruct the response of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet to warming associated with deglaciation and the Holocene climatic optima at the interface between the Ross Sea and the Southern Ocean. Our multiproxy approach allows us to study sea ice extent, seasonality, ocean stratification and circulation, and primary productivity from the mid-Holocene (7,400 14C year BP) to the present. A sea-ice associated diatom assemblage indicative of summer sea surface temperatures below 0˚C dominates the basal section of GC57. Although diatoms are well preserved, the unit is characterized by low wt% biogenic silica (average 9%) and a high concentration of magnetic minerals, indicating that biogenic production persisted despite substantial terrigenous input into the bay. A rapid transition at 4708 14C yr BP is identified by a steep increase in wt% BSi (average 13%), a decrease in magnetic minerals, and a subtle assemblage change towards sea-ice associated diatoms with slightly warmer temperature tolerances. The novel ramped pyrolosis 14C dating methodology allows us to date the carbon fixed concurrent with deposition and generate a robust age model for GC57 with an accuracy previously difficult to achieve given the uncertainties associated with dating bulk acid insoluble

  3. Climate Sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindzen, Richard [M.I.T.

    2011-11-09

    Warming observed thus far is entirely consistent with low climate sensitivity. However, the result is ambiguous because the sources of climate change are numerous and poorly specified. Model predictions of substantial warming aredependent on positive feedbacks associated with upper level water vapor and clouds, but models are notably inadequate in dealing with clouds and the impacts of clouds and water vapor are intimately intertwined. Various approaches to measuring sensitivity based on the physics of the feedbacks will be described. The results thus far point to negative feedbacks. Problems with these approaches as well as problems with the concept of climate sensitivity will be described.

  4. Visibility in health statistics: a population data linkage study more accurately identifying Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Births in Victoria, Australia, 1988-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Ritte

    2017-04-01

    This is the first time that the VPDC and RBDM birth data were linked in Victoria. The matched birth information established a more complete population profile of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander births. These data will provide a more accurate baseline to enhance the Victorian and Australian governments’ ability to plan services, allocate resources and evaluate funded activities aimed at eliminating disparity experienced by Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander peoples. Importantly, it has established a more accurate denominator from which to calculate Aboriginal infant mortality rates for Victoria, Australia. *Until 2009, the mother’s Indigenous identification only was recorded in the VPDC

  5. Pesticide residues in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) from Southern Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, L.; Kishimba, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) samples were collected from fish landing stations in nine riparian districts on the Tanzanian side of Lake Victoria and screened for residues of 64 organochlorine, organophosphorus, carbamate, and pyrethroid pesticides. The residue levels in the fish fillet were up to 0.003, 0.03 and 0.2 mg/kg fresh weight (0.7, 3.8 and 42 mg/kg lipid weight) of fenitrothion, DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Mean levels within sites were up to 0.002, 0.02 and 0.1 mg/kg fresh weight (0.5, 0.5 and 16 mg/kg lipid weight), respectively. The detection of higher levels of p,p'-DDT than the degradation products (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE), and higher levels of endosulfan isomers (α and β) than the sulphate, in fish samples, implied recent exposure of fish to DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Generally, most of the fish samples had residue levels above the average method detection limits (MDLs), but were within the calculated ADI. - Fish from Lake Victoria had relatively low pesticide levels

  6. Pesticide residues in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) from Southern Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, L. [Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam. PO Box 35061, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania); Kishimba, M.A. [Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam. PO Box 35061, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania)]. E-mail: kishimba@chem.udsm.ac.tz

    2006-03-15

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) samples were collected from fish landing stations in nine riparian districts on the Tanzanian side of Lake Victoria and screened for residues of 64 organochlorine, organophosphorus, carbamate, and pyrethroid pesticides. The residue levels in the fish fillet were up to 0.003, 0.03 and 0.2 mg/kg fresh weight (0.7, 3.8 and 42 mg/kg lipid weight) of fenitrothion, DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Mean levels within sites were up to 0.002, 0.02 and 0.1 mg/kg fresh weight (0.5, 0.5 and 16 mg/kg lipid weight), respectively. The detection of higher levels of p,p'-DDT than the degradation products (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE), and higher levels of endosulfan isomers ({alpha} and {beta}) than the sulphate, in fish samples, implied recent exposure of fish to DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Generally, most of the fish samples had residue levels above the average method detection limits (MDLs), but were within the calculated ADI. - Fish from Lake Victoria had relatively low pesticide levels.

  7. Radioecological sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Brenda J.; Strand, Per; Assimakopoulos, Panayotis

    2003-01-01

    After the release of radionuclide into the environment it is important to be able to readily identify major routes of radiation exposure, the most highly exposed individuals or populations and the geographical areas of most concern. Radioecological sensitivity can be broadly defined as the extent to which an ecosystem contributes to an enhanced radiation exposure to Man and biota. Radioecological sensitivity analysis integrates current knowledge on pathways, spatially attributes the underlying processes determining transfer and thereby identifies the most radioecologically sensitive areas leading to high radiation exposure. This identifies where high exposure may occur and why. A framework for the estimation of radioecological sensitivity with respect to humans is proposed and the various indicators by which it can be considered have been identified. These are (1) aggregated transfer coefficients (Tag), (2) action (and critical) loads, (3) fluxes and (4) individual exposure of humans. The importance of spatial and temporal consideration of all these outputs is emphasized. Information on the extent of radionuclide transfer and exposure to humans at different spatial scales is needed to reflect the spatial differences which can occur. Single values for large areas, such as countries, can often mask large variation within the country. Similarly, the relative importance of different pathways can change with time and therefore assessments of radiological sensitivity are needed over different time periods after contamination. Radioecological sensitivity analysis can be used in radiation protection, nuclear safety and emergency preparedness when there is a need to identify areas that have the potential of being of particular concern from a risk perspective. Prior identification of radioecologically sensitive areas and exposed individuals improve the focus of emergency preparedness and planning, and contribute to environmental impact assessment for future facilities. The

  8. Visualization rhetoric: framing effects in narrative visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullman, Jessica; Diakopoulos, Nicholas

    2011-12-01

    Narrative visualizations combine conventions of communicative and exploratory information visualization to convey an intended story. We demonstrate visualization rhetoric as an analytical framework for understanding how design techniques that prioritize particular interpretations in visualizations that "tell a story" can significantly affect end-user interpretation. We draw a parallel between narrative visualization interpretation and evidence from framing studies in political messaging, decision-making, and literary studies. Devices for understanding the rhetorical nature of narrative information visualizations are presented, informed by the rigorous application of concepts from critical theory, semiotics, journalism, and political theory. We draw attention to how design tactics represent additions or omissions of information at various levels-the data, visual representation, textual annotations, and interactivity-and how visualizations denote and connote phenomena with reference to unstated viewing conventions and codes. Classes of rhetorical techniques identified via a systematic analysis of recent narrative visualizations are presented, and characterized according to their rhetorical contribution to the visualization. We describe how designers and researchers can benefit from the potentially positive aspects of visualization rhetoric in designing engaging, layered narrative visualizations and how our framework can shed light on how a visualization design prioritizes specific interpretations. We identify areas where future inquiry into visualization rhetoric can improve understanding of visualization interpretation. © 2011 IEEE

  9. The relevance of visual information on learning sounds in infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Schure, S.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Newborn infants are sensitive to combinations of visual and auditory speech. Does this ability to match sounds and sights affect how infants learn the sounds of their native language? And are visual articulations the only type of visual information that can influence sound learning? This

  10. Visual Ecology and the Development of Visually Guided Behavior in the Cuttlefish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Darmaillacq

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuttlefish are highly visual animals, a fact reflected in the large size of their eyes and visual-processing centers of their brain. Adults detect their prey visually, navigate using visual cues such as landmarks or the e-vector of polarized light and display intense visual patterns during mating and agonistic encounters. Although much is known about the visual system in adult cuttlefish, few studies have investigated its development and that of visually-guided behavior in juveniles. This review summarizes the results of studies of visual development in embryos and young juveniles. The visual system is the last to develop, as in vertebrates, and is functional before hatching. Indeed, embryonic exposure to prey, shelters or complex background alters postembryonic behavior. Visual acuity and lateralization, and polarization sensitivity improve throughout the first months after hatching. The production of body patterning in juveniles is not the simple stimulus-response process commonly presented in the literature. Rather, it likely requires the complex integration of visual information, and is subject to inter-individual differences. Though the focus of this review is vision in cuttlefish, it is important to note that other senses, particularly sensitivity to vibration and to waterborne chemical signals, also play a role in behavior. Considering the multimodal sensory dimensions of natural stimuli and their integration and processing by individuals offer new exciting avenues of future inquiry.

  11. Visual Ecology and the Development of Visually Guided Behavior in the Cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Mezrai, Nawel; O'Brien, Caitlin E; Dickel, Ludovic

    2017-01-01

    Cuttlefish are highly visual animals, a fact reflected in the large size of their eyes and visual-processing centers of their brain. Adults detect their prey visually, navigate using visual cues such as landmarks or the e -vector of polarized light and display intense visual patterns during mating and agonistic encounters. Although much is known about the visual system in adult cuttlefish, few studies have investigated its development and that of visually-guided behavior in juveniles. This review summarizes the results of studies of visual development in embryos and young juveniles. The visual system is the last to develop, as in vertebrates, and is functional before hatching. Indeed, embryonic exposure to prey, shelters or complex background alters postembryonic behavior. Visual acuity and lateralization, and polarization sensitivity improve throughout the first months after hatching. The production of body patterning in juveniles is not the simple stimulus-response process commonly presented in the literature. Rather, it likely requires the complex integration of visual information, and is subject to inter-individual differences. Though the focus of this review is vision in cuttlefish, it is important to note that other senses, particularly sensitivity to vibration and to waterborne chemical signals, also play a role in behavior. Considering the multimodal sensory dimensions of natural stimuli and their integration and processing by individuals offer new exciting avenues of future inquiry.

  12. Functional characterization of spectral tuning mechanisms in the great bowerbird short-wavelength sensitive visual pigment (SWS1), and the origins of UV/violet vision in passerines and parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hazel, Ilke; Sabouhanian, Amir; Day, Lainy; Endler, John A; Chang, Belinda S W

    2013-11-13

    One of the most striking features of avian vision is the variation in spectral sensitivity of the short wavelength sensitive (SWS1) opsins, which can be divided into two sub-types: violet- and UV- sensitive (VS & UVS). In birds, UVS has been found in both passerines and parrots, groups that were recently shown to be sister orders. While all parrots are thought to be UVS, recent evidence suggests some passerine lineages may also be VS. The great bowerbird (Chlamydera nuchalis) is a passerine notable for its courtship behaviours in which males build and decorate elaborate bower structures. The great bowerbird SWS1 sequence possesses an unusual residue combination at known spectral tuning sites that has not been previously investigated in mutagenesis experiments. In this study, the SWS1 opsin of C. nuchalis was expressed along with a series of spectral tuning mutants and ancestral passerine SWS1 pigments, allowing us to investigate spectral tuning mechanisms and explore the evolution of UV/violet sensitivity in early passerines and parrots. The expressed C. nuchalis SWS1 opsin was found to be a VS pigment, with a λmax of 403 nm. Bowerbird SWS1 mutants C86F, S90C, and C86S/S90C all shifted λmax into the UV, whereas C86S had no effect. Experimentally recreated ancestral passerine and parrot/passerine SWS1 pigments were both found to be VS, indicating that UV sensitivity evolved independently in passerines and parrots from a VS ancestor. Our mutagenesis studies indicate that spectral tuning in C. nuchalis is mediated by mechanisms similar to those of other birds. Interestingly, our ancestral sequence reconstructions of SWS1 in landbird evolution suggest multiple transitions from VS to UVS, but no instances of the reverse. Our results not only provide a more precise prediction of where these spectral sensitivity shifts occurred, but also confirm the hypothesis that birds are an unusual exception among vertebrates where some descendants re-evolved UVS from a violet type

  13. Visual dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Rimona S.; Schrag, Anette E.; Warren, Jason D.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Lees, Andrew J.; Morris, Huw R.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease have a number of specific visual disturbances. These include changes in colour vision and contrast sensitivity and difficulties with complex visual tasks such as mental rotation and emotion recognition. We review changes in visual function at each stage of visual processing from retinal deficits, including contrast sensitivity and colour vision deficits to higher cortical processing impairments such as object and motion processing and neglect. We consider changes in visual function in patients with common Parkinson’s disease-associated genetic mutations including GBA and LRRK2. We discuss the association between visual deficits and clinical features of Parkinson’s disease such as rapid eye movement sleep behavioural disorder and the postural instability and gait disorder phenotype. We review the link between abnormal visual function and visual hallucinations, considering current models for mechanisms of visual hallucinations. Finally, we discuss the role of visuo-perceptual testing as a biomarker of disease and predictor of dementia in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:27412389

  14. Readiness of communities to engage with childhood obesity prevention initiatives in disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyril, Sheila; Polonsky, Michael; Green, Julie; Agho, Kingsley; Renzaho, Andre

    2017-07-01

    Objective Disadvantaged communities bear a disproportionate burden of childhood obesity and show low participation in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. This study aims to examine the level of readiness of disadvantaged communities to engage with childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Methods Using the community readiness model, 95 semi-structured interviews were conducted among communities in four disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia. Community readiness analysis and paired t-tests were performed to assess the readiness levels of disadvantaged communities to engage with childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Results The results showed that disadvantaged communities demonstrated low levels of readiness (readiness score=4/9, 44%) to engage with the existing childhood obesity prevention initiatives, lacked knowledge of childhood obesity and its prevention, and reported facing challenges in initiating and sustaining participation in obesity prevention initiatives. Conclusion This study highlights the need to improve community readiness by addressing low obesity-related literacy levels among disadvantaged communities and by facilitating the capacity-building of bicultural workers to deliver obesity prevention messages to these communities. Integrating these needs into existing Australian health policy and practice is of paramount importance for reducing obesity-related disparities currently prevailing in Australia. What is known about the topic? Childhood obesity prevalence is plateauing in developed countries including Australia; however, obesity-related inequalities continue to exist in Australia especially among communities living in disadvantaged areas, which experience poor engagement in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Studies in the USA have found that assessing disadvantaged communities' readiness to participate in health programs is a critical initial step in reducing the disproportionate obesity burden among these communities

  15. Visual literacy in HCI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overton, K.; Sosa-Tzec, O.; Smith, N.; Blevis, E.; Odom, W.; Hauser, S.; Wakkary, R.L.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this workshop is to develop ideas about and expand a research agenda for visual literacy in HCI. By visual literacy, we mean the competency (i) to understand visual materials, (ii) to create visuals materials, and (iii) to think visually [2]. There are three primary motivations for this

  16. Effect of gap size on seedling establishment, growth and survival at three years in mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell.) forest in Victoria, Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der P.J.; Dignan, P.; Saveneh, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Establishment, growth and survival of Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. seedlings was studied at two sites over three years under a range of small gaps (up to 30mx30m) and large gaps (50mx50m up to clearfells) in a gap cutting experiment in mountain ash forest at Tanjil Bren, Victoria, Australia. In both

  17. Triumphs Show: What Makes Art History? Year 7 Exploit the Resources of the Victoria and Albert Museum's Medieval Gallery to Create and Curate Their Own Answer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copsey, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    What do 14 Year 7 students, an art teacher, a history teacher and the Victoria and Albert Museum have in common? They are all part of the "Stronger Together" Museum Champion project run by The Langley Academy and the River & Rowing Museum and supported by Arts Council England, designed to engage students, teachers and museum staff…

  18. The Tangible Economic benefits of the 20th Session of the United Nations World Tourism Organisation General Assembly to Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopas Njerekai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a documentation of the tangible economic benefits that accrued to the town of Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe, by co-hosting with Zambia, the 20th session of the United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO General Assembly (GA in 2013. The paper intends to offset speculations, half-truths and exaggerations on the tangible economic benefits of the event to the town and to contribute significantly to the scanty existing literature on the impact of these events to developing countries. A single case study research design focusing on the town was adopted for this study. The study participants to the research included tourism and hospitality organizations, the Victoria Falls municipality authorities, service providers and Victoria Falls town residents. Researcher administered questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and observation check lists were used to collect the data. In general, although the GA brought some significant transformative effects to the town of Victoria Falls in terms of employment creation, infrastructural development, revenue generation and the country's image, future host cities and countries to this event should mobilize adequate funds for the event, time it appropriately, ensure a fair spread of the benefits to various sectors and put up structures that do not turn into white elephants soon after the event.

  19. Balancing the people, profit and planet dimensions in international marketing channels : a study on coordinating mechanisms in the Nile perch channel from Lake Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kambewa, E.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: people, profit, planet, marketing channels, contracts, sustainability, quality,LakeVictoria, conjointanalysis

  20. Is the organisation and structure of hospital postnatal care a barrier to quality care? Findings from a state-wide review in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Helen L; Forster, Della A; Yelland, Jane; Rayner, Joanne; Lumley, Judith

    2008-09-01

    to describe the structure and organisation of hospital postnatal care in Victoria, Australia. postal survey sent to all public hospitals in Victoria (n=71) and key-informant interviews with midwives and medical practitioners (n=38). Victoria, Australia. providers of postnatal care in Victorian public hospitals. there is significant diversity across Victoria in the way postnatal units are structured and organised and in the way care is provided. There are differences in numerous practices, including maternal and neonatal observations and the length of time women spend in hospital after giving birth. Although the benefits of continuity of care are recognised by health care providers, continuity is difficult to provide in the postnatal period. Postnatal care is provided in busy, sometimes chaotic environments, with many barriers to providing effective care and few opportunities for women to rest and recover after childbirth. The findings in this study can, in part, be explained by the lack of evidence that has been available to guide early postnatal care. current structures such as standard postnatal documentation (clinical pathways) and fixed length of stay, may inhibit rather than support individualised care for women after childbirth. There is a need to move towards greater flexibility in providing of early postnatal care, including alternative models of service delivery; choice and flexibility in the length of stay after birth; a focus on the individual with far less emphasis on care being structured around organisational requirements; and building an evidence base to guide care.