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Sample records for victoria south-eastern australia

  1. Selectivity of penaeid trap nets used in south eastern Australia

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    Matt K. Broadhurst

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were done to estimate the selectivity of commercial and modified trap-net configurations in New South Wales (NSW, southeastern Australia. In the first experiment, a commercial trap net made entirely from 25 mm mesh and designed for use in shallow water was alternatively fished with a fine-meshed (9.5 mm netting trap net (used as a control. In the second experiment, two trap-net configurations designed for use in deeper water and comprising the same anterior section (made from 25 mm mesh, but with different bunts made from (i the conventional 25 mm mesh and (ii 31 mm mesh were alternately fished against the control. Both of the conventional trap nets (comprising 25 mm mesh throughout had low amounts of bycatch and similarly selected eastern king Penaeus plebejus, greasyback Metapenaeus bennettae and school prawns Metapenaeus macleayi across narrow selection ranges (< 3.4 mm and at 50% retention lengths (between 18.53 and 21.50 mm that were larger than the average commercially-accepted sizes (15-17 mm CL. Analyses of the selectivities and relative efficiencies of the trap-net configurations comprising the 25 and 31 mm bunts showed no benefit, in terms of maintaining prawn catches and reducing unwanted bycatch, associated with increasing mesh size in these gears. The utility of trap nets for selectively harvesting penaeids is discussed. We conclude that this type of fishing gear appears to have few deleterious impacts.

  2. Modelling spatial patterns of wildfire occurrence in South-Eastern Australia

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    Yang Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development and validation of spatial models for wildfire occurrence at a broad landscape scale. The hotspots databases from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and logistic regression models are investigated for the comprehensive understanding of environmental and socioeconomic determinants regulating the spatial distribution of wildfires over the 11-year period 2003–2013. The probability of occurrence of at least one fire on a 1 km2 grid cell in a 1,030,000 km2 region located in South-Eastern Australia is studied for the prediction of future fire occurrence. Our research shows that wildfires are most likely to occur in mountainous areas, forests, savannas and lands with high vegetation coverage, and are less likely to occur on grasslands and shrublands. Wildfires also tend to occur in areas near human infrastructures. Environmental variables are strong individual predictors of fire occurrence while socioeconomic variables contribute more to the final model. The influence of environmental and socioeconomic conditions on wildfire occurrence and the spatial patterns of wildfires identified in this study can assist fire managers in implementing appropriate management actions in South-Eastern Australia. This paper also demonstrates the potential of applying the MODIS active fire product in wildfire occurrence studies.

  3. Spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasting for south-eastern and eastern Australia using climatic indices

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    Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Vervoort, Willem; Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge about future rainfall would significantly benefit land, water resources and agriculture management, as this assists with planning and management decisions. Forecasting spatiotemporal monthly rainfall is difficult, especially in Australia where there is a complex interaction between topography and the effect of Indian and Pacific Ocean. This study describes a method for spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasting in south-eastern and eastern part of Australia using climatic and non-climatic variables. Rainfall data were obtained from Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) from 136 high quality weather stations from the south-eastern and eastern part of Australia with monthly rainfall records from 1879 to 2012. To reduce spatial complexity of the area and improve model accuracy, spatial classification (regionalization) was considered as first step. Significant predictors for each sub-region among lagged climatic input variables were selected using Fuzzy Ranking Algorithm (FRA). Climate classification: 1) discovered homogenous sub-regions with a similar rainfall patterns and investigated spatiotemporal rainfall variations in the area, 2) allowed selection of significant predictors with a fine resolution for each area, 3) improved the prediction model and increased model accuracy. PCA was used to reduce the dimensions of the dataset and to remove the rainfall time series correlation. K-means clustering was used on the loadings of PCs describing 93% of long-term monthly rainfall variations. The analysis was repeated for different numbers of sub-regions (3 - 8) to identify the best number of clusters to improve the forecast model performance. Subsequently, a Fuzzy Ranking Algorithm (FRA) was applied to the lagged climatic predictors and monthly rainfall in each sub-region to identify the best predictors. After these two stages of pre-processing, a Neural Network model was developed and optimized for each of the sub-regions as well as for the entire area. It is concluded

  4. Effects of Biosolids Application on Pasture and Grape Vines in South-Eastern Australia

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    David Nash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosolids were applied to a pasture and a vineyard in south-eastern Australia. At both sites, soil Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations linearly increased with biosolids application rates although not to the extent of exceeding soil quality guidelines. Biosolids marginally increased soil C and N concentrations at the pasture site but significantly increased P concentrations. With lower overall soil fertility at the vineyard, biosolids increased C, N, and P concentrations. At neither site did biosolids application affect soil microbial endpoints. Biosolids increased pasture production compared to the unfertilised control but had little effect on grape production or quality. Interestingly, over the 3-year trial, there was no difference in pasture production between the biosolids treated plots and plots receiving inorganic fertiliser. These results suggest that biosolids could be used as a fertiliser to stimulate pasture production and as a soil conditioner to improve vineyard soils in this region.

  5. A new blind snake (Serpentes: Typhlopidae) from an endangered habitat in south-eastern Queensland, Australia.

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    Venchi, Alberto; Wilson, Steve K; Borsboom, Adrian C

    2015-07-24

    A new species of blind snake is described from south-eastern Queensland, eastern Australia. Anilios insperatus sp. nov. differs from all of its congeners in having:16 scales around the body; 442 paravertebral scales; snout slightly trilobed from above and bluntly angular in profile; small, inconspicuous eyes, located within the ocular scale at its junction with the preocular and the supraocular scales; and uniform light colouration. The unique specimen was collected from pasture that was formally Queensland regional ecosystem 12.8.24, a eucalypt dominated ecosystem currently listed as endangered. The site is less than 100 km from Queensland's capital, Brisbane. Given the locality, habitat and absence of additional specimens, the species is probably of conservation concern.

  6. D Digital Cadastre Journey in Victoria, Australia

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    Shojaei, D.; Olfat, H.; Briffa, M.; Rajabifard, A.

    2017-10-01

    Land development processes today have an increasing demand to access three-dimensional (3D) spatial information. Complex land development may need to have a 3D model and require some functions which are only possible using 3D data. Accordingly, the Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM), as a national body in Australia provides leadership, coordination and standards for surveying, mapping and national datasets has developed the Cadastre 2034 strategy in 2014. This strategy has a vision to develop a cadastral system that enables people to readily and confidently identify the location and extent of all rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to land and real property. In 2014, the land authority in the state of Victoria, Australia, namely Land Use Victoria (LUV), has entered the challenging area of designing and implementing a 3D digital cadastre focused on providing more efficient and effective services to the land and property industry. LUV has been following the ICSM 2034 strategy which requires developing various policies, standards, infrastructures, and tools. Over the past three years, LUV has mainly focused on investigating the technical aspect of a 3D digital cadastre. This paper provides an overview of the 3D digital cadastre investigation progress in Victoria and discusses the challenges that the team faced during this journey. It also addresses the future path to develop an integrated 3D digital cadastre in Victoria.

  7. Spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasts for south-eastern and eastern Australia using climatic indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Vervoort, Willem; Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge about future rainfall is important for agriculture management and planning in arid and semi-arid regions. Australia has complex variations in rainfall patterns in time and space, arising from the combination of the geographic structure and the dual effects of Indian and Pacific Ocean. This study aims to develop a forecasting model of spatiotemporal monthly rainfall totals using lagged climate indices and historical rainfall data from 1950-2011 for south-eastern and eastern Australia. Data were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) from 136 high-quality weather stations. To reduce spatial complexity, climate regionalization was used to divide the stations in homogenous sub-regions based on similarity of rainfall patterns and intensity using principal component analysis (PCA) and K-means clustering. Subsequently, a fuzzy ranking algorithm (FRA) was applied to the lagged climatic predictors and monthly rainfall in each sub-region to identify the best predictors. Selected predictors by FRA were found to vary by sub-region. After these two stages of pre-processing, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed and optimized separately for each sub-region and the entire area. The results indicate that climate regionalization can improve a monthly spatiotemporal rainfall forecast model. The location and number of sub-regions were important for ranking predictors and modeling. This further suggests that the impact of climate variables on Australian rainfall is more variable in both time and space than indicated thus far.

  8. Reducing the marine debris of recreational hoop nets in south-eastern Australia.

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    Broadhurst, Matt K; Millar, Russell B

    2017-06-15

    Alternative configurations of Australian recreational portunid hoop nets were investigated to address debris and selectivity issues. Four treatment nets (all comprising 152-mm polyamide-PA mesh) were assessed that differed in their twine (conventional multifilament vs new multi-monofilament) and fishing configuration (conventional conical vs inverted shapes). The conical multifilament design lost means (±SEs) of 130.6±23.1 and 5.3±1.2mm of twine 3-h soak -1 when used to target Scylla serrata and Portunus pelagicus. Inverting this hoop net significantly reduced legal-sized catches (by up to 70%) and with greater twine loss (×5) when targeting P. pelagicus. Conversely, both multi-monofilament configurations maintained legal catches of S. serrata and P. pelagicus, but lost 78 and 95% less twine than the conical multifilament design. Using multi-monofilament hoop nets could reduce PA debris by thousands of m p.a. in south-eastern Australia, without affecting targeted catches. Further, a lower fishing height of inverted multi-monofilament nets might reduce non-portunid bycatch. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. How Local Landholder Groups Collectively Manage Weeds in South-Eastern Australia

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    Graham, Sonia; Rogers, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    For two decades researchers and policy makers have been arguing that community-based collective action is needed to effectively control weeds. Yet there has been little social research into the ways that collective weed control emerges at local scales. The aim of this paper is to investigate the mechanisms through which three local landholder groups in south-eastern Australia collectively manage weeds and the measures they use to evaluate success. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with members of three Landcare groups—Jerrawa Creek/Upper Lachlan, MacLaughlin River and Towamba Valley—as well as government staff external to the groups. The results reveal that for all three groups collective weed control is about supporting individual weed control efforts as well as proactively engaging landholders with the worst infestations. The groups were seen to be successful because they focused on the common challenge that weeds pose to all landholders, thereby removing the shame associated with having weeds, and because they organised community events that were as much about building and maintaining social relationships as improving weed control. Groups were positive about what they had achieved as collectives of landholders, but also saw an important role for government in providing funding, engaging with landholders who were unwilling to engage directly with the group, and controlling weeds on public lands.

  10. An evaluation of soil water outlooks for winter wheat in south-eastern Australia

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    Western, A. W.; Dassanayake, K. B.; Perera, K. C.; Alves, O.; Young, G.; Argent, R.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Soil moisture is a key limiting resource for rain-fed cropping in Australian broad-acre cropping zones. Seasonal rainfall and temperature outlooks are standard operational services offered by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and are routinely used to support agricultural decisions. This presentation examines the performance of proposed soil water seasonal outlooks in the context of wheat cropping in south-eastern Australia (autumn planting, late spring harvest). We used weather ensembles simulated by the Predictive Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA), as input to the Agricultural Production Simulator (APSIM) to construct ensemble soil water "outlooks" at twenty sites. Hindcasts were made over a 33 year period using the 33 POAMA ensemble members. The overall modelling flow involved: 1. Downscaling of the daily weather series (rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature, humidity, radiation) from the ~250km POAMA grid scale to a local weather station using quantile-quantile correction. This was based on a 33 year observation record extracted from the SILO data drill product. 2. Using APSIM to produce soil water ensembles from the downscaled weather ensembles. A warm up period of 5 years of observed weather was followed by a 9 month hindcast period based on each ensemble member. 3. The soil water ensembles were summarized by estimating the proportion of outlook ensembles in each climatological tercile, where the climatology was constructed using APSIM and observed weather from the 33 years of hindcasts at the relevant site. 4. The soil water outlooks were evaluated for different lead times and months using a "truth" run of APSIM based on observed weather. Outlooks generally have useful some forecast skill for lead times of up to two-three months, except late spring; in line with current useful lead times for rainfall outlooks. Better performance was found in summer and autumn when vegetation cover and water use is low.

  11. Long-term variability of the leading seasonal modes of rainfall in south-eastern Australia

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    Maryam Montazerolghaem

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of temporal and spatial variability of climate and rainfall can improve agriculture production and can help to manage risks caused by climate variability. Available high-quality monthly rainfall data from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology for 1907–2011 was used to investigate the leading seasonal mode of the long-term rainfall variability over south-eastern and eastern Australia. Spatio-temporal variations of seasonal rainfall and their connection to oceanic-atmospheric predictors were analysed. The links between the first two Principal Components of rainfall of each season with lagged Southern Oscillation Index (SOI, Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD and Southern Annular Mode (SAM were season-dependent. The relationship between these climatic indices changed within both inter-seasonal and decadal time scales. Spring and winter rainfalls were continuously positively correlated with lagged (SOI. However, summer rainfall variations indicated negative correlations with lagged SOI which increase from 1970. The correlations between lagged SOI and autumn variations were weak and change to a stronger relationship from 1990. Correlations between lagged (IOD which varied across all seasons have recently been increasing. Variations in rainfall across all seasons were highly correlated with Southern Annular Mode (SAM with different signs. Overall, the relationship between predictors and seasonal rainfall has changed after 1970. The results of running correlations between leading modes of seasonal rainfall and lagged SOI, SAM, and IOD indices indicates non-stationary in these links. The relationships of climatic indices and leading modes of seasonal rainfall changed since 1970, with stronger evidence in case of IOD. Recent changes in the relationships between climatic indices and rainfall need to be considered in climate prediction systems. The results of this study suggests that improvement in statistical regional rainfall forecast system with fixed

  12. ENSO–cave drip water hydrochemical relationship: a 7-year dataset from south-eastern Australia

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    C. V. Tadros

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Speleothems (cave deposits, used for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions, are deposited from cave drip water. Differentiating climate and karst processes within a drip-water signal is fundamental for the correct identification of palaeoenvironmental proxies and ultimately their interpretation within speleothem records. We investigate the potential use of trace element and stable oxygen-isotope (δ18O variations in cave drip water as palaeorainfall proxies in an Australian alpine karst site. This paper presents the first extensive hydrochemical and δ18O dataset from Harrie Wood Cave, in the Snowy Mountains, south-eastern (SE Australia. Using a 7-year long rainfall δ18O and drip-water Ca, Cl, Mg / Ca, Sr / Ca and δ18O datasets from three drip sites, we determined that the processes of mixing, dilution, flow path change, carbonate mineral dissolution and prior calcite precipitation (PCP accounted for the observed variations in the drip-water geochemical composition. We identify that the three monitored drip sites are fed by fracture flow from a well-mixed epikarst storage reservoir, supplied by variable concentrations of dissolved ions from soil and bedrock dissolution. We constrained the influence of multiple processes and controls on drip-water composition in a region dominated by El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO. During the El Niño and dry periods, enhanced PCP, a flow path change and dissolution due to increased soil CO2 production occurred in response to warmer than average temperatures in contrast to the La Niña phase, where dilution dominated and reduced PCP were observed. We present a conceptual model, illustrating the key processes impacting the drip-water chemistry. We identified a robust relationship between ENSO and drip-water trace element concentrations and propose that variations in speleothem Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca ratios may be interpreted to reflect palaeorainfall conditions. These findings inform

  13. Occurrence of tongue worm, Linguatula cf. serrata (Pentastomida: Linguatulidae in wild canids and livestock in south-eastern Australia

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    Shokoofeh Shamsi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pentastomids are obligate zoonotic arthropod parasites utilising canids and vulpids as their definitive hosts and several herbivorous species as their intermediate hosts. Reported only 10 times in Australia over the last 150 years as incidental findings, adult Pentastomids referred to as Linguatula serrata have been encountered in nasal cavities of domestic and wild dogs, and foxes. Nymphs have been reported in cattle and rabbits. In the present study, a number of potential definitive hosts, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes, wild dogs (Canis lupus dingo and C.l. dingo x C. familiaris and feral cats (Felis catus, and intermediate hosts cattle (Bos taurus, sheep (Ovis aries, feral pigs (Sus scrofa, rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, goats (Capra hircus and a European hare (Lepus europaeus, from the highlands of south-eastern Australia were examined. Of the animals examined 67.6% of wild dogs (n = 37, 14.5% of red foxes (n = 55 and 4.3% of cattle (n = 164 were found to be infected with Pentastomids, herein identified as Linguatula cf. serrata. The common occurrence of the parasite in wild dogs and less frequently in foxes suggests these wild canids have potential to act as a reservoir for infection of livestock, wildlife, domestic dogs and possibly humans. The unexpected high frequency of the parasite in wild dogs and foxes in south-eastern Australia suggests the parasite is more common than previously realised. Of the potential intermediate hosts in the region, only 4.3% of cattle were found to be infected with pentastomid nymphs which suggest the search for the host(s acting as the main intermediate host in the region should continue. Future studies should investigate transmission patterns, health impacts on hosts and whether the parasite has zoonotic significance in Australia. Keywords: Tongue worm, Australia, Linguatulidae, Pentastomida

  14. Occurrence of tongue worm, Linguatula cf. serrata (Pentastomida: Linguatulidae) in wild canids and livestock in south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Shokoofeh; McSpadden, Kate; Baker, Sara; Jenkins, David J

    2017-12-01

    Pentastomids are obligate zoonotic arthropod parasites utilising canids and vulpids as their definitive hosts and several herbivorous species as their intermediate hosts. Reported only 10 times in Australia over the last 150 years as incidental findings, adult Pentastomids referred to as Linguatula serrata have been encountered in nasal cavities of domestic and wild dogs, and foxes. Nymphs have been reported in cattle and rabbits. In the present study, a number of potential definitive hosts, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), wild dogs (Canis lupus dingo and C.l. dingo x C. familiaris) and feral cats (Felis catus), and intermediate hosts cattle (Bos taurus), sheep (Ovis aries), feral pigs (Sus scrofa), rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), goats (Capra hircus) and a European hare (Lepus europaeus), from the highlands of south-eastern Australia were examined. Of the animals examined 67.6% of wild dogs (n = 37), 14.5% of red foxes (n = 55) and 4.3% of cattle (n = 164) were found to be infected with Pentastomids, herein identified as Linguatula cf. serrata. The common occurrence of the parasite in wild dogs and less frequently in foxes suggests these wild canids have potential to act as a reservoir for infection of livestock, wildlife, domestic dogs and possibly humans. The unexpected high frequency of the parasite in wild dogs and foxes in south-eastern Australia suggests the parasite is more common than previously realised. Of the potential intermediate hosts in the region, only 4.3% of cattle were found to be infected with pentastomid nymphs which suggest the search for the host(s) acting as the main intermediate host in the region should continue. Future studies should investigate transmission patterns, health impacts on hosts and whether the parasite has zoonotic significance in Australia.

  15. Interspecific and geographic variation in the diets of sympatric carnivores: dingoes/wild dogs and red foxes in south-eastern Australia.

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    Naomi E Davis

    Full Text Available Dingoes/wild dogs (Canis dingo/familiaris and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes are widespread carnivores in southern Australia and are controlled to reduce predation on domestic livestock and native fauna. We used the occurrence of food items in 5875 dingo/wild dog scats and 11,569 fox scats to evaluate interspecific and geographic differences in the diets of these species within nine regions of Victoria, south-eastern Australia. The nine regions encompass a wide variety of ecosystems. Diet overlap between dingoes/wild dogs and foxes varied among regions, from low to near complete overlap. The diet of foxes was broader than dingoes/wild dogs in all but three regions, with the former usually containing more insects, reptiles and plant material. By contrast, dingoes/wild dogs more regularly consumed larger mammals, supporting the hypothesis that niche partitioning occurs on the basis of mammalian prey size. The key mammalian food items for dingoes/wild dogs across all regions were black wallaby (Wallabia bicolor, brushtail possum species (Trichosurus spp., common wombat (Vombatus ursinus, sambar deer (Rusa unicolor, cattle (Bos taurus and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The key mammalian food items for foxes across all regions were European rabbit, sheep (Ovis aries and house mouse (Mus musculus. Foxes consumed 6.1 times the number of individuals of threatened Critical Weight Range native mammal species than did dingoes/wild dogs. The occurrence of intraguild predation was asymmetrical; dingoes/wild dogs consumed greater biomass of the smaller fox. The substantial geographic variation in diet indicates that dingoes/wild dogs and foxes alter their diet in accordance with changing food availability. We provide checklists of taxa recorded in the diets of dingoes/wild dogs and foxes as a resource for managers and researchers wishing to understand the potential impacts of policy and management decisions on dingoes/wild dogs, foxes and the food

  16. Bone fluoride concentrations of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) resident near an aluminium smelter in south-eastern Australia.

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    Hufschmid, J; Beveridge, I; Coulson, G; Gould, J

    2011-08-01

    Lesions of skeletal and dental fluorosis have been described recently in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). The present study further examined the epidemiology of skeletal fluorosis in this species. Bone fluoride concentrations were obtained from a range of skeletal sites of animals from a high (Portland Aluminium) and a low (Cape Bridgewater) fluoride environment in Victoria, Australia. Age, but not sex, affected the mean bone fluoride concentration of kangaroos. For a given age, bone fluoride concentrations were significantly higher in kangaroos from Portland than Cape Bridgewater. Concentrations varied between skeletal sites examined, with samples containing cancellous bone having higher fluoride concentrations than those containing only cortical bone.

  17. Atypical residency of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) to a shallow, urbanized embayment in south-eastern Australia

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    Salgado Kent, Chandra; Donnelly, David; Weir, Jeffrey; Bilgmann, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) are typically considered highly mobile, offshore delphinids. This study assessed the residency of a small community of short-beaked common dolphins in the shallow, urbanized Port Phillip Bay, south-eastern Australia. The ability to identify common dolphins by their dorsal fin markings and coloration using photo-identification was also investigated. Systematic and non-systematic boat surveys were undertaken between 2007 and 2014. Results showed that 13 adult common dolphins and their offspring inhabit Port Phillip Bay, of which 10 adults exhibit residency to the bay. The majority of these adults are reproductively active females, suggesting that female philopatry may occur in the community. Systematic surveys conducted between 2012 and 2014 revealed that the dolphins were found in a median water depth of 16 m and median distance of 2.2 km from the coast. The shallow, urbanized habitat of this resident common dolphin community is atypical for this species. As a result, these common dolphins face threats usually associated with inshore bottlenose dolphin communities. We suggest that the Port Phillip Bay common dolphin community is considered and managed separate to those outside the embayment and offshore to ensure the community's long-term viability and residency in the bay. PMID:27703709

  18. Storage mite contamination of commercial dry dog food in south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberson, C E; Vogelnest, L J

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate contamination of unopened and opened stored sources of commercial dry dog food by viable storage mites. Prospective laboratory and field study. Samples were collected from nine brands of previously unopened bags (new bags) of dry food and 20 field sources of stored dry food in homes in Sydney and Canberra, Australia. All samples were initially examined for the presence of mites using a stereo-binocular microscope and then placed in separate filter-paper-sealed containers. Field samples were incubated at an average temperature of 29°C and 78% relative humidity (RH) for 5 weeks and then at average 26°C/83% RH for 8 weeks. Paired new-bag samples were stored under room conditions (average 23°C/47% RH) and controlled incubator conditions (average 26°C/80% RH) for 6 weeks. All samples were thoroughly examined for mites, mite eggs and visible mould once weekly using a stereo-binocular microscope. Storage mites were not visualised in any of the field samples or in new-bag samples stored at room temperature. Storage mites, identified as Tyrophagus putrescentiae, were visualised in increasing numbers in seven of nine new-bag samples after incubation, with first mites and then eggs evident after 3 weeks of incubation. We confirmed the presence of viable storage mites in a range of previously unopened commercial dry dog foods in Australia and confirmed the possibility of heavy storage mite contamination for dry food stored under conditions of moderate temperature and high humidity. These findings have relevance to storage mite and/or dust mite sensitivity in canine atopic dermatitis. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  19. 3D DIGITAL CADASTRE JOURNEY IN VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shojaei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Land development processes today have an increasing demand to access three-dimensional (3D spatial information. Complex land development may need to have a 3D model and require some functions which are only possible using 3D data. Accordingly, the Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM, as a national body in Australia provides leadership, coordination and standards for surveying, mapping and national datasets has developed the Cadastre 2034 strategy in 2014. This strategy has a vision to develop a cadastral system that enables people to readily and confidently identify the location and extent of all rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to land and real property. In 2014, the land authority in the state of Victoria, Australia, namely Land Use Victoria (LUV, has entered the challenging area of designing and implementing a 3D digital cadastre focused on providing more efficient and effective services to the land and property industry. LUV has been following the ICSM 2034 strategy which requires developing various policies, standards, infrastructures, and tools. Over the past three years, LUV has mainly focused on investigating the technical aspect of a 3D digital cadastre. This paper provides an overview of the 3D digital cadastre investigation progress in Victoria and discusses the challenges that the team faced during this journey. It also addresses the future path to develop an integrated 3D digital cadastre in Victoria.

  20. Body size, growth and life span: implications for the polewards range shift of Octopus tetricus in south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Jorge E; Pecl, Gretta T; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A; Strugnell, Jan M; León, Rafael I; Semmens, Jayson M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the response of any species to climate change can be challenging. However, in short-lived species the faster turnover of generations may facilitate the examination of responses associated with longer-term environmental change. Octopus tetricus, a commercially important species, has undergone a recent polewards range shift in the coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, thought to be associated with the southerly extension of the warm East Australian Current. At the cooler temperatures of a polewards distribution limit, growth of a species could be slower, potentially leading to a bigger body size and resulting in a slower population turnover, affecting population viability at the extreme of the distribution. Growth rates, body size, and life span of O. tetricus were examined at the leading edge of a polewards range shift in Tasmanian waters (40°S and 147°E) throughout 2011. Octopus tetricus had a relatively small body size and short lifespan of approximately 11 months that, despite cooler temperatures, would allow a high rate of population turnover and may facilitate the population increase necessary for successful establishment in the new extended area of the range. Temperature, food availability and gender appear to influence growth rate. Individuals that hatched during cooler and more productive conditions, but grew during warming conditions, exhibited faster growth rates and reached smaller body sizes than individuals that hatched into warmer waters but grew during cooling conditions. This study suggests that fast growth, small body size and associated rapid population turnover may facilitate the range shift of O. tetricus into Tasmanian waters.

  1. Water deficits in timberline trees in the Snowy Mountains of South-Eastern Australia.

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    Slatyer, R O

    1976-12-01

    Leaf water potential (Ψ), leaf diffusion resistance (r 1 ) and net photosynthesis of leaves of Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb at timberline (2,040 m) were measured in winter and spring in the Snowy Mountains area of southeastern Australia. Four treatments were established in a 2×2 factorial design involving exposure to direct sunlight, screening to reduce solar radiation by approximately 50%, exposure to direct radiant cooling at night, and screening to reduce radiant cooling. A less comprehensive set of measurements was also made in summer.No significant water deficits developed in any of the treatments, water potentials remaining above Ψ=-14 bars in winter, and above Ψ=-10 bars in spring, well above the levels needed to cause tissue damage in this species. These results contrast with the extreme desiccation reported in trees at timberline in other regions and suggest that winter dehydration is not an important factor in limiting tree distribution in the Snowy Mountains.Tissue damage was observed in all treatments and was most pronounced in those exposed to natural radiation frosts, in which shoot die-back occurred. Although factors other than frost incidence may have been influenced by the treatments, the results suggest that low temperatures, possibly associated with periods of clear weather and cold nights in the spring, when the tissue was no longer winter-hardy, may have been the main factors responsible.

  2. Prevalence of obesity and owners' perceptions of body condition in pleasure horses and ponies in south-eastern Australia.

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    Potter, S J; Bamford, N J; Harris, P A; Bailey, S R

    2016-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of obesity within a population of pleasure horses and ponies in Victoria, Australia, and to compare owners' perceptions of their animals' body condition with researchers' assessments. An observational study plus owner questionnaire. Ten Pony Club rallies in different regions of Victoria were attended. Information regarding 229 horses and ponies were obtained from owner questionnaires, and owners' perceptions of the current body condition of their animals were assessed using a visual analogue scale. Body condition score (BCS) was assessed by the researchers using the modified Henneke method. The prevalence of researcher-assessed obesity (BCS ≥7/9) in the total surveyed population was 23.1%. A higher prevalence of obesity was identified in Shetland ponies (71.5%) and other pony types (32.0%) compared with horse breeds (9.3%). Owners perceived their animals to be in significantly lower body condition compared with the researchers' assessments (P Owners frequently underestimated their own animal's body condition. Knowing the prevalence of obesity in this population and understanding how owners perceive the body condition of their animals may help with targeting education around preventative health care, with the aim of reducing the risk of conditions such as insulin dysregulation and laminitis. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  3. Increasing deaths involving oxycodone, Victoria, Australia, 2000-09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintoul, Angela C; Dobbin, Malcolm D H; Drummer, Olaf H; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2011-08-01

    In light of an emerging epidemic identified in the United States and Canada, to identify trends in fatal drug toxicity involving oxycodone and the demographic characteristics and indicators of socioeconomic disadvantage of the deceased. Population-based observational study in Victoria, Australia. Decedents whose death was reported to the Victorian Coroner between 2000 and 2009 and where oxycodone was detected. Association between supply of oxycodone and deaths. Demographic characteristics of decedents. Rate ratios of the rural or metropolitan location and socioeconomic indicators of disadvantage of the deceased. Supply to Victoria has increased nine-fold from 7.5 mg per capita in 2000 to 67.5 mg per capita in 2009. Detection of oxycodone in deaths reported to the Victorian Coroner has increased from 4 (0.08/100,000 population) in 2000 to 97 (1.78/100,000 population) in 2009-a 21-fold increase in deaths. Of the 320 cases described, 53.8% (172) were the result of drug toxicity. Of these, 52.3% were unintentional and 19.8% intentional self-harm; the remaining 27.9% are either still under investigation by the coroner or intent is unknown. Drug toxicity deaths were overrepresented in both rural areas and areas indexed with high levels of disadvantage. The substantial increase in the number of deaths involving oxycodone is strongly and significantly associated with the increase in supply. Most drug toxicity deaths involving oxycodone were unintentional. This newly identified trend in fatalities in Victoria supports concerns that a pattern of increasing deaths involving oxycodone is emerging globally.

  4. Epidemiology of the 2012 influenza season in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Fielding

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the magnitude and severity of the 2012 influenza season in Victoria, Australia using surveillance data from five sources. Methods: Data from influenza notifications, sentinel general practices, a sentinel hospital network, a sentinel locum service and strain typing databases for 2012 were descriptively analysed. Results: Influenza and influenza-like illness activity was moderate compared to previous years, although a considerable increase in notified laboratory-confirmed influenza was observed. Type A influenza comprised between 83% and 87% of cases from the general practitioners, hospitals and notifiable surveillance data. Influenza A/H3 was dominant in July and August, and most tested isolates were antigenically similar to the A/Perth/16/2009 virus used in the vaccine. There was a smaller peak of influenza type B in September. No tested viruses were resistant to any neuraminidase inhibitor antivirals. Higher proportions of type A/H3, hospitalized cases and those with a comorbid condition indicated for influenza vaccination were aged 65 years or older. Influenza vaccination coverage among influenza-like illness patients was 24% in sentinel general practices and 50% in hospitals. Discussion: The 2012 influenza season in Victoria was average compared to previous years, with an increased dominance of A/H3 accompanied by increases in older and hospitalized cases. Differences in magnitude and the epidemiological profile of cases detected by the different data sources demonstrate the importance of using a range of surveillance data to assess the relative severity of influenza seasons.

  5. Differences in the population structure of Neisseria meningitidis in two Australian states: Victoria and Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Mowlaboccus

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is the causative agent of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD. A recombinant vaccine called Bexsero® incorporates four subcapsular antigens (fHbp, NHBA, NadA and PorA which are used to assign a Bexsero® antigen sequence type (BAST to each meningococcal strain. The vaccine elicits an immune response against combinations of variants of these antigens which have been grouped into specific BAST profiles that have been shown to have different distributions within geographical locations thus potentially affecting the efficacy of the vaccine. In this study, invasive meningococcal disease isolates from the western seaboard of Australia (Western Australia; WA were compared to those from the south-eastern seaboard (Victoria; VIC from 2008 to 2012. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS of 131 meningococci from VIC and 70 meningococci from WA were analysed for MLST, FetA and BAST profiling. Serogroup B predominated in both jurisdictions and a total of 10 MLST clonal complexes (cc were shared by both states. Isolates belonging to cc22, cc103 and cc1157 were unique to VIC whilst isolates from cc60 and cc212 were unique to WA. Clonal complex 41/44 represented one-third of the meningococcal population in each state but the predominant ST was locally different: ST-6058 in VIC and ST-146 in WA. Of the 108 BAST profiles identified in this collection, only 9 BASTs were simultaneously observed in both states. A significantly larger proportion of isolates in VIC harboured alleles for the NHBA-2 peptide and fHbp-1, antigenic variants predicted to be covered by the Bexsero® vaccine. The estimate for vaccine coverage in WA (47.1% [95% CI: 41.1-53.1%] was significantly lower than that in VIC (66.4% [95% CI: 62.3-70.5%]. In conclusion, the antigenic structure of meningococci causing invasive disease in two geographically distinct states of Australia differed significantly during the study period which may affect vaccine effectiveness and highlights the

  6. A Snapshot: Multicultural Music Teaching in Schools in Victoria, Australia, Portrayed by School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethsinghe, Rohan Nishantha

    2012-01-01

    Due to the changing demographic factors and as demanded by the governmental policies and regulations, schools in Victoria, Australia, are expected to foster multicultural educational programs that address the diverse needs of students. Research has found that school teachers in Victoria struggle to provide the aspired to multicultural education…

  7. The bone microstructure of polar "hypsilophodontid" dinosaurs from Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Holly N; Rich, Thomas H; Vickers-Rich, Patricia

    2018-01-18

    High-latitude (i.e., "polar") Mesozoic fauna endured months of twilight and relatively low mean annual temperatures. Yet non-avian dinosaurs flourished in this taxing environment. Fossils of basal ornithopod dinosaurs ("hypsilophodontids") are common in the Early Cretaceous high-latitude sediments of Victoria, Australia, and four taxa have been described; although their ontogenetic histories are largely unexplored. In the present study, eighteen tibiae and femora were utilized in the first multi-specimen ontogenetic histological analysis of Australian polar hypsilophodontids. The sample consists of eleven individuals from the Flat Rocks locality (Late Valanginian or Barremian), and five from the Dinosaur Cove locality (Albian). In both groups, growth was most rapid during the first three years, and skeletal maturity occurred between five and seven years. There is a weak asymptotic trend in a plot of growth mark count versus femur length, with considerable individual variation. Histology suggests two genera are present within the Dinosaur Cove sample, but bone microstructure alone could not distinguish genera within the Flat Rocks sample, or across the two geologically separate (~ 26 Ma) localities. Additional histologic sampling, combined with morphological analyses, may facilitate further differentiation between ontogenetic, individual, and species variation.

  8. Evaluation of vehicle side airbag effectiveness in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, Angelo; Newstead, Stuart; Scully, Jim

    2013-05-01

    Side airbag systems were first introduced into vehicles around 1995 to help protect occupants from injury in side impact crashes. International studies have shown that side airbags are effective in reducing the risk of death and injury, however, serious injuries can still occur even when side airbags deploy. The objective of this study was to use detailed injury information from insurance injury compensation claims data linked to Police reported crash data to determine the effectiveness of side airbags in reducing the risk of death or injury for occupants involved in side impact crashes in Victoria, Australia based on the specific body regions that side airbag systems are designed to protect. It was found that head and torso-protecting dual airbag systems designed to protect the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen are highly effective in reducing driver death or injury due to near side crashes. They were associated with a statistically significant reduction of 41.1% (25.9%, 53.2%) in the odds of death or injury across all body regions; and a 48.0% (28.0%, 62.4%) reduction in the odds of death or injury to the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen. The study did not find any evidence that torso-protecting airbags alone are effective in reducing death or injury. Analysis results indicate that head and torso-protecting side airbag systems in vehicles are a highly effective technology for reducing the risk of death or injury to vehicle occupants in near side crashes. The magnitude of the injury reduction benefits estimated indicate that fitment of this technology to all vehicles should be a high priority and will yield significant savings in overall road trauma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-acting moxidectin for the control of trichostrongylid infections of sheep in south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jwa; Anderson, N; Preshaw, Ar

    2009-04-01

    To compare the effectiveness of a single long-acting injection of moxidectin, given in either summer or winter, with a two-summer ('standard') treatment strategy for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes in spring-lambing Merino ewes. A replicated study over 2 years in the high winter rainfall environment of western Victoria. Measures of worm infection were worm egg counts of ewes and total worm counts of tracer lambs. Measures of production were body weight, proportion of pregnant ewes and number of weaned lambs. The egg counts of ewes given the standard strategy followed a characteristic pattern, rising to 300 to 600 eggs per gram before the second summer treatment in February. During this time, ewes given long-acting moxidectin in December had zero or negligible counts. There were no consistent differences between tracer worm counts or production measures for the two groups treated in summer, but when data from both years were pooled, the total egg output from December to May was significantly lower for ewes treated with long-acting moxidectin in December. Ewes not treated during summer had lower body weights, and higher worm egg counts and tracer worm counts, showing that this was not a suitable strategy at that time of the year. However, following treatment with long-acting moxidectin in winter, ewes had rapid compensatory weight gain and lower egg output than ewes treated in summer. A single injection of long-acting moxidectin in December is an effective treatment strategy for Merino ewes lambing in spring.

  10. Drivers of sulfide intrusion in Zostera muelleri in a moderately affected estuary in south-eastern Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer, Marianne; Bennett, William W.; Ferguson, Angus J. P.

    2017-01-01

    The seagrass Zostera muelleri Irmisch ex Asch. is abundant in estuaries in Australia and is under pressure from coastal developments. We studied sulfide intrusion in Z. muelleri along a gradient of anthropogenic impact at five stations in the Wallis Lake estuary, Australia. Results showed...... biogeochemistry and was modified by the exposure to wind and wave action. The sediments in the lower estuary had high contributions from phytoplanktonic detritus, whereas the organic pools in the lagoon were dominated by seagrass detritus. Despite high concentrations of organic matter, sulfide intrusion was lower...... at stations dominated by seagrass detritus, probably because of lower sulfide pressure from the less labile nature of organic matter. Porewater diffusive gradients in thin-film (DGT) sulfide samplers showed efficient sulfide reoxidation in the rhizosphere, with high sulfur incorporation in the plants from...

  11. Characterising groundwater dynamics in Western Victoria, Australia using Menyanthes software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldeyohannes, Yohannes; Webb, John

    2010-05-01

    Water table across much of the western Victoria, Australia have been declining for at least the last 10-15 years, and this is attributed to the consistently low rainfall for these years, but over the same period of time there has been substantial change in land use, with grazing land replaced by cropping and tree plantations appearing in some areas. Hence, it is important to determine the relative effect the climate and land use factors on the water table changes. Monitoring changes in groundwater levels to climate variables and/or land use change is helpful in indicating the degree of threat faced to agricultural and public assets. The dynamics of the groundwater system in the western Victoria, mainly on the basalt plain, have been modelled to determine the climatic influence in water table fluctuations. In this study, a standardized computer package Menyanthes was used for quantifying the influence of climatic variables on the groundwater level, statistically estimating trends in groundwater levels and identify the properties that determine the dynamics of groundwater system. This method is optimized for use on hydrological problems and is based on the use of continuous time transfer function noise model, which estimates the Impulse response function of the system from the temporal correlation between time series of groundwater level and precipitation surplus. In this approach, the spatial differences in the groundwater system are determined by the system properties, while temporal variation is driven by the dynamics of the input into the system. 80 time series models are analysed and the model output parameter values characterized by their moments. The zero-order moment Mo of a distribution function is its area and M1 is related to the mean of the impulse response function. The relation is M1/Mo. It is a measure of the system's memory. It takes approximately 3 times the mean time (M1/Mo) for the effect of a shower to disappear completely from the system. Overall

  12. Relative importance of natural and anthropogenic influences on the fresh surface water chemistry of the Hawkesbury-Nepean River, south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markich, S J; Brown, P L

    1998-07-03

    Fresh surface waters from the Hawkesbury-Nepean River, the major river supplying water to the Sydney region in south-eastern Australia, were sampled monthly during 1991 and analysed for major ions (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4 and HCO3), nutrients (NO3 and PO4), organic carbon and trace metals (Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Mn). The chemical composition of the river during 1991 was consistent with other studies of the river from 1977 to 1996. The major ion composition in the river is predominantly influenced by sea-salt aerosols in rainwater (headwaters) and connate sea-salt in groundwater (mid-lower reaches), with a cationic dominance order of Na > Mg > Ca > K (equivalents) and an anionic order of Cl > HCO3 > SO4. This is typical of the headwaters of other permanent coastal rivers (freshwater) in south-eastern Australia with a similar catchment lithology. These results differ markedly from the most common natural major ion assemblages established for world rivers (i.e. Ca > Mg > Na > K and HCO3 > SO4 > Cl), which tend to be predominantly influenced by chemical weathering of rocks and minerals. The mean concentrations of major ions, nutrients, organic carbon and trace metals in the freshwater reaches of the Hawkesbury-Nepean River increased by factors of 2.5-4.4, 14-18, 2.2 and 1.6-11, respectively, with increasing distance from the headwaters. Increases in major ion concentrations are attributed mainly to the increasing influence of saline groundwater inflows from regions of Wianamatta shale. Conversely, concentrations of nutrients, organic carbon and trace metals (except Fe and Al) increased as a consequence of anthropogenic inputs, particularly point discharges from sewage treatment plants (i.e. showing distinct, but variable, concentration peaks), as well as diffuse urban and/or agricultural runoff during storm events. The temporal variability of the mean concentrations of all measured parameters in this study was related to variability in water discharge. The

  13. Skeletal Pathology of Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) Exposed to High Environmental Fluoride Levels in South-Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufschmid, J; Beveridge, I; Coulson, G; Walker, G; Shen, P; Reynolds, E; Charles, J

    2015-01-01

    Significantly elevated bone fluoride concentrations have been reported in a population of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) resident near a fluoride-emitting aluminum smelter in southeastern Australia. This paper describes the skeletal and synovial joint lesions observed post mortem in the same sample of kangaroos (n = 76). The prevalence and severity of skeletal lesions, specifically the formation of multiple, large, smooth exostoses over the diaphysis of long bones (especially, but not exclusively, on the tibia, fibula and metatarsi), were positively associated with bone fluoride concentration. So too were lesions of degenerative joint disease, including periarticular osteophytosis, articular cartilage erosion/ulceration, synovial hyperplasia and joint capsular fibrosis. Joint lesions were most commonly seen in the knee, hock and metatarsophalangeal joints. This is the first study to describe in detail the full range of lesions induced by chronic fluorosis in a marsupial species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Climate change vulnerability assessments as catalysts for social learning: four case studies in south-eastern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, Benjamin L [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Technical assessments of vulnerability and/or risk are increasingly being undertaken to assess the impacts of climate change. Underlying this is the belief that they will bring clarity to questions regarding the scale of institutional investments required, plausible adaptation policies and measures, and the timing of their implementation. Despite the perceived importance of technical assessments in 'evidence-based' decision environments, assessments cannot be undertaken independent of values and politics, nor are they capable of eliminating the uncertainty that clouds decision-making on climate adaptation As such, assessments can trigger as many questions as they answer, leaving practitioners and stakeholders to question their value. This paper explores the value of vulnerability/risk assessments in climate change adaptation planning processes as a catalyst for learning in four case studies in Southeastern Australia. Data were collected using qualitative interviews with stakeholders involved in the assessments and analysed using a social learning framework. This analysis revealed that detailed and tangible strategies or actions often do not emerge directly from technical assessments. However, it also revealed that the assessments became important platforms for social learning. In providing these platforms, assessments present opportunities to question initial assumptions, explore multiple framings of an issue, generate new information, and galvanise support for collective actions. This study highlights the need for more explicit recognition and understanding of the important role social learning plays in climate change vulnerability assessments and adaptation planning more broadly.

  15. Empirical Estimates of Aboveground Carbon in Open Eucalyptus Forests of South-Eastern Australia and Its Potential Implication for National Carbon Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubov Volkova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aboveground carbon (AGC storage of open Eucalyptus forests is unknown yet they are estimated to account for almost 25% of all Australian forests and about 60% of forests in Victoria. In this study we provide the best possible estimates of total AGC including tree biomass derived from destructive biomass sampling across 23 study plots established in open Eucalyptus forests in Victoria. The field estimates of AGC were then used for calibration of Australia’s National Carbon Accounting Model, FullCAM. The study aimed to develop a transparent and defendable method to estimate AGC for one of the most common Australian forests. Our calibrations showed that the 8.3 M ha of open Eucalyptus forests of SE Australia sequester at least 139 Mt C more than default FullCAM predictions. Because most of these forests are not subject to human-induced emission such as harvesting, only emissions and stock changes from a small area of these forests is reported in national inventories and international greenhouse emissions agreements. Concern for climate change and emission reduction will inevitably require land managers to come up with defendable methods of estimating forest carbon stocks and changes in all forest types; here we show how FullCAM can be further developed for this purpose.

  16. Elimination of the Mound-Building Termite, Nasutitermes exitiosus (Isoptera: Termitidae) in South-Eastern Australia Using Bistrifluron Bait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Garry A; Mcclintock, Charles

    2015-12-01

    Bistrifluron, a benzoylphenylurea compound, was evaluated for efficacy against Nasutitermes exitiosus (Hill), a mound-building species in southern Australia. Bistrifluron bait (trade name Xterm) was delivered as containerized pellets inserted into plastic feeding stations implanted in the sides of mounds-60 g for bistrifluron bait-treated mounds and 120 g of blank bait for untreated mounds. Termites actively tunneled in the gaps between pellets and removed bait from the canisters. All five treated mounds were eventually eliminated, and all five untreated mounds remained active at the end of the trial. Four of the five treated mounds were considered dead and excavated after 26 wk, but there were earlier signs of mound distress-reduced repair of experimental casement damage and reduced activity in bait canisters by 22 wk and reduced internal mound temperature after 11 wk. One treated mound showed activity in the bait station right through until almost the end of the trial (47 wk), but excavation at 49 wk showed no further activity in the mound. The five untreated colonies removed on average 97% of blank bait offered, while the five treated colonies removed on average 39.1% of bait offered. There was a wide variation in temperature profiles of mounds (up to 15°C for both minimum and maximum internal temperatures), from the beginning of the trial and even before the effects of baiting were evident. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. End‐of‐life decisions in medical practice: a survey of doctors in Victoria (Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, D A; Coady, C A J; Thompson, J; Kuhse, H

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To discover the current state of opinion and practice among doctors in Victoria, Australia, regarding end‐of‐life decisions and the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia. Longitudinal comparison with similar 1987 and 1993 studies. Design and participants Cross‐sectional postal survey of doctors in Victoria. Results 53% of doctors in Victoria support the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia. Of doctors who have experienced requests from patients to hasten death, 35% have administered drugs with the intention of hastening death. There is substantial disagreement among doctors concerning the definition of euthanasia. Conclusions Disagreement among doctors concerning the meaning of the term euthanasia may contribute to misunderstanding in the debate over voluntary euthanasia. Among doctors in Victoria, support for the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia appears to have weakened slightly over the past 17 years. Opinion on this issue is sharply polarised. PMID:18055904

  18. British History is Their History: Britain and the British Empire in the History Curriculum of Ontario, Canada and Victoria, Australia 1930-1975

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephen J Jackson

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the evolving conceptions of national identity in Canada and Australia through an analysis of officially sanctioned history textbooks in Ontario, Canada and Victoria, Australia...

  19. People Management Practices in the Public Health Sector: Developments from Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Pauline; Bartram, Timothy; Harbridge, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the impact on human resource management (HRM) practices in the public health sector in Victoria, Australia of two different government policy environments. First, it explores the Liberal Coalition Government's decentralisation of public health sector management, from 1992-1999 and second, the Labor Government's…

  20. Myxomatosis in the Mallee region of Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, R C; Edmonds, J W; Nolan, I F; Gocs, A

    1978-10-01

    Sharp reductions in the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.)) population in the Mallee are associated with annual myxomatosis epizootics. The extent to which the population reductions are the direct result of the epizootics varies with time of epizootic occurrence. All grazing animals in the Mallee are under nutritional stress each summer and autumn. When the epizootic occurs during the early summer heavy losses occur in a previously healthy population. Similar losses which occur in the late summer and autumn are the result of a nutritional stress - epizootic complex. The end result in each case is a population reduction of about 80%. This reduction occurs in a population which is the most resistant to myxomatosis known in Victoria and in association with epizootics caused by field strains of myxoma virus of moderate virulence only. The earlier summer epizootics are of considerable economic importance because they sharply reduce the pressure on the limited food available for other grazing animals.

  1. Landscape Structure and Mature Forest Biodiversity in Wet Eucalypt Forests: A Spatial Analysis of Timber Production Areas in South-Eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam W. Wood

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire and timber harvesting can diminish the extent of older forests in the near term. The amount and configuration of mature and regenerating forest in the landscape (landscape structure influences habitat suitability for mature-forest-associated species. We applied spatial analysis to describe the landscape structure of three wet eucalypt forest landscapes in south–eastern Australia and used the results from empirical biodiversity studies to frame interpretation of possible impacts on habitat suitability. We determined the extent of structurally mature forest, its reservation status, and the extent to which it may be edge affected. We also assessed how landscape structure potentially impacts the re-establishment of mature-forest-associated species into previously harvested areas through the proximity to (mature forest influence—and extent of (landscape context—mature forest in the surrounding landscape. Our analyses were designed to inform forest management initiatives that draw on these landscape-scale concepts. Central Highlands Victoria had less structurally mature eucalypt forest (4% compared to North West Tasmania (14% and Southern Forests Tasmania (21%. Detrimental effects of edge influence on structurally mature forest appeared relatively minor. Low levels of mature forest influence combined with low-medium surrounding mature forest cover (landscape context indicate potential limitations on recolonisation of coupes by mature-forest-associated species. Our results vindicate the recent shift toward variable retention silviculture and landscape context planning. Our approach to landscape analysis provides a useful framework for other managed forest landscapes.

  2. An overview of Australia?s Phytophthora species assemblage in natural ecosystems recovered from a survey in Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Dunstan, William A.; Howard, Kay; StJ. Hardy, Giles E.; Burgess, Treena I.

    2016-01-01

    Although Phytophthora species cause serious diseases worldwide, until recently the main focus on disease in natural ecosystems in southern Australia has been on the distribution and impact of P. cinnamomi. However, new Phytophthora pathogens have emerged from natural ecosystems, and there is a need to better understand the diversity and distribution of these species in our natural forests, woodlands and heathlands. From a survey along a 70 km pipeline easement in Victoria, Phytophthora specie...

  3. Women's experience of domiciliary postnatal care in Victoria and South Australia: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Mary Anne; Yelland, Jane S; Sutherland, Georgina A; Brown, Stephanie J

    2012-11-01

    Despite the expansion of postnatal domiciliary services, we know little about the women receiving visits and how they regard their care. The aim of this study is to examine the provision of postnatal domiciliary care from a consumer perspective. All women who gave birth in September-October 2007 in South Australia and Victoria were mailed questionnaires 6 months after the birth. Women were asked if they had received a midwifery home visit, and to rate the care they received. More women in South Australia reported receiving a domiciliary visit than in Victoria (88.0% v. 76.0%) and they were more likely to rate their care as 'very good' (69.1% v. 63.4%). Younger women, women on a lower income, who were holding a healthcare concession card or who had not completed secondary education were less likely to receive a visit. Although the majority of women in public maternity care in Victoria and South Australia receive domiciliary care and rate it positively, there are significant state-based differences. Those more likely to benefit from domiciliary care are less likely to receive a visit. There is a need to further explore the purpose, aims and content of domiciliary care at individual and state-wide levels.

  4. Towards understanding hydroclimatic change in Victoria, Australia – preliminary insights into the "Big Dry"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kiem

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1990s the majority of Victoria, Australia, has experienced severe drought conditions (i.e. the "Big Dry" characterized by streamflow that is the lowest in approximately 80 years of record. While decreases in annual and seasonal rainfall totals have also been observed, this alone does not seem to explain the observed reduction in flow. In this study, we investigate the large-scale climate drivers for Victoria and demonstrate how these modulate the regional scale synoptic patterns, which in turn alter the way seasonal rainfall totals are compiled and the amount of runoff per unit rainfall that is produced. The hydrological implications are significant and illustrate the need for robust hydrological modelling, that takes into account insights into physical mechanisms that drive regional hydroclimatology, in order to properly understand and quantify the impacts of climate change (natural and/or anthropogenic on water resources.

  5. Reasons women give for contemplating or undergoing abortion: a qualitative investigation in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Maggie; Rosenthal, Doreen; Mallett, Shelley; Rowe, Heather; Hardiman, Annarella

    2010-11-01

    To increase understanding of women's perspectives on considering or undergoing elective abortion. Qualitative study. A large public women's hospital in the state of Victoria, Australia. Sixty women who had contacted a public pregnancy advisory service in Victoria, Australia, seeking information, advice, or appointments in relation to an unplanned or unwanted pregnancy. Qualitative telephone interviews. The iterative qualitative analysis employed the five stages of a thematic framework approach. Themes in women's accounts of considering or undergoing elective abortion. Women's accounts emphasized their reasons for considering or seeking abortion. Decisions were made in the context of their lives as a whole; influences were usually contingent and multiple. Reasons related to the woman herself, the potential child, existing children, her partner and other significant relationships, and financial matters. This research used qualitative methods to produce the only recent study of its kind in Australia. Women's accounts reveal the complex personal and social contexts within which reproductive events must be comprehended and the thoughtfulness with which they make decisions. Results of this research will assist health-care professionals to increase their insights into women's reproductive experiences. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of mortality following hospitalisation for isolated head injury in England and Wales, and Victoria, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda J Gabbe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI remains a leading cause of death and disability. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines recommend transfer of severe TBI cases to neurosurgical centres, irrespective of the need for neurosurgery. This observational study investigated the risk-adjusted mortality of isolated TBI admissions in England/Wales, and Victoria, Australia, and the impact of neurosurgical centre management on outcomes. METHODS: Isolated TBI admissions (>15 years, July 2005-June 2006 were extracted from the hospital discharge datasets for both jurisdictions. Severe isolated TBI (AIS severity >3 admissions were provided by the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN and Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR for England/Wales, and Victoria, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare risk-adjusted mortality between jurisdictions. FINDINGS: Mortality was 12% (749/6256 in England/Wales and 9% (91/1048 in Victoria for isolated TBI admissions. Adjusted odds of death in England/Wales were higher compared to Victoria overall (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.6, 2.5, and for cases <65 years (OR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.51, 3.69. For severe TBI, mortality was 23% (133/575 for TARN and 20% (68/346 for VSTR, with 72% of TARN and 86% of VSTR cases managed at a neurosurgical centre. The adjusted mortality odds for severe TBI cases in TARN were higher compared to the VSTR (OR 1.45, 95% CI: 0.96, 2.19, but particularly for cases <65 years (OR 2.04, 95% CI: 1.07, 3.90. Neurosurgical centre management modified the effect overall (OR 1.12, 95% CI: 0.73, 1.74 and for cases <65 years (OR 1.53, 95% CI: 0.77, 3.03. CONCLUSION: The risk-adjusted odds of mortality for all isolated TBI admissions, and severe TBI cases, were higher in England/Wales when compared to Victoria. The lower percentage of cases managed at neurosurgical centres in England and Wales was an explanatory factor, supporting the changes made to the NICE

  7. The Bands Culture in Victoria, Australia: Live Music Benefits Career Paths, Employment and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amanda; Forrest, David

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the career paths, employment, business opportunities and community contributions made available through the provision and development of the contemporary performance bands' culture in the State of Victoria. It is framed with the support given to live music performers by Arts Victoria, Small Business Victoria and Music Victoria.…

  8. Three Decades of Implementation of School-Based Management in the Australian Capital Territory and Victoria in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammage, David T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how the process of implementation of school-based management (SBM) has worked within the public school systems in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and Victoria in Australia. The period covered was 1976-2006. Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted was the mixed methodology which…

  9. The Development and Use of Individual Learning Plans for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P. Margaret; Byrnes, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the Individual Learning Plans of eighty-eight students who were deaf and hard of hearing attending facilities and schools for the deaf in Victoria Australia. The students' assessment and planning portfolios were scrutinised for evidence of formal and informal assessment used to generate goals for the Individual Learning…

  10. Prescription opioid dispensing and prescription opioid poisoning: Population data from Victoria, Australia 2006 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Hassani-Mahmooei, Behrooz; Clapperton, Angela; McClure, Roderick

    2017-02-01

    To describe recent trends in opioid prescribing and prescription opioid poisoning resulting in hospitalisation or death in Victoria, Australia. This is a population-based ecological study of residents of Victoria, 2006 - 14. Australian Bureau of Statistics residential population data were combined with Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) opioid prescription data, Victorian Admitted Episodes Data (VAED) and cause of death data. Annual opioid dispensings increased by 78% in 2006 - 13, from 0.33 to 0.58 per population. Opioid use increased with age: in 2013, 14% of Victorian residents aged ≥65 years filled at least one oxycodone prescription. In 2006 - 14, prescription opioid related hospital admissions increased by 6.8% per year, from 107 to 187 /1,000,000 person-years; 56% were due to intentional self-poisoning. Annual deaths increased from 21 to 28 /1,000,000 persons, in 2007 - 11. Admissions and deaths peaked at 25-44 years. Although both opioid prescribing and poisoning have increased, there is discrepancy between the exposed group (dispensings increased with age) and those with adverse consequences (rates peaked at ages 25-44 years). A better understanding is needed of drivers of prescribing and adverse consequences. Together with monitoring of prescribing and poisoning, this will facilitate early detection and prevention of a public health problem. © 2016 The Authors.

  11. Rural Health and Spiritual Care Development: A Review of Programs across Rural Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Lindsay B; Hennequin, Christine; Krikheli, Lillian; O'Brien, Annette; Sanchez, Erin; Marsden, Candace R

    2016-06-01

    Given declining populations in rural areas and diminishing traditional religious support, this research explores whether spiritual care education programs would be beneficial for and appreciated by those working in rural health and/or community organizations. An overview of literature identified three dominant rural health issues affecting the provision of spiritual care in rural areas, namely the disparity between rural and urban areas in terms of resources, the lack of access to services, plus the need for education and training within rural areas. Spiritual Health Victoria Incorporated (Victoria, Australia) sought to address these issues with the implementation of a variety of spiritual education programs within rural areas. Results of an evaluation of these programs are presented specifying participant demographics, reasons why participants attended, their evaluation of the program and any recommendations for future programs. In overall terms, the results indicated that at least 90% of participants favorably rated their attended program as either 'very good' or 'good' and indicated that the main reason for their attendance was to develop their own education and/or practice of spiritual care within their rural context for the benefit of local constituents. Several recommendations are made for future programs.

  12. An overview of Australia's Phytophthora species assemblage in natural ecosystems recovered from a survey in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, William A; Howard, Kay; StJ Hardy, Giles E; Burgess, Treena I

    2016-06-01

    Although Phytophthora species cause serious diseases worldwide, until recently the main focus on disease in natural ecosystems in southern Australia has been on the distribution and impact of P. cinnamomi. However, new Phytophthora pathogens have emerged from natural ecosystems, and there is a need to better understand the diversity and distribution of these species in our natural forests, woodlands and heathlands. From a survey along a 70 km pipeline easement in Victoria, Phytophthora species were isolated from 249 rhizosphere samples and 25 bait bags deployed in 21 stream, river, or wetland locations. Of the 186 Phytophthora isolates recovered, 130 were identified to species based on ITS sequence data. Ninety-five isolates corresponded to 13 described Phytophthora species while additionally 35 isolates were identified as Clade 6 hybrids. Phytophthora cinnamomi was the most common species isolated (31 %), followed by P. elongata (6 %), both species were only recovered from soil. Samples from sites with the highest soil moisture at the time of sampling had the highest yield of isolates. Consistent with other studies throughout the world, Clade 6 species and their hybrids dominated water samples, although many of these species were also recovered less frequently from soil samples. Many of the species recovered in this study have not previously been reported from eastern Australia, reinforcing that Phytophthora species are widespread, abundant and diverse in natural ecosystems. We have probably been underestimating Phytophthora diversity in Australia.

  13. Compliance with regulations by "swim-with-dolphins" operations in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpaci, Carol; Dayanthi, Nugegoda; Corkeron, Peter J

    2003-03-01

    Managing the activities of commercial wildlife viewing tends to involve either restricting the number of industry participants and/or regulating the activities or industry participants. We report on operator compliance with regulations regarding humans swimming with free-ranging bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops sp.) in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia. A total of 128 commercial dolphin-swim trips was studied between September 1998 and April 2000. Four permit conditions were investigated: approach type, swim time, time in proximity of dolphins, and presence of "fetal fold" calves. Results demonstrate noncompliance by operators to all of the four permit conditions studied. Compliance with temporal conditions was poorer than with other conditions. When conducting studies on the extent to which tourism affects cetaceans, investigators should consider whether tourist operations comply with existing regulations or guidelines.

  14. Reality check of laboratory service effectiveness during pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catton, Michael; Druce, Julian; Papadakis, Goergina; Tran, Thomas; Birch, Christopher

    2011-06-01

    In Australia, the outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 began in Melbourne, Victoria; in the first 17 days, the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory detected 977 cases. Although the laboratory had a pandemic plan in place, a retrospective evaluation found 3 major variations from plan assumptions: 1) higher peak demand not limited by a case definition, 2) prolonged peak demand because containment attempts continued despite widespread influenza, and 3) unexpected influence of negative test results on public health actions. Although implementation of the plan was generally successful, the greatest challenges were limited availability of skilled staff and test reagents. Despite peak demand of 1,401 tests per day, results were provided within the usual 24 hours of specimen receipt; however, turnaround time seemed slower because of slow transport times (>3 days for 45% of specimens). Hence, effective laboratory capability might be enhanced by speeding transport of specimens and improving transmission of clinical data.

  15. Round the bend: a brief history of mental health nursing in Victoria, Australia 1848 to 1950's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Natisha Marina

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents a history of mental health nursing in Victoria, Australia from 1848 to the 1950's, or the asylum years to the era of the mental hospital. The research for this historical overview was conducted as part of a literature review for a mental health nursing doctoral thesis, which included an account of the evolution of the profession from asylum attendant to the present time. The literature reviewed for this project revealed a distinct lack of a coherent, chronological account of the historical development of mental health nursing in Victoria, and this paper seeks to address that knowledge gap.

  16. Regeneration after 8 years in artificial canopy gaps in mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell.) forest in south-eastern Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der P.J.; Dignan, P.

    2007-01-01

    We report on a study of regeneration of Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans) forest in S.E. Australia in artificially created canopy gaps (0.01¿2 ha) and clearfelled coupes (4¿27 ha) with different seedbed treatments. Treatments were applied in 1988, 1989, and 1990. Our results are based on

  17. Contemporaneous Trace and Body Fossils from a Late Pleistocene Lakebed in Victoria, Australia, Allow Assessment of Bias in the Fossil Record

    OpenAIRE

    Camens, Aaron Bruce; Carey, Stephen Paul

    2013-01-01

    The co-occurrence of vertebrate trace and body fossils within a single geological formation is rare and the probability of these parallel records being contemporaneous (i.e. on or near the same bedding plane) is extremely low. We report here a late Pleistocene locality from the Victorian Volcanic Plains in south-eastern Australia in which demonstrably contemporaneous, but independently accumulated vertebrate trace and body fossils occur. Bite marks from a variety of taxa are also present on t...

  18. Intended and unintended consequences of abortion law reform: perspectives of abortion experts in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, L A; Newton, D; Bayly, C; McNamee, K; Hardiman, A; Webster, A; Bismark, M

    2017-01-01

    In Victoria, Australia, abortion was decriminalised in October 2008, bringing the law in line with clinical practice and community attitudes. We describe how experts in abortion service provision perceived the intent and subsequent impact of the 2008 Victorian abortion law reform. Experts in abortion provision in Victoria were recruited for a qualitative semi-structured interview about the 2008 law reform and its perceived impact, until saturation was reached. Nineteen experts from a range of health care settings and geographic locations were interviewed in 2014/2015. Thematic analysis was conducted to summarise participants' views. Abortion law reform, while a positive event, was perceived to have changed little about the provision of abortion. The views of participants can be categorised into: (1) goals that law reform was intended to address and that have been achieved; (2) intent or hopes of law reform that have not been achieved; (3) unintended consequences; (4) coincidences; and (5) unfinished business. All agreed that law reform had repositioned abortion as a health rather than legal issue, had shifted the power in decision making from doctors to women, and had increased clarity and safety for doctors. However, all described outstanding concerns; limited public provision of surgical abortion; reduced access to abortion after 20 weeks; ongoing stigma; lack of a state-wide strategy for equitable abortion provision; and an unsustainable workforce. Law reform, while positive, has failed to address a number of significant issues in abortion service provision, and may have even resulted in a 'lull' in action. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. The Green Dialysis Survey: Establishing a Baseline for Environmental Sustainability across Dialysis Facilities in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Katherine A; Gleeson, Alice; Holt, Stephen G; Agar, John Wm

    2017-11-02

    The Green Dialysis Survey aimed to 1) establish a baseline for environmental sustainability (ES) across Victorian dialysis facilities, and 2) guide future initiatives to reduce the environmental impact of dialysis delivery. Nurse unit managers of all Victorian public dialysis facilities received an online link to the survey, which asked 107 questions relevant to the ES of dialysis services. Responses were received from 71/83 dialysis facilities in Victoria (86%), representing 628/660 dialysis chairs (95%). Low energy lighting was present in 13 facilities (18%), 18 (25%) recycled reverse osmosis water and 7 (10%) reported use of renewable energy. Fifty-six facilities (79%) performed comingled recycling but only 27 (38%) recycled polyvinyl chloride plastic. A minority educated staff in appropriate waste management (n=30;42%) or formally audited waste generation and segregation (n=19;27%). Forty-four (62%) provided secure bicycle parking but only 33 (46%) provided shower and changing facilities. There was limited use of tele- or video-conferencing to replace staff meetings (n=19;27%) or patient clinic visits (n=13;18%). A minority considered ES in procurement decisions (n=28;39%) and there was minimal preparedness to cope with climate change. Only 39 services (49%) confirmed an ES policy and few had ever formed a green group (n=14; 20%) or were currently undertaking a green project (n=8;11%). Only 15 facilities (21%) made formal efforts to raise awareness of ES. This survey provides a baseline for practices that potentially impact the environmental sustainability of dialysis units in Victoria, Australia. It also identifies achievable targets for attention. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Sex workers can be screened too often: a cost-effectiveness analysis in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David P; Heymer, Kelly-Jean; Anderson, Jonathan; O'Connor, Jody; Harcourt, Christine; Donovan, Basil

    2010-04-01

    Commercial sex is licensed in Victoria, Australia such that sex workers are required to have regular tests for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, the incidence and prevalence of STIs in sex workers are very low, especially since there is almost universal condom use at work. We aimed to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of the financial cost of the testing policy versus the health benefits of averting the transmission of HIV, syphilis, chlamydia and gonorrhoea to clients. We developed a simple mathematical transmission model, informed by conservative parameter estimates from all available data, linked to a cost-effectiveness analysis. We estimated that under current testing rates, it costs over $A90,000 in screening costs for every chlamydia infection averted (and $A600,000 in screening costs for each quality-adjusted life year (QALY) saved) and over $A4,000,000 for every HIV infection averted ($A10,000,000 in screening costs for each QALY saved). At an assumed willingness to pay of $A50,000 per QALY gained, HIV testing should not be conducted less than approximately every 40 weeks and chlamydia testing approximately once per year; in comparison, current requirements are testing every 12 weeks for HIV and every 4 weeks for chlamydia. Mandatory screening of female sex workers at current testing frequencies is not cost-effective for the prevention of disease in their male clients. The current testing rate required of sex workers in Victoria is excessive. Screening intervals for sex workers should be based on local STI epidemiology and not locked by legislation.

  1. The job satisfaction of female sex workers working in licensed brothels in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilardi, Jade E; Miller, Amanda; Hocking, Jane S; Keogh, Louise; Cummings, Rosey; Chen, Marcus Y; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Fairley, Christopher K

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have examined sex workers' attitudes to work but not their levels of job satisfaction compared with other occupations. The job satisfaction levels and standards of living of sex workers in licensed brothels in Victoria were compared with Australian women. Responses to a questionnaire that included questions about sex work and their "most likely alternative job." Survey data was compared with identical questions from the Households, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey. A structured survey was undertaken with sex workers in Victoria attending a a sexual health service. Of the 112 sex workers who agreed to participate in the study, 85 (76%) completed the survey. The median years women had been working as sex workers was three (range 0.1-18). The main reasons women started sex work was because "they needed the money" (69%), were attracted to the flexible hours (44%) or had a particular goal in mind (43%). The two biggest concerns women had about sex work were their safety (65%) and the risk of sexually transmitted infections (65%). When compared with the median job satisfaction scores of Australian women working in sex workers' "most likely alternative jobs," 50% of sex workers reported a higher median satisfaction score for sex work in relation to hours worked, 47% in relation to flexibility, 43% in relation to total pay, 26% in relation to job security, 19% in relation to the work itself, and 25% in relation to overall job satisfaction. Women reported that they primarily do sex work for financial gain although a significant minority prefer it to other work they would be likely to do. These results should be interpreted in the context that the presence of personality disorders that are common among sex workers were not measured in this study. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  2. The effect of an area-based intervention on breastfeeding rates in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelaher, Margaret; Dunt, David; Feldman, Peter; Nolan, Andrea; Raban, Bridie

    2009-04-01

    Best Start is an area-based early childhood intervention where projects are developed and implemented through a community partnership. A core tenet of the initiative is that implementing projects through a partnership generates greater value than would be expected if projects were undertaken independently by partner members. In this study we examine whether: (1) Best Start is effective in increasing the proportion of infants being fully breastfed at 3 months and 6 months. (2) The quality of community partnerships is a potential mechanism for change. Best Start was implemented in Victoria, Australia. The study examined breastfeeding rates before and after Best Start in sites with Best Start breastfeeding projects compared to the rest of state. The relationship between partnership quality scores and breastfeeding percentages was also examined. Both analyses controlled for socioeconomic and demographic differences and clustering by area. Best Start targeted some of the most socially disadvantaged communities in Victoria. In the 3 years of its operation, the rates of fully breastfeeding at 3 months (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.14-1.47) and 6 months (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.1-1.61) increased in Best Start sites compared to the rest of the state. Quality of partnership scores was positively associated with increased percentages of fully breastfeeding (3 months=OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.06; 6 months=OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.98-1.08). These results suggest that area-based interventions are effective in increasing percentages of fully breastfeeding. The study also supported the idea that developing quality community partnerships had a positive influence on their success.

  3. Impact of an outright ban on the availability of commercial tanning services in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, C; Cleaves, N; Dunstone, K; Makin, J; Zouzounis, S

    2016-08-01

    Australian states have introduced an outright ban on commercial artificial tanning sunbeds. This was based on evidence from systematic reviews affirming a strong association between tanning bed use and increased risk of melanoma. The implementation of the ban provides an opportunity to assess the effectiveness of the legislation in preventing access to artificial UV radiation. Compliance with the ban has been enforced and monitored by government departments. We additionally monitored online tanning bed advertisements before and after the ban, showing a decline over time in the number of sunbeds advertised for sale on gumtree.com.au and ebay.com.au, from a peak of 115 advertisements in May 2014 to 50 or fewer per month from February 2015. There was also an increase in advertised price, with the percentage of sunbeds offered in Victoria on gumtree.com.au at higher than $2 000 increasing from around 25% between January and June 2014 to 65% in the quarter following the introduction of the ban. Advertisements on gumtree.com.au from individuals wishing to access a sunbed in a private home in Victoria increased from only isolated instances in the months immediately prior to the ban, to between 25 and 77 advertisements per month in the quarter following the ban. In summary, the introduction of an outright ban of commercial sunbeds has achieved a dramatic reduction in the availability of harmful artificial UV radiation sources in Australia. Long-term benefits to the health of the population and a reduction in costs to the health system are expected to result. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. Exploring Service Providers' Perspectives in Improving Childhood Obesity Prevention among CALD Communities in Victoria, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Cyril

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity rates have been increasing disproportionately among disadvantaged communities including culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD migrant groups in Australia due to their poor participation in the available obesity prevention initiatives. We sought to explore service providers' perceptions of the key factors influencing the participation of CALD communities in the existing obesity prevention services and the service requirements needed to improve CALD communities' participation in these services.We conducted a qualitative study using focus group discussions involving fifty-nine service providers from a range of services, who are involved in the health and wellbeing of children from CALD groups living in four socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia.Thematic analysis of the data showed three major themes including community-level barriers to CALD engagement in childhood obesity prevention services; service-level barriers to the delivery of these services; and proposed changes to current childhood obesity prevention approaches. Integrating obesity prevention messages within existing programs, better coordination between prevention and treatment services and the establishment of a childhood obesity surveillance system, were some of the important changes suggested by service providers.This study has found that low CALD health literacy, lack of knowledge of cultural barriers among service providers and co-existing deficiencies in the structure and delivery of obesity prevention services negatively impacted the participation of CALD communities in obesity prevention services. Cultural competency training of service providers would improve their understanding of the cultural influences of childhood obesity and incorporate them into the design and development of obesity prevention initiatives. Service providers need to be educated on the pre-migratory health service experiences and health conditions of CALD

  5. The Meaning of ‘General Paralysis of the Insane’ in Victoria, Australia; 1886 to 1906

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts, Phillip

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conclusion to the meaning of the historical diagnosis “general paralysis of the insane” in nineteenth century Victorian Registrar General”s reports. Most studies suggest that in the past the diagnosis refers to neuro-syphilis, and while after 1906 this is not disputed, this paper will show that the diagnosis had a much broader meaning incorporating many forms of degenerative brain disease during the study period (Victoria 1886 to 1906. It is acknowledged, however, that the use of this diagnosis may have varied dramatically in the past based on a doctor’s education and/or background. This conclusion has been arrived at by analysing both government and general hospital records on the Australian, Victorian population. This paper also presents methods for determining the meaning of obsolete medical diagnoses where the definition is poorly understood.En este trabajo presenta una conclusión sobre el significado de la “parálisis general de los locos” como diagnóstico en los informes del Victorian Registrar General durante el siglo XIX. La mayoría de los estudios sugieren que en el pasado el diagnóstico se refiere a la neuro-sífilis, y aunque después de 1906 no se discute, este trabajo mostrará que el diagnóstico tiene un significado mucho más amplio e incorpora muchas formas de enfermedad degenerativa del cerebro durante el período de estudio (Victoria 1886 a 1906. Se reconoce, sin embargo, que el uso de este diagnóstico puede haber variado drásticamente en el pasado dependiendo de la formación y del ambiente médico. Se ha llegado a esta conclusión mediante el análisis de los registros hospitalarios de la población de Victoria, Australia. Este documento también presenta métodos para determinar el significado de los diagnósticos médicos obsoletos cuya definición es confusa.

  6. High prevalence of fasciolosis and evaluation of drug efficacy against Fasciola hepatica in dairy cattle in the Maffra and Bairnsdale districts of Gippsland, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, T P; Kelley, J M; Rawlin, G; Spithill, T W

    2015-04-15

    Liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) is a common parasite amongst grazing livestock in the south-eastern region of Australia and is responsible for significant production losses in the beef and dairy industries. Gippsland in Victoria is a major region for dairy production but no fluke prevalence data in livestock has been obtained in this region since the late 1970s prior to the introduction of Triclabendazole (TCBZ). TCBZ resistance is also now widespread in cattle in south east Australia. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence and intensity of liver fluke infections in dairy cattle in Gippsland and assessed the efficacy of TCBZ and other drenches against F. hepatica on one farm. We obtained 30 individual faecal samples from each of 15 different farms and, using the liver fluke coproantigen ELISA, tested bulk faecal samples pooled from each farm. Any farm that returned a positive bulk sample had all of the samples tested individually to assess the intra-herd prevalence. One farm in the Maffra district also had a coproantigen reduction test and faecal egg count reduction test to assess the efficacy of TCBZ, Clorsulon (CLOR) and Oxyclozanide (OXY). The coproantigen ELISA proved to be a highly sensitive test for liver fluke with a high correlation (R(2)=0.8849) observed between ELISA data from bulk samples and individual samples, suggesting that future larger scale screening on farms for fasciolosis could use the bulk analysis technique. The ELISA data revealed that animals on six of the 15 farms were infected with F. hepatica and the herd prevalence of the infected herds ranged from 47 to 100% (mean 81%) which exceeds the prevalence value for production losses of 25%. The intensity of fluke infection in cattle varied considerably both within and between herds with a proportion of animals exhibiting a positive control value in the coproantigen ELISA of 50-88%. We also confirmed that TCBZ resistance was present on one farm but that CLOR or OXY can be used to remove the

  7. High-Throughput Genetic Screening of 51 Pediatric Cataract Genes Identifies Causative Mutations in Inherited Pediatric Cataract in South Eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari Javadiyan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric cataract is a leading cause of childhood blindness. This study aimed to determine the genetic cause of pediatric cataract in Australian families by screening known disease-associated genes using massively parallel sequencing technology. We sequenced 51 previously reported pediatric cataract genes in 33 affected individuals with a family history (cases with previously known or published mutations were excluded using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Variants were prioritized for validation if they were predicted to alter the protein sequence and were absent or rare with minor allele frequency 60% of familial pediatric cataract in Australia, indicating that still more causative genes remain to be identified.

  8. Outbreaks of sarcoptic mange in free-ranging koala populations in Victoria and South Australia: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, K N; Whiteley, P L; Woolford, L; Duignan, P J; Bacci, B; Lathe, S; Boardman, W; Scheelings, T F; Funnell, O; Underwood, G; Stevenson, M A

    2017-07-01

    To describe outbreaks of sarcoptic mange caused by Sarcoptes scabiei in free-ranging koalas in Victoria (December 2008 to November 2015) and South Australia (October 2011 to September 2014). Koalas affected by mange-like lesions were reported by wildlife carers, veterinary practitioners or State Government personnel to the Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences at The University of Melbourne and the School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences at The University of Adelaide. Skin scrapings were taken from live and dead koalas and S. scabiei mites were identified. Tissues from necropsied koalas were examined histologically. Outbreaks of sarcoptic mange were found to occur in koalas from both Victoria (n = 29) and South Australia (n = 29) for the first time. The gross pathological and histopathological changes are described. We present the first reported cases of sarcoptic mange outbreaks in free-ranging koalas. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  9. How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Forsyth

    Full Text Available There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor is a large (≥ 150 kg exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and feral cats (Felis catus utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring. We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼ 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10% fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources.

  10. How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, David M; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D; Hampton, Jordan O; Woolnough, Andrew P; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥ 150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼ 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources.

  11. How Does a Carnivore Guild Utilise a Substantial but Unpredictable Anthropogenic Food Source? Scavenging on Hunter-Shot Ungulate Carcasses by Wild Dogs/Dingoes, Red Foxes and Feral Cats in South-Eastern Australia Revealed by Camera Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, David M.; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D.; Hampton, Jordan O.; Woolnough, Andrew P.; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources. PMID:24918425

  12. Individual and community factors for railway suicide: a matched case-control study in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Too, Lay San; Spittal, Matthew J; Bugeja, Lyndal; McClure, Roderick; Milner, Allison

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to simultaneously examine individual- and community-level factors associated with railway suicide. We performed a case-control study in Victoria, Australia between 2001 and 2012. Data on cases of railway suicide were obtained from the National Coronial Information System (a database of coronial investigations). Controls were living individuals randomly selected from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia study, matching to cases on age groups, sex and year of exposures. A conditional logistic regression model was used to assess the individual-level and community-level influences on individual odds of railway suicide, controlling for socioeconomic status. Individual-level diagnosed mental illness increased railway suicide odds by six times [95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.5, 9.2]. Community-level factors such as living in an area with a presence of railway tracks [odds ratio (OR) 1.8, 95 % CI 1.2, 2.8], within a city (OR 3.2, 95 % CI 1.9, 5.4), and with a higher overall suicide rate (OR 1.02, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.04) were independently associated with greater individual odds of railway suicide compared to living in an area without a presence of railway tracks, outside a city, and with a relatively lower overall suicide rate. The effects of mental illness and high incidence of overall suicides are prominent, but not specific on railway suicide. The effects of presence of railway tracks and city residence suggest the importance of accessibility to the railways for individual risk of railway suicide. Prevention efforts should focus on vulnerable people live in areas with easy access to the railways.

  13. Dual diagnosis discourse in Victoria Australia: the responsiveness of mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bridget M; Maybery, Darryl

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, psychiatric services have been challenged to be more responsive to patients' coexisting problems, in particular those concerning substance use. In Australia this has been referred to as a "No Wrong Door" approach. This paper explores the meanings of this move for the acute mental health sector, including attitudes toward a No Wrong Door approach to people with a dual diagnosis of mental illness and substance use disorder.   This qualitative study involved a review of the research literatures, analysis of policy documents, and interviews with 19 key informants in a case study of the State of Victoria, Australia.   The analysis resulted in two broad themes surrounding the implications of dual diagnosis discourse for the mental health sector. The first involves progress regarding the concept of No Wrong Door with subthemes including interprofessional cultural conflicts, intersectoral professional status issues, terminology, problem definition, perspectives on serious mental illness, the role of the client, and pharmacological treatment. The second overarching theme focuses upon informants' thoughts on future directions for the sector and highlights divided opinion on the implications of dual diagnosis discourse for the mental health service and social care systems.   While the perspectives on system change and multiple issues such as resource concerns and cultural clashes are presented here, the informants in this study also gave clear guidance for the future of dual diagnosis work in the mental health sector (e.g., focusing on orienting services toward consumer strengths and recovery), along with recommendations for future research. This paper contributes to the small body of qualitative research on the history and course of efforts to develop appropriate practice in mental health services with regard to patients who have substance use problems and other mental health disorders.

  14. First molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo) in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywardena, Harshanie; Jex, Aaron R; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Haydon, Shane R; Stevens, Melita A; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a molecular epidemiological survey of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo) on two extensive farms (450 km apart) in Victoria, Australia. Faecal samples (n=476) were collected from different age groups of water buffalo at two time points (six months apart) and tested using a PCR-based mutation scanning-targeted sequencing-phylogenetic approach, employing markers within the small subunit of ribosomal RNA (designated pSSU) and triose phosphate isomerase (ptpi) genes. Based on pSSU data, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium bovis and Cryptosporidium genotypes 1, 2 (each 99% similar genetically to Cryptosporidium ryanae) and 3 (99% similar to Cryptosporidium suis) were detected in two (0.4%), one (0.2%), 38 (8.0%), 16 (3.4%) and one (0.2%) of the 476 samples tested, respectively. Using ptpi, Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and E were detected in totals of 56 (11.8%) and six (1.3%) of these samples, respectively. Cryptosporidium was detected on both farms, whereas Giardia was detected only on farm B, and both genera were detected in 1.5% of all samples tested. The study showed that water buffaloes on these farms excreted C. parvum and/or G. duodenalis assemblage A, which are consistent with those found in humans, inferring that these particular pathogens are of zoonotic significance. Future work should focus on investigating, in a temporal and spatial manner, the prevalence and intensity of such infections in water buffaloes in various geographical regions in Australia and in other countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychiatric/Mental health nursing education in Victoria, Australia: barriers to specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda

    2006-04-01

    The introduction of undergraduate comprehensive nursing education in Victoria, Australia, during the 1990s has resulted in significant changes in undergraduate preparation for psychiatric/mental health nursing. Comprehensive programs became charged with the responsibility of preparing graduates to provide care for people experiencing a mental illness across a broad range of health-care settings, as well as providing a pathway for graduates with an interest in specialist practice in this field. The aim of this article is to clearly articulate the issues associated with psychiatric/mental health nursing education at the undergraduate level, including prevalence of mental illness, the inadequacy of psychiatric/mental health nursing theory and practice at undergraduate level, the negative attitudes of students toward this field of practice, and the subsequent failure of nursing education and practice initiatives to provide a clear mechanism for specialization in this important area of nursing practice. Throughout the article, the distinction between generalist and specialist preparation is argued and accompanied by a call for nursing education to recognize and address the issues associated with both domains.

  16. Motor vehicle exhaust gas suicide in Victoria, Australia 1998-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Chris; Routley, Virginia; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2006-01-01

    Motor vehicle exhaust gas suicide (MVEGS) is the second most frequent method of suicide in Victoria, Australia. It is a highly lethal method of suicide with 1.5 deaths for every hospital admission. Australian regulations require all vehicles manufactured since 1998 to have a maximum carbon monoxide exhaust emission level of 2.1 g/km, reduced from the previous level of 9.6 g/km. Information surrounding all Victorian MVEGS between 1998-2002 was analyzed to determine whether suicides occurred in vehicles with the lower emission levels. Between 1998-2002, 607 suicides by this means were recorded while just 393 hospital admissions were recorded for the same period. Mean carboxyhaemoglobin levels were significantly lower in fatalities using vehicles manufactured from 1998, however suicide still occurred in these vehicles (n = 25). The extent to which the new regulations contributed to the relatively low rate of suicide in vehicles less than 5 years old compared to their frequency in the fleet remains unknown. Based on international experience and the age of the Victorian vehicle fleet, it may take well over a decade until substantial decreases in MVEGS are observed in the absence of active preventive measures.

  17. Content analysis of school anti-bullying policies: a comparison between New Zealand and Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Louise; McGee, Rob; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Williams, Sheila

    2011-12-01

    To undertake a detailed analysis of the content of anti-bullying policies in schools in New Zealand (NZ) and Victoria, Australia. The content of anti-bullying policies from 253 NZ schools and 93 Victorian schools were analysed in terms of definitions of bullying behaviour; reporting, recording and responding to bullying incidents; communicating and evaluating the policy; and outlining strategies for preventing bullying. There was a wide range in 'policy scores' between schools, and Victorian schools scored higher on nearly every area compared with NZ schools. In both regions, definitions rarely included bullying on the grounds of homophobia, religion or disability; or bullying between adults and students. Policies also lacked detail about the responsibilities of non-teaching staff in dealing with bullying, and rarely described follow-up after a bullying incident. Few policies explained how the policy would be evaluated, and many failed to mention preventive strategies. This study highlights some important areas that are deficient in NZ and Victorian school anti-bullying policies, and emphasises the need for guidance on how schools can develop an effective anti-bullying policy. Having more comprehensive anti-bullying policies will give schools a much better chance of reducing bullying.

  18. Economic, social and resource management factors influencing groundwater trade: Evidence from Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bruce; Webb, John; Stott, Kerry; Cheng, Xiang; Wilkinson, Roger; Cossens, Brendan

    2017-07-01

    In Victoria, Australia, most groundwater resources are now fully allocated and opportunities for new groundwater development can only occur through trading of license entitlements. Groundwater usage has rarely exceeded 50% of the available licensed volume, even in the 2008/9 drought year, and 50 to 70% of individual license holders use less than 5% of their allocation each year. However, little groundwater trading is occurring at present. Interviews were conducted with groundwater license holders and water brokers to investigate why the Victorian groundwater trade market is underdeveloped. Responses show there is a complex mix of social, economic, institutional and technical reasons. Barriers to trade are influenced by the circumstances of each groundwater user, administrative process and resource management rules. Water brokers deal with few trades at low margins and noted unrealistic selling prices and administrative difficulties. Irrigators who have successfully traded identify that there are few participants in trading, technical appraisals are expensive and administrative requirements and fees are burdensome, especially when compared to surface water trading. Opportunities to facilitate trade include groundwater management plan refinement and improved information provision. Simplifying transaction processes and costs, demonstrating good resource stewardship and preventing third party impacts from trade could address some concerns raised by market participants. There are, however, numerous individual circumstances that inhibit groundwater trading, so it is unlikely that policy and process changes alone could increase usage rates without greater demand for groundwater or more favourable farming economic circumstances.

  19. Short-term droughts forecast using Markov chain model in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, Siti Nazahiyah; Jayasuriya, Niranjali; Bhuiyan, Muhammed A.

    2017-07-01

    A comprehensive risk management strategy for dealing with drought should include both short-term and long-term planning. The objective of this paper is to present an early warning method to forecast drought using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and a non-homogeneous Markov chain model. A model such as this is useful for short-term planning. The developed method has been used to forecast droughts at a number of meteorological monitoring stations that have been regionalised into six (6) homogenous clusters with similar drought characteristics based on SPI. The non-homogeneous Markov chain model was used to estimate drought probabilities and drought predictions up to 3 months ahead. The drought severity classes defined using the SPI were computed at a 12-month time scale. The drought probabilities and the predictions were computed for six clusters that depict similar drought characteristics in Victoria, Australia. Overall, the drought severity class predicted was quite similar for all the clusters, with the non-drought class probabilities ranging from 49 to 57 %. For all clusters, the near normal class had a probability of occurrence varying from 27 to 38 %. For the more moderate and severe classes, the probabilities ranged from 2 to 13 % and 3 to 1 %, respectively. The developed model predicted drought situations 1 month ahead reasonably well. However, 2 and 3 months ahead predictions should be used with caution until the models are developed further.

  20. Is Gippsland environmentally iodine deficient? Water iodine concentrations in the Gippsland region of Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ashequr; Deacon, Nicholas; Panther, Barbara; Chesters, Janice; Savige, Gayle

    2010-12-01

      This paper provides evidence of environmental iodine deficiency in the Gippsland region.   Quantitative study; water samples were collected from 18 water treatment plants and four rain water tanks across Gippsland and water iodine concentrations were measured.   Gippsland region of Victoria, Australia.   This paper reports on the iodine concentration of drinking water from sources across Gippsland and examines the contribution of iodine from water to the Gippsland diet. This study also briefly examines the relationship between the concentration of iodine in water and distance from the sea. The cut-off value for water iodine concentrations considered to be indicative of environmental iodine deficiency is water from 18 Gippsland water treatment plants was 0.38 µg L(-1) and would therefore make negligible difference to the dietary intake of iodine. This finding also falls well below the suggested dietary intake of iodine from water estimated by the 22nd Australian Total Diet Study. Our study found no linear relationship between the water iodine concentration and distance from the sea.   As Gippsland has environmental iodine deficiency there is a greater probability that people living in this region are at higher risk of dietary iodine deficiency than those living in environmentally iodine sufficient regions. Populations living in areas known to have environmental iodine deficiency should be monitored regularly to ensure that problems of iodine deficiency, especially amongst the most vulnerable, are addressed promptly. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  1. Public values for integration in natural disaster management and planning: A case study from Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawluk, Andrea; Ford, Rebecca M; Neolaka, Fendi L; Williams, Kathryn J

    2017-01-01

    Values can be useful for identifying what is important to individuals and communities, yet there is currently not a coherent way to conceptualize, identify, and organize the breadth of values that can be affected by a natural disaster. This research proposes a conceptual framework for how to conceptualize, identify, and organize values, and proposes a concrete, tangible value called the valued entity. The framework is applied in two studies of bushfire in Victoria, Australia: 112 submissions from individuals to the 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission and interviews with 30 members of the public in bushfire risk landscapes. Our findings suggest that: what people value ranges from abstract to concrete; prevalent abstract values include benevolence and universalism; prevalent mid-level valued attributes include natural attributes of landscapes and human life and welfare; prevalent valued entities are people and properties close to the person. Comparison between the two studies suggests people with more recent experience with bushfire refer less to the importance of natural places and natural attributes. The conceptual framework can act as a boundary object to facilitate researchers and policy-makers understanding the breadth of values affected by natural disaster events and management actions and how governance can better consider values at different scales. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Longitudinal effects of school drug policies on student marijuana use in Washington State and Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Whipp, Tracy J; Plenty, Stephanie M; Catalano, Richard F; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Toumbourou, John W

    2015-05-01

    We examined the longitudinal effect of schools' drug policies on student marijuana use. We used data from the International Youth Development Study, which surveyed state-representative samples of students from Victoria, Australia, and Washington State. In wave 1 (2002), students in grades 7 and 9 (n = 3264) and a school administrator from each participating school (n = 188) reported on school drug policies. In wave 2 (2003), students reported on their marijuana use. We assessed associations between student-reported and administrator-reported policy and student self-reported marijuana use 1 year later. Likelihood of student marijuana use was higher in schools in which administrators reported using out-of-school suspension and students reported low policy enforcement. Student marijuana use was less likely where students reported receiving abstinence messages at school and students violating school policy were counseled about the dangers of marijuana use. Schools may reduce student marijuana use by delivering abstinence messages, enforcing nonuse policies, and adopting a remedial approach to policy violations rather than use of suspensions.

  3. A positive association between cryptosporidiosis notifications and ambient temperature, Victoria, Australia, 2001-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Lillian; McPherson, Michelle; Higgins, Nasra

    2015-12-01

    Increased temperatures provide optimal conditions for pathogen survival, virulence and replication as well as increased opportunities for human-pathogen interaction. This paper examined the relationship between notifications of cryptosporidiosis and temperature in metropolitan and rural areas of Victoria, Australia between 2001 and 2009. A negative binomial regression model was used to analyse monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall and the monthly count of cryptosporidiosis notifications. In the metropolitan area, a 1 °C increase in monthly average minimum temperature of the current month was associated with a 22% increase in cryptosporidiosis notifications (incident rate ratio (IRR) 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.31). In the rural area, a 1 °C increase in monthly average minimum temperature, lagged by 3 months, was associated with a 9% decrease in cryptosporidiosis notifications (IRR 0.91; 95% CI 0.86-0.97). Rainfall was not associated with notifications in either area. These relationships should be considered when planning public health response to ecological risks as well as when developing policies involving climate change. Rising ambient temperature may be an early warning signal for intensifying prevention efforts, including appropriate education for pool users about cryptosporidiosis infection and management, which might become more important as temperatures are projected to increase as a result of climate change.

  4. The shortened dental arch concept: awareness and opinion of dentists in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzar, M A; Humplik, A J; Shahim, N

    2015-09-01

    The occlusion of a complete dental arch is generally desirable but not necessary nor always achievable in many individuals. It is, however, relevant for dentists to consider what minimum number of teeth is required by individuals for oral function. This study investigated dentists' awareness and opinion of the shortened dental arch (SDA) concept in an Australian context. A self-administered voluntary and anonymous questionnaire was mailed to a sample of 434 dentists, randomly selected from both rural and metropolitan locations in Victoria, Australia. The information collected included awareness of the SDA concept and its application as a treatment option. More than half of the respondents (61%) were aware of the SDA concept. All respondents 'agreed' or 'strongly agreed' with the seven criteria of SDA proposed in this study based on Käyser (1989). The majority (78.4%) believed that the SDA concept is useful in clinical practice. Dentists with dentists who responded to this survey agreed that the SDA is a practical and useful treatment modality for older adults with limitations to complex restorative care. However, application of the SDA varied considerably among dentists. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  5. Psychological distress and risky sexual behaviours among women aged 16-25 years in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhuong T; Subasinghe, Asvini K; Wark, John D; Reavley, Nicola; Garland, Suzanne M

    2017-12-01

    Identifying factors related to risky sexual behaviour may contribute to preventive and interventional approaches to reduce negative mental health outcomes among young women. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between psychological distress and risky sexual behaviours in females aged 16-25 years in Victoria, Australia. Data were extracted from the Young Female Health Initiative (YFHI), a study in which participants were recruited via advertisements on Facebook. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between psychological distress, as measured by the Kessler 10 (K10) Psychological Distress Scale, and risky sexual behaviours. Data were available from 200 sexually active participants and 40 non-sexually active participants. We found that the K10 score was independently associated with sex while under the influence of alcohol or drugs (odds ratio: 1.7; 95% confidence intervals: 1.2, 2.7; P = 0.006). Although data were collected from a small sample of young women, we found that those with underlying psychological distress may adopt risky sexual behaviours, especially if concomitantly drinking alcohol or taking drugs.

  6. Readiness of communities to engage with childhood obesity prevention initiatives in disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyril, Sheila; Polonsky, Michael; Green, Julie; Agho, Kingsley; Renzaho, Andre

    2017-07-01

    Objective Disadvantaged communities bear a disproportionate burden of childhood obesity and show low participation in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. This study aims to examine the level of readiness of disadvantaged communities to engage with childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Methods Using the community readiness model, 95 semi-structured interviews were conducted among communities in four disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia. Community readiness analysis and paired t-tests were performed to assess the readiness levels of disadvantaged communities to engage with childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Results The results showed that disadvantaged communities demonstrated low levels of readiness (readiness score=4/9, 44%) to engage with the existing childhood obesity prevention initiatives, lacked knowledge of childhood obesity and its prevention, and reported facing challenges in initiating and sustaining participation in obesity prevention initiatives. Conclusion This study highlights the need to improve community readiness by addressing low obesity-related literacy levels among disadvantaged communities and by facilitating the capacity-building of bicultural workers to deliver obesity prevention messages to these communities. Integrating these needs into existing Australian health policy and practice is of paramount importance for reducing obesity-related disparities currently prevailing in Australia. What is known about the topic? Childhood obesity prevalence is plateauing in developed countries including Australia; however, obesity-related inequalities continue to exist in Australia especially among communities living in disadvantaged areas, which experience poor engagement in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Studies in the USA have found that assessing disadvantaged communities' readiness to participate in health programs is a critical initial step in reducing the disproportionate obesity burden among these communities

  7. Residual susceptibility to measles among young adults in Victoria, Australia following a national targeted measles-mumps-rubella vaccination campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leydon Jennie A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Past measles immunisation policies in Australia have resulted in a cohort of young adults who have been inadequately vaccinated, but who also have low levels of naturally acquired immunity because immunisation programs have decreased the circulation of wild virus. A measles-mumps-rubella (MMR immunisation campaign aimed at addressing this susceptibility to measles among young adults was conducted in Australia in 2001–2. By estimating age-specific immunity, we aimed to evaluate the success of this campaign in the state of Victoria. Methods We conducted serosurveys after the young adult MMR program at state and national levels to estimate immunity among young adults born between 1968–82. We compared results of the Victorian (state surveys with the Victorian component of the national surveys and compared both surveys with surveys conducted before the campaign. We also reviewed all laboratory confirmed measles cases in Victoria between 2000–4. Results The Victorian state serosurveys indicated no significant change in immunity of the cohort following the young adult MMR campaign (83.9% immune pre and 85.5% immune post campaign while the Victorian component of the national serosurvey indicated a significant decline in immunity (91.0% to 84.2%; p = 0.006. Both surveys indicated about 15% susceptibility to measles among young Victorian adults after the campaign. Measles outbreaks in Victoria between 2000–4 confirmed the susceptibility of young adults. Outbreaks involved a median of 2.5 cases with a median age of 24.5 years. Conclusion In Victoria, the young adult MMR program appears to have had no effect on residual susceptibility to measles among the 1968–82 birth cohort. Young adults in Victoria, as in other countries where past immunisation policies have left a residual susceptible cohort, represent a potential problem for the maintenance of measles elimination.

  8. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from raw milk sources in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Kate; Moore, Sean C; McAuley, Catherine M; Fegan, Narelle; Fox, Edward M

    2016-07-29

    Highly pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus can cause disease in both humans and animals. In animal species, including ruminants, S. aureus may cause severe or sub-clinical mastitis. Dairy animals with mastitis frequently shed S. aureus into the milk supply which can lead to food poisoning in humans. The aim of this study was to use genotypic and immunological methods to characterize S. aureus isolates from milk-related samples collected from 7 dairy farms across Victoria. A total of 30 S. aureus isolates were collected from milk and milk filter samples from 3 bovine, 3 caprine and 1 ovine dairy farms across Victoria, Australia. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) identified 11 distinct pulsotypes among isolates; all caprine and ovine isolates shared greater than 80 % similarity regardless of source. Conversely, bovine isolates showed higher diversity. Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) identified 5 different sequence types (STs) among bovine isolates, associated with human or ruminant lineages. All caprine and ovine isolates were ST133, or a single allele variant of ST133. Two new novel STs were identified among isolates in this study (ST3183 and ST3184). With the exception of these 2 new STs, eBURST analysis predicted all other STs to be founding members of their associated clonal complexes (CCs). Analysis of genetic markers revealed a diverse range of classical staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE) among isolates, with 11 different SEs identified among bovine isolates, compared with just 2 among caprine and ovine isolates. None of the isolates contained mecA, or were resistant to oxacillin. The only antibiotic resistance identified was that of a single isolate resistant to penicillin; this isolate also contained the penicillin resistance gene blaZ. Production of SE was observed at 16 °C and/or 37 °C in milk, however no SE production was detected at 12 °C. Although this study characterized a limited number of isolates, bovine-associated isolates

  9. A statewide review of postnatal care in private hospitals in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Concerns have been raised in Australia and internationally regarding the quality and effectiveness of hospital postnatal care, although Australian women receiving postnatal care in the private maternity sector rate their satisfaction with care more highly than women receiving public maternity care. In Victoria, Australia, two-thirds of women receive their maternity care in the public sector and the remainder in private health care sector. A statewide review of public hospital postnatal care in Victoria from the perspective of care providers found many barriers to care provision including the busyness of postnatal wards, inadequate staffing and priority being given to other episodes of care; however the study did not include private hospitals. The aim of this study was replicate the review in the private sector, to explore the structure and organisation of postnatal care in private hospitals and identify those aspects of care potentially impacting on women's experiences and maternal and infant care. This provides a more complete overview of the organisational structures and processes in postnatal care in all Victorian hospitals from the perspective of care providers. Methods A mixed method design was used. A structured postal survey was sent to all Victorian private hospitals (n = 19) and key informant interviews were undertaken with selected clinical midwives, maternity unit managers and obstetricians (n = 11). Survey data were analysed using descriptive statistics and interview data analysed thematically. Results Private hospital care providers report that postnatal care is provided in very busy environments, and that meeting the aims of postnatal care (breastfeeding support, education of parents and facilitating rest and recovery for women following birth) was difficult in the context of increased acuity of postnatal care; prioritising of other areas over postnatal care; high midwife-to-woman ratios; and the number and frequency of visitors. These

  10. A statewide review of postnatal care in private hospitals in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forster Della A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns have been raised in Australia and internationally regarding the quality and effectiveness of hospital postnatal care, although Australian women receiving postnatal care in the private maternity sector rate their satisfaction with care more highly than women receiving public maternity care. In Victoria, Australia, two-thirds of women receive their maternity care in the public sector and the remainder in private health care sector. A statewide review of public hospital postnatal care in Victoria from the perspective of care providers found many barriers to care provision including the busyness of postnatal wards, inadequate staffing and priority being given to other episodes of care; however the study did not include private hospitals. The aim of this study was replicate the review in the private sector, to explore the structure and organisation of postnatal care in private hospitals and identify those aspects of care potentially impacting on women's experiences and maternal and infant care. This provides a more complete overview of the organisational structures and processes in postnatal care in all Victorian hospitals from the perspective of care providers. Methods A mixed method design was used. A structured postal survey was sent to all Victorian private hospitals (n = 19 and key informant interviews were undertaken with selected clinical midwives, maternity unit managers and obstetricians (n = 11. Survey data were analysed using descriptive statistics and interview data analysed thematically. Results Private hospital care providers report that postnatal care is provided in very busy environments, and that meeting the aims of postnatal care (breastfeeding support, education of parents and facilitating rest and recovery for women following birth was difficult in the context of increased acuity of postnatal care; prioritising of other areas over postnatal care; high midwife-to-woman ratios; and the number and

  11. Family Presence During Resuscitation (FPDR): Observational case studies of emergency personnel in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Joanne E; Miller, Nareeda; Giannis, Anita; Coombs, Nicole

    2017-07-01

    Family Presence During Resuscitation (FPDR), although not a new concept, remains inconsistently implemented by emergency personnel. Many larger metropolitan emergency departments (ED) have instigated a care coordinator role, however these personnel are often from a non-nursing background and have therefore limited knowledge about the clinical aspects of the resuscitation. In rural emergency departments there are simply not enough staff to allocate an independent role. A separate care coordinator role, who is assigned to care for the family and not take part in the resuscitation has been well documented as essential to the successful implementation of FPDR. One rural and one metropolitan emergency department in the state of Victoria, Australia were observed and data was collected on FPDR events. The participants consisted of resuscitation team members, including; emergency trained nurses, senior medical officers, general nurses and doctors. The participants were not told that the data would be recorded around interactions with family members or team discussions regarding family involvement in the resuscitation, following ethical approval involving limited disclosure of the aims of the study. Seventeen adult presentations (Metro n=9, Rural n=8) were included in this study and will be presented as resuscitation case studies. The key themes identified included ambiguity around resuscitation status, keeping the family informed, family isolation and inter-professional communication. During 17 adult resuscitation cases, staff were witnessed communicating with family, which was often limited and isolation resulted. Family were often uninformed or separated from their family member, however when a family liaison person was available it was found to be beneficial. This research indicated that staff could benefit from a designated family liaison role, formal policy and further education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prehospital management of supraventricular tachycardia in Victoria, Australia: epidemiology and effectiveness of therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gavin; McD Taylor, David; Morgans, Amee; Cameron, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined patient demographics, characteristics and the effectiveness of current prehospital supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) management by ambulance paramedics in Victoria, Australia. We conducted a retrospective study of all Victorian patients attended by paramedics between 14 February 2012 and 13 February 2013, where SVT was the initial or final diagnosis. Patients were excluded if SVT was not captured on ECG, incomplete data were recorded, or SVT began after initial assessment. Data were extracted from the VACIS(®) clinical data warehouse. Accuracy of paramedic SVT diagnosis was examined. Nine hundred and thirty-three patients were enrolled, including 882 (94.5%) adults and 564 (60.5%) women. Mean adult and paediatric (SVT in 119/123 (96.7%, 95% CI: 91.5, 99.0) of adult ECG strips examined. There were 273/882 (31.0%) patients who spontaneously reverted while in paramedic care. Valsalva manoeuvre was undertaken by 212/882 (24.0%) patients and reverted the SVT in 99/358 (27.7%) attempts. Verapamil was administered to 38/882 (4.3%) patients and reverted 33 (86.8%). Aramine was administered to 43/882 (4.9%) patients and 35 reverted following administration (81.4%). Synchronised cardioversion (70 J) reverted four patients at first attempt. Ultimately, 438 (49.7%) patients remained in SVT on arrival at hospital. Patient characteristics associated with SVT are more likely to be middle-aged women with a history of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia. Therapies were underutilised leading to reduced clinical guideline effectiveness. Where therapies were instigated, reversion rates are greater than previously reported. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  13. Influence of voluntary standards and design modifications on trampoline injury in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Karen; Eager, David; D'Elia, Angelo; Day, Lesley

    2015-10-01

    To examine the influence of the voluntary Australian trampoline standard (AS 4989-2006) and market-driven design modifications on relevant trampoline injuries. Trend and intervention analysis on frequencies and proportions of hospital-treated trampoline-related injury in Victoria, Australia, extracted from the Victorian Emergency Minimum Dataset from 1 July 1999 to 30 June 2013. The injuries relevant to the AS were contact with spring and frame, and multiple-user injury. Falls from trampolines were relevant for netted trampolines, a market-driven modification. Frequency of all trampoline injuries increased by 11.4% (95% CI 10.0% to 11.7%) on average each year. Spring and frame, and fall injuries increased to a lesser extent (8.7%, 95% CI 6.9% to 9.8% and 7.3%, 95% CI 5.8% to 8.3%, respectively). Multiple-user injuries increased by 21.0% (95% CI 16.3% to 21.9%). As a proportion of all trampoline injuries, spring and frame injury and falls injury decreased, while multiple-user injuries increased. The intervention analysis showed no significant change in spring and frame injuries associated with the AS (p=0.17). A significant increase was found for multiple-user injuries (p=0.01), in particular for the 0-year to 4-year age group (ptrampolines appear to be associated with a decrease in falls from trampolines but an increase in injuries to multiple users. A mandated trampoline safety standard and a safety campaign including warnings about multiple users is recommended. Continued monitoring of injury data will be required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Travel Destinations and Sexual Behavior as Indicators of Antibiotic Resistant Shigella Strains--Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Courtney R; Sutton, Brett; Valcanis, Mary; Kirk, Martyn; Walker, Cathryn; Lalor, Karin; Stephens, Nicola

    2016-03-15

    Knowledge of relationships between antibiotic susceptibility of Shigella isolates and travel destination or other risk factors can assist clinicians in determining appropriate antibiotic therapy prior to susceptibility testing. We describe relationships between resistance patterns and risk factors for acquisition in Shigella isolates using routinely collected data for notified cases of shigellosis between 2008 and 2012 in Victoria, Australia. We included all shigellosis patients notified during the study period, where Shigella isolates were tested for antimicrobial sensitivity using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoints. Cases were interviewed to collect data on risk factors, including recent travel. Data were analyzed using Stata 13.1 to examine associations between risk factors and resistant strains. Of the 500 cases of shigellosis, 249 were associated with overseas travel and 210 were locally acquired. Forty-six of 51 isolates of Indian origin displayed decreased susceptibility or resistance to ciprofloxacin. All isolates of Indonesian origin were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Twenty-six travel-related isolates were resistant to all tested oral antimicrobials. Male-to-male sexual contact was the primary risk factor for 80% (120/150) of locally acquired infections among adult males, characterized by distinct periodic Shigella sonnei outbreaks. Clinicians should consider travel destination as a marker for resistance to common antimicrobials in returning travelers, where severe disease requires empirical treatment prior to receipt of individual sensitivity testing results. Repeated outbreaks of locally acquired shigellosis among men who have sex with men highlight the importance of prevention and control measures in this high-risk group. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Governance of quality of care: a qualitative study of health service boards in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bismark, Marie M; Studdert, David M

    2014-06-01

    To describe the engagement of health service boards with quality-of-care issues and to identify factors that influence boards' activities in this area. We conducted semistructured interviews with 35 board members and executives from 13 public health services in Victoria, Australia. Interviews focused on the role currently played by boards in overseeing quality of care. We also elicited interviewees' perceptions of factors that have influenced their current approach to governance in this area. Thematic analysis was used to identify key themes from interview transcripts. Virtually all interviewees believed boards had substantial opportunities to influence the quality of care delivered within the service, chiefly through setting priorities, monitoring progress, holding staff to account and shaping culture. Perceived barriers to leveraging this influence included insufficient resources, gaps in skills and experience among board members, inadequate information on performance and regulatory requirements that miss the mark. Interviewees converged on four enablers of more effective quality governance: stronger regional collaborations; more tailored board training on quality issues; smarter use of reporting and accreditation requirements; and better access to data that was reliable, longitudinal and allowed for benchmarking against peer organisations. Although health service boards are eager to establish quality of care as a governance priority, several obstacles are blocking progress. The result is a gap between the rhetoric of quality governance and the reality of month-to-month activities at the board level. The imperative for effective board-level engagement in this area cannot be met until these barriers are addressed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Impacts of reclaimed water irrigation on soil antibiotic resistome in urban parks of Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue-Mei; Hu, Hang-Wei; Shi, Xiu-Zhen; Wang, Jun-Tao; Han, Li-Li; Chen, Deli; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-04-01

    The effluents from wastewater treatment plants have been recognized as a significant environmental reservoir of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Reclaimed water irrigation (RWI) is increasingly used as a practical solution for combating water scarcity in arid and semiarid regions, however, impacts of RWI on the patterns of ARGs and the soil bacterial community remain unclear. Here, we used high-throughput quantitative PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques to compare the diversity, abundance and composition of a broad-spectrum of ARGs and total bacteria in 12 urban parks with and without RWI in Victoria, Australia. A total of 40 unique ARGs were detected across all park soils, with genes conferring resistance to β-lactam being the most prevalent ARG type. The total numbers and the fold changes of the detected ARGs were significantly increased by RWI, and marked shifts in ARG patterns were also observed in urban parks with RWI compared to those without RWI. The changes in ARG patterns were paralleled by a significant effect of RWI on the bacterial community structure and a co-occurrence pattern of the detected ARG types. There were significant and positive correlations between the fold changes of the integrase intI1 gene and two β-lactam resistance genes (KPC and IMP-2 groups), but no significant impacts of RWI on the abundances of intI1 and the transposase tnpA gene were found, indicating that RWI did not improve the potential for horizontal gene transfer of soil ARGs. Taken together, our findings suggested that irrigation of urban parks with reclaimed water could influence the abundance, diversity, and compositions of a wide variety of soil ARGs of clinical relevance. Irrigation of urban parks with treated wastewater significantly increased the abundance and diversity of various antibiotic resistance genes, but did not significantly enhance their potential for horizontal gene transfer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  17. Factors associated with sickness certification of injured workers by General Practitioners in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Ruseckaite

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work-related injuries resulting in long-term sickness certification can have serious consequences for injured workers, their families, society, compensation schemes, employers and healthcare service providers. The aim of this study was to establish what factors potentially are associated with the type of sickness certification that General Practitioners (GPs provide to injured workers following work-related injury in Victoria, Australia. Methods This was a retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted for compensation claims lodged by adults from 2003 to 2010. A logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the impact of various factors on the likelihood that an injured worker would receive an alternate/modified duties (ALT, n = 28,174 vs. Unfit for work (UFW, n = 91,726 certificate from their GP. Results A total of 119,900 claims were analysed. The majority of the injured workers were males, mostly age of 45-54 years. Nearly half of the workers (49.9 % with UFW and 36.9 % with ALT certificates had musculoskeletal injuries. The multivariate regression analysis revealed that for most occupations older men (55-64 years were less likely to receive an ALT certificate, (OR = 0.86, (95%CI, 0.81 – 0.91. Workers suffering musculoskeletal injuries or occupational diseases were nearly twice or three times at higher odds of receiving an ALT certificate when compared to fractures. Being seen by a GP experienced with workers’ compensation increased the odds of receiving ALT certificate (OR = 1.16, (95%CI, 1.11 – 1.20. Occupation and industry types were also important factors determining the type of certificate issued to the injured worker. Conclusions This study suggests that specific groups of injured workers (i.e. older age, workers with mental health issues, in rural areas are less likely to receive ALT certificates.

  18. Palaeozoic Palaeomagnetism of South-Eastern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Vérard, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The drift history of Gondwana following the break-up of Rodinia (or perhaps Pannotia) to the amalgamation into Pangaea has great implications in many disciplines in Earth sciences, but remains largely unknown. Among the apparent polar wander (APW) paths published for Gondwana in the last few decades, large discrepancies exist (sometimes up to thousands of kilometres). The mid Palaeozoic segment of the APW path is particularly problematic, and two primary schools of thought arise. Some authors...

  19. A problem-oriented approach to understanding adaptation: lessons learnt from Alpine Shire, Victoria Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Carolina

    2010-05-01

    Climate change is gaining attention as a significant strategic issue for localities that rely on their business sectors for economic viability. For businesses in the tourism sector, considerable research effort has sought to characterise the vulnerability to the likely impacts of future climate change through scenarios or ‘end-point' approaches (Kelly & Adger, 2000). Whilst useful, there are few demonstrable case studies that complement such work with a ‘start-point' approach that seeks to explore contextual vulnerability (O'Brien et al., 2007). This broader approach is inclusive of climate change as a process operating within a biophysical system and allows recognition of the complex interactions that occur in the coupled human-environmental system. A problem-oriented and interdisciplinary approach was employed at Alpine Shire, in northeast Victoria Australia, to explore the concept of contextual vulnerability and adaptability to stressors that include, but are not limited to climatic change. Using a policy sciences approach, the objective was to identify factors that influence existing vulnerabilities and that might consequently act as barriers to effective adaptation for the Shire's business community involved in the tourism sector. Analyses of results suggest that many threats, including the effects climate change, compete for the resources, strategy and direction of local tourism management bodies. Further analysis of conditioning factors revealed that many complex and interacting factors define the vulnerability and adaptive capacity of the Shire's tourism sector to the challenges of global change, which collectively have more immediate implications for policy and planning than long-term future climate change scenarios. An approximation of the common interest, i.e. enhancing capacity in business acumen amongst tourism operators, would facilitate adaptability and sustainability through the enhancement of social capital in this business community. Kelly, P

  20. Attitudes, Knowledge and Factors Associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Uptake in Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Iris L Y; Machalek, Dorothy A; Garland, Suzanne M

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination targets high-risk HPV16/18 that cause 70% of all cancers of the cervix. In Australia there is a fully-funded, school-based National HPV Vaccination Program which has achieved vaccine initiation rate of 82% among age-eligible females. Improving HPV vaccination rates is important in the prevention of morbidity and mortality associated with HPV-related disease. This study aimed to identify factors and barriers associated with uptake of the HPV vaccine in the Australian Program. Between 2011 and 2014, females aged 18-25 years, living in Victoria, Australia who were offered HPV vaccination between 2007 and 2009 as part of the National HPV Vaccination Program, living in Victoria, Australia were recruited into a a young women's study examining effectiveness of the Australian National HPV Vaccination Program. Overall, 668 participants completed the recruitment survey, which collected data of participants' demographics and HPV knowledge. In 2015 these participants were invited to complete an additional supplementary survey on parental demographics and attitudes towards vaccinations. In 2015, 417 participants completed the supplementary survey (62% response rate). Overall, 19% of participants were unvaccinated. In multivariate analyses, HPV vaccination was significantly associated with their being born in Australia (pAttitudes towards general health, vaccinations in general, as well as HPV vaccines are important in HPV vaccine uptake. Long-term monitoring of the knowledge, attitude and beliefs towards HPV vaccination in the community is critical to ensure a continued high uptake of the vaccine and success of the program.

  1. Desired Chinese medicine practitioner capabilities and professional development needs: a survey of registered practitioners in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radloff Alex

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The State of Victoria in Australia introduced Chinese medicine practitioner registration in 2000 and issued its education guidelines in late 2002 for introduction in 2005. This study obtained practitioners' views on desired capabilities for competent Chinese medicine practice and to identify professional development needs. Methods A questionnaire, consisting of 28 predefined capabilities in four categories with a rating scale of importance from one to five, was developed and sent to all registered Chinese medicine practitioners in the State of Victoria, Australia in October, 2005. Results Two hundreds and twenty eight completed questionnaires were returned which represented a response rate of 32.5%. Of the four categories of capabilities, technical capabilities were considered to be the most important for clinical practice. Specifically, the ability to perform acupuncture treatment and/or dispense an herbal prescription was ranked the highest. In contrast, research and information management capabilities were considered the least important. The educational background of practitioners appeared to be an important factor influencing their rating of capabilities. Significantly, nearly double the number of practitioners with Australian qualifications than practitioners trained overseas valued communication as an important capability. For continuing professional education, clinical skills courses were considered as a priority while research degree studies were not. Conclusion Registered Chinese medicine practitioners viewed skills training as important but did not support the need for research and information management training. This represents a significant hurdle to developing Chinese medicine as a form of evidence-based healthcare.

  2. Exploring the 'follow-through experience': a statewide survey of midwifery students and academics conducted in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Helen L; Newton, Michelle; Nightingale, Helen; Morrow, Jane; Kruger, Gina

    2013-09-01

    Follow-through experiences (which enable midwifery students to experience continuity of care with individual women through pregnancy, labour and birth and the postnatal period) are a component of midwifery education programmes in Australia and the United Kingdom. Current accreditation standards in Australia require midwifery students to have a total of 20 continuity of care experiences with an average of 20 hours per woman over the duration of their course. There has been limited research regarding students' and academics' experiences of follow-through experiences; and there has been debate regarding the appropriate number of follow-through experiences in midwifery curricula. This study aimed to explore the follow-through experience from the perspective of midwifery students and academics in Victoria, Australia. cross-sectional design using a web-based survey. Victoria, Australia. Students (n=401) and academics (n=35) from all seven universities in Victoria that offer accredited midwifery programmes including the Bachelor of Midwifery, Bachelor of Nursing/Bachelor of Midwifery double degree, Postgraduate Diploma of Midwifery and Masters of Midwifery (entry to practice). Students and academics were in agreement that continuity of care is important to women. They considered the follow-through experience to be a unique and valuable learning opportunity and agreed that follow-through experiences should be included in midwifery education programmes. However, students and academics raised major concerns about the impact of follow-through experiences on students' capacity to meet university course requirements (such as missing lectures/tutorials and clinical placements), and spending extensive periods of time on-call both within and outside the university semester. Students and academics also reported concerns about the impact of follow-through experiences on students' personal lives, including paid employment and family responsibilities (such as childcare or caring for

  3. Perception of Aquaculture Education to Support Further Growth of Aquaculture Industry in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awal, Sadiqul; Christie, Andrew; Watson, Matthew; Hannadige, Asanka G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The central aim of this study was to determine the perception of aquaculture educational provisions in the state of Victoria, and whether they are sufficient to ultimately support further growth of the industry. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires were formulated and distributed to participants in a variety of ways, including via…

  4. Knowledge and practices of chronic hepatitis B virus testing by general practitioners in Victoria, Australia, 2014-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gemert, Caroline; Howell, Jess; Wang, Julie; Stoove, Mark; Cowie, Benjamin; Allard, Nicole; Enright, Chris; Dunn, Elisabeth; Towell, Vanessa; Hellard, Margaret

    2017-09-01

    More than one-third of people living with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Australia have not been diagnosed. The aim of this study was to assess general practitioners' (GPs') knowledge and practices regarding chronic HBV diagnosis, and identify opportunities to improve testing rates. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with GPs working in Victoria, Australia. Statistically significant adjusted odds ratios for high knowledge, and ordering two or more HBV tests per week were calculated. Of 1000 GPs who were invited to participate, 232 completed the survey. Chronic HBV knowledge, use of interpreters, and awareness of HBV testing guidelines were low. Chronic HBV knowledge and testing were associated with age and graduation from a medical school outside Australia. Testing was also associated with gender. This study identified gaps in GPs' knowledge about chronic hepatitis. Several barriers to improving testing rates among at-risk populations were identified. We recommend revision of the guidelines for prevention in general practice, and educational activities to improve knowledge of at-risk populations for chronic HBV in Australia.

  5. Maternal region of birth and stillbirth in Victoria, Australia 2000-2011: A retrospective cohort study of Victorian perinatal data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda L Davies-Tuck

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence from high-income countries that maternal country of birth is a risk factor for stillbirth. We aimed to examine the association between maternal region of birth and stillbirth between 2000 and 2011 inclusive in Victoria, Australia.Retrospective population based cohort study of all singleton births at 24 or more weeks gestational age from 2000-2011 in Victoria, Australia. Stillbirths due to termination of pregnancy, babies with congenital anomalies and Indigenous mothers were excluded. Main Outcome Measure: Stillbirth.Over the 12-year period there were 685,869 singleton births and 2299 stillbirths, giving an overall stillbirth rate of 3·4 per 1000 births. After adjustment for risk factors, compared to women born in Australia/New Zealand, women born in South Asia (aOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.53, p = 0.01, were more likely to have a stillbirth whereas women born in South East and East Asia were (aOR 0.60, (95% CI 0.49-0.72, p<0.001 less likely to have a stillbirth. Additionally, the increasing rate of stillbirth as gestation length progressed began to rise earlier and more steeply in the South Asian compared to Australian/New Zealand born women. The following risk factors were also significantly associated with an increased odds of stillbirth in multivariate analyses: maternal age <20 and 35 years and more, nulliparity, low socio-economic status, previous stillbirth, no ultrasound reported in 1st trimester, pre-existing hypertension, antepartum haemorrhage and failure to detect growth restriction antenatally.Maternal region of birth is an independent risk factor for stillbirth. Improvements in the rate of stillbirth, particularly late pregnancy stillbirth, are likely to be gained in high-income settings where clinical care is informed by maternal region of birth.

  6. Use of regionalisation approach to develop fire frequency curves for Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khastagir, Anirban; Jayasuriya, Niranjali; Bhuyian, Muhammed A.

    2017-11-01

    It is important to perform fire frequency analysis to obtain fire frequency curves (FFC) based on fire intensity at different parts of Victoria. In this paper fire frequency curves (FFCs) were derived based on forest fire danger index (FFDI). FFDI is a measure related to fire initiation, spreading speed and containment difficulty. The mean temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and areal extent of open water (LC2) during summer months (Dec-Feb) were identified as the most important parameters for assessing the risk of occurrence of bushfire. Based on these parameters, Andrews' curve equation was applied to 40 selected meteorological stations to identify homogenous stations to form unique clusters. A methodology using peak FFDI from cluster averaged FFDIs was developed by applying Log Pearson Type III (LPIII) distribution to generate FFCs. A total of nine homogeneous clusters across Victoria were identified, and subsequently their FFC's were developed in order to estimate the regionalised fire occurrence characteristics.

  7. Reassessing the Effects of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use on Later Antisocial Behavior: A Longitudinal Study of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Smith, Rachel; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of early adolescent alcohol use on antisocial behavior was examined at 1- and 2-year follow-up in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia. Each state used the same methods to survey statewide representative samples of students ("N" = 1,858, 52% female) in 2002 (Grade 7 [G7]), 2003 (Grade 8 [G8]), and 2004…

  8. Effects of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use on Mid-Adolescent School Performance and Connection: A Longitudinal Study of Students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This article examines the effect of early adolescent alcohol use on mid-adolescent school suspension, truancy, commitment, and academic failure in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia. Also of interest was whether associations remain after statistically controlling for other factors known to predict school outcomes.…

  9. Effect of gap size on seedling establishment, growth and survival at three years in mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell.) forest in Victoria, Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der P.J.; Dignan, P.; Saveneh, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Establishment, growth and survival of Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. seedlings was studied at two sites over three years under a range of small gaps (up to 30mx30m) and large gaps (50mx50m up to clearfells) in a gap cutting experiment in mountain ash forest at Tanjil Bren, Victoria, Australia. In both

  10. Leuconidae (Crustacea: Cumacea) from the collections of the Museum Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, Sarah

    2016-01-21

    The collections of the Museum Victoria have yielded six new leuconid species in five genera from Australian waters: Austroleucon adiazetos n. sp., A. dolosolevis n. sp., Eudorellopsis mykteros n. sp., Kontiloleucon australiensis n. gen., n. sp., Leucon (Alytoleucon) dolichorhinos n. sp., Ommatoleucon megalopos n. sp. as well as the new genus Kontiloleucon. Leucon (Leucon) echinolophotos n. sp. is a new species from off Enderby Land, Antarctica. Keys to the Australian leuconid genera and species are included.

  11. Verification of an alternative sludge treatment process for pathogen reduction at two wastewater treatment plants in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, R; Surapaneni, A; Smith, D; Schmidt, J; Rigby, H; Smith, S R

    2017-08-01

    At South East Water wastewater treatment plants (WwTPs) in Victoria, Australia, biosolids are stockpiled for three years in compliance with the State guidelines to achieve the highest pathogen reduction grade (T1), suitable for unrestricted use in agriculture and landscaping. However, extended stockpiling is costly, may increase odour nuisance and greenhouse gas emissions, and reduces the fertiliser value of the biosolids. A verification programme of sampling and analysis for enteric pathogens was conducted at two WwTPs where sludge is treated by aerobic and anaerobic digestion, air drying (in drying pans or solar drying sheds) and stockpiling, to enumerate and, if present, monitor the decay of a range of enteric pathogens and parasites. The sludge treatment processes at both WwTPs achieved T1 grade biosolids with respect to prescribed pathogenic bacterial numbers (3 log 10 enteric virus reduction after a storage period of one year. No Ascaris eggs were detected in the influent to the WwTPs, confirming previous studies that the presence of helminth infections in Victoria is extremely low and that Ascaris is not applicable as a control criterion for the microbiological quality of biosolids in the region.

  12. Peer Group Patterns of Alcohol-Using Behaviors Among Early Adolescents in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Rachel K; Toumbourou, John W; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Catalano, Richard F

    2016-12-01

    The goal of this study was to examine and cross-nationally compare the peer group patterns of alcohol-drinking behaviors among cohorts of early adolescents (ages 11-14 years) in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States. Latent transition analysis revealed that after 1 year, transitions congruent with peer influence (whereby non-drinking adolescents initiated alcohol use in the presence of drinking peers) and reverse peer influence were observed in both states; however, transitions congruent with peer selection (whereby drinking adolescents self-selected into drinking peer groups) were only observed among Victorian early adolescents. Findings were interpreted to suggest that Australian family and cultural norms that more commonly allow early adolescent alcohol use lead to a higher rate of peer selection. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  13. The consequences of land use change on nutrient exports: a regional scale assessment in south-west Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Laurenson, Laurie; Leblanc, Marc; Stagnitti, Frank; Duff, Gordon; Salzman, Scott; Versace, Vincent

    2005-03-01

    Estimation of nutrient load production based on multi-temporal remotely sensed land use data for the Glenelg-Hopkins region in south-west Victoria, Australia, is discussed. Changes in land use were mapped using archived Landsat data and computerised classification techniques. Land use change has been rapid in recent history with 16% of the region transformed in the last 22 years. Total nitrogen and phosphorus loads were estimated using an export coefficient model. The analysis demonstrates an increase in modelled nitrogen and phosphorus loadings from 1980 to 2002. Whilst such increases were suspected from past anecdotal and ad-hoc evidence, our modelling estimated the magnitude of such increases and thus demonstrated the enormous potential of using remote sensing and GIS for monitoring regional scale environmental processes.

  14. Exploring midwifery students' views and experiences of caseload midwifery: A cross-sectional survey conducted in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Kate; Newton, Michelle; Forster, Della; McLachlan, Helen

    2015-02-01

    in Australia, models of maternity care that offer women continuity of care with a known midwife have been promoted. Little is known about the intentions of the future midwifery workforce to work in such models. This study aimed to explore midwifery students' views and experiences of caseload midwifery and their work intentions in relation to the caseload model following graduation. cross-sectional survey. Victoria, Australia. 129 midwifery students representing all midwifery course pathways (Post Graduate Diploma, Bachelor of Midwifery, Bachelor of Nursing/Bachelor of Midwifery) in Victoria. midwifery students from all course pathways considered that continuity of care is important to women and indicated that exposure to continuity models during their course was very positive. Two-thirds of the students (67%) considered that the continuity experiences made them want to work in a caseload model; only 5% reported that their experiences had discouraged them from continuity of care work in the future. Most wanted a period of consolidation to gain experience as a midwife prior to commencing in the caseload model. Perceived barriers to caseload work were being on-call, and challenges in regard to work/life balance and family commitments. midwifery students in this study were very positive about caseload midwifery and most would consider working in caseload after a period of consolidation. Continuity of care experiences during students' midwifery education programmes appeared to provide students with insight and understanding of continuity of care for both women and midwives. Further research should explore what factors influence students' future midwifery work, whether or not their plans are fulfilled, and whether or not the caseload midwifery workforce can be sustained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Individual and community correlates of young people's high-risk drinking in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Michael; Laslett, Anne-Marie; Dietze, Paul

    2008-12-01

    To examine key individual- and community-level correlates of regular very high-risk drinking (more than 20 drinks at least 12 times a year for males and more than 11 drinks at least 12 times a year for females) among young (16-24) drinkers in Victoria. CATI survey of 10,879 young Victorian drinkers. Multi-level modelling of correlates of proportion drinking at very high-risk levels at both individual (e.g. age, gender) and community levels (e.g. alcohol outlet density, remoteness). One-fifth of the sample reported regular (at least monthly) very high-risk drinking. Significant individual-level correlates of very high-risk drinking included age, gender, cultural background, recreational spending money, life stage, living situation, family conflict and age at first drink. Significant community-level correlates included remoteness (living in a rural area) and packaged liquor outlet density. The study highlights a range of important factors relating to regular drinking of dangerous amounts of alcohol by youth. Interventions aimed at preventing early initiation or managing recreational spending should be explored. Further, regulatory management of packaged liquor outlets and or remote rural communities in Victoria with high levels of dangerous drinking should be a priority.

  16. An overview of Australia's Phytophthora species assemblage in natural ecosystems recovered from a survey in Victoria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunstan, William A; Howard, Kay; StJ Hardy, Giles E; Burgess, Treena I

    2016-01-01

    Although Phytophthora species cause serious diseases worldwide, until recently the main focus on disease in natural ecosystems in southern Australia has been on the distribution and impact of P. cinnamomi...

  17. Fast food restaurant locations according to socioeconomic disadvantage, urban-regional locality, and schools within Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Lamb, Karen E; Ball, Kylie

    2016-12-01

    Features of the built environment provide opportunities to engage in both healthy and unhealthy behaviours. Access to a high number of fast food restaurants may encourage greater consumption of fast food products. The distribution of fast food restaurants at a state-level has not previously been reported in Australia. Using the location of 537 fast food restaurants from four major chains (McDonald׳s, KFC, Hungry Jacks, and Red Rooster), this study examined fast food restaurant locations across the state of Victoria relative to area-level disadvantage, urban-regional locality (classified as Major Cities, Inner Regional, or Outer Regional), and around schools. Findings revealed greater locational access to fast food restaurants in more socioeconomically disadvantaged areas (compared to areas with lower levels of disadvantage), nearby to secondary schools (compared to primary schools), and nearby to primary and secondary schools within the most disadvantaged areas of the major city region (compared to primary and secondary schools in areas with lower levels of disadvantage). Adjusted models showed no significant difference in location according to urban-regional locality. Knowledge of the distribution of fast food restaurants in Australia will assist local authorities to target potential policy mechanisms, such as planning regulations, where they are most needed.

  18. Barriers and facilitators to childhood obesity prevention among culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyril, Sheila; Nicholson, Jan M; Agho, Kingsley; Polonsky, Michael; Renzaho, Andre M

    2017-06-01

    Childhood obesity is rising among culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) groups who show poor engagement in obesity prevention initiatives. We examined the barriers and facilitators to the engagement of CALD communities in obesity prevention initiatives. We used the nominal group technique to collect data from 39 participants from Vietnamese, Burmese, African, Afghani and Indian origins living in disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia. Data analysis revealed ranked priorities for barriers and facilitators for CALD community engagement in obesity prevention initiatives. CALD parents identified key barriers as being: competing priorities in the post-migration settlement phase; language, cultural and program accessibility barriers; low levels of food and health literacy; junk food advertisement targeting children; and lack of mandatory weight checks for schoolchildren. Key facilitators emerged as: bicultural playgroup leaders; ethnic community groups; and school-based healthy lunch box initiatives. This study has identified several policy recommendations including: the implementation of robust food taxation policies; consistent control of food advertising targeting children; improving CALD health literacy using bicultural workers; and matching health promotional materials with CALD community literacy levels. Implications for Public Health: These recommendations can directly influence public health policy to improve the engagement of CALD communities in obesity prevention services and ultimately reduce the widening obesity disparities in Australia. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. Environmental factors associated with the foliage cover of invasive fairy grass (Lachnagrostis filiformis) in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosney, Kate; Florentine, Singarayer K

    2018-01-01

    Fairy grass (Lachnagrostis filiformis) is an Australian native grass that has recently become a major concern for rural communities. Its dried inflorescences are blown by the wind and build up against fences and buildings, becoming a severe fire hazard. Understanding the ecology of fairy grass and its impacts on rural communities is relevant to its management. Four dry lake beds in Western Victoria were selected to determine if environmental factors, such as lake, location, direction, altitude and road type and the covariates of pH, soil salinity, soil moisture and distance to nearest road, are related to the presence of fairy grass. The 'lake' factor was the only environmental parameter that was significantly associated with the presence of this weed.

  20. Maternal and Child Health Nurses work with refugee families: Perspectives from regional Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Suzanne M; Cant, Robyn P; Williams, Allison; McIntyre, Meredith

    2018-01-21

    This study aimed to explore service provision for Victorian regional refugee families from the perspective of Maternal and Child Health nurses. Increasingly, more families from a refugee background are resettling in regional Victoria. The refugee journey has significant effect on families. Refugee families with infants and young children can be provided with support by Maternal and Child Health services; however, many families experience barriers to ongoing engagement with this service. This descriptive study used focus group and questionnaire. A purposive sample of 26 Maternal and Child Health Nurses was drawn from six municipalities throughout regional Victoria, where higher numbers of people from a refugee background resettle. Six focus groups were held in 2014. Audio-recorded narratives were transcribed, prior to inductive thematic analysis. Participating nurses were experienced nurses, averaging 12 years in the service. Four major themes emerged: 'How to identify women from a refugee background'; 'The Maternal and Child Health nurse role when working with families from a refugee background'; 'Interpreting issues', and 'Access to other referral agencies'. Nurses worked to develop a relationship with families, attending to a complex mix of issues which were complicated by language barriers. Nurses found their role in supporting refugee families required additional time and more home visits. To provide best practice, Maternal and Child Health nurses need (i) ongoing professional development; (ii) time, flexibility, and creativity to build relationships with refugee families and (iii) better access to services that enhance communication, such as interpreting services and translated resources. Nurses require ongoing professional development to help them address the multifaceted needs of families of refugee background. With limited resources available in regional areas, accessing further education can be challenging. Distance education models and organisational

  1. Regions With Low Rates of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Have Lower Rates of CPR Training in Victoria, Australia.

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    Bray, Janet E; Straney, Lahn; Smith, Karen; Cartledge, Susie; Case, Rosalind; Bernard, Stephen; Finn, Judith

    2017-06-05

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) more than doubles the chance of surviving an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Recent data have shown considerable regional variation in bystander CPR rates across the Australian state of Victoria. This study aims to determine whether there is associated regional variation in rates of CPR training and willingness to perform CPR in these communities. We categorized each Victorian postcode as either a low or high bystander CPR region using data on adult, bystander-witnessed, out-of-hospital cardiac arrests of presumed cardiac etiology (n=7175) from the Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Registry. We then surveyed adult Victorians (n=404) and compared CPR training data of the respondents from low and high bystander CPR regions. Of the 404 adults surveyed, 223 (55%) resided in regions with low bystander CPR. Compared with respondents from high bystander CPR regions, respondents residing in regions with low bystander CPR had lower rates of CPR training (62% versus 75%, P=0.009) and lower self-ratings for their overall knowledge of CPR (76% versus 84%, P=0.04). There were no differences between the regions in their reasons for not having undergone CPR training or in their willingness to perform CPR. Rates of survival for bystander-witnessed, out-of-hospital cardiac arrests were significantly lower in low bystander CPR regions (15.7% versus 17.0%, PCPR training and lower survival in regions with lower rates of bystander CPR in Victoria, Australia. Targeting these regions with CPR training programs may improve bystander CPR rates and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest outcomes. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  2. High seroprevalance of Neospora caninum in dogs in Victoria, Australia, compared to 20 years ago

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    Sarah Sloan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canids are definitive hosts of the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum, the leading cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. For horizontal transmission from canids to occur, oocysts of N. caninum must be shed by the definitive host into the environment of susceptible intermediate hosts such as cattle. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of N. caninum in canids in Victoria, Australia’s leading dairy producing state. Results Neospora-like oocysts were observed in 8% (18/234 of faecal samples from wild dogs, domestic dogs and red foxes from Victoria, Australia. However, none tested positive for N. caninum DNA using a quantitative PCR. In a separate sample population, blood sera from 483 domestic dogs were tested for anti-N. caninum antibodies using competitive ELISA. A subset of cELISA samples were re-tested using indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT. A seroprevalence of 29.8% (144/483; 95% CI: 11.7–47.8% was calculated when using cELISA; whereas it was 32.9% (27/80; 95% CI: 15.8–51.8% using IFAT. Potential risk factors were evaluated using univariable analyses and then assessed in separate multivariable models. Using ‘aged’ dogs as a reference, the seroprevalence of ‘adolescent’ and ‘adult’ dogs was 88% (P = 0.05 and 91% (P = 0.08, respectively, indicating seroprevalence increases with age. There was a 19% higher likelihood of infection in rural locations (P = 0.10 relative to urban areas. Jack Russell Terriers had a 22% higher risk of a cELISA-positive result (P = 0.05 regardless of geographical location, age or sex. Conclusion These results demonstrate that exposure to N. caninum in domestic dogs is widespread in Victoria, although faecal oocyst shedding is infrequent. Our results indicate increased N. caninum seroprevalance status in dogs over the past two decades. The results imply that dogs get either exposed to the infected meat more frequently or that vertical dam to

  3. Strategic Actions for Increasing the Submission of Digital Cadastral Data by the Surveying Industry Based on Lessons Learned from Victoria, Australia

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    Hamed Olfat

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ePlan, as a digital cadastral data initiative, is a collaborative program between the land authorities and the surveying industry which aims to replace paper and PDF cadastral plans and surveys with digital data. ePlan is currently operational in Australia, New Zealand and Singapore. ePlan was introduced in the State of Victoria in 2011 and has been operational in this jurisdiction for 2D plans since 2013. On average, one ePlan application is currently submitted to a digital plan lodgment portal every two weeks. The low uptake of ePlan is caused by several technical and non-technical challenges. This paper provides an overview of cadastral information transitioning from paper to digital in Victoria. The research methodology to identify the challenges in Victoria for the adoption of ePlan is then described. This is followed by a discussion on the identified challenges. The paper then proposes a generic framework of strategic actions to increase the uptake of digital cadastral data based on the lessons learned from Victoria. The initiatives suggested by this framework to address the ePlan challenges in Victoria and increase its uptake are also introduced. The paper concludes with a direction for future research.

  4. Strategies used by dentists in Victoria, Australia, to manage children with anxiety or behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, F A; McMurray, N E; Giebartowski, J

    1991-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty-seven Australian dentists from the State of Victoria, representing members of the Australian Society of Dentistry for Children (AusSDC) and randomly selected practitioners, responded to a survey on attitudes and practices in the management of anxious children or children with behavior problems. The most common strategies used by dentists in this study were: permitting the child to exercise some form of control over terminating the treatment, if they were experiencing difficulties; furnishing waiting areas with play materials; and using a Tell-Show-Do approach to the provision of dental care. Members of the Australian Society of Dentistry for Children differed from general dentists by more frequently teaching anxious children a technique of relaxation and also by more frequently using a mouth prop or rubber dam during the delivery of care. Younger dentists tended to use behavioral strategies more frequently than older practitioners. Women dentists more frequently than male dentists, used strategies including: spending more time with the child before entering the operatory; setting shorter appointment sessions; and permitting the child to hold a toy or a mirror during dental treatment. In contrast to North American studies, few of the Australian dentists used the Hand-Over-Mouth technique to control hysteria. Australian dentists appeared to rely more frequently than their North American colleagues on setting shorter appointment sessions as a major strategy in managing children with anxiety or other behavioral difficulties.

  5. Relationships between body fatness, small-screen sedentary activity and regionality among schoolchildren in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucote, Helen M; Cooper, Andrew

    2009-06-01

    To examine the difference in body fatness and engagement in small-screen activities across children living in different degrees of regionality, and to examine the relationship between child body fatness and small-screen activities. Cross-sectional study design. Grade 5-6 schoolchildren (n = 393) from central and metropolitan Victoria, and a parent/guardian of each child (n = 393). Parents completed a questionnaire on their child's engagement in television (TV) viewing and video game playing (VGP). Children's weight and height were measured by a researcher. Body mass index (BMI) (kg/m(2)) was calculated and adjusted for age and sex. Regionality (metropolitan, population > 100 000; regional, 100 000 > population < 20 000; and rural, population < 10 000) and socioeconomic status (socioeconomic indexes for areas: index of disadvantage) were assigned according to school attended. BMI did not differ across regionality or sex. Boys engaged in more VGP than girls, and metropolitan children engaged in more VGP than rural and regional children. TV viewing did not differ across sex or regionality. VGP did not predict BMI, and TV viewing did not predict girls' BMI. Three to four per cent of the variance in boys' BMI was predicted by TV viewing. Boys and metropolitan children engage in more VGP. Boys', but not girls', BMI is related to TV viewing. Interventions designed to decrease engagement in TV viewing should be targeting boys.

  6. Socio-demographic profile of child and adolescent users of oral health services in Victoria, Australia

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    J Rodrigo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the socio-demographic characteristics of the eligible population of users of public oral health care services in the Australian state of Victoria, aged 17 years or younger. The study was conducted as a secondary analysis of data collected from July 2008 to June 2009 for 45,728 young clients of public oral health care. The sample mean age was 8.9 (SD: 3.5 years. The majority (82.7% was between 6 and 17 years of age, and 50.3% were males. The majority (76.6% was Australian-born and spoke English at home (89.1%. The overall mean DMFT was 1.0 (SD: 2.1 teeth, with a mean dmft of 3.16 (SD: 5.79 teeth. Data indicate that, among six year olds in the Significant Caries Index (SiC category, the mean dmft was 6.82 teeth. Findings corroborate social inequalities in oral health outcome and provide suggestions for oral health services to develop strategies and priorities to reduce inequalities in health and well-being, and better coordinate and target services to local needs.

  7. Anthropogenic Factors Are the Major Cause of Hospital Admission of a Threatened Species, the Grey-Headed Flying Fox (Pteropus poliocephalus), in Victoria, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Titus Franciscus Scheelings; Sarah Elizabeth Frith

    2015-01-01

    To determine the reasons for presentation and outcomes of hospitalised grey-headed flying foxes (Pteropus poliocephalus) in Victoria, Australia, a retrospective analysis was performed on 532 records from two wildlife hospitals. Cases were categorised based on presenting signs and outcomes determined. Anthropogenic factors (63.7%) were a major cause of flying fox admissions with entanglement in fruit netting the most significant risk for bats (36.8%). Overall the mortality rate for flying fox ...

  8. Assessment of potentially toxic metal contamination in the soils of a legacy mine site in Central Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Joji; Dowling, Kim; Florentine, Singarayer

    2018-02-01

    The environmental impact of toxic metal contamination from legacy mining activities, many of which had operated and were closed prior to the enforcement of robust environmental legislation, is of growing concern to modern society. We have carried out analysis of As and potentially toxic metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the surface soil of a legacy gold mining site in Maldon, Victoria, Australia, to reveal the status of the current metal concentration. The results revealed the median concentrations of metals from highest to lowest, in the order: Mn > Zn > As > Cr > Cu > Pb > Ni > Co > Hg > Cd. The status of site was assessed directly by comparing the metal concentrations in the study area with known Australian and Victorian average top soil levels and the health investigation levels set by the National Environmental Protection Measures (NEPM) and the Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) of the State of Western Australia. Although, median concentrations of As, Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn exceeded the average Australian and Victorian top soil concentrations, only As and Hg exceeded the ecological investigation levels (EIL) set by DEC and thus these metals are considered as risk to the human and aquatic ecosystems health due to their increase in concentration and toxicity. In an environment of climate fluctuation with increased storm events and forest fires may mobilize these toxic metals contaminants, pose a real threat to the environment and the community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influenza A (H1N1 in Victoria, Australia: a community case series and analysis of household transmission.

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    Clare Looker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We characterise the clinical features and household transmission of pandemic influenza A (pH1N1 in community cases from Victoria, Australia in 2009. METHODS: Questionnaires were used to collect information on epidemiological characteristics, illness features and co-morbidities of cases identified in the 2009 Victorian Influenza Sentinel Surveillance program. RESULTS: The median age of 132 index cases was 21 years, of whom 54 (41% were under 18 years old and 28 (21% had medical co-morbidities. The median symptom duration was significantly shorter for children who received antivirals than in those who did not (p = 0.03. Assumed influenza transmission was observed in 63 (51% households. Influenza-like illness (ILI developed in 115 of 351 household contacts, a crude secondary attack rate of 33%. Increased ILI rates were seen in households with larger numbers of children but not larger numbers of adults. Multivariate analysis indicated contacts of cases with cough and diarrhoea, and contacts in quarantined households were significantly more likely to develop influenza-like symptoms. CONCLUSION: Most cases of pH1N1 in our study were mild with similar clinical characteristics to seasonal influenza. Illness and case features relating to virus excretion, age and household quarantine may have influenced secondary ILI rates within households.

  10. Catholic Church Responses to Clergy-Child Sexual Abuse and Mandatory Reporting Exemptions in Victoria, Australia: A Discursive Critique

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    Michael Andre Guerzoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents empirical findings from a critical discourse analysis of institutional responses by the Catholic Church to clergy-child sexual abuse in Victoria, Australia. A sample of 28 documents, comprising 1,394 pages, is analysed in the context of the 2012-2013 Victorian Inquiry into the Handling of Child Abuse by Religious and Other Organisations. Sykes and Matza’s (1957 and Cohen’s (1993 techniques of, respectively, neutralisation and denial are used to reveal the Catholic Church’s Janus-faced responses to clergy-child sexual abuse and mandatory reporting requirements. Paradoxical tensions are observed between Catholic Canonical law and clerical practices, and the extent of compliance with secular law and referral of allegations to authorities. Concerns centre on Church secrecy, clerical defences of the confessional in justification of inaction, and the Melbourne Response compensation scheme. Our research findings underscore the need for greater Church transparency and accountability; we advocate for mandatory reporting law reform and institutional reform, including adjustments to the confessional ritual.

  11. Making medicine; producing pleasure: A critical examination of medicinal cannabis policy and law in Victoria, Australia.

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    Lancaster, Kari; Seear, Kate; Ritter, Alison

    2017-11-01

    Several jurisdictions around the world have introduced policies and laws allowing for the legal use of cannabis for therapeutic purposes. However, there has been little critical discussion of how the object of 'medicinal cannabis' is enacted in policy and practice. Informed by Carol Bacchi's poststructuralist approach to policy analysis and the work of science and technology studies scholars, this paper seeks to problematise the object of 'medicinal cannabis' and examine how it is constituted through governing practices. In particular, we consider how the making of the object of 'medicinal cannabis' might constrain or enact discourses of pleasure. As a case example, we take the Victorian Law Reform Commission's review of law reform options to allow people in the Australian state of Victoria to be treated with medicinal cannabis. Through analysis of this case example, we find that although 'medicinal cannabis' is constituted as a thoroughly medical object, it is also constituted as unique. We argue that medicinal cannabis is enacted in part through the production of another object (so-called 'recreational cannabis') and the social and political meanings attached to both. Although both 'substances' are constituted as distinct, 'medicinal cannabis' relies on the 'absent presence' of 'recreational cannabis' to define and shape what it is. However, we find that contained within this rendering of 'medicinal cannabis' are complex enactments of health and wellbeing, which open up discourses of pleasure. 'Medicinal cannabis' appears to challenge the idea that the effects of 'medicine' cannot be understood in terms of pleasure. As such, the making of 'medicinal cannabis' as a medical object, and its invocation of broad notions of health and wellbeing, expand the ways in which drug effects can be acknowledged, including pleasurable and desirable effects, helping us to think differently about both medicine and other forms of drug use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  12. Medical review licensing outcomes in drivers with visual field loss in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Carlyn; Charlton, Judith L; Odell, Morris; Keeffe, Jill; Wood, Joanne; Bohensky, Megan; Fildes, Brian; Oxley, Jennifer; Bentley, Sharon; Rizzo, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Background Good vision is essential for safe driving and studies have associated visual impairment with an increased crash risk. Currently, there is little information about the medical review of drivers with visual field loss. This study examines the prevalence of visual field loss among drivers referred for medical review in one Australian jurisdiction and investigates factors associated with licence outcome in this group. Methods A random sample of 10,000 (31.25 per cent) medical review cases was extracted for analysis from the Victorian licensing authority. Files were screened for the presence of six visual field-related medical conditions. Data were captured on a range of variables, including referral source, age, gender, health status, crash history and licence outcome. Prevalence analyses were univariate and descriptive. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with licence outcomes in the visual field loss group. Results Approximately 1.9 per cent of the 10,000 medical review cases screened had a visual field loss condition identified (n=194). Among the visual field loss group, 57.2 per cent were permitted to continue driving (conditional/unconditional licence). Primary referral sources were the police, self-referrals and general medical practitioners. Key factors associated with licence test outcomes were visual field condition, age group, crash involvement and referral to the Driver Licensing Authority’s Medical Advisors. Those who were younger had a crash involvement triggering referral and those who were referred to the Medical Advisors were more likely to have a positive licensing outcome. Conclusion The evidence base for making licensing decisions is complicated by the variable causes, patterns, progressions and measuring technologies for visual field loss. This study highlighted that the involvement of an expert medical advisory service in Victoria resulted in an increased likelihood that drivers with visual field loss will be

  13. British History is Their History: Britain and the British Empire in the History Curriculum of Ontario, Canada and Victoria, Australia 1930-1975

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    Stephen J Jackson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the evolving conceptions of national identity in Canada and Australia through an analysis of officially sanctioned history textbooks in Ontario, Canada and Victoria, Australia. From the 1930s until the 1950s, Britain and the British Empire served a pivotal role in history textbooks and curricula in both territories. Textbooks generally held that British and imperial history were crucial to the Canadian and Australian national identity. Following the Second World War, textbooks in both Ontario and Victoria began to recognize Britain’s loss of power, and how this changed Australian and Canadian participation in the British Empire/Commonwealth. But rather than advocate for a complete withdrawal from engagement with Britain, authors emphasized the continuing importance of the example of the British Empire and Commonwealth to world affairs. In fact, participation in the Commonwealth was often described as of even more importance as the Dominions could take a more prominent place in imperial affairs. By the 1960s, however, textbook authors in Ontario and Victoria began to change their narratives, de-emphasizing the importance of the British Empire to the Canadian and Australian identity. Crucially, by the late 1960s the new narratives Ontarians and Victorians constructed claimed that the British Empire and national identity were no longer significantly linked. An investigation into these narratives of history will provide a unique window into officially acceptable views on imperialism before and during the era of decolonization.

  14. "Are we moving again this week?" Children's experiences of homelessness in Victoria, Australia.

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    Kirkman, Maggie; Keys, Deborah; Bodzak, Daria; Turner, Alina

    2010-04-01

    This research aimed to gain insight into the homelessness experience of children accommodated in transitional support services in an urban setting in Australia. It joins a limited international literature. Interviews incorporating interactive activities were conducted with 20 children aged 6-12 from diverse ethnicities and cultural backgrounds, most of whom were living in supported accommodation. Twelve parents/guardians were also interviewed. Children had experienced between 3 and 11 changes of residence, including hotels or motels, refuges, sleeping rough or in cars, rooming or boarding houses, and caravan parks. It was evident that homelessness adversely affected children's sense of security, mood, behaviour, physical health, education, and overall experience of childhood. As families moved from one temporary accommodation to the next, they often lost touch with the extended family and their friends, became disconnected from any sense of community, and did without familiar possessions, treasures, toys, and pets. Experiencing chaotic sequences of accommodation could leave children feeling confused, insecure, sad, and angry. It could make children feel responsible for their discouraged and unwell parents and their younger siblings. Homelessness made many children expect instability as a way of life. Children continued to be affected by problems that preceded or precipitated homelessness, such as family violence, broken relationships, and parents grappling with drug and alcohol dependence. The overwhelming conclusion to be drawn from this research is that children affected by homelessness need security, stability, and the chance to become and remain part of a community. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Trace metal contamination of mineral spring water in an historical mining area in regional Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rachael; Dowling, Kim

    2013-11-01

    Significant global consumption of spring and mineral water is fuelled by perceived therapeutic and medicinal qualities, cultural habits and taste. The Central Victorian Mineral Springs Region, Australia comprises approximately 100 naturally effervescent, cold, high CO2 content springs with distinctive tastes linked to a specific spring or pump. The area has a rich settlement history. It was first settled by miners in the 1840s closely followed by the first commercial operations of a health resort 1895. The landscape is clearly affected by gold mining with geographically proximal mine waste, mullock heaps or tailings. Repeated mineral springs sampling since 1985 has revealed elevated arsenic concentrations. In 1985 an arsenic concentration five times the current Australian Drinking Water Guideline was recorded at a popular tourist spring site. Recent sampling and analyses have confirmed elevated levels of heavy metals/metalloids, with higher concentrations occurring during periods of low rainfall. Despite the elevated levels, mineral water source points remain accessible to the public with some springs actively promoting the therapeutic benefits of the waters. In light of our analysis, the risk to consumers (some of whom are likely to be negatively health-affected or health-compromised) needs to be considered with a view to appropriate and verified analyses made available to the public.

  16. Assessment of Wetland Hydrological Dynamics in a Modified Catchment Basin: Case of Lake Buninjon, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yihdego, Yohannes; Webb, John A

    2017-02-01

      The common method to estimate lake levels is the water balance equation, where water input and output result in lake storage and water level changes. However, all water balance components cannot always be quickly assessed, such as due to significant modification of the catchment area. A method that assesses general changes in lake level can be a useful tool in examining why lakes have different lake level variation patterns. Assessment of wetlands using the dynamics of the historical hydrological and hydrogeological data set can provide important insights into variations in wetland levels in different parts of the world. A case study from a saline landscape, Lake Buninjon, Australia, is presented. The aim of the present study was to determine how climate, river regime, and lake hydrological properties independently influence lake water levels and salinity, leaving the discrepancy, for the effect of the non-climatic/catchment modification in the past and the model shows that surface inflow is most sensitive variable. The method, together with the analysis and interpretation, might be of interest to wider community to assess its response to natural/anthropogenic stress and decision choices for its ecological, social, scientific value, and mitigation measures to safe guard the wetland biodiversity in a catchment basin.

  17. Early post-partum adjustment and admission to parenting services in Victoria, Australia after assisted conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarberg, K; Rowe, H J R; Fisher, J R W

    2009-11-01

    Higher rates of admission to residential early parenting services (REPSs) after assisted conception compared with spontaneous conception have been reported. The aim of this study was to characterize early post-partum psychological functioning and the rate of, and risks factors for, admission to REPSs in women conceiving with assisted reproductive technology (ART) in Australia. A consecutive cohort of women who had conceived through ART was recruited systematically in early pregnancy. At 3 months post-partum, participants completed postal questionnaires which included a new measure of the degree of difficulty involved in conceiving, the Burden of Infertility and Treatment (BIT) scale. Of 166 women who participated, 8% had already been admitted to a REPS within 3 months, which is a higher rate compared with other women in the first 12 months (5%). Compared with community samples of new mothers, there was no difference in rate of depression. A higher proportion reported dysregulated infant behaviours (P < 0.0001) and a smaller proportion was breast feeding exclusively (P < 0.0001). Greater difficulty conceiving (higher BIT score) was associated with lower maternal confidence. Clinical care of the increasing group of women who conceive with ART should include explicit assessment of early post-partum psychological functioning and early intervention if difficulties in managing infant behaviour are reported.

  18. Contemporaneous trace and body fossils from a late Pleistocene Lakebed in Victoria, Australia, allow assessment of bias in the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camens, Aaron Bruce; Carey, Stephen Paul

    2013-01-01

    The co-occurrence of vertebrate trace and body fossils within a single geological formation is rare and the probability of these parallel records being contemporaneous (i.e. on or near the same bedding plane) is extremely low. We report here a late Pleistocene locality from the Victorian Volcanic Plains in south-eastern Australia in which demonstrably contemporaneous, but independently accumulated vertebrate trace and body fossils occur. Bite marks from a variety of taxa are also present on the bones. This site provides a unique opportunity to examine the biases of these divergent fossil records (skeletal, footprints and bite marks) that sampled a single fauna. The skeletal record produced the most complete fauna, with the footprint record indicating a markedly different faunal composition with less diversity and the feeding traces suggesting the presence, amongst others, of a predator not represented by either the skeletal or footprint records. We found that the large extinct marsupial predator Thylacoleo was the only taxon apparently represented by all three records, suggesting that the behavioral characteristics of large carnivores may increase the likelihood of their presence being detected within a fossil fauna. In contrast, Diprotodon (the largest-ever marsupial) was represented only by trace fossils at this site and was absent from the site's skeletal record, despite its being a common and easily detected presence in late Pleistocene skeletal fossil faunas elsewhere in Australia. Small mammals absent from the footprint record for the site were represented by skeletal fossils and bite marks on bones.

  19. Contemporaneous trace and body fossils from a late Pleistocene Lakebed in Victoria, Australia, allow assessment of bias in the fossil record.

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    Aaron Bruce Camens

    Full Text Available The co-occurrence of vertebrate trace and body fossils within a single geological formation is rare and the probability of these parallel records being contemporaneous (i.e. on or near the same bedding plane is extremely low. We report here a late Pleistocene locality from the Victorian Volcanic Plains in south-eastern Australia in which demonstrably contemporaneous, but independently accumulated vertebrate trace and body fossils occur. Bite marks from a variety of taxa are also present on the bones. This site provides a unique opportunity to examine the biases of these divergent fossil records (skeletal, footprints and bite marks that sampled a single fauna. The skeletal record produced the most complete fauna, with the footprint record indicating a markedly different faunal composition with less diversity and the feeding traces suggesting the presence, amongst others, of a predator not represented by either the skeletal or footprint records. We found that the large extinct marsupial predator Thylacoleo was the only taxon apparently represented by all three records, suggesting that the behavioral characteristics of large carnivores may increase the likelihood of their presence being detected within a fossil fauna. In contrast, Diprotodon (the largest-ever marsupial was represented only by trace fossils at this site and was absent from the site's skeletal record, despite its being a common and easily detected presence in late Pleistocene skeletal fossil faunas elsewhere in Australia. Small mammals absent from the footprint record for the site were represented by skeletal fossils and bite marks on bones.

  20. The perceptions of pharmacists in Victoria, Australia on pharmacogenetics and its implications

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    McMahon T

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to explore how well Victorian pharmacists perceived they understood pharmacogenetics, their perceived capacity to counsel a patient about such testing, how they believed pharmacogenetics would impact upon their profession, and to investigate the ways in which Victorian pharmacists would like to be educated about pharmacogenetics.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was dispatched to 800 Victorian pharmacists. The participants were randomly selected and the survey was anonymous. The survey contained questions about where the pharmacists worked, the pharmacists’ perceived knowledge of pharmacogenetics, how well they believed they would be able to counsel patients about pharmacogenetic testing, how they thought pharmacists should be educated on the topic and how they believed pharmacogenetics would impact upon their profession.Results: 291 surveys were returned (36% response rate. Results suggest that Victorian pharmacists generally perceived they had a poor understanding of pharmacogenetics and that those who have more recently graduated from tertiary education had a better perceived understanding than those who have been in the workforce for longer. Most pharmacists indicated that they did not believe that they could counsel a patient adequately about the results of a pharmacogenetic test. Regarding education about pharmacogenetics, participants suggested that this would be best delivered during tertiary studies, and as seminars and workshops forming part of their continuing professional development. Although some pharmacists were unsure how pharmacogenetics would affect their profession, many believed it would have a major impact upon their role as a pharmacist and lead to improved patient care. Some concerns about the implementation of pharmacogenetics were noted, including economic and ethical issues.Conclusion: This study highlights the need for further research across the pharmacy profession in Australia on the

  1. The epidemiology of paediatric head injuries: data from a referral centre in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Louise; Babl, Franz; Anderson, Vicki; Catroppa, Cathy

    2009-06-01

    Currently, there are no population-based or hospital-based studies on the full spectrum of paediatric head injuries (HIs) in Australia. We set out to provide detailed information on the incidence rates, causes and clinical management of all severities of HI in children and adolescents at an Australian tertiary referral centre using emergency department (ED) and admission data as a basis for further investigations and prevention efforts. A retrospective chart review of all children aged 0-16 years who attended the Royal Childrens Hospital (RCH), Melbourne, following a HI in 2004 was used. The cases were identified using the International classification of diseases 10th revision codes, and all medical records were reviewed based on a piloted data form. Information was collected on demographics, injury factors and clinical management of HIs in the hospital setting. Over the 12-month period, there were 1115 children with an HI who attended the RCH ED, or were admitted. Ninety per cent were classified as mild, 8% as moderate and 3% as severe. Males and children under 3 years had the higher attendance rates. Falls, sports and motor vehicle accidents were the main HI causes. The main sport played (30%) when sustaining an HI was Australian rules football. Thirty-two per cent of children were admitted, 67% of these with mild HI. Twenty-one per cent had a radiology imaging study, most (67%) with a normal result. Many HI causes appear preventable, in particular, falls from heights in infants and sports safety. High rates of admission and radiology imaging of mild HI warrant further investigation. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  2. The adoption of children from out-of-home care: The understandings of key decision makers in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butlinski, Anna; Rowe, Heather; Goddard, Christopher; Freezer, Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Adoption is one of a range of options that can provide children in out-of-home care with permanency when they are unable to be reunified with their birth parents. This paper reports on how the adoption of children from out-of-home care is understood by professionals involved in making decisions about the permanent placement of children in out-of-home care in Victoria, Australia, where adoption is rarely used. Data were collected through a single, face-to-face semi-structured interview with 21 professionals; eight child welfare specialists, eight adoption and permanent care specialists and five judicial officers. The adoption of children from out-of-home care was primarily understood as a child-centered practice that can afford children stability and a sense of belonging. Adoption was largely viewed as a voluntary process dependent upon the consent of a child's birth parents. Adoption and permanent care specialists were the only group to refer to the dispensation of parental consent as a means of obtaining an adoption order. Most decision makers understood that contact between children and their birth parents is possible following adoption, but this was not understood by all judicial officers or all child welfare specialists. Children's connection to their cultural heritage was viewed as important to the consideration of adoption for children in out-of-home care. This research provides insight into the foundations upon which decision makers may appraise adoption, within a hierarchy of options, as a potential outcome for children in need of permanency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The early postnatal period: Exploring women's views, expectations and experiences of care using focus groups in Victoria, Australia

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    Rayner Jo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence from Australia and overseas that the care provided in hospital in the early postnatal period is less than ideal for both women and care providers. Many health services face increasing pressure on hospital beds and have limited physical space available to care for mothers and their babies. We aimed to gain a more in-depth understanding of women's views, expectations and experiences of early postnatal care. Methods We conducted focus groups in rural and metropolitan Victoria, Australia in 2006. Fifty-two people participated in eight focus groups and four interviews. Participants included eight pregnant women, of whom seven were pregnant with their first baby; 42 women who were in the postpartum period (some up to twelve months after the birth of their baby; and two partners. All participants were fluent in English. Focus group guides were developed specifically for the study and explored participants' experiences and/or expectations of early postnatal care in hospital and at home, with an emphasis on length of hospital stay, professional and social support, continuity of care, and rest. Discussions were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. A thematic network was constructed to describe and connect categories with emerging basic, organizing, and global themes. Results Global themes that emerged were: anxiety and/or fear; and the transition to motherhood and parenting. The needs of first time mothers were considered to be different to the needs of women who had already experienced motherhood. The women in this study were generally concerned about the safety of their new baby, and lacked confidence in themselves as new mothers regarding their ability to care for their baby. There was a consistent view that the physical presence and availability of professional support helped alleviate these concerns, and this was especially the case for women having a first baby. Conclusion Women have anxieties and fears

  4. Anthropogenic Factors Are the Major Cause of Hospital Admission of a Threatened Species, the Grey-Headed Flying Fox (Pteropus poliocephalus), in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelings, Titus Franciscus; Frith, Sarah Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    To determine the reasons for presentation and outcomes of hospitalised grey-headed flying foxes (Pteropus poliocephalus) in Victoria, Australia, a retrospective analysis was performed on 532 records from two wildlife hospitals. Cases were categorised based on presenting signs and outcomes determined. Anthropogenic factors (63.7%) were a major cause of flying fox admissions with entanglement in fruit netting the most significant risk for bats (36.8%). Overall the mortality rate for flying fox admissions was 59.3%. This study highlights the effects of urbanisation on wild animal populations and a need for continued public education in order to reduce morbidity and mortality of wildlife, especially threatened species.

  5. Fear of (reinjury and return to work following compensable injury: qualitative insights from key stakeholders in Victoria, Australia

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    Samantha Bunzli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Return to work (RTW is important for recovery post-injury. Fear of (reinjury is a strong predictor of delayed RTW, and therefore much attention has been given to addressing injured workers’ fear beliefs. However, RTW is a socially-negotiated process and it may be important to consider the wider social context of the injured worker, including the beliefs of the key people involved in their RTW journey. Methods This paper involves data collected as part of a wider study in which semi-structured interviews explored RTW from the perspectives of 93 key stakeholders: injured workers, GPs, employers and insurance case managers in Victoria, Australia. Inductive analysis of interview transcripts identified fear of (reinjury as a salient theme across all stakeholder groups. This presented an opportunity to analyse how the wider social context of the injured worker may influence fear and avoidance behaviour. Two co-authors performed inductive analysis of the theme ‘fear of (reinjury’. Codes identified in the data were grouped into five categories. Between and within category analysis revealed three themes describing the contextual factors that may influence fear avoidance and RTW behaviour. Results Theme one described how injured workers engaged in a process of weighing up the risk of (reinjury in the workplace against the perceived benefits of RTW. Theme two described how workplace factors could influence an injured workers’ perception of the risk of (reinjury in the workplace, including confidence that the source of the injury had been addressed, the availability and suitability of alternative duties. Theme three described other stakeholders’ reluctance to accept injured workers back at work because of the fear that they might reinjure themselves. Conclusions Our findings illustrate the need for a contextualised perspective of fear avoidance and RTW behaviour that includes the beliefs of other important people surrounding

  6. Fear of (re)injury and return to work following compensable injury: qualitative insights from key stakeholders in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzli, Samantha; Singh, Nabita; Mazza, Danielle; Collie, Alex; Kosny, Agnieszka; Ruseckaite, Rasa; Brijnath, Bianca

    2017-04-11

    Return to work (RTW) is important for recovery post-injury. Fear of (re)injury is a strong predictor of delayed RTW, and therefore much attention has been given to addressing injured workers' fear beliefs. However, RTW is a socially-negotiated process and it may be important to consider the wider social context of the injured worker, including the beliefs of the key people involved in their RTW journey. This paper involves data collected as part of a wider study in which semi-structured interviews explored RTW from the perspectives of 93 key stakeholders: injured workers, GPs, employers and insurance case managers in Victoria, Australia. Inductive analysis of interview transcripts identified fear of (re)injury as a salient theme across all stakeholder groups. This presented an opportunity to analyse how the wider social context of the injured worker may influence fear and avoidance behaviour. Two co-authors performed inductive analysis of the theme 'fear of (re)injury'. Codes identified in the data were grouped into five categories. Between and within category analysis revealed three themes describing the contextual factors that may influence fear avoidance and RTW behaviour. Theme one described how injured workers engaged in a process of weighing up the risk of (re)injury in the workplace against the perceived benefits of RTW. Theme two described how workplace factors could influence an injured workers' perception of the risk of (re)injury in the workplace, including confidence that the source of the injury had been addressed, the availability and suitability of alternative duties. Theme three described other stakeholders' reluctance to accept injured workers back at work because of the fear that they might reinjure themselves. Our findings illustrate the need for a contextualised perspective of fear avoidance and RTW behaviour that includes the beliefs of other important people surrounding the injured worker (e.g. employers, family members, GPs). Existing models

  7. Rehabilitation Utilization following a Work-Related Traumatic Brain Injury: A Sex-Based Examination of Workers' Compensation Claims in Victoria, Australia.

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    E Niki Guerriero

    Full Text Available To report on and examine differences in the use of four types of rehabilitation services (occupational therapy, physiotherapy, psychology, and speech therapy by men and women following a work-related traumatic brain injury in Victoria, Australia; and to examine the importance of demographic, need, work-related and geographic factors in explaining these differences.A retrospective cohort design was used to analyze 1786 work-related traumatic brain injury workers' compensation claims lodged between 2004 and 2012 in Victoria, Australia. ZINB regressions were conducted for each type of rehabilitation service to examine the relationship between sex and rehabilitation use. Covariates included demographic, need-related, work-related, and geographic factors.Out of all claims (63% male, 37% female, 13% used occupational therapy, 23% used physiotherapy, 9% used psychology, and 2% used speech therapy at least once during the first year of service utilization. After controlling for demographic, need-related, work-related, and geographic factors, women were more likely to use physiotherapy compared to men. Men and women were equally likely to use occupational therapy and psychology services. The number of visits in the first year for each type of service did not differ between male and female users.Our findings support a sex-based approach to studying rehabilitation utilization in work-related populations. Future research is needed to examine other factors associated with rehabilitation utilization and to determine the implications of different rehabilitation utilization patterns on health and return-to-work outcomes.

  8. Regions With Low Rates of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Have Lower Rates of CPR Training in Victoria, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Bray, Janet E.; Straney, Lahn; Smith, Karen; Cartledge, Susie; Case, Rosalind; Bernard, Stephen; Finn, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Background Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) more than doubles the chance of surviving an out‐of‐hospital cardiac arrest. Recent data have shown considerable regional variation in bystander CPR rates across the Australian state of Victoria. This study aims to determine whether there is associated regional variation in rates of CPR training and willingness to perform CPR in these communities. Methods and Results We categorized each Victorian postcode as either a low or high bystand...

  9. Family Violence in Domestic Homicides: A Case Study of Women Who Killed Intimate Partners Post-Legislative Reform in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Danielle; Kirkwood, Deborah; Mckenzie, Mandy

    2016-05-18

    This article examines the impact of legislative reforms enacted in 2005 in Victoria, Australia, on legal responses to women charged with murder for killing their intimate partner. The reforms provided for a broader understanding of the context of family violence to be considered in such cases, but we found little evidence of this in practice. This is partly attributable to persistent misconceptions among the legal profession about family violence and why women may believe it necessary to kill a partner. We recommend specialized training for legal professionals and increased use of family violence evidence to help ensure women's claims of self-defense receive appropriate responses from Victorian courts. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. An investigation into dentists' perceptions of barriers to providing care of dental trauma to permanent maxillary incisors in children in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeng, T; Parashos, P

    2007-09-01

    Perceived barriers in the treatment of dental trauma may influence the optimum management of dental trauma. Any hesitation that dentists might have in managing dental trauma is important to investigate. The aim of this study was to investigate dentists' perceptions of barriers to providing care of dental trauma to permanent maxillary incisors in children. A self-completion questionnaire survey containing six questions on demographic data and 15 questions relating to barriers to treating dental trauma was mailed to 693 dentists in Victoria, Australia. The response rate achieved was 61 per cent. Of the respondents, 90 per cent had no hesitation in treating dental injuries and 80 per cent of these frequently agreed that dentists should treat all dental trauma. Approximately half the dentists (51.5 per cent) frequently found uncooperative children to be the main barrier to providing care. The overall consensus from the present study was that treating dental trauma is not unappealing for dentists in general practice.

  11. The incidence and burden of hospital-treated sports-related injury in people aged 15+ years in Victoria, Australia, 2004-2010: a future epidemic of osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, C F; Kemp, J L; Clapperton, A J

    2015-07-01

    Previous sports injury is a known risk factor for subsequent osteoarthritis (OA), but population-based rates of sports injury are unknown. The aims of this study were to: (1) describe the trends in the population incidence and burden of all hospital-treated sports injury in Victoria, Australia in adults aged 15+ years; (2) determine the incidence of lower limb and knee injuries; and (3) quantify their population health burden as average direct hospital costs per injury and lengths of stay. Health sector data relating to adults aged 15+ years, for 2004-2010 inclusive, was extracted from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset (VAED) and Victorian Emergency Minimum Dataset (VEMD). Data relating to sports injuries were identified using activity codes in each dataset Trends in injury frequency and rates were determined, and economic burden was calculated. The overall annual rate of hospital treated sports injuries increased by 24% (P = 0.001), and lower limb injuries by 26% (P = 0.001) over the 7 years. The associated accumulated economic burden was $265 million for all sports injuries and $110 million for lower limb injuries over the 7-years. The findings of this study show a significant increase in sports injuries in the state of Victoria, Australia over a 7-year period. As previous sports injury is a risk factor for the development of OA, the future incidence of OA will escalate, placing an even greater burden on health care systems. Population-wide preventative strategies that reduce the risk of sports injury are urgently required in order to reduce the future burden of OA. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The foreign investments phenomena in south-eastern European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Teodora ALECU

    2010-01-01

    The south-eastern Europe countries have all the common history of the communism policy and economy, which from the foreign investments perspective meant a radical approach, which promoted a nationalism view against foreign capital interference. Similar to China, perhaps India and other countries, the governments of the south-eastern Europe’s countries expressed a rejection to foreign investments, emphasizing the negative effects of such operations, arguing that any foreign capital inflow is f...

  13. Trends in incidence and survival for upper tract urothelial cancer (UTUC) in the state of Victoria--Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodford, Richard; Ranasinghe, Weranja; Aw, Hau Choong; Sengupta, Shomik; Persad, Raj

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the incidence and mortality trends of upper tract urothelial cancers (UTUC) in Victoria over the last decade. Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for UTUC. These were identified using data from the Victorian Cancer Registry from 2001 until 2011 based on histological diagnoses. Age at diagnosis, sex and demographical location were compared. The age-standardised incidence of UTUC remained stable from 2001 to 2011. There were 278 deaths from UTUC over this period with an overall 5-year survival rate of 32%. There was no significant difference in survival between 2001-06 and 2007-11 (30% vs 36%, respectively). Lower age at diagnosis was associated with a significant improvement in survival (P = 0.01). Sex and geographical location appeared to have no effect on survival. The 5-year survival rates for UTUC in Victoria are poor, particularly in comparison to worldwide data. In contrast to worldwide trends, the incidence of UTUC appears to be stable. No significant improvement in 5-year survival rates over the short study period was identified. These findings highlight the difficulties in managing this rare yet deadly malignancy. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Utilisation of Rep-PCR to track microbes in aerosols collected adjacent to their source, a saline lake in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Chris I; O'Loingsigh, Tadhg; Tapper, Nigel J; De Deckker, Patrick; Allison, Gwen E

    2013-04-15

    Dust storms are a major source of aerosolized bacteria, especially in the drought conditions experienced in Australia in the decade to 2009. The major aims of this project were to identify the culturable bacteria in environmental samples and to genetically fingerprint all isolates using repetitive element PCR (Rep-PCR) to investigate the possibility of tracking isolates from their source into the atmosphere. Four field trips were conducted to a dry lake in western Victoria, Australia to sample aerosols and sediments. Aerosols were collected at heights up to 150 m using vacuum pumps with filters attached to a tethered helium balloon, while corresponding sediments were collected in sterile polypropylene tubes. Isolates were cultivated on Tryptic Soy Agar, R2 Agar and Marine Agar, and grown in dark conditions at ambient temperature. By sequencing the 16S rRNA gene of 270 isolates, fifteen different bacterial families were identified, with both the aerosols and sediments dominated by the Bacillaceae family. Four sets of Rep-PCR primers were tested, with the ERIC and (GTG)5 primers proving to be the most suitable for fingerprinting the cultured taxa. Rep-PCR revealed very high strain diversity in the samples collected, however some strains were still able to be tracked from sediments up to 150 m in height. This shows the potential of Rep-PCR, however very large reference databases would be required for the technique to be more useful. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A snapshot of the prevalence of physical activity amongst older, community dwelling people in Victoria, Australia: patterns across the 'young-old' and 'old-old'

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    Davidson Sandra

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has a range of health benefits for older people. The aim of this study was to determine physical activity prevalence and attitudes amongst respondents to a trial screening survey. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Subjects were community dwelling older people aged ≥ 65 years, recruited via general practices in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed a mailed screening tool containing the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Active Australia survey and the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire. Results Of 330 participants, 20% were ≥ 80 years. Activity levels were similar to those reported in population studies. The proportion of participants reporting physical activity was greatest for the walking category, but decreased across categories of physical activity intensity. The oldest-old were represented at all physical activity intensity levels. Over half reported exercising at levels that, according to national criteria are, 'sufficient to attain health benefit'. A greater proportion of participants aged 85 years and older were unaware of key physical activity messages, compared to participants aged less than 85 years. Conclusion Most population surveys do not provide details of older people across age categories. This survey provided information on the physical activity of people up to 91 years old. Physical activity promotion strategies should be tailored according to the individual's needs. A better understanding of the determinants of physical activity behaviour amongst older sub-groups is needed to tailor and target physical activity promotion strategies and programs to maximise physical activity related health outcomes for older people.

  16. Innovative 'Artificial Mussels' technology for assessing spatial and temporal distribution of metals in Goulburn-Murray catchments waterways, Victoria, Australia: effects of climate variability (dry vs. wet years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibria, Golam; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf

    2012-12-01

    The "Artificial mussel" (AM), a novel passive sampling technology, was used for the first time in Australia in freshwater to monitor and assess the risk of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn). AMs were deployed at 10 sites within the Goulburn-Murray Water catchments, Victoria, Australia during a dry year (2009-2010) and a wet year (2010-2011). Our results showed that the AMs accumulated all the five metals. Cd, Pb, Hg were detected during the wet year but below detection limits during the dry year. At some sites close to orchards, vine yards and farming areas, elevated levels of Cu were clearly evident during the dry year, while elevated levels of Zn were found during the wet year; the Cu indicates localized inputs from the agricultural application of copper fungicide. The impacts from old mines were significantly less compared 'hot spots'. Our study demonstrated that climate variability (dry, wet years) can influence the metal inputs to waterways via different transport pathways. Using the AMs, we were able to identify various 'hot spots' of heavy metals, which may pose a potential risk to aquatic ecosystems (sub-lethal effects to fish) and public (via food chain metal bioaccumulation and biomagnification) in the Goulburn-Murray Water catchments. The State Protection Policy exempted artificial channels and drains from protection of beneficial use (including protection of aquatic ecosystems) and majority of sites ('hot spots') were located within artificial irrigation channels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Syllabic patterns in South-Eastern Europe

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    Irena Sawicka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Syllabic patterns in South-Eastern Europe Whereas in most of the world’s languages syllable patterns are built according to the principles of sonority theory (they have the one-peak syllable pattern, in some Balkan languages, there occur deviations from the one-peak syllable pattern of a systemic nature. Such deviations occur also in the northern Slavic languages. They mainly concern the distribution of nasal consonants and appear either in the onset (Albanian or coda (Romanian. At the very south of Europe the open syllable pattern occurs.   Struktury sylabiczne południowo-wschodniej Europy Podczas gdy zdecydowana większość języków świata preferuje tzw. sonorycznościowy (jednoszczytowy model sylaby, to południowo-wschodnia Europa jest pod tym względem dość zróżnicowana. Odstępstwa od zasady jednoszczytowości występują w językach północnosłowiańskich. Na Bałkanach natomiast odstępstwa takie dotyczą głównie dystrybucji sonantów nosowych i występują albo w nagłosie, albo w wygłosie. Samo południe Europy (dialekty występujące na południowych częściach półwyspów Morza Śródziemnego ma natomiast niesymetryczny model sylaby – w wygłosie wyrazów występują głównie sylaby otwarte.

  18. Childhood burns in south eastern Nigeria

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    Okoro Philemon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burns injuries are recognized as a major health problem worldwide. In children and, particularly, in our environment where poverty, ignorance and disease are still high, they constitute significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies on this topic in parts of Nigeria either lumped adults and children together or were retrospective. We, therefore, prospectively studied the current trends in burns in children. Patients and Methods: This prospective study of burns spanned over a period of 18 months (June 2006-December 2007 at the Paediatric Surgery Units of the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, and the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State. Data were collected and analysed for age, sex, cause/type of burn, place of burn, presence or absence of adult/s, initial prehospital intervention, interval between injury and presentation, surface area and depth of burn and treatment and outcome. Results: Fifty-three patients were studied, 31 (58.4% were male and 22 (41.6% were female (M:F = 1.4:1. Patients mostly affected were aged 2 years and below. The most common cause of burns was hot water in 31 (58.5% patients. The vast majority of these injuries happened in a domestic environment (92.5% and in the presence of competent adult/s (88.7%. Outcome of treatment was good: there were two (3.8% deaths and 46 (86% patients had complete recovery. Conclusion: Burns is still a major health problem among children in south eastern Nigeria. Fortunately, outcome of appropriate treatment is good. However, we think that poor safety consciousness among parents is a major predisposing factor. Public enlightenment on measures to ensure safe home environment may be necessary to avoid or limit childhood burns.

  19. Estimation of type- and subtype-specific influenza vaccine effectiveness in Victoria, Australia using a test negative case control method, 2007-2008

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    Grant Kristina A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antigenic variation of influenza virus necessitates annual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines, which contain two type A strains (H1N1 and H3N2 and one type B strain. We used a test negative case control design to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE against influenza by type and subtype over two consecutive seasons in Victoria, Australia. Methods Patients presenting with influenza-like illness to general practitioners (GPs in a sentinel surveillance network during 2007 and 2008 were tested for influenza. Cases tested positive for influenza by polymerase chain reaction and controls tested negative for influenza. Vaccination status was recorded by sentinel GPs. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated as [(1 - adjusted odds ratio × 100%]. Results There were 386 eligible study participants in 2007 of whom 50% were influenza positive and 19% were vaccinated. In 2008 there were 330 eligible study participants of whom 32% were influenza positive and 17% were vaccinated. Adjusted VE against A/H3N2 influenza in 2007 was 68% (95% CI, 32 to 85% but VE against A/H1N1 (27%; 95% CI, -92 to 72% and B (84%; 95% CI, -2 to 98% were not statistically significant. In 2008, the adjusted VE estimate was positive against type B influenza (49% but negative for A/H1N1 (-88% and A/H3N2 (-66%; none was statistically significant. Conclusions Type- and subtype-specific assessment of influenza VE is needed to identify variations that cannot be differentiated from a measure of VE against all influenza. Type- and subtype-specific influenza VE estimates in Victoria in 2007 and 2008 were generally consistent with strain circulation data.

  20. Trends in sport and active recreation injuries resulting in major trauma or death in adults in Victoria, Australia, 2001-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Nadine E; Gabbe, Belinda J; Wolfe, Rory; Cameron, Peter A

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe patterns and rates of sport and active recreation injuries that result in major trauma or death and to examine trends in these rates for all sport and active recreation activities and key sporting groups, for the period July 2001-June 2007, in Victoria, Australia. All sport and active recreation related major trauma cases and deaths were extracted from the Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR) and the National Coroners Information System, for the period July 2001-June 2007. Participation data from the Exercise Recreation and Sports Survey (ERASS) was used to establish incidence rates for the group as a whole and for key sporting groups. Poisson regression analysis was used to examine trends in major trauma and death due to participation in sport and active recreation across the six year study period. There were 1019 non-fatal major trauma cases and 218 deaths. The rate of major trauma or death from sport and active recreation injuries was 6.3 per 100,000 participants per year. There was an average annual increase of 10% per year in the major trauma rate (including deaths) across the study period, for the group as a whole (IRR 1.10, 95% CI, 1.06-1.14). There was no increase in the death rate (IRR=0.94, 95% CI, 0.87-1.02; p=0.12). Significant increases were also found for cycling (IRR 1.16, 95% CI, 1.09-1.24) off-road motor sports (IRR 1.10, 95% CI, 1.03-1.19), Australian football (IRR 1.21, 95% CI, 1.03-1.42) and swimming (IRR 1.16, 95% CI, 1.004-1.33). The rate of major trauma inclusive of deaths, due to participation in sport and active recreation has increased over recent years, in Victoria, Australia. Much of this increase can be attributed to cycling, off-road motor sports, Australian football and to a lesser extent swimming, highlighting the need for co-ordinated injury prevention in these areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An exploration of issues of management and intention to stay: allied health professionals in South West Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnitti, Karen; Schoo, Adrian; Dunbar, James; Reid, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Management of allied health staff and services often has implications for staff stability and retention. A survey of allied health staff in South West Victoria was conducted in 2003 to explore issues relating to recruitment and retention. Findings relating to management and retention of staff in their current job are addressed in this report. A total of 138 staff returned their questionnaires. Results were related to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, level of belonging, with professional needs identified as feeling supported, orientation to the position, clear job description, and able to recommend the position to others. Qualitative data showed that recommending the position was associated with job satisfaction, autonomy, flexibility, and variety of work. The immediate management structure was significantly related to retention. Reasons given for intending to leave were related to management categories. These were management structure, lack of career structure, and lack of professional support. Reasons given by respondents for not recommending their current position were as follows: not for long-term career, risk of deskilling if staying too long, and financially unrewarding. These reasons were also related to management. Positive reasons for staying, which were related to management, included flexible work conditions, variety of clinical and management experience, good working environment, good support, and autonomy. Recommendations are given for organizational development and training for managers.

  2. Preventing alcohol harm: early results from a cluster randomised, controlled trial in Victoria, Australia of comprehensive harm minimisation school drug education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midford, Richard; Mitchell, Johanna; Lester, Leanne; Cahill, Helen; Foxcroft, David; Ramsden, Robyn; Venning, Lynne; Pose, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    In Australia, the burden of alcohol-attributable harm falls most heavily on young people. Prevention is important, and schools have long been seen as appropriate settings for pre-emptive interventions with this high risk group. This paper evaluates the effectiveness, in relation to alcohol harm prevention, of the Drug Education in Victorian Schools (DEVS) programme, nine months after implementation. This intervention dealt with both licit and illicit drugs, employed a harm minimisation approach that incorporated interactive, skill based, teaching methods and capitalised on parental influence through home activities. A cluster randomised, controlled trial of the first ten lessons of the DEVS drug education programme was conducted with year eight students, aged 13-14 years. Twenty-one secondary schools in Victoria, Australia were randomly allocated to receive the DEVS programme (14 schools, n=1163) or the drug education usually provided by their schools (7 schools, n=589). Self-reported changes were measured in relation to: knowledge and attitudes, communication with parents, drug education lessons remembered, proportion of drinkers, alcohol consumption (quantity multiplied by frequency), proportion of student drinkers engaging in risky consumption, and the number of harms experienced as a result of alcohol consumption. In comparison to the controls, there was a significantly greater increase in the intervention students' knowledge about drugs, including alcohol (p≤0.001); there was a significant change in their level of communication with parents about alcohol (p=0.037); they recalled receiving significantly more alcohol education (pharms associated with their drinking (p≤0.001). There were no significant differences between the two study groups in relation to changes in attitudes towards alcohol or in the proportion of drinkers or risky drinkers. There was, however, a notable trend of less consumption by risky drinkers in the intervention group. A comprehensive

  3. Timing and causes of gully erosion in the riparian zone of the semi-arid tropical Victoria River, Australia: Management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, G. L.; Wasson, R. J.; Boggs, G. S.; Douglas, M.

    2016-08-01

    Gully erosion in the seasonally wet tropics of Australia is a major source of sediment in rivers. Stabilization of gullies to reduce impacts on aquatic ecosystems and water storages is a focus for management. However, the cause of the gully erosion is poorly understood and so a critical context for soil conservation is missing. It is uncertain if they are the result of post-European cattle grazing or are they much older and related to non-human factors. The causes of riparian gully erosion along a reach of the Victoria River in the semi-arid tropics of Australia were investigated using several methods. Gully complexes were described and characterised by two major components: a Flood Drainage Channel (FDC) and upslope of this an Outer Erosion Feature (OEF) characterised by badlands set within an amphitheatre. The OEF is likely to be a major source of sediment that appears to be of recent origin. A review of historical records, combined with Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating, showed that the FDCs were well established prior to the introduction of domestic stock. It also showed that the badlands began to develop about 90 years ago; that is, about 40 years after the arrival of domestic stock. In addition, an analysis of aerial photos coupled with an on-ground survey and analysis of fallout radionuclides revealed that erosion processes are still active within the gully complexes. While the FDCs are natural drainage channels, cattle grazing probably triggered the badland formation, with the expansion aided by increased rainfall in the past 40 years. Therefore, the OEFs are of human origin and protection from grazing of the riparian zone should slow badland erosion and reduce sediment input to the river.

  4. Effects of early adolescent alcohol use on mid-adolescent school performance and connection: a longitudinal study of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F

    2014-11-01

    This article examines the effect of early adolescent alcohol use on mid-adolescent school suspension, truancy, commitment, and academic failure in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia. Also of interest was whether associations remain after statistically controlling for other factors known to predict school outcomes. State-representative student samples were surveyed in 2002 (grade 7; N = 1858) and followed up annually to 2004 (grade 9) in both sites. Students completed a modified version of the Communities That Care survey to report alcohol use, school outcomes, and risk and protective factors. Response rates were above 74% and retention rates exceeded 98% in both places. Controlling for grade 7 risk factors, grade 7 current alcohol use, and heavy episodic drinking were associated with grade 8 school suspension. Grade 7 current and frequent alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking were linked to grade 9 truancy. In fully adjusted analyses, associations between early alcohol use and academic failure and low school commitment did not remain. Although alcohol use is one factor influencing school performance and connection, there are other risk factors that need to be targeted to improve school outcomes. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  5. Closing the gap in maternal and child health: a qualitative study examining health needs of migrant mothers in Dandenong, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzaho, Andre M N; Oldroyd, John C

    2014-08-01

    We conducted a qualitative study that explored the views and perceptions of migrant women in, Dandenong, Victoria, Australia about sociocultural barriers and health needs during pregnancy and in the postnatal period. The study was informed by the Social Identity Theory and the Acculturation Theory. It involved five focus group discussions with 35 migrant mothers from Afghanistan, Africa, China, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria, Iran and Jordan. Five themes emerged from the analysis: (1) the need for family support and complex social environments; (2) dealing with two cultural identities; (3) the health of mother and offspring; (4) access to the health system; and (5) life-skills for better health. Pregnancy and motherhood are challenges that are made more difficult by migration. The findings point towards the need for policies and interventions: (1) to reduce the negative impact of social isolation and lack of support during pregnancy and postnatally; (2) to support greater fathers' involvement in childcare; and (3) to reconcile different practices and expectations between traditional cultures and Australian norms. They also suggest a need to test culturally competent interventions that address health and lifestyle needs in migrant women and education programs for mothers that effectively address their concerns about maternal and child health.

  6. Student and school factors associated with school suspension: A multilevel analysis of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheryl, A. Hemphill; Stephanie, M. Plenty; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    One of the common issues schools face is how best to handle challenging student behaviors such as violent behavior, antisocial behavior, bullying, school rule violations, and interrupting other students’ learning. School suspension may be used to remove students engaging in challenging behaviors from the school for a period of time. However, the act of suspending students from school may worsen rather than improve their behavior. Research shows that suspensions predict a range of student outcomes, including crime, delinquency, and drug use. It is therefore crucial to understand the factors associated with the use of school suspension, particularly in sites with different policy approaches to problem behaviors. This paper draws on data from state-representative samples of 3,129 Grade 7 and 9 students in Washington State, United States and Victoria, Australia sampled in 2002. Multilevel modeling examined student and school level factors associated with student-reported school suspension. Results showed that both student (being male, previous student antisocial and violent behavior, rebelliousness, academic failure) and school (socioeconomic status of the school, aggregate measures of low school commitment) level factors were associated with school suspension and that the factors related to suspension were similar in the two states. The implications of the findings for effective school behavior management policy are that, rather than focusing only on the student, both student and school level factors need to be addressed to reduce the rates of school suspension. PMID:24860205

  7. A health-promoting community dental service in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: protocol for the North Richmond model of oral health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Martin; Christian, Bradley

    2017-10-01

    Despite the best efforts and commitment of oral health programs, there is no evidence that the current surgical output-based model of oral health care is delivering better oral health outcomes to the community. In fact, Australian evidence indicates the oral health of the community could be getting worse. It is now well-understood that this traditional surgical model of oral health care will never successfully manage the disease itself. It is proposed that a health-promoting, minimally invasive oral disease management model of care may lead to a sustainable benefit to the oral health status of the individual and community groups. The aim of this paper is to describe such a model of oral health care (MoC) currently being implemented by the North Richmond Community Health Oral Health (NRCH-OH) program in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; this model may serve as a template for other services to re-orient their healthcare delivery towards health promotion and prevention. The paper describes the guiding principles and theories for the model and also its operational components, which are: pre-engagement while on the waitlist; client engagement at the reception area; the assessment phase; oral health education (high-risk clients only); disease management; and reviews and recall.

  8. A retrospective assessment of gold mining in the Reedy Creek sub-catchment, northeast Victoria, Australia: residual mercury contamination 100 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, R C; Meathrel, C E; Suter, P J

    2004-11-01

    The mining of gold can lead to toxic metals such as mercury (Hg) contaminating watercourses as by-products. The Reedy Creek sub-catchment, in northeast Victoria, Australia, was mined for gold in the 1850s. In 1998, samples were taken from six watercourses to measure any remaining toxic metal contamination in sediments and surface waters from two creeks with no previous gold mining (controls) and four that were mined. Although mean concentrations of Hg (measured using an ICP-OES) in sediments were below worldwide background levels, individual sites along Reedy Creek had slightly elevated Hg concentrations. In contrast, the Hg concentrations in the surface waters were above background levels. Temporal fluxes of very high Hg concentrations in the surface waters during periods of first flow and flood events revealed that Hg concentrations in the surface waters may, at certain times of the year, exceed all Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (National Water Quality Management Strategy. Australian Water Quality Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Waters, ANZECC, 2000) guidelines for water use and the protection of the aquatic ecosystem. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Balancing absolute and relative risk reduction in tobacco control policy: the example of antenatal smoking in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grills, Nathan; Bolam, Bruce; Piers, Leonard Sunil

    2010-08-01

    This descriptive epidemiological analysis aims to explore the benefits, risks and policy balance between a whole-of-population and high-risk reduction approach to reducing antenatal smoking prevalence. Using Victorian hospital antenatal statistics the rate-ratio for smoking in each hypothesised high prevalence group was calculated and combined with the absolute number of births in each high-risk group. The effect on smoking prevalence of whole-of-population reductions and high-risk group reductions was then modelled. In Victoria, there were higher rates of antenatal smoking among single [RR = 4.67 (3.46-4.42)], teenage women [RR (95%CI) = 3.26 (3.00-3.54)] of indigenous ethnicity [RR = 4.39 (3.94, 4.88)] with low income [RR = 4.67 (4.17-5.22)] and low education attainment [RR = 3.89 (3.47-4.36)] who lived in less accessible areas [RR = 2.14 (1.92-2.39)]. However, as each of these high-risk groups represents a relatively small proportion of mothers, most antenatal smokers are aged 25-34, educated, city-based, non-Indigenous and non-impoverished. The majority of Victorian women who smoke in pregnancy do not belong to traditional high-risk groups. Absolute reductions in smoking prevalence in high-risk groups can potentially be achieved by whole-of-population prevalence reductions, despite a potential continuance in high relative risk among these groups. Conversely, an exclusive focus on smoking reduction in high-risk groups may fail to reduce the whole-of-population antenatal smoking prevalence.

  10. Attitudes, Knowledge and Factors Associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Uptake in Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Victoria, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Tung, Iris L. Y.; Machalek, Dorothy A.; Garland, Suzanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination targets high-risk HPV16/18 that cause 70% of all cancers of the cervix. In Australia there is a fully-funded, school-based National HPV Vaccination Program which has achieved vaccine initiation rate of 82% among age-eligible females. Improving HPV vaccination rates is important in the prevention of morbidity and mortality associated with HPV-related disease. This study aimed to identify factors and barriers associated with uptake of the HPV va...

  11. The foreign investments phenomena in south-eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora ALECU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The south-eastern Europe countries have all the common history of the communism policy and economy, which from the foreign investments perspective meant a radical approach, which promoted a nationalism view against foreign capital interference. Similar to China, perhaps India and other countries, the governments of the south-eastern Europe’s countries expressed a rejection to foreign investments, emphasizing the negative effects of such operations, arguing that any foreign capital inflow is followed by a foreign capital outflow which at the end will destabilize the balance of external payments and will overall result in no favorable effect upon the economy of their countries.

  12. Contraception matters: indicators of poor usage of contraception in sexually active women attending family planning clinics in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Jason

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unintended pregnancy (mistimed or unwanted remains an important health issue for women. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with risk of unintended pregnancy in a sample of Victorian women attending family planning clinics. Methods This cross-sectional survey of three Family Planning Victoria Clinics from April to July 2011 recruited women aged 16-50 years with a male sexual partner in the last 3 months, and not intending to conceive. The questionnaire asked about contraceptive behaviours and important factors that influence contraception use (identified from a systematic literature review. Univariate analysis was calculated for the variables of interest for associations with contraceptive use. An overall multivariate model for being at risk for unintended pregnancy (due to inconsistent or ineffective contraceptive use or non-use was calculated through backward elimination with statistical significance set at Results 1006 surveys were analyzed with 96% of women reporting contraception use in the last 3 months. 37% of women were at risk for unintended pregnancy due to imperfect use (61% inconsistent users; 31% ineffective methods or never using contraception (8%. On multivariate analysis, women at risk for unintended pregnancy compared with women not at risk were 1 partner in the last 3 months (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.3-4.6. These women were dissatisfied with current contraception (OR 2.5, 95% 1.8-3.5; felt “vulnerable” to pregnancy (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.6-3.0; were not confident in contraceptive knowledge (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.5-4.8; were unable to stop to use contraception when aroused (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-2.9 but were comfortable in speaking to a doctor about contraception (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.1. Conclusion Despite reported high contraceptive usage, nearly 40% of women were at risk for unintended pregnancy primarily due to inconsistent contraceptive use and use of ineffective

  13. Contraception matters: indicators of poor usage of contraception in sexually active women attending family planning clinics in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jason; Temple-Smith, Meredith; Wong, William C W; McNamee, Kathleen; Fairley, Christopher

    2012-12-23

    Unintended pregnancy (mistimed or unwanted) remains an important health issue for women. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with risk of unintended pregnancy in a sample of Victorian women attending family planning clinics. This cross-sectional survey of three Family Planning Victoria Clinics from April to July 2011 recruited women aged 16-50 years with a male sexual partner in the last 3 months, and not intending to conceive. The questionnaire asked about contraceptive behaviours and important factors that influence contraception use (identified from a systematic literature review). Univariate analysis was calculated for the variables of interest for associations with contraceptive use. An overall multivariate model for being at risk for unintended pregnancy (due to inconsistent or ineffective contraceptive use or non-use) was calculated through backward elimination with statistical significance set at women reporting contraception use in the last 3 months. 37% of women were at risk for unintended pregnancy due to imperfect use (61% inconsistent users; 31% ineffective methods) or never using contraception (8%). On multivariate analysis, women at risk for unintended pregnancy compared with women not at risk were 1 partner in the last 3 months (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.3-4.6). These women were dissatisfied with current contraception (OR 2.5, 95% 1.8-3.5); felt "vulnerable" to pregnancy (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.6-3.0); were not confident in contraceptive knowledge (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.5-4.8); were unable to stop to use contraception when aroused (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-2.9) but were comfortable in speaking to a doctor about contraception (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.1). Despite reported high contraceptive usage, nearly 40% of women were at risk for unintended pregnancy primarily due to inconsistent contraceptive use and use of ineffective contraception. Strategies for improving consistency of effective contraception use or greater emphasis on long

  14. Roles and competencies of the Support Facilitator in Australia's recovery-oriented mental health initiative: a qualitative study from Gippsland, Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Keith; Isaacs, Anton N; Dalziel, Kim; Maybery, Darryl

    2017-03-01

    Objective This study explored the roles and competencies of Support Facilitators (SFs) engaged in the implementation of the Partners in Recovery initiative in a rural region of Victoria. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 stakeholders involved in the initiative, of which 15 were SFs. Results Two main themes and 10 subthemes emerged from the data: (1) SF competencies (which included an understanding of local services as well as administrative and social skills); and (2) the SF role (which included them being a single point of contact, providing care coordination, assisting the client to become self-reliant, achieving good outcomes for clients with confronting behaviours, judiciously using flexible funding, clearly outlining their role with clients and maintaining boundaries and performing a different role from that of the mental health case manager). Conclusions The roles and competencies of the SF in the Partners in Recovery initiative in Gippsland were congruent with the defined characteristics of a care coordination approach. The results highlight how the SF role differs from that of traditional clinical case managers. These findings are important for future mental health service policy development, education and training of mental health practitioners and recruitment of personnel to care coordination roles. What is known about the topic? There is a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of care coordination in delivery of positive outcomes for people with chronic and complex health problems. However, little is documented about the care coordination role of SFs as part of the Partners in Recovery initiative in Australia. What does this paper add? This paper identifies the roles and competencies of SFs in the Partners in Recovery initiative in a rural region of Victoria. The paper highlights that the emergent competencies and role functions are congruent with the defined characteristics of a care coordination approach but

  15. Scoping of models to support population-based regional health planning and management: comparison with the regional operating model in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Jean-Frederic; O'Dowd, John J M; Ní Shé, Éidín M; Weenink, Jan-Willem; Gunn, Jane

    2017-05-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to try to understand the breadth and comprehensiveness of a regional operating model (ROM) developed within the Victorian Department of Health's North West Metropolitan Region office in Melbourne, Australia. Methods A published literature search was conducted, with additional website scanning, snowballing technique and expert consultation, to identify existing operating models. An analytical grid was developed covering 16 components to evaluate the models and assess the exhaustiveness of the ROM. Results From the 34 documents scoped, 10 models were identified to act as a direct comparator to the ROM. These concerned models from Australia (n=5) and other comparable countries (Canada, UK). The ROM was among the most exhaustive models, covering 13 of 16 components. It was one of the few models that included intersectoral actions and levers of influence. However, some models identified more precisely the planning tools, prioritisation criteria and steps, and the allocation mechanisms. Conclusions The review finds that the ROM appears to provide a wide coverage of aspects of planning and integrates into a single model some of the distinctive elements of the other models scoped. What is known about the topic? Various jurisdictions are moving towards a population-based approach to manage public services with regard to the provision of individual medical and social care. Various models have been proposed to guide the planning of services from a population health perspective. What does this paper add? This paper assesses the coverage of attributes of operating models supporting a population health planning approach to the management of services at the regional or local level. It provides a scoping of current models proposed to organise activities to ensure an integrated approach to the provision of services and compares the scoped models to a model recently implemented in Victoria, Australia. What are the implications for

  16. Mothers\\' belief about infant teething in Nnewi, South Eastern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To ascertain the symptoms ascribed to, and remedies given for teething in infants by mothers in Nnewi South eastern Nigeria. Methodology: A pre-tested, open-ended questionnaire was administered to 161 consecutive mothers attending the paediatric outpatient and the infant welfare clinics of Nnamdi Azikiwe ...

  17. Adequacy of micronutrient content of south eastern Nigerian meals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequacy of micronutrient content of south eastern Nigerian meals in meeting the nutritional needs of vulnerable groups. ... Portion sizes of meals consumed by these vulnerable groups were obtained during an interview and validated using data obtained from food consumption surveys. The amount of Zn and Fe in such ...

  18. Kidnapping in the South eastern States of contemporary Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study empirically investigate salient social and demographic characteristics as determinants of kidnapping in the South-eastern States of contemporary Nigeria using inmates detained on the grounds of kidnapping in Abakaliki and Umuahia Prisons as a unit of analysis. The study adopted a cross-sectional research ...

  19. Pattern of Ultrasound Scanning in Owerri South Eastern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: The gynaecologist is called upon daily to diagnose pelvic pathologies. Ultrasound is a useful, safe and widely used method of investigation of such problems. OBJECTIVE: To determine the indications and findings of pelvic ultrasound in Owerri, South Eastern Nigeria. METHOD: Two hundred and fifty ...

  20. Sterilization by Minilaparotomy in South-Eastern Nigeria | Nwogu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed to assess the trend in acceptance and characteristics of acceptors of female sterilization between January 1999 and December 2006 at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, South-Eastern Nigeria. There were a total of 20,485 new clients, with 212 (1.0%) accepting sterilization between ...

  1. Controlled burn and immediate mobilization of potentially toxic elements in soil, from a legacy mine site in Central Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Joji; Dowling, Kim; Florentine, Singarayer

    2018-03-01

    Conducting controlled burns in fire prone areas is an efficient and economic method for forest management, and provides relief from the incidence of high severity wild fires and the consequent damage to human property and ecosystems. However, similar to wild fires, controlled burns also affect many of the physical and biogeochemical properties of the forest soil and may facilitate remobilization of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) sequestered in vegetation and soil organic matter. The objective of the current study is to investigate the mobilization of PTEs, in Central Victorian forest soils in Australia after a controlled burn. Surface soil samples were collected two days before and after the controlled burn to determine the concentration of PTEs and to examine the physicochemical properties. Results show that As, Cd, Mn, Ni and Zn concentrations increased 1.1, 1.6, 1.7, 1.1 and 1.9 times respectively in the post-burn environment, whereas the concentrations of Hg, Cr and Pb decreased to 0.7, 0.9 and 0.9 times respectively, highlighting considerable PTE mobility during and after a controlled burn. Whilst these results do not identify very strong correlations between physicochemical properties of soil and PTEs in the pre- and post-burn environments, PTEs themselves demonstrated very strong and significant correlations. The mobilization of As, Hg and other toxic elements raise potential health concerns as the number of controlled burns are projected to increase in response to climate change. Due to this increased level of PTE release and remobilization, the use of any kinds of controlled burn must be carefully considered before being used as a forest management strategy in mining-affected landscapes which include areas with high PTE concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Change of School in Early Adolescence and Adverse Obesity-Related Dietary Behavior: A Longitudinal Cohort Study, Victoria, Australia, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jennifer; Barnett, Lisa M; Allender, Steven

    2015-09-10

    Environments that facilitate energy-dense, nutrient-poor diets are associated with childhood obesity. We examined the effect of a change of school environment on the prevalence of obesity and related dietary behavior in early adolescence. Fifteen schools in Victoria, Australia, were recruited at random from the bottom 2 strata of a 5-level socioeconomic scale. In 9 schools, students in grade 6 primary school transitioned to different schools for grade 7 secondary school, whereas in 6 schools, students remained in the same school from grade 6 to grade 7. Time 1 measures were collected from students (N = 245) in grade 6 (aged 11-13 y). Time 2 data were collected from 243 (99%) of the original cohort in grade 7. Data collected were dietary recall self-reported by students via questionnaire, measured height and weight of students, and aspects of the school food environment via school staff survey. Comparative and mixed model regression analyses were conducted. Of 243 students, 63% (n = 152) changed schools from time 1 to time 2, with no significant difference in weight status. Students who changed schools reported an increase in purchases of after-school snack food, greater sweetened beverage intake, fewer fruit-and-vegetable classroom breaks, and less encouragement for healthy eating compared with students who remained in the same school. School staff surveys showed that more primary than secondary schools had written healthy canteen policies and fewer days of canteen or food services operation. A change of school environment has negative effects on children's obesity-related dietary behavior. Consistent policy is needed across school types to support healthy eating in school environments.

  3. Trial of labour and vaginal birth after previous caesarean section: A population based study of Eastern African immigrants in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belihu, Fetene B; Small, Rhonda; Davey, Mary-Ann

    2017-03-01

    Variations in caesarean section (CS) between some immigrant groups and receiving country populations have been widely reported. Often, African immigrant women are at higher risk of CS than the receiving population in developed countries. However, evidence about subsequent mode of birth following CS for African women post-migration is lacking. The objective of this study was to examine differences in attempted and successful vaginal birth after previous caesarean (VBAC) for Eastern African immigrants (Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan) compared with Australian-born women. A population-based observational study was conducted using the Victorian Perinatal Data Collection. Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were performed to generate adjusted odds ratios for attempted and successful VBAC. Victoria, Australia. 554 Eastern African immigrants and 24,587 Australian-born eligible women with previous CS having singleton births in public care. 41.5% of Eastern African immigrant women and 26.1% Australian-born women attempted a VBAC with 50.9% of Eastern African immigrants and 60.5% of Australian-born women being successful. After adjusting for maternal demographic characteristics and available clinical confounding factors, Eastern African immigrants were more likely to attempt (ORadj 1.94, 95% CI 1.57-2.47) but less likely to succeed (ORadj 0.54 95% CI 0.41-0.71) in having a VBAC. There are disparities in attempted and successful VBAC between Eastern African origin and Australian-born women. Unsuccessful VBAC attempt is more common among Eastern African immigrants, suggesting the need for improved strategies to select and support potential candidates for vaginal birth among these immigrants to enhance success and reduce potential complications associated with failed VBAC attempt. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Climatology of Wildfire Weather for Victoria, Australia: Based on a Hi-Resolution 40-year Mesoscale Gridded Fire Weather Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Weather and climate are essential components in understanding wildfire characteristics and improving fire management. A high spatial and temporal resolution climatology of fire weather is vital for examining relationships, determining wildfire risks and basing fire management decisions upon. A homogeneous 41-year (1972-2012) hourly 4-km gridded climate dataset for the fire-prone state of Victoria, Australia has been generated using a combination of mesoscale modelling, global reanalysis data, surface observations, and historic observed rainfall analyses. Outputs include surface weather variables such as hourly temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction. In addition, daily drought indices have been calculated and these have been used to calculate a commonly used fire danger index. This new dataset allows for an almost limitless opportunity for hitherto unavailable analyses - such as fields of percentiles of fire danger indices values, analysis of periods exceeding thresholds at any location, inter-annual and regional variations of fire season characteristics, analysis of prescribed burning windows, and identifying trends over the 41-year period. Furthermore, the hourly mesoscale wind fields provide a homogeneous long-period data set with which to drive fire spread models. The opportunities to advance wildfire research for this region and thereby provide information to improve risk analysis and fire management are immense. This presentation describes the generation of the dataset, evaluation of the outputs and highlights its use and relevance for fire management. In particular, frequency of exceedance of both extreme values (for resource allocation planning), and also frequencies whereby multiple parameters mutually fall within the prescribed burning guidelines, and its interannual variation, will be discussed.

  5. Change of School in Early Adolescence and Adverse Obesity-Related Dietary Behavior: A Longitudinal Cohort Study, Victoria, Australia, 2013–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M.; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Environments that facilitate energy-dense, nutrient-poor diets are associated with childhood obesity. We examined the effect of a change of school environment on the prevalence of obesity and related dietary behavior in early adolescence. Methods Fifteen schools in Victoria, Australia, were recruited at random from the bottom 2 strata of a 5-level socioeconomic scale. In 9 schools, students in grade 6 primary school transitioned to different schools for grade 7 secondary school, whereas in 6 schools, students remained in the same school from grade 6 to grade 7. Time 1 measures were collected from students (N = 245) in grade 6 (aged 11–13 y). Time 2 data were collected from 243 (99%) of the original cohort in grade 7. Data collected were dietary recall self-reported by students via questionnaire, measured height and weight of students, and aspects of the school food environment via school staff survey. Comparative and mixed model regression analyses were conducted. Results Of 243 students, 63% (n= 152) changed schools from time 1 to time 2, with no significant difference in weight status. Students who changed schools reported an increase in purchases of after-school snack food, greater sweetened beverage intake, fewer fruit-and-vegetable classroom breaks, and less encouragement for healthy eating compared with students who remained in the same school. School staff surveys showed that more primary than secondary schools had written healthy canteen policies and fewer days of canteen or food services operation. Conclusion A change of school environment has negative effects on children’s obesity-related dietary behavior. Consistent policy is needed across school types to support healthy eating in school environments. PMID:26355826

  6. Social exclusion, deprivation and child health: a spatial analysis of ambulatory care sensitive conditions in children aged 0-4 years in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Danielle C; Thurecht, Linc; Brown, Laurie; Konings, Paul

    2013-10-01

    Recent Australian policy initiatives regarding primary health care focus on planning services around community needs and delivering these at the local area. As in many other countries, there has also been a growing concern over social inequities in health outcomes. The aims of the analysis presented here were firstly to describe small area variations in hospital admissions for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) among children aged 0-4 years between 2003 and 2009 in the state of Victoria, Australia, and secondly to explore the relationship of ACSC hospitalisations with socio-economic disadvantage using a comparative analysis of the Child Social Exclusion (CSE) index and the Composite Score of Deprivation (CSD). This is a cross sectional secondary data analysis, with data sourced from 2003 to 2009 ACSC data from the Victorian State Government Department of Health; the Australian Standard Geographical Classification of remoteness; the Australian 2006 Census of Population and Housing; and AMPCo General Practitioner data from 2010. The relationship between the indexes and child health outcomes was examined through bivariate analysis and visually through a series of maps. The results show there is significant variation in the geographical distribution of the relationship between ACSCs and socio-economic disadvantage, with both indexes capturing important social gradients in child health conditions. However, measures of access, such as geographical accessibility and workforce supply, detect additional small area variation in child health outcomes. This research has important implications for future primary health care policy and planning of services, as these findings confirm that not all areas are the same in terms of health outcomes, and there may be benefit in tailoring mechanisms for identifying areas of need depending on the outcome intended to be affected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Associations between major chain fast-food outlet availability and change in body mass index: a longitudinal observational study of women from Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Karen E; Thornton, Lukar E; Olstad, Dana Lee; Cerin, Ester; Ball, Kylie

    2017-10-16

    The residential neighbourhood fast-food environment has the potential to lead to increased levels of obesity by providing opportunities for residents to consume energy-dense products. This longitudinal study aimed to examine whether change in body mass index (BMI) differed dependent on major chain fast-food outlet availability among women residing in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Eighty disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Victoria, Australia. Sample of 882 women aged 18-46 years at baseline (wave I: 2007/2008) who remained at the same residential location at all three waves (wave II: 2010/2011; wave III: 2012/2013) of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study. BMI based on self-reported height and weight at each wave. There was no evidence of an interaction between time and the number of major chain fast-food outlets within 2 (p=0.88), 3 (p=0.66) or 5 km (p=0.24) in the multilevel models of BMI. Furthermore, there was no evidence of an interaction between time and change in availability at any distance and BMI. Change in BMI was not found to differ by residential major chain fast-food outlet availability among Victorian women residing in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. It may be that exposure to fast-food outlets around other locations regularly visited influence change in BMI. Future research needs to consider what environments are the key sources for accessing and consuming fast food and how these relate to BMI and obesity risk. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to dietary salt among adults in the state of Victoria, Australia 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Kelley, Sarah-Jane; Stanley, Sonya; Bolam, Bruce; Webster, Jacqui; Khokhar, Durreajam; Nowson, Caryl A

    2017-05-30

    Information on consumer's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours (KABs) related to salt can be used to inform awareness and education campaigns and serve as a baseline measure to monitor changes in KABs over time. The aim of this study was to determine KABs related to salt intake among Victorian adults. Cross-sectional survey conducted in Victorian adults aged 18-65 years. Participants were recruited from shopping centres located in Melbourne and Geelong and via online methods (Facebook and Consumer Research Panel) to complete an online survey assessing KABs related to dietary salt. Descriptive statistics (mean (SD) or n (%)) were used to report survey findings. A total of 2398 participants provided a valid survey (mean age 43 years (SD 13), 57% female). The majority (80%) were born in Australia and 63% were the main household grocery shopper. The majority (89%) were aware of the health risks associated with a high salt intake. Eighty three percent believed that Australians eat too much salt. Three quarters (75%) correctly identified salt from processed foods as being the main source of salt in the diet. Less than a third (29%) of participants believed their own individual salt intake exceeded dietary recommendations and only 28% could correctly identify the maximum recommended daily intake for salt. Just under half (46%) of participants were concerned about the amount of salt in food. Almost two thirds (61%) of participants believed that there should be laws which limit the amount of salt added to manufactured foods and 58% agreed that it was difficult to find lower salt options when eating out. The findings of this study serve as a baseline assessment of KABs related to salt intake in Victorian adults and can be used to assess changes in salt related KABs over time. Public concern about salt is low as many people remain unaware of their own salt intake. An increased awareness of the excessive amount of salt consumed and increased availability of lower salt foods

  9. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to dietary salt among adults in the state of Victoria, Australia 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carley A. Grimes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on consumer’s knowledge, attitudes and behaviours (KABs related to salt can be used to inform awareness and education campaigns and serve as a baseline measure to monitor changes in KABs over time. The aim of this study was to determine KABs related to salt intake among Victorian adults. Methods Cross-sectional survey conducted in Victorian adults aged 18–65 years. Participants were recruited from shopping centres located in Melbourne and Geelong and via online methods (Facebook and Consumer Research Panel to complete an online survey assessing KABs related to dietary salt. Descriptive statistics (mean (SD or n (% were used to report survey findings. Results A total of 2398 participants provided a valid survey (mean age 43 years (SD 13, 57% female. The majority (80% were born in Australia and 63% were the main household grocery shopper. The majority (89% were aware of the health risks associated with a high salt intake. Eighty three percent believed that Australians eat too much salt. Three quarters (75% correctly identified salt from processed foods as being the main source of salt in the diet. Less than a third (29% of participants believed their own individual salt intake exceeded dietary recommendations and only 28% could correctly identify the maximum recommended daily intake for salt. Just under half (46% of participants were concerned about the amount of salt in food. Almost two thirds (61% of participants believed that there should be laws which limit the amount of salt added to manufactured foods and 58% agreed that it was difficult to find lower salt options when eating out. Conclusions The findings of this study serve as a baseline assessment of KABs related to salt intake in Victorian adults and can be used to assess changes in salt related KABs over time. Public concern about salt is low as many people remain unaware of their own salt intake. An increased awareness of the excessive amount of

  10. INTERNET ADDICTION IN BALKAN AND SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis PETASAKIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Internet has increased dramatically in recent years. Although there is no standardized definition of Internet addiction, there is acknowledgement among researchers that this phenomenon does exist. In this study, we identify various similarities and differences among people in the Balkan and South-Eastern European countries about Internet addiction. There are many factors such as cultural differences, gender differences, psychosocial variables, computer attitudes and time.We present the experience from studies concerning Internet addiction in all over the world. A specific research with the use of Young's 20-scale was also conducted in five Balkan and South-Eastern European countries (Republic of Moldova, Romania, Republic of Bulgaria, Hellenic Republic, Republic of Cyprus.The findings are interesting. Although there is a need for Interest using, there are also cases where the addiction, dependence and abuse is apparent.

  11. The South Eastern Europe Higher Education Area: Is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Lacrama

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Through history, South Eastern Europe has been a difficult and highly heterogeneous area of the continent. Nevertheless, recent developments have proved that a better future is possible. An important component of this genuine healing process is establishing connections and partnerships among universities inside the region. The present paper advocates the use of modern educational technology in order to implement common scientific and educational programs in this area.

  12. A new species of Stenobiella Tillyard (Neuroptera, Berothidae from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Winterton

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Stenobiella variola sp. n., a new species of beaded lacewing (Neuroptera: Berothidae, is described and figured from south-eastern Australia. A preliminary key to Stenobiella species is presented.

  13. Extreme negative coexceedances in South Eastern European stock markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tevdovski, Dragan

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the financial integration of the South Eastern Europe (SEE) stock markets. We use a multinomial logistic regression to analyze how persistence, asset class and volatility effects are related with negative coexceedances in SEE markets. We find evidence in favor...... of the continuation hypothesis in SEE stock markets. However, the factors associated with the coexceedances differ between the EU member countries from SEE and EU accession countries from SEE stock markets.The EU member countries are more dependent from the signals from major EU economies, while the accession...

  14. Public attitudes towards gambling product harm and harm reduction strategies: an online study of 16-88 year olds in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Samantha L; Randle, Melanie; Bestman, Amy; Pitt, Hannah; Bowe, Steven J; Cowlishaw, Sean; Daube, Mike

    2017-07-25

    Gambling has quickly emerged as an important global public health issue. With new technologies used to develop high intensity gambling products and promotions aimed at driving consumption, public health organisations and researchers, community groups, and politicians have argued for a range of regulatory and education measures aimed at reducing gambling harm. However, there has been limited research seeking to understand community perceptions of the harms associated with gambling products and environments, and the level of community support for strategies designed to prevent and reduce gambling harm. An online study of 500 adolescents and adults (aged 16 and over) was conducted with a representative sample (by age and gender) of individuals who were current residents in the state of Victoria, Australia. Participants were asked a range of questions about their own gambling behaviours, with the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) used as a measure of problem gambling. Participants were asked about their perceptions of harms associated with electronic gambling machines (EGMs), sports betting, horse betting, and casino gambling. They were also asked about the extent to which they agreed or disagreed with gambling harm reduction strategies related to marketing and promotions, restrictions on gambling products and venues, and public education campaigns. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and paired t tests, with thematic analysis used to interpret qualitative responses to open-ended questionnaire items. More than one third (n = 201, 40.2%) of participants were at risk of experiencing some level of harm from gambling (PGSI ≥ 1), with 83 participants (16.6%) recording scores that indicated problem gambling (PGSI ≥ 8). One in five participants gambled on EGMs at least monthly (n = 100, 20.0%). Those who gambled on sports did so frequently, with nearly 1 in 5 gambling on sport at least once a month (n = 87, 17.4%). Over

  15. Myxomatosis: the occurrence of antibody to a soluble antigen of myxoma virus in wild rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.), in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, J W; Shepherd, R C; Nolan, I F

    1978-10-01

    The occurrence of antibody of myxoma virus in wild rabbits following epizootics is highest in the semi-arid north-west of Victoria and lowest in temperate southern Victoria. Occurrence ranges up to about 90% in the north-west and to about 70% in the south except on the Western Plains where epizootics are rare and antibody occurrence seldom exceeds 30%. The establishment of the European rabbit flea may be changing the pattern of occurrence of antibody in the north-west by causing spring outbreaks of myxomatosis. It is suggested that the effects of the replacement of a simple recurring system of epizootic and breeding season several months apart by the occurrence of myxomatosis twice in the same year, once coincident with the breeding season, will be complex. The occurrence of detectable antibody may be less dependent on the infection rate and may be dependent to some extent on the relative timing of spring myxomatosis and the breeding season.

  16. Enhancing the Utilization of Information Communication Technology (ICT) among Home Economics Lecturers in South Eastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejinkeonye, Uju Bridget; Usoroh, Comfort I.

    2016-01-01

    The study was on enhancing the utilization of information communication Technology (ICT) among Home Economics lecturers in south Eastern Nigeria. The study adopted a survey method. The area of the study is south eastern Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study. The population was made up of 63 Home Economics lecturers from the six…

  17. The lynx in the Italian South-Eastern Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Molinari

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From 1986 to May 1995 I collected records of signs of lynx presence in the region of Friuli Venezia Giulia. A series of regularly checked trail transects, explorative excursions, and the collection of second-hand observations led to a total of 150 records. They confirm lynx presence and allow an assessment of the situation. The first lynx are believed to have immigrated to the northern part of the study area from Austria. An increase and the distribution in the signs of presence show a south-westerly expansion. The trend in the Julian Alps and Pre-Alps is also increasing. Some interpretations of the status of this new population are made. The study area is in the far south-eastern Alps. This area is important as a corridor between the Alps and the Balkans, where a reintroduced lynx population exists which would be able to support the Alpine lynx population through dispersing lynx.

  18. The Transmission of Foreign Shocks to South Eastern European Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrevski, Goran; Bogoev, Jane; Tevdovski, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    reference rate are relatively quickly transmitted to domestic money market rates. We can explain these effects by several factors, such as: the fixed exchange rates, the relatively high integration of SEE financial markets to EMU financial markets as well as the dependence of banks on foreign financing......This paper investigates the transmission of foreign shocks to economic activity and macroeconomic policies in the South Eastern European (SEE) economies with fixed exchange rate regimes: Croatia, Macedonia and Bulgaria. Specifically, we provide empirical evidence on the influence of the EMU policy...... and non-policy shocks (the output gap, the money market rate and the inflation rate in the euro-zone) on monetary and fiscal policies and economic activity in the analysed countries. The main motivation behind our empirical investigation is the fact that all of these economies are small open economies...

  19. Increasing Incidence of Salmonella in Australia, 2000-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Kathryn; Veitch, Mark; Wardell, Rebecca; Polkinghorne, Ben; Dobbins, Timothy; Lal, Aparna; Kirk, Martyn D.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella is a key cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in Australia and case numbers are increasing. We used negative binomial regression to analyze national surveillance data for 2000–2013, for Salmonella Typhimurium and non-Typhimurium Salmonella serovars. We estimated incidence rate ratios adjusted for sex and age to show trends over time. Almost all states and territories had significantly increasing trends of reported infection for S. Typhimurium, with states and territories reporting annual increases as high as 12% (95% confidence interval 10–14%) for S. Typhimurium in the Australian Capital Territory and 6% (95% CI 5–7%) for non-Typhimurium Salmonella in Victoria. S. Typhimurium notification rates were higher than non-Typhimurium Salmonella rates in most age groups in the south eastern states of Australia, while non-Typhimurium rates were higher in most age groups elsewhere. The S. Typhimurium notification rate peaked at 12–23 months of age and the non-Typhimurium Salmonella notification rate peaked at 0–11 months of age. The age-specific pattern of S. Typhimurium cases suggests a foodborne origin, while the age and geographic pattern for non-Typhimurium may indicate that other transmission routes play a key role for these serovars. PMID:27732615

  20. Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Christine

    1986-01-01

    Examines educational provisions for ethnic and racial groups in Australia, comprised primarily of the aborigines and the migrants or non-English speaking immigrants. Discussion of the official policies of "self determination" and "multiculturalism" emphasizes the important differences between the two and the considerations…

  1. Are sociodemographic characteristics associated with spatial variation in the incidence of OHCA and bystander CPR rates? A population-based observational study in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straney, Lahn D; Bray, Janet E; Beck, Ben; Bernard, Stephen; Lijovic, Marijana; Smith, Karen

    2016-11-07

    Rates of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have been shown to vary considerably in Victoria. We examined the extent to which this variation could be explained by the sociodemographic and population health characteristics of the region. Using the Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Registry, we extracted OHCA cases occurring between 2011 and 2013. We restricted the calculation of bystander CPR rates to those arrests that were witnessed by a bystander. To estimate the level of variation between Victorian local government areas (LGAs), we used a two-stage modelling approach using random-effects modelling. Between 2011 and 2013, there were 15 830 adult OHCA in Victoria. Incidence rates varied across the state between 41.9 to 104.0 cases/100 000 population. The proportion of the population over 65, socioeconomic status, smoking prevalence and education level were significant predictors of incidence in the multivariable model, explaining 93.9% of the variation in incidence among LGAs. Estimates of bystander CPR rates for bystander witnessed arrests varied from 62.7% to 73.2%. Only population density was a significant predictor of rates in a multivariable model, explaining 73% of the variation in the odds of receiving bystander CPR among LGAs. Our results show that the regional characteristics which underlie the variation seen in rates of bystander CPR may be region specific and may require study in smaller areas. However, characteristics associated with high incidence and low bystander CPR rates can be identified and will help to target regions and inform local interventions to increase bystander CPR rates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Vulnerability and resilience of competing land-based livelihoods in south eastern Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murungweni, C.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: vulnerability; resilience; livelihood; drought; Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area; south eastern Zimbabwe. Vulnerability and resilience have emerged as powerful analytical concepts in the study of socio-ecological systems. In this research these concepts are used to enhance

  3. Urban agglomerations in the function of regional integration of Serbia in South-Eastern Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tošić Dragutin; Krunić Nikola

    2005-01-01

    ... of the Serbian urban system into the urban of the South-Eastern Europe (SEE). In the regional configuration of Serbia, more different forms of territorial impacts of urbanization, urban areas and urban regions...

  4. Childhood Mortality in Federal Medical Centre Umuahia, South Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwafor Chukwuemeka Charles

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the mortality pattern in children seen at Federal Medical Centre Umuahia (FMCU Abia state, South Eastern Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective cross sectional descriptive study over a 5-year period from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2008 using data retrieved from the hospital’s medical records department. Results: A total of 3,814 children were admitted in the hospital and 434 of them died giving a mortality rate of 11%. The mean age was 1.7 (Std D of 3.19. Two hundred and thirty eight of them were males while 196 of them were females giving a sex ratio of 1.2:1. Majority of the mortality (49% occurred within 24 hours of admission. The major causes of death during neonatal period were birth asphyxia (34%, prematurity (24% and neonatal sepsis (24%. Malaria was the leading cause of death beyond the neonatal period accounting for 42% of cases. Other common mortality causes were pneumonia, septicaemia, diarrhea, HIV AIDS and meningitis each accounting for 10%, 10%, 7%, 7% and 5% respectively. The months of July, May and March accounted for most deaths (12%, 12% and 11% respectively. Conclusion: Birth asphyxia and malaria associated deaths were responsible for most deaths during neonatal and beyond neonatal periods respectively. Presence of trained personal at all deliveries will help to reduce neonatal asphyxia. Efforts should be made to reinforce the existing effective malaria control tools.

  5. High mortality from snakebite in south-eastern Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trape, J F; Pison, G; Guyavarch, E; Mane, Y

    2001-01-01

    Over 24 years, from 1976 to 1999, we conducted a prospective study of overall and cause-specific mortality among the population of 42 villages of south-eastern Senegal. Of 4228 deaths registered during this period, 26 were caused by snakebite, 4 by invertebrate stings and 8 by other wild or domestic animals. The average annual mortality rate from snakebite was 14 deaths per 100,000 population. Among persons aged > or = 1 year, 0.9% (26/2880) of deaths were caused by snakebite and this cause represented 28% (26/94) of total deaths by accidents. We also investigated the snake fauna of the area. Of 1280 snakes belonging to 34 species that were collected, one-third were dangerous and the proportion of Viperidae, Elapidae and Atractaspidae was 23%, 11% and 0.6%, respectively. The saw-scaled viper Echis ocellatus was the most abundant species (13.6%). Other venomous species were Causus maculatus (6.5%), Naja katiensis (5.5%), Bitis arietans (2.7%), Elapsoidea trapei (2.4%), Naja nigricollis (1.2%), Naja melanoleuca (1.1%), Atractaspis aterrima (0.4%), Dendroaspis polylepis (0.3%) and Naja haje (0.1%).

  6. Sociodemographic factors associated with healthy eating and food security in socio-economically disadvantaged groups in the UK and Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Pearce, Jamie R; Ball, Kylie

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the associations between sociodemographic factors and both diet indicators and food security among socio-economically disadvantaged populations in two different (national) contextual settings. Logistic regression was used to determine cross-sectional associations between nationality, marital status, presence of children in the household, education, employment status and household income (four low income categories) with daily fruit and vegetable consumption, low-fat milk consumption and food security. Socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods in the UK and Australia. Two samples of low-income women from disadvantaged neighbourhoods: (i) in the UK, the 2003-05 Low Income Diet and Nutrition Survey (LIDNS; n 643); and (ii) in Australia, the 2007-08 Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality (READI; n 1340). The influence of nationality, marital status and children in the household on the dietary outcomes varied between the two nations. Obtaining greater education qualifications was the most telling factor associated with healthier dietary behaviours. Being employed was positively associated with low-fat milk consumption in both nations and with fruit consumption in the UK, while income was not associated with dietary behaviours in either nation. In Australia, the likelihood of being food secure was higher among those who were born outside Australia, married, employed or had a greater income, while higher income was the only significant factor in the UK. The identification of factors that differently influence dietary behaviours and food security in socio-economically disadvantaged populations in the UK and Australia suggests continued efforts need to be made to ensure that interventions and policy responses are informed by the best available local evidence.

  7. Pandemic influenza H1N1 2009 infection in Victoria, Australia: no evidence for harm or benefit following receipt of seasonal influenza vaccine in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Heath A; Grant, Kristina A; Fielding, James E; Carville, Kylie S; Looker, Clare O; Tran, Thomas; Jacoby, Peter

    2011-08-26

    Conflicting findings regarding the level of protection offered by seasonal influenza vaccination against pandemic influenza H1N1 have been reported. We performed a test-negative case control study using sentinel patients from general practices in Victoria to estimate seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness against laboratory proven infection with pandemic influenza. Cases were defined as patients with an influenza-like illness who tested positive for influenza while controls had an influenza-like illness but tested negative. We found no evidence of significant protection from seasonal vaccine against pandemic influenza virus infection in any age group. Age-stratified point estimates, adjusted for pandemic phase, ranged from 44% in persons aged less than 5 years to -103% (odds ratio=2.03) in persons aged 50-64 years. Vaccine effectiveness, adjusted for age group and pandemic phase, was 3% (95% CI -48 to 37) for all patients. Our study confirms the results from our previous interim report, and other studies, that failed to demonstrate benefit or harm from receipt of seasonal influenza vaccine in patients with confirmed infection with pandemic influenza H1N1 2009. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of a culturally-tailored campaign to increase blood donation knowledge, attitudes and intentions among African migrants in two Australian States: Victoria and South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Kate L; Polonsky, Michael J; Jones, Sandra C; Renzaho, Andre M N

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that African migrants are often positively predisposed towards blood donation, but are under-represented in participation. A culturally-tailored intervention targeting the African migrant community in Australia was developed and implemented, to enhance knowledge about blood donation, improve attitudes towards donating, increase intentions to donate blood, and increase the number of new African donors in Australia. Four weeks after a targeted campaign, a survey evaluation process commenced, administered face-to-face by bilingual interviewers from the African community in Melbourne and Adelaide, Australia (community survey). The questionnaires covered demographics, campaign awareness, blood donation knowledge and intentions, medical mistrust and perceived discrimination, and were analysed to evaluate changes in knowledge and intention. Sixty-two percent of survey participants (n = 454) reported being aware of the campaign. With increasing campaign awareness, there was a 0.28 increase in knowledge score (p = .005); previous blood donation was also associated with an increased blood donation knowledge score. Blood donation intention scores were not associated with campaign awareness (p = 0.272), but were associated with previous blood donation behaviour and a positive blood donation attitude score. More positive scores on the blood donation attitude measure were associated with increasing blood donation intentions, self-efficacy and campaign awareness (score increases of 0.27, 0.30 and 0.04, respectively, all pcampaign was associated with improved blood donation knowledge and attitudes, but there was no short-term change in blood donation intentions or the number of African donors.

  9. Benefits of meteorological services in South Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautala, R.; Leviaekangas, P.; Raesaenen, J. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2008-12-15

    The study evaluated the impacts and potential benefits of meteorological and hydrological information services in Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, FYR Macedonia, Moldova and Montenegro. The services were analysed for the sectors of transport, construction industry, energy production, flood protection and agriculture production. The study was part of a larger project for the development of weather and climate observation networks and meteorological services in South Eastern Europe countries. In Albania advanced meteorological information services would produce annual savings worth 24 to 26 million euro. In Bosnia-Herzegovina the potential annual benefits were estimated to be about 10 to 22 million euro, in the FYR Macedonia 12 to 40 million euro and in Moldova 12 to 19 million euro per year. For Montenegro the data available did not enable the differentiation from Serbia for aviation and agriculture sectors. For road transport, construction industry and flood protection the annual savings resulting from better hydrometeorological information would be 1 to 3 million euro. Due to the lack of source information only part of the approximate potential benefits could be estimated at magnitude level, even though, the results show that hydrometeorological services are beneficial and worth developing further. The benefits are to a large extent due to higher predictability rates and better planning of operations as well as better preparedness for accidents and the reduction of human and material losses caused by these accidents. The realisation of the potential benefits requires comprehensive development of the hydrometeorological service systems. This means further development of observation infrastructure, data and transmission systems as well as service processes, operation models and know-how. Not only should the services be developed, but their availability and usability should be improved. The utilisation of communications technology should be enhanced and the awareness of

  10. Old age mortality in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danan Gu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eastern and South-Eastern Asian countries have witnessed a marked decline in old age mortality in recent decades. Yet no studies have investigated the trends and patterns in old age morality and cause-of-death in the region. Objective: We reviewed the trends and patterns of old age mortality and cause-of-death for countries in the region. Methods: We examined data on old age mortality in terms of life expectancy at age 65 and age-specific death rates from the 2012 Revision of the World Population Prospects for 14 countries in the region (China, Hong Kong, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam and data on cause-of-death from the WHO for five countries (China, Hong Kong, Japan, Republic of Korea, and Singapore from 1980 to 2010. Results: While mortality transitions in these populations took place in different times, and at different levels of socioeconomic development and living environment, changes in their age patterns and sex differentials in mortality showed certain similarities: women witnessed a similar decline to men in spite of their lower mortality, and young elders had a larger decline than the oldest-old. In all five countries examined for cause-of-death, most of the increases in life expectancy at age 65 in both men and women were attributable to declines in mortality from stroke and heart disease. GDP per capita, educational level, and urbanization explained much of the variations in life expectancy and cause-specific mortality, indicating critical contributions of these basic socioeconomic development indicators to the mortality decline over time in the region. Conclusions: These findings shed light on the relationship between epidemiological transition, changing age patterns of mortality, and improving life expectancy in these populations.

  11. Quantitative morphotectonic analysis of the South-Eastern Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionuţ Cristea, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    South-Eastern Carpathians (Vrancea Region) have received an increasing scientific attention during the past years, mostly resulting in a detailed reconstruction of their exumation history. Moreover structural and thermocronological data suggest that the frontal part of the SE Carpathians conserves the youngest topography in the Romanian Carpathians resulting from a deformational process occurring during the late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene. This significant tectonic activity continues to the present time as it is confirmed by the geodetic measurements and by the frequency of crustal earthquakes. The specific effects of the Quaternary deformations on the regional fluvial system were associated so far with an increased incision and the formation of the degradational (strath) terraces, downstream tiling of terraces, the establishment of local drainage divides and young longitudinal river profiles. Our study further investigates the possible influence of the recent tectonic activity on the characteristics of the drainage basins in the area and the distribution of the over-steepened stream reaches using spatial autocorrelation techniques (Getis Ord Gi* statistics and Anselin's Local Moran's I). For the first, hypsometric integrals (Hi) and transverse topographic symmetry factor were analyzed. For the last, we used locally computed normalized channel steepness index (ksn). Due to the highly variable lithology in the region (specific to the Flysch areas), additional correlations of the determined values with the geological units and rock types have been made in order to assess the effects. The results show that the geographic clustering of the high Hi and ksn values is more significant than the lithological one, and, although the rock strength have local influences, this is not sufficient to explain the regional distribution of the values, generally between 26.5o and 26.66o E (p

  12. Religions in South-Eastern Europe: The Historico-Anthropological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mitterauer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The article approaches religious phenomena in South-Eastern Europe in a historico-anthropological manner. With the aid of historical comparison, the author tries to throw light on the religious phenomena of South-Eastern Europe and to present them in a lucid review. A significant place in this process is given to historical sociology as a discipline which, among other, also deals with the religious conditioning of social processes. The text consists of two parts. In the first, the author deals with the question of the religious particularity of South-Eastern Europe and considers it from several viewpoints. The author regards the most important features of the religious situation in that part of Europe as being particularism, archaicism and syncretism. He analyses the historical conditioning of the viability of the three monotheistic world religions in the region, their influence on the social development of South-Eastern Europe, the stance of the authorities towards religious communities and the existence of diverse traditions within individual religious cultures. Along with analysis of the presence of ancient elements and the continuity of pre-Christian rituals and beliefs, the author also stresses the strong syncretism marking the religious traditions of South-Eastern Europe. In the second part of the text the author compares religious phenomena in South-Eastern Europe and analyses regional religious traditions. He presents from the historico-anthropological aspect the religious rituals, the bearers of rituals, the place and time of rituals and the ritual languages of each of the world religions represented in the region. Emphasising the continuity of religious life and religious traditions in South-Eastern Europe, the author ends with the period of Communist rule in the second half of the 20th century, and deliberation that Communism, too, with its atheist doctrine in the secular form of cult, in fact carried on from religious tradition.

  13. The impact of socio-economic disadvantage on rates of hospital separations for diabetes-related foot disease in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colman Peter G

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information describing variation in health outcomes for individuals with diabetes related foot disease, across socioeconomic strata is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate variation in rates of hospital separations for diabetes related foot disease and the relationship with levels of social advantage and disadvantage. Methods Using the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (IRSD each local government area (LGA across Victoria was ranked from most to least disadvantaged. Those LGAs ranked at the lowest end of the scale and therefore at greater disadvantage (Group D were compared with those at the highest end of the scale (Group A, in terms of total and per capita hospital separations for peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, foot ulceration, cellulitis and osteomyelitis and amputation. Hospital separations data were compiled from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Database. Results Total and per capita separations were 2,268 (75.3/1,000 with diabetes and 2,734 (62.3/1,000 with diabetes for Group D and Group A respectively. Most notable variation was for foot ulceration (Group D, 18.1/1,000 versus Group A, 12.7/1,000, rate ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.3, 1.6 and below knee amputation (Group D 7.4/1,000 versus Group A 4.1/1,000, rate ratio 1.8, 95% CI 1.5, 2.2. Males recorded a greater overall number of hospital separations across both socioeconomic strata with 66.2% of all separations for Group D and 81.0% of all separations for Group A recorded by males. However, when comparing mean age, males from Group D tended to be younger compared with males from Group A (mean age; 53.0 years versus 68.7 years. Conclusion Variation appears to exist for hospital separations for diabetes related foot disease across socioeconomic strata. Specific strategies should be incorporated into health policy and planning to combat disparities between health outcomes and social status.

  14. The outcomes of health-promoting communities: being active eating well initiative-a community-based obesity prevention intervention in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, K A; Kremer, P; Gibbs, L; Waters, E; Swinburn, B; de Silva, A

    2017-07-01

    schools (P<0.05). All effect sizes were in the small-to-moderate range. This was a complex and ambitious initiative, which attempted to expand a previously successful community-based intervention in Victoria into five new contexts and communities. Overall, project success was quite inconsistent, and some significant differences were in the unanticipated direction. However, there are many important learnings that should inform future health-promotion activities. The heterogeneity of outcomes of HPC:BAEW communities reflects the reality of life whereby effectiveness of intervention strategies is dependent on individual and community factors. Future health promotion should consider a systems approach whereby existing systems are modified rather than relying heavily on the addition of new activities, with longer time frames for implementation.

  15. Aspects of seasonality and flood generating circulation patterns in a mountainous catchment in south-eastern Germany

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrow, Th; Merz, B; Lindenschmidt, K.-E; Thieken, A. H

    2007-01-01

    Analyses of discharge series, precipitation fields and flood producing atmospheric circulation patterns reveal that two governing flood regimes exist in the Mulde catchment in south-eastern Germany...

  16. THE EUROPEAN UNION, THE ENLARGEMENT AND THE SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkidis Theofanis

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Ιn 1989, the countries of South-eastern Europe and central Europe promoted their integration of military, political and economic collaboration and developed narrow relations with the European Union (Ε.U. Thus resulted the new enlargement of EU, in order to transfer in south-eastern Europe the places of EU, for peace, stability, growth. The new enlargement constitutes a big challenge, after the integrations of states in the EU in 1973, in 1981, in 1986, in 1995 they did not have the extent and the expectations 2004 and particularly the South-eastern Europe afterwards 2007. The article analyzes the course of integration of South-eastern Europe in the EU and analyzes the essential changes that are required, the transition in the free market economy, the creation of political system that will be based on the state of right and the respect the human and minorities’ rights, the political plurality and the multi-party system with democratic elections. The article supports that the enlargement in the South-eastern Europe is very important for the EU, enlargement that closes the Cold War, a hope for the common European region of peace, cooperation, democracy and development.

  17. Long-term responses of Burrunan dolphins (Tursiops australis to swim-with dolphin tourism in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia: A population at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Filby

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated Burrunan dolphin responses to dolphin-swim tour vessels across two time periods: 1998–2000 and 2011–2013. A total of 211 dolphin sightings were documented across 306 surveys. Sighting success rate and mean encounter time with dolphins decreased significantly by 12.8% and 8.2 min, respectively, between periods. Approaches that did not contravene regulations elicited highest approach responses by dolphins towards tour vessels, whereas dolphins’ responded to illegal approaches most frequently with avoidance. Small groups responded to tour vessels with avoidance significantly more than large groups. Initial dolphin behaviour had a strong effect on dolphin’s responses to tour vessels, with resting groups the most likely to exhibit avoidance. Calves were significantly more likely to be present during swims in 2011–2013. Dolphin’s responses to tour vessels changed across time, with effect responses (avoidance and approach increasing significantly as dolphins gained cumulative experience. These dolphins are forced to expend a greater level of time and energy avoiding or approaching boats, shifting from a non-effect response to an effect response. Consequences of this include possible decrease in biological fitness by detracting from core biological activities such as foraging and resting. Combined with a decrease in sighting success between periods, the results imply that this population of dolphins, which is endemic to Australia and listed as threatened under the Victorian Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988, may not be well suited to the dolphin-swim industry. The management implications of these results warrant a shift from passive to active management in Port Phillip Bay. The importance of long-term research is highlighted, given behavioural responses detected herein would be undetected in short-term studies.

  18. Episiotomy and severe perineal trauma among Eastern African immigrant women giving birth in public maternity care: A population based study in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belihu, Fetene B; Small, Rhonda; Davey, Mary-Ann

    2017-08-01

    Eastern African immigrants from countries affected by female genital mutilation have resettled in many developed countries, including Australia. Although possibly at risk of perineal trauma and episiotomy, research investigating their perineal status post-migration is sparse. To investigate variations in episiotomy use and incidence of severe perineal tear for women born in Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan compared with Australian-born women. A population-based study of 203,206 Australian-born and 3502 Eastern African immigrant women admitted as public patients, with singleton vaginal births between 1999 and 2007, was conducted using the Victorian Perinatal Data Collection. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusting for confounders selected a priori, were performed to compute incidence and adjusted odds ratios. Overall, 30.5% Eastern African immigrants had episiotomy compared to 17.2% Australian-born women. Severe perineal trauma occurred in 2.1% of Eastern African immigrants and 1.6% of Australian-born women. While the odds of severe perineal trauma was significantly elevated only during non-instrumental vaginal births for Eastern African immigrants {ORadj1.56 95%CI(1.17, 2.12)}; that of episiotomy was increased during both non-instrumental {ORadj4.47 95%CI(4.10, 4.88)} and instrumental {ORadj2.51 95%CI(1.91, 3.29)} vaginal births. Overall, Eastern African immigrant women experienced elevated odds of episiotomy and severe perineal tear. Health care providers need to be mindful of the increased risk of severe perineal tear in these women and enhance efforts in identification and treatment of severe perineal trauma to minimise associated short and long term morbidity. Strategies to reduce unneeded episiotomy and ways of enhancing perineal safety are also needed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Breast feeding practices in Onitsha South Eastern Nigeria – 2 years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the impact of “baby friendly hospital initiative” on breast feeding practices in Onitsha South Eastern Nigeria, 2 years after introduction. Setting: Holy Rosary Maternity Hospital Onitsha Materials and methods: A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 178 breast feeding mothers on maternal ...

  20. Food and vices in south-eastern Nigeria: implications for poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives include among others an examination of the nature of poverty in South-Eastern Nigeria; an investigation to ascertain whether or not, poverty results in hunger, etc. The following were the findings: Hunger seems to have ravaged our society. This is because majority of our people are poor and are unable to ...

  1. Agricultural Extension in South-Eastern Europe: Issues of Transition and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daku, Lefter; Norton, George W.; Taylor, Daniel B.; Qenani-Petrela, Eivis

    2005-01-01

    Following the economic reforms in the early 90's, most of the south-eastern European countries (SEE) made efforts to establish agricultural extension services. However, a number of factors including tight governmental budgets, lack of experience, and the existence of vested interests have constrained the development of extension services. This…

  2. Self-reported adherence to HAART in South-Eastern Nigeria is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to assess levels of adherence and predictors of adherence to HAART in South-Eastern Nigeria. Selfreported adherence to HAART was assessed at 4-week intervals for a period of 3 months. A 10-item questionnaire was used to assess hypothesised factors in adherence to HAART. The average ...

  3. Effects of surface soil loss in South Eastern Nigeria: I. crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An understanding of the influence of surface soil loss on crop yield is necessary in order to find out their effects on performance of crops. Effects of surface soil loss on maize (Zea mays L) seed yield, plant height and leaf area index (LAI) were investigated in poultry and meteorological locations in South Eastern Nigeria.

  4. soil groups relative susceptibility to erosion in parts of south-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    94. SOIL GROUPS RELATIVE SUSCEPTIBILITY. TO EROSION IN PARTS OF SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA. 1. C.N. Madubuike and. 2. G.O. Chukwuma,. 1. Department of Agricultural Engineering,. Federal University of Technology,. Owerri, Nigeria. 2. Department: of Agricultural Engineering,. University of Nigeria, Nsukka, ...

  5. Herpetological surveys of south-western and south-eastern regions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The herpetofauna of part of the south-western (Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States) and south-eastern (Cross River State) regions were investigated. Specimens were located opportunistically during visual surveys. Both regions fall in the tropical zone, and the south-western region surveyed, was mostly lowland, degraded forests ...

  6. Prevalence of low vision secondary to eye injuries in South Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study of the prevalence of low vision secondary to eye injuries in south-eastern part of Nigeria was undertaken. Data obtained from files in ten tertiary hospitals within the area showed that 394 cases of low vision due to eye injuries were found in the ten hospitals within a ten year period (1986 –2006).

  7. Rural land use change in South-eastern Nigeria: evidence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South-eastern Nigeria is an area in tropical Africa that is well known for high population growth rate and crude density, high rate of urbanization and poor agricultural resource base. Evidence has shown that these are the main driving forces for the change in rural land use in the region. However, since land use change will ...

  8. Molecular phylogenetics and systematic revision of the south-eastern Australian Helicarionidae (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyman, I.T.; Iglesia Lamborena, de la I.; Köhler, F.

    2017-01-01

    The south-eastern Australian helicarionid clade currently comprises six genera of snails and semislugs united by genital characters, including an epiphallic flagellum that produces a spiraling, spinose spermatophore, the absence of an epiphallic caecum, and the presence of at most a very short

  9. Molecular detection of hybridization between sympatric kangaroo species in south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neaves, L E; Zenger, K R; Cooper, D W; Eldridge, M D B

    2010-05-01

    Introgressive hybridization has traditionally been regarded as rare in many vertebrate groups, including mammals. Despite a propensity to hybridize in captivity, introgression has rarely been reported between wild sympatric macropodid marsupials. Here we investigate sympatric populations of western (Macropus fuliginosus) and eastern (Macropus giganteus) grey kangaroos through 12 autosomal microsatellite loci and 626 bp of the hypervariable mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. M. fuliginosus and M. giganteus within the region of sympatry corresponded, both genetically and morphologically, to their respective species elsewhere in their distributions. Of the 223 grey kangaroos examined, 7.6% displayed evidence of introgression, although no F1 hybrids were detected. In contrast to captive studies, there was no evidence for unidirectional hybridization in sympatric grey kangaroos. However, a higher portion of M. giganteus backcrosses existed within the sample compared with M. fuliginosus. Hybridization in grey kangaroos is reflective of occasional breakdowns in species boundaries, occurring throughout the region and potentially associated with variable conditions and dramatic reductions in densities. Such rare hybridization events allow populations to incorporate novel diversity while still retaining species integrity.

  10. Guidelines for inclusion: Ensuring Indigenous peoples' involvement in water planning processes across South Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz Quitian, Alejandra; Rodríguez, Gloria Amparo

    2016-11-01

    Indigenous peoples within the Murray-Darling Basin have traditionally struggled for the recognition of their cultural, social, environmental, spiritual, commercial and economic connection to the waters that they have traditionally used, as well as their right to engage in all stages of water planning processes. Despite Australian national and federal frameworks providing for the inclusion of Indigenous Australians' objectives in planning frameworks, water plans have rarely addressed these objectives in water, or the strategies to achieve them. Indeed, insufficient resources, a lack of institutional capacity in both Indigenous communities and agencies and an inadequate understanding of Indigenous people's objectives in water management have limited the extent to which Indigenous objectives are addressed in water plans within the Murray-Darling Basin. In this context, the adoption of specific guidelines to meet Indigenous requirements in relation to basin water resources is crucial to support Indigenous engagement in water planning processes. Using insights from participatory planning methods and human rights frameworks, this article outlines a set of alternative and collaborative guidelines to improve Indigenous involvement in water planning and to promote sustainable and just water allocations.

  11. Canoeing the Murray River (Australia) as Environmental Education: A Tale of Two Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alistair

    2004-01-01

    The Murray River, lying at the heart of Australia's largest catchment, is used extensively in outdoor education programs in south-eastern Australia. Since European settlement the river's ecological health has declined considerably due to activities such as damming for irrigation and clearing of native vegetation. Colonial notions of how the river…

  12. Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of food crops and fruits in Owerri, South Eastern, Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Nduka, John Kanayochukwu; Amadi, Cecilia Nwadiuto; Dike, Daniel Onyekachi; Bede, Onyinyechi

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed lead, cadmium, and nickel level in food crops, fruits and soil samples from Ohaji and Umuagwo and Owerri in South Eastern Nigeria and estimated the potential health risks of metals...

  13. 78 FR 2482 - Koch Industries, Inc.-Acquisition of Control Exemption-Texas South-Eastern Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... acquire indirect control of Texas South-Eastern Railroad Co. (TSE), a Class III rail carrier. Koch states... transactions that would connect any of the railroads controlled by Koch with TSE; and (3) the transaction does...

  14. Breakfast habits and heath perceptions in South-eastern Spanish adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Soriano-Ayala Encarnación; Cala Verónica C.; González-Jiménez Antonio J.; Salvador Diego Ruiz; Justo Clemente Franco

    2016-01-01

    The principal aims of this study are to describe breakfast consumption patterns of south-eastern Spanish adolescents, examine the relationship between breakfast consumption and feelings of well-being and fitness and compare breakfast behaviour between men and women to identify if there is a gender gap. Design: A cross-sectional research with cluster sampling in two primary schools and seven secondary schools. The instrument used was a modified version of the Kidscreen-27 questionnaire. Sample...

  15. Comparative studies on the administrative convergence revealed by national strategies of administrative reform in some South-Eastern European states

    OpenAIRE

    Matei, Lucica; Matei, Ani; Zanovschi, Diana; Stoian, Oana

    2010-01-01

    The paper has as main topic the administrative convergence and its reflection in the national strategies of administrative reform in some states in South Eastern Europe. Having a complex content, sometimes even ambigous, the administrative convergence will have as finality the integration in the European Administrative Space and the administrative reforms as support. From this prospect, the South-Eastern Europe has a certain specificity emphasised by: different positions of the states under d...

  16. Achelia shepherdi n. sp. and other Pycnogonida from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1973-01-01

    Records of 10 species of shallow water Pycnogonida from Western Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, and New South Wales, including Achelia shepherdi n. sp., Parapallene avida Stock, 1973 (♀ new to science), and Anoplodactylus pulcher Carpenter, 1907 (new to Australia).

  17. Research on School-Based Management in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, David T.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a 1992-93 research project involving 66 state schools that attempted to ascertain the overall effectiveness of school-based management in Victoria, Australia. Findings of the Likert-style survey revealed substantial participant satisfaction with school councils' current composition, information provision, and overall functioning. (20…

  18. BURN SEVERITY MAPPING IN AUSTRALIA 2009

    OpenAIRE

    McKinley, R; Clark, J.; J. Lecker

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-der...

  19. Temporal hooking variability among sharks on south-eastern Australian demersal longlines and implications for their management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt K. Broadhurst

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was done to quantify species-specific variation in temporal hooking rates from demersal longlines targeting various carcharhinids off south eastern Australia, with a view to reducing the incidental catches of protected species, including the scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini, great hammerhead Sphyrna mokarran and grey nurse Carcharias taurus. The longline comprised a 9600 m mainline, separated into four sections (termed lines each with 120 gangions (20 m apart rigged with hook timers and 16/0 circle hooks baited with either sea mullet Mugil cephalus or eastern Australian salmon Arripis trutta. The mainline was deployed on each of 17 nights (between 19:30 and 23:30 h, with two lines retrieved after 7 and 14 h respectively. From a total of 8160 hooks, 246 timers were activated without hooking fish. Twenty-two species comprising 684 individuals were caught, including 52 S. lewini, 12 C. taurus, 11 S. mokarran and 1 loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta. Several environmental factors, including water temperature, moon phase and depth had mostly homogeneous, positive effects on catches. The only identified variables that might be used to considerably reduce the catches of Sphyrna were soak time and/or diurnal gear retrieval, with most individuals hooked during daylight. Simply mandating shorter deployments and within nocturnal retrieval might limit exploitation, especially among juveniles (<150cm total length. For the studied fishery to approach sustainability, future research is required to investigate other gear modifications for improving size and species selectivity, and/or operational procedures for mitigating discard and escape mortalities.

  20. Groundwater intensive use and mining in south-eastern peninsular Spain: Hydrogeological, economic and social aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Emilio; Andreu-Rodes, José Miguel; Aragón, Ramón; Estrela, Teodoro; Ferrer, Javier; García-Aróstegui, José Luis; Manzano, Marisol; Rodríguez-Hernández, Luis; Sahuquillo, Andrés; Del Villar, Alberto

    2016-07-15

    Intensive groundwater development is a common circumstance in semiarid and arid areas. Often abstraction exceeds recharge, thus continuously depleting reserves. There is groundwater mining when the recovery of aquifer reserves needs more than 50years. The MASE project has been carried out to compile what is known about Spain and specifically about the south-eastern Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands. The objective was the synthetic analysis of available data on the hydrological, economic, managerial, social, and ethical aspects of groundwater mining. Since the mid-20th century, intensive use of groundwater in south-eastern Spain allowed extending and securing the areas with traditional surface water irrigation of cash crops and their extension to former dry lands, taking advantage of good soils and climate. This fostered a huge economic and social development. Intensive agriculture is a main activity, although tourism plays currently an increasing economic role in the coasts. Many aquifers are relatively high yielding small carbonate units where the total groundwater level drawdown may currently exceed 300m. Groundwater storage depletion is estimated about 15km(3). This volume is close to the total contribution of the Tagus-Segura water transfer, but without large investments paid for with public funds. Seawater desalination complements urban supply and part of cash crop cultivation. Reclaimed urban waste water is used for irrigation. Groundwater mining produces benefits but associated to sometimes serious economic, administrative, legal and environmental problems. The use of an exhaustible vital resource raises ethical concerns. It cannot continue under the current legal conditions. A progressive change of water use paradigm is the way out, but this is not in the mind of most water managers and politicians. The positive and negative results observed in south-eastern Spain may help to analyse other areas under similar hydrogeological conditions in a less

  1. Insights into soil and water conservation measures for major land utilization types in South Eastern Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kabanza, Andrew Kaggwa

    2013-01-01

    Land-use/cover changes have taken place in South Eastern Tanzania with as a result a decline in natural vegetation. Land use change coupled with anticipated climate change has lead to accelerated land degradation in terms of soil erosion, loss in biodiversity and changed hydrological cycles. Changes in land use if not properly managed goes hand in hand with soil erosion. This study was conducted to assess land use/cover change and its linkage to soil erosion visavis runoff and soil loss from ...

  2. Modeling the barrier-layer formation in the South-Eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Durand, F.; Shankar, D.; DeBoyer Montegut, C.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Blanke, B.; Madec, G.

    -layer formation in the South-Eastern Arabian Sea F. Durand1, D. Shankar2, C. de Boyer Mont?gut3, S.S.C. Shenoi2, B. Blanke4, G. Madec3 (1) IRD, LEGOS, UMR5566 CNRS-CNES-IRD-UPS, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France (2) Physical Oceanography Division..., National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004, India (3) Laboratoire d?Oc?anographie et de Climatologie : Exp?rimentation et Analyses Num?riques, Universit? Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France (4) Laboratoire...

  3. THE ECONOMIC SITUATION IN SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE: A POSSIBLE THREAT TO THE SECURITY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Andreea PIRNUTA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The entire world has had to face the draconian effects of the economic recession recently. One of the regions marked by severe economic damages has been South Eastern Europe. The present article aims at analyzing the current economic situation in this particular region by trying to identify the strong and weak points, as well as possible ways to solve these specific issues. This paper lays emphasis upon states, such as: Turkey, Greece and Romania, but also on certain facts about the other states belonging to the previously mentioned region.

  4. Emerging Administrations and Sustainable Development in South-Eastern Europe. Case study: Romania and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Berceanu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen years ago, Agenda 21, the United Nations' call to action for sustainable development, envisaged that the necessary harmonization and extension of existing policies and plans would occur through the adoption of an identifiable strategy for sustainable development. Since then, sustainable development is a widely used phrase and idea and it has many different meanings and therefore provokes many different responses. The aim of the article is to explore the role of the emerging South-Eastern administrations in the sustainable development under the changes and rules imposed by the European Union pressure. We will analyze both concepts, emerging administrations and sustainable development from the perspective of system theory and we will make the link with the concept of emergence, which is utilized to research and to analyze the nature of the changes in the public administration starting from the approach of the systemic theory. The research will be focused on the states form the south-eastern Europe, thus in the case study we will make a comparison between Romania and Bulgaria, as new member states of the European Union.

  5. West Nile virus circulation in South-Eastern Romania, 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, S; Cotar, A I; Pănculescu-Gătej, I R; Fălcuţă, E; Prioteasa, F L; Sîrbu, A; Oprişan, G; Bădescu, D; Reiter, P; Ceianu, C S

    2015-05-21

    Lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV), previously found only in sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar, was identified in Hungary in 2004 and has rapidly expanded in Europe in the past decade. Following a significant outbreak of West Nile fever with neurological cases caused by lineage 1 WNV in Romania in 1996, scattered cases have been recorded in the south-east of the country in each transmission season. Another outbreak, affecting a larger area and caused by lineage 2 WNV, was recorded in 2010. We analysed human sera from neuroinvasive West Nile fever cases and mosquitoes, sampled in south-eastern Romania between 2011 and 2013, for the presence of WNV genome, and obtained partial NS5 and envelope glycoprotein sequences. Human- and mosquito-derived WNV sequences were highly similar (99%) to Volgograd 2007 lineage 2 WNV and differed from isolates previously detected in central and southern Europe. WNV was detected in one pool of Culex pipiens s.l. males, documenting vertical transmission. Lineage 4 WNV, of unknown pathogenicity to mammals, was found in the amphibian-feeding mosquito Uranotaenia unguiculata from the Danube Delta. Our results present molecular evidence for the maintenance of the same isolates of Volgograd 2007-like lineage 2 WNV in south-eastern Romania between 2011 and 2013.

  6. Waterford Formation in the south-eastern Karoo: Implications for basin development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mason

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research on the rocks of the Karoo Supergroup has shown that this sequence, which contains an unsurpassed record of Permian–Jurassic tetrapods, records a largely unbroken stratigraphic succession from 300 Ma to 180 Ma. This Gondwanan succession was deposited in a changing environmental setting reflecting glacial marine through deltaic to fluvial and aeolian desert conditions. The contact between the Ecca and Beaufort Groups (at the top of the Waterford Formation of the Ecca Group in the southern and western Karoo represents a change in depositional environment from a subaqueous to a subaerial delta plain. By contrast, the Waterford Formation has not yet been recognised in the south-eastern Karoo Basin, which might imply that a major unconformity is present between the Fort Brown Formation of the Ecca Group, deposited in a prodelta environment, and the overlying fluvially deposited Koonap Formation of the Beaufort Group. From careful documentation of lithofacies and sedimentological data, it can be demonstrated that the Waterford Formation is indeed present in the south-eastern part of the basin and that no major unconformity is present – a fact that has implications for the mapping of Karoo rocks in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, for understanding the depositional environment of ’reptilian‘ fossils from the lowermost Beaufort in this part of the Karoo basin, and for basin development models.

  7. Early winter mesozooplankton of the coastal south-eastern Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoretsky, Vladimir G.; Dvoretsky, Alexander G.

    2015-01-01

    The south-eastern Barents Sea (Pechora Sea) is a little studied region of the Russian Arctic. We investigated mesozooplankton community of this area in early winter period for the first time. The study was based on collections performed with a Juday net (168 μm) in November 2010. Three types of stations differing in mesozooplankton composition and abundance were revealed by non-metric multidimensional scaling analyses. Taxa richness and diversity of the mesozooplankton were high. The total abundance and biomass varied from 931 to 4360 individuals m-3 and from 4.0 to 64.2 mg dry mass m-3, respectively. Maximum density of mesozooplankton was located in the hydrographical frontal zone where cold and warm waters interacted. Copepods dominated in terms of the total abundance. Abundances of major taxa were strongly correlated with environmental variables, of which temperature, salinity and depth were the most important. Previous studies showed that many mesozooplankton are in a dormant state during the Arctic winter from October to April. However, our investigation found young copepodites to be present for many of the common copepod species, which suggests successful reproduction of some opportunistic taxa (Pseudocalanus, Acartia, Temora, Oithona) and that the small copepod community was in an active phase. The main factor influencing possible development of the copepods in the south-eastern Barents Sea was river run-off which supplied plankton with detritus and suspended organic matter.

  8. DOES THE HIGHER EDUCATION PROMOTE STUDENTS’ ENTREPRENEURIAL POTENTIAL IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMITAR NIKOLOSK

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a widespread recognition that business start-ups are a driving force of economic growth and significant job creation. Given the segmented characteristics of the labour markets, youth population is among those segments that are disproportionally affected by high and sustained unemployment. The situation with youth unemployment is particularly unfavourable in developing countries such as South-Eastern European countries where almost half of the active young population is jobless. Even though the governments in these countries have repeatedly undertaken measures for improving the position of youth on the labour markets, it seems that these endeavours have not reached the planned goals. From this perspective, it is important to analyse the potential contribution of education, and particularly the higher education to the development of entrepreneurship. The aim of this paper is to assess the role of the higher education in South-Eastern European countries in fostering the students’ entrepreneurial potential. For this purpose we have carried out a survey on representative samples of students in two universities: “St. Kliment Ohridski” (Macedonia and “Aleksander Xhuvani” (Albania. We found that considerable number of surveyed students have ideas for starting own businesses, but only a small portion of them attempted to develop their business ideas in practice. As a consequence, we can conclude that there exists a wide room for further policy recommendations that will shape directions for future reforms in the SEECs higher education systems and will improve the students’ entrepreneurial potential

  9. A preboreal Elk (Alces alces L., 1758 antler from south-eastern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Audun Grøndahl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false NO-BOK X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In 1895 a shed elk antler was found in a mire on a farm near Fluberg, in Søndre Land municipality in south-eastern Norway. The antler was first radiocarbon dated in 2008 and yielded the age 9,100 ± 50 BP (8,340 – 8,250 BC, which is the oldest dated elk remain from Norway. Elk (Alces alces L., 1758 are a pioneer colonising species; they were already established south of the ice front in Denmark and southern Sweden in the Late Glacial period. This antler shows that the species had arrived in south-eastern Norway in the late Preboreal period. This could tie in with the earliest arrival of elk once the colonizing routes from southern Sweden were established 9,300-9,200 BP. The antler is clearly of the palmate morph, and strongly resembles elk antlers found in Denmark and southern Sweden from the Late Glacial and Early Holocene periods. This find also reveals that the vegetation at the end of the Preboreal period suited large herbivores such as elk.

  10. Potential wildlife sentinels for monitoring the endemic spread of human buruli ulcer in South-East australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connor Carson

    Full Text Available The last 20 years has seen a significant series of outbreaks of Buruli/Bairnsdale Ulcer (BU, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, in temperate south-eastern Australia (state of Victoria. Here, the prevailing view of M. ulcerans as an aquatic pathogen has been questioned by recent research identifying native wildlife as potential terrestrial reservoirs of infection; specifically, tree-dwelling common ringtail and brushtail possums. In that previous work, sampling of environmental possum faeces detected a high prevalence of M. ulcerans DNA in established endemic areas for human BU on the Bellarine Peninsula, compared with non-endemic areas. Here, we report research from an emergent BU focus recently identified on the Mornington Peninsula, confirming associations between human BU and the presence of the aetiological agent in possum faeces, detected by real-time PCR targeting M. ulcerans IS2404, IS2606 and KR. Mycobacterium ulcerans DNA was detected in 20/216 (9.3% ground collected ringtail possum faecal samples and 4/6 (66.6% brushtail possum faecal samples. The distribution of the PCR positive possum faecal samples and human BU cases was highly focal: there was a significant non-random cluster of 16 M. ulcerans positive possum faecal sample points detected by spatial scan statistics (P<0.0001 within a circle of radius 0.42 km, within which were located the addresses of 6/12 human cases reported from the area to date; moreover, the highest sample PCR signal strength (equivalent to ≥10(6 organisms per gram of faeces was found in a sample point located within this cluster radius. Corresponding faecal samples collected from closely adjacent BU-free areas were predominantly negative. Possums may be useful sentinels to predict endemic spread of human BU in Victoria, for public health planning. Further research is needed to establish whether spatial associations represent evidence of direct or indirect transmission between possums and humans, and the

  11. victoria cross awards warrants concerning the victoria cross (1920)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. In the military history of both the British Empire and of the Western World, the highest British military decoration, namely the Victoria Cross, has attained con- siderable renown. The Victoria Cross was introduced in terms of the Royal Warrant of 29 January,. 1856 and by 1957 a total of 1346 had been ...

  12. REMITTANCES AND FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT.A study of the South-Eastern and Eastern-European countries.

    OpenAIRE

    MALE, STELA

    2009-01-01

    Remittances were calculated to be approximately $318 billion in 2007, which is an increase of three times the amount of $102 billion in 1995, having these funds to become the second largest type of flows after foreign direct investment. The South-Eastern and Eastern-European countries welcomed 12% of the world’s remittances inflows in 2007, totalling $37 billion. The impact of remittances on financial development of the South-Eastern and Eastern-European countries for the period 1994 – 2007 i...

  13. Indigenous Young People Transitioning from Out-of-Home Care (OOHC in Victoria, Australia: The Perspectives of Workers in Indigenous-Specific and Non-Indigenous Non-Government Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Mendes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous children and young people are overrepresented in the Australian out-of-home care (OOHC system. To date, specific research has not been undertaken on workers' perspectives regarding the Indigenous-specific and non-Indigenous supports and services available to Indigenous young people exiting the system. This exploratory research involved focus group consultations with workers from seven child and family welfare agencies to examine the current support services available to Indigenous young people who are in or will be leaving out-of-home care in the State of Victoria. Findings suggest that Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisations (ACCOs play a positive role in working with non-Indigenous agencies to assist Indigenous care leavers. Participants identified some key strategies to improve outcomes, such as facilitating stronger relationships between Indigenous and non-Indigenous services, and improving the resourcing of ACCOs.

  14. Geodynamics and intermediate-depth seismicity in Vrancea (the south-eastern Carpathians): Current state-of-the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismael-Zadeh, A.; Matenco, L.C.; Radulian, M.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Panza, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Vrancea region of the south-eastern Carpathians is a remarkable site of intra-continental intermediate-depth seismicity. A large set of geological, geophysical, and geodetic observations has been accumulated for the last few decades and utilised to improve our knowledge of the shallow and deep

  15. Genetic diversity and occurrence of the F129L substitutions among isolates ofAlternaria solaniin south-eastern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odilbekov, Firuz; Edin, Eva; Garkava-Gustavsson, Larisa; Hovmalm, Helena Persson; Liljeroth, Erland

    2016-01-01

    Early blight, caused by the fungus Alternaria solani, occurs on potato mainly in the south-eastern part of Sweden, but also in other parts of the country. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of A. solani populations from different potato growing regions in south-eastern Sweden using AFLP marker analysis. In addition, the cultured isolates were examined for substitutions in the gene encoding cytochrome b , associated with loss of sensitivity against QoI fungicides. Nei's gene diversity index for the Swedish populations of A. solani revealed a gene diversity of up to 0.20. Also genetic differentiation was observed among populations of A. solani from different locations in south-eastern Sweden. The mitochondrial genotype of the isolates of A. solani was determined and both known genotypes, GI (genotype 1) and GII (genotype 2), were found among the isolates. The occurrence of the F129L substitution associated with a loss of sensitivity to strobilurins was confirmed among the GII isolates. In vitro conidial germination tests verified that isolates containing the F129L substitution had reduced sensitivity to azoxystrobin and, at a lower extent, to pyraclostrobin. Genetic diversity was relatively high among isolates of A. solani in south-eastern part of Sweden. F129L substitutions, leading to reduced sensitivity to strobilurins, have been established in field populations, which may have implications for the future efficacy of QoI fungicides.

  16. Conodont biostratigraphy of the Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician of north-western Öland, south-eastern Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamel, W.A. van

    1974-01-01

    This paper forms part of the author's thesis "Lithostratigraphy, environmental interpretation and conodont biostratigraphy of the Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician of north-western bland, south-eastern Sweden". The purpose of this investigation was to unravel the lithogenesis and the history

  17. The South Eastern Europe Health Network: A model for regional collaboration in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ruseva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Inter-country alliances, articulated through regional approaches, have increasingly been used to drive economic development and social progress in the past several decades. The South Eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN stands out among these types of initiatives for the tangible improvements it has achieved in regional governance for health, with several important lessons for public health leaders worldwide. This review paper, written by several key participants in SEEHN operation, follows the main milestones in network development, including its foundation under the Stability Pact’s Initiative for Social Cohesion and the three ministerial forums that have shaped its evolution, in order to show how it can constitute a model for regional collaboration in public health. Herewith we summarise the main accomplishments of the network and highlight the keys to its success, drawing lessons that both international bodies and other regions may use in their own design of collaborative initiatives in health and in other areas of public policy.

  18. DISCUSSING THE ROLE OF MIGRATION AND EDUCATION IN FIGHTING ECONOMIC VULNERABILITY IN SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Raileanu-Szeles

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the effects of the net migration rate and higher education on a set of economic vulnerability indicators in the South-Eastern EU countries, when controlling inter alia for other explanatory variables. These relationships are explored by panel data regression models, using macroeconomic variables collected over 10 years from the Eurostat dataset. The random effects Generalized Least Squares (GLS and the system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM estimators are comparatively examined. The paper finds that the tertiary education attainments do not represent a significant determinant of income inequality and subjective well-being, while the net migration rate and lifelong learning exert a significant and powerful impact on most our measures of economic vulnerability over the period of analysis.

  19. Spatial statistics detect clustering patterns of kidney diseases in south-eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben I.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Medical geography was conceptualized almost ten years ago due to its obvious usefulness in epidemiological research. Still, numerous diseases in many regions were neglected in these aspects of research, and the prevalence of kidney diseases in Eastern Europe is such an example. We evaluated the spatial patterns of main kidney diseases in south-eastern Romania, and highlighted the importance of spatial modeling in medical management in Romania. We found two statistically significant hotspots of kidney diseases prevalence. We also found differences in the spatial patterns between categories of diseases. We propose to speed up the process of creating a national database of records on kidney diseases. Offering the researchers access to a national database will allow further epidemiology studies in Romania and finally lead to a better management of medical services.

  20. Comparative Analysis of South Eastern Europe Economies facing the Crisis. Future Prospects for the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Paul (Vass

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the effects of the global economic crisis in ten South Eastern European countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia, within a European perspective. It also points out the main transmission channels of the economic crisis, by outlining the strong economic and financial ties with the EU, acting like contagion corridors in the event of global downturns. In terms of macroeconomic policy responses of the countries, these mainly led to increased fiscal deficits and public debts. Taking as benchmark the Romanian experience during the crisis, we outline several important structural reforms intended to boost competitiveness in the area. The paper concludes that, in spite of the recent negative evolutions, the SEE-10 region has an important economic potential for the future. In the final recommendations we explore the creativity potential of the region, as a strategic opportunity for putting the region on the global competitiveness map.

  1. Statistical analysis for assessing shallow-landslide susceptibility in South Tyrol (south-eastern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, Daniela; Troiani, Francesco; Soldati, Mauro; Notarnicola, Claudia; Savelli, Daniele; Schneiderbauer, Stefan; Strada, Claudia

    2012-05-01

    This paper conducts a statistical analysis to determine shallow-landslide susceptibility in an approximately 7500-km2 region of the south-eastern Alps (South Tyrol, Italy). The study applies the weight of evidence (WofE) method, which is useful in determining landslide susceptibility in large areas with complex geological and geomorphological settings. The statistical analysis and landslide susceptibility mapping are based on 882 past landslides, three geometric/topographic factors and two anthropogenic factors, which are the most relevant landslide predisposing factors. The quality of the proposed model, particularly the fitting performance, was assessed; the landslide database was divided into a training set to obtain the model and a validation set to estimate the model quality. The results show that the developed susceptibility model predicts an acceptable percentage (75%) of landslides. Therefore, the model can be useful and reliable for land planners and decision makers also due to its cost-effectiveness ratio.

  2. A quantitative analysis of microplastic pollution along the south-eastern coastline of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, H A; Froneman, P W

    2015-12-15

    The extent of microplastic pollution (microplastic pollution along the south-eastern coastline of South Africa, looking at whether bays are characterised by higher microplastic densities than open stretches of coastline in both beach sediment and surf-zone water. Microplastic (mean ± standard error) densities in the beach sediment ranged between 688.9 ± 348.2 and 3308 ± 1449 particles · m(-2), while those in the water column varied between 257.9 ± 53.36 and 1215 ± 276.7 particles · m(-3). With few exceptions there were no significant spatial patterns in either the sediment or water column microplastic densities; with little differences in density between bays and the open coast (P>0.05). These data indicate that the presence of microplastics were not associated with proximity to land-based sources or population density, but rather is governed by water circulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sheep helminth parasitic disease in south eastern Scotland arising as a possible consequence of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, F; Sargison, N D; Skuce, P J; Jackson, F

    2009-08-26

    The climate in the UK is changing, with a trend towards increased rainfall in the autumn and winter and warmer average temperatures throughout the year. There has also been a 4-week extension of the herbage growing season over the past 40 years. These changes may have implications for the epidemiology of sheep helminth parasites. Here, we describe production-limiting disease outbreaks caused by Haemonchus contortus, Nematodirus battus, Teladorsagia circumcincta and Fasciola hepatica in sheep flocks in south eastern Scotland. The occurrence and timing of these disease outbreaks could not have been predicted in this region highlighting changes in the epidemiology of helminth infections from the patterns historically described. These cases are used to introduce discussion regarding the potential effects of climate change on the epidemiology of helminth parasites and the implications for sheep farming in the UK.

  4. THE STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE AND THE ACTORS OF SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Eduard GROSARU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt regarding the importance that south-eastern Europe has gained over the past years in geopolitical and geostrategic terms. Due to its history and considering the changes that have taken place here after the fall of the Iron Curtain, and also as a consequence of the “hot spots” emerged here on ideological, political, economic and terrorist grounds, this part of the continent still is an area of control and interests confrontations orchestrated by the actors that provide the international affairs with a multipolar dimension. All the aforementioned factors lead to various phenomena in which individual or group interests result in regional as well as global consequences.

  5. Tuberculosis diagnostic pathway in a municipality in south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunello, M E F; Andrade, R L de Paula; Monroe, A A; Arakawa, T; Magnabosco, G T; Orfão, N H; Scatena, L M; Villa, T C S

    2013-10-01

    To analyse the pathway taken by tuberculosis (TB) patients from the first contact with the health services and the diagnosis of TB disease. In a survey conducted in a south-eastern municipality of Brazil prioritised for TB control, a structured questionnaire was applied to 100 TB patients under treatment; secondary data recorded in two information systems were also collected for analysis. Diagrams were constructed to represent the patient pathway through the health services up to diagnosis. The emergency services were the point of entry into care for the majority of the patients. Those who first attended primary health care (PHC) centres needed to visit other health services for diagnosis. Our study shows that multiple visits to multiple health services are required for the majority of patients to be diagnosed with TB. It is necessary to reinforce the referral path established for TB diagnosis and communication among providers, who should play a clear role in obtaining early diagnosis.

  6. Lignin oxidation product and carbohydrate composition of plant tissues from the south-eastern united states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, James J.; Price, Mary T.; Lewis, Sharon

    1991-09-01

    Twenty-one samples of woody and non-woody angiosperm and gymnosperm tissue from plants dominant in south-eastern U.S. coastal ecosystems were analysed for the distribution of CuO oxidation products and neutral monosaccharides derived from acid hydrolysis of the tissues. Phenolic oxidation products gave the same general distributions as reported for plant species in the Pacific north-west, Buzzards Bay, MA, and the western Gulf of Mexico regions of the U.S. However, monosaccharides derived from these plants had generally lower total yields and wider ranges of weight % distributions than the plants from the other regions. Thus, the phenolic oxidation products appear to be a valid indicator of terrestrial carbon source terms across a wide geographical and climatic area; however, neutral monosaccharide distributions must be used with caution when determining source term.

  7. Public health leadership competency level among health professionals in a South Eastern European country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orjola Pampuri

    2015-12-01

    the overall scores and the subscale scores of the current and the required level of leadership competencies among health professionals. Results: Mean value of the overall summary score for the 52 items of the instrument was significantly lower for the current leadership competency level compared with the required leadership competency level (138.4±11.2 vs. 159.7±25.3, respectively; P<0.001. Most of the subscales’ scores were significantly higher for the required than for the current leadership competency level. Conclusion: Our study provides useful evidence about the current and the required level of leadership competencies among health professionals in transitional Albania. Findings of this study may help policymakers in Albania to identify the gap between the required and the current level of leadership competencies among health  professionals. Furthermore, findings of this study should be expanded in the neighbouring countries of the South Eastern European region and beyond.

  8. Community members’ interference and conduct of University distance learning examinations In South Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Odera Unamma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research work was aimed at determining the degree of community members’ interference in the conduct of university distance learning examination in South Eastern Nigeria. It was also aimed at finding out the factors responsible for the community members’ interference, the ways by which interference is effected, the consequences and the strategies to improve the conduct of the examination. A survey descriptive research design was adopted. Information obtained was analyzed by using the Z-test statistical technique. Findings include community members reluctance to provide their infrastructural facilities at cheap rate; use of some spaces for religious worships when examinations are taking place; harassment and bribing of invigilators or examiners; conspiracy with some community members to throw paper balls containing answers into halls, etc. The study recommends preventive measures for minimizing interference during the examinations.

  9. The household costs of visceral leishmaniasis care in south-eastern Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Uranw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is an important public health problem in south-eastern Nepal affecting very poor rural communities. Since 2005, Nepal is involved in a regional initiative to eliminate VL. This study assessed the economic impact of VL on households and examined whether the intensified VL control efforts induced by the government resulted in a decrease in household costs. METHODS: Between August and September 2010, a household survey was conducted among 168 patients that had been treated for VL within 12 months prior to the survey in five districts in south-eastern Nepal. We collected data on health-seeking behaviour, direct and indirect costs and coping strategies. RESULTS: The median total cost of one episode of VL was US$ 165 or 11% of annual household income. The median delay between the onset of symptoms and presentation to a qualified provider was 25 days. Once the patient presented to a qualified provider, the delay to correct diagnosis was minimal (median 3 days. Direct and indirect costs (income losses represented 47% and 53% of total costs respectively. Households used multiple strategies to cope with the cost of illness, mainly mobilizing cash/savings (71% or taking a loan (56%. CONCLUSIONS: The provision of free VL diagnosis and drugs by the Nepalese control programme has been an important policy measure to reduce the cost of VL to households. But despite the free VL drugs, the economic burden is still important for households. More effort should be put into reducing indirect costs, in particular the length of treatment, and preventing the transmission of VL through vector control.

  10. USA, Russia and the Geopolitical Theatre in the South-Eastern Europe: The Place of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Pintescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Core issues addressed in this article are: the existing threats to address the interests of the US geopolitical and geostrategical, particularly in South-Eastern Europe; the resources available to the American State for the protection of those interests; main features (elements geopolitical of Romania; importance for Romania's Alliance with US. Only states or groups of states that may threaten the economic interests of the U.S. military are originated from Eurasia: China, Russia, the Organization of Shanghai cooperation, the European Union. The main opponent of the U.S. in South-Eastern Europe is Russia. Geostrategical interests of Russia remains fundamentally the attempt to divide alliance NATO (in particular by providing the economic benefits of Germany and France and isolate Eastern Europe; in this way, the US military presence in Europe would become problematic. Currently, the US has enough economic and military means in order to avoid this situation.Geopolitical and geostrategical problems of Romania are of two kinds: external and internal. Externally, Romania has some diplomatic disagreements with Ukraine. At the same time, Romania was not able to resolve in the manner of the former Federal Republic of Germany, a consequence of the Second World War: the unification with the Republic of Moldova, the State created artificially by former USSR after the Second World War. Internally, the main geopolitical problems of Romania are the following: underdevelopment and the absence of real economic competitiveness of industry and agriculture; the demographic decline, lowering the standard of living of population. In the absence of support of the USA for Romania, this country will increase the degree of economic dependence towards Russia.

  11. Ten years onwards: Comparison of the South Eastern European regional public health strategy 2004 and the South Eastern European 2020 strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Wiskow

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Regional collaboration has continuously contributed to the development of public health in the South Eastern Europe (SEE region since 2000 when the Public Health Collaboration in SEE (PH-SEE was initiated. This article looks into two frameworks for regional collaboration in the area of public health: a framework developed in 2004 by a network of public health professionals and academics, and another one developed by the SEE Health Network as integral part of the SEE 2020 strategy on Jobs and Prosperity in a European Perspective, adopted in 2013. It compares the commonalities and differences of the two frameworks; considers what is still valid and relevant after ten years and which new features have emerged in the new strategy. Methods: A literature review was carried out and a qualitative analysis was applied for the comparison of the two frameworks. Results: Notwithstanding the time gap of nearly ten years, the commonalities between the two regional health strategies are significant. Major consistent goals include: improving equity in health; strengthening human resources for health; improving intersectoral cooperation and governance. The differences between the two regional strategies, including issues around social participation and regional health information systems, are partially due to their different development context. Cross-border policies and quality management have emerged as new or more pronounced topics in the SEE 2020 strategy’s health dimension. Conclusions: Many aspects addressed in the 2004 framework are pertinent with regard to the SEE 2020 health dimension and remain relevant in the current context. The integration of health as part of the economic SEE 2020 strategy reflects a significant paradigm shift and important step forward for public health.

  12. [The epilepsy of Guadalupe Victoria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Pérez-de-Celis, Enrique

    2008-01-01

    Guadalupe Victoria, the first President of Mexico, passed away in 1843 uictim of an ailment that, at the time, was diagnosed as epilepsy. The clinical data and the pathologic findings, however, suggest the possibility that Victoria had an underlying disease that was responsible for the seizures that affected him. In this article I propose that Guadalupe Victoria had in fact Chagas Disease, and that he was infected with this parasitic malady while he lived in the tropical jungles of Veracruz, in eastern Mexico. Even though there aren't many published works regarding seizures secondary to chronic Chagas Disease, there are good descriptions of epileptic syndromes in patients with this infection. At the same time, the cardiac findings in Victoria's autopsy support the idea that he had some kind of cardiac pathology; in this case Chagasic dilated cardiomyopathy, which ultimately led to his death.

  13. VICTORIA'S SECRET Prepares for Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jordan K Speer

    2007-01-01

      After the upcoming holiday season, Victoria's Secret will take the first steps toward launching its e-commerce business on a cross-channel on-demand platform from partner n2N Commerce, a company...

  14. Metal and metalloid concentrations in the tissues of dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar C. plumbeus and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters, and the implications for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jann M; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Butcher, Paul A; McGrath, Shane P; Peddemors, Victor M; Bowling, Alison C; Christidis, Les

    2015-03-15

    Shark fisheries have expanded due to increased demand for shark products. As long-lived apex predators, sharks are susceptible to bioaccumulation of metals and metalloids, and biomagnification of some such as Hg, primarily through diet. This may have negative health implications for human consumers. Concentrations of Hg, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Se and Zn were analysed in muscle, liver and fin fibres (ceratotrichia) from dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar Carcharhinus plumbeus, and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters. Concentrations of analytes were generally higher in liver than in muscle and lowest in fin fibres. Muscle tissue concentrations of Hg were significantly correlated with total length, and >50% of sampled individuals had concentrations above Food Standards Australia New Zealand's maximum limit (1 mg kg(-1) ww). Arsenic concentrations were also of concern, particularly in fins. Results warrant further investigation to accurately assess health risks for regular consumption of shark products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Limited-are a modelling of stratocumulus over South-Eastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Andrejczuk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents application of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model to limited-area modeling of atmospheric processes over the subtropical south-eastern Pacific, with the emphasis on the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer. The simulations cover a domain from the VAMOS (Variability of the American Monsoon Systems Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx field project conducted in the subtropical south-eastern Pacific in October and November 2008. We focus on a day where the UK's BAe-146 research aircraft encountered Pockets of Open Cells (POCs at the very western edge of its flight track, rather than on the entire campaign as investigated in previous limited-area modeling studies. Model results are compared to aircraft observations with the main conclusion that the simulated stratocumulus-topped boundary layer is significantly too shallow. This appears to be a combination of an already too shallow boundary layer in the dataset used to provide initial and lateral boundary conditions, and the inability of the WRF model to increase the boundary-layer height. Several sensitivity simulations, applying different subgrid-scale parameterizations available in the model, a larger computational domain and longer simulations, as well as a different dataset providing initial and lateral boundary conditions were all tried to improve the simulation. These changes appeared to have a rather small effect on the results. The model does simulate the formation of mesoscale cloud-free regions that one might consider similar to Pockets of Open Cells observed in nature. However, formation of these regions does not seem to be related to drizzle-induced transition from open- to closed-cell circulations as simulated by LES models. Instead, the cloud-free regions appear to result from mesoscale variations of the lower-tropspheric vertical velocity. Areas of negative vertical velocity with minima (a few cm s−1 near the

  16. THE SPECIAL FEATURES GEOGRAPHICAL SPREADING BUMBLEBEES KIND BOMBUS SOUTH-EASTERN SLOPE OF THE GREATER CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhamila Sharapatinovna Gasanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We studied geographical spreading of bumblebees on South-Eastern slope of the Greater Caucasus by enumerated exponent: accordingly complexions of fauna, zone and landscape spreading. Ascertained special species of Bombus for zone and landscape complexions. Location. SouthEastern slope of the Greater Caucasus.Methods. Except own researches we have analysed collections of bumblebees and scientific literature in institute of zoology of National Academy of Sciences of Azerbajcan Republic. Bumblebees were caught by means of a gauze net and exgauzer. Pollinators were immobilized by means of sulfuric ether in mordant. The caught pollinators were defined with use of determinants: Mamaev E.M. and other, 1976; Osichnyuk A.Z., Panfilov D.V. and other, 1978; Panfilov D.V., 1978; Skchirtladze I.A., 1988. Results of definition of caught material were specified and approved in Institute of Zoology of National Academy of Sciences of Azerbajcan with Dr. Sci. Biol. Aliev Kch.A. and with research associates of the Zakatala reserve candidate of biology Gasanov Sh.O. and Mustafaeva R.G.Results. We belive that bumblebees of Zakatala reserve is possible to belong to 6 faunistic complexes: Palearctic, Transpalearctic, West-Palearctic, Mediterranean, East- Mediterranean, Endemic of Caucasus. The most part, 27 species of bumblebees is found in high mountain landscapes. The 5 types from them are strictly specific for subalpine and high mountainous meadowshrubby landscapes. Only 2 species of bumblebees are specific to the broad-leaved woods and the wood-bushes of low mountainous. There are species of Bombus which are most often met in the Zakatala reserve: B. alagesianus; B. alboluteus; B. alpigenus; B. argillaceus; B. daghestanicus; B. eriophorus caucasicus; B. haematurus; B. hortorum; B. hypnorum; B. lucorum; B. mlokosiewitzi; B. rehbinderi; B. silvarum; B. terrestris; B. tristis insipidus; B. vorticosus. There are most rare species of Bombus in Zakatala reserve: B

  17. An assessment of the eye care workforce in Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Boniface Ikenna; Maduka-Okafor, Ferdinand Chinedu

    2009-05-12

    The availability and distribution of an appropriate eye care workforce are fundamental to reaching the goals of "VISION 2020: The right to sight", the global initiative for the elimination of avoidable blindness launched jointly by the World Health Organization and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness with an international membership of nongovernmental organizations, professional associations, eye care institutions and corporations. Periodic evaluation of these parameters is important in the journey towards achieving these goals. The objectives of the study were to determine the availability and distribution of human resources for eye care delivery in Enugu Urban, south-eastern Nigeria. The study was designed as a cross-sectional descriptive survey, the setting for which was all public and privately owned eye care facilities in Enugu Urban, Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria, in October 2006. The health map of Enugu Urban and the hospital register of the Public Health Department of the Enugu State Ministry of Health were used to identify the eye health care facilities in Enugu Urban. A structured, pretested, researcher-administered questionnaire was used to capture data on cadre and distribution of the eye care personnel in these facilities.Relevant population data were obtained from the Enugu Regional Office of the National Population Commission. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to generate percentages and proportions. Eye care personnel-to-population ratios were calculated and compared to World Health Organization recommendations. Out of Enugu State's population of three million, Enugu Urban accounts for 22%. The population of Enugu Urban is distributed between the three-component Local Government Areas comprising Enugu North (31%), Enugu South (30%) and Enugu East (39%). There are 45 eye care facilities (public: 31 (69%); private: 14 (31%)) employing 252 eye care workers (public: 226 (90%); private: 26 (10%)) aged 18 to 63 (mean=36

  18. Most common road safety engineering deficiencies in South Eastern Europe as a part of safe system approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanov, D.; Vollpracht, H. J.; Beles, H.; Popa, V.; Tolea, B. A.

    2017-10-01

    Most common road safety engineering deficiencies identified by the authors in South Eastern Europe, including Romania, have been collected together and presented in this paper as a part of road safety unbreakably connected to the safe system approach (driver-vehicle-road). In different South Eastern Europe countries Road Safety Audit (RSA), Road Safety Inspection (RSI), as well as Black Spot Management (BSM) was introduced and practical implementation experience enabled the authors to analyze the road safety problems. Typical road safety engineering deficiencies have been presented in 8 different subsections, based on PIARC (World Road Association) RSA approach. This paper presents collected common road safety problems with relevant illustrations (real pictures) with associated accident risks.

  19. Financing constraints, credit rationing and financing obstacles: evidence from firm-level data in South-Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Iraj Hashi; Valentin Z. Toçi

    2010-01-01

    Financing constraints have been one of the major impediments to doing business in transition economies in general and South-Eastern Europe in particular. Utilizing firm-level survey data and extensive econometric modelling, the paper provides new evidence on financing constraints, credit rationing and financing obstacles for firms in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia, Romania and Serbia and Montenegro. The findings suggest that these phenomena are prevalent in the ...

  20. Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of rare-metal pegmatites at Abu Rusheid granitic gneisses, South Eastern desert, Egypt:

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Fahmy Raslan; ALI, MOHAMED A.

    2011-01-01

    The Abu Rushied area, situated in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt is a distinctive occurrence of economically important rare-metal mineralization where the host rocks are represented by granitic gneisses. Correspondingly, mineralogical and geochemical investigation of pegmatites pockets scattered within Abu Rusheid granitic gneisses revealed the presence of Hf-zircon, ferrocolumbite and uranyl silicate minerals (uranophane and kasolite). Electronmicroprobe analyses revealed the presence of ...

  1. FAUNISTICAL DATA REGARDING SPIDERS (ARACHNIDA: ARANEAE FROM SOUTH-EASTERN ROMANIA WITH MENTION OF SOME RARE SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. DUMA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of the faunistical study made in the south-eastern Romania in the summers of 2004 and 2006. We found 118 species of araneae belonging to 21 families. Among them there were some rare species: Argiope lobata (Pallas, 1772 mentioned for the third time in Romania, Hariaeus melloteei (Simon, 1886 mentioned for the second time in our country and Latrodectus tredecimguttatus (Rossi, 1890.

  2. An Ordered Probit Model Analysis of Transaction costs and Market Participation by Sweet Potato Farmers in South Eastern Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohajianya, D.O.; Ugochukwu, Albert I.

    2011-01-01

    This study determined the factors (related to fixed and variable transaction costs) influencing the decision to participate in sweet potato markets by a random sample of 320 small holder farmers in south eastern Nigeria. Data were collected with structured and validated questionnaire, and analyzed using the ordered probit analysis procedure. Participation decisions revealed that marketing experience, farm size, membership of cooperatives/social organizations, extension contact, farming experi...

  3. Integration policies in a Brazilian south-eastern capital: formulation, implementation and some comparisons with four European countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Mónica Pereira dos

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the processes of formulation and implementation of policies regarding the integration of disabled children in the mainstream schools of a Brazilian South-eastern State Capital. The investigation was carried out through a documentary analysis and through the application of a questionnaire and an interview to 25 head teachers of the primary State schools of VitOria. The intention was to identify gaps between what is mandated by laws...

  4. Chemical Quality of Water in Anopheles stephensi Habitats and its susceptibility to different insecticides in South Eastern of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davari, B.; Vatandoost, H.

    2009-07-01

    Using of insecticides depends on the knowledge of the susceptibility levels of malaria vectors to these chemical. In this study, the chemical quality of water in the larval breeding habitats and the susceptibility levels of Anopheles stephensi to DDT 4% dieldrin 0.4% permethrin 0.75, cyfluthrin 0.15 deltamethrin 0.05% and lambdacyhalothrin 0.05% were investigated according to WHO method in south eastern of Iran. (Author)

  5. Rewarding employees in turbulent economies for improved organisational performance: exploring SMEs in the South-Eastern European region

    OpenAIRE

    Prouska, Rea; Psychogios, Alexandros G.; Rexhepi, Yllka

    2016-01-01

    © 2016, Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the application of total reward practices in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the South-Eastern European (SEE) region and the reward elements positively affecting organisational performance. Design/methodology/approach: The sample consists of 199 SMEs operating in SEE countries which are either under economic crisis or transition: Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, Kosovo and the Former Yug...

  6. Measles outbreak in young adults in Victoria, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, S B; Morgan, M L; Riddell, M A; Andrews, R M; Kelly, H A; Leydon, J A; Catton, M C; Lynch, P A; Gercovich, D K; Lester, R A; Carnie, J A; Rouch, G J

    2000-11-06

    To describe an outbreak of measles in Victoria. Case series with cases identified through enhanced passive surveillance and outbreak-related active surveillance. State of Victoria, 1999. Number of cases; epidemiological links and patterns of transmission; patient demographic features and vaccination status; complications. 75 cases were identified (74 laboratory-confirmed; and one epidemiologically linked to a laboratory-confirmed case), with onset between 11 February and 2 May 1999. The first case was in a 21-year-old woman who had recently holidayed in Bali and worked at a large cinema complex in Melbourne. Sixteen cases occurred in people who had contact with the index case at the cinema on one evening. The outbreak spread to regional Victoria and South Australia. Median age of patients was 22 years; 64 (85%) were born between 1968 and 1981, with only one patient in the age group targeted by the primary school component of the 1998 Australian Measles Control Campaign; this child had not been vaccinated. More than a third of patients (28) were hospitalised (total, 97 inpatient days), and five were healthcare workers. This outbreak was caused by international importation of measles virus. It highlights the change in epidemiology of measles in Australia, from a disease of childhood to one predominantly affecting young adults. A strong two-dose childhood vaccination program, vigilant surveillance, and rapid response to outbreaks will continue to be the basis of measles control, but better protection for young adults should be considered.

  7. Availability of pearl producing marine bivalves in south-eastern coast of Bangladesh and culture potentialities

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    Md Ataur Rahman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted during September 2014 to July 2015 to identify the pearl bearing bivalves in south-eastern coast of Bangladesh and culture potentialities of marine oyster in captivity based on field investigation. A total of 7 pearl bearing bivalve species were identified in the coast with a salinity of 18-34 ppt, pH 8.1-8.3 and water depth ranged 0.2-2.0 meter in their habitat. From the collected bivalves, most abundant oyster species windowpane oyster, Placuna placenta (Linnaeus, 1758 was reared in fiber glass tanks with seawater for a period of 6 months. During rearing highest survival rate of 88% was observed in T1 with sandy and gravel substratum and lowest survival rate of 78% was found in T2 with muddy substratum. Average temperature and salinity were varied between 24 °C-25 °C and 21-26 ppt respectively. From the reared oyster, highest 54 nos. small pearls in the month of April and lowest 7 pearls in December from a single P. placenta were obtained. The study proved that pearls can be obtained from the marine oysters in captivity in Bangladesh, and this offers large scale culture potentialities in our coast.

  8. The drought of the 1890s in south-eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribyl, Kathleen; Nash, David; Klein, Jorgen; Endfield, Georgina

    2016-04-01

    During the second half of the 1890s south-eastern Africa, from modern day Zimbabwe and Botswana down to South Africa, was hit by a drought driven ecological crisis. Using instrumental observations and previously unexploited documentary records in the form of British administrative sources, reports and letters by various Protestant mission societies and newspapers, the extent, duration and severity of the drought are explored. Generally the period was marked by a delayed onset of the rainy season of several months; rainfall totals dropped and perennial rivers such as the Limpopo dried up. The delay of the rainy season negatively impacted the rain-fed agriculture. Recurrent drought conditions during the rainy season frequently withered the young crops. In the interior of southern Africa, on the border of the Kalahari desert, the drought was more severe and continuous than towards the coast of the Indian Ocean. The prolonged dry conditions furthered the outbreak of locust plagues and cattle disease, which in the 1890s took the disastrous form of Rinderpest. A model is established showing how the drought as the original driver of the crisis, triggered a cascade of responses from harvest failure to famine and finally leading to profound socio-economic change.

  9. Drought intensity and spatial variability in Gabes Watershed, south-eastern Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemai Sabrine

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronological series of monthly and annual precipitation data recorded in Gabes Watershed, south-eastern Tunisia, were analyzed. The study is based on the standardized precipitation index (SPI values, computed for 10 rainfall stations over the period 1987–2012, which corresponds to an observatory period of 25 hydrologic years (from September to August. The results obtained show a great variability in SPI values. The historical evolution of the SPI made it possible to define the periods of excess and deficit, corresponding to wet and dry periods respectively. The wet years were found to be 1989–1990, 1995–1996 and 2006–2007 while the dry years were 1987–1988, 1996–1997, 2000–2001, 2001–2002, 2007–2008, 2008–2009 and 2009–2010. This clearly shows alternating wet and dry periods, but with drought episodes taking prevalence over rainy fronts throughout the study period. Indeed, a high tendency towards a drop in precipitation and important sequences of drought were observed. Spatial variability of drought throughout Gabes Watershed was examined by geostatistical analysis of SPI, as drought and rainfall distribution vary with latitude, longitude, topography and proximity to the Mediterranean Sea. The results obtained showed that, compared to coastal and southern areas, drought was observed to be more important in the West and the North of Gabes Watershed. The SPI showed that moderate droughts are generally more frequent than severe or extreme droughts in most of the Watershed.

  10. Analysis of trophic networks and carbon flows in south-eastern Baltic coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Maciej T.; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Järv, Leili; Kotta, Jonne; Martin, Georg; Minde, Atis; Põllumäe, Arno; Razinkovas, Arturas; Strake, Solvita; Bucas, Martynas; Blenckner, Thorsten

    2009-04-01

    Carbon flows in five south-eastern Baltic coastal ecosystems (Puck Bay, Curonian Lagoon, Lithuanian coast, Gulf of Riga coast and Pärnu Bay) were compared on the basis of ECOPATH models using 12 common functional groups. The studied systems ranged from the hypertrophic Curonian Lagoon to the mesotrophic Gulf of Riga coast. Interestingly, we found that macrophytes were not consumed by grazers, but rather channelled into the detritus food chain. In all ecosystems fisheries had far reaching impacts on their target species and on the food-web in general. In particular, benthic food-webs were partly affected by indirect fisheries effects. For example, fisheries tend to change the biomass of piscivorous fish, causing a cascading effect on benthivorous fish and macrozoobenthos. These cascades are ecosystem specific and need to be considered when using benthic invertebrates as productivity and eutrophication indicators. Odum’s maturity attributes allowed a ranking of costal ecosystems according to their maturity. Namely, the community development decreased in the following order: Pärnu Bay > Gulf of Riga coast > Lithuanian coast > Puck Bay > Curonian Lagoon.

  11. Intrinsic vulnerability assessment of the south-eastern Murge (Apulia, southern Italy

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    A. Marsico

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maps of areas with different vulnerability degrees are an integral part of environmental protection and management policies. It is difficult to assess the intrinsic vulnerability of karst areas since the stage and type of karst structure development and its related underground discharge behaviour are not easy to determine. Therefore, some improvements, which take into account dolines, caves and superficial lineament arrangement, have been integrated into the SINTACS R5 method and applied to a karst area of the south-eastern Murge (Apulia, southern Italy. The proposed approach integrates the SINTACS model giving more weight to morphological and structural data; in particular the following parameters have been modified: depth to groundwater, effective infiltration action, unsaturated zone attenuation capacity and soil/overburden attenuation capacity. Effective hydrogeological and impacting situations are also arranged using superficial lineaments and karst density. In order to verify the reliability of the modified procedure, a comparison is made with the original SINTACS R5 index evaluated in the same area. The results of both SINTACS index maps are compared with karst and structural features identified in the area and with groundwater nitrate concentrations recorded in wells. The best fitting SINTACS map is then overlaid by the layout of potential pollution centres providing a complete map of the pollution risk in the area.

  12. Performance of a multi-RCM ensemble for South Eastern South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carril, A.F.; Menendez, C.G.; Salio, P. [Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires, Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera (CIMA), CONICET-UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos (DCAO), FCEN, Buenos Aires (Argentina); UMI IFAECI/CNRS, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Remedio, A.R.C.; Jacob, D.; Pfeifer, S. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M), Hamburg (Germany); Robledo, F.; Tencer, B. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos (DCAO), FCEN, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Soerensson, A.; Zaninelli, P. [Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires, Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera (CIMA), CONICET-UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); UMI IFAECI/CNRS, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Boulanger, J.P. [LOCEAN, UMR CNRS/IRD/UPMC, Paris (France); Castro, M. de; Sanchez, E. [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM), Toledo (Spain); Le Treut, H.; Li, L.Z.X. [Sciences de l' Environnement en Ile de France, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD), Institut-Pierre-Simon-Laplace et Ecole Doctorale, Paris (France); Penalba, O.; Rusticucci, M. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos (DCAO), FCEN, Buenos Aires (Argentina); UMI IFAECI/CNRS, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Samuelsson, P. [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    The ability of four regional climate models to reproduce the present-day South American climate is examined with emphasis on La Plata Basin. Models were integrated for the period 1991-2000 with initial and lateral boundary conditions from ERA-40 Reanalysis. The ensemble sea level pressure, maximum and minimum temperatures and precipitation are evaluated in terms of seasonal means and extreme indices based on a percentile approach. Dispersion among the individual models and uncertainties when comparing the ensemble mean with different climatologies are also discussed. The ensemble mean is warmer than the observations in South Eastern South America (SESA), especially for minimum winter temperatures with errors increasing in magnitude towards the tails of the distributions. The ensemble mean reproduces the broad spatial pattern of precipitation, but overestimates the convective precipitation in the tropics and the orographic precipitation along the Andes and over the Brazilian Highlands, and underestimates the precipitation near the monsoon core region. The models overestimate the number of wet days and underestimate the daily intensity of rainfall for both seasons suggesting a premature triggering of convection. The skill of models to simulate the intensity of convective precipitation in summer in SESA and the variability associated with heavy precipitation events (the upper quartile daily precipitation) is far from satisfactory. Owing to the sparseness of the observing network, ensemble and observations uncertainties in seasonal means are comparable for some regions and seasons. (orig.)

  13. Rising Against the Thieves. Anti-Corruption Campaigns in South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Milan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 2010s, bottom-up anti-corruption mobilizations have broken out in different countries of south-eastern Europe. Bosnia-Herzegovina in 2014 and Macedonia in 2015 and 2016 were amongst the states in democratic and economic transition in which thousands of people took to the streets to express their discontent against a ruling class blamed for corruption. Although triggered by different events, these mobilizations present a number of similarities. Building on qualitative interviews and ethnographic observation of interactions on social media platforms, this article investigates the discursive strategies that movement organizers used to frame their claims and the protestors' identity in both countries. The article explores the ways in which protest leaders in the two countries appropriated the topic of corruption "from below" to delegitimize the ruling class using similar motivational, identity and diagnostic frames, notwithstanding the protests being spurred by diverse events. Furthermore, it elucidates the similarities and differences among the prognostic frames, that is, the proposed solutions to the problem of political corruption.

  14. Food partitioning by coastal predatory teleosts in south-eastern Cape waters of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smale, M. J.

    1987-02-01

    The results of complementary classification and multi-dimensional scaling analyses performed on the diets of eleven coastal predatory teleosts in the south-eastern Cape, South Africa, show that there is considerable overlap in prey use by most of the fishes. The predators belong to six families: Sparidae, Serranidae, Pomatomidae, Carangidae, Scombridae and Sciaenidae. Ontogenetic differences in prey taken are often as great as those between species. Although predators may be grouped according to habitat (pelagic, reef, soft substrates), the analyses indicate that groupings are not rigid. Not only does habitat vary during the life histories of the predators, but prey availability appears to have a pronounced influence on food choice. The mobility of both predators and prey between contiguous habitats allows interaction between species which are typical of a particular habitat. The highest degree of specialization to a habitat is seen in the tunas which feed almost exclusively on pelagic prey. Several predators share the relatively low number of prey species available and this explains the high degree of similarity between many of them.

  15. EXPLOSIVE CYCLOGENESIS OVER THE SOUTH-EASTERN ROMANIA DECEMBER 2 – 3, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. NICHITA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Explosive cyclogenesis over the south-eastern Romania december 2-3, 2012 . This paper is devoted to the study of the synoptic- dynamical conditions that contributed to the development of an rare explosive cyclogenesis event occurred at the beginning of 2012-2013 winter in southwestern Romania, more precisely between 2nd and 3th of December, 2012. The minimum pressure observed was 980,2 hPa, the lowest ever observed record in the surface of Sulina observation station, and also over the western side of Black Sea during period 1961-2000 and 1965-2004. It was found that the cyclone was not a regular one, but a real „meteorological bomb” one where the central pressure at sea level has recorded an important decrease at about 32,3 hPa in 24 hours, equivalent with 1,7 Bergeron. Comparative by „XX century storms” Lothar and Martin (level 2 and 1 on hurricane scale which desolated western and central Europe in December 1999, this case of explosive cyclogenesis can be considered one of the extreme for our area concerning both meteorological view as well as the effects.

  16. Urban agglomerations in the function of regional integration of Serbia in South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Dragutin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article is analyzed the importance of urban agglomerations in the regional organization of Serbian space at one side, and on the other side they are taken as carriers of the future integration of the Serbian urban system into the urban of the South-Eastern Europe (SEE. In the regional configuration of Serbia, more different forms of territorial impacts of urbanization, urban areas and urban regions. High level of urban centralization is formed under the influence of the population density and functions of the metropolitan area of Belgrade. The problems of unbalanced disposition of population growth and qualitative transformation of urban centers are stressed and analyzed. Based on the role in integration process in the SEE, the metropolitan region of Belgrade is pointed out as its principal carrier and the metropolitan region of Niš as its secondary carrier, as well as the urban centers of importance for the cross-border regional cooperation. As the most suitable instrument of internal regional integration the model of Functional Urban Regions (FURs or Functional Urban Areas (FUAs is proposed, and for external regional integration is proposed the model of Metropolitan European Growth Areas (MEGAs. The coherent short-term and long-term development strategies for Serbian towns and their regions seem absent.

  17. CHALLENGES OF THE PATH TOWARDS AN ENLARGED EUROPE: SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE - INEQUALITY AND SOCIAL EXCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Oneasca

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available “Challenges of the path towards an enlarged Europe: South Eastern Europe” is a series of articles dedicated to support the improvement of the national strategies for mitigating poverty and promoting social inclusion. It aims to make a better use of existing theories and studies, as well as of the national experiences and to support the co-operation on these topics between the transition countries in the region. This paper opens the series of articles, introducing the inequality and social exclusion problem. An overview of the issue is presented and the challenge of the path towards EU integration is analysed with a strong political focus. The main assistance programmes are identified and the challenge termed: regional learning process on a common social inclusion strategy. Sharing the transition and accession experiences in the region helps countries to strengthen the strategic dimension of their policies. It is a political project that takes into account the density of the developed strategic frameworks and the diversity of social economic trends and traditions in the region. It also considers the proximity of the EU and the transition and accession experience of its member states in the region. General policy guidance and some practical rules of the thumb shed some light on policy recommendations.

  18. Cyclicality of bank capital buffers in South-Eastern Europe: endogenous and exogenous aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kundid Novokmet

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The interdependence between the regulatory capital ratio and macroeconomic indicators, with reference to the phenomena cyclicality and pro-cyclicality is a widely emphasized disadvantage of the capital adequacy concept. Redesign of the aforementioned concept towards the countercyclical capital requirements is a kind of recognition of the creators of the Basel standards of the previous oversights in its development. This paper aims to explore empirically the direction, intensity and significance of endogenous and exogenous determinants of the changes in banks’ capital buffers by taking into consideration both the impact of the macroeconomic properties and the bank-specific characteristics of South-Eastern Europe. More than 80 commercial banks in the period from 2000-2010 have been encompassed by the research. Use of a dynamic panel analysis led to the conclusion that the bank capital buffers decreased during the observed period, with the exception of certain years during the economic expansion, which confirms the appropriateness of regulatory requirements considering the countercyclical capital buffers. Nevertheless, it might be that capital building and spending in the future will not follow the pattern from the last decade due to the specificities of the observed period, as well as the banking sector ownership transformations, economic and credit growth as well as asset prices growth in the post-transitional period, and finally, the real crisis which spilled over onto the financial sectors.

  19. Natural radioactivity in groundwater from the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula and environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, A; Zhou, X D; Yi, P; Alshamsi, D; Aldahan, A; Hou, X L; Yu, Z B

    2014-10-01

    Groundwater is the most valuable resource in arid regions, and recognizing radiological criteria among other water quality parameters is essential for sustainable use. In the investigation presented here, gross-α and gross-β were measured in groundwater samples collected in the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula, 67 wells in Unite Arab Emirates (UAE), as well as two wells and one spring in Oman. The results show a wide gross-α and gross-β activities range in the groundwater samples that vary at 0.01∼19.5 Bq/l and 0.13∼6.6 Bq/l, respectively. The data show gross-β and gross-α values below the WHO permissible limits for drinking water in the majority of the investigated samples except those in region 4 (Jabel Hafit and surroundings). No correlation between groundwater pH and the gross-α and gross-β, while high temperatures probably enhance leaching of radionuclides from the aquifer body and thereby increase the radioactivity in the groundwater. This conclusion is also supported by the positive correlation between radioactivity and amount of total dissolved solid. Particular water purification technology and environmental impact assessments are essential for sustainable and secure use of the groundwater in regions that show radioactivity values far above the WHO permissible limit for drinking water.

  20. Knowledge and practice of emergency contraception among female undergraduates in South eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezebialu, Iu; Eke, Ac

    2013-10-01

    Unintended pregnancy remains a major challenge to the reproductive health of women especially in the developing countries. It is a major reason for unsafe abortion, a major contributor to maternal mortality. This study was designed to assess the knowledge and practice of emergency contraception among female non-medical undergraduates. In this cross sectional observational study, 675 female non medical undergraduates were interviewed using pretested semi structured questionnaire to assess their knowledge and experience with emergency contraception. Data was analysed using SPSS version 17 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Data were presented as percentages and tables. Associaton between variables was tested using the χ(2) test. Only 51.6% (348/675) of the respondents reported knowledge of emergency contraception. Being sexually active, use of regular family planning methods and having an extra risk for unintended pregnancy were factors that significantly influenced knowledge. Only 45.7% (159/348) knew the correct methods (Postinor-2, combined oral contraceptive and intra uterine contraceptive device), 37.9% (132/348) practiced any method with about half of them using the correct methods. There is poor basic knowledge of emergency contraception among these female undergraduates in south eastern Nigeria. A sizeable number of them depend on unconventional methods for emergency contraception. We recommend the introduction of formal lessons on emergency contraception and other reproductive health issues into the Nigerian undergraduate curriculum.

  1. Environmental determinants of the distribution of Chagas disease vectors in south-eastern Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Maria Bustamante

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The associations between the presence of triatomines and environmental variables were studied using correlation analysis and logistic regression models for a sample of villages in the south-eastern provinces of Guatemala. Information on the presence of Triatoma dimidiata, T. nitida and Rhodnius prolixus came from entomological surveys carried out by the Ministry of Health of Guatemala as part of its vector control programme. Environmental information for each village was extracted from digital thematic maps developed by the Ministry of Agriculture. The presence of T. nitida was found to be significantly associated with the average minimum temperature. The odds of presence of T. nitida in a village decreased as the average minimum temperature increased. T. nitida exists at altitudes above 1000 m above sea level in temperate regions. The presence of R. prolixus showed a significant positive association with maximum absolute temperature and relative humidity. The logistic regression model for R. prolixus showed a good fit and predicted suitable habitats in the provinces of Chiquimula, Zacapa and Jalapa, which agrees with the known distribution of the species. Habitat partitioning between R. prolixus and T. dimidiata is suggested by their significant and opposite associations with maximum absolute temperature. Improved models to predict suitable habitats for T. dimidiata hold promise for spatial targeting of integrated vector management.

  2. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE COUNTRIES ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad POPOVIĆ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available That influences the inflow of foreign direct investments (FDIs into South-Eastern Europe (SEE, whereby main emphasis will be put on republics of Former Yugoslavia, but also with some references to Romania’s case.Choice of the countries for comparison is made upon assumption that they were characterized by relatively the same industrial, market and social development before they entered the process of transition, so comparisons from the aspect of achieved results is of scientific importance. Special attention will be directed to the result made by the Republic of Serbia in the process of attracting FDIs. First of all, main terms of foreign direct investments will be defined in this paper and we will give general review of literature related to allocation of foreign direct investments. Then, recent trends of foreign direct investments in south-astern Europe will be described. Finally, the factors that influence allocation of FDIs,as well as relationship between index of global competitiveness of observed countries and accumulated FDIs during period of transition will be analyzed.

  3. ECONOMIC GROWTH IN SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE: AN INVESTIGATION FOR SIX EU CANDIDATE AND POTENTIAL CANDIDATE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Tache

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The South Eastern European region (SEE has seen major beneficial transformation in the recent years. Romania and Bulgaria in 2007 and Croatia in 2013 became members of the European Union and registered significant economic growth rates. This paper investigates some important factors that influence economic growth in 6 EU candidate and potential candidate countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia and offers to policy makers in those countries key insights for stimulating the economy. The paper proposes a dynamic growth model which will be developed using the Quasi-maximum likelihood (QML estimation. This model is suited for this type of analysis because of the small T sample and also to cope with missingness. The results indicate that nine out of the fourteen variables were statistically significant. The number of non-resident tourists, the number of passenger cars, the number of children in pre-primary and primary-education are positive factors for economic growth. In contrast, government debt, inflation, all energy imports, railway transportation and primary production of coal and lignite are hindering development.

  4. Predicting the energy consumption of heated plastic greenhouses in south-eastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, J. C.; Baile, A.; Bonachela, S.; Gonzalez-Real, M. M.; Perez-Parra, J.

    2006-07-01

    Measurements of heat consumption in a parral type greenhouse, equipped with an air-heating system, were carried out in south-eastern Spain (Almeria) during the 1998/99 winter. From the daily values of heat consumption (Qd, MJ m-2 d-1) recorded in five identical greenhouses heated to different night temperature set-points (Tc), and data of minimum outside air temperature (Te,min), relationships between Qd and the temperature difference (Tmin = Tc . Te,min) were established. Linear regressions between Qd and delta Tmin gave satisfactory fits (R2 ranging from 0.75 to 0.83), considering that Te,min was the only input data for the model. When all data were pooled, the correlation was curvilinear, the best fit to a 2nd order polynomial being Qd = 0.049 deltaTmin 2 . 0.001 Tmin + 1.107 (R2 = 0.89). Validation of this model was performed using data obtained during other years, giving a fair agreement at the daily (R2 0.86), 10-day (R2 = 0.95) and yearly (R2 = 0.99) time scales. This simple model could be of interest to growers for decision-making related to the choice of set-point temperature and crop planning in heated greenhouses. (Author)

  5. Metabolic Syndrome in School Children in Mardin, South-Eastern of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inanc, Betul Battaloglu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MES) in a school children population. Materials and Methods: Three thousand four hundred and sixty children aged between 7 and 15 in three elementary schools in the city of Mardin, located in the south-eastern region of Turkey, were included in this study in April and May 2011. Age, gender, height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, waist/hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured and a variety of blood tests were done. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria were used for the diagnosis of MES. Results: It was found that 9.42% of those tested were overweight, and 8.0% were obese. The study found that more girls (9.1%) were obese than girls (6.9%). The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among girls than boys (p0.05). The prevalence of MES was 6.3%. The number of components of MES was higher in girls and obese children. The rate of MES was 30.3% in obese children. Conclusion: The frequency of obesity, hypertension and MES in childhood period have been steadily increasing. Children who are classified having central obesity and high body mass index should be more carefully evaluated to its potential to progress to MES. And the quality of the life should be improved by reducing the risks resulted from life style changes, necessary treatments and follow ups. PMID:25610318

  6. Some new mammal records from the rainforests of south-eastern Nigeria

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    Francesco Angelici

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we report new data on the occurrence and range of seven mammal species in the rainforest region of south-eastern Nigeria. The species in question are: Potamogale velox (Insectivora, Cercopithecus sclateri, Procolobus badius epieni (Primates, Manis tetradactyla (Pholidota, Funisciurus pyrropus talboti (Rodentia, Trichechus senegalensis (Sirenia and Tragelaphus spekii gratus (Artiodactyla. In terms of conservation (according to latest IUCN criteria and categories, we discovered some critical information concerning the mammal fauna in the area. In fact, out of these seven species, one is Critically Endangered (CR, four are Endangered (EN, one is Lower Risk, least concern (LR, lc, and one is Not Evaluated (NE. Deforestation and excessive hunting pressure are the biggest threats for mammals in the Niger Delta. In particular, endemic taxa and species whose range and status are unknown, could be particularly endangered.

  7. Relationship between body mass index and family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting style among African migrant parents and children in Victoria, Australia: a parent-child dyad study

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    S. Cyril

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although childhood obesity prevalence is stabilised in developed countries including Australia, it is continuing to rise among migrants and socially disadvantaged groups in these countries. African migrants and refugees in particular, are at high risk of obesity due to changes in their family dynamics. The aim of this study was to examine the difference between children and parental perception of family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting styles and their relationship with body mass index. Methods A cross-sectional parent-child dyad study was conducted among 284 African families from migrant and refugee backgrounds living in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Bilingual workers were trained to collect demographic, anthropometric and questionnaire data on family functioning, parenting, family type and family communication. Results Parents and children reported different levels of family dynamics. Children reported a higher prevalence of poor family functioning (61.5 %, 95 % CI: 55.6, 67.2 versus 56.8 %, 95 % CI: 49.7, 61.6 and protective family type (29 %, 95 % CI: 23.9, 34.5 vs. 13.4 %, 95 % CI: 9.9, 17.9, but a lower prevalence of authoritative parenting style (51.6 %, 95 % CI: 45.7, 57.5 vs. 63 %, 95 % CI: 57.5, 68.8 than parents. There was a positive relationship between poor family functioning and child BMI both before (β = 1.28; 95 % CI: 0.14, 2.41; p < 0.05 and after (β = 1.73; 95 % CI: 0.53, 2.94; p < 0.001 controlling for confounders, and an inverse relationship between consensual family type and child BMI after adjustment (β = −1.92; 95 % CI: −3.59, −0.24; p < 0.05. There was no significant relationship between parental BMI and family functioning, communication, family type or parenting style. Conclusion Children’s perception of poor family functioning was associated with childhood obesity. Family interventions to reduce childhood obesity need

  8. Relationship between body mass index and family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting style among African migrant parents and children in Victoria, Australia: a parent-child dyad study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyril, S; Halliday, J; Green, J; Renzaho, A M N

    2016-08-03

    Although childhood obesity prevalence is stabilised in developed countries including Australia, it is continuing to rise among migrants and socially disadvantaged groups in these countries. African migrants and refugees in particular, are at high risk of obesity due to changes in their family dynamics. The aim of this study was to examine the difference between children and parental perception of family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting styles and their relationship with body mass index. A cross-sectional parent-child dyad study was conducted among 284 African families from migrant and refugee backgrounds living in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Bilingual workers were trained to collect demographic, anthropometric and questionnaire data on family functioning, parenting, family type and family communication. Parents and children reported different levels of family dynamics. Children reported a higher prevalence of poor family functioning (61.5 %, 95 % CI: 55.6, 67.2 versus 56.8 %, 95 % CI: 49.7, 61.6) and protective family type (29 %, 95 % CI: 23.9, 34.5 vs. 13.4 %, 95 % CI: 9.9, 17.9), but a lower prevalence of authoritative parenting style (51.6 %, 95 % CI: 45.7, 57.5 vs. 63 %, 95 % CI: 57.5, 68.8) than parents. There was a positive relationship between poor family functioning and child BMI both before (β = 1.28; 95 % CI: 0.14, 2.41; p parental BMI and family functioning, communication, family type or parenting style. Children's perception of poor family functioning was associated with childhood obesity. Family interventions to reduce childhood obesity need to adopt an intergenerational approach to promote a clear understanding of family dynamics between children and parents. Unless these intergenerational challenges associated with family dynamics are clearly addressed in obesity interventions, current obesity prevention initiatives will continue to widen the childhood obesity gap in Australia.

  9. A 500-year history of floods in the semi arid basins of south-eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez García, Carlos; Schulte, Lothar; Peña, Juan Carlos; Carvalho, Filpe; Brembilla, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Floods are one of the natural hazards with higher incidence in the south-eastern Spain, the driest region in Europe, causing fatalities, damage of infrastructure and economic losses. Flash-floods in semi arid environments are related to intensive rainfall which can last from few hours to days. These floods are violent and destructive because of their high discharges, sediment transport and aggradation processes in the flood plain. Also during historical times floods affected the population in the south-eastern Spain causing sever damage or in some cases the complete destruction of towns. Our studies focus on the flood reconstruction from historical sources of the Almanzora, Aguas and Antas river basins, which have a surface between 260-2600 km2. We have also compiled information from the Andarax river and compared the flood series with the Guadalentín and Segura basins from previous studies (Benito et. al., 2010 y Machado et al., 2011). Flood intensities have been classified in four levels according to the type of damage: 1) ordinary floods that only affect agriculture plots; 2) extraordinary floods which produce some damage to buildings and hydraulic infrastructure; 3) catastrophic floods which caused sever damage, fatalities and partial or complete destruction of towns. A higher damage intensity of +1 magnitude was assigned when the event is recorded from more than one major sub-basin (stretches and tributaries such as Huércal-Overa basin) or catchment (e.g. Antas River). In total 102 incidences of damages and 89 floods were reconstructed in the Almanzora (2.611 km2), Aguas (539 km2), Antas (261 km2) and Andarax (2.100 km2) catchments. The Almanzora River was affected by 36 floods (1550-2012). The highest events for the Almanzora River were in 1580, 1879, 1973 and 2012 producing many fatalities and destruction of several towns. In addition, we identified four flood-clusters 1750-1780, 1870-1900, 1960-1977 and 1989-2012 which coincides with the periods of

  10. Holocene fire activity and vegetation response in South-Eastern Iberia

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    Gil-Romera, Graciela; Carrión, José S.; Pausas, Juli G.; Sevilla-Callejo, Miguel; Lamb, Henry F.; Fernández, Santiago; Burjachs, Francesc

    2010-05-01

    Since fire has been recognized as an essential disturbance in Mediterranean landscapes, the study of long-term fire ecology has developed rapidly. We have reconstructed a sequence of vegetation dynamics and fire changes across south-eastern Iberia by coupling records of climate, fire, vegetation and human activities. We calculated fire activity anomalies (FAAs) in relation to 3 ka cal BP for 10-8 ka cal BP, 6 ka cal BP, 4 ka cal BP and the present. For most of the Early to the Mid-Holocene uneven, but low fire events were the main vegetation driver at high altitudes where broadleaved and coniferous trees presented a highly dynamic post-fire response. At mid-altitudes in the mainland Segura Mountains, fire activity remained relatively stable, at similar levels to recent times. We hypothesize that coastal areas, both mountains and lowlands, were more fire-prone landscapes as biomass was more likely to have accumulated than in the inland regions, triggering regular fire events. The wet and warm phase towards the Mid-Holocene (between ca 8 and 6 ka cal BP) affected the whole region and promoted the spread of mesophytic forest co-existing with Pinus, as FAAs appear strongly negative at 6 ka cal BP, with a less important role of fire. Mid and Late Holocene landscapes were shaped by an increasing aridity trend and the rise of human occupation, especially in the coastal mountains where forest disappeared from ca 2 ka cal BP. Mediterranean-type vegetation (evergreen oaks and Pinus pinaster- halepensis types) showed the fastest post-fire vegetation dynamics over time.

  11. Tuberculosis among transhumant pastoralist and settled communities of south-eastern Mauritania

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    Aissata Lô

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transhumant pastoralists of Mauritania were assumed to have a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB because of reduced access to diagnostic testing. No population-based survey on TB has been published for Mauritania. Objective: The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of presumptive TB cases among mobile pastoralists and villagers in a remote zone of Mauritania. Design: In the south-eastern province of Hodh Ech Chargui, 250 adult pastoralists and 250 villagers were randomly enrolled using multistage cluster sampling in February 2012. A TB centre nurse examined participants using a standard clinical protocol, and a participant questionnaire was completed. Focus group discussions and interviews were conducted with community members and health personnel, respectively. Results: Fourteen new presumptive TB cases were identified, leading to an overall prevalence of 2.8%, (95% confidence interval (CI 1.5–4.7%. The prevalence was non-significantly higher among villagers than pastoralists (3.6% vs. 2.0%. Assuming illness duration was 3 years and all presumptive cases started treatment, an overall crude incidence of 933 cases/100,000 was derived. Five of six presumptive cases in Djiguenni were confirmed by sputum smear microscopy, but none out of eight presumptive cases were confirmed in Néma, although the same nurse performed all clinical examinations in both departments. This result was attributed to the use of expired reagents in Néma. Communities mentioned distance rather than lack of information as the main constraint to seeking diagnosis, but poor diagnostic centre performance also delayed decision-making. Conclusions: TB prevalences were high among both pastoralists and villagers. None of the 14 presumptive cases sought prior diagnostic testing. TB diagnostic centres in the remote rural study zone were poorly equipped. These centres must remain in operation to reduce TB incidence in vulnerable communities in insecure

  12. Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Using Geospatial Technology in South Eastern Part of Nilgiri District, Tamilnadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangasamy, N.; Varathan, R.

    2013-05-01

    Landslides are often destructive and periodically affect the Nilgiris district. Two method viz., Frequency ratio (FR) and Weights of evidence (WofE) were used to reclassify the sub-variables and the landslide susceptibility index (LSI) was calculated by weighted sum overlay analysis. The final LS Zonation map was prepared from the LSI and the area was classified into two zones. Validation of the LSM was the next step and was accomplished by excluding some landslide points in the GIS analyses and overlying the unused landslides points over the LSM. The LSMs prepared using the FR and WofE methods are reliable as more than 75% of the excluded slides fall in high and very high landslide susceptibility zones and the error of mismatch in the two maps is negligible.During the course of this study landslides devastated the Kethi, Coonoor, Barliyar and Kothagiri areas due to an extreme event with 374 to 1,171 mm rainfall received in these stations in just three days on 8th to 10th November, 2009. The rainfall event is unprecedented and such extreme rainfall has not occurred in the region since meteorological records are maintained. Over 100 landslides took place in the area of which 75 are major slides and more 43 people died and 200 houses were damaged. The event was documented and a data base containing the location, details of death, slide characteristics and photographs was prepared. Further, the probability of landslide occurrence may change over time due to changes in land use, unscientific massive developmental activities and establishing settlements without adopting proper safety measures. The study also highlights the need for maintenance of landslide database and installation of more rain gauge stations to update and improve the LSM so as to reduce the risk of landslide hazard faced by the Community. NaveenRaj.T INDIA LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY MAPPING USING GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGY IN SOUTH EASTERN PART OF NILGIRI DISTRICT, TAMILNADU, INDIA.

  13. Hepatitis E Virus of Subtype 3a in a Pig Farm, South-Eastern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, P; Saint-Jacques, P; Ferretti, A; Davoust, B

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has emerged during the past decade as a causative agent of autochthonous hepatitis and is a clinical concern in Western developed countries. It has been increasingly recognized that pigs are a major reservoir of HEV of genotypes 3 and 4 worldwide and pig-derived food items represent a potential source of infections by these viruses in humans. Hepatitis E virus RNA testing was performed here on faeces from rectal swabs sampled in 2012 from 50 3-month-old farm pigs from the same farm located in south-eastern France than in a previous work conducted in 2007. Pig HEV sequences corresponding to genomic fragments of ORF2 and ORF1 genes were obtained after RT-PCR amplification with in-house protocols. Hepatitis E virus genotype was determined by phylogenetic analysis. Prevalence was similar to that determined 5 years earlier (68% versus 62%). Two robust phylogenetic clusters of HEV subtypes 3a and 3f were identified, and these sequences obtained in 2012 largely differ compared with those obtained in 2007. Notably, HEV sequences obtained in 2012 from a majority (62%) of the infected pigs belonged to subtype 3a, which was not previously described in France, including not being found in any of humans, pigs or wild boars. Further studies are needed to assess the circulation of HEV-3a in pigs and humans in this country. In addition, along with previous findings, this study supports the need for increased information to the public on the risk of HEV infection through contacts with pigs or consumption of pig-derived products in France. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. The bladed Bangiales (Rhodophyta) of the South Eastern Pacific: Molecular species delimitation reveals extensive diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Contreras-Porcia, Loretto; Ramírez, María Eliana; Macaya, Erasmo C; Contador, Cristian Bulboa; Woods, Helen; Wyatt, Christopher; Brodie, Juliet

    2016-01-01

    A molecular taxonomic study of the bladed Bangiales of the South Eastern Pacific (coast of Chile) was undertaken based on sequence data of the mitochondrial COI and chloroplast rbcL for 193 specimens collected from Arica (18°S) in the north to South Patagonia (53°S) in the south. The results revealed for the first time that four genera, Porphyra, Pyropia, Fuscifolium and Wildemania were present in the region. Species delimitation was determined based on a combination of a General Mixed Yule Coalescence model (GMYC) and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) coupled with detection of monophyly in tree reconstruction. The overall incongruence between the species delimitation methods within each gene was 29%. The GMYC method led to over-splitting groups, whereas the ABGD method had a tendency to lump groups. Taking a conservative approach to the number of putative species, at least 18 were recognized and, with the exception of the recently described Pyropia orbicularis, all were new to the Chilean flora. Porphyra and Pyropia were the most diverse genera with eight 'species' each, whereas only a 'single' species each was found for Fuscifolium and Wildemania. There was also evidence of recently diverging groups: Wildemania sp. was distinct but very closely related to W. amplissima from the Northern Hemisphere and raises questions in relation to such disjunct distributions. Pyropia orbicularis was very closely related to two other species, making species delimitation very difficult but provides evidence of an incipient speciation. The difference between the 'species' discovered and those previously reported for the region is discussed in relation to the difficulty of distinguishing species based on morphological identification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Numerical modelling of the buoyant marine microplastics in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaev, Andrei; Mizyuk, Artem; Chubarenko, Irina; Khatmullilna, Liliya

    2017-04-01

    Microplastics is a burning issue in the marine pollution science. Its sources, ways of propagation and final destiny pose a lot of questions to the modern oceanographers. Hence, a numerical model is an optimal tool for reconstruction of microplastics pathways and fate. Within the MARBLE project (lamp.ocean.ru), a model of Lagrangian particles transport was developed. It was tested coupled with oceanographic transport fields from the operational oceanography product of Copernicus Marine Monitoring Environment Service. Our model deals with two major types of microplastics such as microfibres and buoyant spheroidal particles. We are currently working to increase the grid resolution by means of the NEMO regional configuration for the south-eastern Baltic Sea. Several expeditions were organised to the three regions of the Baltic Sea (the Gotland, the Bornholm, and the Gdansk basins). Water samples from the surface and different water layers were collected, processed, and analysed by our team. A set of laboratory experiments was specifically designed to establish the settling velocity of particles of various shapes and densities. The analysis in question provided us with the understanding necessary for the model to reproduce the large-scale dynamics of microfibres. In the simulation, particles were spreading from the shore to the deep sea, slowly sinking to the bottom, while decreasing in quantity due to conditional sedimentation. Our model is expected to map out the microplastics life cycle and to account for its distribution patterns under the impact of wind and currents. For this purpose, we have already included the parameterization for the wind drag force applied to a particle. Initial results of numerical experiments seem to indicate the importance of proper implicit parameterization of the particle dynamics at the vertical solid boundary. Our suggested solutions to that problem will be presented at the EGU-2017. The MARBLE project is supported by Russian Science

  16. Hospitalized eye injury in a large industrial city of South-Eastern Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Hsien; Chen, Chang-Ling; Ho, Chi-Kung; Lai, Yu-Hong; Hu, Ru-Chuan; Yen, Ya-Lin

    2008-02-01

    Wearing appropriate eye-protection devices in workplace, sports and motorcycling have not been a routine in most of Asian countries. The purpose of this study is to assess the frequency, causes, mechanisms, functional outcomes and costs of hospitalized eye injuries in a large industrial city in South Eastern Asia. A retrospective review of the hospital admission files of ocular trauma admitted to the Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital from January 2001 to December 2002. One hundred and sixty cases of eye injuries were identified for study. Male patients (83.1%) were significantly more than female, while in the work-related group, male was predominant with 92.2%. Work-related injuries accounted for 48.1% (77 cases) with a mean age of 42.3 years, older than the 36.0 years mean for the non-work-related group. The most common cause of hospitalized injury was contusion injury (49.4%), while in the work-related group it was open-globe trauma (34.0%). Hyphema of anterior chamber (23.1%) was the most common diagnosis, followed by vitreous hemorrhage (15.6%) and corneal perforation (13.8%). In work-related injuries, lid and corneal lacerations were the most common. The visual prognosis was poor in injured eyes, with 39.6% eyes having final best corrected visual acuity less than 0.1, and it was even worse at 43.8% in work-related group. The most frequent (46.8%) durations of hospital stay were from 3 to 5 days. The mean cost of eye injuries per case in the work-related group was 1382 US dollars, significantly more than the 909 US dollars per case for the non-work-related group. The hospitalized ocular injuries incurred significant visual loss, health-care expenses and socio-economic impacts. Safety strategies aimed at preventing eye injury are mandatory.

  17. Phytosociological studies of the forests with sessile oak and Norway spruce from South-Eastern Transylvania

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    Adrian Indreica

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The forests with sessile oak (Quercus petraea and Norway spruce (Picea abies from south-eastern Transylvania represent a peculiar type of phytocenoses, rather unusual for the present-day vegetation of Romania’s territory. Aim of the study is to provide a detailed description of the vegetation and to identify the phytosociological and typological units to which it could belong. Beside this, stand structure and regeneration status of the main tree species are illustrated. The studied area is located around Carpathian intermountain depressions Braşov and Ciuc, where vegetation had a peculiar history and today sessile oak forests on high altitude exists, interfering with spruce forests. The hypothesis of the process naturalness is supported by vegetation history in the area, climate, stand structure and peculiarities of herb layer composition (the mixture of relic of both mountain-boreal origin and south-European origin, like Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Pyrola rotundifolia and respectively Potentilla micrantha, Lathyrus venetus respectively. Sintaxonomically, studied phytocenoses with sessile oak and spruce belong mainly to acidophilus oak forests (Luzulo luzuloidis-Quercetum petraeae, but some of them resemble oak-hornbeam forests (Carici pilosae-Carpinetum, indicating a more recent change in stand structure and suggesting that not the soil, but the climate is the driving force of succession. Regeneration of sessile oak is at least satisfactory, but the expansion of spruce in such stands could seriously restrict the survival of sessile oak. A new typological unit will be appropriate,for a better management of sessile oak forests with spruce admixture.

  18. Pesticide residues in berries harvested from South-Eastern Poland (2009-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyaszek, Aneta; Szpyrka, Ewa; Podbielska, Magdalena; Słowik-Borowiec, Magdalena; Kurdziel, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Poland is a leading grower/producer of berries in Europe that are either eaten raw or processed. As well as berries this includes fruit such as grapes, strawberries and other small fruits. Testing for the presence of active substances in Plant Protection Products, (PPP), in such fruit is however important, as part of measures taken to minimise human intake. To determine the incidence of pesticide residues in berries harvested from South-Eastern Poland in 2009-2011. . Chromatographic separation followed by analytical detection was performed on 250 samples of various test fruits using an accredited methodology: GC/ECD/NPD, together with spectrophotometric detection wherever necessary, according to PN-EN ISO/IEC 17025. As part of previous monitoring, 126 active substances were identified in 2009, 132 in 2010 and 153 in 2011; levels were compared to Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs). RESULTS;. Analyses showed that 46.4% of samples contained PPPs of which 4% exceeded the MRL. The most were found in raspberries, (58.8% of all tested), followed by 58.3% redcurrants, and gooseberries as well as 50% grapes. The most frequently found active substances of PPPs were pyrimethanil (15.6%), dithiocarbamates (12.4%), procymidone (8%), cyprodinil (5.6%) and difenoconazole (5.2%). The highest MRL exceedances were found in blackcurrants. Testing also revealed many examples of pesticides not recommended for the protection of specific crops: propiconazole in gooseberries, cyprodinil, flusilazole, iprodione, pyrimethanil in blackcurrants and folpet and captan in raspberries. Furthermore, active substances whose use in PPPs have been forbidden since 2008 were also detected, ie. endosulfan in blackcurrants and strawberries, fenitrothion in black and red currants as well as procymidone in raspberries, blackcurrants and strawberries. These data are consistent to those obtained from the whole of Poland and the European Union (EU). Most pesticides were present in raspberries, redcurrants

  19. Development of Ash Dieback in South-Eastern Germany and the Increasing Occurrence of Secondary Pathogens

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    Heike D. Lenz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Since its first identification in Poland in 2006, the ascomycete Hymenoscyphus fraxineus has caused massive dieback of Fraxinus excelsior in the countries of eastern, northern and central Europe. This work shows the development, expansion, and severity of the disease in south-eastern Germany for a period of four years, starting in 2010. Differences between habitats, as well as age classes have been captured. The presence and the amount of potentially resistant trees were proven over the years, to determine how high the resistance level might be. Typical disease symptoms are the wilting of leaves, necrotic lesions in the bark and reddish discolorations of branches and stems. In addition, stem necroses also appear by infection with species of Armillaria. Therefore, special attention has been given to Armillaria species in affected ash stands but also to other secondary pathogens, like ash bark beetles. It is shown that breeding galleries of Hylesinus fraxini are only found in trees that have recently died and thus Hylesinus fraxini is still acting as a secondary opportunistic pathogen. In contrast, Armillaria spp. can be considered as serious pathogens of weakened ash trees. In different ash stands, typical symptoms of infection can be found. A relationship between stem base necrotic lesions and vitality was examined. It is shown that necrotic lesions severely contribute to accelerating the mortality of ash trees. In addition to the high infection pressure by H. fraxineus, the high inoculum of Armillaria in the soil facilitates further infections and, thus, likewise endangers the survival of potentially resistant trees. In the following years, forest conversion and seed harvest in affected ash stands will have to be urgently considered to avoid tree gaps on a large scale. Furthermore, infection assays of potentially resistant trees with ensuing breeding programmes should be initially started for the conservation of this ecologically and

  20. The disappearing Mammy Water myth and the crisis of values in Oguta, South Eastern Nigeria

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    Lawrence N. Okwuosa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Igbo value system is in crisis with an increase in crime rate, kidnapping, stealing, sexual immorality and divorce. Though several reasons have been given for this malaise, the influence of myths on value system has not been explored. To do this, we chose Oguta town in South-Eastern Nigeria, known for its belief and worship of Mammy Water. The intent is to verify if the disappearing myth has any adverse socio-cultural implications on the town. As the disappearing myth deals principally with the people’s life, the research methodology used historical as well as the descriptive phenomenological methods. These methods explain the phenomenon as it appeared in Oguta objectively from the historical point of view. One-on-one interviews and focus group discussion with the natives were carried out, thus making oral literature an important element of this research. It comprises three groups: the first group has the age bracket of 70 years and above; the second group has 40–69 years as age bracket and the last group has 20–39 years as age bracket. Efforts were made to distinguish meaningful facts from fictitious or emotional ideas expressed by the participants. Information was also gathered from published works. The research was able to identify the myth’s disappearance as a major contributing factor to the town’s crisis of values.

  1. The disappearing Mammy Water myth and the crisis of values in Oguta, South Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence N. Okwuosa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Igbo value system is in crisis with an increase in crime rate, kidnapping, stealing, sexual immorality and divorce. Though several reasons have been given for this malaise, the influence of myths on value system has not been explored. To do this, we chose Oguta town in South-Eastern Nigeria, known for its belief and worship of Mammy Water. The intent is to verify if the disappearing myth has any adverse socio-cultural implications on the town. As the disappearing myth deals principally with the people’s life, the research methodology used historical as well as the descriptive phenomenological methods. These methods explain the phenomenon as it appeared in Oguta objectively from the historical point of view. One-on-one interviews and focus group discussion with the natives were carried out, thus making oral literature an important element of this research. It comprises three groups: the first group has the age bracket of 70 years and above; the second group has 40–69 years as age bracket and the last group has 20–39 years as age bracket. Efforts were made to distinguish meaningful facts from fictitious or emotional ideas expressed by the participants. Information was also gathered from published works. The research was able to identify the myth’s disappearance as a major contributing factor to the town’s crisis of values.

  2. Phytosociological and ecological study of springs in Trentino (south-eastern Alps, Italy

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    Alessandro PETRAGLIA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A phytosociological survey of the crenic vegetation was made in Trentino (south-eastern Alps, combining the field method of the Braun-Blanquet approach with a numerical syntaxonomical analysis. A set of 139 phytosociological relevés, including vascular plants and bryophytes, were classified using cluster analysis. The vegetation types were assigned to 7 different phytosociological classes: Platyhypnidio-Fontinalietea antipyreticae, Montio-Cardaminetea, Adiantetea, Scheuchzerio-Caricetea nigrae, Molinio- Arrhenatheretea, Galio-Urticetea, Mulgedio-Aconitetea. The classes Platyhypnidio-Fontinalietea antipyreticae and Montio- Cardaminetea represent the core of crenic vegetation, including permanently or intermittently submerged plant communities, mostly made up of bryophytes, or non-submerged communities dominated by bryophytes or vascular plants. The other classes include chasmophytic bryophyte-rich communities and hygrophilous or tall herb communities lying around the periphery of the springs. 23 vegetation types were identified and, whenever possible, classified at the association level, or as phytocoena. The environmental parameters showed different ranges among vegetation types. A number of environmental variables were recorded during the vegetation survey, including altitude, shading, discharge, flow velocity, with exhaustive hydrochemical sampling. Conductivity, alkalinity and pH showed similar distribution patterns, clearly separating the vegetation types into two distinct groups, differing in the nature of the substratum. The altitudinal range was very broad and shading was also very variable. Nitrate and phosphate levels showed that the majority of vegetation types were irrigated by oligotrophic crenic waters. Finally, the bryophyte-dominated vegetation types belonging to the class Platyhypnidio-Fontinalietea antipyreticae occurred in springs with the highest discharge values and variation. Discriminant analysis confirmed that the

  3. Breakfast habits and heath perceptions in South-eastern Spanish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soriano-Ayala Encarnación

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal aims of this study are to describe breakfast consumption patterns of south-eastern Spanish adolescents, examine the relationship between breakfast consumption and feelings of well-being and fitness and compare breakfast behaviour between men and women to identify if there is a gender gap. Design: A cross-sectional research with cluster sampling in two primary schools and seven secondary schools. The instrument used was a modified version of the Kidscreen-27 questionnaire. Sample: 2,125 students aged between 10 and 19 years old from different nationalities, mainly Romanian, Moroccan and Spanish. Results: The study identifies some youngsters who skip breakfast and no have no food intake over the course of the morning. About 35% of the teenagers skip daily breakfast before they leave for school, and a worrying 1,8% do not eat any food during the whole morning. Questionnaire outcomes also expresses that the amount of biscuits ingested increased as the number of times that adolescents have breakfast at home decreases. There are significant gender differences, women it less foods than men. Differences are especially significant in case of milk, bread or cereals and butter or oil. Finally, chisquare contrast analysis show students that have breakfast before leaving to school perceive better feelings about how well and fit they are than those student who do not have breakfast daily. Conclusions. Findings supports the need for further enhance health education programs focused on breakfast habits, especially with women. This study is part of the project “Education for Cross-cultural Health in Immigrant and Native Adolescents from Almeria: Analysis and intervention for optimization and improvement” supported by the National R+D Plan of the Ministry of Economy and Finance (Ref: EDU2011-26887

  4. Special Issue on Lake Victoria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diversity of benthic mollusks of Lake Victoria and Lake Burigi · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JA Mwambungu, 21-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjs.v30i1.18384 ...

  5. Assessment of spatial rainfall variability in Lake Victoria Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizza, M.; Westerberg, I.; Rodhe, A.; Ntale, H. K.

    2011-12-01

    for PERSIANN but the correlation was higher for TRMM 3B43 with a better representation of the intra-annual variability. The TRMM 3B43 product showed an enhancement of lake rainfall over basin rainfall of 25% while the PERSIANN product gave a much higher enhancement of up to 80%. The uncertainty in the gridded dataset is expected to be largest in the south-eastern part of the basin where the rain-gauge coverage was the poorest, which should be kept in mind when using the dataset in future water-resources studies.

  6. Anomalies of moisture flux associated with Mediterranean cyclones contributing to heavy precipitation in the south-eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M.; Kaspar, M.

    2009-09-01

    Mediterranean cyclones cause severe weather phenomena not only in the Mediterranean but also in other parts of Europe. It is well known that when a thermally asymmetric Mediterranean cyclone moves along the so-called Vb-track to the north-east, heavy and large-scale precipitation often falls in its rearward cold sector. Precipitation is enhanced especially on the northern windward slopes of mountains due to orographic effects. Significant anomalies of moisture flux from the north typically accompany this synoptic pattern over the area affected with heavy rains. Although the region of the south-eastern Alps is situated between the Mediterranean and central Europe, the above described mechanism can hardly produce heavy rains there because of the position of the region relatively to the cyclone track and different orientation of slopes. The presented study focuses on explanation of the role of Mediterranean cyclones and related moisture fluxes in producing heavy rains in the region. Heavy rain and flood events in eastern Alps were selected from years of 1958-2001 covered by reanalyses ERA40. The selection criterion was based on evaluation of the runoff increases in three rivers (Sava, Drava, Mura) running eastward from the south-eastern Alps. The set of hydro-meteorologically significant events was studied from viewpoints of (i) synoptic causes and (ii) seasonal distribution. A deep trough and/or a Mediterranean cyclone remaining several days approximately over Italy are the typical synoptic patterns of the events. In the warm sector of the cyclone, significant anomalies of moisture flux were detected. The events were concentrated mainly in autumn. This fact was explained by the climatology of moisture flux over the studied region: southern component of flux of moisture is most intense just in autumn there. The findings demonstrate the fact that heavy rains in both central Europe and the south-eastern Alps are connected with Mediterranean cyclones; however, through

  7. Epidemiological survey of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in pet dogs in south-eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianwei; Liu, Qingbiao; Wang, Demou; Li, Wanmeng; Beugnet, Frédéric; Zhou, Jinlin

    2017-01-01

    To understand the epidemiology of tick infestation and tick-borne diseases in pet dogs in south-eastern China and to develop a reference for their prevention and treatment, we collected 1550 ticks parasitizing 562 dogs in 122 veterinary clinics from 20 cities of south-eastern China. Dogs were tested for common tick-borne pathogens; collected ticks were identified and processed for the detection of tick-borne pathogens. The use of an in vitro ELISA diagnostic kit for antibody detection (SNAP®4Dx® Plus) on dog sera found the infection rates with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma spp. to be 0.4%, 1.3% and 2.7%, respectively. By using a specific ELISA method, the infection rate with Babesia gibsoni was 3.9%. Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, Haemaphysalis longicornis and Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides were the major tick species identified on pet dogs. PCR tests were conducted to detect five tick-borne pathogens in 617 ticks. The infection rate was 10.2% for E. canis, 3.4% for Anaplasma platys, 2.3% for B. gibsoni, 0.3% for B. burgdorferi s.l. and 0% for Babesia canis. Some ticks were co-infected with two (1.46%) or three pathogens (0.16%). These results indicate the infestation of pet dogs by ticks infected with tick-borne pathogens in south-eastern China, and the need for effective treatment and routine prevention of tick infestations in dogs. © J. Zhang et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  8. Financing constraints, credit rationing and financing obstacles: evidence from firm-level data in South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Z. Toçi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Financing constraints have been one of the major impediments to doing business in transition economies in general and South-Eastern Europe in particular. Utilizing firm-level survey data and extensive econometric modelling, the paper provides new evidence on financing constraints, credit rationing and financing obstacles for firms in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia, Romania and Serbia and Montenegro. The findings suggest that these phenomena are prevalent in the SEE region, especially in the small business sector, a driving force of economic development in these countries. Based on the findings, a number of policy implications aiming at reducing financing constraints for the small business sector are derived.

  9. FORECASTING AND ADAPTATION METHODS FOR HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT USED FOR TOURIST PURPOSE IN CITIES OF SOUTH-EASTERN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qai Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers methodological statements concerning formation and development of cultural and tourist zones and complexes in the Chinese cities with precious historical and cultural heritage. Characteristic types of historical buildings in the cities of the Tsiansu province which are located in the south-eastern part ofChinaare given in the paper. The paper contains methods for renovation of historical development for tourist purpose and gives proposals pertaining to arrangement of tourist service objects there that permit to preserve individual image of historical regions.

  10. Late Weichselian periglacial features in south-eastern Finland and the surroundings of Lake Ladoga in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donner, J.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Ice-wedge casts recorded from the Salpausselkä moraines in south-eastern Finland show that there was permafrost in this zone at the time of the Younger Dryas Stadial. The few sites with pocket involutions north and east of Lake Ladoga indicate that even this area had permafrost at the same time. Other signs of a periglacial environment are the stone pavements with ventifacts, underneath coversands, both in the Salpausselkä zone as well as outside it. Coversands and dunes were accumulated before a closed vegetation covered the area in the beginning of the Holocene.

  11. Practical value of urban geography in urban planning - case study of the south-eastern part of Trbovlje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naja Marot

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Two centuries of mining have significantly changed the town of Trbovlje in economic, social and spatial terms. This is especially evident in the south-eastern part of the town. On the basis of general geographical analysis of spatial, demographic and economic development, a query of public opinion and a survey of experts' ideas, with description of successful English urban renewal project we try to find out the most effective model and context of the future development in the area in question.

  12. The Victoria Project, Sri Lanka. Hydrological analysis for Victoria Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, B.S. [GU Projects (United Kingdom); Sutcliffe, J.V. [Gibb (Sir Alexander) and Partners (United Kingdom); Parks, Y.P. [Institute of Hydrology (United Kingdom)

    1994-03-01

    The hydrological analyses described in this paper formed an important part of the studies for the Victoria Project of which the Victoria Dam is the major component. The purpose of the hydrological studies was to provide consistent sets of river flow and climate data at the sites of the major components of the project, and to provide flood estimates for sizing the spillway and river diversion works. This paper outlines the approach used in the overall study, and then concentrates on aspects of specific relevance to the Victoria Dam. The main hydrological characteristics of the upper Mahaweli basin are presented as an introduction to the overall water balance; the humid climate made the appraisal of flow records relatively simple. Time series modelling was used to fill gaps in the observed flow records used for reservoir operation studies. The spillway design flood was based on the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) derived by maximizing a historic storm in which rainfall approaching the PMP covered most of the basin. Construction floods of moderate return period were estimated from a dimensionless analysis of regional flood records. The main lessons to be drawn are that water balance methods are of particular value in these humid monsoon conditions, while the ratio of the PMP to the maximum recorded storm is lower than would be the case in more arid regions. (author)

  13. 4th Rare Disease South Eastern Europe (See) Meeting Skopje, Macedonia (November 14th, 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucev, Zoran; Tasic, Velibor; Polenakovic, Momir

    2015-01-01

    The 4th meeting on rare diseases in South Eastern Europe (SEE) was held in Skopje, at the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts (MASA) on the 14(th) of November 2015. The focuses were metabolic, rare brain diseases as well as the rare dysmorphic syndrome. The authors of the report are particularly keen on stating that one of the main goals of the meeting, namely to help the treatment of patients with rare disease has begun to bear fruits. The talk on an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound as a drug candidate for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB (Morquio disease type B) was enlightening. To date, there is no treatment available to be offered to patients, but chaperones lead mutated proteins to adopt a native-like conformation and to successfully traffic to their normal cellular destination. DORPHAN is developing an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB. A talk on recent developments in the laboratory diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) was particularly interesting, covering the laboratory diagnosis of the MPS diseases by a strategy of clinical examination, biochemical analysis of urine samples, enzyme tests and genetic characterization of underlying mutations. New techniques were developed, including analysis of urinary glycosaminoglycans with tandem mass spectrometry, miniaturized enzyme tests or novel synthetic substrates for enzyme assays using mass spectrometry detection of products using dried blood spots. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of these methods in newborn screening programs have been demonstrated. Neuromuscular RDs, and especially familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) were a topic of the Bulgarian colleagues. Diagnosis, screening and the role of microglia were also topics of particular interest. In summary, this year RD meeting was exciting and productive on a wide range of diseases and on a novel insights on

  14. Deep-water chaunacid and lophiid anglerfishes (Pisces: Lophiiformes) off the south-eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, John H.; Ross, Steve W.; Sulak, K.J.; Sedberry, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Recent research cruises to deep (80-910 m) reef habitats off the south-eastern U.S. and in the northern Gulf of Mexico have provided new information on the diagnostic characteristics, behaviours, colour patterns in life, bottom associations, distributions and maximum sizes of species of the anglerfish genera Chaunax, Lophiodes and Sladenia. Chaunax stigmaeus occurred much further south than previously known (Blake Plateau off South Carolina), and all C. stigmaeus observed were found associated with dense beds of dead coral (Lophelia pertusa) rubble or on broken hard bottom. In contrast, Chaunax suttkusi was found on soft bottoms. Chaunax stigmaeus and C. suttkusi appear to be sympatric over a major portion of their ranges. Because knowledge of pigmentation in live or freshly caught Chaunax is critical to distinguish some members of the genus, changes in the colouration of C. suttkusi were noted and documented photographically immediately after death and after fixation. The yellow spots found on some, but not all specimens, temporarily disappeared completely after death, but they reappeared after fixation, slowly disappearing thereafter along with other carotenoid pigments. Lophiodes beroe and Lophiodes monodi were collected for the first time off the Atlantic coast of the U.S., being previously known only from the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and the northern coast of South America. For both species (L. beroe and L. monodi), the collections included the two largest known representatives of the species (400 and 325 mm standard length, respectively). Lophiodes beroe commonly occurred on L. pertusa rubble, and seemed to prefer this habitat. Occupying such a habitat that is deep and difficult to sample probably explains how this common species escaped detection. Only a single L. monodi was collected or observed, so this species appears to be uncommon in this geographic area or at least so on coral rubble habitat. Detailed aspects of the colour patterns of both species

  15. An ethnobotanical survey of traditionally used plants on Suva planina mountain (south-eastern Serbia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarić, Snežana; Mačukanović-Jocić, Marina; Djurdjević, Lola; Mitrović, Miroslava; Kostić, Olga; Karadžić, Branko; Pavlović, Pavle

    2015-12-04

    This study documents the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal importance of plants in the Suva planina mountain region (south-eastern Serbia). It is reflected in their high diversity and their wide range of uses in the treatment of the local population. The aim of this study was a comparative analysis of data collected in the Suva planina region with relevant data from the Western Balkans, which included identifying the 'most popular' plants, as well as those species which are used specifically for treatment solely in the research area. Ethnobotanical research was carried out between 2012 and 2014 and data was collected through both open and semi-structured interviews with locals. A total of 66 people were interviewed (37 women and 29 men), aged between 49 and 90 (with a mean age of 71). This study identified 128 plants and 2 fungi which are used in ethnomedicine, 5 plant species used in ethnoveterinary medicine, and 16 plants used for 'other' purposes. Lamiaceae (20), Asteraceae (17), Rosaceae (16), Brassicaceae (5), Alliaceae (4) and Apiaceae (4) have the greatest diversity of species. Results showed that Achillea mellefolium, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi, Gentiana lutea, Hypericum perforatum, Juglans regia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, Plantago lanceolata, Plantago major, Salvia officinalis, Sempervivum tectorum, Tilia cordata and Thymus sepyllum are the 'most popular' medicinal plants (UV=1). Those plants with the most phytotherapeutic uses are Gentiana cruciata (14), H. perforatum (11) and A. sativum (10), while the most common conditions treated with medicinal plants are respiratory (79), urogenital (53), gastrointestinal (51), skin (43) and those relating to the circulatory system (35). A comparative analysis of the data collected in the research area and that from other parts of the Western Balkans showed that there are great similarities within Serbia between Suva planina and the Zlatibor region (37.2%) and Kopaonik Mt. (32

  16. Spatial distribution of selected heavy metals and soil fertility status in south-eastern Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saljnikov, E.; Mrvic, V.; Cakmak, D.; Nikoloski, M.; Perovic, V.; Kostic, L.; Brebanovic, B.

    2009-04-01

    Environmental pollution by heavy metals is one of the most powerful factors destroying biosphere components that directly affecting agricultural production quality and therefore health of human and animals. Regional soil contamination by heavy metals occurs mainly in industrial areas and in big cities. However, pollutants can be air-and/or water-transferred to big distances and may accumulated far from industrial zone what makes difficult to distinguish original background concentrations of heavy metals in soil. Our study covers south-eastern part of Serbia and is a part of a big project studying soil fertility and heavy metal contamination all around Serbia. Diverse natural characteristics and heterogeneity of soil cover, as well as, human activity greatly influenced soil fertility parameters, while, diverse geological substrate and human activity determined the level of potential geochemical pollution. There are number of industrial factories functioning from the last century on the studied area. Also, close to studied area, there was a mining in the middle of the last century. About 600 soil samples from surface 0-30 cm were investigated for main soil fertility characteristics (pH, humus, available K and P) and concentrations of selected heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb). Soils graded as very acidic cover 46% of the area, which are mainly mountains with acidic parent materials. Content of humus in 41% of soil samples were below 3%. The most of the soils (71%) are weakly supplied available phosphorus. While available potassium in more than 70% is presented in the concentrations enough for good soil quality. So, about 75% of studied area is characterized with unfavorable soil fertility properties (extremly low soil pH, very low content of available P, about half of the area maintained low soil humus) that is located under forests, meadows and pastures. Content of heavy metals on studied area in 80% of sampled soils was below maximum allowed concentrations

  17. On official texts in Slavic dialects in the County of Korcha, South-Eastern Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Максим [Maxim] Макарцев [Makartsev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On official texts in Slavic dialects in the County of Korcha, South Eastern Albania In the article I consider official texts in Slavic dialects in Albania. Three texts are taken as examples: “An Internal Handbook for Organising the Work of a Regional Committee at a District/Prefecture Level of MAEI [Macedonian Alliance for European Integration]” (2009, a letter written by the villagers of Boboshtica to the Bulgarian Exarch (1873, and The “Charter of the Society of Kaynas” (2006. They make use of language in its symbolic function – the way these texts are written is almost as important as what exactly is written. These texts have been created to showcase the language and to underline its uniqueness against the background of another language or idiom, or, to put it another way, to underline through the language the special status of the people that use it.   Oficjalne teksty w słowiańskich dialektach okolic Korczy w południowo-wschodniej Albanii Artykuł omawia oficjalne teksty powstałe w słowiańskich dialektach Albanii. Wybrano przykładowo trzy teksty: Wewnętrzne wytyczne w sprawie organizacji pracy komitetu MAEI na poziomie okręgu/prefektury (2009, list mieszkańców Boboszticy do bułgarskiego egzarchy (1873 i Statut towarzystwa „Kajnas” (2006. Te trzy teksty posługują się językiem w sposób symboliczny. To, w jakiej odmianie języka są napisane, jest równie ważne, jak ich treść. Teksty te powstały bądź po to, aby pokazać język i podkreślić jego unikalność na tle innego języka, lub po to, aby poprzez język podkreślić szczególny status ludzi, którzy się nim posługują.

  18. Sedimentological Comparison of Recent Storm and Tsunami Deposits from the South-Eastern Coastline of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouramanis, Chris; Switzer, Adam; Srinivasalu, Seshachalam; Anandasabari, Karthik; Pham, Dat; Carson, Stephen; Pilarczyk, Jessica; Hussain, Mohammad; Yap, Wenshu; Jones, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Storm and tsunami deposits have been identified and described from many siliciclastic coastlines globally, but detailed comparison of both known storm and tsunami deposits from the same coastlines are lacking. An opportunity to compare storm and tsunami sedimentary deposits was recognised following sediment deposition by Cyclone Thane (25th to 31st December 2011) that were superimposed on sediments deposited during the Indian Ocean Tsunami (26th December 2004) in a pit (DPM3a) near Cuddalore, on the south-eastern Indian coastline. A second pit, at Silver Beach (SB1) was located 2 km south of Pit DPM3a, was examined for comparison with Pit DPM3a. Pit DPM3a contained four distinct units, an oldest intertidal unit, the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, and a reworked aeolian sand that is capped by the Cyclone Thane deposit. Pit SB1 contained an oldest intertidal deposit, an estuarine beach and capped by the Cyclone Thane deposit. The identification of these units was verified from satellite imagery. The pits were examined at 1cm increments for grainsize and grain shape characteristics, loss on ignition, heavy mineral concentrations and microfossils. Representative samples from each unit were collected for detailed mineralogy analysis using X-ray Diffraction. A suite of statistical analyses, including exploratory data analysis techniques, analysis of variance and principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to compare the measured parameters and the individual deposits within and between pits DPM3a and SB1. Individual deposits showed significant differences in many of the parameters, but no individual variable was diagnostic of the deposits. PCA of Pit DPM3a suggested that the proportion of heavy minerals was the strongest parameter to distinguish the storm deposit from the tidal, aeolian and tsunami deposit, but that significant overlap between the deposits occurred. The application of DFA showed that in Pit DPM3a, the storm deposit

  19. Structure and variability of the Leeuwin current in the south eastern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Peter, B.N.; Sreeraj, P.; VimalKumar, K.G.

    southward flow along the coast off western Australia and the flow seems to turning eastward at Cape Leeuwin and continuing to the Great Australian Bight. The steric gradient shows strong flow between 112?E and 113?E. Another tremendous change observed... and recent models: In Leeuwin Current: an influence on the coastal climate and marine life of Western Australia, (eds.) Pearce, A.F. & Walker, D.I., J. Roy Soc. WA 74: 1-4 Dakin, W.J., 1919. The Percy Sladen Trust Expedition to the Abrolhos Islands...

  20. Parents' perceptions of timing of initiation of sexuality discussion with adolescents in Anambra State, South Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelumadu, O F; Ezeama, N N; Ifeadike, C O; Ubajaka, C F; Adogu, P O U; Umeh, U; Nwamoh, U N; Ukegbu, A U; Onyeonoro, U U

    2014-10-01

    This study was aimed at determining the perception of the timing and practice of sexuality discussion among parents in South Eastern Nigeria. A cross-sectional, descriptive, community-based study. The study was carried out in 3 randomly selected Local Government Areas in Anambra State, South Eastern Nigeria. The study participants were parents with adolescent children resident in the study areas for at least 2 years. Most parents opined that sexuality discussion should be initiated after puberty. Only 20% of them discussed reproductive health issues often with their adolescents, while another 20% never discussed such issues with their adolescent children. Topics most commonly discussed bordered on the adverse consequences of sex rather than measures for preventing them. About half of parents were willing to discuss contraception with their adolescent child. Predictors of parent-child communication were age, gender, and educational status. Common reasons for low parental involvement in sexuality discussions were due to their lack of capacity and the perception that discussing such issues before puberty is ill timed. Therefore, measures should be taken to improve the capacity of parents to engage in such conversations to provide sexuality information to their teens. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Academic stress and menstrual disorders among female undergraduates in Uyo, South Eastern Nigeria - the need for health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpenyong, C E; Davis, K J; Akpan, U P; Daniel, N E

    2011-12-20

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between academic stress and menstrual disorders among female undergraduates in Uyo, South Eastern Nigeria. Three hundred and ninety-three (393) female students of the University of Uyo, ages between 16 and 35 years were randomly selected from different departments in the University, and studied during the 2009/2010 academic session. Menstrual history and Student's Stress Assessment Questionnaire (SSAQ) were used for this assessment. They were distributed for participants to fill out. Prevalence of menstrual disorder among participants was 34.6%. A direct association between menstrual disorder and academic stress was observed. Commonest menstrual disorder was menorrhagia (37.5%). Others were: Pre-menstrual Syndrome (PMS 33.1%), Oligomenorrhea 19.9% and amenorrhea 5.9% (Pacademic stress had about 2 times chances of having menstrual disorders (OR : 2.0, C.I = 1.224-2.837) at Pacademic stress and menstrual disorder among females undergraduate in Uyo, South Eastern Nigeria.

  2. Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of food crops and fruits in Owerri, South Eastern, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orisakwe Orish

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed lead, cadmium, and nickel level in food crops, fruits and soil samples from Ohaji and Umuagwo and Owerri in South Eastern Nigeria and estimated the potential health risks of metals. Samples were washed, oven-dried at 70–80°C for 24 h and powdered. Samples were digested with perchloric acid and nitric acid. Metals were analysed with Unicam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Result The concentration of Pb, Cd, and Ni in Ohaji exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations for agricultural soil as recommended by EU. Lead, Cd, and Ni in the food crops were highest in Oryza sativa, Glycine max, and Pentabacta microfila respectively. Highest levels of Pb, Cd, and Ni, in fruits were detected in Canarium schweinfurthii, Citrus reticulata, Ananas comosus respectively. The true lead and cadmium intake for the rice based meal were 3.53 and 0.034 g/kg respectively. Whereas the true intake of lead and cadmium for the cassava based meal were 19.42 and 0.049 g/kg respectively. Conclusion Local food stuff commonly available in South Eastern Nigeria villages may contribute to the body burden of heavy metal. This is of public health importance.

  3. Mapping of PM10 surface concentrations derived from satellite observations of aerosol optical thickness over South-Eastern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péré, J.-C.; Pont, V.; Mallet, M.; Bessagnet, B.

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at developing a methodology based on in-situ experimental observations in order to use satellite retrievals as a tool for monitoring air particulate pollution. This methodology is applied during summer time on the South-Eastern France, which is one of the most polluted zones over Europe, enclosing further large cities and industrial sites. In a first time, we consider correlations between daily mean AERONET AOT and PM10 concentrations at five sites located as well close to as far from pollution sources. Our results show significant correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.68 to 0.79, following the site studied. Several factors like aerosol vertical distribution or hygroscopic growth factor could affect the link between PM10 ground measurements and aerosol optical thickness. To statistically strengthen this approach, we gather data sets from three types of sites (urban, near urban and rural) and establish a linear relationship between daily mean AOT measured from AERONET and PM10 mass concentrations. Secondly and thanks to good agreements between AOT measured from AERONET and AOT retrieved from the MODIS sensor, we calculate estimated concentrations of PM10 by using MODIS retrievals above the South-Eastern France. Uncertainties about this approach are discussed.

  4. Strategic challenges in upgrading the population’s health in the transition countries of South Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Bjegovic-Mikanovic

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the devastating nineties of the last century a slow but steady improvement of the living conditions in the region of South Eastern Europe (SEE has be observed. However, so far only three countries, i.e. Bulgaria, Romania and Slovenia, have managed to ascent to the European Union and only Slovenia has joined the European currency. All others are still struggling with a difficult heritage of inappropriate vertical management structures, overstaffing and outmigration of the well educated young. This résumé applies also to the field of public health where, for example, the old hygienic tradition remained dominant, often maintaining huge laboratory facilities in the institutes of public health and very small numbers of staff being allocated to health promotion and modern participative management. This situation cannot be overcome easily nor in short term. Supported by funds from the German contribution to the European Stability Pact, the Forum for Public Health in South Eastern Europe (FPH-SEE: www.snz.hr/fphsee has established a permanent collaboration between the public health institutions in the region, including foremost the Schools of Public Health (SPH, the National Public Health Associations (PHA and some national Institutes of Public Health (IPH.

  5. Establishment of the South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority Resource Center for Children with Prenatal Alcohol/Drug Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro C. C. Løhaugen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new initiative in the South-Eastern Health Region of Norway to establish a regional resource center focusing on services for children and adolescents aged 2–18 years with prenatal exposure to alcohol or other drugs. In Norway, the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum (FAS is not known but has been estimated to be between 1 and 2 children per 1000 births, while the prevalence of prenatal exposure to illicit drugs is unknown. The resource center is the first of its kind in Scandinavia and will have three main objectives: (1 provide hospital staff, community health and child welfare personnel, and special educators with information, educational courses, and seminars focused on the identification, diagnosis, and treatment of children with a history of prenatal alcohol/drug exposure; (2 provide specialized health services, such as diagnostic services and intervention planning, for children referred from hospitals in the South-Eastern Health Region of Norway; and (3 initiate multicenter studies focusing on the diagnostic process and evaluation of interventions.

  6. Variations in Nutrients Composition of Most Commonly Consumed Cassava (Manihot esculenta Mixed Dishes in South-Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Davidson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in nutrient composition of most commonly consumed cassava (Manihot esculenta mixed dishes in South-eastern Nigeria were determined. Four communities were randomly selected from each of the five states in the South-east. Focus group discussions (FGD were conducted in each of the communities to determine commonly consumed foods and variations in recipes. 24-Hour dietary recall was conducted using 50 randomly selected households in those communities. Recipes collected during the FGD were standardized, prepared, and chemically analysed using standard methods. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Cassava-based dishes were the most commonly consumed in South-eastern Nigeria. Ninety-two percent of the study population ate cassava either in form of “fufu” (fermented cassava meal/garri (fermented and roasted cassava meal with soup or as “abacha” (tapioca salad. Commonly consumed soups were melon (Citrullus vulgaris seeds, “ora” (Pterocarpus soyauxii, and vegetable soups. Seven melon seed, six “ora,” and four vegetable soups and five “abacha” variations were identified. Except for vegetable soup, coefficient of variation for moisture was <10%, while large variations (19–71% were observed for energy and nutrients. These variations in cassava-based dishes need to be reflected in the country-specific food composition database to enable nutrient intake assessment or provision of dietary guidance using such food composition database as a reference material to be more effective.

  7. Markov chain analysis of the rainfall patterns of five geographical locations in the south eastern coast of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshach Tettey

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study develops an objective rainfall pattern assessment through Markov chain analysis using daily rainfall data from 1980 to 2010, a period of 30 years, for five cities or towns along the south eastern coastal belt of Ghana; Cape Coast, Accra, Akuse, Akatsi and Keta. Transition matrices were computed for each town and each month using the conditional probability of rain or no rain on a particular day given that it rained or did not rain on the previous day. The steady state transition matrices and the steady state probability vectors were also computed for each town and each month. It was found that, the rainy or dry season pattern observed using the monthly steady state rainfall vectors tended to reflect the monthly rainfall time series trajectory. Overall, the probability of rain on any day was low to average: Keta 0.227, Akuse 0.382, Accra 0.467, Cape Coast, 0.50 and Akatsi 0.50. In particular, for Accra, the rainy season was observed to be in the months of May to June and September to October. We also determined that the probability of rainfall generally tended to increase from east to west along the south eastern coast of Ghana.

  8. Comprehensive nursing education in Victoria: rhetoric or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, B

    2001-12-01

    Significant and widespread changes to the education of the psychiatric nursing workforce in Victoria, Australia are resulting in serious problems in the recruitment of new nursing staff. In reviewing the available literature, it is evident that undergraduate nursing students do not commence their educational program with a strong interest in pursuing a career in psychiatric nursing. In light of this knowledge, the role of education in providing a comprehensive view of the nursing profession becomes paramount. Research investigating the impact of education on the attitudes of students to psychiatric nursing as a career option has produced mixed and often inconclusive results. A longitudinal study was undertaken in Victoria, Australia. Students of the majority of universities in which undergraduate nursing programs were operating participated in this study. The participants were asked to rank nine areas of nursing specialty in order of preference at the commencement and immediately prior to the completion of the nursing program. Despite a significant improvement in the popularity of psychiatric nursing as a career choice, this area was ranked at number 8 at both pre- and post-program test. The analysis of open-ended questions demonstrated a marked change in the overall attitudes towards the mentally ill and psychiatric nursing.

  9. THE FIELD OF RECENT TECTONIC STRESSES IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH-EASTERN ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. L. Rebetsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available  The publication presents results of the study aimed at reconstruction of recent crustal stresses for Central and South-Eastern Asia with application of the method of cataclastic analysis of displacements caused by ruptures, which was proposed by Yu.L. Rebetsky. Two sources of seismic data were referred to: (1 the catalog comprising data from publications covering the period from 1904 to 1992, and (2 the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT Database of earthquake mechanisms (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqarchives/sopor, which covers the period from 1978 to 2010. The method of cataclastic analysis in its earliest version was applied in 1996 and 1997 when seismic data from the first catalog were analyzed, and it yielded only parameters of stress ellipsoids; the reconstructions were published in a Russian-Chinese journal (it does not exist now. In this paper, these reconstructions are presented in new graphical formats of GIS. Data from the Global CMT Database were analyzed by the method of cataclastic analysis in the new revision with application of its stages 1 and 2. Based on the calculations, orientations of axes of principal stresses, types of ellipsoids, correlations between spherical and deviatoric components of stress tensors, and reduced stresses were determined. The two sets of reconstructions are compared in this paper. The catalog of earthquake focal mechanisms for the period from 1904 to 1992 consolidated information provided by different authors, and thus focal data for many seismic events were highly inconsistent; therefore, the reliability of reconstructions based on such data seems to be lower than that on the basis the Global CMT Database for the period from 1978 to 2010. Some of the reconstructed stress tensor parameters are mapped. For the areas which data are given in the Global CMT Database and considered as more reliable, mapping is based on stress parameters calculated from such data. For the areas that are not covered by the

  10. Is Ips grandicollis disrupting the biological control of Sirex noctilio in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus J. Carnegie; Andrew D. Loch

    2011-01-01

    Sirex woodwasp (Sirex noctilio) is considered one of the most serious threats to exotic Pinus radiata plantations in Australia. This exotic wasp has been established in Australia for more than six decades. The most significant outbreak occurred in the Green Triangle region of southeastern South Australia-western Victoria in the...

  11. Influential Pioneers of Creative Music Education in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Throughout history, societies have been fascinated with creativity and the creative personality. Researching creativity and its place in music education however has been fraught with difficulties. After sixty years of intensive study mainly in the USA, there is still no accepted methodology for researching creativity or an agreed definition. In…

  12. An historical geography of tourism in Victoria, Australia: case studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clark, Ian; Lopez, Lucrezia

    2014-01-01

    .... It explores a fundamental set of questions: how does a tourist site come in to being? How does a tourist gaze emerge in a ‘settler society’? How does an ‘era of discovery’ segue into ‘tourism...

  13. Projecting the future levels of Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkelen, Inne; van Lipzig, Nicole; Thiery, Wim

    2017-04-01

    Lake Victoria directly sustains 30 million people living in its basin and 200 000 fishermen operating from its shores. As the one of the two sources of the Nile River, it also supports natural resources that impact the livelihood of over 300 million people living in the Nile basin. The outlet to the Nile is controlled by two hydropower dams. The water balance of Lake Victoria is controlled both by climatic conditions (precipitation and evaporation) and human management (dam outflow). Future climate simulations with a high resolution coupled lake-land-atmosphere model project decreasing mean precipitation and increasing evaporation over Lake Victoria. As these two are important factors in the water balance of Lake Victoria, these projected changes may induce a drop in future levels of Lake Victoria. Moreover, as Lake Victoria is also a relatively shallow lake, lake surface area may decrease as well. Here we present a water balance model for Lake Victoria that provides lake level and extent as output. We first force our model with observational input (new satellite products providing high quality precipitation and evaporation data) and evaluate it using measured lake levels. The skill of the model is subsequently assessed by forcing it with present-day regional climate simulations (CORDEX evaluation simulations). In a third step the future lake levels and surface area changes of Lake Victoria are simulated by forcing the model with CORDEX projections under RCP4.5 and 8.5. Finally, the role of human decisions regarding future dam outflow are investigated.

  14. Near-vertical seismic reflection image using a novel acquisition technique across the Vrancea Zone and Foscani Basin, south-eastern Carpathians (Romania).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panea, I; Stephenson, R.A.; Knapp, C.; Mocanu, V.I.; Drijkoningen, G.; Matenco, L.C.; Knapp, J.; Prodehl, K.

    2005-01-01

    The DACIA PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Process in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic sounding survey was performed in August-September 2001 in south-eastern Romania, at the same time as the regional deep refraction seismic survey VRANCEA 2001. The main goal of the

  15. The formation of the south-eastern part of the Dniepr-Donets Basin: 2-D forward and reverse syn-rift and post-rift modelling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stovba, S.M.; Maystrenko, Yu.; Stephenson, R.A.; Kusznir, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    Forward and reverse modelling of structure and stratigraphy has been used to investigate the syn-rift (Late Devonian) and early post-rift (Carboniferous) evolution of the south-eastern part of the Dniepr-Donets Basin (DDB). Modelling was carried out with and without taking into consideration the

  16. Letter to Editor: RESITA NETWORK - ACADEMIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND INNOVATION NETWORK OF SOUTH EASTERN EUROPEAN UNIVERSITIES: AN EXAMPLE OF SUCCESSFUL NETWORKING IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND INNOVATION AT ACADEMIC LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schulte

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The foundation, development, activities, and wider social impact of the AcademicEntrepreneurship and Innovation Network of South Eastern European Universities, or shortlyRESITA Network, is presented in this paper as a positive example of successful networking inentrepreneurship and innovation at academic level.

  17. The changing epidemiology of Murray Valley encephalitis in Australia: the 2011 outbreak and a review of the literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda A Selvey

    Full Text Available Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV is the most serious of the endemic arboviruses in Australia. It was responsible for six known large outbreaks of encephalitis in south-eastern Australia in the 1900s, with the last comprising 58 cases in 1974. Since then MVEV clinical cases have been largely confined to the western and central parts of northern Australia. In 2011, high-level MVEV activity occurred in south-eastern Australia for the first time since 1974, accompanied by unusually heavy seasonal MVEV activity in northern Australia. This resulted in 17 confirmed cases of MVEV disease across Australia. Record wet season rainfall was recorded in many areas of Australia in the summer and autumn of 2011. This was associated with significant flooding and increased numbers of the mosquito vector and subsequent MVEV activity. This paper documents the outbreak and adds to our knowledge about disease outcomes, epidemiology of disease and the link between the MVEV activity and environmental factors. Clinical and demographic information from the 17 reported cases was obtained. Cases or family members were interviewed about their activities and location during the incubation period. In contrast to outbreaks prior to 2000, the majority of cases were non-Aboriginal adults, and almost half (40% of the cases acquired MVEV outside their area of residence. All but two cases occurred in areas of known MVEV activity. This outbreak continues to reflect a change in the demographic pattern of human cases of encephalitic MVEV over the last 20 years. In northern Australia, this is associated with the increasing numbers of non-Aboriginal workers and tourists living and travelling in endemic and epidemic areas, and also identifies an association with activities that lead to high mosquito exposure. This outbreak demonstrates that there is an ongoing risk of MVEV encephalitis to the heavily populated areas of south-eastern Australia.

  18. Sightings of Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D' Orbigny, 1844 and Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais, 1853 (Cetacea in South-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Beneditto Ana Paula M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D' Orbigny, 1844 and Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais, 1853 have typically coastal habits and are sympatric in South-eastern Brazil. The purpose of this work was to record sightings and describe aspects concerning the behaviour of both species in this region, between 1993 and 1998. The sightings were accomplished by cruises and from a fixed point. Information provided by fishermen were also considered. In general, P. blainvillei was observed in all seasons of the year, up to five nautical miles away from the coast, up to 15 m deep and the groups comprised up to five specimens. The most part of the groups of S. fluviatilis, were observed in autumm and winter times and comprised up to 10 specimens. In about half of the sightings, the presence of calves and/or juveniles was noted. The cooperative (group fishing was the foranging behaviour most frequently noted for S. fluviatilis.

  19. Sattleria revisited: unexpected cryptic diversity on the Balkan Peninsula and in the south-eastern Alps (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Peter; Timossi, Giovanni

    2014-03-21

    The taxonomy of Sattleria Povolný from the high mountain systems on the Balkan Peninsula and the adjacent parts of the Alps (south-eastern Alps, Dinaric Alps, Rila Mountains) is revised based on recently collected material and re-examined museum vouchers. Adult morphology and molecular data of the COI barcode region support the existence of six strictly allopatric species in this area, including four new species: Sattleria sophiae Timossi, sp. nov. (Parco Paneveggio-Pale di San Martino, Dolomites, Prov. Trento, Italy), Sattleria dolomitica Huemer, sp. nov. (Eastern Dolomites, Prov. South Tyrol, Italy), Sattleria dinarica Huemer, sp. nov. (Durmitor NP, Dinaric Alps, Montenegro) and Sattleria haemusi Huemer, sp. nov. (Rila Mts., Bulgaria; Šar Planina, Macedonia). 

  20. The Deep Ocean Sound Channel in Areas Around Australia,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    Kinne) Oceanography Division, St. Louis, USA (Attention: Mr A. Pressman, Code 330) Laboratorio de Ensayo de Materiales e Investigaciones Tecnologicas...AD-AlSO 715 MATERIALS RESEARCH LABS ASCOT VALE (AUSTRALIA) F/B 20/1 THE DEEP OCEAN SOUND CHANNEL IN AREAS AROUND AUSTRALIA,CU) OCT 80 D J WHELAN... MATERIALS RESEARCH LABORATORIES MELBOURNE, VICTORIA ~REPORT MRL-R-788 THE DEEP OCEAN SOUND CHANNEL IN AREAS AROUND AUSTRALIA Daniel J. Whelan Approved

  1. Anomalous gold contents in brown coals and peat in the south-eastern region of the Western-Siberian platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbuzov, S.I.; Rikhvanov, L.P.; Maslov, S.G.; Arhipov, V.S.; Belyaeva, A.M. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-10-02

    One hundred twenty-two samples of Jurassic and Paleogene brown coals and 1254 peat samples from the south-eastern region of the Western-Siberian platform were analyzed for gold by the neutron-activation method. Mean content of Au in Jurassic coals is 30+/-8 ppb, in Paleogene coals is 10.6+/-4.8 ppb, and in peat is 6+/-1.4 ppb. Concentrations of gold as high as 4.4 ppm were found in coal ash and 0.48 ppm in the peat ash. Coal beds with anomalous gold contents were found at Western-Siberian platform for the first time. Negative correlation between gold and ash yield in coals and peat and highest gold concentrations were found in low-ash and ultra-low-ash coals and peat. Primarily this is due to gold's association with organic matter. For the investigation of mode of occurrence of Au in peat the bitumen, water-soluble and high-hydrolyzed substances, humic acids, cellulose and lignin were extracted from it. It was determined that in peat about 95% of gold is combined with organic matter. Forty to sixty percent of Au is contained in humic acids and the same content is in lignin. Bitumens, water-soluble and high-hydrolyzed substances contain no more than 1% of general gold quantity in peat. The conditions of accumulation of high gold concentrations were considered. The authors suggest that Au accumulation in peat and brown coals and the connection between anomalous gold concentrations and organic matter in low-ash coals and peat can explain a biogenic-sorption mechanism of Au accumulation. The sources of formation of Au high concentration were various Au-Sb, Au-Ag Au-As-Sb deposits that are abundant in the Southern and South-Eastern peripheries of the coal basin. (author)

  2. CO-EXISTENCE AND SEROPREVALENCE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN A MALARIA-ENDEMIC METROPOLIS OF SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria and typhoid are known major causes of febrile conditions in the South-Eastern Nigeria, hence healthcare providers usually co-administer antibiotics and anti-malaria on febrile patients without or before proper laboratory diagnosis. Despite this, fever and other symptoms of malaria sometimes persist after repeated treatment regimens. We investigated possible co-existence and prevalence of another fever-causing condition and ndash; brucellosis, with malaria and typhoid. The systematic study done between January 2015 and June 2016 involved 682 febrile patients referred to a private medical laboratory in Enugu metropolis in South-Eastern Nigeria for investigation for malaria and typhoid only. The number was made up of 295(43.3% males and 387(56.7% females, aged between 10 and 50 years. Identification of malaria parasites was done using thick films stained with Giemsa stain while typhoid and brucellosis were investigated serologically using Chromatest and reg; febrile antigen kits. Our results showed prevalence of 39.1%, 66.0% and 28.6% for malaria, typhoid and brucellosis respectively in the studied population. Prevalence among male and female patients was 46.1% and 33.9% for malaria, 80.3% and 55.0% for typhoid, and 34.2% and 24.3% for brucellosis respectively. The results also showed that prevalence of malaria decreased with age while typhoid and brucellosis increased with age. We opine that 28.6% prevalence of brucellosis in a city with rare pastoral activities is high, and may be the cause of persistent fever after repeated combined treatment for malaria and typhoid. We advocate that these disease conditions should be simultaneously investigated for in all cases of febrile conditions to ensure wider investigation and treatment options, improvement on patients\\' recovery time and reduction in man-hour loss.

  3. Using Key Informant Method to Determine the Prevalence and Causes of Childhood Blindness in South-Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaji, Ada E; Ezegwui, Ifeoma R; Shiweobi, Jude O; Mamah, Cyril C; Okoloagu, Mary N; Onwasigwe, Ernest N

    2017-12-01

    To determine the prevalence and causes of childhood blindness in an underserved community in south-eastern Nigeria using the key informant method. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Key informants (KI) appointed by their respective communities received 1-day training on identification of blind children in their communities. Two weeks later, the research team visited the agreed sites within the community and examined the identified children. The World Health Organization eye examination record for blind children was used for data collection. Data entry and analysis were done with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0. Fifteen blind or severely visually impaired children (age range 3 months to 15 years) were identified in this community; nine of these were brought by the KIs. The prevalence of childhood blindness/severe visual impairment (BL/SVI) was 0.12 per 1000 children. By anatomical classification, operable cataract in 6 (40.0%) was the leading cause of BL/SVI in the series; followed by optic nerve lesions (atrophy/hypoplasia) in 3 (20.0%). The etiology of BL/SVI is unknown for the majority of the children (66.7%). It was presumed hereditary in four children (26.7%). Sixty percent of the blindness was judged avoidable. Only three children (20.0%) were enrolled in the Special Education Centre for the Blind. The prevalence of childhood BL/SVI in our study population is low but over half of the blindness is avoidable. There may be a significant backlog of operable childhood cataract in south-eastern Nigeria. The KI method is a practical method for case finding of blind children in rural communities.

  4. Possible implications of Rabbit Calicivirus Disease for malleefowl Leipoa ocellata Gould in the north-west of Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandell, P.

    1999-01-01

    Parks Victoria and the Department of Natural Resources & Environment (NRE) are collaborating with agencies from the other States and the Commonwealth of Australia in a national program of detailed monitoring and surveillance of the effects of Rabbit Calicivirus Disease (RCD). A component of the

  5. Tick-borne infectious diseases in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Stephen R; Stenos, John

    2017-04-17

    Tick bites in Australia can lead to a variety of illnesses in patients. These include infection, allergies, paralysis, autoimmune disease, post-infection fatigue and Australian multisystem disorder. Rickettsial (Rickettsia spp.) infections (Queensland tick typhus, Flinders Island spotted fever and Australian spotted fever) and Q fever (Coxiella burnetii) are the only systemic bacterial infections that are known to be transmitted by tick bites in Australia. Three species of local ticks transmit bacterial infection following a tick bite: the paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus) is endemic on the east coast of Australia and causes Queensland tick typhus due to R. australis and Q fever due to C. burnetii; the ornate kangaroo tick (Amblyomma triguttatum) occurs throughout much of northern, central and western Australia and causes Q fever; and the southern reptile tick (Bothriocroton hydrosauri) is found mainly in south-eastern Australia and causes Flinders Island spotted fever due to R. honei. Much about Australian ticks and the medical outcomes following tick bites remains unknown. Further research is required to increase understanding of these areas.

  6. Salinity in Water Markets : An ExperimentalInvestigation of the Sunraysia Salinity Levy, Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    C. Duke; L. Gangadharan

    2005-01-01

    Irrigation can have a significant negative impact on the environment. Irrigation impacts contribute a significant portion to the estimated forty six million dollar cost per annum of salinity in the Murray River, Australia. Policies available to regulators include externality taxes and levies. In 2002 the Victorian Government introduced a system of salinity levies in the irrigation regions of Sunraysia, northern Victoria. These levies differ from typical taxes because they also introduce trade...

  7. Spiraal : uus Victoria & Alberti muuseum Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Daniel Libeskindi projekt Victoria & Alberti Muuseumi laiendamiseks on põhjustanud konservatiivsete londonlaste pahameele, kuid kutsunud esile ka hulgaliselt toetusavaldusi. Muuseumi uus osa (kokkuvarisemise piiril näiva ehitisena) peaks külastajaile avatama 2004. a.

  8. Burn Severity Mapping in Australia 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, R.; Clark, J.; Lecker, J.

    2012-07-01

    In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) algorithm.

  9. BURN SEVERITY MAPPING IN AUSTRALIA 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. McKinley

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR algorithm.

  10. Burn severity mapping in Australia 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Randy; Clark, J.; Lecker, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) algorithm.

  11. Interventions that effectively target Anopheles funestus mosquitoes could significantly improve control of persistent malaria transmission in south-eastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaindoa, Emmanuel W; Matowo, Nancy S; Ngowo, Halfan S; Mkandawile, Gustav; Mmbando, Arnold; Finda, Marcelina; Okumu, Fredros O

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is transmitted by many Anopheles species whose proportionate contributions vary across settings. We re-assessed the roles of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus, and examined potential benefits of species-specific interventions in an area in south-eastern Tanzania, where malaria transmission persists, four years after mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). Monthly mosquito sampling was done in randomly selected households in three villages using CDC light traps and back-pack aspirators, between January-2015 and January-2016, four years after the last mass distribution of LLINs in 2011. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify members of An. funestus and Anopheles gambiae complexes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect Plasmodium sporozoites in mosquito salivary glands, and to identify sources of mosquito blood meals. WHO susceptibility assays were done on wild caught female An. funestus s.l, and physiological ages approximated by examining mosquito ovaries for parity. A total of 20,135 An. arabiensis and 4,759 An. funestus were collected. The An. funestus group consisted of 76.6% An. funestus s.s, 2.9% An. rivulorum, 7.1% An. leesoni, and 13.4% unamplified samples. Of all mosquitoes positive for Plasmodium, 82.6% were An. funestus s.s, 14.0% were An. arabiensis and 3.4% were An. rivulorum. An. funestus and An. arabiensis contributed 86.21% and 13.79% respectively, of annual entomological inoculation rate (EIR). An. arabiensis fed on humans (73.4%), cattle (22.0%), dogs (3.1%) and chicken (1.5%), but An. funestus fed exclusively on humans. The An. funestus populations were 100% susceptible to organophosphates, pirimiphos methyl and malathion, but resistant to permethrin (10.5% mortality), deltamethrin (18.7%), lambda-cyhalothrin (18.7%) and DDT (26.2%), and had reduced susceptibility to bendiocarb (95%) and propoxur (90.1%). Parity rate was higher in An. funestus (65.8%) than

  12. Qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastics particles during the expeditionary measurement program in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esiukova, Elena; Bagaeva, Margarita; Chubarenko, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    According to the tasks of the Russian Science Foundation project "Physical and dynamical properties of marine microplastics particles and their transport in a basin with vertical and horizontal salinity gradient on the example of the Baltic Sea" number 15-17-10020, a comprehensive expeditionary program of measurements in the South-Eastern Baltic started. The project is aimed at finding solutions for a number of problems caused by superfluous plastic pollution in the World Ocean and, in particular, in the Baltic Sea. This pollution has been accumulating for years and just recently it has become obvious that only multidisciplinary approach (geographical, biological, chemical, etc.) to the issues related to the processes of transformation of properties and propagation of plastic particles will allow the study of physical aspects of the problem. During the first stage of the study samples should be selected from the water surface, water column at various horizons, bottom sediments in the Baltic Sea, from different areas at the beaches - in order to further examine the qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastic particles in different seasons for different hydrophysical situations. Reconnaissance survey was begun to choose the fields for research close to point and distributed sources of microplastics. Preference is given to those beaches that are exposed to maximum anthropogenic pollution: areas around the town of Baltiysk, the northern part of the Vistula Spit (near the settlement of Kosa), and the Sambia peninsula coast (settlements of Yantarny, Donskoye, Primorye, Kulikovo, towns of Svetlogorsk, Pionersky, Zelenogradsk). Locations for experimental sites were found in order to assess time for formation of microplastics (Vistula Spit, Kosa settlement). In June-November, 2015 there were 5 expeditions in the waters of the South-Eastern Baltic, 7 expeditions along the coast line of the Baltic Sea (in Kaliningrad Oblast), and 5 expeditions to the Vistula

  13. Integration of measurements and model simulations to characterize Eyjafjallajökull volcanic aerosols over south-eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Perrone

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic aerosols resulting from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption were detected in south-eastern Italy from 20 to 22 April 2010, at a distance of approximately 4000 km from the volcano, and have been characterized by lidar, sun/sky photometer, and surface in-situ measurements. Volcanic particles added to the pre-existing aerosol load and measurement data allow quantifying the impact of volcanic particles on the aerosol vertical distribution, lidar ratios, the aerosol size distribution, and the ground-level particulate-matter concentrations. Lidar measurements reveal that backscatter coefficients by volcanic particles were about one order of magnitude smaller over south-eastern Italy than over Central Europe. Mean lidar ratios at 355 nm were equal to 64 ± 5 sr inside the volcanic aerosol layer and were characterized by smaller values (47 ± 2 sr in the underlying layer on 20 April, 19:30 UTC. Lidar ratios and their dependence with the height reduced in the following days, mainly because of the variability of the volcanic particle contributions. Size distributions from sun/sky photometer measurements reveal the presence of volcanic particles with radii r > 0.5 μm on 21 April and that the contribution of coarse volcanic particles increased from 20 to 22 April. The aerosol fine mode fraction from sun/sky photometer measurements varied between values of 0.85 and 0.94 on 20 April and decreased to values between 0.25 and 0.82 on 22 April. Surface measurements of particle size distributions were in good accordance with column averaged particle size distributions from sun/sky photometer measurements. PM1/PM2.5 mass concentration ratios of 0.69, 0.66, and 0.60 on 20, 21, and 22 April, respectively, support the increase of super-micron particles at ground. Measurements from the Regional Air Quality Agency show that PM10 mass concentrations on 20, 21, and 22 April 2010 were enhanced in the entire Apulia Region. More

  14. Interventions that effectively target Anopheles funestus mosquitoes could significantly improve control of persistent malaria transmission in south-eastern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel W Kaindoa

    Full Text Available Malaria is transmitted by many Anopheles species whose proportionate contributions vary across settings. We re-assessed the roles of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus, and examined potential benefits of species-specific interventions in an area in south-eastern Tanzania, where malaria transmission persists, four years after mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs. Monthly mosquito sampling was done in randomly selected households in three villages using CDC light traps and back-pack aspirators, between January-2015 and January-2016, four years after the last mass distribution of LLINs in 2011. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to identify members of An. funestus and Anopheles gambiae complexes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to detect Plasmodium sporozoites in mosquito salivary glands, and to identify sources of mosquito blood meals. WHO susceptibility assays were done on wild caught female An. funestus s.l, and physiological ages approximated by examining mosquito ovaries for parity. A total of 20,135 An. arabiensis and 4,759 An. funestus were collected. The An. funestus group consisted of 76.6% An. funestus s.s, 2.9% An. rivulorum, 7.1% An. leesoni, and 13.4% unamplified samples. Of all mosquitoes positive for Plasmodium, 82.6% were An. funestus s.s, 14.0% were An. arabiensis and 3.4% were An. rivulorum. An. funestus and An. arabiensis contributed 86.21% and 13.79% respectively, of annual entomological inoculation rate (EIR. An. arabiensis fed on humans (73.4%, cattle (22.0%, dogs (3.1% and chicken (1.5%, but An. funestus fed exclusively on humans. The An. funestus populations were 100% susceptible to organophosphates, pirimiphos methyl and malathion, but resistant to permethrin (10.5% mortality, deltamethrin (18.7%, lambda-cyhalothrin (18.7% and DDT (26.2%, and had reduced susceptibility to bendiocarb (95% and propoxur (90.1%. Parity rate was higher in An. funestus (65

  15. ENSO, the IOD and the intraseasonal prediction of heat extremes across Australia using POAMA-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Christopher J.; Hudson, Debra; Alves, Oscar

    2014-10-01

    The simulation and prediction of extreme heat over Australia on intraseasonal timescales in association with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is assessed using the Bureau of Meteorology's Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA). The analysis is based on hindcasts over 1981-2010 and focuses on weeks 2 and 3 of the forecasts, i.e. beyond a typical weather forecast. POAMA simulates the observed increased probabilities of extreme heat during El Niño events, focussed over south eastern and southern Australia in SON and over northern Australia in DJF, and the decreased probabilities of extreme heat during La Niña events, although the magnitude of these relationships is smaller than observed. POAMA also captures the signal of increased probabilities of extreme heat during positive phases of the IOD across southern Australia in SON and over Western Australia in JJA, but again underestimates the strength of the relationship. Shortcomings in the simulation of extreme heat in association with ENSO and the IOD over southern Australia may be linked to deficiencies in the teleconnection with Indian Ocean SSTs. Forecast skill for intraseasonal episodes of extreme heat is assessed using the Symmetric Extremal Dependence Index. Skill is highest over northern Australia in MAM and JJA and over south-eastern and eastern Australia in JJA and SON, whereas skill is generally poor over south-west Western Australia. Results show there are windows of forecast opportunity related to the state of ENSO and the IOD, where the skill in predicting extreme temperatures over certain regions is increased.

  16. An Ordered Probit Model Analysis of Transaction Costs and Market Participation by Small-Holder Cassava Farmers in South-Eastern Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Okoye, B.C; Onyenweaku, C.E; Ukoha, O.O

    2010-01-01

    The Ordered Probit model analysis procedure was applied to determine the factors (related to fixed and variable transaction costs) influencing the decision to participate in cassava markets by a sample of 360 smallholder farmers in South-Eastern Nigeria. Participation decisions revealed that membership of cooperatives or social organizations, farming experience and marketing experience had a positive relationship with decision to be autarkic other than buyer and seller other than autarkic and...

  17. A balanced solution to the cumulative threat of industrialized wind farm development on cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in south-eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilakis, Dimitris P.; Whitfield, D. Philip; Kati, Vassiliki

    2017-01-01

    Wind farm development can combat climate change but may also threaten bird populations' persistence through collision with wind turbine blades if such development is improperly planned strategically and cumulatively. Such improper planning may often occur. Numerous wind farms are planned in a region hosting the only cinereous vulture population in south-eastern Europe. We combined range use modelling and a Collision Risk Model (CRM) to predict the cumulative collision mortality for cinereous ...

  18. Links between riparian landcover, instream environment and fish assemblages in headwater streams of south-eastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Bruna B.; Miranda, Leandro E.; Cetra, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesised and tested a hierarchical organisation model where riparian landcover would influence bank composition and light availability, which in turn would influence instream environments and control fish assemblages. The study was conducted during the dry season in 11 headwater tributaries of the Sorocaba River in the upper Paraná River Basin, south-eastern Brazil. We focused on seven environmental factors each represented by one or multiple environmental variables and seven fish functional traits each represented by two or more classes. Multivariate direct gradient analyses suggested that riparian zone landcover can be considered a higher level causal factor in a network of relations that control instream characteristics and fish assemblages. Our results provide a framework for a hierarchical conceptual model that identifies singular and collective influences of variables from different scales on each other and ultimately on different aspects related to stream fish functional composition. This conceptual model is focused on the relationships between riparian landcover and instream variables as causal factors on the organisation of stream fish assemblages. Our results can also be viewed as a model for headwater stream management in that landcover can be manipulated to influence factors such as bank composition, substrates and water quality, whereas fish assemblage composition can be used as indicators to monitor the success of such efforts.

  19. GIS-based probability assessment of natural hazards in forested landscapes of Central and South-Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorz, C; Fürst, C; Galic, Z; Matijasic, D; Podrazky, V; Potocic, N; Simoncic, P; Strauch, M; Vacik, H; Makeschin, F

    2010-12-01

    We assessed the probability of three major natural hazards--windthrow, drought, and forest fire--for Central and South-Eastern European forests which are major threats for the provision of forest goods and ecosystem services. In addition, we analyzed spatial distribution and implications for a future oriented management of forested landscapes. For estimating the probability of windthrow, we used rooting depth and average wind speed. Probabilities of drought and fire were calculated from climatic and total water balance during growing season. As an approximation to climate change scenarios, we used a simplified approach with a general increase of pET by 20%. Monitoring data from the pan-European forests crown condition program and observed burnt areas and hot spots from the European Forest Fire Information System were used to test the plausibility of probability maps. Regions with high probabilities of natural hazard are identified and management strategies to minimize probability of natural hazards are discussed. We suggest future research should focus on (i) estimating probabilities using process based models (including sensitivity analysis), (ii) defining probability in terms of economic loss, (iii) including biotic hazards, (iv) using more detailed data sets on natural hazards, forest inventories and climate change scenarios, and (v) developing a framework of adaptive risk management.

  20. Potential Risk Areas ofAedes albopictusin South-Eastern Iran: A Vector of Dengue Fever, Zika, and Chikungunya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejati, Jalil; Bueno-Marí, Rubén; Collantes, Francisco; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad A; Vatandoost, Hassan; Charrahy, Zabihollah; Tabatabaei, Seyed M; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad R; Hasanzehi, Abdolghafar; Shirzadi, Mohammad R; Moosa-Kazemi, Seyed H; Sedaghat, Mohammad M

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of the rapid and global spread of Zika, chikungunya, yellow fever, and dengue fever by Aedes albopictus is well documented and may be facilitated by changes in climate. To avert and manage health risks, climatic and topographic information can be used to model and forecast which areas may be most prone to the establishment of Ae. albopictus . We aimed to weigh and prioritize the predictive value of various meteorological and climatic variables on distributions of Ae. albopictus in south-eastern Iran using the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Out of eight factors used to predict the presence of Ae. albopictus , the highest weighted were land use, followed by temperature, altitude, and precipitation. The inconsistency of this analysis was 0.03 with no missing judgments. The areas predicted to be most at risk of Ae. albopictus -borne diseases were mapped using Geographic Information Systems and remote sensing data. Five-year (2011-2015) meteorological data was collected from 11 meteorological stations and other data was acquired from Landsat and Terra satellite images. Southernmost regions were at greatest risk of Ae. albopictus colonization as well as more urban sites connected by provincial roads. This is the first study in Iran to determine the regional probability of Ae. albopictus establishment. Monitoring and collection of Ae. albopictus from the environment confirmed our projections, though on-going field work is necessary to track the spread of this vector of life-threatening disease.

  1. Potential Risk Areas of Aedes albopictus in South-Eastern Iran: A Vector of Dengue Fever, Zika, and Chikungunya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Nejati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the rapid and global spread of Zika, chikungunya, yellow fever, and dengue fever by Aedes albopictus is well documented and may be facilitated by changes in climate. To avert and manage health risks, climatic and topographic information can be used to model and forecast which areas may be most prone to the establishment of Ae. albopictus. We aimed to weigh and prioritize the predictive value of various meteorological and climatic variables on distributions of Ae. albopictus in south-eastern Iran using the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Out of eight factors used to predict the presence of Ae. albopictus, the highest weighted were land use, followed by temperature, altitude, and precipitation. The inconsistency of this analysis was 0.03 with no missing judgments. The areas predicted to be most at risk of Ae. albopictus-borne diseases were mapped using Geographic Information Systems and remote sensing data. Five-year (2011–2015 meteorological data was collected from 11 meteorological stations and other data was acquired from Landsat and Terra satellite images. Southernmost regions were at greatest risk of Ae. albopictus colonization as well as more urban sites connected by provincial roads. This is the first study in Iran to determine the regional probability of Ae. albopictus establishment. Monitoring and collection of Ae. albopictus from the environment confirmed our projections, though on-going field work is necessary to track the spread of this vector of life-threatening disease.

  2. Seasonal and spatial variations of marine litter on the south-eastern Black Sea coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Yahya; Seyhan, Kadir

    2017-07-15

    The south-eastern Black Sea coast in Turkey was evaluated for marine litter composition and density covering nine beaches during four seasons. The marine litter (>2cm in size), was collected from the coast and categorized into material and usage categories. The data analysis showed that plastic was the most abundant litter (≥61.65%) by count and weight followed by styrofoam and fabric. The marine litter density ranged from 0.03 to 0.58 with a mean (±SD) of 0.16±0.02 items/m 2 by count. Based on weight, it varied between 0.44 and 14.74g/m 2 with 3.35±1.63. The east side had a higher marine litter density than the west side with significant differences between beaches. The variations due to different seasons were not significant for any beach. The results of this study should provide baseline information about the coastal marine pollution and will assist the mitigation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Reproduction of the Spanish sardine, Sardinella aurita (Clupeiformes: Clupeidae) from the south-eastern area of Margarita Island, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman, Juan; Eslava, Nora; González, Leo W

    2008-12-01

    Sex ratio, sexual maturity, fecundity and time of spawning of the Spanish sardine (Sardinella aurita) from the south-eastern area of Margarita Island were determined through monthly samplings of commercial fisheries, from January 2004 to April 2005. A total of 3 736 individuals were examined. Sex ratio was 55.47% females and 44.53% males, with a 1:1.25 sexual proportion (chi2 = 44.454, p < 0.05). Length at first sexual maturity (L50) was 20 cm. Spawning of the species was confirmed to be partial and continuous throughout the year, with two peaks of intensity during the first and last quarters. Absolute fecundity ranged from 10,530 to 83,779 oocytes and it was proportional to body length (F = -100,900 + 6696.2 * L) and to body weight (F = 13,327 + 5666.3 * P). Relative fecundity ranged from 149 to 1020 oocytes/g and also was proportional to body length and weight. We concluded that the Spanish sardine exhibits two peaks of spawning activity per year with a very fluctuating partial fecundity which could possibly be explained by environmental variability.

  4. Factors Affecting Farmers’ Decision to Enter Agricultural Cooperatives Using Random Utility Model in the South Eastern Anatolian Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri Karlı

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Farmers’ decision and perceptions to be a member of agricultural cooperatives in the South Eastern Anatolian Region were investigated. Factors affecting the probability of joining the agricultural cooperatives were determined using binary logit model. The model released that most of variables such as education, high communication, log of gross income, farm size, medium and high technology variables play important roles in determining the probability of entrance. Small farmers are likely expected to join the agricultural cooperatives than the wealthier farmers are. Small farmers may wish to benefit cash at hand, input subsidies, and services provided by the agricultural cooperatives since the risks associated with intensive high-returning crops are high. Some important factors playing pole role in abstention of farmers towards agricultural cooperatives are gross income and some social status variables. In addition, conservative or orthodox farmers are less likely to join agricultural cooperatives than moderate farmers are. We also found that the direct government farm credit programs mainly should be objected to providing farmers to better access to capital markets and creating the opportunity to use with allocation of capital inputs via using modern technology.

  5. Epidemiologic study of urolithiasis in seven countries of South-Eastern Europe: S.E.G.U.R. 1 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Karagiannis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate some epidemiological aspects of kidney stones in the South- Eastern European area. Materials and methods: From September 2015 to December 2015, 538 consecutive patients were treated and evaluated for reno-ureteral stones in eight departments in Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, FYR Macedonia, Romania, Serbia and Turkey. Results: The age of onset was lower in Turkey and higher in Italy. The rate of recurrent patients was higher in Romania and Serbia, while first renal stone formers were more frequent in Italy. The previous history of kidney stones, the characteristics of the stones and the dietary habits of the patients were different in different countries. In Bulgaria, Greece and Romania larger calculi from recurrent patients were more frequent. In Italy and Turkey smaller calculi from first renal stone formers were more frequent. Conclusions: The previous history of kidney stones, the characteristics of the stones and the dietary habits of the patients were different in different countries. A common dietary pattern associated with the formation of kidney stones was not observed, but each country showed different risk factors.

  6. Species diversity of remnant calcareous grasslands in south eastern Germany depends on litter cover and landscape structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Stephanie; Huber, Birgit; Stahl, Silvia; Schmid, Christoph; Reisch, Christoph

    2017-08-01

    Species diversity depends on, often interfering, multiple ecological drivers. Comprehensive approaches are hence needed to understand the mechanisms determining species diversity. In this study, we analysed the impact of vegetation structure, soil properties and fragmentation on the plant species diversity of remnant calcareous grasslands, therefore, in a comparative approach. We determined plant species diversity of 18 calcareous grasslands in south eastern Germany including all species and grassland specialists separately. Furthermore, we analysed the spatial structure of the grasslands as a result of fragmentation during the last 150 years (habitat area, distance to the nearest calcareous grassland and connectivity in 1830 and 2013). We also collected data concerning the vegetation structure (height of the vegetation, cover of bare soil, grass and litter) and the soil properties (content of phosphorous and potassium, ratio of carbon and nitrogen) of the grassland patches. Data were analysed using Bayesian multiple regressions. We observed a habitat loss of nearly 80% and increasing isolation between grasslands since 1830. In the Bayesian multiple regressions the species diversity of the studied grasslands depended negatively on cover of litter and to a lower degree on the distance to the nearest calcareous grassland in 2013, whereas soil properties had no significant impact. Our study supports the observation that vegetation structure, which strongly depends on land use, is often more important for the species richness of calcareous grasslands than fragmentation or soil properties. Even small and isolated grasslands may, therefore, contribute significantly to the conservation of species diversity, when they are still grazed.

  7. Foreign Trade Relations of the Slovak Republic (1939 – 1945 with the Countries of South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mičko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The important role in the Slovak economy had foreign trade. Paradoxically, the difference within from the present era, when exist passive balance of trade, Slovakia at this time was in danger with unlimited outlet of its goods in to the foreign countries. A lot of Slovak product founded own position on the empty european markets. The foreign trade was very important aspect for Slovakia, so the the policy continued by the legal acts with relevance of the Czechoslovak era. The evidence is, that according with the constitucional act 1/1939 (establishment of the Slovak republic was assumed the law which provided foreign trade and duties. Through this period the main trade was realised wit the Third Reich. After solving the trade relations with Germany, the Slovak business interests also focused on the area of South-Eastern Europe. Countries of the Balkan Peninsula and Hungary were the most important trading partner of the Slovak Republic after Germany and Italy. But during the trade relations with the majority of mentioned countries, the trend of deterioration of mutual economic relations was gradually confirmed.

  8. The October 2015 flash-floods in south eastern France: hydrological analyses, inundation mapping and impact estimations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payrastre, Olivier; Bourgin, François; Lebouc, Laurent; Le Bihan, Guillaume; Gaume, Eric

    2017-04-01

    The October 2015 flash-floods in south eastern France caused more than twenty fatalities, high damages and large economic losses in high density urban areas of the Mediterranean coast, including the cities of Mandelieu-La Napoule, Cannes and Antibes. Following a post event survey and preliminary analyses conducted within the framework of the Hymex project, we set up an entire simulation chain at the regional scale to better understand this outstanding event. Rainfall-runoff simulations, inundation mapping and a first estimation of the impacts are conducted following the approach developed and successfully applied for two large flash-flood events in two different French regions (Gard in 2002 and Var in 2010) by Le Bihan (2016). A distributed rainfall-runoff model applied at high resolution for the whole area - including numerous small ungauged basins - is used to feed a semi-automatic hydraulic approach (Cartino method) applied along the river network - including small tributaries. Estimation of the impacts is then performed based on the delineation of the flooded areas and geographic databases identifying buildings and population at risk.

  9. Geological record of tsunami inundations in Pantano Morghella (south-eastern Sicily both from near and far-field sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gerardi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of tsunami deposits from the Pantano Morghella area provided geological evidence for two inundations occurred along the south-eastern Ionian coast of Sicily. Pantano Morghella is a large pond characterised by a fine-grained sedimentation indicating a low-energy depositional environment. Two anomalous yellow sandy layers found at different depths indicate the occurrence of high-energy marine inundations. We studied sedimentological and paleontological features of the anomalous deposits as well as their spatial distribution observing the following properties: different facies with respect to the local stratigraphic sequence; erosive bases, rip-up clasts and broken elements testifying violent deposition mechanisms; macro and micro fauna of marine environment; relatively constant thickness throughout most of the depositional zone with thinning at the distal end; large sand sheets that extend inland. These observations, jointly with their infrequency in the sedimentary record and the age indicating a fast deposition, provided strong evidence for tsunami inundations. Correlations between anomalous layers and historical tsunamis are supported by radiocarbon and OSL dating results. The younger deposit is likely due to the 1908 near-source tsunami, whereas the flooding of the oldest event is most likely associated with a far and large source, the Crete 365 AD earthquake.

  10. The Victoria Project, Sri Lanka: Victoria Power-Station. [Hydroelectric power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creber, B. (Sir Alexander Gibb and Partners (GB))

    1991-04-01

    The Victoria Hydroelectric Power-Station forms part of the Victoria Project on the Mahaweli Ganga in Sri Lanka and it provides the country's largest single power source. The Paper describes the planning, design and construction of the civil engineering works, including problems encountered, and also describes, in outline, the electrical and mechanical works. (Author).

  11. From regional to local scale modelling on the south-eastern Brazilian shelf: case study of Paranaguá estuarine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Augusto Stefanelo Franz

    Full Text Available Abstract The applicability of a numerical model following a downscaling methodology was evaluated for the south-eastern Brazilian shelf (regional model and Paranaguá estuarine system (local model. This approach permits the simulation of different scale processes, such as storm surges and coastal upwelling, and is suitable for operational forecasting purposes. When large areas are covered by regional models, the tidal propagation inside the domain can be significantly affected by the local tidal potential, mainly where the resonance phenomenon is observed. The south-eastern Brazilian shelf is known for the resonance of the third-diurnal principal lunar tidal constituent (M3, the largest amplitudes being found in the Paranaguá estuarine system. Therefore, the significance of the local tidal potential was assessed in this study for the most important tidal constituents inside the estuarine system (including M3. The model validation was performed with tidal gauge data, Argo float profiles and satellite measurements of Sea Surface Temperature. The methodology described in this study can be replicated for other important estuarine systems located on the south-eastern Brazilian shelf. Furthermore, the numerical model was developed within a perspective of operational nowcast/forecast simulations, useful for several activities such as navigation and response to emergencies (e.g., oil spills.

  12. Survey report for fiscal 1997 on the survey report on the actual state of technical cooperation on industrial technologies by European countries in the South-eastern Asian region; 1997 nendo Tonan Asia chiiki ni okeru Obei shokoku no sangyo gijutsu ni kansuru gijutsu kyoryoku jittai chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The actual state was surveyed on the technical cooperation by European countries in the South-eastern Asian region. The U.S.A. is making research cooperation with Thailand on ethylene molecule structures to enhance productivity in rubber production, France on molecule markers for high production rubber clone selection, and Australia on grain storing and drying methods. For the Philippines, America is giving assistance on management of reproducible resources, France on climate information communications systems for local areas, Australia on grain storing and drying methods, and Germany on waste oil recovery and reutilization, and development of pollution-free energy resources. For Malaysia, the Great Britain is cooperating on building engineering research centers, Australia on search for plant patheology genetic organics available in the Pacific region, and Germany on investigative researches on pollution prevention for tin mines and processing areas, and forestry and plant information systems. With respect to the ASEAN, this paper reports its activities placing importance on biology and electronics engineering, while the organization is taking actions in the areas of foodstuffs, animals, electronics, information and material science, energy exploration, marine and earth physics, and resource development. (NEDO)

  13. Art at Second Hand: Prints after European Pictures in Victoria before 1870

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Inglis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the significance of the large number of European reproductive prints present in the public and private art collections of early colonial Victoria. Several factors are identified as contributing to this popularity; ranging from the suitability of the print medium for the export market to the existence of informed print connoisseurs amongst colonial collectors and artists. This article also demonstrates some of the typical features of Australian art history; in that it is concerned with the evaluation of the Australian art world through reference to European culture (the centre-periphery debate and also that it limits its discussion to the art of a particular Australian state (Victoria. The nineteenth-century division of Australia into different colonies had ramifications for Australian art history that continue to the present day – namely; the tendency to interpret colonial artistic activities from a regional perspective.

  14. total mercury concentration in common fish species of lake victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total mercury (THg) concentration was analysed in muscles of common fish species of Lake. Victoria in the eastern and southern parts of the lake using cold vapour Atomic Absorption. Spectrophotometric ... INTRODUCTION. The Lake Victoria ...

  15. The knowledge and attitude of non-ophthalmic medical doctors towards glaucoma in two tertiary institutions in south eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achigbu, E O; Chuka-Okosa, C M

    2014-06-01

    This study is aimed at determining how much knowledge of glaucoma the non-ophthalmic medical doctors still possess and their personal attitudes toward glaucoma. Self- administered questionnaires were randomly distributed to the non-ophthalmic medical doctors in two specialist hospitals in south eastern Nigeria: The data obtained were the age, sex, professional and number of years of practice of the participants, their knowledge of the symptoms/ aetiology/risk factors, examination/investigation, treatment of glaucoma as well as their personal attitude towards glaucoma. There were two hundred respondents; one hundred and forty two males and fifty eight females (M:F=2.4:1); comprising 82.5% Resident doctors; 51% of whom had been in practice for less than 5 years.All the doctors had heard of glaucoma; approximately seventy two per cent (72.5%) had a good knowledge of glaucoma symptoms and 52.0% of these had been in practice for only 5 years or less. Similarly, of the 83% of the doctors who correctly answered the questions on the aetiology of glaucoma, majority (84.3%) had been in practice for 5 years or less. Only 24.5% and 38.5% respectively of the doctors had a good knowledge of the basic examination and treatment required for the management of glaucoma.There was no statistically significant relationship between most variables tested. Only the relationship between the knowledge of the symptoms of glaucoma and the duration of practice of the doctors was statistically significant (pdoctors have a basic knowledge of glaucoma and how to investigate it but showed a poor knowledge of examination and treatment modalities. They also acknowledged the importance of regular eye checks but only very few had had their eyes examined.

  16. Depositional environments of the south-eastern Volga-Ural anteclise in the Early-Middle Devonian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selezeneva, Natalia

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays, in the Orenburg region of Russia hydrocarbon potential has been determined down to a depth of 5 km. Therefore, discovery of deep fields is becoming a pressing issue there. Seismic profiles on the south-eastern part of Volga-Ural anteclise indicate two uplifts at the depth of 6-7 km composed of Emsian-Givetian deposits which likely represent large carbonate buildups. Then facies analysis of this territory (based on data of about 100 boreholes) was made and it confirmed the presence of bioherm massifs and showed sedimentary environments. Analysis of the composition and the structure of deposits revealed that in the Emsian stage a shallow-water shelf basin existed, which deepened toward the Ural and North Caspian basins and was characterized by the transgressive evolution. The early stage of transgression was dominated by the terrigenous sedimentation. This region likely had a prodelta with three (proximal, intermediate, and distal) zones. Then the basin was deepened, the amount of terrigenous material decreased and carbonate massifs started to form. At that time following environments occurred: shallow-water coastal zone, intrabasin uplift, shallow-water distal zone, relatively deep-water zone and riftogenic carbonate buildups. Facies analysis of Eifelian sediments showed that there were two shallow-water zones, where carbonates were deposed with formation of small separate organic structures, surrounded by relatively deep-water zone. Continued submergence caused development of bioherm massifs. Givetian deposits differed from the Eifelian by abundant input of the terrigenous material. The growth of the bioherm massifs stopped during this time. Due to facies analyses such paleogeographic zones as shallow-water coastal zone, deep-water shelf zone, submarine fan zone were defined. As a result, two buried reefs were discovered, which could be perspective for finding out oil and gas. These bioherms are covered by the Tournaisian depression sediments that could

  17. Molecular monitoring of resistant dhfr and dhps allelic haplotypes in Morogoro and Mvomero districts in south eastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisa, A; Pearce, R; Abdullah, S; Mutayoba, B; Mshinda, H; Kachur, P; Bloland, P; Roper, C

    2011-06-01

    Resistance to the antimalarial drug sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) emerged in Plasmodium falciparum from Asia in the 1960s and subsequently spread to Africa. In Tanzania, SP use as a national policy began in 1983 as a second line to chloroquine (CQ) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria, until August 2001 when it was approved to replace CQ as a national first line. The present study assesses the frequency of resistant dhfr and dhps alleles in Morogoro-Mvomero district in south eastern Tanzania and contrast their rate of change during 17 years of SP second line use against five years of SP first line use. Cross sectional surveys of asymptomatic infections were carried out at the end of rainy season during July-September of 2000, when SP was the national second line (CQ was the first line) and 2006 when SP was the national first line antimalarial treatment. Genetic analysis of SP resistance genes was carried out on 1,044 asymptomatic infections and the effect of the two policies on SP evolution compared. The frequency of the most resistant allele, the double dhps-triple dhfr mutant genotype, increased by only 1% during 17 years of SP second line use, but there was a dramatic increase by 45% during five years of SP first line use. We conclude that National policy change from second line to first line SP, brought about an immediate shift in treatment practice and this in turn had a highly significant impact on drug pressure. The use of SP in specific programs only such as intermittent preventive treatment of infants (IPTi) and intermittent preventive treatment of pregnant women (IPTp) will most likely reduce substantially SP selection pressure and the SP resistance alleles alike.

  18. Heterogeneity of environments associated with transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in South-Eastern France and implication for control strategies.

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    Benoit Faucher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum is currently spreading into new foci across Europe. Leishmania infantum transmission in the Old World was reported to be strongly associated with a few specific environments. Environmental changes due to global warming or human activity were therefore incriminated in the spread of the disease. However, comprehensive studies were lacking to reliably identify all the environments at risk and thereby optimize monitoring and control strategy. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: We exhaustively collected 328 cases of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis from 1993 to 2009 in South-Eastern France. Leishmaniasis incidence decreased from 31 yearly cases between 1993 and 1997 to 12 yearly cases between 2005 and 2009 mostly because Leishmania/HIV coinfection were less frequent. No spread of human visceral leishmaniasis was observed in the studied region. Two major foci were identified, associated with opposite environments: whereas one involved semi-rural hillside environments partly made of mixed forests, the other involved urban and peri-urban areas in and around the region main town, Marseille. The two neighboring foci were related to differing environments despite similar vectors (P. perniciosus, canine reservoir, parasite (L. infantum zymodeme MON-1, and human host. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This unprecedented collection of cases highlighted the occurrence of protracted urban transmission of L. infantum in France, a worrisome finding as the disease is currently spreading in other areas around the Mediterranean. These results complete previous studies about more widespread canine leishmaniasis or human asymptomatic carriage. This first application of systematic geostatistical methods to European human visceral leishmaniasis demonstrated an unsuspected heterogeneity of environments associated with the transmission of the disease. These findings modify the current view of leishmaniasis epidemiology. They

  19. Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Nutritional Status among Primary School Children in Delo-mena District, South Eastern Ethiopia

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    Begna TULU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there are efforts being underway to control and prevent intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs in Ethiopia, they are still endemic and responsible for significant morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of IPIs and their association with nutritional status among primary school children of Delo-Mena district, South Eastern Ethiopia.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2013. Demographic data was obtained, and IPIs was investigated in a single-stool sample by both direct stool examination and formol-ether concentration techniques. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height for-age (HAZ, BMI-for-age (BAZ and weight-for-age (WAZ for the determination of stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively using WHO AntroPlus software. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis and p value less than 0.05 was considered significant.Results: Among 492 children studied (51% boys, aged 6–18 years, mean 10.93 +2.4 an overall IPIs prevalence of 26.6% was found. The prevalence of S. mansoni, E. histolytica/dispar, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, G. lambilia, T. trichiura, S. stercolaris, E. vermicularis, Hookworms and Taenia spp were 9.6%, 7.7%, 5.3%, 3.7%, 2.0%, 1.6%, 1.4%, 1.2%, 0.8% and 0.2% respectively. Stunting and underweightedness were observed in 4.5% and 13.6% of children and associated with IPIs (P<0.001 and (P=0.001, respectively.Conclusion: IPIs and its associated malnutrition remain a public health concern in Delo-Mena district. Therefore, the overall health promotion activities coupled with snail control and de-worming to the students is crucial. Additionally, initiatives aimed at improving the nutritional status of school children are also important.

  20. Moisture source in the Hyblean Mountains region (south-eastern Sicily, Italy): Evidence from stable isotopes signature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassa, Fausto [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Palermo, Via Ugo La Malfa, 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy)]. E-mail: f.grassa@pa.ingv.it; Favara, Rocco [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Palermo, Via Ugo La Malfa, 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy); Valenza, Mariano [Dipartimento CFTA, Universita di Palermo, Palermo, Via Archirafi, 36, 90123, Palermo (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Here the authors present results of an isotope study on precipitation collected during a 2-a period from a rain-gauge network consisting of 6 stations located at different elevations in the Hyblean Mountains (HM) region, in south-eastern Sicily. The slope of the local meteoric water line ({delta}D = 6.50 {delta} {sup 18}O + 9.87) obtained for the region suggests that precipitation is affected by evaporation during rainfall events. The main variations in rainwater isotope composition are due to seasonal effects and elevation. An average {sup 2}H excess value of +21.2 per mille was found for precipitation events less affected by evaporation (i.e. when the rainfall was >65 mm/month). The spatial distribution of O isotope composition of precipitation shows a negative gradient from east and south to the inner areas. The depositional rate of Cl, used as a tracer of the origin of air masses, is highest at the coastal rain-gauges (SR and MRG stations) and lowest on the northern flank of the HM region (SC station). Based on these findings, a model is proposed for the origin of precipitation in the HM region, which assumes that a Mediterranean-derived component is the main source of moisture in the studied area. D/H and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratios of inferred meteoric recharge waters were also compared with the isotope composition of waters collected from the main local springs and wells. The best linear fit of the {delta} {sup 18}O vs {delta}D relationship for Hyblean groundwater is {delta}D = 4.85 {delta} {sup 18}O-2.01. The enrichment of heavy isotopes in Hyblean groundwater is probably due to evaporation occurring after precipitation events or to a recharging contribution from surface waters (lakes or rivers) enriched in heavy isotopes.

  1. Reservoir storage and hydrologic responses to droughts in the Paraná River basin, south-eastern Brazil

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    D. D. C. D. Melo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Droughts are particularly critical for Brazil because of impacts on water supply and because most (70 % of its electricity is derived from hydroelectric generation. The Paraná basin (PB, a major hydroelectric producing region with 32 % (60 million people of Brazil's population, recently experienced the most severe drought since the 1960s, compromising the water supply for 11 million people in São Paulo. The objective of this study is to quantify linkages between meteorological and hydrological droughts based on remote sensing, modelling, and monitoring data using the Paraná River basin in south-eastern Brazil as a case study. Two major meteorological droughts were identified in the early 2000s and 2014, with precipitation 20–50 % below the long-term mean. Total water storage change estimated from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellites declined by 150 km3 between April 2011 and April 2015. Simulated soil moisture storage declined during the droughts, resulting in decreased runoff into reservoirs. As a result, reservoir storage decreased by 30 % relative to the system's maximum capacity, with negative trends ranging from 17 (May 1997–April 2001 to 25 km3 yr−1 (May 2011–April 2015. Storage in upstream reservoirs is mostly controlled by natural climate forcing, whereas storage in downstream reservoirs also reflects dam operations. This study emphasizes the importance of integrating remote sensing, modelling, and monitoring data to evaluate droughts and to establish a preliminary understanding of the linkages between a meteorological and hydrological drought for future management.

  2. Hydrometeorological extremes derived from taxation records for south-eastern Moravia, Czech Republic, 1751–1900 AD

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    H. Valášek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Historical written records associated with tax relief at ten estates located in south-eastern Moravia (Czech Republic are used for the study of hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts during the period 1751–1900 AD. At the time, the taxation system in Moravia allowed farmers to request tax relief if their crop yields had been negatively affected by hydrological and meteorological extremes. The documentation involved contains information about the type of extreme event and the date of its occurrence, while the impact on crops may often be derived. A total of 175 extreme events resulting in some kind of damage are documented for 1751–1900, with the highest concentration between 1811 and 1860 (74.9% of all events analysed. The nature of events leading to damage (of a possible 272 types include hailstorm (25.7%, torrential rain (21.7%, flood (21.0%, followed by thunderstorm, flash flood, late frost and windstorm. The four most outstanding events, affecting the highest number of settlements, were thunderstorms with hailstorms (25 June 1825, 20 May 1847 and 29 June 1890 and flooding of the River Morava (mid-June 1847. Hydrometeorological extremes in the 1816–1855 period are compared with those occurring during the recent 1961–2000 period. The results obtained are inevitably influenced by uncertainties related to taxation records, such as their temporal and spatial incompleteness, the limits of the period of outside agricultural work (i.e. mainly May–August and the purpose for which they were originally collected (primarily tax alleviation, i.e. information about hydrometeorological extremes was of secondary importance. Taxation records constitute an important source of data for historical climatology and historical hydrology and have a great potential for use in many European countries.

  3. Hydrometeorological extremes derived from taxation records for south-eastern Moravia, Czech Republic, 1751-1900 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brázdil, R.; Chromá, K.; Valášek, H.; Dolák, L.

    2012-03-01

    Historical written records associated with tax relief at ten estates located in south-eastern Moravia (Czech Republic) are used for the study of hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts during the period 1751-1900 AD. At the time, the taxation system in Moravia allowed farmers to request tax relief if their crop yields had been negatively affected by hydrological and meteorological extremes. The documentation involved contains information about the type of extreme event and the date of its occurrence, while the impact on crops may often be derived. A total of 175 extreme events resulting in some kind of damage are documented for 1751-1900, with the highest concentration between 1811 and 1860 (74.9% of all events analysed). The nature of events leading to damage (of a possible 272 types) include hailstorm (25.7%), torrential rain (21.7%), flood (21.0%), followed by thunderstorm, flash flood, late frost and windstorm. The four most outstanding events, affecting the highest number of settlements, were thunderstorms with hailstorms (25 June 1825, 20 May 1847 and 29 June 1890) and flooding of the River Morava (mid-June 1847). Hydrometeorological extremes in the 1816-1855 period are compared with those occurring during the recent 1961-2000 period. The results obtained are inevitably influenced by uncertainties related to taxation records, such as their temporal and spatial incompleteness, the limits of the period of outside agricultural work (i.e. mainly May-August) and the purpose for which they were originally collected (primarily tax alleviation, i.e. information about hydrometeorological extremes was of secondary importance). Taxation records constitute an important source of data for historical climatology and historical hydrology and have a great potential for use in many European countries.

  4. Antenatal care in practice: an exploratory study in antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania

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    Kessy Flora

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential of antenatal care for reducing maternal morbidity and improving newborn survival and health is widely acknowledged. Yet there are worrying gaps in knowledge of the quality of antenatal care provided in Tanzania. In particular, determinants of health workers' performance have not yet been fully understood. This paper uses ethnographic methods to document health workers' antenatal care practices with reference to the national Focused Antenatal Care guidelines and identifies factors influencing health workers' performance. Potential implications for improving antenatal care provision in Tanzania are discussed. Methods Combining different qualitative techniques, we studied health workers' antenatal care practices in four public antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania. A total of 36 antenatal care consultations were observed and compared with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Participant observation, informal discussions and in-depth interviews with the staff helped to identify and explain health workers' practices and contextual factors influencing antenatal care provision. Results The delivery of antenatal care services to pregnant women at the selected antenatal care clinics varied widely. Some services that are recommended by the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines were given to all women while other services were not delivered at all. Factors influencing health workers' practices were poor implementation of the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines, lack of trained staff and absenteeism, supply shortages and use of working tools that are not consistent with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Health workers react to difficult working conditions by developing informal practices as coping strategies or "street-level bureaucracy". Conclusions Efforts to improve antenatal care should address shortages of trained staff through expanding training opportunities, including health worker

  5. "The mosquitoes that destroy your face". Social impact of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in South-eastern Morocco, A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, Issam; Belaid, Loubna; De Brouwere, Vincent; Filali, Hind; Sahibi, Hamid; Boelaert, Marleen

    2017-01-01

    To document the psychosocial burden of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) in rural communities in Southeastern Morocco. Between March and April 2015, we conducted qualitative research in communities exposed to Leishmania major or L. tropica in Errachidia and Tinghir provinces. Twenty-eight focus groups discussions (FGDs) were realized, with a stratification by gender and tradition of medicine (users of folk versus professional medicine). Data were analyzed using content analysis. This rural population most exposed to CL in Morocco lacks access to health care in general and clearly points out there are other major public health issues that need to be resolved. Nonetheless, respondents consider the impact of CL lesions and scars as important and similar to that of burn scar tissue. Young women with CL scars in the face are stigmatized and will often be rejected for marriage in these communities. People usually try a long list of folk remedies on the active lesions, but none was felt adequate. There was a clear demand for better treatment as well as for treatment of the scars. The psycho-social impact of CL due to L.major and L.tropica is substantial, especially for young single women with facial scars. These generate social and self-stigma and diminish their marriage prospects. CL is well known, but not considered as a major health priority by these poor rural communities in South-eastern Morocco where gender discrimination is still an issue and access to basic health care is as neglected as CL. Early CL diagnosis and new treatment options with better skin outcomes are urgently needed.

  6. Demography of the giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis in Manu National Park, south-eastern Peru: implications for conservation.

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    Jessica Groenendijk

    Full Text Available The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis is an endangered semi-aquatic carnivore of South America. We present findings on the demography of a population inhabiting the floodplain of Manu National Park, south-eastern Peru, arising from 14 annual dry season censuses over a 16 year period. The breeding system of territorial groups, including only a single breeding female with non-reproductive adult 'helpers', resulted in a low intrinsic rate of increase (0.03 and a slow recovery from decades of hunting for the pelt trade. This is explained by a combination of factors: (1 physiological traits such as late age at first reproduction and long generation time, (2 a high degree of reproductive skew, (3 small litters produced only once a year, and (4 a 50% mortality between den emergence and age of dispersal, as well as high mortality amongst dispersers (especially males. Female and male giant otters show similar traits with respect to average reproductive life-spans (female 5.4 yrs., male 5.2 yrs. and average cub productivity (female 6.9, male 6.7 cubs per lifetime; the longest reproductive life spans were 11 and 13 years respectively. Individual reproductive success varied substantially and depended mainly on the duration of dominance tenure in the territory. When breeding females died, the reproductive position in the group was usually occupied by sisters or daughters (n = 11, with immigrant male partners. Male philopatry was not observed. The vulnerability of the Manu giant otter population to anthropogenic disturbance emphasises the importance of effective protection of core lake habitats in particular. Riverine forests are the most endangered ecosystem in the Department of Madre de Dios due to the concentration of gold mining, logging and agricultural activities in floodplains, highlighting the need for a giant otter habitat conservation corridor along the Madre de Dios River.

  7. Utilization of antimicrobial agents with and without prescription by out-patients in selected pharmacies in South-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esimone, Charles Okey; Nworu, Chukwuemeka Sylvester; Udeogaranya, Obinna Patrick

    2007-12-01

    We conducted a study in out-patient pharmacies in South-eastern Nigeria in order to determine the extent of self-medication of antimicrobial agents in this area, assess the dosing error associated with this practice and to ascertain the extent of involvement of community pharmacies. A survey was carried out daily in selected community pharmacies for a period of 90 days. Data were collected on the number of patients visiting these shops for antimicrobial agents, the number getting their medication with a prescription, the number getting their order without prescription and on the type and dose of antimicrobial agents received. MAIN OUT-COME MEASURE: The percentage of patients with prescription and without prescription was compared. The percentage under-dosages or over-dosages associated with how each antimicrobial agent was obtained were compared. The total DDDs of antimicrobial agents dispensed within this period with and without prescription were compared. A total of 4,128 outpatients visited the shops for antimicrobial agents within the period and were involved in the study. Of this number, 1,742 (42.2%) came with a prescription from qualified medical personnel and 2,386 (57.8%) came without a prescription. A total of 13,693.13 DDDs of antimicrobial agents was dispensed, of which 56.38% was dispensed with prescription and 43.62% was dispensed without prescription. The degrees of under-dosing were significantly (P prescription when compared to those filled with prescription. Majority of the patients in this region still obtains their antimicrobial agents without a proper prescription, which is associated with sub-therapeutic dosing of these agents. There is a need for better regulation of antimicrobial agents dispensing and utilization in the region.

  8. Ecology and Equity in Rights to Land and Water: A Study in South-Eastern Palakkad in Kerala

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    Jyothi Krishnan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the impact of the existing property rights regime over land and water on the sustainable and equitable management and use of these resources, in the context of changing irrigation practices in a paddy-growing area in the south-eastern part of the Palakkad district in Kerala, India. Since land rights determine rights to water in the area, the article discusses the changing rights regime over land, primarily after the implementation of land reforms in 1970. It shows how the implementation of land reforms and nationalization of private forests have paid little attention to the ecological context in which redistribution was taking place. As a result, while an agricultural-cum-forested landscape was divided into privately owned and government owned parcels, the ecological relationships between these different land use categories were ignored. In the same vein, land and water were treated as separate entities, with redistribution of land rights overlooking the distribution of water rights. The compartmentalized view of resources coupled with the consolidation of the private property regime has resulted in a situation where landowners exploit the resource without any consideration for its ecological characteristics and inter-resource linkages. The failure to view land and water in integration has precipitated inequitable access and unsustainable use of water. In addition, the availability of external water supplies and the introduction of energised pumping facilitate the enclosure of water within privately owned land parcels. The article concludes that a re-envisioning of rights to resources within the concerned ecological context is necessary if sustainable and equitable resource use and management are to be achieved.

  9. Out-of-pocket payments, health care access and utilisation in south-eastern Nigeria: a gender perspective.

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    Michael N Onah

    Full Text Available Out-of-pocket (OOP payments have severe consequences for health care access and utilisation and are especially catastrophic for the poor. Although women comprise the majority of the poor in Nigeria and globally, the implications of OOP payments for health care access from a gender perspective have received little attention. This study seeks to fill this gap by using a combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis to investigate the gendered impact of OOPs on healthcare utilisation in south-eastern Nigeria. 411 households were surveyed and six single-sex Focus Group Discussions conducted. This study confirmed the socioeconomic and demographic vulnerability of female-headed households (FHHs, which contributed to gender-based inter-household differences in healthcare access, cost burden, choices of healthcare providers, methods of funding healthcare and coping strategies. FHHs had higher cost burdens from seeking care and untreated morbidity than male-headed households (MHHs with affordability as a reason for not seeking care. There is also a high utilisation of patent medicine vendors (PMVs by both households (PMVs are drug vendors that are unregulated, likely to offer very low-quality treatment and do not have trained personnel. OOP payment was predominantly the means of healthcare payment for both households, and households spoke of the difficulties associated with repaying health-related debt with implications for the medical poverty trap. It is recommended that the removal of user fees, introduction of prepayment schemes, and regulating PMVs be considered to improve access and provide protection against debt for FHHs and MHHs. The vulnerability of widows is of special concern and efforts to improve their healthcare access and broader efforts to empower should be encouraged for them and other poor households.

  10. Out-of-pocket payments, health care access and utilisation in south-eastern Nigeria: a gender perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onah, Michael N; Govender, Veloshnee

    2014-01-01

    Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments have severe consequences for health care access and utilisation and are especially catastrophic for the poor. Although women comprise the majority of the poor in Nigeria and globally, the implications of OOP payments for health care access from a gender perspective have received little attention. This study seeks to fill this gap by using a combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis to investigate the gendered impact of OOPs on healthcare utilisation in south-eastern Nigeria. 411 households were surveyed and six single-sex Focus Group Discussions conducted. This study confirmed the socioeconomic and demographic vulnerability of female-headed households (FHHs), which contributed to gender-based inter-household differences in healthcare access, cost burden, choices of healthcare providers, methods of funding healthcare and coping strategies. FHHs had higher cost burdens from seeking care and untreated morbidity than male-headed households (MHHs) with affordability as a reason for not seeking care. There is also a high utilisation of patent medicine vendors (PMVs) by both households (PMVs are drug vendors that are unregulated, likely to offer very low-quality treatment and do not have trained personnel). OOP payment was predominantly the means of healthcare payment for both households, and households spoke of the difficulties associated with repaying health-related debt with implications for the medical poverty trap. It is recommended that the removal of user fees, introduction of prepayment schemes, and regulating PMVs be considered to improve access and provide protection against debt for FHHs and MHHs. The vulnerability of widows is of special concern and efforts to improve their healthcare access and broader efforts to empower should be encouraged for them and other poor households.

  11. Pre- and postnatal exposures to pesticides and neurodevelopmental effects in children living in agricultural communities from South-Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Hernández, Antonio F; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Gómez, Inmaculada; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; López-Flores, Inmaculada; Parrón, Tesifón; Lacasaña, Marina

    2015-12-01

    Childrens exposure to neurotoxic compounds poses a major problem to public health because oftheir actively developing brain that makes them highly vulnerable. However, limited information is available on neuropsychological effects in children associated with pre- and postnatal exposures to pesticides. To evaluate the association between current and pre- and postnatal exposures to pesticides and their effects on neurodevelopment in children aged 6–11 years living in agricultural communities from South-Eastern Spain. An ambispective study was conducted on 305 children aged 6–11 years randomly selected from public schools of the study area. Current exposure to organophosphate pesticides was assessed measuring children's urinary levels of dialkylphosphates (DAPs). Both prenatal and postnatal residential exposure to pesticides was estimated by developing a geographical information system (GIS) technology-based index that integrated distance-weighted measure of agricultural surface, time-series of crop areas per municipality and year, and land-use maps. Neuropsychological performance was evaluated with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). The association of pre- and postnatal and current pesticide exposure with WISC-IV scale scores was assessed using multivariate linear regression models and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models, respectively. Greater urinary DAP levels were associated with a poorer performance on intelligence quotient and verbal comprehension domain, with effects being more prominent in boys than in girls. The influence of an increase in 10 ha per year in crop surface around the child's residence during the postnatal period was associated with decreased intelligence quotient, processing speed and verbal comprehension scores. As regards prenatal exposure to pesticides, a poor processing speed performance was observed. These effects were also more prominent in boys than in girls. Our results suggest that

  12. Seabed surveys of Victoria harbour, Mahe, Seychelles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Wagle, B.G.

    The seabed surveys in the Victoria Harbour, Mahe, Seychelles shows that the prominent feature is the navigational channel aligned in the northeast-southwest direction with a width varying from 300 to 450m. The depth in the channel ranges from 14...

  13. Geography and Geographical Education in Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriewaldt, Jeana

    2006-01-01

    Victoria has just emerged from 10 years where Geography has been one of three strands in the key learning area of Studies of Society and Environment (SOSE). The overarching framework emerged from an attempt to develop a national curriculum. Whilst the national curriculum was rejected by Australian state and territories who each hold legislative…

  14. within the lake victoria basin, tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Levels of nitrates (NOg-N) and phosphates (PO4~P) in some satellite lakes within the Lake. Victoria basin were determined in Kagera (Lake Burigt), in Mara (River Mara) and in Mwanza region (Lake Malimbe) during August/September 2002 (dry season) and January/February 2003. (wet season).

  15. CLARIIDAE) FROM THE MWANZA GULF, LAKE VICTORIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Seventeen species of parasites were recovered from 107 I Clarias gariepinus examined flom the. Mwanza Gulf of Lake Victoria. The parasite fauna comprised of four ectoparasites, a. Monogenea, Hirudinea, crustacean and a Digenea,' and fourteen endoparasites, five nematodes,. five trematodes and three ...

  16. Biological parameters and feeding behaviour of invasive whelk Rapana venosa Valenciennes, 1846 in the south-eastern Black Sea of Turkey

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    Hacer Saglam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine length-weight relationships, growth type and feeding behavior of the benthic predator Rapa whelk at the coast of Camburnu, south-eastern Black Sea. Methods: Rapa whelk was monthly collected by dredge sampling on the south-eastern Black Sea at 20 m depth. The relationships between morphometric parameters of Rapa whelk were described by linear and exponential models. The allometric growth of each variable relative to shell length (SL was calculated from the function Y=aSLb or logY=loga+blogSL. The functional regression b values were tested by t-test at the 0.05 significance level if it was significantly different from isometric growth. The total time spent on feeding either on mussel tissue or live mussels was recorded for each individual under controlled conditions in laboratory. Results: The length-weight relationships showed positive allometric growth and no inter-sex variability. Body size in the male population was significantly higher than in the individuals of the female. All characters in males and females showed a trend towards allometry rather than isometry. While the total time spent feeding increased with increasing prey size the total time that Rapana venosa spent feeding decreased with increasing Rapa whelk size. The total average feeding time needed by Rapa whelks was 160 min. But they took 310 min on live mussels in 27-28 °C in the laboratory conditions. Conclusions: Length and weight relationships, growth type, total time spent feeding of this species were explained in details for this region. It would be useful to sustainable management in the south-eastern Black Sea of Turkey. The results about the feeding behaviour of this species will contribute to the understanding of the role of this species within the ecosystem.

  17. Molecular Mechanisms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) as a Basis for Individualized and Personalized Therapy: Rationale, Design and Methods of the South Eastern Europe (SEE)-PTSD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulenovic, Alma Dzubur; Agani, Ferid; Avdibegovic, Esmina; Jakovljevic, Miro; Babic, Dragan; Kucukalic, Abdulah; Kucukalic, Sabina; Dzananovic, Emina Sabic; Mehmedbasic, Alma Bravo; Uka, Aferdita Goci; Haxhibeqiri, Shpend; Haxhibeqiri, Valdete; Hoxha, Blerina; Sinanovic, Osman; Kravic, Nermina; Muminovic, Mirnesa; Aukst-Margetic, Branka; Jaksic, Nenad; Franc, Ana Cima; Rudan, Dusko; Pavlovic, Marko; Babic, Romana; Bojic, Elma Feric; Marjanovic, Damir; Bozina, Nada; Ziegler, Christiane; Wolf, Christiane; Warrings, Bodo; Domschke, Katharina; Deckert, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a major health problem in South Eastern Europe (SEE). Available treatment options are not efficient enough and the course is often chronic. Little is known about molecular mediators and moderators of pathogenesis and therapy. Genetic and epigenetic variation may be one central molecular mechanism. We therefore established a consortium combining clinical expertise on PTSD from SEE countries Bosnia-Herzegovina (Sarajevo, Tuzla and Mostar), Kosovo (Prishtina) and Croatia (Zagreb) with genetic and epigenetic competence from Germany (Würzburg) in 2011 within the framework of the DAAD (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst)-funded Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe. After obtaining ethical votes and performing rater trainings as well as training in DNA extraction from EDTA blood between 2011 and 2013, we recruited 747 individuals who had experienced war-related trauma in the SEE conflicts between 1991 and 1999. 236 participants had current PTSD, 161 lifetime PTSD and 350 did not have and never had PTSD. Demographic and clinical data are currently merged together with genetic and epigenetic data in a single database to allow for a comprehensive analysis of the role of genetic and epigenetic variation in the pathogenesis and therapy of PTSD. Analyses will be done to a great degree by PhD students from participating SEE centers who in addition to participation in the project had an opportunity to take part in spring and summer schools of the DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) funded Research Training Group (RTG) 1253 and thus meet PhD students from Germany and other countries We are confident that our project will not only contribute to a better understanding of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of PTSD as a basis for future individualized and personalized therapies, but also to the academic development of South Eastern Europe.

  18. A reindeer footprint in a drilling core from the Allerød-Bølling age succession of Lille Slotseng basin, south-eastern Jylland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe-Nygaard, Nanna; Milàn, Jesper; Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt

    2005-01-01

    A Subfossil reindeer track was localised in a drilled core from the Late Glacial Slotseng lacustrine basin, located in the south eastern part of Jylland near the town of Jels. It was dated to 11,795 ±80 14C yr BP or around 13,780 cal yr BP. During an earlier excavation of the site four skeletons...... shore woody peat from the Boreal and onset of the Atlantic Time, cover the basin. Hitherto, no convincing tracks have been recognized and described from drill cores. The reindeer track from the Slotseng Basin is the first convincing track recognized from a drill core section. 89...

  19. ‘Rethinking the geography of art history’, Jerzy Malinowski (ed., History of Art History in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Rampley

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the conference proceedings History of Art History in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. It focuses on the importance of the publication, and the fact that it highlights the almost complete ignorance of the historiography of art of central and eastern Europe, and also identifies a recurrent methodological deficit in many of the contributions, namely, their tendency to rely on a positivistic documentation of writers and texts with little analysis of their conceptual, aesthetic and ideological implications. The conference is thus an invaluable platform for further study, and also makes clear the need for more sophisticated critical interpretations.

  20. Exploration of the South-Eastern Alps lithosphere with 3D refraction seismics project Alp 2002 – data acquisition in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Gosar

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Using combined seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection method project Alp 2002 explored the contact zone between South-Eastern Alps, Dinarides and Pannonian basin. In a network of 12 profiles of 4100 km total length, which are spread over seven countries,1055 portable seismographs were deployed and 31 strong (300 kg explosions fired. In Slovenia 127 seismographs were deployed along five profiles totalling 575 km and two explosions fired near Vojnik and Gradin. The collected data will allow construction of athree-dimensional model of the lithosphere and will contribute to the understanding of the tectonics and geodynamics at the junction of European, Adriatic and Tisza plates.

  1. Fauna living in colonies of Mussismilia hispida (Verrill (Cnidaria: Scleractinia in four South-eastern Brazil islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Miguel de Matos Nogueira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Colonies of Mussismilia hispida were collected in four south-eastern Brazil islands and fixed in formalin. Volume, living and basal areas of each coral head were measured. Animals found over, under and inside the corals were sorted, resulting in 9657 specimens belonging to more than 130 taxa. The underside of the colonies was occupied by bivalves and colonial forms of sponges, bryozoans and ascidians. On the living surface, barnacles and cryptochiridean crabs were detected. The endolithic animals included polychaetes, bivalves and sipunculid worms. Most of the animals collected were vagile microcrustaceans. In general, the corals in this ecosystem: (1 act as a nursery place for the community; (2 provide protection for many species also found in other habitats; (3 support a community mainly omnivorous and detritivorous; (4 are initially colonised randomly.Colônias de Mussismilia hispida foram coletadas em quatro ilhas do sudeste brasileiro e fixadas em formalina. Depois de medidos o volume e as areas vivas e da base de cada coral, os animais encontrados sobre, dentro e sob as colônias foram triados, resultando em 9657 espécimes, pertencentes a cerca de 130 espécies. As bases das colônias encontravam-se ocupadas por bivalves e colônias de esponjas, briozoários e ascídias; na superfície viva, cirripédios e "caranguejos-galha" se fizeram presentes; a fauna endolítica incluiu poliquetas, bivalves e sipúnculos. Crustáceos vágeis, tais como copépodes, isópodes, anfípodes, tanaidáceos e ostrácodes responderam pela maioria dos animais encontrados. De maneira geral, pode-se dizer que os corais neste ambientes: (1 atuam como um local protegido para a reprodução das espécies associadas; (2 fornecem abrigo a muitas espécies também encontradas em outros ambientes; (3 sustentam uma comunidade que se alimenta principalmente de bactérias, detritos e do muco dos corais; (4 são inicialmente colonizados ao acaso.

  2. Petrogenesis of cogenetic silica-oversaturated and -undersaturated syenites of Abu Khruq ring complex, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogahed, Moustafa M.

    2016-12-01

    The upper Cretaceous Abu Khruq ring complex (ARC) is located in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt displays concentric zonation of syenitic rocks from quartz-rich syenite at the margin, through alkali feldspar syenite to nepheline syenite in the centre. The syenitic rocks occur with nepheline monzogabbro, volcanic rocks (phonolite and trachyte) and the quartz- and nepheline-bearing pegmatites. Rocks of contrasting composition (mafic and salic) exhibit sophisticate geometric relationships. The nepheline monzogabbroic rocks have pillowy xenoliths forms within the salic (nepheline syenite and quartz alkali feldspar syenite) rocks, suggesting synchronous emplacement of the mafic and salic magmas. Clinopyroxene analysis of mafic and salic plutonic rocks of the ARC revealed that the overall pyroxene trend suggesting that fractionation involved a late, progressive increase in Na, in a reaction of the type Ca Mg Fe2+↔Na Fe3+. The chemistry of the analysed amphiboles are compositionally similar to those from typical differentiated peralkaline suites. Geochemically, the complex is enriched in the LILE, HFSE and REE. The concentrations of the compatible elements (V, Sr and Ba) generally decrease with increasing silica, consistent with fractional crystallization. A generalised increase in the Nb/Ta from the nepheline monzogabbro to nepheline syenite compositions is attributed to titanite fractionation. All the rock samples show relative increment of the LREE content than the HREE indicating weak to steep fractionated REE patterns (La/Yb) from 9.43 to 10.86, and thus retaining the geochemical characteristics of anorogenic suites. The magma sources of ARC are not derived from normal primitive mantle. The early stages of differentiation involved extensive olivine and pyroxene fractionation, the fractionation of amphibole, titanite, magnetite, apatite and feldspar may have been involved in the genesis of the salic differentiated compositions. The deviation towards silica

  3. Feeding practices, nutritional status and associated factors of lactating women in Samre Woreda, South Eastern Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haileslassie, Kiday; Mulugeta, Afework; Girma, Meron

    2013-03-01

    Lactating mothers from low-income settings are considered as a nutritionally vulnerable group. Due to the nursing process, mothers are subjected to nutritional stresses. Frequent pregnancies followed by lactation increase the health risk of mothers resulting in a high maternal mortality. To assess the feeding practices, nutritional status and associated factors of lactating women from Samre Woreda, South Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia. Community based cross-sectional survey Four kebeles of Samre Woreda (2 urban & 2 rural kebeles) Four hundred lactating mothers were recruited from 400 randomly selected households. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, maternal characteristics, feeding practices, frequency of foods eaten and dietary diversity was collected using a pre-tested and structured questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were taken from each mother using calibrated equipments and standardized techniques. A one-day weighed food record was also collected from randomly selected sub sample (n=60) of mothers. The nutrient and energy content of foods consumed by the mothers was calculated by using ESHA Food Processor and the Ethiopian Food Composition Tables. To investigate the socio-economic and demographic factors affecting the nutritional status of the women, logistic regression was used. ANOVA and t-test were also used to see if there was a mean difference in nutritional status among the lactating mothers. Majority (71.2%) of the participants did not take additional meals during lactation. The median dietary diversity score of the study participants was 5 out of 14 food groups. The prevalence of underweight, chronic energy deficiency and stunting were 31%, 25% and 2.2% respectively. Using logistic regression model, factors significantly associated with the nutritional status of the study participants (as determined by BMI and MUAC) were size of farm land, length of years of marriage, maize cultivation, frequency of antenatal care visit and age of

  4. Current glaciation of the Chikhachev ridge (South-Eastern Altai and its dynamics after maximum of the Little Ice Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Ganyushkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaciation of the Chikhachev ridge (South-Eastern Altai remains poorly known: field observations were not performed since the mid-twentieth century, available schemes and estimates of the glaciation and its scale made on the basis of remote sensing cover only a part of the glaciers, reconstructions of the Little Ice Age (LIA glaciations are absent. This research was based on interpretation of the satellite images: Landsat-4 (1989, Landsat-7 (2001, and Spot-5 (2011, as well as with the use of data of the field season of 2015. Characteristics of glaciations of the Chikhachev ridge as the whole and of its individual centers (Talduair massif, Mongun-Taiga-Minor massif, and southern part of the Chikhachev ridge were determined for the first time. Recent glaciation is represented by 7 glaciers with their total area of 1.12 km2 in the Talduair massif, by 5 glaciers with total area of 0.75 km2 in the Mongun-Taiga-Minor massif, and by 85 glaciers with total area of 29 km2 in the southern part of the Chikhachev ridge. Since the LIA maximum, areas of glaciers decreased by 61% in the Talduair massif, by 74% in the Mongun-Taiga-Minor massif, by 56% in the southern part of the Chikhachev ridge with simultaneous lifting of the firn line by 50 m, 65 m, and 70 m, respectively.The largest rates of the glacier contractions were determined for the period 1989–2011. Different mechanisms of the glacier retreats were shown by the example of the glacier complexes Burgastyn-Gol (one-sided retreat and disintegration and the Grigorjev glacier (gradual retreat of the tongue. Retreat of the Grigorjev glacier has been reconstructed for the period from the LIA maximum until 2015. Average rate of the retreat increased from 1,6 m/year in 1957–1989 up to 11,3 m/year in 2011–2015. The present-day scales of the glaciers and rates of their retreating do not significantly differ from estimations made by other researchers for the nearest centers of glaciation of the

  5. Application of remote sensing in exploration for uranium mineralization in Gabal El Sela area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talaat M. Ramadan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at integrating remote sensing data and field studies to prospect for radioactive materials at Gabal El Sela area, South Eastern Desert of Egypt. This area is a part of the Arabo-Nubian shield, which is constituted by Late Precambrian basement rocks and developed during the Pan African tectono-thermal event. Geological interpretation of Landsat ETM+ image and field studies revealed that the study area is mainly covered by ophiolitic ultramafic rocks, intermediate metavolocanics, granodiorites, biotite granites and garnetiferous muscovite granites. These rocks are injected by pegmatitic and quartz veins and cut by acidic and basic dykes. The processed Landsat ETM+ data enable also to identify uraniferous alteration zones hosted in the granitic rocks (using band ratio 5/7, 4/5, 3/1 in RGB, density slicing and supervised classification techniques. The measured reflectance values (DNs of six spectral bands of Landsat ETM+ for all exposed rock types in the study area show that the alteration zones have the highest reflectance values. The study recorded the presence of uranium mineralizations in alteration zones associating with the granitic rocks occurring along ENE–WSW trending shear zones. Three uranium-bearing alteration zones hosted in granitic rocks were detected. These zones are characterized by ferrugination, silicification, grizenization and kaolinitization. The most promising alteration zones (Site 1 occurs at the northeastern part of Gabal El Sela and is characterized by very high radioactive anomalies (up to 5000 ppm eU. Microprobe analyses of samples collected from these alteration zones reveal the presence of uraninite crystals. It seems that the high fractures density of the granitic rocks acted as good channels for the ascending hydrothermal fluids and the percolating meteoric water, that leached the uranium minerals disseminated all over the rocks and redeposited them along the fractures of the shear zones. This

  6. Same Same, But Different: Sedimentological Comparison of Recent Storm and Tsunami Deposits from the South-Eastern Coastline of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouramanis, C.; Switzer, A.; Seshachalam, S.; Karthikeyan, A.; Pham, D. T.; Carson, S.; Pilarczyk, J.; Hussain, M.; Yap, W.

    2014-12-01

    Storm and tsunami deposits have been identified and described from many siliciclastic coastlines globally, but detailed comparison of both known storm and tsunami deposits from the same coastlines are lacking. An opportunity to compare storm and tsunami sedimentary deposits was recognised following sediment deposition by Cyclone Thane (25th to 31st December 2011) that were superimposed on sediments deposited during the Indian Ocean Tsunami (26th December 2004) in a pit (DPM3a) near Cuddalore, on the south-eastern Indian coastline. A second pit, at Silver Beach (SB1) was located 2 km south of Pit DPM3a, was examined for comparison with Pit DPM3a. Pit DPM3a contained four distinct units, an oldest intertidal unit, the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, and a reworked aeolian sand that is capped by the Cyclone Thane deposit. Pit SB1 contained an oldest intertidal deposit, an estuarine beach and capped by the Cyclone Thane deposit. The identification of these units was verified from satellite imagery. The pits were examined at 1cm increments for grainsize and grain shape characteristics, loss on ignition, heavy mineral concentrations and microfossils. A suite of statistical analyses, including exploratory data analysis techniques, analysis of variance and principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to compare the measured parameters and the individual deposits within and between pits DPM3a and SB1. Individual deposits showed significant differences in many of the parameters, but no individual variable was diagnostic of the deposits. PCA of Pit DPM3a suggested that the proportion of heavy minerals was the strongest parameter to distinguish the storm deposit from the tidal, aeolian and tsunami deposit, but that significant overlap between the deposits occurred. The application of DFA showed that in Pit DPM3a, the storm deposit could be distinguished from the tsunami, tidal and aeolian deposits. However, applying the same data analysed

  7. Beech bark necrosis: partitioning the environmental and spatial variation of the damage severity in Central and South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Jarčuška

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The beech bark necrosis (BBN infestation severity of Europeanbeech (Fagus sylvatica L. was assessed in regions of Central (CE andSouth-Eastern Europe (SE. Altogether more than 10,000 trees were sampled at 114 sites. Using variation partitioning method, we examined the pure and shared effects of stand, site, climate and spatial sets of variables on mean BBN severity. Our rating included (i the whole stand, (ii tree social status classes, (iii canopy (C and (iv understory (U trees separately. We found that C trees were less affected by BBN than sub-canopy and U trees in both regions. There were found inter-regional differences in amount of explained variability (25.4–73.9% for whole stand BBN and in the sensitivity of C and U trees to the environmental gradients. The analysisrevealed that the climate and spatial variables followed by stand variables had the largest marginal effects on mean BBN severity in all models, while the site set of variables had the weakest one. More than half of the explained variation was shared among four sets of variables in SE, contrary to CE. Except to U trees in SE, the effect of climate – pure or spatially structured – remained the highest also after partitioning of variance; more in SE than in CE. Taking into account positive association between mean annual temperature and mean BBN severity in C trees in SE, reinforced negative effect of climate change on the necrosis might be expected to be more seriousmainly in low situated beech forests there. Promoting the tree speciesdiversity in forested areas with higher incidence of beech bark necrosis, i.e. in low altitudes in SE, could reduce the susceptibility of forests to the necrosis at regional level in the future. For better understanding of the relative importance of environmental and spatial variables on BBN severity, further research performed on finer spatial scale (extent and grain is necessary, along with accounting for pathogens involved in the

  8. Feeding practices, nutritional status and associated factors of lactating women in Samre Woreda, South Eastern Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Lactating mothers from low-income settings are considered as a nutritionally vulnerable group. Due to the nursing process, mothers are subjected to nutritional stresses. Frequent pregnancies followed by lactation increase the health risk of mothers resulting in a high maternal mortality. Objective To assess the feeding practices, nutritional status and associated factors of lactating women from Samre Woreda, South Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia. Design Community based cross-sectional survey Setting Four kebeles of Samre Woreda (2 urban & 2 rural kebeles) Methods Four hundred lactating mothers were recruited from 400 randomly selected households. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, maternal characteristics, feeding practices, frequency of foods eaten and dietary diversity was collected using a pre-tested and structured questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were taken from each mother using calibrated equipments and standardized techniques. A one-day weighed food record was also collected from randomly selected sub sample (n=60) of mothers. The nutrient and energy content of foods consumed by the mothers was calculated by using ESHA Food Processor and the Ethiopian Food Composition Tables. To investigate the socio-economic and demographic factors affecting the nutritional status of the women, logistic regression was used. ANOVA and t-test were also used to see if there was a mean difference in nutritional status among the lactating mothers. Results Majority (71.2%) of the participants did not take additional meals during lactation. The median dietary diversity score of the study participants was 5 out of 14 food groups. The prevalence of underweight, chronic energy deficiency and stunting were 31%, 25% and 2.2% respectively. Using logistic regression model, factors significantly associated with the nutritional status of the study participants (as determined by BMI and MUAC) were size of farm land, length of years of marriage, maize cultivation

  9. south- eastern nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-10-10

    Oct 10, 2006 ... little hydrocarbon accumulation has been associated with the formation. Geophysical Logging Exercise. A rotary rig machine was used for the drilling operation. .... Spontaneous potentials (SP) and resistivity to sketch a casing design. For example, the SP data obtained from the Abiriba borehole. (Selemo ...

  10. Understanding the Relationship between Social Change and Its Impacts: The Experience of Rural Land Use Change in South-Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn J. H.; Schirmer, Jacki

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated socio-economic impacts of land use change, giving explicit attention to the relationships between independently observed land use change and associated socio-economic changes, perceived land use change and socio-economic change, attributed cause of change, and experienced impacts of change. Using a case study region in…

  11. Relationship between leaf traits and fire-response strategies in shrub species of a mountainous region of south-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, Lyndsey M.; Cary, Geoffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Resprouting and seed recruitment are important ways in which plants respond to fire. However, the investments a plant makes into ensuring the success of post-fire resprouting or seedling recruitment can result in trade-offs that are manifested in a range of co-occurring morphological, life history and physiological traits. Relationships between fire-response strategies and other traits have been widely examined in fire-prone Mediterranean-type climates. In this paper, we aim to determine whether shrubs growing in a non-Mediterranean climate region exhibit relationships between their fire-response strategy and leaf traits. Methods Field surveys were used to classify species into fire-response types. We then compared specific leaf area, leaf dry-matter content, leaf width, leaf nitrogen and carbon to nitrogen ratios between (a) obligate seeders and all other resprouters, and (b) obligate seeders, facultative resprouters and obligate resprouters. Key Results Leaf traits only varied between fire-response types when we considered facultative resprouters as a separate group to obligate resprouters, as observed after a large landscape-scale fire. We found no differences between obligate seeders and obligate resprouters, nor between obligate seeders and resprouters considered as one group. Conclusions The results suggest that facultative resprouters may require a strategy of rapid resource acquisition and fast growth in order to compete with species that either resprout, or recruit from seed. However, the overall lack of difference between obligate seeders and obligate resprouters suggests that environmental factors are exerting similar effects on species' ecological strategies, irrespective of the constraints and trade-offs that may be associated with obligate seeding and obligate resprouting. These results highlight the limits to trait co-occurrences across different ecosystems and the difficulty in identifying global-scale relationships amongst traits. PMID:21994052

  12. Are regional habitat models useful at a local-scale? A case study of threatened and common insectivorous bats in South-Eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna McConville

    Full Text Available Habitat modelling and predictive mapping are important tools for conservation planning, particularly for lesser known species such as many insectivorous bats. However, the scale at which modelling is undertaken can affect the predictive accuracy and restrict the use of the model at different scales. We assessed the validity of existing regional-scale habitat models at a local-scale and contrasted the habitat use of two morphologically similar species with differing conservation status (Mormopterus norfolkensis and Mormopterus species 2. We used negative binomial generalised linear models created from indices of activity and environmental variables collected from systematic acoustic surveys. We found that habitat type (based on vegetation community best explained activity of both species, which were more active in floodplain areas, with most foraging activity recorded in the freshwater wetland habitat type. The threatened M. norfolkensis avoided urban areas, which contrasts with M. species 2 which occurred frequently in urban bushland. We found that the broad habitat types predicted from local-scale models were generally consistent with those from regional-scale models. However, threshold-dependent accuracy measures indicated a poor fit and we advise caution be applied when using the regional models at a fine scale, particularly when the consequences of false negatives or positives are severe. Additionally, our study illustrates that habitat type classifications can be important predictors and we suggest they are more practical for conservation than complex combinations of raw variables, as they are easily communicated to land managers.

  13. Gambling revenues as a public administration issue: electronic gaming machines in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickernell, David; Keast, Robyn; Brown, Kerry; Yousefpour, Nina; Miller, Chris

    2013-12-01

    Gambling activities and the revenues derived have been seen as a way to increase economic development in deprived areas. There are also, however, concerns about the effects of gambling in general and electronic gaming machines (EGMs) in particular, on the resources available to the localities in which they are situated. This paper focuses on the factors that determine the extent and spending of community benefit-related EGM-generated resources within Victoria, Australia, focusing in particular on the relationships between EGM activity and socio-economic and social capital indicators, and how this relates to the community benefit resources generated by gaming.

  14. A new species of Anabarhynchus (Diptera: Therevidae from an ocean beach in south east Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ferguson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae (Diptera that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchus oceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic A. kampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001, but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Megathereva Lyneborg, 1992. This new species brings the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 113.

  15. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus in south-eastern Romania: evidence of G1-G3 and G6-G10 complexes in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, L; Bazzocchi, C; Brunetti, E; Mihailescu, P; Bandi, C; Mastalier, B; Cordos, I; Beuran, M; Popa, L G; Meroni, V; Genco, F; Cretu, C

    2013-06-01

    Clin Microbiol Infect Echinococcus granulosus is the aetiological agent of cystic echinococcosis (CE), which is a public health problem in many eastern European countries, particularly in Romania, where the infection causes a high number of human and animal cases. To shed light on the transmission patterns of the parasite, we performed a genotyping analysis on 60 cyst samples obtained from patients who live in south-eastern Romania and who underwent surgery for liver or lung CE. DNA was extracted from the endocysts or the cyst fluids, and fragments of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 mitochondrial genes (cox1 and nd1, respectively) were amplified by PCR and sequenced. We found that most of the samples analysed (59/60) belonged to the G1-G3 complex (E. granulosus sensu stricto), which contains the most widespread and infective strains of the parasite. We also identified the first human patient infected by a non-G1-G3 genotype of E. granulosus in this country. As the DNA sequence of this cyst sample showed maximum homology with the G6-G10 complex (Echinococcus canadensis), this is, in all likelihood, a G7 genotype, which is often found in pigs and dogs in most countries of eastern and south-eastern Europe. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  16. Annual and seasonal trends of ambient ozone concentration and its impact on forest vegetation in Mercantour National Park (South-eastern France) over the 2000-2008 period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicard, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.sicard@acri-st.f [ACRI-ST, 260 route du Pin Montard, BP 234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); Dalstein-Richier, Laurence [ACRI-ST, 260 route du Pin Montard, BP 234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); Vas, Nicolas [G.I.E.F.S (Groupe International d' Etudes sur les Forets Sud-europeennes), 69 avenue des Hesperides, 06300 Nice (France)

    2011-02-15

    In the South-Eastern French Mediterranean region, high ozone concentrations were measured since many years and specific symptoms like chlorotic mottles were detected on Arolla pines. We presented results for the 2000-2008 period concerning the trend analysis for ambient ozone concentrations and related forest damages, with the Mann and seasonal Kendall tests. Ozone precursor's emissions from Europe have been reduced over the last 20 years. Decreases in annual averages, median, 25th and 98th percentiles and maxima values were found. The seasonal trend analysis for the high-lying stations showed a decreasing trend for the warm season, when main ozone production is the photochemistry, and an increase for the cold period, caused by a reduced ozone titration. Statistics on Arolla Pine reveal strong correlations between mottling intensity and the high ozone concentrations. Finally, decreases for the ozone concentrations, and associated statistics, AOT40 values and for the mottling intensity on conifers needles were observed. - Trends of ambient ozone concentration, associated statistics and specific ozone-induced symptoms on conifers needles were studied in Mercantour National Park (South-eastern France) over the 2000-2008 period.

  17. Geographic distribution of Gryllotalpa stepposa in south-eastern Europe, with first records for Romania, Hungary and Serbia (Insecta, Orthoptera, Gryllotalpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorgu, Ionuț Ștefan; Iorgu, Elena Iulia; Puskás, Gellért; Ivković, Slobodan; Borisov, Simeon; Gavril, Viorel Dumitru; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov

    2016-01-01

    Described from the steppe zones north of the Black Sea, Caucasus, and central Asia, Gryllotalpa stepposa Zhantiev was recently recorded from a few localities in Greece, R. Macedonia, and Bulgaria. In May 2015, several specimens were collected from Ivrinezu Mare in Romania, which suggested a continuous distribution area of the species, stretching from the central Balkans to central Asia. Thus, to reveal its actual range of occurrence, a survey of several Orthoptera collections became mandatory and, as expected, a large number of misidentified specimens of Gryllotalpa stepposa were discovered, providing new data on the species distribution in south-eastern Europe, including also the first records of this mole cricket in Serbia and Hungary. Here a full locality list is presented of this species west of Ukraine and Moldova and the current geographic distribution of the genus Gryllotalpa in the Balkans is revised. A key for distinguishing the mole crickets in south-eastern Europe and a distribution map for this region are presented.

  18. Teacher Education Reforms between Higher Education and General Education Transformations in South- Eastern Europe: Reviewing the Evidence and Scoping the Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Pantić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper considers reforms and developments in teacher education in South-Eastern European countries as part of overall reforms in higher education, and in light of changes in general education that impact teachers and their preparation. The paper reviews the literature and reports from the region that offer some evidence of and insights into the issues surrounding teacher education reforms in the contexts of postsocialist education transformations in South-Eastern Europe. It scopes the issues relating to: structural and curricular changes in teacher preparation;coordination of reforms across different levels; development of a common vision of good teaching in cooperation between teacher education institutions, schools and communities; and quality assurance of teacher preparation. The identified issues include: the superficial nature of structural reforms and the neglect of substantial curricular changes; the dearth of opportunities for reflection linking theory and practice; insufficiently developed cross-curricular approaches to teacher education reforms; the fragmentation of teacher education along a number of lines; the absence of a common vision of quality teaching, and of formative links between quality assurance systems for teachers, schools and teacher education providers. Finally, the paper outlines potentialavenues for future developments and implications for teacher educationpolicies and practices.

  19. Mathematical Problems in Biology : Victoria Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1974-01-01

    A conference on "Some Mathematical Problems in Biology" was held at the University of Victoria, Victoria, B. C. , Canada, from May 7 - 10, 1973. The participants and invited speakers were mathematicians interested in problems of a biological nature, and scientists actively engaged in developing mathematical models in biological fields. One aim of the conference was to attempt to assess what the recent rapid growth of mathematical interaction with the biosciences has accomplished and may accomplish in the near future. The conference also aimed to expose the problems of communication bet~",een mathematicians and biological scientists, and in doing so to stimulate the interchange of ideas. It was recognised that the topic spans an enormous breadth, and little attempt was made to balance the very diverse areas. Widespread active interest was shown in the conference, and just over one hundred people registered. The varied departments and institutions across North America from which the participants came made it bo...

  20. Pancam Peek into 'Victoria Crater' (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08776 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08776 A drive of about 60 meters (about 200 feet) on the 943rd Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's exploration of Mars' Meridiani Planum region (Sept. 18, 2006) brought the NASA rover to within about 50 meters (about 160 feet) of the rim of 'Victoria Crater.' This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months. Opportunity reached a location from which the cameras on top of the rover's mast could begin to see into the interior of Victoria. This stereo anaglyph was made from frames taken on sol 943 by the panoramic camera (Pancam) to offer a three-dimensional view when seen through red-blue glasses. It shows the upper portion of interior crater walls facing toward Opportunity from up to about 850 meters (half a mile) away. The amount of vertical relief visible at the top of the interior walls from this angle is about 15 meters (about 50 feet). The exposures were taken through a Pancam filter selecting wavelengths centered on 750 nanometers. Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is the expectation that a thick stack of geological layers will be exposed in the crater walls, potentially several times the thickness that was previously studied at Endurance and therefore, potentially preserving several times the historical record.

  1. Implementation of the victoria bowel performance scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Philippa; Barwich, Doris; Kirk, Lisa

    2011-12-01

    There is a lack of evidence to guide constipation management in patients receiving palliative care. Data collection requires the systematic use of validated assessment tools. The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of the Victoria Bowel Performance Scale (BPS) as an audit tool. Charts were reviewed before and after the implementation of a program to monitor constipation through repeated use of the Victoria Bowel Scale. The program was initiated at three oncology pain and symptom management clinics, four palliative care units, and four residential hospices. An additional "control" palliative care unit introduced new nursing assessment tools without the new scale. The Victoria BPS was recorded at 86% of 192 postimplementation outpatient clinic visits and was easy to use in this setting. Documentation of bowel performance at comparable visits improved from 44% to 66% (Passessment tool, uniquely incorporating the patient's usual bowel function. Modifications to the scale have been made to improve clarity and allow for the expected drop in bowel activity seen in end-of-life care. Considerable educational effort and appropriate organization of the charts are required for optimal implementation. The proportion of revised BPS scores ranging from -1 to +1 is proposed as an indicator of satisfactory bowel management for clinical, audit, and research purposes. Copyright © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ant allergy in Asia and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Ngiam, Nicola Siew Pei; Lee, Bee-Wah

    2004-08-01

    Anaphylaxis due to ant sting is increasingly being recognized as a significant problem. Severe allergic reactions to ants are well described in the south-eastern United States, but have only been recognized in recent years as being important in other parts of the world. There are many different ant species and their distribution around the world varies. The purpose of this review is to familiarize the reader with the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of ant allergy in Asia and Australia. In Korea, allergy to Pachycondyla chinensis (subfamily Ponerinae) has been well described. In an ant-endemic area, sensitization was 23%, with about 1% having anaphylactic reactions. There were at least eight IgE-binding proteins in P. chinensis venom, with 1 major allergen binding 85% of patient sera. P. chinensis venom was also found to be possibly crossreactive with bee venom, but not with imported-fire-ant venom. In Australia, anaphylactic reactions to ant stings are usually caused by the 'jack jumper' ant (Myrmecia pilosula) or the bull ant (Myrmecia pyriformis). A recent study showed promising results for immunotherapy with M. pilosula venom. There have been reports of stings by other ant species in Asia and Australia, but these reports are few and sporadic. The study of ant allergy in Asia is in its infancy. Clinicians in Asia need to be aware of ant stings as a cause of severe allergic reactions. Certain species that cause allergic reactions are unique to Asia and Australia and deserve further research. The allergens in the venom of the different ant species need to be identified. We should aim for improved understanding of the epidemiology of ant-sting anaphylaxis, formulation of better diagnostic tests and possibly the introduction of immunotherapeutic strategies.

  3. Features of autumnal differential coastal cooling in south-eastern Baltic deduced from data of MODIS spectroradiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esiukova, Elena; Chubarenko, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Characteristics of profiles of sea surface temperature (SST) from the coastline to deep sea area in Russian sector of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea during seasonal autumnal cooling are identified using the data of spectroradiometers MODIS Aqua. Time periods are chosen when vertical convection and wind mixing make the upper layer (~ 30-40 m) in deep-sea area practically isothermal, and significant horizontal gradients of temperature/density are formed above shallows and underwater coastal slopes. This picture of differential cooling is formed by the combined action of heat exchange with the atmosphere (which is practically the same in coastal and open areas) and horizontal transport of heat from the sea to the shallow/coastal zone. This allows for estimation of horizontal heat and mass transport between the deep and the coastal area. The images of October-November 2002-2009 were analyzed, corresponding to periods of fast decrease of air temperature (at a rate of 0.86-2.54 °C/day). Significant linear portion in shallow-most paret is found to be a characteristic feature of the profiles, which is detected above all types of slopes (steep, sloping, irregular), reaching 20% to 70% of the length of the slope. Comparative analysis of the characteristics of the observed profiles above different slopes at the same image, and for the same slope at different dates was performed. The actual profiles of SST are compared with several theoretically predicted cases (in the absence of horizontal exchange, in of the quasi-stationary exchange), and the modeling results. Estimations suggest that horizontal gradient of water temperature favours seasonal slide of the cold/dense water along the underwater slopes (cascading) with a fairly high speed, reaching tens of cm/s at the shelf edge in the case of rapid cooling of water above the underwater slopes. Current speed at the end of the slopes may be quite high (8-20 cm/s), but comparable to the known values. On the base of numerical

  4. Effects of climate change on freshwater ecosystems of the south-eastern United States and the Gulf Coast of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, P.J.; Best, G.R.; Coutant, C.C.; Hornberger, G.M.; Meyer, J.L.; Robinson, P.J.; Stenberg, J.R.; Turner, R.E.; Vera-Herrera, F.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The south-eastern United States and Gulf Coast of Mexico is physiographically diverse, although dominated by a broad coastal plain. Much of the region has a humid, warm temperate climate with little seasonality in precipitation but strong seasonality in runoff owing to high rates of summer evapotranspiration. The climate of southern Florida and eastern Mexico is subtropical with a distinct summer wet season and winter dry season. Regional climate models suggest that climate change resulting from a doubling of the pre-industrial levels of atmospheric CO2 may increase annual air temperatures by 3-4??C. Changes in precipitation are highly uncertain, but the most probable scenario shows higher levels over all but the northern, interior portions of the region, with increases primarily occurring in summer and occurring as more intense or clustered storms. Despite the increases in precipitation, runoff is likely to decline over much of the region owing to increases in evapotranspiration exceeding increases in precipitation. Only in Florida and the Gulf Coast areas of the US and Mexico are precipitation increases likely to exceed evapotranspiration increases, producing an increase in runoff. However, increases in storm intensity and clustering are likely to result in more extreme hydrographs, with larger peaks in flow but lower baseflows and longer periods of drought. The ecological effects of climate change on freshwaters of the region include: (1) a general increase in rates of primary production, organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling as a result of higher temperatures and longer growing seasons: (2) reduction in habitat for cool water species, particularly fish and macroinvertebrates in Appalachian streams; (3) reduction in water quality and in suitable habitat in summer owing to lower baseflows and intensification of the temperature-dissolved oxygen squeeze in many rivers and reservoirs; (4) reduction in organic matter storage and loss of organisms during

  5. Effects of Climate Change on Freshwater Ecosystems of the South-Eastern United States and the Gulf Coast of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Patrick J.; Best, G. Ronnie; Coutant, Charles C.; Hornberger, George M.; Meyer, Judy L.; Robinson, Peter J.; Stenberg, John R.; Turner, R. Eugene; Vera-Herrera, Francisco; Wetzel, Robert G.

    1997-06-01

    The south-eastern United States and Gulf Coast of Mexico is physiographically diverse, although dominated by a broad coastal plain. Much of the region has a humid, warm temperate climate with little seasonality in precipitation but strong seasonality in runoff owing to high rates of summer evapotranspiration. The climate of southern Florida and eastern Mexico is subtropical with a distinct summer wet season and winter dry season. Regional climate models suggest that climate change resulting from a doubling of the pre-industrial levels of atmospheric CO2 may increase annual air temperatures by 3-4°C. Changes in precipitation are highly uncertain, but the most probable scenario shows higher levels over all but the northern, interior portions of the region, with increases primarily occurring in summer and occurring as more intense or clustered storms. Despite the increases in precipitation, runoff is likely to decline over much of the region owing to increases in evapotranspiration exceeding increases in precipitation. Only in Florida and the Gulf Coast areas of the US and Mexico are precipitation increases likely to exceed evapotranspiration increases, producing an increase in runoff. However, increases in storm intensity and clustering are likely to result in more extreme hydrographs, with larger peaks in flow but lower baseflows and longer periods of drought.The ecological effects of climate change on freshwaters of the region include: (1) a general increase in rates of primary production, organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling as a result of higher temperatures and longer growing seasons: (2) reduction in habitat for cool water species, particularly fish and macroinvertebrates in Appalachian streams; (3) reduction in water quality and in suitable habitat in summer owing to lower baseflows and intensification of the temperature-dissolved oxygen squeeze in many rivers and reservoirs; (4) reduction in organic matter storage and loss of organisms during

  6. Factors enabling and inhibiting facilitator development: lessons learned from Essentials of Care in South Eastern Sydney Local Health District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamera Watling

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Building and sustaining facilitation capacity for the creation of person-centred workplace cultures is a strategic priority of the South Eastern Sydney Local Health District Nursing and Midwifery Practice and Workforce Unit. Skilled facilitation is considered critical to the successful implementation and sustainability of practice development-based programmes, including Essentials of Care. Review of facilitator activity across the district revealed that less than half of those who had participated in a facilitation development programme were actively applying their knowledge to the facilitation of Essentials of Care. Aim: To understand the enablers and barriers to the development and application of facilitation skills and the implementation of Essentials of Care from the perspective of the programme’s facilitators. The purpose was to inform ongoing strategies to build and sustain facilitation capacity for its effective implementation. Method: A 21-question qualitative survey was designed using Survey Monkey. Questions were framed to allow free text responses for qualitative content analysis. Ethics approval was applied for and deemed unnecessary by the local health district ethics committee; the committee deemed the project to be a quality improvement activity not requiring independent ethical review. The survey was distributed electronically to 230 health professionals who had participated in the facilitation development programme between 2008 and 2013. Findings: The key enablers for both facilitator development and implementation of Essentials of Care were time, engagement of staff and leadership support. Additional enablers for facilitation development included access to development opportunities and practical application of skills. Facilitation was an enabler of Essentials of Care implementation. Leadership support is pivotal, especially where time and patient acuity impinge on the release of staff for facilitated activities

  7. Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of rare-metal pegmatites at Abu Rusheid granitic gneisses, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fahmy Raslan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Abu Rushied area, situated in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt is a distinctive occurrence of economically important rare-metal mineralization where the host rocks are represented by granitic gneisses. Correspondingly, mineralogical and geochemical investigation of pegmatites pockets scattered within Abu Rusheid granitic gneisses revealed the presence of Hf-zircon, ferrocolumbite and uranyl silicate minerals (uranophane and kasolite. Electronmicroprobe analyses revealed the presence of Nb-Ta multioxide minerals (ishikawaite, uranopyrochlore, and fergusonite, uraninite, thorite and cassiterite as numerous inclusions in the recorded Hf-zircon and ferrocolumbite minerals.Abu Rusheid pegmatites are found as small and large bodies that occur as simple and complex (zoned pegmatites.Abu Rusheid rare-metal pegmatites occur as steeply dipping bodies of variable size, ranging from 1 to 5 m in width and 10 to 50 m in length. The zoned pegmatites are composed of wall zone of coarser granitic gneisses, intermediated zone of K-feldspar and pocket of mica (muscovite and biotite, and core of quartz and pocket ofmica with lenses of rare metals.The zircon is of bipyramidal to typical octahedral form and short prisms. Because the zircon of the investigated Abu Rushied pegmatite frequently contains hafnium in amounts ranging between 2.31 and 11.11%, the studied zircon was designated as Hf-rich zircon. This zircon commonly exhibits a normal zoning with rims consistentlyhigher in Hf than cores. The bright areas in the crystal either in core or rim showed a remarkable enrichment in hafnium content (8.83–11.11% with respect to the dark zones (3.19%. The investigated ferroclumbite commonly exhibits zoning; the dark zone is low in the Ta and U but the light zone is enriched in Ta (13% and U (1%. EMPAanalyses indicate the chemical composition of ishikawaite with U ranging from 0.68 to 0.79 per formula unit.Uranopyrochlore species has dominant uranium in the A

  8. The Changing Epidemiology of Kunjin Virus in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prow, Natalie A.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus responsible for outbreaks of viral encephalitis in humans and horses, with particularly virulent strains causing recent outbreaks of disease in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and North America. A strain of WNV, Kunjin (WNVKUN), is endemic in northern Australia and infection with this virus is generally asymptomatic. However in early 2011, an unprecedented outbreak of encephalitis in horses occurred in south-eastern Australia, resulting in mortality in approximately 10%–15% of infected horses. A WNV-like virus (WNVNSW2011) was isolated and found to be most closely related to the indigenous WNVKUN, rather than other exotic WNV strains. Furthermore, at least two amino acid changes associated with increased virulence of the North American New York 99 strain (WNVNY99) compared to the prototype WNVKUN were present in the WNVNSW2011 sequence. This review summarizes our current understanding of WNVKUN and how the epidemiology and ecology of this virus has changed. Analysis of virulence determinants of contemporary WNVKUN isolates will provide clues on where virulent strains have emerged in Australia. A better understanding of the changing ecology and epidemiology associated with the emergence of virulent strains is essential to prepare for future outbreaks of WNV disease in Australia. PMID:24287851

  9. FUSE - Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Australian Science Teachers Journal, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Announces the establishment of a division of FUSE in Australia, at Sturt College of Advanced Education, for the purpose of disseminating the concept of unified science and to facilitate the development of unified science programs. (BR)

  10. Sedimentological and paleontological features of sea floor sediments of Penta Palummo and Miseno volcanic highs, Gulf od Naples (South-eastern Tyrrhenian Sea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraro, L.; Molisso, F. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Naples (Italy). Ist. di Ricerca Geomare Sud

    2000-07-01

    A sedimentological and paleontological study has been carried out on surficial sediments of Penta Palummo and Miseno volcanic banks, in the Gulf of Naples (South-eastern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). The deposits consist of bioclastic sand (coralline algae, bryozoans, gastropods, bivalvs and echinoderms). The benthic foraminiferal assemblage is mainly characterized by epiphytic species. Bioclastics sand is autochtonous and derived from breakdown of algal buildups. [Italian] Uno studio sedimentologico e paleontologico e' stato condotto sui sedimenti superficiali dei banchi vulcanici di Penta Palummo e di Miseno (Golfo di Napoli, Mar Tirreno sudorientale). I depositi sono costituiti da sabbie bioclastiche (alghe coralline, briozoi, gasteropodi, bivalvi ed echonodermi). L'associazione a foraminiferi bentonici e' caratterizzata principalmente da specie epifite. Le sabbie bioclastiche sono autoctone e derivano dal disfacimento di biocostruzioni algali.

  11. The Impact of the Ottoman Factor on the Status of Women in the South-Eastern European Countries in the Middle Ages through Historiography Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Zabolotnaia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study proposes a historiographic perspective on the image of women in the Middle Ages, as it is reflected in the historical literature of Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania and Moldova. The material is designed not only to report the researches conducted in the field of gender studies, but also to illustrate the link between different historiographical approaches from the mentioned geographical area. To the theoretical and contextual nature of the studied thematic area is an added description of the impact of the Ottoman factor on the female daily, as it was caught in the impressions of foreign travellers who crossed South-Eastern Europe. The emphasis on the details of the grouping results of research on women's history from the Middle Ages into three thematic cycles: general historical monographs, papers focused on privacy, thematic monographs specific to the gender studies.

  12. Impact of climate change on the role of non-governmental organizations in environmental health delivery in south-eastern region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta A. Opara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change remains a serious problem to most rural settlement in Nigeria. Individuals are faced with a wide range of health problems. These problems include high risk of communicable and non-communicable diseases, an outbreak of epidemics, and scarcity of water. This study investigated the impact of climate change on health delivery services by Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs to the different Local Government Areas (LGA of the five the States in the South -Eastern Region in Nigeria: Anambra, Imo, Abia, Ebonyi and Enugu were selected and three communities from each was sampled using stratified random sampling technique. The result revealed that most NGO health workers could not penetrate into most of the rural areas to deliver aids to the victims

  13. [Low rate of oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection among women with cervical lesion. Preliminary results from the South-Eastern Hungarian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanya, Melinda; Jakó, Mária; Terhes, Gabriella; Szakács, László; Kaiser, László; Deák, Judit; Bártfai, György

    2016-01-10

    Although the natural history of cervical and oral human papillomavirus infection has been intensively investigated in the past years, the ability of this virus to infect oral and genital mucosae in the same individual and its potential to co-infect both cervical and oral mucosa are still unclear. The aim of the authors was to assess the presence of oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection in women with cervical lesions in the South-Eastern Hungarian population. The total of 103 women have been included in the study between March 1, 2013 and January 1, 2015. Brushing was used to collect cells from the oropharyngeal mucosa. Human papillomavirus DNA was detected using polymerase chain reaction, and Amplicor line blot test was used for genotyping. Oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection was detected in 2 cases (3%). The detected genotypes were 31, 40/61 and 73 in the oropharyngeal region. The results indicate that in women with cervical lesions oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection rarely occurs.

  14. Antifungal potencies of ethanol leaf extracts of four plants found around traditional Yan Barns in south eastern Nigeria on five Yam pathogens implicated in postharvest Yam rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chima Ngumah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibilities of five fungi implicated in postharvest rot of yam, namely, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium oxalicum, Mucor circinelloides, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizopus nigricans were evaluated using ethanol leaf extracts of four plants commonly found around traditional yam barns in south eastern. The plants screened were Fagara rubescens, Neubouldia laevis, Pterocarpus soyauxii, and Vernonia amygdalina. Antimicrobial susceptibility was measured as an index of turbidity of broth cultures after incubation 72 hours at ambient temperature (29 – 310C. The optical densities (OD650 were measured by spectrophotometry. None of the test isolates showed susceptibility to any of the plant extracts screened irrespective of the concentration employed. This study also revealed that though all the plants contained bioactive secondary metabolites, no antifungal potency was detected for any of the plant extracts on the test organisms.

  15. Triple bottom line assessment of raw water treatment: methodology and application to a case study in the municipality of Oppegård in south-eastern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, G; Azrague, Kamal; Bell, Stig; Eikebrokk, Bjørnar

    2015-01-01

    There could be several options a water treatment plant (WTP) can select from, if an improvement in treated water quality (WQ) is desired. This paper outlines a methodology to test a variety of approaches to accomplish pre-set goals as regards WQ, while adopting a triple bottom line approach. This approach, in a nutshell, takes into consideration economic, environmental and social aspects in decision-making. The methodology has been applied to the Stangasen WTP in the town of Oppegård in south-eastern Norway. Among the seven alternative approaches compared were the use, as coagulant, of five different dosages of granulated aluminium sulphate, liquid aluminium sulphate (48%) and liquid ferric chloride (40%). Using the set of weighting factors obtained from experts, it was determined that increasing the dosage of granulated aluminium sulphate by 20% over the current one would be the most sustainable option from a triple bottom line point of view.

  16. Serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds and predictors of exposure in children living in agricultural communities from South-Eastern Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Alzaga, B.; Lacasaña, M.; Hernández, A. F.

    2017-01-01

    and polychlorinated biphenyls -PCBs-) in children living in agricultural communities from Almería (South-Eastern Spain), and to identify the main predictors of exposure related to socio-economic characteristics, diet and lifestyle. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 133 children aged 6-11 years...... studies carried out in children. Variables related to fish consumption were found to be the major dietary determinant of PCB 138, p,p´-DDE, endosulfan-α, β-HCH, mirex and oxychlordane levels. CONCLUSIONS: Children participating in this study showed detectable levels of many OC, despite these compounds...... are no longer used. Their presence in children serum can be explained by their high lipophilicity and environmental persistence, leading to contamination of fatty food. In this line, fish consumption seemed to be the most relevant determinant of OC levels found in our study....

  17. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Diabetes Mellitus among Tuberculosis Patients in South-Eastern Amhara Region, Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workneh, Mahteme Haile; Bjune, Gunnar Aksel; Yimer, Solomon Abebe

    2016-01-01

    The association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) is re-emerging worldwide. Recently, the prevalence of DM is increasing in resource poor countries where TB is of high burden. The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence and analyze associated factors of TB and DM comorbidity in South-Eastern Amhara Region, Ethiopia. This was a facility based cross-sectional study. All newly diagnosed TB patients attending selected health facilities in the study area were consecutively screened for DM. DM was diagnosed based on the World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic, lifestyles and clinical data. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with TB and DM comorbidity. Among a total of 1314 patients who participated in the study, the prevalence of DM was estimated at 109 (8.3%). Being female [odds ratio (OR) 1.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.10-2.62)], patients age [41-64 years (OR 3.35; 95% CI (2.01-5.57), 65-89 years (OR 3.18; 95% CI (1.52-6.64)], being a pulmonary TB case [(OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.09-2.63)] and having a family history of DM [(OR 4.54; 95% CI (2.36-8.73)] were associated factors identified with TB and DM comorbidity. The prevalence of DM among TB patients in South-Eastern Amahra Region is high. Routine screening of TB patients for DM is recommended in the study area.

  18. First description of Escherichia coli producing CTX-M-15- extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL in out-patients from south eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iroha Ifeanyichukwu R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We studied the presence of extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs in 44 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli collected from out-patients in two university teaching hospitals in South-Eastern Nigeria. Species identification was performed by standard microbiology methods and re-confirmed by MALDI-TOF technology. Phenotypic characterization of ESBL enzymes was done by double disc synergy test and presence of ESBL genes was determined by specific PCR followed by sequencing. Transfer of plasmid DNA was carried out by transformation using E. coli DH5 as recipient strain. Phenotypic characterization identified all isolates to be ESBL positive. 77% of strains were from urine, 13.6% from vaginal swabs and 9.0% from wound swabs. 63.6% were from female patients, 68% were from outpatients and 95.5% from patients younger than 30 years. All ESBL producers were positive in a PCR for blaCTX-M-1 cluster, in exemplary strains blaCTX-M-15 was found by sequencing. In all strains ISEcp1 was found upstream and ORF477 downstream of blaCTX-M. PCR for blaTEM and blaOXA-1 was positive in 93.1% of strains, whereas blaSHV was not detected, aac(6′-Ib-cr was found in 97.7% of strains. RAPD analysis revealed seven different clonal groups named A through G with the majority of the strains (65.9% belonging to clone A. Transfer of an ESBL plasmid with co-resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin, tobramycin, doxycycline and trimethropim-sulfamethoxazole was successful in 19 (43.2% strains. This study showed a high rate of CTX-M-1 cluster - ESBLs in South-Eastern Nigeria and further confirms the worldwide spread of CTX-M ESBL in clinical isolates.

  19. First description of Escherichia coli producing CTX-M-15- extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) in out-patients from south eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iroha, Ifeanyichukwu R; Esimone, Charles O; Neumann, Sandra; Marlinghaus, Lennart; Korte, Miriam; Szabados, Florian; Gatermann, Sören; Kaase, Martin

    2012-07-23

    We studied the presence of extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs) in 44 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli collected from out-patients in two university teaching hospitals in South-Eastern Nigeria. Species identification was performed by standard microbiology methods and re-confirmed by MALDI-TOF technology. Phenotypic characterization of ESBL enzymes was done by double disc synergy test and presence of ESBL genes was determined by specific PCR followed by sequencing. Transfer of plasmid DNA was carried out by transformation using E. coli DH5 as recipient strain. Phenotypic characterization identified all isolates to be ESBL positive. 77% of strains were from urine, 13.6% from vaginal swabs and 9.0% from wound swabs. 63.6% were from female patients, 68% were from outpatients and 95.5% from patients younger than 30 years. All ESBL producers were positive in a PCR for bla(CTX-M-1) cluster, in exemplary strains bla(CTX-M-15) was found by sequencing. In all strains ISEcp1 was found upstream and ORF477 downstream of bla(CTX-M). PCR for bla(TEM) and bla(OXA-1) was positive in 93.1% of strains, whereas bla(SHV) was not detected, aac(6')-Ib-cr was found in 97.7% of strains. RAPD analysis revealed seven different clonal groups named A through G with the majority of the strains (65.9%) belonging to clone A. Transfer of an ESBL plasmid with co-resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin, tobramycin, doxycycline and trimethropim-sulfamethoxazole was successful in 19 (43.2%) strains. This study showed a high rate of CTX-M-1 cluster - ESBLs in South-Eastern Nigeria and further confirms the worldwide spread of CTX-M ESBL in clinical isolates.

  20. Experiences and unmet needs of women undergoing Pap smear cervical cancer screening: impact on uptake of cervical cancer screening in south eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigbu, Chibuike O; Onyebuchi, Azubuike K; Egbuji, Chuma C; Ezugwu, Eusebus C

    2015-03-01

    The burden of cervical cancer is on the increase in sub-Saharan Africa mainly due to inadequate provision and utilisation of cervical cancer prevention services. Several evidence-based strategies have been deployed to improve cervical cancer screening uptake without much success. However, patients' experiences and satisfaction with service provision has not been adequately studied. Inefficiencies in service delivery and less fulfilling experiences by women who attend cervical cancer screening could have considerable impact in future voluntary uptake of cervical cancer screening. Six hundred and eighty women who underwent Pap smear screening in three health care facilities in two states in south eastern Nigeria were interviewed to evaluate their satisfaction, willingness to undertake future voluntary screening, unmet needs and correlation between satisfaction level and willingness to undergo future screening. Satisfaction with Pap smear screening correlated positively with willingness to undertake future voluntary screening (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.78, P = 0.001). The mean satisfaction score was significantly higher among participants handled by nurses than those handled by the physicians (3.16 ± 0.94 vs 2.52 ± 0.77, P = 0.001). 'Scrapping discomfort' of the spatula was reported as the most dissatisfying aspect of Pap smear experience. The need for less invasive screening procedures was the most unmet need. It was concluded that improving the Pap smear screening experience of women and providing less invasive methods of cervical cancer screening with immediate results could improve uptake of cervical cancer screening in south eastern Nigeria.

  1. Prevalence of Fasciola gigantica infection in slaughtered animals in south-eastern Lake Chad area in relation to husbandry practices and seasonal water levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Richard, Vreni; Crump, Lisa; Abicho, Abbani Alhadj; Naré, Ngandolo Bongo; Greter, Helena; Hattendorf, Jan; Schelling, Esther; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2014-04-04

    Fasciolosis has been described in sub-Saharan Africa in many accounts, but the latest reports from Chad are from the 1970s. Mobile pastoralists perceive liver parasites as a significant problem and think that proximity to Lake Chad can lead to infection. This study aimed to assess the importance of liver fluke infections in mobile pastoralists' livestock in the south-eastern Lake Chad region.In 2011, all animals presented at three slaughter slabs near Gredaya in the south-eastern Lake Chad area were examined for infection with Fasciola spp. during routine meat inspections. This study included 616 goats, 132 sheep and 130 cattle. The prevalence of adult Fasciola gigantica was 68% (CI 60-76%) in cattle, 12% (CI 10-16%) in goats and 23% (CI 16-30%) in sheep. From all infected animals (n = 200), 53% (n = 106) were classified as lightly infected with 1-10 parasites, 18% (n =36) as moderately infected with 11-100 parasites and 29% (n = 58) as heavily infected with more than 100 parasites per animal.Animals grazing close to the shores of Lake Chad had a much higher risk of infection (prevalence =38%; n = 329) than animals not feeding at the lake (n = 353), with only one goat being positive (prevalence = 0.28%).The ethnic group of the owner was a strong determinant for the risk of infection. Ethnic group likely served as a proxy for husbandry practices. Geospatial distribution showed that animals originating from areas close to the lake were more likely to be infected with F. gigantica than those from more distant areas. Livestock belonging to ethnic groups which traditionally stay near surface water, and which were reported to feed near Lake Chad, have a high risk of infection with F. gigantica. Pastoralist perception of fasciolosis as a priority health problem was confirmed.Regular preventive and post-exposure treatment is recommended for animals grazing near the lake. However, further economic analysis is needed.

  2. DISTRIBUTION IN NON-TRAWLABLE AREAS OF LAKE VICTORIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Victoria. Netherlands Journal of. Zoology 42'. 214 -232. Witte F, Goldschmidt PC and Wanink JH. 1995. Dynamics of the haplochromine cichlid fauna and other ecological changes in the. Mwanza gmlf of Lake Victoria. In: Pitcher TH and Hart PJB (eds):. Impact of species change in fiican lakes. Chapman & Hall, London, pp.

  3. Adaptive responses to environmental changes in Lake Victoria cichlids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijssel, Jacobus Cornelis van (Jacco)

    2014-01-01

    Lake Victoria cichlids show the fastest vertebrate adaptive radiation known which is why they function as a model organism to study evolution. In the past 40 years, Lake Victoria experienced severe environmental changes including the boom of the introduced, predatory Nile perch and eutrophication.

  4. Gender Integration in the Management of the Lake Victoria Fisheries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The riparian governments of Lake Victoria have adopted co-management approach in fisheries management. This paper discusses gender mainstreaming in fisheries management of Lake Victoria, user rights, successes and challenges of the process. This paper has used gender-disaggregated data from several studies ...

  5. Degradation of Victoria Crater, Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J. A.; Wilson, S. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Golombek, M. P.; Geissler, P. E.; Sullivan, R. J.

    2007-12-01

    Victoria crater (2.05N, 354.51E) is ~750 m in diameter and the largest crater on Mars observed in situ. The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity traversed NW to SE across a broad annulus dominated by dark sand that at least partially surrounds the crater before navigating the northern crater rim. Rover observations of the crater and ejecta deposits are complemented by images with 26-52 cm/pixel scales from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and enable assessment of degradation state. The present depth/diameter ratio for Victoria is 0.1, less than the 0.2 expected for a pristine primary impact structure. Together with the eroded, serrated rim, this implies an originally smaller crater diameter and/or considerable infilling consistent with occurrence of a large dune field and few exposed rocks on the crater floor. The height and width of the raised rim is generally 4-5 m and 150-225 m, respectively, less than the 30 m and 500-600 m, respectively, expected for a pristine 750 m diameter crater. Ejecta thicknesses around the rim were derived using rover-based and HiRISE images and yield consistent estimates averaging ~3 m. The serrated rim plan creates a series of promontories extending up to 50 m into the crater and generally fronted by 30-60 degree slopes that are locally vertical and are separated by bays whose floors typically slope 15-25 degrees. A crater originally on order of 600-650 m in diameter and subsequently enlarged by mass wasting and aeolian erosion may yield a structure resembling Victoria today. The steep expression of the promontories and local outcroppings of rocks in the ejecta blanket points to some ongoing mass wasting, but the relative paucity of associated flanking talus indicates derived blocks of sulfate sandstone are not resistant to saltating sand and are rapidly broken down by the wind or are completely covered/filled in by aeolian drift. At Cape St. Vincent, the promontory appears undercut

  6. TEACHING OF TURKISH IN AUSTRALIA /VICTORIA AS PART OF ITS EDUCATION AND LANGUAGE POLICY AVUSTRALYA/VİKTORYA’NIN DİL ve EĞİTİM POLİTİKASI ÇERÇEVESİNDE TÜRKÇENİN ÖĞRETİMİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye AVARA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia, where the first Turkish immigrants arrived in 1968, is a migrant country in which the third generation Turks live at present. Australia has accepted the Multicultural Policy and adopted a Multicultural Education Program due to the different languages spoken by different ethnic groups. The Multicultural Education Program in Australia has made it possible for Turks to learn and maintain their language and culture like many other ethnic groups. In this article Australian multicultural policy, its Multicultural Education Program, the teaching of community languages in general, and specifically, the teaching of Turkish language as well as the access to the Turkish language classes will be discussed. İlk göçün 1968 yılından başlayarak verildiği ve artık üçüncü kuşak Türklerin yaşadığı Avustralya, bir göçmen ülkesidir. Farklı dillerin ve etnik grupların bir arada yaşadığı bu ülke, yapısının bir gereği olarak Çok Kültürlülük Yasası’nı kabul etmiş ve okullarında da çok kültürlü bir eğitim programına geçmiştir. Bu program sayesinde birçok etnik grup gibi Türkler de ana dilllerini ve kültürlerini öğrenme, muhafaza etme imkânı bulmuştur. Bu makalede Avustralya’nın eğitim politikası ve bu politika kapsamına giren Çok Kültürlülük Yasası ve Çok Kültürlü Eğitim Programı, bu programın bir gereği olarak genel anlamda etnik topluluklara ana dillerinin öğretimi üzerinde durulacak, özellikle Türkçenin Avustralya’da hangi yollarla öğretildiğinden ve şu anki durumundan bahsedilecektir.

  7. Ensuring Rights: Improving Access to Sexual and Reproductive Health Services for Female International Students in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljski, Carolyn; Quiazon, Regina; Tran, Chau

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the research and advocacy work being conducted by the Multicultural Centre for Women's Health (MCWH), a national community-based organization in Victoria, Australia, the paper analyzes female international students' experiences with accessing sexual and reproductive health information and services. Accessibility of sexual and…

  8. Towards "Law Education for All": Teaching School Students about the Law in Australia and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaardingerbroek, Barend; Traikovski, Louie; Hussain, Irshad

    2014-01-01

    Law-related topics arise in the school curricula of both developed and developing countries. Civics/citizenship education and social studies tend to be the curricular mediums into which law topics are inserted. This paper details law education at school level in Australia (State of Victoria) and Pakistan. The main challenge facing the…

  9. The glue that holds the community together? Sport and sustainability in rural Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on the author's research in northwest Victoria, Australia, this essay examines the forms of capital that are created in and through rural sport as well as the processes of social inclusion and exclusion that structure access to social networks and to the resources these networks contain. In

  10. Unsettling Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    This book is a critical intervention into debates on Australia's cultural history. The book demonstrates the interconnectedness of themes commonly seen as separate discursive formations, and shows the fruitfulness of bringing a combined cultural studies and postcolonial approach to bear on a number...

  11. Australian Assassins, Part I: A review of the Assassin Spiders (Araneae, Archaeidae) of mid-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Michael G; Harvey, Mark S

    2011-01-01

    The Assassin Spiders of the family Archaeidae are an ancient and iconic lineage of basal araneomorph spiders, characterised by a specialised araneophagic ecology and unique, 'pelican-like' cephalic morphology. Found throughout the rainforests, wet sclerophyll forests and mesic heathlands of south-western, south-eastern and north-eastern Australia, the genus Austrarchaea Forster & Platnick, 1984 includes a diverse assemblage of relictual, largely short-range endemic species. With recent dedicated field surveys and significant advances in our understanding of archaeid biology and ecology, numerous new species of assassin spiders have been discovered in the montane sub-tropical and warm-temperate closed forests of mid-eastern Australia, including several rare or enigmatic taxa and species of conservation concern. This fauna is revised and 17 new species are described from south-eastern Queensland and eastern New South Wales: Austrarchaea alanisp. n., Austrarchaea aleenaesp. n., Austrarchaea binfordaesp. n., Austrarchaea christopherisp. n., Austrarchaea clyneaesp. n., Austrarchaea cunninghamisp. n., Austrarchaea dianneaesp. n., Austrarchaea harmsisp. n., Austrarchaea helenaesp. n., Austrarchaea judyaesp. n., Austrarchaea mascordisp. n., Austrarchaea mcguiganaesp. n., Austrarchaea milledgeisp. n., Austrarchaea monteithisp. n., Austrarchaea platnickorumsp. n., Austrarchaea ravenisp. n. and Austrarchaea smithaesp. n. Adult specimens of the type species, Austrarchaea nodosa (Forster, 1956) are redescribed from the Lamington Plateau, south-eastern Queensland, and distinguished from the sympatric species Austrarchaea dianneaesp. n. A key to species and a molecular phylogenetic analysis of COI and COII mtDNA sequences complement the species-level taxonomy, with maps, habitat photos, natural history information and conservation assessments provided for all species.

  12. Australian Assassins, Part I: A review of the Assassin Spiders (Araneae: Archaeidae of mid-eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rix

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Assassin Spiders of the family Archaeidae are an ancient and iconic lineage of basal araneomorph spiders, characterised by a specialised araneophagic ecology and unique, ‘pelican-like’ cephalic morphology. Found throughout the rainforests, wet sclerophyll forests and mesic heathlands of south-western, south-eastern and north-eastern Australia, the genus Austrarchaea Forster & Platnick, 1984 includes a diverse assemblage of relictual, largely short-range endemic species. With recent dedicated field surveys and significant advances in our understanding of archaeid biology and ecology, numerous new species of assassin spiders have been discovered in the montane sub-tropical and warm-temperate closed forests of mid-eastern Australia, including several rare or enigmatic taxa and species of conservation concern. This fauna is revised and 17 new species are described from south-eastern Queensland and eastern New South Wales: A. alani sp. n., A. aleenae sp. n., A. binfordae sp. n., A. christopheri sp. n., A. clyneae sp. n., A. cunninghami sp. n., A. dianneae sp. n., A. harmsi sp. n., A. helenae sp. n., A. judyae sp. n., A. mascordi sp. n., A. mcguiganae sp. n., A. milledgei sp. n., A. monteithi sp. n., A. platnickorum sp. n., A. raveni sp. n. and A. smithae sp. n. Adult specimens of the type species, A. nodosa (Forster, 1956 are redescribed from the Lamington Plateau, south-eastern Queensland, and distinguished from the sympatric species A. dianneae sp. n. A key to species and a molecular phylogenetic analysis of COI and COII mtDNA sequences complement the species-level taxonomy, with maps, habitat photos, natural history information and conservation assessments provided for all species.

  13. The molecular epidemiology of norovirus outbreaks in Victoria, 2014 to 2015
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggink, Leesa D; Moselen, Jean M; Marshall, John A

    2017-03-31

    Noroviruses are a leading cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis. This study examined the incidence and molecular characteristics of norovirus outbreaks in healthcare and non-healthcare settings in Victoria, Australia, over 2 years (2014-2015). Norovirus was detected in 65.7% and 60.4% of gastroenteritis outbreaks investigated for the years 2014 and 2015 respectively. There was a significant decline in the number of norovirus outbreaks in the period 2014 to 2015 although in both years norovirus outbreaks peaked in the latter part of the year. Norovirus Open Reading Frame (ORF) 2 (capsid) genotypes identified included GI.2, GI.3, GI.4, GI.5, GI.6, GI.9, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.6, GII.7, GII.8, GII.13 and GII.17. GII.4 was the most common genotype detected. In addition, the following ORF 1/ORF 2 recombinant forms were confirmed: GII.P4_NewOrleans_2009/GII.4_Sydney_2012, GII.P12/GII.3, GII.Pb (GII.21)/GII.3, GII.Pe/GII.2 and GII.Pe/GII.4_Sydney_2012. A significant decline was noted in the chief norovirus strain GII.Pe/GII.4_Sydney_2012 between 2014 and 2015 but there was a re-emergence of a GII.P4_ NewOrleans _2009 norovirus strain. Outbreaks involving the GII.P17/GII.17 genotype were also detected for the first time in Victoria. GI genotypes circulating in Victoria for the 2 years 2014 and 2015 underwent a dramatic change between the 2 years of the survey. Many genotypes could occur in both healthcare and non-healthcare settings although GI.3, GII.6, and GII.4 were significantly more common in healthcare settings. The study emphasises the complex way in which norovirus circulates throughout the community.

  14. Sex and sport: sexual risk behaviour in young people in rural and regional Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fabian Y S; Hocking, Jane S; Link, Chris Kyle; Chen, Marcus Y; Hellard, Margaret E

    2010-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of chlamydia and understand sexual risk behaviour in 16-29 year olds in rural Victoria through a chlamydia testing program undertaken at local sporting clubs. Young people were recruited from the Loddon Mallee region of Victoria, Australia between May and September 2007. After a night of sporting practice, participants provided a first pass urine sample and completed a brief questionnaire about sexual risk behaviour. Those positive for chlamydia were managed by telephone consultation with a practitioner from Melbourne Sexual Health Centre. A total of 709 young people participated (77% male, 23% female) in the study; 77% were sexually active. Overall chlamydia prevalence in sexually active participants was 5.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.4-7.3); 7.4% in females (95% CI: 3.5-13.6) and 4.5% in males (95% CI: 2.7-6.9). Approximately 60% of males and 20% of females consumed alcohol at high 'Risky Single Occasion Drinking' levels at least weekly and 60% had used an illicit drug in their lifetime. Nearly 45% reported having sex in the past year when they usually would not have because they were too drunk or high. Sexually transmissible infection (STI) knowledge was generally poor and only 25% used a condom the last time they had sex. Chlamydia prevalence was high in our study population. Many participants had poor knowledge about STIs and low condom use. These findings combined with high levels of risky alcohol use and having sex while intoxicated highlights the need for programs in rural and regional Victoria that combine both STI testing and prevention and education programs.

  15. Revision of the genus Hydroides (Annelida: Serpulidae) from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanan; Wong, Eunice; ten Hove, Harry A; Hutchings, Pat A; Williamson, Jane E; Kupriyanova, Elena K

    2015-09-01

    Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 is the largest and one of the economically most important genera of calcareous tubeworms (Serpulidae, Annelida) that includes a number of notorious fouling and bioinvading species. Although the representatives of the genus are typically found in shallow waters of tropical and subtropical areas worldwide, the species composition of the genus in Australia has never been revised. We conducted the first detailed regional taxonomic revision of Hydroides species based both on the historical collections from Australian museums (Australian Museum, Museum Victoria, South Australian Museum, Western Australian Museum, Queensland Museum, and Museum and Art Gallery of Northern Territory) and newly collected material from New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Northern Territory, and Western Australia. In total, 25 species are currently considered valid in Australia, including three new species: H. amri n. sp. from NSW, SA, and Vic (previously referred to as H. cf. brachyacantha), as well as H. glasbyi n. sp. and H. qiui n. sp., both from NT, and two new records of H. furcifera and H. multispinosa for Australia. We have synonymised H. spiratubus with H. albiceps, and H. spiculitubus with H. tambalagamensis in this study. The status of the taxon H. cf. recta remains undecided. An identification key and diagnoses accompanied by original high-quality photographs for all species recorded in Australia are provided. Application of molecular genetics is needed to resolve the status of some problematic species.

  16. Analysis and evaluation of WRF microphysical schemes for deep moist convection over south-eastern South America (SESA using microwave satellite observations and radiative transfer simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Galligani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, three meteorological events of extreme deep moist convection, characteristic of south-eastern South America, are considered to conduct a systematic evaluation of the microphysical parameterizations available in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model by undertaking a direct comparison between satellite-based simulated and observed microwave radiances. A research radiative transfer model, the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS, is coupled with the WRF model under three different microphysical parameterizations (WSM6, WDM6 and Thompson schemes. Microwave radiometry has shown a promising ability in the characterization of frozen hydrometeors. At high microwave frequencies, however, frozen hydrometeors significantly scatter radiation, and the relationship between radiation and hydrometeor populations becomes very complex. The main difficulty in microwave remote sensing of frozen hydrometeor characterization is correctly characterizing this scattering signal due to the complex and variable nature of the size, composition and shape of frozen hydrometeors. The present study further aims at improving the understanding of frozen hydrometeor optical properties characteristic of deep moist convection events in south-eastern South America. In the present study, bulk optical properties are computed by integrating the single-scattering properties of the Liu(2008 discrete dipole approximation (DDA single-scattering database across the particle size distributions parameterized by the different WRF schemes in a consistent manner, introducing the equal mass approach. The equal mass approach consists of describing the optical properties of the WRF snow and graupel hydrometeors with the optical properties of habits in the DDA database whose dimensions might be different (Dmax′ but whose mass is conserved. The performance of the radiative transfer simulations is evaluated by comparing the simulations with the available

  17. Mapping the isotopic signature of methane in South-Eastern Spain: complementing biogeochemical long-term research with short term observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Àgueda, Alba; Morguí, Josep Anton; Vazquez Garcia, Eusebi; Curcoll, Roger; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E.; Nisbet, Euan G.

    2016-04-01

    As a greenhouse gas, methane has a global warming potential of 25 in a 100 year scale. In order to establish mitigation plans it is important to assess its sources and sinks which can be both of geological and biological origin. South-Eastern Spain is a region with many different possible methane sources: i) by seismic activity of many geological faults both inland and in the neighbouring marine region (i.e. the Carboneras fault crossing the Alborán Sea along Málaga coastline); ii) by seepage of methane from hydrates present in the marine regions close to the Gibraltar Strait and the Gulf of Cádiz; iii) by emissions from fossil fuels caused by high traffic of merchant ships and the presence of large harbours (Algeciras, Tetuan and Cádiz), and the Africa - Europe Gas Transport Network in the Gibraltar Strait region; iv) by organic matter decomposition in both highly productive marshlands and eutrophic reservoirs; v) by burning of agricultural debris for energy supply, mainly from olive residues. In this study, a methane mapping survey has been conducted in the area around three atmospheric stations of the ClimaDat Atmospheric Network for Continuous Measurements of Greenhouse Gases (www.climadat.es) located in South-Eastern Spain (Sierra de Grazalema (SGC3), Tarifa (EEC3) and Sierra de Segura (SSC3). A cavity ring down spectrometer (CRDS) (G2301m, Picarro®) installed on a car has been used to measure methane concentrations. Additionally, in selected points, air samples have been collected in Tedlar bags for isotopic signature analysis by CF-GC-IRMS (Continuous Flow Gas Chromatography-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry). In order to obtain a map facilitating the identification of the different methane sources in the background air at regional scale, the mapping of isotopic signature of methane together with its concentration is a useful tool to obtain fast and direct information that will contribute to the knowledge of methane transport at the regional scale and

  18. Analysis and evaluation of WRF microphysical schemes for deep moist convection over south-eastern South America (SESA) using microwave satellite observations and radiative transfer simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sol Galligani, Victoria; Wang, Die; Alvarez Imaz, Milagros; Salio, Paola; Prigent, Catherine

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, three meteorological events of extreme deep moist convection, characteristic of south-eastern South America, are considered to conduct a systematic evaluation of the microphysical parameterizations available in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model by undertaking a direct comparison between satellite-based simulated and observed microwave radiances. A research radiative transfer model, the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS), is coupled with the WRF model under three different microphysical parameterizations (WSM6, WDM6 and Thompson schemes). Microwave radiometry has shown a promising ability in the characterization of frozen hydrometeors. At high microwave frequencies, however, frozen hydrometeors significantly scatter radiation, and the relationship between radiation and hydrometeor populations becomes very complex. The main difficulty in microwave remote sensing of frozen hydrometeor characterization is correctly characterizing this scattering signal due to the complex and variable nature of the size, composition and shape of frozen hydrometeors. The present study further aims at improving the understanding of frozen hydrometeor optical properties characteristic of deep moist convection events in south-eastern South America. In the present study, bulk optical properties are computed by integrating the single-scattering properties of the Liu(2008) discrete dipole approximation (DDA) single-scattering database across the particle size distributions parameterized by the different WRF schemes in a consistent manner, introducing the equal mass approach. The equal mass approach consists of describing the optical properties of the WRF snow and graupel hydrometeors with the optical properties of habits in the DDA database whose dimensions might be different (Dmax') but whose mass is conserved. The performance of the radiative transfer simulations is evaluated by comparing the simulations with the available coincident

  19. A longitudinal study of the cost of food in Victoria influenced by geography and nutritional quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Claire; McCartan, Julia; Kleve, Sue; Sinha, Kompal; Shiell, Alan

    2016-06-01

    To monitor the cost and affordability of a nutritious diet and to assess the influence of distance from the capital city and socioeconomic status on the cost of nutritious food in Victoria. Twenty-six of Victoria's 79 local government areas (33%) were randomly chosen for inclusion in the study. A random sample of stores was selected for inclusion from each local government area. The cost of the 44 'healthy' and 10 'discretionary' food and drinks in the healthy food basket for a family of four for a fortnight was collected during the winter and summer of 2012, 2013 and 2014. The mean cost of the basket increased from $424.06 ± 38.22 in winter 2012 to $451.19 ± 33.83 in summer 2014 (pcost. These findings show that a healthy diet may be unaffordable for some Victorians. The cost of food is a key factor influencing intake. Public health strategies may need to consider strategies to make healthy food more affordable for some. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  20. Acute stress ulceration prophylaxis: point prevalence surveys in intensive care units in Victoria, 1997 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Megan S; Wilson, Stuart J; Cade, John F

    2008-03-01

    To assess current practice in acute stress ulceration (ASU) prophylaxis in adult intensive care units in Victoria, Australia, in 1997 and 2005. Point prevalence surveys using a structured telephone questionnaire of ASU prophylaxis practices were performed in adult ICUs in Victoria on 11 November 1997 and 13 April 2005. All Victorian ICUs identified on each study day participated, comprising 30 ICUs in 1997 and 35 ICUs in 2005. Presence of a clinical protocol or guideline for ASU prophylaxis increased significantly from 23% in 1997 to 54% in 2005 (P = 0.01). Overall provision of ASU prophylaxis to ICU patients also increased significantly from 67% in 1997 to 86% in 2005 (P 1997 to 45% in 2005 (P 1997 and 2005. Use of ASU prophylaxis for patients admitted to Victorian ICUs increased significantly from 1997 to 2005, with an associated increase in the presence of protocols or guidelines for ASU prophylaxis. Although agents currently used for ASU prophylaxis in Victorian ICUs are consistent with available evidence, we are concerned that ASU prophylaxis is given to all patients admitted to the ICU rather than targeted to patients in high-risk categories.

  1. Accounting for Violence at the Victoria Industrial School

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bryan Hogeveen

    2009-01-01

    Boys who were inmates at the Victoria Industrial School (VIS) from its opening in 1887 to its closure in 1934 often suffered extreme, violent, and capricious penalties and encountered calculated psychological manipulation...

  2. Ecological Biogeography of the Terrestrial Nematodes of Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Byron J.; Wall, Diana H.; Virginia, Ross A.; Broos, Emma; Knox, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The terrestrial ecosystems of Victoria Land, Antarctica are characteristically simple in terms of biological diversity and ecological functioning. Nematodes are the most commonly encountered and abundant metazoans of Victoria Land soils, yet little is known of their diversity and distribution. Herein we present a summary of the geographic distribution, habitats and ecology of the terrestrial nematodes of Victoria Land from published and unpublished sources. All Victoria Land nematodes are endemic to Antarctica, and many are common and widely distributed at landscape scales. However, at smaller spatial scales, populations can have patchy distributions, with the presence or absence of each species strongly influenced by specific habitat requirements. As the frequency of nematode introductions to Antarctica increases, and soil habitats are altered in response to climate change, our current understanding of the environmental parameters associated with the biogeography of Antarctic nematofauna will be crucial to monitoring and possibly mitigating changes to these unique soil ecosystems. PMID:25061360

  3. Victoria Land, Ross Sea, and Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On December 19, 2001, MODIS acquired data that produced this image of Antarctica's Victoria Land, Ross Ice Shelf, and the Ross Sea. The coastline that runs up and down along the left side of the image denotes where Victoria Land (left) meets the Ross Ice Shelf (right). The Ross Ice Shelf is the world's largest floating body of ice, approximately the same size as France. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  4. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in liver tissue of dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar C. plumbeus and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jann M; Baduel, Christine; Li, Yan; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Butcher, Paul A; McGrath, Shane P; Peddemors, Victor M; Hearn, Laurence; Mueller, Jochen; Christidis, Les

    2015-12-30

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous pollutants in the marine environment that are known to accumulate in apex predators such as sharks. Liver samples from dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar Carcharhinus plumbeus, and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters were analysed for the seven indicator PCBs 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180. Median ∑PCBs were significantly higher in white than sandbar sharks (3.35 and 0.36 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively, p=0.05) but there were no significant differences between dusky sharks (1.31 μg g(-1) lipid) and the other two species. Congener concentrations were also significantly higher in white sharks. Significant differences in PCB concentrations between mature and immature dusky (3.78 and 0.76 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively) and sandbar (1.94 and 0.18 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively) sharks indicated that PCB concentrations in these species increased with age/growth. Higher-chlorinated congeners (hexa and heptachlorobiphenyls) dominated results, accounting for ~90% of ∑PCBs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Characterization of non-calcareous 'thin' red clay from south-eastern Brazil: applicability in wall tile manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, S.J.G.; Holanda, J.N.F., E-mail: sidnei_rjsousa@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: holanda@uenf.br [Grupo de Materiais Ceramicos - LAMAV-CCT, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    In this work the use of 'thin' red clay from south-eastern Brazil (Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ) as raw material for the manufacture of wall tile was investigated. A wi