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Sample records for victoria south-eastern australia

  1. Downscaling an Eddy-Resolving Global Model for the Continental Shelf off South Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughan, M.; Baird, M.; MacDonald, H.; Oke, P.

    2008-12-01

    The Australian Bluelink collaboration between CSIRO, the Bureau of Meteorology and the Royal Australian Navy has made available to the research community the output of BODAS (Bluelink ocean data assimilation system), an ensemble optimal interpolation reanalysis system with ~10 km resolution around Australia. Within the Bluelink project, BODAS fields are assimilated into a dynamic ocean model of the same resolution to produce BRAN (BlueLink ReANalysis, a hindcast of water properties around Australia from 1992 to 2004). In this study, BODAS hydrographic fields are assimilated into a ~ 3 km resolution Princeton Ocean Model (POM) configuration of the coastal ocean off SE Australia. Experiments were undertaken to establish the optimal strength and duration of the assimilation of BODAS fields into the 3 km resolution POM configuration for the purpose of producing hindcasts of ocean state. It is shown that the resultant downscaling of Bluelink products is better able to reproduce coastal features, particularly velocities and hydrography over the continental shelf off south eastern Australia. The BODAS-POM modelling system is used to provide a high-resolution simulation of the East Australian Current over the period 1992 to 2004. One of the applications that we will present is an investigation of the seasonal and inter-annual variability in the dispersion of passive particles in the East Australian Current. The practical outcome is an estimate of the connectivity of estuaries along the coast of southeast Australia, which is relevant for the dispersion of marine pests.

  2. Incidence of laminitis and survey of dietary and management practices in pleasure horses and ponies in south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, S J; Bamford, N J; Harris, P A; Bailey, S R

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) report the incidence of laminitis among a population of horses and ponies attending Pony Clubs in Victoria, Australia, and (2) describe the dietary and management practices of the sample population. Researchers visited 10 Pony Clubs over a 10-month period. Horse and pony owners completed a questionnaire to provide information on management relating to diet and exercise. Owners were also asked to report their animal's history of laminitis, if any. From a survey population of 233 horses and ponies, 15.0% of animals (35 individuals) were reported to have suffered from at least one episode of laminitis. Of the animals that had suffered from laminitis, more than half had experienced multiple episodes. The majority of previously laminitic horses and ponies (71.4%) had not experienced an episode of laminitis within the past 12 months; however, 14.2% had experienced an incident within the past month. The proportion of ponies affected by laminitis (31/142; 21.8%) was significantly higher (P horses affected by laminitis (4/91; 4.4%). The incidence of laminitis within the pony group sampled was 6.5 cases per 100 pony years, while the incidence in horses was 0.55 cases per 100 horse years. This study provided information on the incidence of laminitis in the general population of pleasure horses and ponies in south-eastern Australia. It also provided an overview of dietary and management practices. Given the high incidence of animals that had been affected by laminitis (and the associated welfare implications), this study highlights the importance of owner education regarding appropriate feeding and management strategies to reduce the risk of laminitis. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  3. Effects of Biosolids Application on Pasture and Grape Vines in South-Eastern Australia

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    David Nash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosolids were applied to a pasture and a vineyard in south-eastern Australia. At both sites, soil Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations linearly increased with biosolids application rates although not to the extent of exceeding soil quality guidelines. Biosolids marginally increased soil C and N concentrations at the pasture site but significantly increased P concentrations. With lower overall soil fertility at the vineyard, biosolids increased C, N, and P concentrations. At neither site did biosolids application affect soil microbial endpoints. Biosolids increased pasture production compared to the unfertilised control but had little effect on grape production or quality. Interestingly, over the 3-year trial, there was no difference in pasture production between the biosolids treated plots and plots receiving inorganic fertiliser. These results suggest that biosolids could be used as a fertiliser to stimulate pasture production and as a soil conditioner to improve vineyard soils in this region.

  4. Effects of Bio solids Application on Pasture and Grape Vines in South-Eastern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, D.; Butler, C.; Cody, J.; Warne, M.S.J.; McLaughlin, M.J.; Heemsbergen, D.; Broos, K.; McLaughlin, M.J.; Heemsbergen, D.; Broos, K.; Bell, M.; Barry, G.; Pritchard, D.; Penny, N.; Penny, N.

    2011-01-01

    Bio solids were applied to a pasture and a vineyard in south-eastern Australia. At both sites, soil Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations linearly increased with bio solids application rates although not to the extent of exceeding soil quality guidelines. Bio solids marginally increased soil C and N concentrations at the pasture site but significantly increased P concentrations. With lower overall soil fertility at the vineyard, bio solids increased C, N, and P concentrations. At neither site did bio solids application affect soil microbial endpoints. Bio solids increased pasture production compared to the unfertilised control but had little effect on grape production or quality. Interestingly, over the 3-year trial, there was no difference in pasture production between the bio solids treated plots and plots receiving inorganic fertiliser. These results suggest that bio solids could be used as a fertiliser to stimulate pasture production and as a soil conditioner to improve vineyard soils in this region.

  5. Biodegradation of cyanide in groundwater and soils from gasworks sites in south-eastern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, S.M.E.; Weaver, T.R.; Lawrence, C.R. [University of Melbourne, Parkvills, Vic. (Australia). School of Earth Sciences

    1999-07-01

    Groundwater from a gasworks site in south-eastern Australia has been found to contain high concentrations of cyanide (total), sulphate, and ammonia (1400 mg L{sup -1}, 6500 mg L{sup -1}, and 580 mg L{sup -1} respectively). Soil from another gasworks site has been found to contain 587 mg kg{sup -1} of cyanide (total), with concentrations of cyanide in the groundwater at this site being relatively low ({lt} 21 mgL{sup -1} CN(Total)). Experiments were conducted to determine the biodegradation rates of cyanide in groundwater and soils using samples from both sites. Column experiments and bioreactors were constructed to produce both aerobic and anaerobic conditions for the groundwater containing high concentrations of cyanide. Samples of water were taken periodically to analyse the pH, redox potential, temperature, and concentrations of cyanide (free and total), sulphate, ammonia, nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Initial results indicate that concentrations of cyanide are declining in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, with biodegradation one process producing degradation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. How Local Landholder Groups Collectively Manage Weeds in South-Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sonia; Rogers, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    For two decades researchers and policy makers have been arguing that community-based collective action is needed to effectively control weeds. Yet there has been little social research into the ways that collective weed control emerges at local scales. The aim of this paper is to investigate the mechanisms through which three local landholder groups in south-eastern Australia collectively manage weeds and the measures they use to evaluate success. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with members of three Landcare groups—Jerrawa Creek/Upper Lachlan, MacLaughlin River and Towamba Valley—as well as government staff external to the groups. The results reveal that for all three groups collective weed control is about supporting individual weed control efforts as well as proactively engaging landholders with the worst infestations. The groups were seen to be successful because they focused on the common challenge that weeds pose to all landholders, thereby removing the shame associated with having weeds, and because they organised community events that were as much about building and maintaining social relationships as improving weed control. Groups were positive about what they had achieved as collectives of landholders, but also saw an important role for government in providing funding, engaging with landholders who were unwilling to engage directly with the group, and controlling weeds on public lands.

  7. An evaluation of soil water outlooks for winter wheat in south-eastern Australia

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    Western, A. W.; Dassanayake, K. B.; Perera, K. C.; Alves, O.; Young, G.; Argent, R.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Soil moisture is a key limiting resource for rain-fed cropping in Australian broad-acre cropping zones. Seasonal rainfall and temperature outlooks are standard operational services offered by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and are routinely used to support agricultural decisions. This presentation examines the performance of proposed soil water seasonal outlooks in the context of wheat cropping in south-eastern Australia (autumn planting, late spring harvest). We used weather ensembles simulated by the Predictive Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA), as input to the Agricultural Production Simulator (APSIM) to construct ensemble soil water "outlooks" at twenty sites. Hindcasts were made over a 33 year period using the 33 POAMA ensemble members. The overall modelling flow involved: 1. Downscaling of the daily weather series (rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature, humidity, radiation) from the ~250km POAMA grid scale to a local weather station using quantile-quantile correction. This was based on a 33 year observation record extracted from the SILO data drill product. 2. Using APSIM to produce soil water ensembles from the downscaled weather ensembles. A warm up period of 5 years of observed weather was followed by a 9 month hindcast period based on each ensemble member. 3. The soil water ensembles were summarized by estimating the proportion of outlook ensembles in each climatological tercile, where the climatology was constructed using APSIM and observed weather from the 33 years of hindcasts at the relevant site. 4. The soil water outlooks were evaluated for different lead times and months using a "truth" run of APSIM based on observed weather. Outlooks generally have useful some forecast skill for lead times of up to two-three months, except late spring; in line with current useful lead times for rainfall outlooks. Better performance was found in summer and autumn when vegetation cover and water use is low.

  8. Occupational skin disease in Victoria, Australia.

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    Cahill, Jennifer L; Williams, Jason D; Matheson, Melanie C; Palmer, Amanda M; Burgess, John A; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2016-05-01

    To describe the characteristics of patients with occupational skin disease (OSD) in a tertiary referral clinic in Victoria, Australia. A retrospective review was conducted of records from patients seen at the Occupational Dermatology Clinic in Melbourne, Australia between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2010. Of the 2894 people assessed in the clinic during the 18-year period, 44% were women and 56% were men. In all, 2177 (75%) were diagnosed with occupational skin disease (OSD). Of the patients with a work-related skin condition, 45% (n = 979) were considered to be atopic. The most common diagnosis in those with OSD was irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) (44%), followed by allergic contact dermatitis (33%) and endogenous eczema (11%). Women were significantly more likely to have soaps and detergents (P Occupational groups with the highest incidence of OSD were the hair and beauty professions (70 per 100 000), followed by machine and plant operators (38 per 100 000) and health-care workers (21 per 100 000). We confirm the importance of occupational contact dermatitis as the most common cause of OSD, with ICD being the most common diagnosis. There are differences in the causes of ICD between our group of male and female workers. For the first time in Australia, rates of OSD in certain industries have been calculated. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  9. Water and temperature stress define the optimal flowering period for wheat in south-eastern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, John; Kirkegaard, John; Hunt, James; Flohr, Bonnie

    2017-01-01

    Across the Australian wheat belt, the time at which wheat flowers is a critical determinant of yield. In all environments an optimal flowering period (OFP) exists which is defined by decreasing frost risk, and increasing water and heat stress. Despite their critical importance, OFPs have not been comprehensively defined across south eastern Australia′s (SEA) cropping zone using yield estimates incorporating temperature, radiation and water-stress. In this study, the widely validated cropping ...

  10. Occurrence of tongue worm, Linguatula cf. serrata (Pentastomida: Linguatulidae in wild canids and livestock in south-eastern Australia

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    Shokoofeh Shamsi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pentastomids are obligate zoonotic arthropod parasites utilising canids and vulpids as their definitive hosts and several herbivorous species as their intermediate hosts. Reported only 10 times in Australia over the last 150 years as incidental findings, adult Pentastomids referred to as Linguatula serrata have been encountered in nasal cavities of domestic and wild dogs, and foxes. Nymphs have been reported in cattle and rabbits. In the present study, a number of potential definitive hosts, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes, wild dogs (Canis lupus dingo and C.l. dingo x C. familiaris and feral cats (Felis catus, and intermediate hosts cattle (Bos taurus, sheep (Ovis aries, feral pigs (Sus scrofa, rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, goats (Capra hircus and a European hare (Lepus europaeus, from the highlands of south-eastern Australia were examined. Of the animals examined 67.6% of wild dogs (n = 37, 14.5% of red foxes (n = 55 and 4.3% of cattle (n = 164 were found to be infected with Pentastomids, herein identified as Linguatula cf. serrata. The common occurrence of the parasite in wild dogs and less frequently in foxes suggests these wild canids have potential to act as a reservoir for infection of livestock, wildlife, domestic dogs and possibly humans. The unexpected high frequency of the parasite in wild dogs and foxes in south-eastern Australia suggests the parasite is more common than previously realised. Of the potential intermediate hosts in the region, only 4.3% of cattle were found to be infected with pentastomid nymphs which suggest the search for the host(s acting as the main intermediate host in the region should continue. Future studies should investigate transmission patterns, health impacts on hosts and whether the parasite has zoonotic significance in Australia. Keywords: Tongue worm, Australia, Linguatulidae, Pentastomida

  11. Interspecific and geographic variation in the diets of sympatric carnivores: dingoes/wild dogs and red foxes in south-eastern Australia.

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    Naomi E Davis

    Full Text Available Dingoes/wild dogs (Canis dingo/familiaris and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes are widespread carnivores in southern Australia and are controlled to reduce predation on domestic livestock and native fauna. We used the occurrence of food items in 5875 dingo/wild dog scats and 11,569 fox scats to evaluate interspecific and geographic differences in the diets of these species within nine regions of Victoria, south-eastern Australia. The nine regions encompass a wide variety of ecosystems. Diet overlap between dingoes/wild dogs and foxes varied among regions, from low to near complete overlap. The diet of foxes was broader than dingoes/wild dogs in all but three regions, with the former usually containing more insects, reptiles and plant material. By contrast, dingoes/wild dogs more regularly consumed larger mammals, supporting the hypothesis that niche partitioning occurs on the basis of mammalian prey size. The key mammalian food items for dingoes/wild dogs across all regions were black wallaby (Wallabia bicolor, brushtail possum species (Trichosurus spp., common wombat (Vombatus ursinus, sambar deer (Rusa unicolor, cattle (Bos taurus and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The key mammalian food items for foxes across all regions were European rabbit, sheep (Ovis aries and house mouse (Mus musculus. Foxes consumed 6.1 times the number of individuals of threatened Critical Weight Range native mammal species than did dingoes/wild dogs. The occurrence of intraguild predation was asymmetrical; dingoes/wild dogs consumed greater biomass of the smaller fox. The substantial geographic variation in diet indicates that dingoes/wild dogs and foxes alter their diet in accordance with changing food availability. We provide checklists of taxa recorded in the diets of dingoes/wild dogs and foxes as a resource for managers and researchers wishing to understand the potential impacts of policy and management decisions on dingoes/wild dogs, foxes and the food

  12. Shelf spawning habitat of Emmelichthys nitidus in south-eastern Australia - Implications and suitability for egg-based biomass estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Francisco J.; Lyle, Jeremy M.; Keane, John P.

    2009-03-01

    The spawning habitat of Emmelichthys nitidus (Emmelichthyidae) in south-eastern Australia is described from vertical ichthyoplankton samples collected along the shelf region off eastern through to south-western Tasmania during peak spawning in October 2005-06. Surveys covered eastern waters in 2005 (38.8-43.5°S), and both eastern and southern waters in 2006 (40.5°S around to 43.5°S off the south-west). Eggs ( n = 10,393) and larvae ( n = 378) occurred along eastern Tasmania in both years but were rare along southern waters south and westwards of 43.5°S in 2006. Peak egg abundances (1950-2640 per m -2) were obtained off north-eastern Tasmania (40.5-41.5°S) between the shelf break and 2.5 nm inshore from the break. Eggs were up to 5-days old, while nearly 95% of larvae were at the early preflexion stage, i.e. close to newly emerged. Average abundances of aged eggs pooled across each survey declined steadily from day-1 to day-5 eggs both in 2005 (97-18) and 2006 (175-34). Moreover, day-1 egg abundances were significantly greater 2.5 nm at either side of the break, including at the break, than in waters ≥5 nm both inshore and offshore from the break. These results, complemented with egg and larval data obtained in shelf waters off New South Wales (NSW; 35.0-37.7°S) in October 2002-03, indicate that the main spawning area of E. nitidus in south-eastern Australia lies between 35.5°S off southern NSW and 43.5°S off south-eastern Tasmania, and that spawning activity declines abruptly south and westwards of 43.5°S around to the south-west coast. In addition, quotient analyses of day-1 egg abundances point to a preferred spawning habitat contained predominantly within a 5 nm corridor along the shelf break, where waters are 125-325 m deep and median temperatures 13.5-14.0 °C. Spawning off eastern Tasmania is timed with the productivity outburst typical of the region during the austral spring, and the temperature increase from the mixing between the southwards

  13. Cross-Spectrum of Wind Speed for Meso-Gamma Scales in the Upper Surface Layer over South-Eastern Australia

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    Woods, Milton J.; Davy, Robert J.; Russell, Christopher J.; Coppin, Peter A.

    2011-10-01

    Analytical expressions for the cross-spectrum of wind speed are developed for the stochastic simulation of wind power in south-eastern Australia. The expressions are valid for heights above the ground in the range 40-80 m, site separations of 1-30 km, and frequencies of (1/6)-3 cycles h-1. The influence of site separation distance is taken into account, as are variables that are defined for blocks of time. These variables include the mean and standard deviation of wind speed and the mean wind direction. The parameters of the model equations are determined by non-linear least-squares regression with cross-validation over 10 years of wind measurements from 84 towers in south-eastern Australia.

  14. Dam safety management in Victoria (Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adem, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Victoria state government's decision to make dam owners accountable for safety and upkeep of their dams was reported. To give effect to this decision a series of guidelines have been developed which outline the required activities and skills to ensure that dams are properly managed within a framework of 'light-handed' regulation. The guidelines are also intended to ensure that dam management becomes an integral part of the business decision making process, not just a set of prescribed technical procedures. Details of the direction being taken and the proposed controls to ensure compliance with national and international standards were described. 4 refs., 2 figs

  15. Storage mite contamination of commercial dry dog food in south-eastern Australia.

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    Hibberson, C E; Vogelnest, L J

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate contamination of unopened and opened stored sources of commercial dry dog food by viable storage mites. Prospective laboratory and field study. Samples were collected from nine brands of previously unopened bags (new bags) of dry food and 20 field sources of stored dry food in homes in Sydney and Canberra, Australia. All samples were initially examined for the presence of mites using a stereo-binocular microscope and then placed in separate filter-paper-sealed containers. Field samples were incubated at an average temperature of 29°C and 78% relative humidity (RH) for 5 weeks and then at average 26°C/83% RH for 8 weeks. Paired new-bag samples were stored under room conditions (average 23°C/47% RH) and controlled incubator conditions (average 26°C/80% RH) for 6 weeks. All samples were thoroughly examined for mites, mite eggs and visible mould once weekly using a stereo-binocular microscope. Storage mites were not visualised in any of the field samples or in new-bag samples stored at room temperature. Storage mites, identified as Tyrophagus putrescentiae, were visualised in increasing numbers in seven of nine new-bag samples after incubation, with first mites and then eggs evident after 3 weeks of incubation. We confirmed the presence of viable storage mites in a range of previously unopened commercial dry dog foods in Australia and confirmed the possibility of heavy storage mite contamination for dry food stored under conditions of moderate temperature and high humidity. These findings have relevance to storage mite and/or dust mite sensitivity in canine atopic dermatitis. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  16. 3D DIGITAL CADASTRE JOURNEY IN VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA

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    D. Shojaei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Land development processes today have an increasing demand to access three-dimensional (3D spatial information. Complex land development may need to have a 3D model and require some functions which are only possible using 3D data. Accordingly, the Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM, as a national body in Australia provides leadership, coordination and standards for surveying, mapping and national datasets has developed the Cadastre 2034 strategy in 2014. This strategy has a vision to develop a cadastral system that enables people to readily and confidently identify the location and extent of all rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to land and real property. In 2014, the land authority in the state of Victoria, Australia, namely Land Use Victoria (LUV, has entered the challenging area of designing and implementing a 3D digital cadastre focused on providing more efficient and effective services to the land and property industry. LUV has been following the ICSM 2034 strategy which requires developing various policies, standards, infrastructures, and tools. Over the past three years, LUV has mainly focused on investigating the technical aspect of a 3D digital cadastre. This paper provides an overview of the 3D digital cadastre investigation progress in Victoria and discusses the challenges that the team faced during this journey. It also addresses the future path to develop an integrated 3D digital cadastre in Victoria.

  17. Body size, growth and life span: implications for the polewards range shift of Octopus tetricus in south-eastern Australia.

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    Ramos, Jorge E; Pecl, Gretta T; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A; Strugnell, Jan M; León, Rafael I; Semmens, Jayson M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the response of any species to climate change can be challenging. However, in short-lived species the faster turnover of generations may facilitate the examination of responses associated with longer-term environmental change. Octopus tetricus, a commercially important species, has undergone a recent polewards range shift in the coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, thought to be associated with the southerly extension of the warm East Australian Current. At the cooler temperatures of a polewards distribution limit, growth of a species could be slower, potentially leading to a bigger body size and resulting in a slower population turnover, affecting population viability at the extreme of the distribution. Growth rates, body size, and life span of O. tetricus were examined at the leading edge of a polewards range shift in Tasmanian waters (40°S and 147°E) throughout 2011. Octopus tetricus had a relatively small body size and short lifespan of approximately 11 months that, despite cooler temperatures, would allow a high rate of population turnover and may facilitate the population increase necessary for successful establishment in the new extended area of the range. Temperature, food availability and gender appear to influence growth rate. Individuals that hatched during cooler and more productive conditions, but grew during warming conditions, exhibited faster growth rates and reached smaller body sizes than individuals that hatched into warmer waters but grew during cooling conditions. This study suggests that fast growth, small body size and associated rapid population turnover may facilitate the range shift of O. tetricus into Tasmanian waters.

  18. Evidence of climatic effects on soil, vegetation and landform in temperate forests of south-eastern Australia

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    Inbar, Assaf; Nyman, Petter; Lane, Patrick; Sheridan, Gary

    2016-04-01

    Water and radiation are unevenly distributed across the landscape due to variations in topography, which in turn causes water availability differences on the terrain according to elevation and aspect orientation. These differences in water availability can cause differential distribution of vegetation types and indirectly influence the development of soil and even landform, as expressed in hillslope asymmetry. While most of the research on the effects of climate on the vegetation and soil development and landscape evolution has been concentrated in drier semi-arid areas, temperate forested areas has been poorly studied, particularly in South Eastern Australia. This study uses soil profile descriptions and data on soil depth and landform across climatic gradients to explore the degrees to which coevolution of vegetation, soils and landform are controlled by radiative forcing and rainfall. Soil depth measurements were made on polar and equatorial facing hillslopes located at 3 sites along a climatic gradient (mean annual rainfall between 700 - 1800 mm yr-1) in the Victorian Highlands, where forest types range from dry open woodland to closed temperate rainforest. Profile descriptions were taken from soil pits dag on planar hillslopes (50 m from ridge), and samples were taken from each horizon for physical and chemical properties analysis. Hillslope asymmetry in different precipitation regimes of the study region was quantified from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). Significant vegetation differences between aspects were noted in lower and intermediate rainfall sites, where polar facing aspects expressed higher overall biomass than the drier equatorial slope. Within the study domain, soil depth was strongly correlated with forest type and above ground biomass. Soil depths and chemical properties varied between topographic aspects and along the precipitation gradient, where wetter conditions facilitate deeper and more weathered soils. Furthermore, soil depths showed

  19. Surviving neoliberalism, maintaining values: Community health mergers in Victoria, Australia.

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    Roussy, Véronique; Livingstone, Charles

    2018-04-01

    Independent, not-for-profit community health services in the state of Victoria, Australia, provide one of that country's few models of comprehensive primary health care (PHC). Recent amalgamations among some such agencies created regional-sized community health organisations, in a departure from this sector's traditionally small local structure. This study explored the motivations, desired outcomes, and decision-making process behind these mergers. Qualitative exploratory study was based on 26 semistructured interviews with key informants associated with 2 community health mergers, which took place in 2014 in Victoria, Australia. Thematic data analysis was influenced by concepts derived from institutional theory. Becoming bigger by merging was viewed as the best way to respond to mounting external pressures, such as increasingly neoliberal funding mechanisms, perceived as threatening survival. Desired outcomes were driven by comprehensive PHC values, and related to creating organisational capacity to continue providing quality services to disadvantaged communities. This study offers insights into decision-making processes geared towards protecting the comprehensiveness of PHC service delivery for disadvantaged communities, ensuring financial viability, and surviving neoliberal economic policy whilst preserving communitarian values. These are relevant to an international audience, within a global context of rising health inequities, increasingly tight fiscal environments, and growing neoliberal influences on health policymaking and funding. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Increasing deaths involving oxycodone, Victoria, Australia, 2000-09.

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    Rintoul, Angela C; Dobbin, Malcolm D H; Drummer, Olaf H; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2011-08-01

    In light of an emerging epidemic identified in the United States and Canada, to identify trends in fatal drug toxicity involving oxycodone and the demographic characteristics and indicators of socioeconomic disadvantage of the deceased. Population-based observational study in Victoria, Australia. Decedents whose death was reported to the Victorian Coroner between 2000 and 2009 and where oxycodone was detected. Association between supply of oxycodone and deaths. Demographic characteristics of decedents. Rate ratios of the rural or metropolitan location and socioeconomic indicators of disadvantage of the deceased. Supply to Victoria has increased nine-fold from 7.5 mg per capita in 2000 to 67.5 mg per capita in 2009. Detection of oxycodone in deaths reported to the Victorian Coroner has increased from 4 (0.08/100,000 population) in 2000 to 97 (1.78/100,000 population) in 2009-a 21-fold increase in deaths. Of the 320 cases described, 53.8% (172) were the result of drug toxicity. Of these, 52.3% were unintentional and 19.8% intentional self-harm; the remaining 27.9% are either still under investigation by the coroner or intent is unknown. Drug toxicity deaths were overrepresented in both rural areas and areas indexed with high levels of disadvantage. The substantial increase in the number of deaths involving oxycodone is strongly and significantly associated with the increase in supply. Most drug toxicity deaths involving oxycodone were unintentional. This newly identified trend in fatalities in Victoria supports concerns that a pattern of increasing deaths involving oxycodone is emerging globally.

  1. Differences in the population structure of Neisseria meningitidis in two Australian states: Victoria and Western Australia.

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    Shakeel Mowlaboccus

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is the causative agent of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD. A recombinant vaccine called Bexsero® incorporates four subcapsular antigens (fHbp, NHBA, NadA and PorA which are used to assign a Bexsero® antigen sequence type (BAST to each meningococcal strain. The vaccine elicits an immune response against combinations of variants of these antigens which have been grouped into specific BAST profiles that have been shown to have different distributions within geographical locations thus potentially affecting the efficacy of the vaccine. In this study, invasive meningococcal disease isolates from the western seaboard of Australia (Western Australia; WA were compared to those from the south-eastern seaboard (Victoria; VIC from 2008 to 2012. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS of 131 meningococci from VIC and 70 meningococci from WA were analysed for MLST, FetA and BAST profiling. Serogroup B predominated in both jurisdictions and a total of 10 MLST clonal complexes (cc were shared by both states. Isolates belonging to cc22, cc103 and cc1157 were unique to VIC whilst isolates from cc60 and cc212 were unique to WA. Clonal complex 41/44 represented one-third of the meningococcal population in each state but the predominant ST was locally different: ST-6058 in VIC and ST-146 in WA. Of the 108 BAST profiles identified in this collection, only 9 BASTs were simultaneously observed in both states. A significantly larger proportion of isolates in VIC harboured alleles for the NHBA-2 peptide and fHbp-1, antigenic variants predicted to be covered by the Bexsero® vaccine. The estimate for vaccine coverage in WA (47.1% [95% CI: 41.1-53.1%] was significantly lower than that in VIC (66.4% [95% CI: 62.3-70.5%]. In conclusion, the antigenic structure of meningococci causing invasive disease in two geographically distinct states of Australia differed significantly during the study period which may affect vaccine effectiveness and highlights the

  2. The bone microstructure of polar "hypsilophodontid" dinosaurs from Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Holly N; Rich, Thomas H; Vickers-Rich, Patricia

    2018-01-18

    High-latitude (i.e., "polar") Mesozoic fauna endured months of twilight and relatively low mean annual temperatures. Yet non-avian dinosaurs flourished in this taxing environment. Fossils of basal ornithopod dinosaurs ("hypsilophodontids") are common in the Early Cretaceous high-latitude sediments of Victoria, Australia, and four taxa have been described; although their ontogenetic histories are largely unexplored. In the present study, eighteen tibiae and femora were utilized in the first multi-specimen ontogenetic histological analysis of Australian polar hypsilophodontids. The sample consists of eleven individuals from the Flat Rocks locality (Late Valanginian or Barremian), and five from the Dinosaur Cove locality (Albian). In both groups, growth was most rapid during the first three years, and skeletal maturity occurred between five and seven years. There is a weak asymptotic trend in a plot of growth mark count versus femur length, with considerable individual variation. Histology suggests two genera are present within the Dinosaur Cove sample, but bone microstructure alone could not distinguish genera within the Flat Rocks sample, or across the two geologically separate (~ 26 Ma) localities. Additional histologic sampling, combined with morphological analyses, may facilitate further differentiation between ontogenetic, individual, and species variation.

  3. Drivers of sulfide intrusion in Zostera muelleri in a moderately affected estuary in south-eastern Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer, Marianne; Bennett, William W.; Ferguson, Angus J. P.

    2017-01-01

    The seagrass Zostera muelleri Irmisch ex Asch. is abundant in estuaries in Australia and is under pressure from coastal developments. We studied sulfide intrusion in Z. muelleri along a gradient of anthropogenic impact at five stations in the Wallis Lake estuary, Australia. Results showed differe...

  4. The epidemiology of hip fractures across western Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Kara L; Sajjad, Muhammad A; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Kotowicz, Mark A; Livingston, Patricia M; Khasraw, Mustafa; Hakkennes, Sharon; Dunning, Trisha L; Brumby, Susan; Page, Richard S; Pedler, Daryl; Sutherland, Alasdair; Venkatesh, Svetha; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Williams, Lana J; Pasco, Julie A

    2018-03-01

    Hip fractures are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Hip fracture incidence varies across different levels of accessibility/remoteness and socioeconomic status (SES). As part of the Ageing, Chronic Disease and Injury Study, we aimed to map the pattern of hip fractures across the western region of the Australian state of Victoria, which contains a range of remoteness levels and SES. Data on hip fractures resulting in hospital admission were extracted from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset (VAED) for men and women aged 40+years during 2010-2013 inclusive. An age-adjusted incidence rate (per 10,000population/year) was calculated for the entire region. Crude incidence rates and length of acute care hospital stay (excluding rehabilitation) were calculated for each Local Government Area (LGA). The impact of aggregated age, accessibility/remoteness index of Australia (ARIA) and SES on hip fracture rates aggregated across LGAs was determined using Poisson regression. For men, the age-standardised rate of hospitalisations for hip fracture across the whole region was 19.2 per 10,000population/year (95%CI 18.0-20.4) and for women, 40.0 (95%CI 38.3-41.7). The highest incidence rates for both sexes occurred in the less accessible LGAs of Yarriambiack and Hindmarsh, as well as the LGA with the lowest SES, Central Goldfields. In both sexes, approximately two thirds of individuals were discharged from acute hospital care within 14days. Increasing age, higher remoteness and lower SES were all associated with higher hip fracture rates. Crude incidence rates varied by location. Given that a high proportion of patients had acute hospital care of ≤14days, and accessibility and SES were associated with hip fracture rates, these results can inform policy and provide a model for other groups to conduct similar research in their local environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reconstructing the eruption magnitude and energy budgets for the pre-historic eruption of the monogenetic ˜5 ka Mt. Gambier Volcanic Complex, south-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Otterloo, Jozua; Cas, Raymond A. F.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding explosive volcanic eruptions, especially phreatomagmatic eruptions, their intensities and energy budgets is of major importance when it comes to risk and hazard studies. With only a few historic occurrences of phreatomagmatic activity, a large amount of our understanding comes from the study of pre-historic volcanic centres, which causes issues when it comes to preservation and vegetation. In this research, we show that using 3D geometrical modelling it is possible to obtain volume estimates for different deposits of a pre-historic, complex, monogenetic centre, the Mt. Gambier Volcanic Complex, south-eastern Australia. Using these volumes, we further explore the energy budgets and the magnitude of this eruption (VEI 4), including dispersal patterns (eruption columns varying between 5 and 10 km, dispersed towards north-east to south), to further our understanding of intraplate, monogenetic eruptions involving phreatomagmatic activity. We also compare which thermodynamic model fits best in the creation of the maar crater of Mt. Gambier: the major-explosion-dominated model or the incremental growth model. In this case, the formation of most of the craters can best be explained by the latter model.

  6. Breeding short-tailed shearwaters buffer local environmental variability in south-eastern Australia by foraging in Antarctic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlincourt, Maud; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    Establishing patterns of movements of free-ranging animals in marine ecosystems is crucial for a better understanding of their feeding ecology, life history traits and conservation. As central place foragers, the habitat use of nesting seabirds is heavily influenced by the resources available within their foraging range. We tested the prediction that during years with lower resource availability, short-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus tenuirostris) provisioning chicks should increase their foraging effort, by extending their foraging range and/or duration, both when foraging in neritic (short trips) and distant oceanic waters (long trips). Using both GPS and geolocation data-loggers, at-sea movements and habitat use were investigated over three breeding seasons (2012-14) at two colonies in southeastern Australia. Most individuals performed daily short foraging trips over the study period and inter-annual variations observed in foraging parameters where mainly due to few individuals from Griffith Island, performing 2-day trips in 2014. When performing long foraging trips, this study showed that individuals from both colonies exploited similar zones in the Southern Ocean. The results of this study suggest that individuals could increase their foraging range while exploiting distant feeding zones, which could indicate that short-tailed shearwaters forage in Antarctic waters not only to maintain their body condition but may also do so to buffer against local environmental stochasticity. Lower breeding performances were associated with longer foraging trips to distant oceanic waters in 2013 and 2014 indicating they could mediate reductions in food availability around the breeding colonies by extending their foraging range in the Southern Ocean. This study highlights the importance of foraging flexibility as a fundamental aspect of life history in coastal/pelagic marine central place foragers living in highly variable environments and how these foraging strategies are use to

  7. Elimination of the Mound-Building Termite, Nasutitermes exitiosus (Isoptera: Termitidae) in South-Eastern Australia Using Bistrifluron Bait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Garry A; Mcclintock, Charles

    2015-12-01

    Bistrifluron, a benzoylphenylurea compound, was evaluated for efficacy against Nasutitermes exitiosus (Hill), a mound-building species in southern Australia. Bistrifluron bait (trade name Xterm) was delivered as containerized pellets inserted into plastic feeding stations implanted in the sides of mounds-60 g for bistrifluron bait-treated mounds and 120 g of blank bait for untreated mounds. Termites actively tunneled in the gaps between pellets and removed bait from the canisters. All five treated mounds were eventually eliminated, and all five untreated mounds remained active at the end of the trial. Four of the five treated mounds were considered dead and excavated after 26 wk, but there were earlier signs of mound distress-reduced repair of experimental casement damage and reduced activity in bait canisters by 22 wk and reduced internal mound temperature after 11 wk. One treated mound showed activity in the bait station right through until almost the end of the trial (47 wk), but excavation at 49 wk showed no further activity in the mound. The five untreated colonies removed on average 97% of blank bait offered, while the five treated colonies removed on average 39.1% of bait offered. There was a wide variation in temperature profiles of mounds (up to 15°C for both minimum and maximum internal temperatures), from the beginning of the trial and even before the effects of baiting were evident. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. No fixed place of birth: unplanned BBAs in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLelland, Gayle; McKenna, Lisa; Archer, Frank

    2013-02-01

    the primary objective-to present data on the incidence of unplanned births before arrival (BBAs) in Victoria between 1991 and 2008. The secondary objective-to provide an extensive literature review highlighting the issues surrounding an unplanned BBA. the incidence of BBAs in Victoria published in the relevant government reports. data were extracted from published government reports pertaining to perinatal statistics in Victoria-The Australian Institute of Health and Wellbeing and the Perinatal Data Collection Unit of Victoria. Data on place of birth for each year from both sources was identified and tabulated. Comparisons between the data sources were undertaken to provide a picture of the scope of out of hospital birth. the incidence and absolute numbers of unplanned birth before arrival (BBA) to hospital in Victoria, are low compared to the total births. However, this number is comparable to unplanned BBAs in other developed countries with similar health systems. The incidence of unplanned BBAs has slowly but steadily doubled since 1991-2008. The two data sources almost mirror each other except for 1999 when there was an unexplained difference in the reported incidence in unplanned BBAs. Maternal and neonatal outcomes are disproportionally much poorer after unplanned BBAs than either planned home births or in hospital births. Various maternal factors can increase the risk of an unplanned BBA. multiple approaches should be adopted to manage unplanned BBAs. Antenatal screening should be undertaken to identify the women most at risk. Strategies can be developed that will reduce poor neonatal and maternal outcomes, including education for women and their partners on immediate management of the newborn; ensuring paramedics have current knowledge on care during childbirth; and maternity and ambulance services should develop management plans for care of women having unplanned BBAs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impacts of prescribed burning on soil greenhouse gas fluxes in a suburban native forest of south-eastern Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, Y. Z.; Xu, Z. H.; Fu, L.

    2015-11-01

    Prescribed burning is a forest management practice that is widely used in Australia to reduce the risk of damaging wildfires. Prescribed burning can affect both carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in the forest and thereby influence the soil-atmosphere exchange of major greenhouse gases, i.e. carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). To quantify the impact of a prescribed burning (conducted on 27 May 2014) on greenhouse gas exchange and the potential controlling mechanisms, we carried out a series of field measurements before (August 2013) and after (August 2014 and November 2014) the fire. Gas exchange rates were determined in four replicate plots which were burned during the combustion and in another four adjacent unburned plots located in green islands, using a set of static chambers. Surface soil properties including temperature, pH, moisture, soil C and N pools were also determined either by in situ measurement or by analysing surface 10 cm soil samples. All of the chamber measurements indicated a net sink of atmospheric CH4, with mean CH4 uptake ranging from 1.15 to 1.99 mg m-2 d-1. Prescribed burning significantly enhanced CH4 uptake as indicated by the significant higher CH4 uptake rates in the burned plots measured in August 2014. In the following 3 months, the CH4 uptake rate was recovered to the pre-burning level. Mean CO2 emission from the forest soils ranged from 2721.76 to 7113.49 mg m-2 d-1. The effect of prescribed burning on CO2 emission was limited within the first 3 months, as no significant difference was observed between the burned and the adjacent unburned plots in both August and November 2014. The CO2 emissions showed more seasonal variations, rather than the effects of prescribed burning. The N2O emission in the plots was quite low, and no significant impact of prescribed burning was observed. The changes in understory plants and litter layers, surface soil temperature, C and N substrate availability and microbial

  10. Communicating Risk with Parents: Exploring the Methods and Beliefs of Outdoor Education Coordinators in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallat, Clare

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the risk communication strategies currently being employed by seven outdoor education co-ordinators in Government schools in Victoria, Australia. Of particular interest are the beliefs and assumptions held by these co-ordinators in relation to communicating risk with parents. Current policy stipulates that parents must be…

  11. Supervision and Satisfaction among School Psychologists: An Empirical Study of Professionals in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielking, Monica; Moore, Susan; Jimerson, Shane R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the supervision arrangements and job satisfaction among school psychologists in Victoria, Australia. Participation in professional supervision was explored in relation to the type of employment and job satisfaction. The results revealed that the frequency of participation in supervision activities was less than optimal, with…

  12. "Embodied Knowing": Exploring the Founding of the Melbourne Rudolf Steiner School in 1970S Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Education in Victoria, Australia not only underwent significant change in the 1970s, but was witness to a widespread educational reform project. Whilst exploration of the more widespread alternatives has been of some interest, the smaller progressive traditions that emerged in some ways "alongside" the broader reforms have rarely been…

  13. Chlamydia pecorum Infection in Free-ranging Koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) on French Island, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legione, Alistair R; Amery-Gale, Jemima; Lynch, Michael; Haynes, Leesa; Gilkerson, James R; Sansom, Fiona M; Devlin, Joanne M

    2016-04-28

    We detected Chlamydia pecorum in two koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) from a closed island population in Victoria, Australia, previously free of Chlamydia infection. The ompA and multilocus sequence type were most closely related to published isolates of livestock rather than koala origin, suggesting potential cross-species transmission of C. pecorum .

  14. Relationships between Hg Air-surface exchange, Soil Moisture and Precipitation at a Background Vegetated Site in South-Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macsween, K.; Edwards, G. C.

    2017-12-01

    Despite many decades of research, the controlling mechanisms of mercury (Hg) air-surface exhange are still poorly understood. Particularly in Australian ecosystems where there are few anthropogenic inputs. A clear understanding of these mechanisms is vital for accurate representation in the global Hg models, particularly regarding re-emission. Water is known to have a considerable influence on Hg exchange within a terrestrial ecosystem. Precipitation has been found to cause spikes is Hg emissions during the initial stages of rain event. While, Soil moisture content is known to enhance fluxes between 15 and 30% Volumetric soil water (VSW), above which fluxes become suppressed. Few field experiments exist to verify these dominantly laboratory or controlled experiments. Here we present work looking at Hg fluxes over an 8-month period at a vegetated background site. The aim of this study is to identify how changes to precipitation intensity and duration, coupled with variable soil moisture content may influence Hg flux across seasons. As well as the influence of other meteorological variables. Experimentation was undertaken using aerodynamic gradient micrometeorological flux method, avoiding disruption to the surface, soil moisture probes and rain gauge measurements to monitor alterations to substrate conditions. Meteorological and air chemistry variables were also measured concurrently throughout the duration of the study. During the study period, South-Eastern Australia experienced several intense east coast low storm systems during the Autumn and Spring months and an unusually dry winter. VSW rarely reached above 30% even following the intense rainfall experienced during the east coast lows. The generally dry conditions throughout winter resulted in an initial spike in Hg emissions when rainfall occurred. Fluxes decreased shortly after the rain began but remained slightly elevated. Given the reduced net radiation and cooler temperatures experienced during the winter

  15. Myxomatosis in the Mallee region of Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, R C; Edmonds, J W; Nolan, I F; Gocs, A

    1978-10-01

    Sharp reductions in the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.)) population in the Mallee are associated with annual myxomatosis epizootics. The extent to which the population reductions are the direct result of the epizootics varies with time of epizootic occurrence. All grazing animals in the Mallee are under nutritional stress each summer and autumn. When the epizootic occurs during the early summer heavy losses occur in a previously healthy population. Similar losses which occur in the late summer and autumn are the result of a nutritional stress - epizootic complex. The end result in each case is a population reduction of about 80%. This reduction occurs in a population which is the most resistant to myxomatosis known in Victoria and in association with epizootics caused by field strains of myxoma virus of moderate virulence only. The earlier summer epizootics are of considerable economic importance because they sharply reduce the pressure on the limited food available for other grazing animals.

  16. Potentially avoidable hospitalisation for constipation in Victoria, Australia in 2010-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Humaira; Ansari, Zahid; Hutson, John M; Southwell, Bridget R

    2014-07-11

    When primary care of constipation fails, the patient may need emergency hospitalisation for disimpaction. This study aimed to provide population-based data on the number of unplanned admissions and the cost to the healthcare system for constipation in Victoria, Australia in financial year 2010-11. The Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset was examined to find the number of emergency hospital separations coded as constipation (ICD-10-AM Code K390). An estimate of costs was determined from the number of weighted inlier equivalent separations (WIES) multiplied by the WEIS price, used by the Victorian Government for funding purposes. There were 3978 emergency separations for constipation in Victoria in 2010-2011, 92% in public hospitals. Fifty-five percent were female and 38% > 75 years old. One third stayed overnight and 1/3 more than 1 day. The emergency bed day rate was 7.1 per 10,000 of population. The estimate of cost, based on WEIS, was approximately $8.3 million. Potential savings could be made by reducing the number of separations in 6 Local Government Areas (LGAs). This study shows that the burden (in number of admissions, emergency bed days and overall direct costs) in managing emergency admissions for constipation in Victoria, Australia, is very significant and likely to be similar in other developed countries. Improved primary healthcare and alternative ways to achieve faecal disimpaction without emergency admission could save the public health system a proportion of this $8.3 million.

  17. Towards understanding hydroclimatic change in Victoria, Australia – preliminary insights into the "Big Dry"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kiem

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1990s the majority of Victoria, Australia, has experienced severe drought conditions (i.e. the "Big Dry" characterized by streamflow that is the lowest in approximately 80 years of record. While decreases in annual and seasonal rainfall totals have also been observed, this alone does not seem to explain the observed reduction in flow. In this study, we investigate the large-scale climate drivers for Victoria and demonstrate how these modulate the regional scale synoptic patterns, which in turn alter the way seasonal rainfall totals are compiled and the amount of runoff per unit rainfall that is produced. The hydrological implications are significant and illustrate the need for robust hydrological modelling, that takes into account insights into physical mechanisms that drive regional hydroclimatology, in order to properly understand and quantify the impacts of climate change (natural and/or anthropogenic on water resources.

  18. Potentially avoidable hospitalisation for constipation in Victoria, Australia in 2010–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background When primary care of constipation fails, the patient may need emergency hospitalisation for disimpaction. This study aimed to provide population-based data on the number of unplanned admissions and the cost to the healthcare system for constipation in Victoria, Australia in financial year 2010–11. Methods The Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset was examined to find the number of emergency hospital separations coded as constipation (ICD-10-AM Code K390). An estimate of costs was determined from the number of weighted inlier equivalent separations (WIES) multiplied by the WEIS price, used by the Victorian Government for funding purposes. Results There were 3978 emergency separations for constipation in Victoria in 2010–2011, 92% in public hospitals. Fifty-five percent were female and 38% > 75 years old. One third stayed overnight and 1/3 more than 1 day. The emergency bed day rate was 7.1 per 10,000 of population. The estimate of cost, based on WEIS, was approximately $8.3 million. Potential savings could be made by reducing the number of separations in 6 Local Government Areas (LGAs). Conclusions This study shows that the burden (in number of admissions, emergency bed days and overall direct costs) in managing emergency admissions for constipation in Victoria, Australia, is very significant and likely to be similar in other developed countries. Improved primary healthcare and alternative ways to achieve faecal disimpaction without emergency admission could save the public health system a proportion of this $8.3 million. PMID:25015386

  19. Comparison of mortality following hospitalisation for isolated head injury in England and Wales, and Victoria, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda J Gabbe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI remains a leading cause of death and disability. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines recommend transfer of severe TBI cases to neurosurgical centres, irrespective of the need for neurosurgery. This observational study investigated the risk-adjusted mortality of isolated TBI admissions in England/Wales, and Victoria, Australia, and the impact of neurosurgical centre management on outcomes. METHODS: Isolated TBI admissions (>15 years, July 2005-June 2006 were extracted from the hospital discharge datasets for both jurisdictions. Severe isolated TBI (AIS severity >3 admissions were provided by the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN and Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR for England/Wales, and Victoria, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare risk-adjusted mortality between jurisdictions. FINDINGS: Mortality was 12% (749/6256 in England/Wales and 9% (91/1048 in Victoria for isolated TBI admissions. Adjusted odds of death in England/Wales were higher compared to Victoria overall (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.6, 2.5, and for cases <65 years (OR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.51, 3.69. For severe TBI, mortality was 23% (133/575 for TARN and 20% (68/346 for VSTR, with 72% of TARN and 86% of VSTR cases managed at a neurosurgical centre. The adjusted mortality odds for severe TBI cases in TARN were higher compared to the VSTR (OR 1.45, 95% CI: 0.96, 2.19, but particularly for cases <65 years (OR 2.04, 95% CI: 1.07, 3.90. Neurosurgical centre management modified the effect overall (OR 1.12, 95% CI: 0.73, 1.74 and for cases <65 years (OR 1.53, 95% CI: 0.77, 3.03. CONCLUSION: The risk-adjusted odds of mortality for all isolated TBI admissions, and severe TBI cases, were higher in England/Wales when compared to Victoria. The lower percentage of cases managed at neurosurgical centres in England and Wales was an explanatory factor, supporting the changes made to the NICE

  20. The Bands Culture in Victoria, Australia: Live Music Benefits Career Paths, Employment and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amanda; Forrest, David

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the career paths, employment, business opportunities and community contributions made available through the provision and development of the contemporary performance bands' culture in the State of Victoria. It is framed with the support given to live music performers by Arts Victoria, Small Business Victoria and Music Victoria.…

  1. The Development and Use of Individual Learning Plans for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P. Margaret; Byrnes, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the Individual Learning Plans of eighty-eight students who were deaf and hard of hearing attending facilities and schools for the deaf in Victoria Australia. The students' assessment and planning portfolios were scrutinised for evidence of formal and informal assessment used to generate goals for the Individual Learning…

  2. Reality check of laboratory service effectiveness during pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catton, Michael; Druce, Julian; Papadakis, Goergina; Tran, Thomas; Birch, Christopher

    2011-06-01

    In Australia, the outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 began in Melbourne, Victoria; in the first 17 days, the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory detected 977 cases. Although the laboratory had a pandemic plan in place, a retrospective evaluation found 3 major variations from plan assumptions: 1) higher peak demand not limited by a case definition, 2) prolonged peak demand because containment attempts continued despite widespread influenza, and 3) unexpected influence of negative test results on public health actions. Although implementation of the plan was generally successful, the greatest challenges were limited availability of skilled staff and test reagents. Despite peak demand of 1,401 tests per day, results were provided within the usual 24 hours of specimen receipt; however, turnaround time seemed slower because of slow transport times (>3 days for 45% of specimens). Hence, effective laboratory capability might be enhanced by speeding transport of specimens and improving transmission of clinical data.

  3. Radium in potable waters from Central Victoria, Australia - an application of the Australian drinking water guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinker, R.A.; Smith, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    Determinations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra in potable mineral waters from springs located in the Daylesford-Hepburn region of Victoria, Australia are presented. Concentrations ranged from 230-810 mBq L -1 for 226 Ra and 200-800 mBq L -1 for 226 Ra. These levels approach or exceed the guideline limits recommended in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines. The annual committed effective dose and health risks from radium in potable water is discussed. Assuming consumption of 2 L per day the average annual committed effective dose received from 226 Ra was 0.087 mSv y -1 and from 226 Ra was 0.10 mSv y -1

  4. A Paramedic-staffed Helicopter Emergency Medical Service's Response to Winch Missions in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadley, Ben; Heschl, Stefan; Andrew, Emily; de Wit, Anthony; Bernard, Stephen A; Smith, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Winching emergency medical care providers from a helicopter to the scene enables treatment of patients in otherwise inaccessible locations, but is not without risks. The objective of this study was to define characteristics of winch missions undertaken by Intensive Care Flight Paramedics (ICFP) in Victoria, Australia with a focus on extraction methods and clinical care delivered at the scene. A retrospective data analysis was performed to identify all winch missions between November 2010 and March 2014. Demographic data, winch characteristics, physiological parameters, and interventions undertaken on scene by the ICFP were extracted. Out of 5,003 missions in the study period, 125 were identified as winch operations. Winter missions were significantly less frequent than those of any other season. Patients were predominantly male (78.4%) and had a mean age of 38 years (±17.6). A total of 109 (87.2%) patients were identified as experiencing trauma with a mean Revised Trauma Score of 7.5288, and isolated limb fractures were the most frequently encountered injury. Falls and vehicle-related trauma were the most common mechanisms of injury. The total median scene duration was 49 minutes (IQR 23-91). Sixty-three patients (50.4%) were extracted using a stretcher, 45 (36.0%) using a hypothermic strop, and 6 (4.8%) via normal rescue strop. Eleven patients (8.8%) were not winched to the helicopter. Vascular access (38.4%), analgesia (44.0%), and anti-emetic administration (28.8%) were the most frequent clinical interventions. Forty-nine patients (39.2%) did not receive any clinical intervention prior to winch extraction. Winch operations in Victoria, Australia consisted predominantly of patients with minor to moderate traumatic injuries. A significant proportion of patients did not require any clinical treatment prior to winching, and among those who did, analgesia was the most frequent intervention. Advanced medical procedures were rarely required prior to winch extraction.

  5. Regeneration after 8 years in artificial canopy gaps in mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell.) forest in south-eastern Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der P.J.; Dignan, P.

    2007-01-01

    We report on a study of regeneration of Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans) forest in S.E. Australia in artificially created canopy gaps (0.01¿2 ha) and clearfelled coupes (4¿27 ha) with different seedbed treatments. Treatments were applied in 1988, 1989, and 1990. Our results are based on

  6. Influenza C infections in Western Australia and Victoria from 2008 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelley, Lauren; Levy, Avram; Deng, Yi-Mo; Spirason, Natalie; Lang, Jurissa; Buettner, Iwona; Druce, Julian; Blyth, Chris; Effler, Paul; Smith, David; Barr, Ian G

    2016-11-01

    Influenza C is usually considered a minor cause of respiratory illness in humans with many infections being asymptomatic or clinically mild. Large outbreaks can occur periodically resulting in significant morbidity. This study aimed at analyzing the available influenza C clinical samples from two widely separated states of Australia, collected over a 7-year period and to compare them with influenza C viruses detected in other parts of the world in recent years. Between 2008 and 2014, 86 respiratory samples that were influenza C positive were collected from subjects with influenza-like illness living in the states of Victoria and Western Australia. A battery of other respiratory viruses were also tested for in these influenza C-positive samples. Virus isolation was attempted on all of these clinical samples, and gene sequencing was performed on all influenza C-positive cultures. Detections of influenza C in respiratory samples were sporadic in most years studied, but higher rates of infection occurred in 2012 and 2014. Many of the patients with influenza C had coinfections with other respiratory pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion (HE) gene found that most of the viruses grouped in the C/Sao Paulo/378/82 clade with the remainder grouping in the C/Kanagawa/1/76 clade. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Patient characteristics associated with hospitalisations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari Zahid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSCs are those for which hospitalisation is thought to be avoidable with the application of preventive care and early disease management, usually delivered in a primary care setting. ACSCs are used extensively as indicators of accessibility and effectiveness of primary health care. We examined the association between patient characteristics and hospitalisation for ACSCs in the adult and paediatric population in Victoria, Australia, 2003/04. Methods Hospital admissions data were merged with two area-level socioeconomic indexes: Index of Socio-Economic Disadvantage (IRSED and Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA. Univariate and multiple logistic regressions were performed for both adult (age 18+ years and paediatric (age Results Predictors were much more strongly associated with ACSCs admissions compared to non-ACSCs admissions in the adult group than for the paediatric group with the exception of rurality. Significant adjusted ORs in the adult group were 1.06, 1.15, 1.13, 1.06 and 1.11 for sex, rurality, age, IRSED and ARIA variables, and 1.34, 1.04 and 1.09 in the paediatric group for rurality, IRSED and ARIA, respectively. Conclusions Disadvantaged paediatric and adult population experience more need of hospital care for ACSCs. Access barriers to primary care are plausible causes for the observed disparities. Understanding the characteristics of individuals experiencing access barriers to primary care will be useful for developing targeted interventions meeting the unique ambulatory needs of the population.

  8. The job satisfaction of female sex workers working in licensed brothels in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilardi, Jade E; Miller, Amanda; Hocking, Jane S; Keogh, Louise; Cummings, Rosey; Chen, Marcus Y; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Fairley, Christopher K

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have examined sex workers' attitudes to work but not their levels of job satisfaction compared with other occupations. The job satisfaction levels and standards of living of sex workers in licensed brothels in Victoria were compared with Australian women. Responses to a questionnaire that included questions about sex work and their "most likely alternative job." Survey data was compared with identical questions from the Households, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey. A structured survey was undertaken with sex workers in Victoria attending a a sexual health service. Of the 112 sex workers who agreed to participate in the study, 85 (76%) completed the survey. The median years women had been working as sex workers was three (range 0.1-18). The main reasons women started sex work was because "they needed the money" (69%), were attracted to the flexible hours (44%) or had a particular goal in mind (43%). The two biggest concerns women had about sex work were their safety (65%) and the risk of sexually transmitted infections (65%). When compared with the median job satisfaction scores of Australian women working in sex workers' "most likely alternative jobs," 50% of sex workers reported a higher median satisfaction score for sex work in relation to hours worked, 47% in relation to flexibility, 43% in relation to total pay, 26% in relation to job security, 19% in relation to the work itself, and 25% in relation to overall job satisfaction. Women reported that they primarily do sex work for financial gain although a significant minority prefer it to other work they would be likely to do. These results should be interpreted in the context that the presence of personality disorders that are common among sex workers were not measured in this study. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. The Green Dialysis Survey: Establishing a Baseline for Environmental Sustainability across Dialysis Facilities in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Katherine A; Gleeson, Alice; Holt, Stephen G; Agar, John Wm

    2017-11-02

    The Green Dialysis Survey aimed to 1) establish a baseline for environmental sustainability (ES) across Victorian dialysis facilities, and 2) guide future initiatives to reduce the environmental impact of dialysis delivery. Nurse unit managers of all Victorian public dialysis facilities received an online link to the survey, which asked 107 questions relevant to the ES of dialysis services. Responses were received from 71/83 dialysis facilities in Victoria (86%), representing 628/660 dialysis chairs (95%). Low energy lighting was present in 13 facilities (18%), 18 (25%) recycled reverse osmosis water and 7 (10%) reported use of renewable energy. Fifty-six facilities (79%) performed comingled recycling but only 27 (38%) recycled polyvinyl chloride plastic. A minority educated staff in appropriate waste management (n=30;42%) or formally audited waste generation and segregation (n=19;27%). Forty-four (62%) provided secure bicycle parking but only 33 (46%) provided shower and changing facilities. There was limited use of tele- or video-conferencing to replace staff meetings (n=19;27%) or patient clinic visits (n=13;18%). A minority considered ES in procurement decisions (n=28;39%) and there was minimal preparedness to cope with climate change. Only 39 services (49%) confirmed an ES policy and few had ever formed a green group (n=14; 20%) or were currently undertaking a green project (n=8;11%). Only 15 facilities (21%) made formal efforts to raise awareness of ES. This survey provides a baseline for practices that potentially impact the environmental sustainability of dialysis units in Victoria, Australia. It also identifies achievable targets for attention. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Intended and unintended consequences of abortion law reform: perspectives of abortion experts in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, L A; Newton, D; Bayly, C; McNamee, K; Hardiman, A; Webster, A; Bismark, M

    2017-01-01

    In Victoria, Australia, abortion was decriminalised in October 2008, bringing the law in line with clinical practice and community attitudes. We describe how experts in abortion service provision perceived the intent and subsequent impact of the 2008 Victorian abortion law reform. Experts in abortion provision in Victoria were recruited for a qualitative semi-structured interview about the 2008 law reform and its perceived impact, until saturation was reached. Nineteen experts from a range of health care settings and geographic locations were interviewed in 2014/2015. Thematic analysis was conducted to summarise participants' views. Abortion law reform, while a positive event, was perceived to have changed little about the provision of abortion. The views of participants can be categorised into: (1) goals that law reform was intended to address and that have been achieved; (2) intent or hopes of law reform that have not been achieved; (3) unintended consequences; (4) coincidences; and (5) unfinished business. All agreed that law reform had repositioned abortion as a health rather than legal issue, had shifted the power in decision making from doctors to women, and had increased clarity and safety for doctors. However, all described outstanding concerns; limited public provision of surgical abortion; reduced access to abortion after 20 weeks; ongoing stigma; lack of a state-wide strategy for equitable abortion provision; and an unsustainable workforce. Law reform, while positive, has failed to address a number of significant issues in abortion service provision, and may have even resulted in a 'lull' in action. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. The Meaning of ‘General Paralysis of the Insane’ in Victoria, Australia; 1886 to 1906

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts, Phillip

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conclusion to the meaning of the historical diagnosis “general paralysis of the insane” in nineteenth century Victorian Registrar General”s reports. Most studies suggest that in the past the diagnosis refers to neuro-syphilis, and while after 1906 this is not disputed, this paper will show that the diagnosis had a much broader meaning incorporating many forms of degenerative brain disease during the study period (Victoria 1886 to 1906. It is acknowledged, however, that the use of this diagnosis may have varied dramatically in the past based on a doctor’s education and/or background. This conclusion has been arrived at by analysing both government and general hospital records on the Australian, Victorian population. This paper also presents methods for determining the meaning of obsolete medical diagnoses where the definition is poorly understood.En este trabajo presenta una conclusión sobre el significado de la “parálisis general de los locos” como diagnóstico en los informes del Victorian Registrar General durante el siglo XIX. La mayoría de los estudios sugieren que en el pasado el diagnóstico se refiere a la neuro-sífilis, y aunque después de 1906 no se discute, este trabajo mostrará que el diagnóstico tiene un significado mucho más amplio e incorpora muchas formas de enfermedad degenerativa del cerebro durante el período de estudio (Victoria 1886 a 1906. Se reconoce, sin embargo, que el uso de este diagnóstico puede haber variado drásticamente en el pasado dependiendo de la formación y del ambiente médico. Se ha llegado a esta conclusión mediante el análisis de los registros hospitalarios de la población de Victoria, Australia. Este documento también presenta métodos para determinar el significado de los diagnósticos médicos obsoletos cuya definición es confusa.

  12. A decreasing trend in fall-related hip fracture incidence in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, E; Clapperton, A

    2013-01-01

    In Victoria, Australia, the age-standardised incidence of fall-related hip fracture hospitalisations decreased significantly by 25% over the period 1998/1999-2008/2009. Significant decreases in fall-related hip fractures were observed in males and females, across all 5-year age groups, in Australian-born and overseas-born Victorians, in all socio-economic quintiles and in community-dwelling older people. The study aim was to investigate trends in the incidence of fall-related and hip fracture hospitalisations among Victorians aged 65 years and older overall and by age, gender, country of birth, socio-economic status (SES) and location of the event (home, residential care institution, etc.) over the 11-year period 1998/1999 to 2008/2009. Annual counts and age-standardised rates for fall-related hospitalisations among people aged 65 years and older were estimated using Victorian hospital admissions data. The statistical significance of changes in trends over time were analysed using a log-linear regression model of the rate data assuming a Poisson distribution of cases. Although the age-standardised incidence of fall-related hospitalisations increased significantly by 13% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9% to 18%) in Victoria, the age-standardised incidence of fall-related hip fracture hospitalisations decreased from 600/100,000 in 1998/1999 to 467/100,000 in 2008/2009 - an estimated overall reduction of 25% (95% CI, -29% to -22%). By contrast, the age-standardised incidence of fall-related hospitalisations for fractures at other body sites either increased significantly or showed no significant change. Significant decreases in fall-related hip fractures were observed in both males and females, across all 5-year age groups, in both Australian-born and overseas-born Victorians, in all socio-economic quintiles and in community-dwelling older people but not in people living in residential care facilities. Despite the downward trend in the age-standardised incidence of

  13. Exploring Service Providers' Perspectives in Improving Childhood Obesity Prevention among CALD Communities in Victoria, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Cyril

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity rates have been increasing disproportionately among disadvantaged communities including culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD migrant groups in Australia due to their poor participation in the available obesity prevention initiatives. We sought to explore service providers' perceptions of the key factors influencing the participation of CALD communities in the existing obesity prevention services and the service requirements needed to improve CALD communities' participation in these services.We conducted a qualitative study using focus group discussions involving fifty-nine service providers from a range of services, who are involved in the health and wellbeing of children from CALD groups living in four socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia.Thematic analysis of the data showed three major themes including community-level barriers to CALD engagement in childhood obesity prevention services; service-level barriers to the delivery of these services; and proposed changes to current childhood obesity prevention approaches. Integrating obesity prevention messages within existing programs, better coordination between prevention and treatment services and the establishment of a childhood obesity surveillance system, were some of the important changes suggested by service providers.This study has found that low CALD health literacy, lack of knowledge of cultural barriers among service providers and co-existing deficiencies in the structure and delivery of obesity prevention services negatively impacted the participation of CALD communities in obesity prevention services. Cultural competency training of service providers would improve their understanding of the cultural influences of childhood obesity and incorporate them into the design and development of obesity prevention initiatives. Service providers need to be educated on the pre-migratory health service experiences and health conditions of CALD

  14. Exploring Service Providers' Perspectives in Improving Childhood Obesity Prevention among CALD Communities in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyril, Sheila; Green, Julie; Nicholson, Jan M.; Agho, Kingsley; Renzaho, Andre M. N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity rates have been increasing disproportionately among disadvantaged communities including culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) migrant groups in Australia due to their poor participation in the available obesity prevention initiatives. We sought to explore service providers’ perceptions of the key factors influencing the participation of CALD communities in the existing obesity prevention services and the service requirements needed to improve CALD communities’ participation in these services. Methods We conducted a qualitative study using focus group discussions involving fifty-nine service providers from a range of services, who are involved in the health and wellbeing of children from CALD groups living in four socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia. Results Thematic analysis of the data showed three major themes including community-level barriers to CALD engagement in childhood obesity prevention services; service-level barriers to the delivery of these services; and proposed changes to current childhood obesity prevention approaches. Integrating obesity prevention messages within existing programs, better coordination between prevention and treatment services and the establishment of a childhood obesity surveillance system, were some of the important changes suggested by service providers. Conclusion This study has found that low CALD health literacy, lack of knowledge of cultural barriers among service providers and co-existing deficiencies in the structure and delivery of obesity prevention services negatively impacted the participation of CALD communities in obesity prevention services. Cultural competency training of service providers would improve their understanding of the cultural influences of childhood obesity and incorporate them into the design and development of obesity prevention initiatives. Service providers need to be educated on the pre-migratory health service experiences and health

  15. Exploring Service Providers' Perspectives in Improving Childhood Obesity Prevention among CALD Communities in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyril, Sheila; Green, Julie; Nicholson, Jan M; Agho, Kingsley; Renzaho, Andre M N

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity rates have been increasing disproportionately among disadvantaged communities including culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) migrant groups in Australia due to their poor participation in the available obesity prevention initiatives. We sought to explore service providers' perceptions of the key factors influencing the participation of CALD communities in the existing obesity prevention services and the service requirements needed to improve CALD communities' participation in these services. We conducted a qualitative study using focus group discussions involving fifty-nine service providers from a range of services, who are involved in the health and wellbeing of children from CALD groups living in four socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia. Thematic analysis of the data showed three major themes including community-level barriers to CALD engagement in childhood obesity prevention services; service-level barriers to the delivery of these services; and proposed changes to current childhood obesity prevention approaches. Integrating obesity prevention messages within existing programs, better coordination between prevention and treatment services and the establishment of a childhood obesity surveillance system, were some of the important changes suggested by service providers. This study has found that low CALD health literacy, lack of knowledge of cultural barriers among service providers and co-existing deficiencies in the structure and delivery of obesity prevention services negatively impacted the participation of CALD communities in obesity prevention services. Cultural competency training of service providers would improve their understanding of the cultural influences of childhood obesity and incorporate them into the design and development of obesity prevention initiatives. Service providers need to be educated on the pre-migratory health service experiences and health conditions of CALD communities to ensure

  16. Outbreaks of sarcoptic mange in free-ranging koala populations in Victoria and South Australia: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, K N; Whiteley, P L; Woolford, L; Duignan, P J; Bacci, B; Lathe, S; Boardman, W; Scheelings, T F; Funnell, O; Underwood, G; Stevenson, M A

    2017-07-01

    To describe outbreaks of sarcoptic mange caused by Sarcoptes scabiei in free-ranging koalas in Victoria (December 2008 to November 2015) and South Australia (October 2011 to September 2014). Koalas affected by mange-like lesions were reported by wildlife carers, veterinary practitioners or State Government personnel to the Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences at The University of Melbourne and the School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences at The University of Adelaide. Skin scrapings were taken from live and dead koalas and S. scabiei mites were identified. Tissues from necropsied koalas were examined histologically. Outbreaks of sarcoptic mange were found to occur in koalas from both Victoria (n = 29) and South Australia (n = 29) for the first time. The gross pathological and histopathological changes are described. We present the first reported cases of sarcoptic mange outbreaks in free-ranging koalas. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  17. How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Forsyth

    Full Text Available There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor is a large (≥ 150 kg exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and feral cats (Felis catus utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring. We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼ 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10% fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources.

  18. How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, David M; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D; Hampton, Jordan O; Woolnough, Andrew P; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥ 150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼ 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources.

  19. How Does a Carnivore Guild Utilise a Substantial but Unpredictable Anthropogenic Food Source? Scavenging on Hunter-Shot Ungulate Carcasses by Wild Dogs/Dingoes, Red Foxes and Feral Cats in South-Eastern Australia Revealed by Camera Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, David M.; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D.; Hampton, Jordan O.; Woolnough, Andrew P.; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources. PMID:24918425

  20. An isotopic study of nitrate pollution of groundwater in Victoria, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changkakoti, A.; Lawrence, C.R.; Cherstnova, L.; Chalk, P.; Krouse, H.R.

    1997-01-01

    Nitrate in groundwater can be a hard to human and animal health and contribute to the development of algal blooms and subsequent eutrophication of wetlands. Its presence is widespread throughout Australia and its levels overall appear to be increasing. A variety of sources of nitrate contamination of groundwater are known. These include nitrogen fixing plants, termites, animal wastes, industrial wastes, domestic wastes, sewage and fertilizers. In Victoria, nitrate-rich groundwaters have been reported from a number of localities, some of which include Colac, Nepean Peninsula, Shepparton, Deer Park, Benalla and Winchelsea. A multi-isotope method was developed to determine the probable source of pollution in these localities. Changes in the natural abundance ratio of the stable isotopes of nitrogen, 14 N and 15 N, and the differences in the isotopic ratios ( 15 N/ 14 N) of nitrate from various sources, form the basis of the N-isotope technique for source identification. Differences in the isotopic ratios of oxygen ( 18 O/ 16 O) and hydrogen (D/H) of polluted and unpolluted waters form the basis for the oxygen and hydrogen isotope technique to investigate pollution problems of groundwater. Sites which included clover, industrial wastes, animal and human wastes and fertilized sources, were selected after reviewing existing databases on nitrate concentration, earlier reports and access to a suitable network of bores for collecting reliable samples. The nitrate concentration ranged from less than 1 mg/L to in excess of 22.0 mg/L, whilst ammonium levels in most samples were less than 1 mg/L. The δ 15 N values of the various source types ranged from 8.8 to 19.0 per mill (pastures). The δ 18 O and δD data indicate seawater incursion in the coastal areas of the Nepean Peninsular. The results agree with published data on similar sources from elsewhere in the world, and indicate the potential use of this methodology in groundwater pollution studies in Australia

  1. Nuclear forensic analysis of uranium oxide powders interdicted in Victoria, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristo, Michael Joseph [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Keegan, Elizabeth; Colella, Michael [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Kirrawee, NSW (Australia); and others

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear forensic analysis was conducted on two uranium samples confiscated during a police investigation in Victoria, Australia. The first sample, designated NSR-F-270409-1, was a depleted uranium powder of moderate purity (∝ 1000 μg/g total elemental impurities). The chemical form of the uranium was a compound similar to K{sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 3}O{sub 4} . 4H{sub 2}O. While aliquoting NSR-F-270409-1 for analysis, the body and head of a Tineid moth was discovered in the sample. The second sample, designated NSR-F-270409-2, was also a depleted uranium powder. It was of reasonably high purity (∝ 380 μg/g total elemental impurities). The chemical form of the uranium was primarily UO{sub 3} . 2H{sub 2}O, with minor phases of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and UO{sub 2}. While aliquoting NSR-F-270409-2 for analysis, a metal staple of unknown origin was discovered in the sample. The presence of {sup 236}U and {sup 232}U in both samples indicates that the uranium feed stocks for these samples experienced a neutron flux at some point in their history. The reactor burn-up calculated from the isotopic composition of the uranium is consistent with that of spent fuel from natural uranium (NU) fueled Pu production. These nuclear forensic conclusions allow us to categorically exclude Australia as the origin of the material and greatly reduce the number of candidate sources.

  2. Preventing childhood obesity: the sentinel site for obesity prevention in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, A Colin; Simmons, Anne; Sanigorski, Andrea M; Kremer, Peter J; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2008-12-01

    In spite of greater awareness of the need for action to reduce obesity, the evidence on sustainable community approaches to prevent childhood and adolescent obesity is surprisingly sparse. This paper describes the design and methodological components of the Sentinel Site for Obesity Prevention, a demonstration site in the Barwon-South West region of Victoria, Australia, that aims to build the programs, skills and evidence necessary to attenuate and eventually reverse the obesity epidemic in children and adolescents. The Sentinel Site for Obesity Prevention is based on a partnership between the region's university (Deakin University) and its health, education and local government agencies. The three basic foundations of the Sentinel Site are: multi-strategy, multi-setting interventions; building community capacity; and undertaking program evaluations and population monitoring. Three intervention projects have been supported that cover different age groups (preschool: 2-5 years, primary school: 5-12 years, secondary school: 13-17 years), but that have many characteristics in common including: community participation and ownership of the project; an intervention duration of at least 3 years; and full evaluations with impact (behaviours) and outcome measures (anthropometry) compared with regionally representative comparison populations. We recommend the Sentinel Site approach to others for successfully building evidence for childhood obesity prevention and stimulating action on reducing the epidemic.

  3. Paediatric slow-speed non-traffic fatalities: Victoria, Australia, 1985-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P; Nolan, T

    1997-11-01

    An important group of fatal incidents are slow-speed pedestrian non-traffic incidents to children, which account for 14% of accidental deaths from all causes in Victorian children under 5 years of age between 1985 and 1995, and 12% of pedestrian deaths of all ages. In Victoria, Australia, the database of the state Consultative Council on Obstetric and Paediatric Morbidity and Mortality was utilised to identify paediatric slow-speed pedestrian non-traffic-accident deaths in the local population. Additional data relating to the car and its driver, the child, and the circumstances of the incident were abstracted from records kept by the State Coroner and the Victorian compulsory third party traffic injury insurance organisation. Twenty eight Victorian children were identified who had died in one of three types of incident (driverless cars, child interacting with the vehicle and driver, and drivers who were unaware of the child's proximity). These incidents were more common in rural areas compared with urban, usually occurring at the child's home. The child was with or near an adult on all occasions. The vehicle was usually being driven by a relative, and was reversing in a higher proportion of 'unaware' incidents compared with the 'interactive' type. The association of 'off-road' family vehicles and trucks with these incidents appears to be increasing, especially in recent years. These findings suggest some countermeasures, including the separation of vehicle driveways from children's play areas, and object vicinity ultrasonic warning devices for vehicles.

  4. Public values for integration in natural disaster management and planning: A case study from Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawluk, Andrea; Ford, Rebecca M; Neolaka, Fendi L; Williams, Kathryn J

    2017-01-01

    Values can be useful for identifying what is important to individuals and communities, yet there is currently not a coherent way to conceptualize, identify, and organize the breadth of values that can be affected by a natural disaster. This research proposes a conceptual framework for how to conceptualize, identify, and organize values, and proposes a concrete, tangible value called the valued entity. The framework is applied in two studies of bushfire in Victoria, Australia: 112 submissions from individuals to the 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission and interviews with 30 members of the public in bushfire risk landscapes. Our findings suggest that: what people value ranges from abstract to concrete; prevalent abstract values include benevolence and universalism; prevalent mid-level valued attributes include natural attributes of landscapes and human life and welfare; prevalent valued entities are people and properties close to the person. Comparison between the two studies suggests people with more recent experience with bushfire refer less to the importance of natural places and natural attributes. The conceptual framework can act as a boundary object to facilitate researchers and policy-makers understanding the breadth of values affected by natural disaster events and management actions and how governance can better consider values at different scales. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of stress in anaesthetic trainees between Hong Kong and Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, A C L; Irwin, M G; Lee, P W H; Lee, T H W; Man, S E

    2008-11-01

    A postal survey was sent to anaesthetic trainees in Hong Kong and Victoria, Australia to compare work-related stress levels. Demographic data were collected. Anaesthetist-specific stressors, Maslach Burnout Inventory and Global Job Satisfaction scores were used for psychological testing. The response rates from Hong Kong and Melbourne were 64 of 133 (48.1%) and 108 of 196 (55.1%), respectively. Victorian respondents were older with greater family commitments, but more advanced in fulfilling training requirements. Hong Kong respondents, being faced with both the challenge of dual College requirements, exhibited consistently higher indices of stress (P stress scores observed in Hong Kong trainees related to service provision and a perceived lack of resources. Despite the complex nature of stress, its antecedents and manifestations, an inverse relationship between emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction was evident in correlation analysis (P stress was present in some trainees in both areas. Hong Kong trainees may benefit from local development to address mental wellbeing as being important to fulfil this highly competitive training program.

  6. Economic, social and resource management factors influencing groundwater trade: Evidence from Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bruce; Webb, John; Stott, Kerry; Cheng, Xiang; Wilkinson, Roger; Cossens, Brendan

    2017-07-01

    In Victoria, Australia, most groundwater resources are now fully allocated and opportunities for new groundwater development can only occur through trading of license entitlements. Groundwater usage has rarely exceeded 50% of the available licensed volume, even in the 2008/9 drought year, and 50 to 70% of individual license holders use less than 5% of their allocation each year. However, little groundwater trading is occurring at present. Interviews were conducted with groundwater license holders and water brokers to investigate why the Victorian groundwater trade market is underdeveloped. Responses show there is a complex mix of social, economic, institutional and technical reasons. Barriers to trade are influenced by the circumstances of each groundwater user, administrative process and resource management rules. Water brokers deal with few trades at low margins and noted unrealistic selling prices and administrative difficulties. Irrigators who have successfully traded identify that there are few participants in trading, technical appraisals are expensive and administrative requirements and fees are burdensome, especially when compared to surface water trading. Opportunities to facilitate trade include groundwater management plan refinement and improved information provision. Simplifying transaction processes and costs, demonstrating good resource stewardship and preventing third party impacts from trade could address some concerns raised by market participants. There are, however, numerous individual circumstances that inhibit groundwater trading, so it is unlikely that policy and process changes alone could increase usage rates without greater demand for groundwater or more favourable farming economic circumstances.

  7. Corporatization as a means of improving water quality: the experience in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Narelle

    Factors including fragmentation, a lack of direction, poor accountability, poor water quality, and a sizable state government subsidy contributed to the rural water industry in Victoria, Australia, in 1993. In 1993 the state government set out parameters for reform to change the size, structure, performance, and culture of the water industry. The path taken was not privatization, but corporatization. Tools used included amalgamation of organizations; separating water provisions from local government; changing the composition and reporting mechanisms of the boards; establishing clear benchmarks and performance criteria; making information publicly available; and providing a commercial orientation. The outcomes of the reforms were to be a focus on water quality and effluent management. In 2001, 15 water authorities were in place. There were significant improvements in accountability, finances, and performance. The authorities provided information on performance to both the state and the public. Reductions of operating costs have been in the range of 20-35%, with savings put back into new infrastructure. Water quality has significantly improved in a number of parameters and effluent management has also improved. This paper describes the challenges faced before the reform process, the reforms initiated, and the outcomes. It argues that privatization is not the only path to improvement: Developing a corporate structure and accountability can also deliver substantial improvements.

  8. Newborn transport in South Australia, 1978-80: experience of the Queen Victoria Hospital, Adelaide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A G; Fitzgerald, A M; Dahlenburg, G W

    1982-01-23

    389 infants were transported to the Queen Victoria Hospital, Adelaide between 1978 and 1980. Twenty-three percent (99) of the infants were ventilated, and 49% (189) received intravenous or intra-arterial therapy. Fifty-six percent (217) of the infants required transport because of prematurity; 11% (46) because of perinatal asphyxia in babies weighing more than 2,500 g. Only one baby died during transport, while 14% of the babies died subsequently. A core temperature of less than 36 degrees C in either hospital is important; a cold baby is 3.5 times more likely to die (X2=25.46, P less than 0.001). The transport of babies over distances greater than 300 kilometres is peculiar to Australia. Significantly more of these babies were cold than those retrieved from hospitals near Adelaide (X2=4.7, P less than 0.05), and significantly more died. Difficulty in transferring mothers in preterm labour may be another reason these babies did relatively badly. Better education and facilities will be important if we are to improve their survival chances.

  9. Short-term droughts forecast using Markov chain model in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, Siti Nazahiyah; Jayasuriya, Niranjali; Bhuiyan, Muhammed A.

    2017-07-01

    A comprehensive risk management strategy for dealing with drought should include both short-term and long-term planning. The objective of this paper is to present an early warning method to forecast drought using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and a non-homogeneous Markov chain model. A model such as this is useful for short-term planning. The developed method has been used to forecast droughts at a number of meteorological monitoring stations that have been regionalised into six (6) homogenous clusters with similar drought characteristics based on SPI. The non-homogeneous Markov chain model was used to estimate drought probabilities and drought predictions up to 3 months ahead. The drought severity classes defined using the SPI were computed at a 12-month time scale. The drought probabilities and the predictions were computed for six clusters that depict similar drought characteristics in Victoria, Australia. Overall, the drought severity class predicted was quite similar for all the clusters, with the non-drought class probabilities ranging from 49 to 57 %. For all clusters, the near normal class had a probability of occurrence varying from 27 to 38 %. For the more moderate and severe classes, the probabilities ranged from 2 to 13 % and 3 to 1 %, respectively. The developed model predicted drought situations 1 month ahead reasonably well. However, 2 and 3 months ahead predictions should be used with caution until the models are developed further.

  10. Potential immediate hypersensitivity reactions following immunization in preschool aged children in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, C-M; Clothier, H J; Perrett, K P

    2018-04-06

    Immediate hypersensitivity reactions (IHR) are rare but potentially serious adverse events following immunization (AEFI). Surveillance of Adverse Events following Vaccination in the Community (SAEFVIC) is an enhanced passive surveillance system that collects, analyses and reports information about AEFI in Victoria, Australia. We describe the incidence, timing and type of potential IHR following vaccination in preschool children reported over an 8-year period. A total of 2110 AEFI were reported in 1620 children, of which 23.5% (496) were classified as potential IHR. Of these, 37.1% (184) were suspected to be IgE-mediated, (including anaphylaxis, angioedema and/or urticaria) and 83.5% (414) occurred within 15 minutes of vaccination. The incidence of potential IHR was 5.4 per 100,000 doses, with that of suspected IgE-mediated IHR being 2.0 per 100,000 doses. The incidence of anaphylaxis was extremely low (0.13 per 100,000 doses) and is consistent with other published studies. Potential IHR following immunization should be reported to appropriate local pharmacovigilance systems and patients reviewed by specialists able to evaluate, investigate and manage future vaccinations.

  11. Readiness of communities to engage with childhood obesity prevention initiatives in disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyril, Sheila; Polonsky, Michael; Green, Julie; Agho, Kingsley; Renzaho, Andre

    2017-07-01

    Objective Disadvantaged communities bear a disproportionate burden of childhood obesity and show low participation in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. This study aims to examine the level of readiness of disadvantaged communities to engage with childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Methods Using the community readiness model, 95 semi-structured interviews were conducted among communities in four disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia. Community readiness analysis and paired t-tests were performed to assess the readiness levels of disadvantaged communities to engage with childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Results The results showed that disadvantaged communities demonstrated low levels of readiness (readiness score=4/9, 44%) to engage with the existing childhood obesity prevention initiatives, lacked knowledge of childhood obesity and its prevention, and reported facing challenges in initiating and sustaining participation in obesity prevention initiatives. Conclusion This study highlights the need to improve community readiness by addressing low obesity-related literacy levels among disadvantaged communities and by facilitating the capacity-building of bicultural workers to deliver obesity prevention messages to these communities. Integrating these needs into existing Australian health policy and practice is of paramount importance for reducing obesity-related disparities currently prevailing in Australia. What is known about the topic? Childhood obesity prevalence is plateauing in developed countries including Australia; however, obesity-related inequalities continue to exist in Australia especially among communities living in disadvantaged areas, which experience poor engagement in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Studies in the USA have found that assessing disadvantaged communities' readiness to participate in health programs is a critical initial step in reducing the disproportionate obesity burden among these communities

  12. Development of eggs and larvae of Emmelichthys nitidus (Percoidei: Emmelichthyidae) in south-eastern Australia, including a temperature-dependent egg incubation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Francisco J.; Keane, John P.; Lyle, Jeremy M.; Tracey, Sean R.

    2008-08-01

    Reared eggs and field-collected material were employed to describe the development of the pelagic eggs and larvae of Emmelichthys nitidus (Emmelichthyidae), a small (36 cm TL) mid-water schooling species common in shelf waters of temperate Australia. Hydrated oocytes from adults trawled from spawning grounds off eastern Tasmania were fertilized and reared to the yolk-sac larval stage, and the data employed to build a temperature-dependent egg incubation model. Embryogenesis lasted 96, 84 and 54 h at mean temperatures of 13.1, 14.4 and 16.5 °C respectively, and was divided into seven stages based on extent of epiboly until blastopore closure (stages I-III) and embryo growth (stages IV-VII). Eggs (1.00-1.05 mm diameter) are spherical with a smooth chorion, small perivitelline space and prominent, unsegmented yolk with a single, posteriorly-located oil globule (0.18-0.20 mm diameter) that becomes pigmented from stage III. Embryos have two distinct snout melanophores, and a paired melanophore row laterally along the trunk and tail. Morphological identification of eggs collected during surveys in October 2005 and 2006 was validated using quantitative PCR amplification of the mtDNA d-loop gene region unique to E. nitidus, producing an 80-100% agreement across all seven stages. Newly-emerged larvae (1.9-3.3 mm) possess a prominent yolk sac with the posteriorly-located, pigmented oil globule, mouth not yet functional and unpigmented eyes. Notochord flexion occurs between 5 and 8 mm while fins are formed by 12 mm. Larvae examined (3.3-17.4 mm) are lightly pigmented and possess percoid features such as an elongate to moderate body, coiled, triangular-shaped gut, preopercular spines and 24-25 myomeres; two prominent pigment patches opposite each other dorsally and ventrally along the tail are diagnostic. Variability of mean egg ages ( y) by temperature ( t) and stage ( i) was best described by the deterministic stage-to-age model y = 35.911exp[-(0.155 t + 0.262 i)] i2

  13. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from raw milk sources in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Kate; Moore, Sean C; McAuley, Catherine M; Fegan, Narelle; Fox, Edward M

    2016-07-29

    Highly pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus can cause disease in both humans and animals. In animal species, including ruminants, S. aureus may cause severe or sub-clinical mastitis. Dairy animals with mastitis frequently shed S. aureus into the milk supply which can lead to food poisoning in humans. The aim of this study was to use genotypic and immunological methods to characterize S. aureus isolates from milk-related samples collected from 7 dairy farms across Victoria. A total of 30 S. aureus isolates were collected from milk and milk filter samples from 3 bovine, 3 caprine and 1 ovine dairy farms across Victoria, Australia. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) identified 11 distinct pulsotypes among isolates; all caprine and ovine isolates shared greater than 80 % similarity regardless of source. Conversely, bovine isolates showed higher diversity. Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) identified 5 different sequence types (STs) among bovine isolates, associated with human or ruminant lineages. All caprine and ovine isolates were ST133, or a single allele variant of ST133. Two new novel STs were identified among isolates in this study (ST3183 and ST3184). With the exception of these 2 new STs, eBURST analysis predicted all other STs to be founding members of their associated clonal complexes (CCs). Analysis of genetic markers revealed a diverse range of classical staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE) among isolates, with 11 different SEs identified among bovine isolates, compared with just 2 among caprine and ovine isolates. None of the isolates contained mecA, or were resistant to oxacillin. The only antibiotic resistance identified was that of a single isolate resistant to penicillin; this isolate also contained the penicillin resistance gene blaZ. Production of SE was observed at 16 °C and/or 37 °C in milk, however no SE production was detected at 12 °C. Although this study characterized a limited number of isolates, bovine-associated isolates

  14. A statewide review of postnatal care in private hospitals in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forster Della A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns have been raised in Australia and internationally regarding the quality and effectiveness of hospital postnatal care, although Australian women receiving postnatal care in the private maternity sector rate their satisfaction with care more highly than women receiving public maternity care. In Victoria, Australia, two-thirds of women receive their maternity care in the public sector and the remainder in private health care sector. A statewide review of public hospital postnatal care in Victoria from the perspective of care providers found many barriers to care provision including the busyness of postnatal wards, inadequate staffing and priority being given to other episodes of care; however the study did not include private hospitals. The aim of this study was replicate the review in the private sector, to explore the structure and organisation of postnatal care in private hospitals and identify those aspects of care potentially impacting on women's experiences and maternal and infant care. This provides a more complete overview of the organisational structures and processes in postnatal care in all Victorian hospitals from the perspective of care providers. Methods A mixed method design was used. A structured postal survey was sent to all Victorian private hospitals (n = 19 and key informant interviews were undertaken with selected clinical midwives, maternity unit managers and obstetricians (n = 11. Survey data were analysed using descriptive statistics and interview data analysed thematically. Results Private hospital care providers report that postnatal care is provided in very busy environments, and that meeting the aims of postnatal care (breastfeeding support, education of parents and facilitating rest and recovery for women following birth was difficult in the context of increased acuity of postnatal care; prioritising of other areas over postnatal care; high midwife-to-woman ratios; and the number and

  15. Nd-Sr isotopic and geochemical systematics in Cambrian boninites and tholeiites from Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. R.; Crawford, A. J.; McCulloch, M. T.

    1984-11-01

    Rocks with boninitic affinities have been recognised in a number of “ophiolites”, including the Cambrian Heathcote and Mt Wellington Greenstone Belts of Victoria. Boninites and high-Mg andesites from the Heathcote Greenstone Belt show a restricted range of initial ɛ Nd values of between +3.3 to +5.8. Extremely refractory boninites from the Mt Wellington Greenstone Belt have ɛ Nd ranging from +1.3 to -9. Ti/Zr is positively correlated with Sm/Nd with the Heathcote lavas generally possessing greater depletion of Ti and enrichment of Zr relative to the middle and heavy REE with increasing LREE/HREE. These data are consistent with the generation of boninites by partial melting of refractory peridotite following invasion by LREE- and Zr-enriched, low ɛ Nd fluids. Tholeiites overlying the boninites in both greenstone belts have flat REE patterns and ɛ Nd˜+5, lower than that anticipated for lavas derived from depleted MORB source reservoirs in the Cambrian, suggesting that their source was also contaminated by a LREE-enriched, low ɛ Nd component similar to that involved in the generation of the Howqua boninites. The added components have characteristics compatible with their derivation from subducted altered oceanic crust and/or from wet subducted sediments. The identification of boninites and other low-Ti lavas in the Victorian greenstone belts is strong evidence for island arc development in southeastern Australia during the Lower Cambrian and provides further support for a subduction-related origin for many ophiolites.

  16. Origins of igneous microgranular enclaves in granites: the example of Central Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, J. D.; Elburg, M. A.; Harris, C.

    2017-10-01

    To investigate their genesis and relations with their host rocks, we study igneous microgranular enclaves (IMEs) in the c. 370 Ma, post-orogenic, high-level, felsic plutons and volcanic rocks of Central Victoria, Australia. The IMEs are thermally quenched magma globules but are not autoliths, and they do not form mixing series with their host magmas. These IMEs generally represent hybrids between mantle-derived magmas and very high- T crust-derived melts, modified by fractionation, ingestion of host-derived crystals and, to a lesser extent, by chemical interactions with their hosts. Isotopic and elemental evidence suggests that their likely mafic progenitors formed by partial melting of subcontinental mantle, but that the IME suites from different felsic host bodies did not share a common initial composition. We infer that melts of heterogeneous mantle underwent high- T hybridisation with melts from a variety of crustal rocks, which led to a high degree of primary variability in the IME magmas. Our model for the formation of the Central Victorian IMEs is likely to be applicable to other occurrences, especially in suites of postorogenic granitic magmas emplaced in the shallow crust. However, there are many different origins for the mingled magma globules that we call IMEs, and different phenomena seem to occur in differing tectonic settings. The complexity of IME formation means that it is difficult to unravel the petrogenesis of these products of chaotic magma processes. Nevertheless, the survival of fine-grained, non-equilibrium mineralogy and texture in the IMEs suggests that their tenure in the host magmas must have been geologically brief.

  17. Impacts of reclaimed water irrigation on soil antibiotic resistome in urban parks of Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue-Mei; Hu, Hang-Wei; Shi, Xiu-Zhen; Wang, Jun-Tao; Han, Li-Li; Chen, Deli; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-04-01

    The effluents from wastewater treatment plants have been recognized as a significant environmental reservoir of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Reclaimed water irrigation (RWI) is increasingly used as a practical solution for combating water scarcity in arid and semiarid regions, however, impacts of RWI on the patterns of ARGs and the soil bacterial community remain unclear. Here, we used high-throughput quantitative PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques to compare the diversity, abundance and composition of a broad-spectrum of ARGs and total bacteria in 12 urban parks with and without RWI in Victoria, Australia. A total of 40 unique ARGs were detected across all park soils, with genes conferring resistance to β-lactam being the most prevalent ARG type. The total numbers and the fold changes of the detected ARGs were significantly increased by RWI, and marked shifts in ARG patterns were also observed in urban parks with RWI compared to those without RWI. The changes in ARG patterns were paralleled by a significant effect of RWI on the bacterial community structure and a co-occurrence pattern of the detected ARG types. There were significant and positive correlations between the fold changes of the integrase intI1 gene and two β-lactam resistance genes (KPC and IMP-2 groups), but no significant impacts of RWI on the abundances of intI1 and the transposase tnpA gene were found, indicating that RWI did not improve the potential for horizontal gene transfer of soil ARGs. Taken together, our findings suggested that irrigation of urban parks with reclaimed water could influence the abundance, diversity, and compositions of a wide variety of soil ARGs of clinical relevance. Irrigation of urban parks with treated wastewater significantly increased the abundance and diversity of various antibiotic resistance genes, but did not significantly enhance their potential for horizontal gene transfer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  18. Family Presence During Resuscitation (FPDR): Observational case studies of emergency personnel in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Joanne E; Miller, Nareeda; Giannis, Anita; Coombs, Nicole

    2017-07-01

    Family Presence During Resuscitation (FPDR), although not a new concept, remains inconsistently implemented by emergency personnel. Many larger metropolitan emergency departments (ED) have instigated a care coordinator role, however these personnel are often from a non-nursing background and have therefore limited knowledge about the clinical aspects of the resuscitation. In rural emergency departments there are simply not enough staff to allocate an independent role. A separate care coordinator role, who is assigned to care for the family and not take part in the resuscitation has been well documented as essential to the successful implementation of FPDR. One rural and one metropolitan emergency department in the state of Victoria, Australia were observed and data was collected on FPDR events. The participants consisted of resuscitation team members, including; emergency trained nurses, senior medical officers, general nurses and doctors. The participants were not told that the data would be recorded around interactions with family members or team discussions regarding family involvement in the resuscitation, following ethical approval involving limited disclosure of the aims of the study. Seventeen adult presentations (Metro n=9, Rural n=8) were included in this study and will be presented as resuscitation case studies. The key themes identified included ambiguity around resuscitation status, keeping the family informed, family isolation and inter-professional communication. During 17 adult resuscitation cases, staff were witnessed communicating with family, which was often limited and isolation resulted. Family were often uninformed or separated from their family member, however when a family liaison person was available it was found to be beneficial. This research indicated that staff could benefit from a designated family liaison role, formal policy and further education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Travel Destinations and Sexual Behavior as Indicators of Antibiotic Resistant Shigella Strains--Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Courtney R; Sutton, Brett; Valcanis, Mary; Kirk, Martyn; Walker, Cathryn; Lalor, Karin; Stephens, Nicola

    2016-03-15

    Knowledge of relationships between antibiotic susceptibility of Shigella isolates and travel destination or other risk factors can assist clinicians in determining appropriate antibiotic therapy prior to susceptibility testing. We describe relationships between resistance patterns and risk factors for acquisition in Shigella isolates using routinely collected data for notified cases of shigellosis between 2008 and 2012 in Victoria, Australia. We included all shigellosis patients notified during the study period, where Shigella isolates were tested for antimicrobial sensitivity using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoints. Cases were interviewed to collect data on risk factors, including recent travel. Data were analyzed using Stata 13.1 to examine associations between risk factors and resistant strains. Of the 500 cases of shigellosis, 249 were associated with overseas travel and 210 were locally acquired. Forty-six of 51 isolates of Indian origin displayed decreased susceptibility or resistance to ciprofloxacin. All isolates of Indonesian origin were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Twenty-six travel-related isolates were resistant to all tested oral antimicrobials. Male-to-male sexual contact was the primary risk factor for 80% (120/150) of locally acquired infections among adult males, characterized by distinct periodic Shigella sonnei outbreaks. Clinicians should consider travel destination as a marker for resistance to common antimicrobials in returning travelers, where severe disease requires empirical treatment prior to receipt of individual sensitivity testing results. Repeated outbreaks of locally acquired shigellosis among men who have sex with men highlight the importance of prevention and control measures in this high-risk group. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Influence of voluntary standards and design modifications on trampoline injury in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Karen; Eager, David; D'Elia, Angelo; Day, Lesley

    2015-10-01

    To examine the influence of the voluntary Australian trampoline standard (AS 4989-2006) and market-driven design modifications on relevant trampoline injuries. Trend and intervention analysis on frequencies and proportions of hospital-treated trampoline-related injury in Victoria, Australia, extracted from the Victorian Emergency Minimum Dataset from 1 July 1999 to 30 June 2013. The injuries relevant to the AS were contact with spring and frame, and multiple-user injury. Falls from trampolines were relevant for netted trampolines, a market-driven modification. Frequency of all trampoline injuries increased by 11.4% (95% CI 10.0% to 11.7%) on average each year. Spring and frame, and fall injuries increased to a lesser extent (8.7%, 95% CI 6.9% to 9.8% and 7.3%, 95% CI 5.8% to 8.3%, respectively). Multiple-user injuries increased by 21.0% (95% CI 16.3% to 21.9%). As a proportion of all trampoline injuries, spring and frame injury and falls injury decreased, while multiple-user injuries increased. The intervention analysis showed no significant change in spring and frame injuries associated with the AS (p=0.17). A significant increase was found for multiple-user injuries (p=0.01), in particular for the 0-year to 4-year age group (ptrampolines appear to be associated with a decrease in falls from trampolines but an increase in injuries to multiple users. A mandated trampoline safety standard and a safety campaign including warnings about multiple users is recommended. Continued monitoring of injury data will be required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Factors relating to hospitalisation and economic burden of paediatric constipation in the state of Victoria, Australia, 2002-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Humaira; Ansari, Zahid; Lim, Tracy; Hutson, John M; Southwell, Bridget R

    2014-12-01

    Constipation is common, with severe symptoms requiring hospitalisation. Constipation can be a primary (present at admission and requires treatment or investigation) or principal (first listed) diagnosis for hospitalisation. In the USA, constipation is the second most common ambulatory care digestive diagnosis with total costs >US$1.7 billion/year. Incidence of hospitalisation for constipation in children peaks at toilet-training age. This study determined the burden of paediatric constipation to hospital care in Victoria, Australia. The Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset was analysed retrospectively, examining hospital admissions with a primary diagnosis of constipation in the 7-year period 2002/2003 to 2008/2009. For children, constipation was recorded as a primary diagnosis in 8688 admissions (3.6/1000 of population). In-hospital prevalence was ∼1.0%. Mean length of stay was 4.4 days (median 1.0, range 0-993, standard deviation 16.7). There were 1121 readmissions in 668 children. Average treatment cost was A$4235/admission (median A$1461, range A$0-$278 816), with annual costs of ∼A$5 505 500. Children in the highest socio-economic area had ∼50% fewer admissions (P disadvantage, public hospital, planned admission, longer length of stay and association with other medical conditions. This study identified that constipation in children is a significant cost burden in Victoria (costing public hospitals ∼A$5.5 million/year). Hospitalisation in Victoria is 10-fold higher than in the USA with 10% readmissions within a month. We conclude that strategies aimed at reducing hospitalisation for constipation could result in significant savings for the paediatric public health system in Victoria, Australia. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  2. Temporal associations with declining Trichomonas vaginalis diagnosis rates among women in the state of Victoria, Australia, 1947 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrone, John; Fairley, Christopher K; Saville, Marian; Bradshaw, Catriona; Bowden, Francis J; Horvath, Leonie B; Donovan, Basil; Chen, Marcus; Hocking, Jane S

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the temporal associations between Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) diagnoses in women at a large urban sexual health clinic and a major Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening laboratory in Victoria, Australia with Pap smear screening rates and the introduction of nitroimidazole treatments. An ecological analysis of TV diagnosis rates at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre and the Victorian Cytology Service, Pap smear screening rates and nitroimidazole prescription data. Diagnoses of TV at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre peaked in the 1950s at 20% to 30% and then rapidly declined through the 1960s and 1970s to below 1% in 1990. A similar pattern was observed at the Victorian Cytology Service. Metronidazole prescribing and opportunistic Pap smear screening began in Victoria in the 1960s coinciding with declining TV. The availability of tinidazole in 1976 led to further declines in TV in the late 1970s. A national cervical screening program introduced in 1991 was temporally associated with further declines in TV. Our analyses suggest that the introduction of metronidazole was associated with a large reduction in TV among Victorian women in the 1960s. The subsequent availability of tinidazole and increased Pap smear screening may have contributed to the current low TV prevalence in Victoria.

  3. A problem-oriented approach to understanding adaptation: lessons learnt from Alpine Shire, Victoria Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Carolina

    2010-05-01

    Climate change is gaining attention as a significant strategic issue for localities that rely on their business sectors for economic viability. For businesses in the tourism sector, considerable research effort has sought to characterise the vulnerability to the likely impacts of future climate change through scenarios or ‘end-point' approaches (Kelly & Adger, 2000). Whilst useful, there are few demonstrable case studies that complement such work with a ‘start-point' approach that seeks to explore contextual vulnerability (O'Brien et al., 2007). This broader approach is inclusive of climate change as a process operating within a biophysical system and allows recognition of the complex interactions that occur in the coupled human-environmental system. A problem-oriented and interdisciplinary approach was employed at Alpine Shire, in northeast Victoria Australia, to explore the concept of contextual vulnerability and adaptability to stressors that include, but are not limited to climatic change. Using a policy sciences approach, the objective was to identify factors that influence existing vulnerabilities and that might consequently act as barriers to effective adaptation for the Shire's business community involved in the tourism sector. Analyses of results suggest that many threats, including the effects climate change, compete for the resources, strategy and direction of local tourism management bodies. Further analysis of conditioning factors revealed that many complex and interacting factors define the vulnerability and adaptive capacity of the Shire's tourism sector to the challenges of global change, which collectively have more immediate implications for policy and planning than long-term future climate change scenarios. An approximation of the common interest, i.e. enhancing capacity in business acumen amongst tourism operators, would facilitate adaptability and sustainability through the enhancement of social capital in this business community. Kelly, P

  4. Impacts of reclaimed water irrigation on soil antibiotic resistome in urban parks of Victoria, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Xue-Mei; Hu, Hang-Wei; Shi, Xiu-Zhen; Wang, Jun-Tao; Han, Li-Li; Chen, Deli; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The effluents from wastewater treatment plants have been recognized as a significant environmental reservoir of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Reclaimed water irrigation (RWI) is increasingly used as a practical solution for combating water scarcity in arid and semiarid regions, however, impacts of RWI on the patterns of ARGs and the soil bacterial community remain unclear. Here, we used high-throughput quantitative PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques to compare the diversity, abundance and composition of a broad-spectrum of ARGs and total bacteria in 12 urban parks with and without RWI in Victoria, Australia. A total of 40 unique ARGs were detected across all park soils, with genes conferring resistance to β-lactam being the most prevalent ARG type. The total numbers and the fold changes of the detected ARGs were significantly increased by RWI, and marked shifts in ARG patterns were also observed in urban parks with RWI compared to those without RWI. The changes in ARG patterns were paralleled by a significant effect of RWI on the bacterial community structure and a co-occurrence pattern of the detected ARG types. There were significant and positive correlations between the fold changes of the integrase intI1 gene and two β-lactam resistance genes (KPC and IMP-2 groups), but no significant impacts of RWI on the abundances of intI1 and the transposase tnpA gene were found, indicating that RWI did not improve the potential for horizontal gene transfer of soil ARGs. Taken together, our findings suggested that irrigation of urban parks with reclaimed water could influence the abundance, diversity, and compositions of a wide variety of soil ARGs of clinical relevance. One-sentence summary: Irrigation of urban parks with treated wastewater significantly increased the abundance and diversity of various antibiotic resistance genes, but did not significantly enhance their potential for horizontal gene transfer

  5. Prevalence, seasonality, and growth of enterococci in raw and pasteurized milk in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Catherine M; Britz, Margaret L; Gobius, Kari S; Craven, Heather M

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence, seasonality, and species variety of enterococci present in raw milk factory silos and pasteurized milk in 3 dairying regions in Victoria, Australia, over a 1-yr period. Additionally, the growth ability of thermoduric enterococci isolated in this study (Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, E. hirae, and E. durans) was determined in milk at temperatures likely to occur during storage, transport, and distribution, and before domestic consumption (4 and 7°C). Enterococci were detected in 96% of 211 raw milk samples, with an average count of 2.48 log10 cfu/mL. Counts were significantly lower in winter than summer (average 1.84 log10 cfu/mL) and were different between factories but not regions. Enterococcus faecalis was the most prevalent species isolated from raw milk in every factory, comprising between 61.5 and 83.5% of enterococcal species across each season. Enterococci were detected in lower numbers in pasteurized milk than in raw milk and were below the limit of detection on spread plates (pasteurization. Residual viable cells were only detected following enrichment using 100-mL samples of milk, with 20.8% of the samples testing positive; this equated to a decrease in the average raw milk enterococci count of >4 log10 cfu/mL following pasteurization. Although E. faecalis predominated in raw milk and E. durans was found in only 2.9% of raw milk samples, E. durans was the most prevalent species detected in pasteurized milk. The detection of enterococci in the pasteurized milk did not correlate with higher enterococci counts in the raw milk. This suggested that the main enterococci populations in raw milk were heat-sensitive and that thermoduric enterococci survived pasteurization in a small numbers of instances. All of the thermoduric enterococci that were assessed for growth at likely refrigeration temperatures were able to grow at both 4 and 7°C in sterile milk, with generation times of 35 to 41h and 16 to 22h, respectively

  6. Attitudes, Knowledge and Factors Associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Uptake in Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Iris L. Y.; Machalek, Dorothy A.; Garland, Suzanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination targets high-risk HPV16/18 that cause 70% of all cancers of the cervix. In Australia there is a fully-funded, school-based National HPV Vaccination Program which has achieved vaccine initiation rate of 82% among age-eligible females. Improving HPV vaccination rates is important in the prevention of morbidity and mortality associated with HPV-related disease. This study aimed to identify factors and barriers associated with uptake of the HPV vaccine in the Australian Program. Methods Between 2011 and 2014, females aged 18–25 years, living in Victoria, Australia who were offered HPV vaccination between 2007 and 2009 as part of the National HPV Vaccination Program, living in Victoria, Australia were recruited into a a young women’s study examining effectiveness of the Australian National HPV Vaccination Program. Overall, 668 participants completed the recruitment survey, which collected data of participants’ demographics and HPV knowledge. In 2015 these participants were invited to complete an additional supplementary survey on parental demographics and attitudes towards vaccinations. Results In 2015, 417 participants completed the supplementary survey (62% response rate). Overall, 19% of participants were unvaccinated. In multivariate analyses, HPV vaccination was significantly associated with their being born in Australia (pvaccinations (pparents being main decision-makers for participants’ HPV vaccination (pHPV non-vaccination was parental concern about vaccine safety (43%). Compared with HPV-vaccinated participants, those unvaccinated were significantly more likely to be opposed to all vaccines, including HPV vaccines (pvaccinating their own children with all vaccines (p = 0.033), including HPV vaccines (pHPV vaccine acceptance. Conclusions Attitudes towards general health, vaccinations in general, as well as HPV vaccines are important in HPV vaccine uptake. Long-term monitoring of the knowledge, attitude

  7. Regions of High Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Incidence and Low Bystander CPR Rates in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straney, Lahn D; Bray, Janet E; Beck, Ben; Finn, Judith; Bernard, Stephen; Dyson, Kylie; Lijovic, Marijana; Smith, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains a major public health issue and research has shown that large regional variation in outcomes exists. Of the interventions associated with survival, the provision of bystander CPR is one of the most important modifiable factors. The aim of this study is to identify census areas with high incidence of OHCA and low rates of bystander CPR in Victoria, Australia. We conducted an observational study using prospectively collected population-based OHCA data from the state of Victoria in Australia. Using ArcGIS (ArcMap 10.0), we linked the location of the arrest using the dispatch coordinates (longitude and latitude) to Victorian Local Government Areas (LGAs). We used Bayesian hierarchical models with random effects on each LGA to provide shrunken estimates of the rates of bystander CPR and the incidence rates. Over the study period there were 31,019 adult OHCA attended, of which 21,436 (69.1%) cases were of presumed cardiac etiology. Significant variation in the incidence of OHCA among LGAs was observed. There was a 3 fold difference in the incidence rate between the lowest and highest LGAs, ranging from 38.5 to 115.1 cases per 100,000 person-years. The overall rate of bystander CPR for bystander witnessed OHCAs was 62.4%, with the rate increasing from 56.4% in 2008-2010 to 68.6% in 2010-2013. There was a 25.1% absolute difference in bystander CPR rates between the highest and lowest LGAs. Significant regional variation in OHCA incidence and bystander CPR rates exists throughout Victoria. Regions with high incidence and low bystander CPR participation can be identified and would make suitable targets for interventions to improve CPR participation rates.

  8. Australia's energy profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, A.

    1999-01-01

    Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE)'s biennial fuel and electricity survey provides a comprehensive database with which is possible to examine recent trends and developments in Australia's energy market. Some key development are outlined in this article. While energy consumption in Australia has been increasing steadily since 1973-74, substantial changes have occurred 'behind the scenes' in terms of the states and sectors in which energy is consumed and the overall fuel mix. Historically, the south-eastern states of New South Wales and Victoria have accounted for the largest shares of total energy consumption In recent years, however, the dominance of New South Wales and Victoria (and particularly New South Wales) has come under pressure from the states of Queensland. Western Australia, and to a lesser extent, the Northern Territory. Each of these states has experienced rapid growth in energy consumption, due mainly to a number of strongly growing energy intensive industries, particularly in the mining and minerals processing sectors. High economic and population growth over this period were also important factors. An increase in the share of natural gas- and a corresponding decline in the share of crude oil - is the most evident change to have occurred in the fuel mix since 1973-1974. However, since 1993, the trend has changed, the share of coal (and particularly brown coal) increased strongly, making it the primary fuel source for thermal electricity generation. This recent shift has been driven by developments in Queensland and Victoria

  9. Perception of Aquaculture Education to Support Further Growth of Aquaculture Industry in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awal, Sadiqul; Christie, Andrew; Watson, Matthew; Hannadige, Asanka G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The central aim of this study was to determine the perception of aquaculture educational provisions in the state of Victoria, and whether they are sufficient to ultimately support further growth of the industry. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires were formulated and distributed to participants in a variety of ways, including via…

  10. Maternal region of birth and stillbirth in Victoria, Australia 2000-2011: A retrospective cohort study of Victorian perinatal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Tuck, Miranda L; Davey, Mary-Ann; Wallace, Euan M

    2017-01-01

    There is growing evidence from high-income countries that maternal country of birth is a risk factor for stillbirth. We aimed to examine the association between maternal region of birth and stillbirth between 2000 and 2011 inclusive in Victoria, Australia. Retrospective population based cohort study of all singleton births at 24 or more weeks gestational age from 2000-2011 in Victoria, Australia. Stillbirths due to termination of pregnancy, babies with congenital anomalies and Indigenous mothers were excluded. Main Outcome Measure: Stillbirth. Over the 12-year period there were 685,869 singleton births and 2299 stillbirths, giving an overall stillbirth rate of 3·4 per 1000 births. After adjustment for risk factors, compared to women born in Australia/New Zealand, women born in South Asia (aOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.53, p = 0.01), were more likely to have a stillbirth whereas women born in South East and East Asia were (aOR 0.60, (95% CI 0.49-0.72, pAsian compared to Australian/New Zealand born women. The following risk factors were also significantly associated with an increased odds of stillbirth in multivariate analyses: maternal age <20 and 35 years and more, nulliparity, low socio-economic status, previous stillbirth, no ultrasound reported in 1st trimester, pre-existing hypertension, antepartum haemorrhage and failure to detect growth restriction antenatally. Maternal region of birth is an independent risk factor for stillbirth. Improvements in the rate of stillbirth, particularly late pregnancy stillbirth, are likely to be gained in high-income settings where clinical care is informed by maternal region of birth.

  11. Maternal region of birth and stillbirth in Victoria, Australia 2000-2011: A retrospective cohort study of Victorian perinatal data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda L Davies-Tuck

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence from high-income countries that maternal country of birth is a risk factor for stillbirth. We aimed to examine the association between maternal region of birth and stillbirth between 2000 and 2011 inclusive in Victoria, Australia.Retrospective population based cohort study of all singleton births at 24 or more weeks gestational age from 2000-2011 in Victoria, Australia. Stillbirths due to termination of pregnancy, babies with congenital anomalies and Indigenous mothers were excluded. Main Outcome Measure: Stillbirth.Over the 12-year period there were 685,869 singleton births and 2299 stillbirths, giving an overall stillbirth rate of 3·4 per 1000 births. After adjustment for risk factors, compared to women born in Australia/New Zealand, women born in South Asia (aOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.53, p = 0.01, were more likely to have a stillbirth whereas women born in South East and East Asia were (aOR 0.60, (95% CI 0.49-0.72, p<0.001 less likely to have a stillbirth. Additionally, the increasing rate of stillbirth as gestation length progressed began to rise earlier and more steeply in the South Asian compared to Australian/New Zealand born women. The following risk factors were also significantly associated with an increased odds of stillbirth in multivariate analyses: maternal age <20 and 35 years and more, nulliparity, low socio-economic status, previous stillbirth, no ultrasound reported in 1st trimester, pre-existing hypertension, antepartum haemorrhage and failure to detect growth restriction antenatally.Maternal region of birth is an independent risk factor for stillbirth. Improvements in the rate of stillbirth, particularly late pregnancy stillbirth, are likely to be gained in high-income settings where clinical care is informed by maternal region of birth.

  12. An exploration of emergency department presentations related to high heel footwear in Victoria, Australia, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cylie M; Haines, Terry P

    2014-01-23

    Many women are warned against the dangers of wearing high heel footwear however there is limited empirical evidence demonstrating an association between wearing high heel with injury. Gait laboratory testing has found a higher heel height placed the foot in a position that increases the risk of ankle sprain. Women have also been surveyed about wearing high heels and approximately half of those reported inconvenience and pain after wearing a high heel shoe. This study aims to explore emergency department presentations of injuries and the estimated costs that have been directly attributed to wearing high heeled footwear within Victoria, Australia during 2006-2010. The Victorian Emergency Minimum Dataset (VEMD) was searched for all injuries attributed to wearing high heel footwear presenting to emergency departments in Victoria Australia, between the years of 2006-2010. The VEMD produced a report detailing sex, age at presentation, month of presentation, time of day of presentation, day of presentation, location that injury occurred and type of injury for presentation. Monash Health in Victoria Australia, provided emergency department estimates for injury types to calculate an estimated cost of an acute injury related to wearing high heel footwear. There were 240 injuries presenting to Victorian emergency departments directly attributed to wearing high heeled footwear. The majority of people injured were women (n = 236) and all were less than 55 years of age. More injuries presented on a Sunday (n = 83) and more in the 8 am-12 pm time bracket (n = 64). There were also more injuries presenting in the months of November, December and January (n = 80). The most commonly injured body part was the ankle (n = 123). The emergency department estimate of the cost of these injuries over this time-frame was almost $72,000 (mean of $316.72 per presentation). People who wear high heel footwear on weekends appear to be at higher risk for injury that leads to

  13. Use of regionalisation approach to develop fire frequency curves for Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khastagir, Anirban; Jayasuriya, Niranjali; Bhuyian, Muhammed A.

    2017-11-01

    It is important to perform fire frequency analysis to obtain fire frequency curves (FFC) based on fire intensity at different parts of Victoria. In this paper fire frequency curves (FFCs) were derived based on forest fire danger index (FFDI). FFDI is a measure related to fire initiation, spreading speed and containment difficulty. The mean temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and areal extent of open water (LC2) during summer months (Dec-Feb) were identified as the most important parameters for assessing the risk of occurrence of bushfire. Based on these parameters, Andrews' curve equation was applied to 40 selected meteorological stations to identify homogenous stations to form unique clusters. A methodology using peak FFDI from cluster averaged FFDIs was developed by applying Log Pearson Type III (LPIII) distribution to generate FFCs. A total of nine homogeneous clusters across Victoria were identified, and subsequently their FFC's were developed in order to estimate the regionalised fire occurrence characteristics.

  14. Hospital-treated injuries from horse riding in Victoria, Australia: time to refocus on injury prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Siobhán; Hitchens, Peta L; Fortington, Lauren V

    2018-01-01

    The most recent report on hospital-treated horse-riding injuries in Victoria was published 20 years ago. Since then, injury countermeasures and new technology have aimed to make horse riding safer for participants. This study provides an update of horse-riding injuries that required hospital treatment in Victoria and examines changes in injury patterns compared with the earlier study. Horse-riding injuries that required hospital treatment (hospital admission (HA) or emergency department (ED) presentations) were extracted from routinely collected data from public and private hospitals in Victoria from 2002-2003 to 2015-2016. Injury incidence rates per 100 000 Victorian population per financial year and age-stratified and sex-stratified injury incidence rates are presented. Poisson regression was used to examine trends in injury rates over the study period. ED presentation and HA rates were 31.1 and 6.6 per 100 000 person-years, increasing by 28.8% and 47.6% from 2002 to 2016, respectively. Female riders (47.3 ED and 10.1 HA per 100 000 person-years) and those aged between 10 and 14 years (87.8 ED and 15.7 HA per 100 000 person-years) had the highest incidence rates. Fractures (ED 29.4%; HA 56.5%) and head injuries (ED 15.4%; HA 18.9%) were the most common injuries. HA had a mean stay of 2.6±4.1 days, and the mean cost per HA was $A5096±8345. Horse-riding injuries have remained similar in their pattern (eg, types of injuries) since last reported in Victoria. HA and ED incidence rates have increased over the last 14 years. Refocusing on injury prevention countermeasures is recommended along with a clear plan for implementation and evaluation of their effectiveness in reducing injury.

  15. Effect of gap size on seedling establishment, growth and survival at three years in mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell.) forest in Victoria, Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der P.J.; Dignan, P.; Saveneh, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Establishment, growth and survival of Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. seedlings was studied at two sites over three years under a range of small gaps (up to 30mx30m) and large gaps (50mx50m up to clearfells) in a gap cutting experiment in mountain ash forest at Tanjil Bren, Victoria, Australia. In both

  16. Fast food restaurant locations according to socioeconomic disadvantage, urban–regional locality, and schools within Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukar E. Thornton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Features of the built environment provide opportunities to engage in both healthy and unhealthy behaviours. Access to a high number of fast food restaurants may encourage greater consumption of fast food products. The distribution of fast food restaurants at a state-level has not previously been reported in Australia. Using the location of 537 fast food restaurants from four major chains (McDonald׳s, KFC, Hungry Jacks, and Red Rooster, this study examined fast food restaurant locations across the state of Victoria relative to area-level disadvantage, urban–regional locality (classified as Major Cities, Inner Regional, or Outer Regional, and around schools. Findings revealed greater locational access to fast food restaurants in more socioeconomically disadvantaged areas (compared to areas with lower levels of disadvantage, nearby to secondary schools (compared to primary schools, and nearby to primary and secondary schools within the most disadvantaged areas of the major city region (compared to primary and secondary schools in areas with lower levels of disadvantage. Adjusted models showed no significant difference in location according to urban–regional locality. Knowledge of the distribution of fast food restaurants in Australia will assist local authorities to target potential policy mechanisms, such as planning regulations, where they are most needed. Keywords: Australia, Fast food, Socioeconomic inequalities, Urbanicity, Schools, Land-use planning

  17. The Impact of School Tobacco Policies on Student Smoking in Washington State, United States and Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard F. Catalano

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper measures tobacco polices in statewide representative samples of secondary and mixed schools in Victoria, Australia and Washington, US (N = 3,466 students from 285 schools and tests their association with student smoking. Results from confounder-adjusted random effects (multi-level regression models revealed that the odds of student perception of peer smoking on school grounds are decreased in schools that have strict enforcement of policy (odds ratio (OR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.25 to 0.82; p = 0.009. There was no clear evidence in this study that a comprehensive smoking ban, harsh penalties, remedial penalties, harm minimization policy or abstinence policy impact on any of the smoking outcomes.

  18. Understanding influenza vaccine protection in the community: an assessment of the 2013 influenza season in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carville, Kylie S; Grant, Kristina A; Sullivan, Sheena G; Fielding, James E; Lane, Courtney R; Franklin, Lucinda; Druce, Julian; Kelly, Heath A

    2015-01-03

    The influenza virus undergoes frequent antigenic drift, necessitating annual review of the composition of the influenza vaccine. Vaccination is an important strategy for reducing the impact and burden of influenza, and estimating vaccine effectiveness (VE) each year informs surveillance and preventative measures. We aimed to describe the influenza season and to estimate the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine in Victoria, Australia, in 2013. Routine laboratory notifications, general practitioner sentinel surveillance (including a medical deputising service) data, and sentinel hospital admission surveillance data for the influenza season (29 April to 27 October 2013) were collated in Victoria, Australia, to describe influenza-like illness or confirmed influenza during the season. General practitioner sentinel surveillance data were used to estimate VE against medically-attended laboratory confirmed influenza. VE was estimated using the case test negative design as 1-adjusted odds ratio (odds of vaccination in cases compared with controls) × 100%. Cases tested positive for influenza while non-cases (controls) tested negative. Estimates were adjusted for age group, week of onset, time to swabbing and co-morbidities. The 2013 influenza season was characterised by relatively low activity with a late peak. Influenza B circulation preceded that of influenza A(H1)pdm09, with very little influenza A(H3) circulation. Adjusted VE for all influenza was 55% (95%CI: -11, 82), for influenza A(H1)pdm09 was 43% (95%CI: -132, 86), and for influenza B was 56% (95%CI: -51, 87) Imputation of missing data raised the influenza VE point estimate to 64% (95%CI: 13, 85). Clinicians can continue to promote a positive approach to influenza vaccination, understanding that inactivated influenza vaccines prevent at least 50% of laboratory-confirmed outcomes in hospitals and the community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Exploring midwifery students' views and experiences of caseload midwifery: A cross-sectional survey conducted in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Kate; Newton, Michelle; Forster, Della; McLachlan, Helen

    2015-02-01

    in Australia, models of maternity care that offer women continuity of care with a known midwife have been promoted. Little is known about the intentions of the future midwifery workforce to work in such models. This study aimed to explore midwifery students' views and experiences of caseload midwifery and their work intentions in relation to the caseload model following graduation. cross-sectional survey. Victoria, Australia. 129 midwifery students representing all midwifery course pathways (Post Graduate Diploma, Bachelor of Midwifery, Bachelor of Nursing/Bachelor of Midwifery) in Victoria. midwifery students from all course pathways considered that continuity of care is important to women and indicated that exposure to continuity models during their course was very positive. Two-thirds of the students (67%) considered that the continuity experiences made them want to work in a caseload model; only 5% reported that their experiences had discouraged them from continuity of care work in the future. Most wanted a period of consolidation to gain experience as a midwife prior to commencing in the caseload model. Perceived barriers to caseload work were being on-call, and challenges in regard to work/life balance and family commitments. midwifery students in this study were very positive about caseload midwifery and most would consider working in caseload after a period of consolidation. Continuity of care experiences during students' midwifery education programmes appeared to provide students with insight and understanding of continuity of care for both women and midwives. Further research should explore what factors influence students' future midwifery work, whether or not their plans are fulfilled, and whether or not the caseload midwifery workforce can be sustained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Visibility in health statistics: a population data linkage study more accurately identifying Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Births in Victoria, Australia, 1988-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Ritte

    2017-04-01

    This is the first time that the VPDC and RBDM birth data were linked in Victoria. The matched birth information established a more complete population profile of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander births. These data will provide a more accurate baseline to enhance the Victorian and Australian governments’ ability to plan services, allocate resources and evaluate funded activities aimed at eliminating disparity experienced by Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander peoples. Importantly, it has established a more accurate denominator from which to calculate Aboriginal infant mortality rates for Victoria, Australia. *Until 2009, the mother’s Indigenous identification only was recorded in the VPDC

  1. Fast food restaurant locations according to socioeconomic disadvantage, urban-regional locality, and schools within Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Lamb, Karen E; Ball, Kylie

    2016-12-01

    Features of the built environment provide opportunities to engage in both healthy and unhealthy behaviours. Access to a high number of fast food restaurants may encourage greater consumption of fast food products. The distribution of fast food restaurants at a state-level has not previously been reported in Australia. Using the location of 537 fast food restaurants from four major chains (McDonald׳s, KFC, Hungry Jacks, and Red Rooster), this study examined fast food restaurant locations across the state of Victoria relative to area-level disadvantage, urban-regional locality (classified as Major Cities, Inner Regional, or Outer Regional), and around schools. Findings revealed greater locational access to fast food restaurants in more socioeconomically disadvantaged areas (compared to areas with lower levels of disadvantage), nearby to secondary schools (compared to primary schools), and nearby to primary and secondary schools within the most disadvantaged areas of the major city region (compared to primary and secondary schools in areas with lower levels of disadvantage). Adjusted models showed no significant difference in location according to urban-regional locality. Knowledge of the distribution of fast food restaurants in Australia will assist local authorities to target potential policy mechanisms, such as planning regulations, where they are most needed.

  2. Barriers and facilitators to childhood obesity prevention among culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyril, Sheila; Nicholson, Jan M; Agho, Kingsley; Polonsky, Michael; Renzaho, Andre M

    2017-06-01

    Childhood obesity is rising among culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) groups who show poor engagement in obesity prevention initiatives. We examined the barriers and facilitators to the engagement of CALD communities in obesity prevention initiatives. We used the nominal group technique to collect data from 39 participants from Vietnamese, Burmese, African, Afghani and Indian origins living in disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia. Data analysis revealed ranked priorities for barriers and facilitators for CALD community engagement in obesity prevention initiatives. CALD parents identified key barriers as being: competing priorities in the post-migration settlement phase; language, cultural and program accessibility barriers; low levels of food and health literacy; junk food advertisement targeting children; and lack of mandatory weight checks for schoolchildren. Key facilitators emerged as: bicultural playgroup leaders; ethnic community groups; and school-based healthy lunch box initiatives. This study has identified several policy recommendations including: the implementation of robust food taxation policies; consistent control of food advertising targeting children; improving CALD health literacy using bicultural workers; and matching health promotional materials with CALD community literacy levels. Implications for Public Health: These recommendations can directly influence public health policy to improve the engagement of CALD communities in obesity prevention services and ultimately reduce the widening obesity disparities in Australia. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Perceptions of prescribed burning in a local forest community in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Tina; Oliveras, Immaculada

    2006-11-01

    The general perceptions of prescribed burning were elicited from forest users for an area that has been subject to this form of land management for at least 20 years. The largest group consisted of local residents living in and around the Wombat State Forest with two smaller groups of students from a nearby university campus and local professional land managers. A questionnaire was given to each participant in order to explore how the forest was used, to determine the level of knowledge of burning in the targeted forest and Victoria and the perception of the appearance, effectiveness of protection, and accessibility to the forest after prescribed burning. Generally all groups had similar responses with community members having stronger views on the effectiveness and practicalities of prescribed burning, whereas students were more neutral in their opinions. All participants claimed knowledge of prescribed burning activities within Victoria, but fewer had experience of planned fires in the Wombat State Forest. All groups agreed that areas that had not been recently burned had a better appearance than those that had, but this result may have included a range of value judgments. Land managers had a greater understanding of the ecological importance of season and timing of burning; however, some students and community members were equally knowledgeable. Prescribed burning did not impede access to the forest, nor did smoke from prescribed burns pose any great problem. The majority of the participants felt that the amount of prescribed burning done in the forest was adequate for engendering a feeling of protection to life and property, yet many were still suspicious of this management practice. These initial findings indicate several areas in which further research would be useful including the efficacy of education programs for community members and improved communication of burn plans by land managers.

  4. Regions With Low Rates of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Have Lower Rates of CPR Training in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Janet E; Straney, Lahn; Smith, Karen; Cartledge, Susie; Case, Rosalind; Bernard, Stephen; Finn, Judith

    2017-06-05

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) more than doubles the chance of surviving an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Recent data have shown considerable regional variation in bystander CPR rates across the Australian state of Victoria. This study aims to determine whether there is associated regional variation in rates of CPR training and willingness to perform CPR in these communities. We categorized each Victorian postcode as either a low or high bystander CPR region using data on adult, bystander-witnessed, out-of-hospital cardiac arrests of presumed cardiac etiology (n=7175) from the Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Registry. We then surveyed adult Victorians (n=404) and compared CPR training data of the respondents from low and high bystander CPR regions. Of the 404 adults surveyed, 223 (55%) resided in regions with low bystander CPR. Compared with respondents from high bystander CPR regions, respondents residing in regions with low bystander CPR had lower rates of CPR training (62% versus 75%, P =0.009) and lower self-ratings for their overall knowledge of CPR (76% versus 84%, P =0.04). There were no differences between the regions in their reasons for not having undergone CPR training or in their willingness to perform CPR. Rates of survival for bystander-witnessed, out-of-hospital cardiac arrests were significantly lower in low bystander CPR regions (15.7% versus 17.0%, P CPR training and lower survival in regions with lower rates of bystander CPR in Victoria, Australia. Targeting these regions with CPR training programs may improve bystander CPR rates and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest outcomes. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  5. High seroprevalance of Neospora caninum in dogs in Victoria, Australia, compared to 20 years ago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Sloan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canids are definitive hosts of the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum, the leading cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. For horizontal transmission from canids to occur, oocysts of N. caninum must be shed by the definitive host into the environment of susceptible intermediate hosts such as cattle. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of N. caninum in canids in Victoria, Australia’s leading dairy producing state. Results Neospora-like oocysts were observed in 8% (18/234 of faecal samples from wild dogs, domestic dogs and red foxes from Victoria, Australia. However, none tested positive for N. caninum DNA using a quantitative PCR. In a separate sample population, blood sera from 483 domestic dogs were tested for anti-N. caninum antibodies using competitive ELISA. A subset of cELISA samples were re-tested using indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT. A seroprevalence of 29.8% (144/483; 95% CI: 11.7–47.8% was calculated when using cELISA; whereas it was 32.9% (27/80; 95% CI: 15.8–51.8% using IFAT. Potential risk factors were evaluated using univariable analyses and then assessed in separate multivariable models. Using ‘aged’ dogs as a reference, the seroprevalence of ‘adolescent’ and ‘adult’ dogs was 88% (P = 0.05 and 91% (P = 0.08, respectively, indicating seroprevalence increases with age. There was a 19% higher likelihood of infection in rural locations (P = 0.10 relative to urban areas. Jack Russell Terriers had a 22% higher risk of a cELISA-positive result (P = 0.05 regardless of geographical location, age or sex. Conclusion These results demonstrate that exposure to N. caninum in domestic dogs is widespread in Victoria, although faecal oocyst shedding is infrequent. Our results indicate increased N. caninum seroprevalance status in dogs over the past two decades. The results imply that dogs get either exposed to the infected meat more frequently or that vertical dam to

  6. Strategic Actions for Increasing the Submission of Digital Cadastral Data by the Surveying Industry Based on Lessons Learned from Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Olfat

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ePlan, as a digital cadastral data initiative, is a collaborative program between the land authorities and the surveying industry which aims to replace paper and PDF cadastral plans and surveys with digital data. ePlan is currently operational in Australia, New Zealand and Singapore. ePlan was introduced in the State of Victoria in 2011 and has been operational in this jurisdiction for 2D plans since 2013. On average, one ePlan application is currently submitted to a digital plan lodgment portal every two weeks. The low uptake of ePlan is caused by several technical and non-technical challenges. This paper provides an overview of cadastral information transitioning from paper to digital in Victoria. The research methodology to identify the challenges in Victoria for the adoption of ePlan is then described. This is followed by a discussion on the identified challenges. The paper then proposes a generic framework of strategic actions to increase the uptake of digital cadastral data based on the lessons learned from Victoria. The initiatives suggested by this framework to address the ePlan challenges in Victoria and increase its uptake are also introduced. The paper concludes with a direction for future research.

  7. Is the organisation and structure of hospital postnatal care a barrier to quality care? Findings from a state-wide review in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Helen L; Forster, Della A; Yelland, Jane; Rayner, Joanne; Lumley, Judith

    2008-09-01

    to describe the structure and organisation of hospital postnatal care in Victoria, Australia. postal survey sent to all public hospitals in Victoria (n=71) and key-informant interviews with midwives and medical practitioners (n=38). Victoria, Australia. providers of postnatal care in Victorian public hospitals. there is significant diversity across Victoria in the way postnatal units are structured and organised and in the way care is provided. There are differences in numerous practices, including maternal and neonatal observations and the length of time women spend in hospital after giving birth. Although the benefits of continuity of care are recognised by health care providers, continuity is difficult to provide in the postnatal period. Postnatal care is provided in busy, sometimes chaotic environments, with many barriers to providing effective care and few opportunities for women to rest and recover after childbirth. The findings in this study can, in part, be explained by the lack of evidence that has been available to guide early postnatal care. current structures such as standard postnatal documentation (clinical pathways) and fixed length of stay, may inhibit rather than support individualised care for women after childbirth. There is a need to move towards greater flexibility in providing of early postnatal care, including alternative models of service delivery; choice and flexibility in the length of stay after birth; a focus on the individual with far less emphasis on care being structured around organisational requirements; and building an evidence base to guide care.

  8. Medical review licensing outcomes in drivers with visual field loss in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Carlyn; Charlton, Judith L; Odell, Morris; Keeffe, Jill; Wood, Joanne; Bohensky, Megan; Fildes, Brian; Oxley, Jennifer; Bentley, Sharon; Rizzo, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Background Good vision is essential for safe driving and studies have associated visual impairment with an increased crash risk. Currently, there is little information about the medical review of drivers with visual field loss. This study examines the prevalence of visual field loss among drivers referred for medical review in one Australian jurisdiction and investigates factors associated with licence outcome in this group. Methods A random sample of 10,000 (31.25 per cent) medical review cases was extracted for analysis from the Victorian licensing authority. Files were screened for the presence of six visual field-related medical conditions. Data were captured on a range of variables, including referral source, age, gender, health status, crash history and licence outcome. Prevalence analyses were univariate and descriptive. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with licence outcomes in the visual field loss group. Results Approximately 1.9 per cent of the 10,000 medical review cases screened had a visual field loss condition identified (n=194). Among the visual field loss group, 57.2 per cent were permitted to continue driving (conditional/unconditional licence). Primary referral sources were the police, self-referrals and general medical practitioners. Key factors associated with licence test outcomes were visual field condition, age group, crash involvement and referral to the Driver Licensing Authority’s Medical Advisors. Those who were younger had a crash involvement triggering referral and those who were referred to the Medical Advisors were more likely to have a positive licensing outcome. Conclusion The evidence base for making licensing decisions is complicated by the variable causes, patterns, progressions and measuring technologies for visual field loss. This study highlighted that the involvement of an expert medical advisory service in Victoria resulted in an increased likelihood that drivers with visual field loss will be

  9. Making medicine; producing pleasure: A critical examination of medicinal cannabis policy and law in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Kari; Seear, Kate; Ritter, Alison

    2017-11-01

    Several jurisdictions around the world have introduced policies and laws allowing for the legal use of cannabis for therapeutic purposes. However, there has been little critical discussion of how the object of 'medicinal cannabis' is enacted in policy and practice. Informed by Carol Bacchi's poststructuralist approach to policy analysis and the work of science and technology studies scholars, this paper seeks to problematise the object of 'medicinal cannabis' and examine how it is constituted through governing practices. In particular, we consider how the making of the object of 'medicinal cannabis' might constrain or enact discourses of pleasure. As a case example, we take the Victorian Law Reform Commission's review of law reform options to allow people in the Australian state of Victoria to be treated with medicinal cannabis. Through analysis of this case example, we find that although 'medicinal cannabis' is constituted as a thoroughly medical object, it is also constituted as unique. We argue that medicinal cannabis is enacted in part through the production of another object (so-called 'recreational cannabis') and the social and political meanings attached to both. Although both 'substances' are constituted as distinct, 'medicinal cannabis' relies on the 'absent presence' of 'recreational cannabis' to define and shape what it is. However, we find that contained within this rendering of 'medicinal cannabis' are complex enactments of health and wellbeing, which open up discourses of pleasure. 'Medicinal cannabis' appears to challenge the idea that the effects of 'medicine' cannot be understood in terms of pleasure. As such, the making of 'medicinal cannabis' as a medical object, and its invocation of broad notions of health and wellbeing, expand the ways in which drug effects can be acknowledged, including pleasurable and desirable effects, helping us to think differently about both medicine and other forms of drug use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  10. Assessment of potentially toxic metal contamination in the soils of a legacy mine site in Central Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Joji; Dowling, Kim; Florentine, Singarayer

    2018-02-01

    The environmental impact of toxic metal contamination from legacy mining activities, many of which had operated and were closed prior to the enforcement of robust environmental legislation, is of growing concern to modern society. We have carried out analysis of As and potentially toxic metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the surface soil of a legacy gold mining site in Maldon, Victoria, Australia, to reveal the status of the current metal concentration. The results revealed the median concentrations of metals from highest to lowest, in the order: Mn > Zn > As > Cr > Cu > Pb > Ni > Co > Hg > Cd. The status of site was assessed directly by comparing the metal concentrations in the study area with known Australian and Victorian average top soil levels and the health investigation levels set by the National Environmental Protection Measures (NEPM) and the Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) of the State of Western Australia. Although, median concentrations of As, Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn exceeded the average Australian and Victorian top soil concentrations, only As and Hg exceeded the ecological investigation levels (EIL) set by DEC and thus these metals are considered as risk to the human and aquatic ecosystems health due to their increase in concentration and toxicity. In an environment of climate fluctuation with increased storm events and forest fires may mobilize these toxic metals contaminants, pose a real threat to the environment and the community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of the Paleocene-Eocene boundary in coastal strata in the Otway Basin, Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieling, Joost; Huurdeman, Emiel P.; Rem, Charlotte C. M.; Donders, Timme H.; Pross, Jörg; Bohaty, Steven M.; Holdgate, Guy R.; Gallagher, Stephen J.; McGowran, Brian; Bijl, Peter K.

    2018-02-01

    Detailed, stratigraphically well-constrained environmental reconstructions are available for Paleocene and Eocene strata at a range of sites in the southwest Pacific Ocean (New Zealand and East Tasman Plateau; ETP) and Integrated Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site U1356 in the south of the Australo-Antarctic Gulf (AAG). These reconstructions have revealed a large discrepancy between temperature proxy data and climate models in this region, suggesting a crucial error in model, proxy data or both. To resolve the origin of this discrepancy, detailed reconstructions are needed from both sides of the Tasmanian Gateway. Paleocene-Eocene sedimentary archives from the west of the Tasmanian Gateway have unfortunately remained scarce (only IODP Site U1356), and no well-dated successions are available for the northern sector of the AAG. Here we present new stratigraphic data for upper Paleocene and lower Eocene strata from the Otway Basin, southeast Australia, on the (north)west side of the Tasmanian Gateway. We analyzed sediments recovered from exploration drilling (Latrobe-1 drill core) and outcrop sampling (Point Margaret) and performed high-resolution carbon isotope geochemistry of bulk organic matter and dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) and pollen biostratigraphy on sediments from the regional lithostratigraphic units, including the Pebble Point Formation, Pember Mudstone and Dilwyn Formation. Pollen and dinocyst assemblages are assigned to previously established Australian pollen and dinocyst zonations and tied to available zonations for the SW Pacific. Based on our dinocyst stratigraphy and previously published planktic foraminifer biostratigraphy, the Pebble Point Formation at Point Margaret is dated to the latest Paleocene. The globally synchronous negative carbon isotope excursion that marks the Paleocene-Eocene boundary is identified within the top part of the Pember Mudstone in the Latrobe-1 borehole and at Point Margaret. However, the high abundances of the

  12. Rural Autochthony? The Rejection of an Aboriginal Placename in Ballarat, Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Newton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the question of why the name ‘Mullawallah’, advanced by local Wada wurrung for a new suburb in the Ballarat area, was contested and rejected by residents. It argues that the intersection between corporate profit, government policy and meaning-based issues of belonging should be highlighted for a deeper understanding of practices around place naming. The contextual conditions regarding the democratisation of place-naming policy, overwhelming power of commercial developers to ‘name Australia’ with marketable high status names and a ‘carpentered’ pastoral environment ‘emptied’ of the Indigenous population, created an environment conducive for the contests over naming. The Indigenous people appeared to have been wiped from the landscape and the worldview of settler locals. Concepts of ‘locals’ and ‘rural autochthony’ prove useful for understanding the ambiguities of belonging and placename attachment in Australia. The article argues that cultural politics of naming remains a contested social practice.

  13. Assessment of Wetland Hydrological Dynamics in a Modified Catchment Basin: Case of Lake Buninjon, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yihdego, Yohannes; Webb, John A

    2017-02-01

      The common method to estimate lake levels is the water balance equation, where water input and output result in lake storage and water level changes. However, all water balance components cannot always be quickly assessed, such as due to significant modification of the catchment area. A method that assesses general changes in lake level can be a useful tool in examining why lakes have different lake level variation patterns. Assessment of wetlands using the dynamics of the historical hydrological and hydrogeological data set can provide important insights into variations in wetland levels in different parts of the world. A case study from a saline landscape, Lake Buninjon, Australia, is presented. The aim of the present study was to determine how climate, river regime, and lake hydrological properties independently influence lake water levels and salinity, leaving the discrepancy, for the effect of the non-climatic/catchment modification in the past and the model shows that surface inflow is most sensitive variable. The method, together with the analysis and interpretation, might be of interest to wider community to assess its response to natural/anthropogenic stress and decision choices for its ecological, social, scientific value, and mitigation measures to safe guard the wetland biodiversity in a catchment basin.

  14. "Are we moving again this week?" Children's experiences of homelessness in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Maggie; Keys, Deborah; Bodzak, Daria; Turner, Alina

    2010-04-01

    This research aimed to gain insight into the homelessness experience of children accommodated in transitional support services in an urban setting in Australia. It joins a limited international literature. Interviews incorporating interactive activities were conducted with 20 children aged 6-12 from diverse ethnicities and cultural backgrounds, most of whom were living in supported accommodation. Twelve parents/guardians were also interviewed. Children had experienced between 3 and 11 changes of residence, including hotels or motels, refuges, sleeping rough or in cars, rooming or boarding houses, and caravan parks. It was evident that homelessness adversely affected children's sense of security, mood, behaviour, physical health, education, and overall experience of childhood. As families moved from one temporary accommodation to the next, they often lost touch with the extended family and their friends, became disconnected from any sense of community, and did without familiar possessions, treasures, toys, and pets. Experiencing chaotic sequences of accommodation could leave children feeling confused, insecure, sad, and angry. It could make children feel responsible for their discouraged and unwell parents and their younger siblings. Homelessness made many children expect instability as a way of life. Children continued to be affected by problems that preceded or precipitated homelessness, such as family violence, broken relationships, and parents grappling with drug and alcohol dependence. The overwhelming conclusion to be drawn from this research is that children affected by homelessness need security, stability, and the chance to become and remain part of a community. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Contemporaneous trace and body fossils from a late Pleistocene Lakebed in Victoria, Australia, allow assessment of bias in the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camens, Aaron Bruce; Carey, Stephen Paul

    2013-01-01

    The co-occurrence of vertebrate trace and body fossils within a single geological formation is rare and the probability of these parallel records being contemporaneous (i.e. on or near the same bedding plane) is extremely low. We report here a late Pleistocene locality from the Victorian Volcanic Plains in south-eastern Australia in which demonstrably contemporaneous, but independently accumulated vertebrate trace and body fossils occur. Bite marks from a variety of taxa are also present on the bones. This site provides a unique opportunity to examine the biases of these divergent fossil records (skeletal, footprints and bite marks) that sampled a single fauna. The skeletal record produced the most complete fauna, with the footprint record indicating a markedly different faunal composition with less diversity and the feeding traces suggesting the presence, amongst others, of a predator not represented by either the skeletal or footprint records. We found that the large extinct marsupial predator Thylacoleo was the only taxon apparently represented by all three records, suggesting that the behavioral characteristics of large carnivores may increase the likelihood of their presence being detected within a fossil fauna. In contrast, Diprotodon (the largest-ever marsupial) was represented only by trace fossils at this site and was absent from the site's skeletal record, despite its being a common and easily detected presence in late Pleistocene skeletal fossil faunas elsewhere in Australia. Small mammals absent from the footprint record for the site were represented by skeletal fossils and bite marks on bones.

  16. Spatial Differentiation of Landscape Values in the Murray River Region of Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuan; Pfueller, Sharron; Whitelaw, Paul; Winter, Caroline

    2010-05-01

    This research advances the understanding of the location of perceived landscape values through a statistically based approach to spatial analysis of value densities. Survey data were obtained from a sample of people living in and using the Murray River region, Australia, where declining environmental quality prompted a reevaluation of its conservation status. When densities of 12 perceived landscape values were mapped using geographic information systems (GIS), valued places clustered along the entire river bank and in associated National/State Parks and reserves. While simple density mapping revealed high value densities in various locations, it did not indicate what density of a landscape value could be regarded as a statistically significant hotspot or distinguish whether overlapping areas of high density for different values indicate identical or adjacent locations. A spatial statistic Getis-Ord Gi* was used to indicate statistically significant spatial clusters of high value densities or “hotspots”. Of 251 hotspots, 40% were for single non-use values, primarily spiritual, therapeutic or intrinsic. Four hotspots had 11 landscape values. Two, lacking economic value, were located in ecologically important river red gum forests and two, lacking wilderness value, were near the major towns of Echuca-Moama and Albury-Wodonga. Hotspots for eight values showed statistically significant associations with another value. There were high associations between learning and heritage values while economic and biological diversity values showed moderate associations with several other direct and indirect use values. This approach may improve confidence in the interpretation of spatial analysis of landscape values by enhancing understanding of value relationships.

  17. The perceptions of pharmacists in Victoria, Australia on pharmacogenetics and its implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMahon T

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to explore how well Victorian pharmacists perceived they understood pharmacogenetics, their perceived capacity to counsel a patient about such testing, how they believed pharmacogenetics would impact upon their profession, and to investigate the ways in which Victorian pharmacists would like to be educated about pharmacogenetics.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was dispatched to 800 Victorian pharmacists. The participants were randomly selected and the survey was anonymous. The survey contained questions about where the pharmacists worked, the pharmacists’ perceived knowledge of pharmacogenetics, how well they believed they would be able to counsel patients about pharmacogenetic testing, how they thought pharmacists should be educated on the topic and how they believed pharmacogenetics would impact upon their profession.Results: 291 surveys were returned (36% response rate. Results suggest that Victorian pharmacists generally perceived they had a poor understanding of pharmacogenetics and that those who have more recently graduated from tertiary education had a better perceived understanding than those who have been in the workforce for longer. Most pharmacists indicated that they did not believe that they could counsel a patient adequately about the results of a pharmacogenetic test. Regarding education about pharmacogenetics, participants suggested that this would be best delivered during tertiary studies, and as seminars and workshops forming part of their continuing professional development. Although some pharmacists were unsure how pharmacogenetics would affect their profession, many believed it would have a major impact upon their role as a pharmacist and lead to improved patient care. Some concerns about the implementation of pharmacogenetics were noted, including economic and ethical issues.Conclusion: This study highlights the need for further research across the pharmacy profession in Australia on the

  18. Traumatic orodental injuries and the development of an orodental injury surveillance system: a pilot study in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Rachel Catherine Anne; Cassell, Erin; Calache, Hanny

    2009-02-01

    Traumatic orodental injuries are common dental public health problems that have complex aetiology and significant impact on those affected. It is important to understand the frequency, pattern and causes of traumatic orodental injuries so that appropriate and effective treatment services are made available and injury prevention interventions are designed and implemented. The aims of this study were to measure the frequency, causes and patterns of traumatic orodental injuries in patients of all ages treated at the Royal Dental Hospital of Melbourne in Victoria, Australia, over a 12-month period and to investigate the feasibility of establishing an orodental injury surveillance system. For which, a retrospective audit of 304 patient records was undertaken and injury surveillance data were extracted and analysed. Males represented 67% of cases. Three-quarters of all cases were aged less than 24 years. The most frequent cause of orodental injury was falls from less than 1 m or being struck by or colliding with a person or object. Injuries occurred most commonly around the home, on the road, street or footpath, the sports ground and places for recreation and were most often associated with leisure and sports activities. Orodental injuries sustained in one traumatic incident were often multiple and serious. Many severe orodental trauma injury cases present at this public dental hospital are expensive to treat, require long-term management and may be preventable. The findings from this study have led to the development and planned implementation of an enhanced electronic orodental injury structured history form that incorporates the collection of key injury surveillance data. These prospective data are to be combined with injury surveillance data that are routinely collected by all Victorian public hospital emergency departments in order to improve understanding of the nature of orodental injuries impacting Victorian communities and assist with appropriate service

  19. Reports of child sexual abuse of boys and girls: Longitudinal trends over a 20-year period in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Ben; Bromfield, Leah; Walsh, Kerryann; Cheng, Qinglu; Norman, Rosana E

    2017-04-01

    Although prevalence studies show girls are more frequently sexually abused than boys, a significant proportion of boys also experience child sexual abuse (CSA). The challenges for public policy are amplified for boys due to less developed public and professional sensitisation to boys' experiences, conceptions of masculinity, and less research on boys including into reporting trends and outcomes. We conducted a 20-year longitudinal time-trend analysis of government data to identify reporting trends and report outcomes for CSA in Victoria, Australia from 1993 to 2012. We stratified by child gender and reporter status. Results indicate a new sensitisation to CSA, especially for boys, although this trend was not stable. Marked change occurred in the last five years, likely influenced by major social and political events. Comparison over time revealed that from 1993 to 2012, the rate of reporting of boys increased 2.6-fold whereas there was a 1.5-fold increase for girls. Comparing genders, with regards to rate of reporting, in 1993, the sex ratio of girls to boys was 2:1, while by 2012 this ratio changed to 1.14:1. Reports by police and other mandated reporters accounted for the majority of the increase in reports over the 20-year period, suggesting unequal sensitisation. Positive report outcomes (i.e. substantiations, findings of harm, and referral to services) increased twelve-fold for boys, and nearly five-fold for girls, indicating the increased levels of reports were based in actual clinical need. Most of this increase occurred from 2009 to 2012, influenced by a compound of social, political and agency-related factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The adoption of children from out-of-home care: The understandings of key decision makers in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butlinski, Anna; Rowe, Heather; Goddard, Christopher; Freezer, Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Adoption is one of a range of options that can provide children in out-of-home care with permanency when they are unable to be reunified with their birth parents. This paper reports on how the adoption of children from out-of-home care is understood by professionals involved in making decisions about the permanent placement of children in out-of-home care in Victoria, Australia, where adoption is rarely used. Data were collected through a single, face-to-face semi-structured interview with 21 professionals; eight child welfare specialists, eight adoption and permanent care specialists and five judicial officers. The adoption of children from out-of-home care was primarily understood as a child-centered practice that can afford children stability and a sense of belonging. Adoption was largely viewed as a voluntary process dependent upon the consent of a child's birth parents. Adoption and permanent care specialists were the only group to refer to the dispensation of parental consent as a means of obtaining an adoption order. Most decision makers understood that contact between children and their birth parents is possible following adoption, but this was not understood by all judicial officers or all child welfare specialists. Children's connection to their cultural heritage was viewed as important to the consideration of adoption for children in out-of-home care. This research provides insight into the foundations upon which decision makers may appraise adoption, within a hierarchy of options, as a potential outcome for children in need of permanency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Uptake of a government-funded pertussis-containing booster vaccination program for parents of new babies in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Stacey L; Cunningham, Helen M; Franklin, Lucinda J; Lester, Rosemary A

    2015-04-08

    An epidemic of Bordetella pertussis in Victoria, Australia, led to the implementation of a Government-funded vaccination program for parents of new babies. The rationale was to protect unimmunised infants from infection by vaccinating parents with a pertussis-containing vaccine. This is known as cocooning. To estimate uptake of the vaccine among parents of new babies, two-and-a-half years after the program was implemented. A state-wide cross-sectional survey of parents was conducted to ascertain vaccine uptake, and to identify where and when the vaccination took place. Surveys were administered between 15 February and 14 March 2012, inclusive. Of 6308 surveys distributed, 2510 completed surveys were returned (response rate 40%). Ninety-five surveys completed outside the study period were excluded, leaving 2415 available for analysis. Overall, 1937 (80%) mothers and 1385 (70%) fathers were vaccinated in relation to the birth of their most recent child. A majority of mothers were vaccinated in hospital (62%). Most fathers were vaccinated by a general practitioner (72%). The most common point at which mothers were vaccinated was before their child turned two weeks of age (65%). Fathers' vaccination time-point varied more widely: during pregnancy (25%); before their child turned two weeks of age (29%); and when their child was between two and eight weeks of age (28%). Results of this survey indicated excellent uptake of the vaccine among both mothers and fathers under the Government-funded cocooning program. The findings are suggestive of an effective communications program designed to raise awareness of the risks of pertussis, and to promote availability of the funded vaccination program. The results may contribute to policy implementation of adult immunisation programs such as cocooning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantifying diffuse pathways for overland flow between the roads and streams of the mountain ash forests of central Victoria Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Patrick N. J.; Hairsine, Peter B.; Croke, Jacky C.; Takken, Ingrid

    2006-06-01

    Limiting connectivity between road runoff sources and stream networks is crucial for preservation of water quality in forested environments. Where flow is non-eroding, the length of hillslope available to accommodate volumes of discharged water is the key to restricting connectivity. Hairsine et al. ([2002], Hydrological Processes 16: 2311-2327) proposed a probabilistic model of diffuse overland flow that predicted the hillslope lengths required to infiltrate road discharge, based on the concept of volume to breakthrough (Vbt). This paper extends this analysis to a different forest environment with the aim of testing the portability of the Hairsine et al. ([2002]) model. The volume of flow required to travel overland to a distance of 5 and 10 m (Vbt5 and Vbt10) from drainage outlets was measured in deep, highly conductive mountain soils in the Upper Tyers catchment, Victoria, Australia. Rainfall, hydraulic conductivity and soil depths contrasted markedly with those in the Hairsine et al. ([2002]) study, and represent an extreme in Australian forests. Statistical analyses revealed the population of Vbt5 to be indistinguishable from that observed by Hairsine et al. ([2002]), indicating the model is valid for a range of forest soils. There was no significant correlation of sediment plume length with site characteristics such as slope, width of flow, or existence of incised pathways. It is suggested there are universal properties of pathways draining tracks and roads, with bioturbation acting to restore available pore spaces filled by antecedent plumes. Drain discharge design criteria may be developed for local conditions using the Hairsine et al. ([2002]) model, providing a robust tool for protection of water quality in the siting of new forest roads, and maintenance of exiting roads and tracks.

  3. The early postnatal period: Exploring women's views, expectations and experiences of care using focus groups in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayner Jo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence from Australia and overseas that the care provided in hospital in the early postnatal period is less than ideal for both women and care providers. Many health services face increasing pressure on hospital beds and have limited physical space available to care for mothers and their babies. We aimed to gain a more in-depth understanding of women's views, expectations and experiences of early postnatal care. Methods We conducted focus groups in rural and metropolitan Victoria, Australia in 2006. Fifty-two people participated in eight focus groups and four interviews. Participants included eight pregnant women, of whom seven were pregnant with their first baby; 42 women who were in the postpartum period (some up to twelve months after the birth of their baby; and two partners. All participants were fluent in English. Focus group guides were developed specifically for the study and explored participants' experiences and/or expectations of early postnatal care in hospital and at home, with an emphasis on length of hospital stay, professional and social support, continuity of care, and rest. Discussions were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. A thematic network was constructed to describe and connect categories with emerging basic, organizing, and global themes. Results Global themes that emerged were: anxiety and/or fear; and the transition to motherhood and parenting. The needs of first time mothers were considered to be different to the needs of women who had already experienced motherhood. The women in this study were generally concerned about the safety of their new baby, and lacked confidence in themselves as new mothers regarding their ability to care for their baby. There was a consistent view that the physical presence and availability of professional support helped alleviate these concerns, and this was especially the case for women having a first baby. Conclusion Women have anxieties and fears

  4. A survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from an over-abundant koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) population in south eastern Australia, with an overview of the ticks and mites of koalas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, M L; Reed, J

    2017-09-01

    Within Australia, koala over-abundance has become a serious problem in some areas resulting in significant damage to native forests through defoliation. An over-abundant Victorian koala population was surveyed for ticks in the autumn of 2016. During the survey 1036 ticks were collected from 158 koalas. All ticks collected were identified as Ixodes tasmani. Tick prevalence, infestation intensity and on-host sex ratios were calculated for the population. An overview of the ticks and mites associated with koalas in Australia is also presented.

  5. Who consults chiropractors in Victoria, Australia?: Reasons for attending, general health and lifestyle habits of chiropractic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charity, Melanie J; Britt, Helena C; Walker, Bruce F; Gunn, Jane M; Forsdike-Young, Kirsty; Polus, Barbara I; French, Simon D

    2016-01-01

    COAST (Chiropractic Observational and Analysis STudy) reported the clinical practices of chiropractors. The aims of this study were to: 1) describe the chiropractic patient demographic and health characteristics; 2) describe patient-stated reasons for visiting a chiropractor; 3) describe chiropractic patient lifestyle characteristics; 4) compare, where possible, chiropractic patient characteristics to the general Australian population. Fifty-two chiropractors in Victoria, Australia, provided information for up to 100 consecutive encounters. If patients attended more than once during the 100 encounters, only data from their first encounter were included in this study. Where possible patient characteristics were compared with the general Australian population. Data were collected from December 2010 to September 2012. Data were provided for 4464 encounters, representing 3287 unique individuals. The majority of chiropractic encounters were for musculoskeletal conditions or for wellness/maintenance. The majority of patient comorbidities were musculoskeletal, circulatory or endocrine/metabolic in nature. Eight hundred chiropractic patients (57 %, 95 % CI: 53-61) described their self-reported health as excellent or very good and 138 patients (10 %, 95 % CI: 8-12) as fair or poor. Seventy-one percent of adult male patients (18 years and older), and 53 % of adult female patients, were overweight or obese. Fourteen percent (n = 188, 95 % CI: 12-16) were current smokers and 27 % (n = 359, 95 % CI: 24-31) did not meet Australian alcohol consumption guidelines. Less than half of the chiropractic patients participated in vigorous exercise at least twice per week. Approximately 20 % ate one serving of vegetables or less each day, and approximately 50 % ate one serve of fruit or less each day. Compared to the general Australian population, chiropractic patients were less likely to smoke, less likely to be obese and more likely to describe their health in positive terms

  6. Fear of (reinjury and return to work following compensable injury: qualitative insights from key stakeholders in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Bunzli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Return to work (RTW is important for recovery post-injury. Fear of (reinjury is a strong predictor of delayed RTW, and therefore much attention has been given to addressing injured workers’ fear beliefs. However, RTW is a socially-negotiated process and it may be important to consider the wider social context of the injured worker, including the beliefs of the key people involved in their RTW journey. Methods This paper involves data collected as part of a wider study in which semi-structured interviews explored RTW from the perspectives of 93 key stakeholders: injured workers, GPs, employers and insurance case managers in Victoria, Australia. Inductive analysis of interview transcripts identified fear of (reinjury as a salient theme across all stakeholder groups. This presented an opportunity to analyse how the wider social context of the injured worker may influence fear and avoidance behaviour. Two co-authors performed inductive analysis of the theme ‘fear of (reinjury’. Codes identified in the data were grouped into five categories. Between and within category analysis revealed three themes describing the contextual factors that may influence fear avoidance and RTW behaviour. Results Theme one described how injured workers engaged in a process of weighing up the risk of (reinjury in the workplace against the perceived benefits of RTW. Theme two described how workplace factors could influence an injured workers’ perception of the risk of (reinjury in the workplace, including confidence that the source of the injury had been addressed, the availability and suitability of alternative duties. Theme three described other stakeholders’ reluctance to accept injured workers back at work because of the fear that they might reinjure themselves. Conclusions Our findings illustrate the need for a contextualised perspective of fear avoidance and RTW behaviour that includes the beliefs of other important people surrounding

  7. Rehabilitation Utilization following a Work-Related Traumatic Brain Injury: A Sex-Based Examination of Workers' Compensation Claims in Victoria, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Niki Guerriero

    Full Text Available To report on and examine differences in the use of four types of rehabilitation services (occupational therapy, physiotherapy, psychology, and speech therapy by men and women following a work-related traumatic brain injury in Victoria, Australia; and to examine the importance of demographic, need, work-related and geographic factors in explaining these differences.A retrospective cohort design was used to analyze 1786 work-related traumatic brain injury workers' compensation claims lodged between 2004 and 2012 in Victoria, Australia. ZINB regressions were conducted for each type of rehabilitation service to examine the relationship between sex and rehabilitation use. Covariates included demographic, need-related, work-related, and geographic factors.Out of all claims (63% male, 37% female, 13% used occupational therapy, 23% used physiotherapy, 9% used psychology, and 2% used speech therapy at least once during the first year of service utilization. After controlling for demographic, need-related, work-related, and geographic factors, women were more likely to use physiotherapy compared to men. Men and women were equally likely to use occupational therapy and psychology services. The number of visits in the first year for each type of service did not differ between male and female users.Our findings support a sex-based approach to studying rehabilitation utilization in work-related populations. Future research is needed to examine other factors associated with rehabilitation utilization and to determine the implications of different rehabilitation utilization patterns on health and return-to-work outcomes.

  8. Marching Backwards into the Future: The Introduction of the English Creative Music Movement in State Secondary Schools in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Harry

    2014-01-01

    In 1910, Victoria established an elite form of state secondary education that remained essentially unchanged until the introduction of a progressive curriculum during the late 1960s. This radical and voluntary curriculum introduced child-centred learning and personal development skills to state secondary schools. Many state secondary music…

  9. Family Violence in Domestic Homicides: A Case Study of Women Who Killed Intimate Partners Post-Legislative Reform in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Danielle; Kirkwood, Deborah; Mckenzie, Mandy

    2016-05-18

    This article examines the impact of legislative reforms enacted in 2005 in Victoria, Australia, on legal responses to women charged with murder for killing their intimate partner. The reforms provided for a broader understanding of the context of family violence to be considered in such cases, but we found little evidence of this in practice. This is partly attributable to persistent misconceptions among the legal profession about family violence and why women may believe it necessary to kill a partner. We recommend specialized training for legal professionals and increased use of family violence evidence to help ensure women's claims of self-defense receive appropriate responses from Victorian courts. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. The incidence and burden of hospital-treated sports-related injury in people aged 15+ years in Victoria, Australia, 2004-2010: a future epidemic of osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, C F; Kemp, J L; Clapperton, A J

    2015-07-01

    Previous sports injury is a known risk factor for subsequent osteoarthritis (OA), but population-based rates of sports injury are unknown. The aims of this study were to: (1) describe the trends in the population incidence and burden of all hospital-treated sports injury in Victoria, Australia in adults aged 15+ years; (2) determine the incidence of lower limb and knee injuries; and (3) quantify their population health burden as average direct hospital costs per injury and lengths of stay. Health sector data relating to adults aged 15+ years, for 2004-2010 inclusive, was extracted from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset (VAED) and Victorian Emergency Minimum Dataset (VEMD). Data relating to sports injuries were identified using activity codes in each dataset Trends in injury frequency and rates were determined, and economic burden was calculated. The overall annual rate of hospital treated sports injuries increased by 24% (P = 0.001), and lower limb injuries by 26% (P = 0.001) over the 7 years. The associated accumulated economic burden was $265 million for all sports injuries and $110 million for lower limb injuries over the 7-years. The findings of this study show a significant increase in sports injuries in the state of Victoria, Australia over a 7-year period. As previous sports injury is a risk factor for the development of OA, the future incidence of OA will escalate, placing an even greater burden on health care systems. Population-wide preventative strategies that reduce the risk of sports injury are urgently required in order to reduce the future burden of OA. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The vegetation of Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve, south-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vegetation of Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve, south-eastern Zimbabwe. ... African Journal of Range and Forage Science ... Comparisons with other southern African savannas are made, and similarities and differences are discussed.

  12. International stock market integration: Central and South Eastern Europe compared

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horváth, Roman; Petrovski, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2013), s. 81-91 ISSN 0939-3625 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stock markets * South Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.611, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/horvath-international stock market integration central and south eastern europe compared.pdf

  13. A snapshot of the prevalence of physical activity amongst older, community dwelling people in Victoria, Australia: patterns across the 'young-old' and 'old-old'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson Sandra

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has a range of health benefits for older people. The aim of this study was to determine physical activity prevalence and attitudes amongst respondents to a trial screening survey. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Subjects were community dwelling older people aged ≥ 65 years, recruited via general practices in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed a mailed screening tool containing the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Active Australia survey and the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire. Results Of 330 participants, 20% were ≥ 80 years. Activity levels were similar to those reported in population studies. The proportion of participants reporting physical activity was greatest for the walking category, but decreased across categories of physical activity intensity. The oldest-old were represented at all physical activity intensity levels. Over half reported exercising at levels that, according to national criteria are, 'sufficient to attain health benefit'. A greater proportion of participants aged 85 years and older were unaware of key physical activity messages, compared to participants aged less than 85 years. Conclusion Most population surveys do not provide details of older people across age categories. This survey provided information on the physical activity of people up to 91 years old. Physical activity promotion strategies should be tailored according to the individual's needs. A better understanding of the determinants of physical activity behaviour amongst older sub-groups is needed to tailor and target physical activity promotion strategies and programs to maximise physical activity related health outcomes for older people.

  14. Innovative 'Artificial Mussels' technology for assessing spatial and temporal distribution of metals in Goulburn-Murray catchments waterways, Victoria, Australia: effects of climate variability (dry vs. wet years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibria, Golam; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf

    2012-12-01

    The "Artificial mussel" (AM), a novel passive sampling technology, was used for the first time in Australia in freshwater to monitor and assess the risk of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn). AMs were deployed at 10 sites within the Goulburn-Murray Water catchments, Victoria, Australia during a dry year (2009-2010) and a wet year (2010-2011). Our results showed that the AMs accumulated all the five metals. Cd, Pb, Hg were detected during the wet year but below detection limits during the dry year. At some sites close to orchards, vine yards and farming areas, elevated levels of Cu were clearly evident during the dry year, while elevated levels of Zn were found during the wet year; the Cu indicates localized inputs from the agricultural application of copper fungicide. The impacts from old mines were significantly less compared 'hot spots'. Our study demonstrated that climate variability (dry, wet years) can influence the metal inputs to waterways via different transport pathways. Using the AMs, we were able to identify various 'hot spots' of heavy metals, which may pose a potential risk to aquatic ecosystems (sub-lethal effects to fish) and public (via food chain metal bioaccumulation and biomagnification) in the Goulburn-Murray Water catchments. The State Protection Policy exempted artificial channels and drains from protection of beneficial use (including protection of aquatic ecosystems) and majority of sites ('hot spots') were located within artificial irrigation channels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Utilisation of Rep-PCR to track microbes in aerosols collected adjacent to their source, a saline lake in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Chris I; O'Loingsigh, Tadhg; Tapper, Nigel J; De Deckker, Patrick; Allison, Gwen E

    2013-04-15

    Dust storms are a major source of aerosolized bacteria, especially in the drought conditions experienced in Australia in the decade to 2009. The major aims of this project were to identify the culturable bacteria in environmental samples and to genetically fingerprint all isolates using repetitive element PCR (Rep-PCR) to investigate the possibility of tracking isolates from their source into the atmosphere. Four field trips were conducted to a dry lake in western Victoria, Australia to sample aerosols and sediments. Aerosols were collected at heights up to 150 m using vacuum pumps with filters attached to a tethered helium balloon, while corresponding sediments were collected in sterile polypropylene tubes. Isolates were cultivated on Tryptic Soy Agar, R2 Agar and Marine Agar, and grown in dark conditions at ambient temperature. By sequencing the 16S rRNA gene of 270 isolates, fifteen different bacterial families were identified, with both the aerosols and sediments dominated by the Bacillaceae family. Four sets of Rep-PCR primers were tested, with the ERIC and (GTG)5 primers proving to be the most suitable for fingerprinting the cultured taxa. Rep-PCR revealed very high strain diversity in the samples collected, however some strains were still able to be tracked from sediments up to 150 m in height. This shows the potential of Rep-PCR, however very large reference databases would be required for the technique to be more useful. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Staffing in postnatal units: is it adequate for the provision of quality care? Staff perspectives from a state-wide review of postnatal care in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumley Judith

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background State-wide surveys of recent mothers conducted over the past decade in Victoria, one state of Australia, have identified that women are consistently less satisfied with the care they received in hospital following birth compared with other aspects of maternity care. Little is known of caregivers' perspectives on the provision ofhospital postnatal care: how care is organised and provided in different hospitals; what constrains the provision of postnatal care (apart from funding and what initiatives are being undertaken to improve service delivery. A state-widereview of organisational structures and processes in relation to the provision of hospital postnatal care in Victoria was undertaken. This paper focuses on the impact of staffing issues on the provision of quality postnatal care from the perspective of care providers. Methods A study of care providers from Victorian public hospitals that provide maternity services was undertaken. Datawere collected in two stages. Stage one: a structured questionnaire was sent to all public hospitals in Victoria that provided postnatal care (n = 73, exploring the structure and organisation of care (e.g. staffing, routine observations, policy framework and discharge planning. Stage two: 14 maternity units were selected and invited to participate in a more in-depth exploration of postnatal care. Thirty-eight key informant interviews were undertaken with midwives (including unit managers, associate unit managers and clinical midwives and a medical practitioner from eachselected hospital. Results Staffing was highlighted as a major factor impacting on the provision of quality postnatal care. There were significant issues associated with inadequate staff/patient ratios; staffing mix; patient mix; prioritisation of birth suites over postnatal units; and the use of non-permanent staff. Forty-three percent of hospitals reported having only midwives (i.e. no non-midwives providing postnatal care

  17. Continued dominance of pandemic A(H1N1 2009 influenza in Victoria, Australia in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Fielding

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The 2010 Victorian influenza season was characterized by normal seasonal influenza activity and the dominance of the pandemic A(H1N1 2009 strain. General Practice Sentinel Surveillance rates peaked at 9.4 ILI cases per 1000 consultations in week 36 for metropolitan practices, and at 10.5 ILI cases per 1000 in the following week for rural practices. Of the 678 ILI cases, 23% were vaccinated, a significantly higher percentage than in previous years. A significantly higher percentage of ILI patients were swabbed in 2010 compared to 2003–2008, but similar to 2009, with a similar percentage being positive for influenza as in previous years. Vaccination rates increased with patient age. Melbourne Medical Deputising Service rates peaked in week 35 at 19.1 ILI cases per 1000 consultations. Of the 1914 cases of influenza notified to the Department of Health, Victoria, 1812 (95% were influenza A infections - 1001 (55% pandemic A(H1N1 2009, 4 (<1% A(H3N2 and 807 (45% not subtyped; 88 (5% were influenza B; and 14 (< 1% were influenza A and B co-infections. The World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza tested 403 isolates of which 261 were positive for influenza, 250 of which were influenza A and 11 were influenza B. Ninety-two per cent of the influenza A viruses were pandemic A(H1N1 2009, and following antigenic analysis all of these were found to be similar to the current vaccine strain. Three viruses (0.9% were found to be oseltamivir resistant due to an H275Y mutation in the neuraminidase gene.

  18. The efficacy of fuel treatment in mitigating property loss during wildfires: Insights from analysis of the severity of the catastrophic fires in 2009 in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Owen F; Bradstock, Ross A

    2012-12-30

    Treatment of fuel (e.g. prescribed fire, logging) in fire-prone ecosystems is done to reduce risks to people and their property but effects require quantification, particularly under severe weather conditions when the destructive potential of fires on human infrastructure is maximised. We analysed the relative effects of fuel age (i.e. indicative of the effectiveness of prescribed fire) and logging on remotely sensed (SPOT imagery) severity of fires which occurred in eucalypt forests in Victoria, Australia in 2009. These fires burned under the most severe weather conditions recorded in Australia and caused large losses of life and property. Statistical models of the probability of contrasting extremes of severity (crown fire versus fire confined to the understorey) were developed based on effects of fuel age, logging, weather, topography and forest type. Weather was the primary influence on severity, though it was reduced at low fuel ages in Moderate but not Catastrophic, Very High or Low fire-weather conditions. Probability of crown fires was higher in recently logged areas than in areas logged decades before, indicating likely ineffectiveness as a fuel treatment. The results suggest that recently burnt areas (up to 5-10 years) may reduce the intensity of the fire but not sufficiently to increase the chance of effective suppression under severe weather conditions. Since house loss was most likely under these conditions (67%), effects of prescribed burning across landscapes on house loss are likely to be small when weather conditions are severe. Fuel treatments need to be located close to houses in order to effectively mitigate risk of loss. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Student and school factors associated with school suspension: A multilevel analysis of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheryl, A. Hemphill; Stephanie, M. Plenty; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    One of the common issues schools face is how best to handle challenging student behaviors such as violent behavior, antisocial behavior, bullying, school rule violations, and interrupting other students’ learning. School suspension may be used to remove students engaging in challenging behaviors from the school for a period of time. However, the act of suspending students from school may worsen rather than improve their behavior. Research shows that suspensions predict a range of student outcomes, including crime, delinquency, and drug use. It is therefore crucial to understand the factors associated with the use of school suspension, particularly in sites with different policy approaches to problem behaviors. This paper draws on data from state-representative samples of 3,129 Grade 7 and 9 students in Washington State, United States and Victoria, Australia sampled in 2002. Multilevel modeling examined student and school level factors associated with student-reported school suspension. Results showed that both student (being male, previous student antisocial and violent behavior, rebelliousness, academic failure) and school (socioeconomic status of the school, aggregate measures of low school commitment) level factors were associated with school suspension and that the factors related to suspension were similar in the two states. The implications of the findings for effective school behavior management policy are that, rather than focusing only on the student, both student and school level factors need to be addressed to reduce the rates of school suspension. PMID:24860205

  20. A retrospective assessment of gold mining in the Reedy Creek sub-catchment, northeast Victoria, Australia: residual mercury contamination 100 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchill, R.C.; Meathrel, C.E.; Suter, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    The mining of gold can lead to toxic metals such as mercury (Hg) contaminating watercourses as by-products. The Reedy Creek sub-catchment, in northeast Victoria, Australia, was mined for gold in the 1850s. In 1998, samples were taken from six watercourses to measure any remaining toxic metal contamination in sediments and surface waters from two creeks with no previous gold mining (controls) and four that were mined. Although mean concentrations of Hg (measured using an ICP-OES) in sediments were below worldwide background levels, individual sites along Reedy Creek had slightly elevated Hg concentrations. In contrast, the Hg concentrations in the surface waters were above background levels. Temporal fluxes of very high Hg concentrations in the surface waters during periods of first flow and flood events revealed that Hg concentrations in the surface waters may, at certain times of the year, exceed all Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (National Water Quality Management Strategy. Australian Water Quality Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Waters, ANZECC, 2000) guidelines for water use and the protection of the aquatic ecosystem

  1. Effects of prescribed fire and post-fire rainfall on mercury mobilization and subsequent contamination assessment in a legacy mine site in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Joji; Dowling, Kim; Florentine, Singarayer

    2018-01-01

    Prescribed fire conducted in fire-prone areas is a cost-effective choice for forest management, but it also affects many of the physicochemical and bio-geological properties of the forest soil, in a similar manner to wild fires. The aim of this study is to investigate the nature of the mercury mobilization after a prescribed fire and the subsequent temporal changes in concentration. A prescribed fire was conducted in a legacy mine site in Central Victoria, Australia, in late August 2015 and soil sample collection and analyses were carried out two days before and two days after the fire, followed by collection at the end of each season and after an intense rainfall event in September 2016. Results revealed the occurrence of mercury volatilization (8.3-97%) during the fire, and the mercury concentration displayed a significant difference (p fire. Integrated assessment with number of pollution indices has shown that the study site is extremely contaminated with mercury during all the sampling events, and this poses a serious ecological risk due to the health impacts of mercury on human and ecosystems. In times of climate fluctuation with concomitant increase in forest fire (including prescribed fire), and subsequent precipitation and runoff, the potential for an increased amount of mercury being mobilized is of heighted significance. Therefore, it is recommended that prescribed fire should be cautiously considered as a forest management strategy in any mercury affected landscapes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A health-promoting community dental service in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: protocol for the North Richmond model of oral health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Martin; Christian, Bradley

    2017-10-01

    Despite the best efforts and commitment of oral health programs, there is no evidence that the current surgical output-based model of oral health care is delivering better oral health outcomes to the community. In fact, Australian evidence indicates the oral health of the community could be getting worse. It is now well-understood that this traditional surgical model of oral health care will never successfully manage the disease itself. It is proposed that a health-promoting, minimally invasive oral disease management model of care may lead to a sustainable benefit to the oral health status of the individual and community groups. The aim of this paper is to describe such a model of oral health care (MoC) currently being implemented by the North Richmond Community Health Oral Health (NRCH-OH) program in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; this model may serve as a template for other services to re-orient their healthcare delivery towards health promotion and prevention. The paper describes the guiding principles and theories for the model and also its operational components, which are: pre-engagement while on the waitlist; client engagement at the reception area; the assessment phase; oral health education (high-risk clients only); disease management; and reviews and recall.

  3. Assessing stream bank condition using airborne LiDAR and high spatial resolution image data in temperate semirural areas in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Kasper; Grove, James; Denham, Robert; Phinn, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Stream bank condition is an important physical form indicator for streams related to the environmental condition of riparian corridors. This research developed and applied an approach for mapping bank condition from airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) and high-spatial resolution optical image data in a temperate forest/woodland/urban environment. Field observations of bank condition were related to LiDAR and optical image-derived variables, including bank slope, plant projective cover, bank-full width, valley confinement, bank height, bank top crenulation, and ground vegetation cover. Image-based variables, showing correlation with the field measurements of stream bank condition, were used as input to a cumulative logistic regression model to estimate and map bank condition. The highest correlation was achieved between field-assessed bank condition and image-derived average bank slope (R2=0.60, n=41), ground vegetation cover (R=0.43, n=41), bank width/height ratio (R=0.41, n=41), and valley confinement (producer's accuracy=100%, n=9). Cross-validation showed an average misclassification error of 0.95 from an ordinal scale from 0 to 4 using the developed model. This approach was developed to support the remotely sensed mapping of stream bank condition for 26,000 km of streams in Victoria, Australia, from 2010 to 2012.

  4. Contraception matters: indicators of poor usage of contraception in sexually active women attending family planning clinics in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Jason

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unintended pregnancy (mistimed or unwanted remains an important health issue for women. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with risk of unintended pregnancy in a sample of Victorian women attending family planning clinics. Methods This cross-sectional survey of three Family Planning Victoria Clinics from April to July 2011 recruited women aged 16-50 years with a male sexual partner in the last 3 months, and not intending to conceive. The questionnaire asked about contraceptive behaviours and important factors that influence contraception use (identified from a systematic literature review. Univariate analysis was calculated for the variables of interest for associations with contraceptive use. An overall multivariate model for being at risk for unintended pregnancy (due to inconsistent or ineffective contraceptive use or non-use was calculated through backward elimination with statistical significance set at Results 1006 surveys were analyzed with 96% of women reporting contraception use in the last 3 months. 37% of women were at risk for unintended pregnancy due to imperfect use (61% inconsistent users; 31% ineffective methods or never using contraception (8%. On multivariate analysis, women at risk for unintended pregnancy compared with women not at risk were 1 partner in the last 3 months (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.3-4.6. These women were dissatisfied with current contraception (OR 2.5, 95% 1.8-3.5; felt “vulnerable” to pregnancy (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.6-3.0; were not confident in contraceptive knowledge (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.5-4.8; were unable to stop to use contraception when aroused (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-2.9 but were comfortable in speaking to a doctor about contraception (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.1. Conclusion Despite reported high contraceptive usage, nearly 40% of women were at risk for unintended pregnancy primarily due to inconsistent contraceptive use and use of ineffective

  5. Surgical Indications for Eye Removal in Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the surgical indications for removal of the eye in Enugu in south eastern Nigeria. Method: Retrospective case series review. Results: At the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu, between 1st January 1994 and 31st December 2003, 106 eyes of 106 patients, comprising 71 (67.0%) males ...

  6. Kidnapping in the South eastern States of contemporary Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study empirically investigate salient social and demographic characteristics as determinants of kidnapping in the South-eastern States of contemporary Nigeria using inmates detained on the grounds of kidnapping in Abakaliki and Umuahia Prisons as a unit of analysis. The study adopted a cross-sectional research ...

  7. Risk assessment of salinity and turbidity in Victoria (Australia) to stream insects' community structure does not always protect functional traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefford, Ben J; Schäfer, Ralf B; Metzeling, Leon

    2012-01-15

    Ecological risk assessments mostly consider measures of community composition (structure) across large spatial scales. These assessments, using species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) or the relative species retention (RSR), may not be protective of ecosystem functions and services at smaller spatial scales. Here we examine how changes in biological traits, as proxy for ecosystem functions/services, at a fine spatial scale relate to larger scale assessment of structure. We use functional traits of stream insect species in south-east Australia in two habitats (riffle and edge/pool). We find that the protection of community structure in terms of 95% of species over multiple sites against adverse effects of salinity (as electrical conductivity) and turbidity will mostly, but not always, protect traits at smaller scales. Considering different combinations of trait modalities, contaminants and habitat, a mean of 17.5% (range 0%-36.8) of cases would result in under-protection of trait modalities despite protecting species composition (in terms of Jaccard's Index). This under-protection of trait modalities is only because of the different spatial scales that community structure and the traits were considered. We recommend that where the protection of biological traits, ecosystem functions or ecosystem services from stressors is a management goal, protective targets should not be solely set using measures of community structure such as SSDs or RSR. To protect both structural and functional attributes separate risk assessments should be done. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Controlled burn and immediate mobilization of potentially toxic elements in soil, from a legacy mine site in Central Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Joji; Dowling, Kim; Florentine, Singarayer

    2018-03-01

    Conducting controlled burns in fire prone areas is an efficient and economic method for forest management, and provides relief from the incidence of high severity wild fires and the consequent damage to human property and ecosystems. However, similar to wild fires, controlled burns also affect many of the physical and biogeochemical properties of the forest soil and may facilitate remobilization of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) sequestered in vegetation and soil organic matter. The objective of the current study is to investigate the mobilization of PTEs, in Central Victorian forest soils in Australia after a controlled burn. Surface soil samples were collected two days before and after the controlled burn to determine the concentration of PTEs and to examine the physicochemical properties. Results show that As, Cd, Mn, Ni and Zn concentrations increased 1.1, 1.6, 1.7, 1.1 and 1.9 times respectively in the post-burn environment, whereas the concentrations of Hg, Cr and Pb decreased to 0.7, 0.9 and 0.9 times respectively, highlighting considerable PTE mobility during and after a controlled burn. Whilst these results do not identify very strong correlations between physicochemical properties of soil and PTEs in the pre- and post-burn environments, PTEs themselves demonstrated very strong and significant correlations. The mobilization of As, Hg and other toxic elements raise potential health concerns as the number of controlled burns are projected to increase in response to climate change. Due to this increased level of PTE release and remobilization, the use of any kinds of controlled burn must be carefully considered before being used as a forest management strategy in mining-affected landscapes which include areas with high PTE concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The relationship between electronic gaming machine accessibility and police-recorded domestic violence: A spatio-temporal analysis of 654 postcodes in Victoria, Australia, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Francis; Doran, Bruce; Young, Martin

    2016-08-01

    An emerging body of research has documented an association between problem gambling and domestic violence in a range of study populations and locations. Yet little research has analysed this relationship at ecological scales. This study investigates the proposition that gambling accessibility and the incidence of domestic violence might be linked. The association between police-recorded domestic violence and electronic gaming machine accessibility is described at the postcode level. Police recorded family incidents per 10,000 and domestic-violence related physical assault offenses per 10,000 were used as outcome variables. Electronic gaming machine accessibility was measured as electronic gaming machines per 10,000 and gambling venues per 100,000. Bayesian spatio-temporal mixed-effects models were used to estimate the associations between gambling accessibility and domestic violence, using annual postcode-level data in Victoria, Australia between 2005 and 2014, adjusting for a range of covariates. Significant associations of policy-relevant magnitudes were found between all domestic violence and EGM accessibility variables. Postcodes with no electronic gaming machines were associated with 20% (95% credibility interval [C.I.]: 15%, 24%) fewer family incidents per 10,000 and 30% (95% C.I.: 24%, 35%) fewer domestic-violence assaults per 10,000, when compared with postcodes with 75 electronic gaming machine per 10,000. The causal relations underlying these associations are unclear. Quasi-experimental research is required to determine if reducing gambling accessibility is likely to reduce the incidence of domestic violence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Associations between major chain fast-food outlet availability and change in body mass index: a longitudinal observational study of women from Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Karen E; Thornton, Lukar E; Olstad, Dana Lee; Cerin, Ester; Ball, Kylie

    2017-10-16

    The residential neighbourhood fast-food environment has the potential to lead to increased levels of obesity by providing opportunities for residents to consume energy-dense products. This longitudinal study aimed to examine whether change in body mass index (BMI) differed dependent on major chain fast-food outlet availability among women residing in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Eighty disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Victoria, Australia. Sample of 882 women aged 18-46 years at baseline (wave I: 2007/2008) who remained at the same residential location at all three waves (wave II: 2010/2011; wave III: 2012/2013) of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study. BMI based on self-reported height and weight at each wave. There was no evidence of an interaction between time and the number of major chain fast-food outlets within 2 (p=0.88), 3 (p=0.66) or 5 km (p=0.24) in the multilevel models of BMI. Furthermore, there was no evidence of an interaction between time and change in availability at any distance and BMI. Change in BMI was not found to differ by residential major chain fast-food outlet availability among Victorian women residing in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. It may be that exposure to fast-food outlets around other locations regularly visited influence change in BMI. Future research needs to consider what environments are the key sources for accessing and consuming fast food and how these relate to BMI and obesity risk. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Social exclusion, deprivation and child health: a spatial analysis of ambulatory care sensitive conditions in children aged 0-4 years in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Danielle C; Thurecht, Linc; Brown, Laurie; Konings, Paul

    2013-10-01

    Recent Australian policy initiatives regarding primary health care focus on planning services around community needs and delivering these at the local area. As in many other countries, there has also been a growing concern over social inequities in health outcomes. The aims of the analysis presented here were firstly to describe small area variations in hospital admissions for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) among children aged 0-4 years between 2003 and 2009 in the state of Victoria, Australia, and secondly to explore the relationship of ACSC hospitalisations with socio-economic disadvantage using a comparative analysis of the Child Social Exclusion (CSE) index and the Composite Score of Deprivation (CSD). This is a cross sectional secondary data analysis, with data sourced from 2003 to 2009 ACSC data from the Victorian State Government Department of Health; the Australian Standard Geographical Classification of remoteness; the Australian 2006 Census of Population and Housing; and AMPCo General Practitioner data from 2010. The relationship between the indexes and child health outcomes was examined through bivariate analysis and visually through a series of maps. The results show there is significant variation in the geographical distribution of the relationship between ACSCs and socio-economic disadvantage, with both indexes capturing important social gradients in child health conditions. However, measures of access, such as geographical accessibility and workforce supply, detect additional small area variation in child health outcomes. This research has important implications for future primary health care policy and planning of services, as these findings confirm that not all areas are the same in terms of health outcomes, and there may be benefit in tailoring mechanisms for identifying areas of need depending on the outcome intended to be affected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Trial of labour and vaginal birth after previous caesarean section: A population based study of Eastern African immigrants in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belihu, Fetene B; Small, Rhonda; Davey, Mary-Ann

    2017-03-01

    Variations in caesarean section (CS) between some immigrant groups and receiving country populations have been widely reported. Often, African immigrant women are at higher risk of CS than the receiving population in developed countries. However, evidence about subsequent mode of birth following CS for African women post-migration is lacking. The objective of this study was to examine differences in attempted and successful vaginal birth after previous caesarean (VBAC) for Eastern African immigrants (Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan) compared with Australian-born women. A population-based observational study was conducted using the Victorian Perinatal Data Collection. Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were performed to generate adjusted odds ratios for attempted and successful VBAC. Victoria, Australia. 554 Eastern African immigrants and 24,587 Australian-born eligible women with previous CS having singleton births in public care. 41.5% of Eastern African immigrant women and 26.1% Australian-born women attempted a VBAC with 50.9% of Eastern African immigrants and 60.5% of Australian-born women being successful. After adjusting for maternal demographic characteristics and available clinical confounding factors, Eastern African immigrants were more likely to attempt (OR adj 1.94, 95% CI 1.57-2.47) but less likely to succeed (OR adj 0.54 95% CI 0.41-0.71) in having a VBAC. There are disparities in attempted and successful VBAC between Eastern African origin and Australian-born women. Unsuccessful VBAC attempt is more common among Eastern African immigrants, suggesting the need for improved strategies to select and support potential candidates for vaginal birth among these immigrants to enhance success and reduce potential complications associated with failed VBAC attempt. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Change of School in Early Adolescence and Adverse Obesity-Related Dietary Behavior: A Longitudinal Cohort Study, Victoria, Australia, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jennifer; Barnett, Lisa M; Allender, Steven

    2015-09-10

    Environments that facilitate energy-dense, nutrient-poor diets are associated with childhood obesity. We examined the effect of a change of school environment on the prevalence of obesity and related dietary behavior in early adolescence. Fifteen schools in Victoria, Australia, were recruited at random from the bottom 2 strata of a 5-level socioeconomic scale. In 9 schools, students in grade 6 primary school transitioned to different schools for grade 7 secondary school, whereas in 6 schools, students remained in the same school from grade 6 to grade 7. Time 1 measures were collected from students (N = 245) in grade 6 (aged 11-13 y). Time 2 data were collected from 243 (99%) of the original cohort in grade 7. Data collected were dietary recall self-reported by students via questionnaire, measured height and weight of students, and aspects of the school food environment via school staff survey. Comparative and mixed model regression analyses were conducted. Of 243 students, 63% (n = 152) changed schools from time 1 to time 2, with no significant difference in weight status. Students who changed schools reported an increase in purchases of after-school snack food, greater sweetened beverage intake, fewer fruit-and-vegetable classroom breaks, and less encouragement for healthy eating compared with students who remained in the same school. School staff surveys showed that more primary than secondary schools had written healthy canteen policies and fewer days of canteen or food services operation. A change of school environment has negative effects on children's obesity-related dietary behavior. Consistent policy is needed across school types to support healthy eating in school environments.

  14. The structure and organisation of home-based postnatal care in public hospitals in Victoria, Australia: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Della A; McKay, Heather; Powell, Rhonda; Wahlstedt, Emma; Farrell, Tanya; Ford, Rachel; McLachlan, Helen L

    2016-04-01

    There is limited evidence regarding the provision of home-based postnatal care, resulting in a weak evidence-base for policy formulation and the further development of home-based postnatal care services. To explore the structure and organisation of public hospital home-based postnatal care in Victoria, Australia. An online survey including mostly closed-ended questions was sent to representatives of all public maternity providers in July 2011. The response rate of 87% (67/77) included rural (70%; n=47), regional (15%; n=10) and metropolitan (15%; n=10) services. The majority (96%, 64/67) provided home-based postnatal care. The median number of visits for primiparous women was two and for multiparous women, one. The main reason for no visit was the woman declining. Two-thirds of services attempted to provide some continuity of carer for home-based postnatal care. Routine maternal and infant observations were broadly consistent across the services, and various systems were in place to protect the safety of staff members during home visits. Few services had a dedicated home-based postnatal care coordinator. This study demonstrates that the majority of women receive at least one home-based postnatal visit, and that service provision on the whole is similar across the state. Further work should explore the optimum number and timing of visits, what components of care are most valued by women, and what model best ensures the timely detection and prevention of postpartum complications, be they psychological or physiological. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to dietary salt among adults in the state of Victoria, Australia 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Kelley, Sarah-Jane; Stanley, Sonya; Bolam, Bruce; Webster, Jacqui; Khokhar, Durreajam; Nowson, Caryl A

    2017-05-30

    Information on consumer's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours (KABs) related to salt can be used to inform awareness and education campaigns and serve as a baseline measure to monitor changes in KABs over time. The aim of this study was to determine KABs related to salt intake among Victorian adults. Cross-sectional survey conducted in Victorian adults aged 18-65 years. Participants were recruited from shopping centres located in Melbourne and Geelong and via online methods (Facebook and Consumer Research Panel) to complete an online survey assessing KABs related to dietary salt. Descriptive statistics (mean (SD) or n (%)) were used to report survey findings. A total of 2398 participants provided a valid survey (mean age 43 years (SD 13), 57% female). The majority (80%) were born in Australia and 63% were the main household grocery shopper. The majority (89%) were aware of the health risks associated with a high salt intake. Eighty three percent believed that Australians eat too much salt. Three quarters (75%) correctly identified salt from processed foods as being the main source of salt in the diet. Less than a third (29%) of participants believed their own individual salt intake exceeded dietary recommendations and only 28% could correctly identify the maximum recommended daily intake for salt. Just under half (46%) of participants were concerned about the amount of salt in food. Almost two thirds (61%) of participants believed that there should be laws which limit the amount of salt added to manufactured foods and 58% agreed that it was difficult to find lower salt options when eating out. The findings of this study serve as a baseline assessment of KABs related to salt intake in Victorian adults and can be used to assess changes in salt related KABs over time. Public concern about salt is low as many people remain unaware of their own salt intake. An increased awareness of the excessive amount of salt consumed and increased availability of lower salt foods

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to dietary salt among adults in the state of Victoria, Australia 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carley A. Grimes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on consumer’s knowledge, attitudes and behaviours (KABs related to salt can be used to inform awareness and education campaigns and serve as a baseline measure to monitor changes in KABs over time. The aim of this study was to determine KABs related to salt intake among Victorian adults. Methods Cross-sectional survey conducted in Victorian adults aged 18–65 years. Participants were recruited from shopping centres located in Melbourne and Geelong and via online methods (Facebook and Consumer Research Panel to complete an online survey assessing KABs related to dietary salt. Descriptive statistics (mean (SD or n (% were used to report survey findings. Results A total of 2398 participants provided a valid survey (mean age 43 years (SD 13, 57% female. The majority (80% were born in Australia and 63% were the main household grocery shopper. The majority (89% were aware of the health risks associated with a high salt intake. Eighty three percent believed that Australians eat too much salt. Three quarters (75% correctly identified salt from processed foods as being the main source of salt in the diet. Less than a third (29% of participants believed their own individual salt intake exceeded dietary recommendations and only 28% could correctly identify the maximum recommended daily intake for salt. Just under half (46% of participants were concerned about the amount of salt in food. Almost two thirds (61% of participants believed that there should be laws which limit the amount of salt added to manufactured foods and 58% agreed that it was difficult to find lower salt options when eating out. Conclusions The findings of this study serve as a baseline assessment of KABs related to salt intake in Victorian adults and can be used to assess changes in salt related KABs over time. Public concern about salt is low as many people remain unaware of their own salt intake. An increased awareness of the excessive amount of

  17. A retrospective study of the impact of DSM-5 on the diagnosis of eating disorders in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudle, Henry; Pang, Christine; Mancuso, Sam; Castle, David; Newton, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the DSM-IV and DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for eating disorders. DSM-IV resulted in a large number of patients being diagnosed with Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS). In DSM-5 the residual category is renamed Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorders (OSFED) and Unspecified Eating Disorders (UFED) however the diagnostic criteria for the residual category in each of the diagnostic systems remains the same. This study aims to evaluate the changes in percentages of patients in a residual DSM-IV category compared to a residual DSM-5 category by retrospectively applying DSM-5 criteria to the clinical records of a patient population in a clinical setting. It also aims to compare the psychopathology between the EDNOS and OSFED/UFED groups. 285 participants were recruited from a specialised eating disorder clinic in Australia over a 5-year period from 2009 until 2014. The clinical records of patients with diagnoses of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and EDNOS were retrospectively assessed using the DSM-5 criteria. All patients who had attended the clinic and received an eating disorder diagnosis during this period were included in the study. No patients were diagnosed with binge eating disorder during the study period. This is surprising given the prevalence of binge eating disorder in the community. It is possible that individuals with binge eating disorder were not referred to the clinic following the initial referral and assessment due to the lack of binge eating specific interventions available. The referral process may also have been skewed towards AN, BN and EDNOS due to a perception by referring parties that binge eating disorder was a 'milder' condition that did not require specialist intervention. Information in the clinical records included structured clinical interviews, and self-rating scales of eating disorder and other psychiatric symptoms and a longitudinal narrative of patient performance and attitude during

  18. INTERNET ADDICTION IN BALKAN AND SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis PETASAKIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Internet has increased dramatically in recent years. Although there is no standardized definition of Internet addiction, there is acknowledgement among researchers that this phenomenon does exist. In this study, we identify various similarities and differences among people in the Balkan and South-Eastern European countries about Internet addiction. There are many factors such as cultural differences, gender differences, psychosocial variables, computer attitudes and time.We present the experience from studies concerning Internet addiction in all over the world. A specific research with the use of Young's 20-scale was also conducted in five Balkan and South-Eastern European countries (Republic of Moldova, Romania, Republic of Bulgaria, Hellenic Republic, Republic of Cyprus.The findings are interesting. Although there is a need for Interest using, there are also cases where the addiction, dependence and abuse is apparent.

  19. The South Eastern Europe Higher Education Area: Is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Lacrama

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Through history, South Eastern Europe has been a difficult and highly heterogeneous area of the continent. Nevertheless, recent developments have proved that a better future is possible. An important component of this genuine healing process is establishing connections and partnerships among universities inside the region. The present paper advocates the use of modern educational technology in order to implement common scientific and educational programs in this area.

  20. Comparing satisfaction and burnout between caseload and standard care midwives: findings from two cross-sectional surveys conducted in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Michelle S; McLachlan, Helen L; Willis, Karen F; Forster, Della A

    2014-12-24

    Caseload midwifery reduces childbirth interventions and increases women's satisfaction with care. It is therefore important to understand the impact of caseload midwifery on midwives working in and alongside the model. While some studies have reported higher satisfaction for caseload compared with standard care midwives, others have suggested a need to explore midwives' work-life balance as well as potential for stress and burnout. This study explored midwives' attitudes to their professional role, and also measured burnout in caseload midwives compared to standard care midwives at two sites in Victoria, Australia with newly introduced caseload midwifery models. All midwives providing maternity care at the study sites were sent questionnaires at the commencement of the caseload midwifery model and two years later. Data items included the Midwifery Process Questionnaire (MPQ) to examine midwives' attitude to their professional role, the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) to measure burnout, and questions about midwives' views of caseload work. Data were pooled for the two sites and comparisons made between caseload and standard care midwives. The MPQ and CBI data were summarised as individual and group means. Twenty caseload midwives (88%) and 130 standard care midwives (41%) responded at baseline and 22 caseload midwives (95%) and 133 standard care midwives (45%) at two years. Caseload and standard care midwives were initially similar across all measures except client-related burnout, which was lower for caseload midwives (12.3 vs 22.4, p = 0.02). After two years, compared to midwives in standard care, caseload midwives had higher mean scores in professional satisfaction (1.08 vs 0.76, p = 0.01), professional support (1.06 vs 0.11, p burnout (35.7 vs 47.7, p work-related burnout (27.3 vs 42.7, p burnout (11.3 vs 21.4, p burnout scores and higher professional satisfaction. Further research should focus on understanding the key features of the caseload model that are

  1. Extreme negative coexceedances in South Eastern European stock markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tevdovski, Dragan

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the financial integration of the South Eastern Europe (SEE) stock markets. We use a multinomial logistic regression to analyze how persistence, asset class and volatility effects are related with negative coexceedances in SEE markets. We find evidence in favor...... of the continuation hypothesis in SEE stock markets. However, the factors associated with the coexceedances differ between the EU member countries from SEE and EU accession countries from SEE stock markets.The EU member countries are more dependent from the signals from major EU economies, while the accession...

  2. Public attitudes towards gambling product harm and harm reduction strategies: an online study of 16-88 year olds in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Samantha L; Randle, Melanie; Bestman, Amy; Pitt, Hannah; Bowe, Steven J; Cowlishaw, Sean; Daube, Mike

    2017-07-25

    Gambling has quickly emerged as an important global public health issue. With new technologies used to develop high intensity gambling products and promotions aimed at driving consumption, public health organisations and researchers, community groups, and politicians have argued for a range of regulatory and education measures aimed at reducing gambling harm. However, there has been limited research seeking to understand community perceptions of the harms associated with gambling products and environments, and the level of community support for strategies designed to prevent and reduce gambling harm. An online study of 500 adolescents and adults (aged 16 and over) was conducted with a representative sample (by age and gender) of individuals who were current residents in the state of Victoria, Australia. Participants were asked a range of questions about their own gambling behaviours, with the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) used as a measure of problem gambling. Participants were asked about their perceptions of harms associated with electronic gambling machines (EGMs), sports betting, horse betting, and casino gambling. They were also asked about the extent to which they agreed or disagreed with gambling harm reduction strategies related to marketing and promotions, restrictions on gambling products and venues, and public education campaigns. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and paired t tests, with thematic analysis used to interpret qualitative responses to open-ended questionnaire items. More than one third (n = 201, 40.2%) of participants were at risk of experiencing some level of harm from gambling (PGSI ≥ 1), with 83 participants (16.6%) recording scores that indicated problem gambling (PGSI ≥ 8). One in five participants gambled on EGMs at least monthly (n = 100, 20.0%). Those who gambled on sports did so frequently, with nearly 1 in 5 gambling on sport at least once a month (n = 87, 17.4%). Over

  3. Acceptability of general practice services for Afghan refugees in south-eastern Melbourne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Prashanti; Cheng, I-Hao; Advocat, Jenny; Russell, Grant

    2017-04-01

    Over 750000 refugees have resettled in Australia since 1945. Despite complex health needs related to prior traumatic experiences and the challenges of resettlement in a foreign country, refugees experience poor access to primary care. Health and settlement service providers describe numerous cultural, communication, financial and health literacy barriers. This study aimed to investigate the acceptability of general practitioner (GP) services and understand what aspects of acceptability are relevant for Afghan refugees in south-eastern Melbourne. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with two Afghan community leaders and 16 Dari- or English-speaking Afghan refugees who accessed GP services. Two distinct narratives emerged - those of recently arrived refugees and established refugees (living in Australia for 3 years or longer). Transecting these narratives, participants indicated the importance of: (1) a preference for detailed clinical assessments, diagnostic investigations and the provision of prescriptions at the first consultation; (2) 'refugee-friendly' staff; and (3) integrated, 'one-stop-shop' GP clinic features. The value of acceptable personal characteristics evolved over time - GP acceptability was less a consideration for recently arrived, compared with more, established refugees. The findings reinforce the importance of tailoring healthcare delivery to the evolving needs and healthcare expectations of newly arrived and established refugees respectively.

  4. Enhancing the Utilization of Information Communication Technology (ICT) among Home Economics Lecturers in South Eastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejinkeonye, Uju Bridget; Usoroh, Comfort I.

    2016-01-01

    The study was on enhancing the utilization of information communication Technology (ICT) among Home Economics lecturers in south Eastern Nigeria. The study adopted a survey method. The area of the study is south eastern Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study. The population was made up of 63 Home Economics lecturers from the six…

  5. Myxomatosis: the occurrence of antibody to a soluble antigen of myxoma virus in wild rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.), in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, J W; Shepherd, R C; Nolan, I F

    1978-10-01

    The occurrence of antibody of myxoma virus in wild rabbits following epizootics is highest in the semi-arid north-west of Victoria and lowest in temperate southern Victoria. Occurrence ranges up to about 90% in the north-west and to about 70% in the south except on the Western Plains where epizootics are rare and antibody occurrence seldom exceeds 30%. The establishment of the European rabbit flea may be changing the pattern of occurrence of antibody in the north-west by causing spring outbreaks of myxomatosis. It is suggested that the effects of the replacement of a simple recurring system of epizootic and breeding season several months apart by the occurrence of myxomatosis twice in the same year, once coincident with the breeding season, will be complex. The occurrence of detectable antibody may be less dependent on the infection rate and may be dependent to some extent on the relative timing of spring myxomatosis and the breeding season.

  6. Causal attribution of mental illness in South-Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikwuka, Ugo; Galbraith, Niall; Nyatanga, Lovemore

    2014-05-01

    Understanding of mental illness in sub-Saharan Africa has remained under-researched in spite of the high and increasing neuropsychiatric burden of disease in the region. This study investigated the causal beliefs that the Igbo people of south-eastern Nigeria hold about schizophrenia, with a view to establishing the extent to which the population makes psychosocial, biological and supernatural attributions. Multi-stage sampling was used to select participants (N = 200) to which questionnaires were administered. Mean comparison of the three causal models revealed a significant endorsement of supernatural causation. Logistic regressions revealed significant contributions of old age and female gender to supernatural attribution; old age, high education and Catholic religious denomination to psychosocial attributions; and high education to biological attributions. It is hoped that the findings would enlighten, augment literature and enhance mental health care service delivery.

  7. The Transmission of Foreign Shocks to South Eastern European Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrevski, Goran; Bogoev, Jane; Tevdovski, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the transmission of foreign shocks to economic activity and macroeconomic policies in the South Eastern European (SEE) economies with fixed exchange rate regimes: Croatia, Macedonia and Bulgaria. Specifically, we provide empirical evidence on the influence of the EMU policy...... with rigid exchange rate regimes, with different degree of integration within the EU. As for the methodological issues, we employ recursive Vector Auto regressions to identify the exogenous shocks in the euro-area. Generally, the estimated results imply that euro-zone economic activity has significant...... reference rate are relatively quickly transmitted to domestic money market rates. We can explain these effects by several factors, such as: the fixed exchange rates, the relatively high integration of SEE financial markets to EMU financial markets as well as the dependence of banks on foreign financing...

  8. Public health leadership competency level among health professionals in a South Eastern European country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pampuri, O.; Czabanowska, K.; Hysa, B.; Roshi, E.; Burazeri, G.

    2015-01-01

    Pampuri O, Czabanowska K, Hysa B, Roshi E, Burazeri G. Public health leadership competency level among health professionals in a South Eastern European country (Original research). SEEJPH 2015, posted: 10 February 2015. DOI 10.12908/SEEJPH-2014-40

  9. Childhood Mortality in Federal Medical Centre Umuahia, South Eastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Nwafor Chukwuemeka; Chuku, Abali; Anazodo, Nnoli Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the mortality pattern in children seen at Federal Medical Centre Umuahia (FMCU) Abia state, South Eastern Nigeria. Methods A retrospective cross sectional descriptive study over a 5-year period from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2008 using data retrieved from the hospital’s medical records department. Results A total of 3,814 children were admitted in the hospital and 434 of them died giving a mortality rate of 11%. The mean age was 1.7 (Std D of 3.19). Two hundred and thirty eight of them were males while 196 of them were females giving a sex ratio of 1.2:1. Majority of the mortality (49%) occurred within 24 hours of admission. The major causes of death during neonatal period were birth asphyxia (34%), prematurity (24%) and neonatal sepsis (24%). Malaria was the leading cause of death beyond the neonatal period accounting for 42% of cases. Other common mortality causes were pneumonia, septicaemia, diarrhea, HIV AIDS and meningitis each accounting for 10%, 10%, 7%, 7% and 5% respectively. The months of July, May and March accounted for most deaths (12%, 12% and 11% respectively). Conclusion Birth asphyxia and malaria associated deaths were responsible for most deaths during neonatal and beyond neonatal periods respectively. Presence of trained personal at all deliveries will help to reduce neonatal asphyxia. Efforts should be made to reinforce the existing effective malaria control tools. PMID:25337306

  10. Childhood Mortality in Federal Medical Centre Umuahia, South Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwafor Chukwuemeka Charles

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the mortality pattern in children seen at Federal Medical Centre Umuahia (FMCU Abia state, South Eastern Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective cross sectional descriptive study over a 5-year period from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2008 using data retrieved from the hospital’s medical records department. Results: A total of 3,814 children were admitted in the hospital and 434 of them died giving a mortality rate of 11%. The mean age was 1.7 (Std D of 3.19. Two hundred and thirty eight of them were males while 196 of them were females giving a sex ratio of 1.2:1. Majority of the mortality (49% occurred within 24 hours of admission. The major causes of death during neonatal period were birth asphyxia (34%, prematurity (24% and neonatal sepsis (24%. Malaria was the leading cause of death beyond the neonatal period accounting for 42% of cases. Other common mortality causes were pneumonia, septicaemia, diarrhea, HIV AIDS and meningitis each accounting for 10%, 10%, 7%, 7% and 5% respectively. The months of July, May and March accounted for most deaths (12%, 12% and 11% respectively. Conclusion: Birth asphyxia and malaria associated deaths were responsible for most deaths during neonatal and beyond neonatal periods respectively. Presence of trained personal at all deliveries will help to reduce neonatal asphyxia. Efforts should be made to reinforce the existing effective malaria control tools.

  11. Old age mortality in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danan Gu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eastern and South-Eastern Asian countries have witnessed a marked decline in old age mortality in recent decades. Yet no studies have investigated the trends and patterns in old age morality and cause-of-death in the region. Objective: We reviewed the trends and patterns of old age mortality and cause-of-death for countries in the region. Methods: We examined data on old age mortality in terms of life expectancy at age 65 and age-specific death rates from the 2012 Revision of the World Population Prospects for 14 countries in the region (China, Hong Kong, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam and data on cause-of-death from the WHO for five countries (China, Hong Kong, Japan, Republic of Korea, and Singapore from 1980 to 2010. Results: While mortality transitions in these populations took place in different times, and at different levels of socioeconomic development and living environment, changes in their age patterns and sex differentials in mortality showed certain similarities: women witnessed a similar decline to men in spite of their lower mortality, and young elders had a larger decline than the oldest-old. In all five countries examined for cause-of-death, most of the increases in life expectancy at age 65 in both men and women were attributable to declines in mortality from stroke and heart disease. GDP per capita, educational level, and urbanization explained much of the variations in life expectancy and cause-specific mortality, indicating critical contributions of these basic socioeconomic development indicators to the mortality decline over time in the region. Conclusions: These findings shed light on the relationship between epidemiological transition, changing age patterns of mortality, and improving life expectancy in these populations.

  12. Quantitative morphotectonic analysis of the South-Eastern Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionuţ Cristea, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    South-Eastern Carpathians (Vrancea Region) have received an increasing scientific attention during the past years, mostly resulting in a detailed reconstruction of their exumation history. Moreover structural and thermocronological data suggest that the frontal part of the SE Carpathians conserves the youngest topography in the Romanian Carpathians resulting from a deformational process occurring during the late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene. This significant tectonic activity continues to the present time as it is confirmed by the geodetic measurements and by the frequency of crustal earthquakes. The specific effects of the Quaternary deformations on the regional fluvial system were associated so far with an increased incision and the formation of the degradational (strath) terraces, downstream tiling of terraces, the establishment of local drainage divides and young longitudinal river profiles. Our study further investigates the possible influence of the recent tectonic activity on the characteristics of the drainage basins in the area and the distribution of the over-steepened stream reaches using spatial autocorrelation techniques (Getis Ord Gi* statistics and Anselin's Local Moran's I). For the first, hypsometric integrals (Hi) and transverse topographic symmetry factor were analyzed. For the last, we used locally computed normalized channel steepness index (ksn). Due to the highly variable lithology in the region (specific to the Flysch areas), additional correlations of the determined values with the geological units and rock types have been made in order to assess the effects. The results show that the geographic clustering of the high Hi and ksn values is more significant than the lithological one, and, although the rock strength have local influences, this is not sufficient to explain the regional distribution of the values, generally between 26.5o and 26.66o E (p

  13. Gravity and magnetic modelling in the Vrancea Zone, south-eastern Carpathians: Redefinition of the edge of the East European Craton beneath the south-eastern Carpathians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocin, A.; Stephenson, R.; Matenco, L.; Mocanu, V.

    2013-01-01

    A 2D gravity and magnetic data model has been constructed along a 71. km densely observed profile, called DACIA PLAN GRAV MAN's. The profile crosses part of the nappe pile of the south-eastern Carpathians and includes the seismically active Vrancea Zone and was acquired with the objective to

  14. Religions in South-Eastern Europe: The Historico-Anthropological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mitterauer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The article approaches religious phenomena in South-Eastern Europe in a historico-anthropological manner. With the aid of historical comparison, the author tries to throw light on the religious phenomena of South-Eastern Europe and to present them in a lucid review. A significant place in this process is given to historical sociology as a discipline which, among other, also deals with the religious conditioning of social processes. The text consists of two parts. In the first, the author deals with the question of the religious particularity of South-Eastern Europe and considers it from several viewpoints. The author regards the most important features of the religious situation in that part of Europe as being particularism, archaicism and syncretism. He analyses the historical conditioning of the viability of the three monotheistic world religions in the region, their influence on the social development of South-Eastern Europe, the stance of the authorities towards religious communities and the existence of diverse traditions within individual religious cultures. Along with analysis of the presence of ancient elements and the continuity of pre-Christian rituals and beliefs, the author also stresses the strong syncretism marking the religious traditions of South-Eastern Europe. In the second part of the text the author compares religious phenomena in South-Eastern Europe and analyses regional religious traditions. He presents from the historico-anthropological aspect the religious rituals, the bearers of rituals, the place and time of rituals and the ritual languages of each of the world religions represented in the region. Emphasising the continuity of religious life and religious traditions in South-Eastern Europe, the author ends with the period of Communist rule in the second half of the 20th century, and deliberation that Communism, too, with its atheist doctrine in the secular form of cult, in fact carried on from religious tradition.

  15. Perceptions of an educational programme for registered nurses who work at non-major trauma services in Victoria, Australia: The Nursing Emergency eXternal Trauma Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Sharyn; Cross, Rachel; Decker, Kelly; Mitra, Biswadev

    2017-08-01

    Emergency nurses working in non-Major Trauma Service (non-MTS) facilities face the challenge of providing immediate care to seriously injured patients, despite infrequent presentations at their workplace. A one-day education programme endorsed by the Australian College of Nursing was developed to provide contemporary trauma education for nurses. The aim of this study was to report participants' perceptions of their experience of this programme. Peer reviewed lesson plans were developed to guide educational activities. Of 32 participants, 24 consented to and completed pre and post-programme surveys. Thematic analysis and descriptive statistics were used to report study findings. Most participants were nurses with greater than two years' experience in Emergency Nursing (92%). Trauma patient transfers each year from a non-MTS to a Major Trauma Service occurred infrequently; eight nurses (33.3%) reported greater than10 trauma transfers per year. Participant expectations of the programme included personal growth, knowledge acquisition, increased confidence and a focus on technical skills. Participants reported the day to be worthwhile and valuable; improved confidence, increased knowledge, and the opportunity to discuss current evidence based practice were highly regarded. Recommendations for future programmes included extending to two days and include burns and more complex pathophysiology. With centralisation of trauma care to major trauma services, frequent and continuing education of nurses is essential. Nurses from non-Major Trauma Service facilities in Victoria found this programme worthwhile as they gained knowledge and skills and increased confidence to care for trauma patients. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of a culturally-tailored campaign to increase blood donation knowledge, attitudes and intentions among African migrants in two Australian States: Victoria and South Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate L Francis

    Full Text Available Research suggests that African migrants are often positively predisposed towards blood donation, but are under-represented in participation. A culturally-tailored intervention targeting the African migrant community in Australia was developed and implemented, to enhance knowledge about blood donation, improve attitudes towards donating, increase intentions to donate blood, and increase the number of new African donors in Australia. Four weeks after a targeted campaign, a survey evaluation process commenced, administered face-to-face by bilingual interviewers from the African community in Melbourne and Adelaide, Australia (community survey. The questionnaires covered demographics, campaign awareness, blood donation knowledge and intentions, medical mistrust and perceived discrimination, and were analysed to evaluate changes in knowledge and intention. Sixty-two percent of survey participants (n = 454 reported being aware of the campaign. With increasing campaign awareness, there was a 0.28 increase in knowledge score (p = .005; previous blood donation was also associated with an increased blood donation knowledge score. Blood donation intention scores were not associated with campaign awareness (p = 0.272, but were associated with previous blood donation behaviour and a positive blood donation attitude score. More positive scores on the blood donation attitude measure were associated with increasing blood donation intentions, self-efficacy and campaign awareness (score increases of 0.27, 0.30 and 0.04, respectively, all p<0.05. Data were collected on the ethnicity of new blood donors in six blood collection centres before and after the intervention, and independent of the intervention evaluation survey. These data were also used to assess behavioural changes and the proportions of donors from different countries before and after the survey. There was no difference in the number of new African migrant donors, before and after the intervention. The

  17. A random cluster survey and a convenience sample give comparable estimates of immunity to vaccine preventable diseases in children of school age in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Heath; Riddell, Michaela A; Gidding, Heather F; Nolan, Terry; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2002-08-19

    We compared estimates of the age-specific population immunity to measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis B and varicella zoster viruses in Victorian school children obtained by a national sero-survey, using a convenience sample of residual sera from diagnostic laboratories throughout Australia, with those from a three-stage random cluster survey. When grouped according to school age (primary or secondary school) there was no significant difference in the estimates of immunity to measles, mumps, hepatitis B or varicella. Compared with the convenience sample, the random cluster survey estimated higher immunity to rubella in samples from both primary (98.7% versus 93.6%, P = 0.002) and secondary school students (98.4% versus 93.2%, P = 0.03). Despite some limitations, this study suggests that the collection of a convenience sample of sera from diagnostic laboratories is an appropriate sampling strategy to provide population immunity data that will inform Australia's current and future immunisation policies. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  18. The impact of socio-economic disadvantage on rates of hospital separations for diabetes-related foot disease in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colman Peter G

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information describing variation in health outcomes for individuals with diabetes related foot disease, across socioeconomic strata is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate variation in rates of hospital separations for diabetes related foot disease and the relationship with levels of social advantage and disadvantage. Methods Using the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (IRSD each local government area (LGA across Victoria was ranked from most to least disadvantaged. Those LGAs ranked at the lowest end of the scale and therefore at greater disadvantage (Group D were compared with those at the highest end of the scale (Group A, in terms of total and per capita hospital separations for peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, foot ulceration, cellulitis and osteomyelitis and amputation. Hospital separations data were compiled from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Database. Results Total and per capita separations were 2,268 (75.3/1,000 with diabetes and 2,734 (62.3/1,000 with diabetes for Group D and Group A respectively. Most notable variation was for foot ulceration (Group D, 18.1/1,000 versus Group A, 12.7/1,000, rate ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.3, 1.6 and below knee amputation (Group D 7.4/1,000 versus Group A 4.1/1,000, rate ratio 1.8, 95% CI 1.5, 2.2. Males recorded a greater overall number of hospital separations across both socioeconomic strata with 66.2% of all separations for Group D and 81.0% of all separations for Group A recorded by males. However, when comparing mean age, males from Group D tended to be younger compared with males from Group A (mean age; 53.0 years versus 68.7 years. Conclusion Variation appears to exist for hospital separations for diabetes related foot disease across socioeconomic strata. Specific strategies should be incorporated into health policy and planning to combat disparities between health outcomes and social status.

  19. The outcomes of health-promoting communities: being active eating well initiative-a community-based obesity prevention intervention in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, K A; Kremer, P; Gibbs, L; Waters, E; Swinburn, B; de Silva, A

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of the Health-Promoting Communities: Being Active Eating Well (HPC:BAEW, 2007-2010) initiative, which comprised community-based multi-component interventions adapted to community context in five separate communities. The intervention aimed to promote healthy eating, physical activity and stronger, healthier communities. A mixed method and multilevel quasi-experimental evaluation of the HPC:BAEW initiative captured process, impact and outcome data. The evaluation involved both cross-sectional (children and adolescents) and longitudinal designs (adults) with data collected pre- and post-intervention in intervention (n=2408 children and adolescents from 18 schools, n=501 adults from 22 workplaces) and comparison groups (n=3163 children and adolescents from 33 schools, n=318 adults from seven workplaces). Anthropometry, obesity-related behavioural and environmental data, information regarding community context and implementation factors were collected. The primary outcomes were differences in anthropometry (weight, waist, body mass index (BMI) and standardised BMI (BMI z-score)) over time compared with comparison communities. Baseline data was collected 2008/2009 and post-intervention collected in 2010 with an average intervention time frame of approximately 12 months. The strategies most commonly implemented were related to social marketing, stakeholder engagement, network and partnership development, community-directed needs assessment and capacity building. Analysis of post-intervention data showed gains in community capacity, but few impacts on environments, policy or individual knowledge, skills, beliefs and perceptions. Relative to the comparison group, one community achieved a lower prevalence of overweight/obesity, lower weight, waist circumference and BMI (Pinitiative, which attempted to expand a previously successful community-based intervention in Victoria into five new contexts and communities. Overall

  20. Are low-to-middle-income households experiencing food insecurity in Victoria, Australia? An examination of the Victorian Population Health Survey, 2006-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleve, Sue; Davidson, Zoe E; Gearon, Emma; Booth, Sue; Palermo, Claire

    2017-07-01

    Food insecurity affects health and wellbeing. Little is known about the relationship between food insecurity across income levels. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and frequency of food insecurity in low-to-middle-income Victorian households over time and identify factors associated with food insecurity in these households. Prevalence and frequency of food insecurity was analysed across household income levels using data from the cross-sectional 2006-09 Victorian Population Health Surveys (VPHS). Respondents were categorised as food insecure, if in the last 12 months they had run out of food and were unable to afford to buy more. Multivariable logistic regression was used to describe factors associated with food insecurity in low-to-middle-income households (A$40000-$80000 in 2008). Between 4.9 and 5.5% for total survey populations and 3.9-4.8% in low-to-middle-income respondents were food insecure. Food insecurity was associated with limited help from friends, home ownership status, inability to raise money in an emergency and cost of some foods. Food insecurity exists in households beyond those on a very low income. Understanding the extent and implications of household food insecurity across all income groups in Australia will inform effective and appropriate public health responses.

  1. Oxygen isotopic composition of carbonate concretions from the lower Cretaceous of Victoria, Australia: Implications for the evolution of meteoric waters on the Australian continent in a paleopolar environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    Oxygen isotopic data from carbonate cements in concretions have been used to infer the isotopic composition of meteoric fluids present at the time of concretion growth in terrestrial sediments that were deposited within the early Cretaceous South Polar Circle at 75-80 0 S. Carbon and oxygen isotope compositions have been determined on over 135 samples of carbonate from 45 concretions taken from 24 localities (Aptian-Albian in age) in the terrestrial sedimentary basins associated with the Otway and Strzelecki groups, southeastern Australia. The carbonate cements include calcite having -26.4≤δ 13 C≤19.6 and 3.6≤δ 18 O≤29.6 or siderite having 17.6≤δ 18 O≤30.8. Calcite-cemented concretions are more abundant and are interpreted to represent early near-surface cementation events on the basis of textural evidence such as high (>30%) porosities at the time of cementation and mineralogical evidence such as the preferential preservation within concretions of labile detrital grains including plagioclase, pyroxene, and amphibole. The oxygen isotopic data indicate that meteoric fluids with very low δ 18 O, certainly less than -15per mille and probably on the order of -20per mille, were involved in the precipitation of the early calcites. The extremely low δ 18 O values of the fluids involved in the early diagenesis of both the Otway and Strzelecki groups suggest that the catchment area of the river system that carried sediments to these basins had a cold high-latitude climate (with mean annual temperatures less than 5 0 C and quite possibly below freezing). By analogy with the relationship between modern 18 O distribution of meteoric fluids and climate, these new data suggest that the early Cretaceous polar regions may not have been ice-free. (orig.)

  2. Long-term responses of Burrunan dolphins (Tursiops australis to swim-with dolphin tourism in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia: A population at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Filby

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated Burrunan dolphin responses to dolphin-swim tour vessels across two time periods: 1998–2000 and 2011–2013. A total of 211 dolphin sightings were documented across 306 surveys. Sighting success rate and mean encounter time with dolphins decreased significantly by 12.8% and 8.2 min, respectively, between periods. Approaches that did not contravene regulations elicited highest approach responses by dolphins towards tour vessels, whereas dolphins’ responded to illegal approaches most frequently with avoidance. Small groups responded to tour vessels with avoidance significantly more than large groups. Initial dolphin behaviour had a strong effect on dolphin’s responses to tour vessels, with resting groups the most likely to exhibit avoidance. Calves were significantly more likely to be present during swims in 2011–2013. Dolphin’s responses to tour vessels changed across time, with effect responses (avoidance and approach increasing significantly as dolphins gained cumulative experience. These dolphins are forced to expend a greater level of time and energy avoiding or approaching boats, shifting from a non-effect response to an effect response. Consequences of this include possible decrease in biological fitness by detracting from core biological activities such as foraging and resting. Combined with a decrease in sighting success between periods, the results imply that this population of dolphins, which is endemic to Australia and listed as threatened under the Victorian Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988, may not be well suited to the dolphin-swim industry. The management implications of these results warrant a shift from passive to active management in Port Phillip Bay. The importance of long-term research is highlighted, given behavioural responses detected herein would be undetected in short-term studies. Keywords: Burrunan dolphin (Tursiops australis, Avoidance, Behaviour, Compliance, Management

  3. Episiotomy and severe perineal trauma among Eastern African immigrant women giving birth in public maternity care: A population based study in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belihu, Fetene B; Small, Rhonda; Davey, Mary-Ann

    2017-08-01

    Eastern African immigrants from countries affected by female genital mutilation have resettled in many developed countries, including Australia. Although possibly at risk of perineal trauma and episiotomy, research investigating their perineal status post-migration is sparse. To investigate variations in episiotomy use and incidence of severe perineal tear for women born in Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan compared with Australian-born women. A population-based study of 203,206 Australian-born and 3502 Eastern African immigrant women admitted as public patients, with singleton vaginal births between 1999 and 2007, was conducted using the Victorian Perinatal Data Collection. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusting for confounders selected a priori, were performed to compute incidence and adjusted odds ratios. Overall, 30.5% Eastern African immigrants had episiotomy compared to 17.2% Australian-born women. Severe perineal trauma occurred in 2.1% of Eastern African immigrants and 1.6% of Australian-born women. While the odds of severe perineal trauma was significantly elevated only during non-instrumental vaginal births for Eastern African immigrants {OR adj 1.56 95%CI(1.17, 2.12)}; that of episiotomy was increased during both non-instrumental {OR adj 4.47 95%CI(4.10, 4.88)} and instrumental {OR adj 2.51 95%CI(1.91, 3.29)} vaginal births. Overall, Eastern African immigrant women experienced elevated odds of episiotomy and severe perineal tear. Health care providers need to be mindful of the increased risk of severe perineal tear in these women and enhance efforts in identification and treatment of severe perineal trauma to minimise associated short and long term morbidity. Strategies to reduce unneeded episiotomy and ways of enhancing perineal safety are also needed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cross-cultural experiences of maternal depression: associations and contributing factors for Vietnamese, Turkish and Filipino immigrant women in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Rhonda; Lumley, Judith; Yelland, Jane

    2003-08-01

    To investigate in an Australian study of immigrant women conducted 6-9 months following childbirth (a) the associations of a range of demographic, obstetric, health and social context variables with maternal depression, and (b) women's views of contributing factors in their experiences of depression. Three hundred and eighteen Vietnamese, Turkish and Filipino women participated in personal interviews conducted by three bicultural interviewers in the language of the women's choice. Utilising three approaches to the assessment of maternal depression, the consistency of associations on the different measures is examined. Women's views of contributing factors are compared with previous research with largely English-speaking Australian-born women. Analysis of the associations of maternal depression revealed considerable consistency in associations among the three approaches to assessing depression. Significant associations with depression on at least two of the measures were seen for: mothers under 25 years, shorter residence in Australia, speaking little or no English, migrating for marriage, having no relatives in Melbourne, or no friends to confide in, physical health problems, or a baby with feeding problems. There were no consistent associations found with family income or maternal education, method of delivery and a range of other birth events, or women's views about maternity care. The issues most commonly identified by women in this study as contributing to depression are similar to those found previously for Australian-born women: isolation (in this study, including being homesick)--29%; lack of support and marital issues--25%; physical ill-health and exhaustion--23%; family problems--19%, and baby-related issues--17%. There were some differences in the importance of these among the three country-of-birth groups, but all except family issues were in the top four contributing factors mentioned by women in all groups. These findings support the evidence for quite

  5. The effect of pre-existing health conditions on the cost of recovery from road traffic injury: insights from data linkage of medicare and compensable injury claims in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani-Mahmooei, Behrooz; Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Hahn, Youjin; McClure, Roderick J

    2016-04-29

    Comorbidity is known to affect length of hospital stay and mortality after trauma but less is known about its impact on recovery beyond the immediate post-accident care period. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of pre-existing health conditions in the cost of recovery from road traffic injury using health service use records for 1 year before and after the injury. Individuals who claimed Transport Accident Commission (TAC) compensation for a non-catastrophic injury that occurred between 2010 and 2012 in Victoria, Australia and who provided consent for Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) and Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) linkage were included (n = 738) in the analysis. PBS and MBS records dating from 12 months prior to injury were provided by the Department of Human Services (Canberra, Australia). Pre-injury use of health service items and pharmaceuticals were considered to indicate pre-existing health condition. Bayesian Model Averaging techniques were used to identify the items that were most strongly correlated with recovery cost. Multivariate regression models were used to determine the impact of these items on the cost of injury recovery in terms of compensated ambulance, hospital, medical, and overall claim cost. Out of the 738 study participants, 688 used at least one medical item (total of 15,625 items) and 427 used at least one pharmaceutical item (total of 9846). The total health service cost of recovery was $10,115,714. The results show that while pre-existing conditions did not have any significant impact on the total cost of recovery, categorical costs were affected: e.g. on average, for every anaesthetic in the year before the accident, hospital cost of recovery increased by 24 % [95 % CI: 13, 36 %] and for each pathological test related to established diabetes, hospital cost increased by $10,407 [5466.78, 15346.28]. For medical costs, each anaesthetic led to $258 higher cost [174.16, 341.16] and every prescription of drugs

  6. The south-eastern North Sea : losses of vertebrate fauna during the past 2000 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, W.J.

    At least 31 species of marine mammals, marine and coastal birds, and marine and anadromous fish have disappeared temporarily or permanently from the coasts of The Netherlands and in most cases also from the south-eastern North Sea (south of 54 degrees N) during the past 2000 years-In 18-22 cases,

  7. The ‘Mycenaeans’ in the south-eastern Aegean revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerbeek, J.

    2014-01-01

    The main subject of this dissertation is the Mycenaean archaeological evidence from the south-eastern Aegean. The term "Mycenaean" is typically used to refer to the dominant archaeological culture of the central and southern Greek mainland during the Late Bronze Age, which is dated between about

  8. Food and vices in south-eastern Nigeria: implications for poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives include among others an examination of the nature of poverty in South-Eastern Nigeria; an investigation to ascertain whether or not, poverty results in hunger, etc. The following were the findings: Hunger seems to have ravaged our society. This is because majority of our people are poor and are unable to ...

  9. The Household Costs of Visceral Leishmaniasis Care in South-eastern Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uranw, S.; Meheus, F.; Baltussen, R.M.; Rijal, S.; Boelaert, M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important public health problem in south-eastern Nepal affecting very poor rural communities. Since 2005, Nepal is involved in a regional initiative to eliminate VL. This study assessed the economic impact of VL on households and examined

  10. Synergistic effects of drought and deforestation on the resilience of the south-eastern Amazon rainforest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, A.; Dekkers, S.; Hirota Magalhaes, M.; Nes, van E.H.

    2015-01-01

    The south-eastern Amazon rainforest is subject to ongoing deforestation and is expected to become drier due to climate change. Recent analyses of the distribution of tree cover in the tropics show three modes that have been interpreted as representing alternative stable states: forest, savanna and

  11. A hotspot of large branchiopod diversity in south-eastern Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large branchiopods are considered threatened across much of their global range. However, because several regions, including Zimbabwe in general and its south-eastern lowveld in particular, remain largely unstudied, interpretations of species distribution patterns are often based on limited data. A detailed study of large ...

  12. Quality of life and sex-differences in a South-Eastern Nigerian stroke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study set out to provide preliminary data on the QOL of stroke survivors in South-Eastern Nigeria and also investigate sex-differences in the QOL. Methods One hundred and three volunteering stroke survivors (53 males, 50 females) were recruited from various settings. The Stroke-Specific Quality of Life (SS-QOL) scale ...

  13. Physical fertility of degraded acid sands in South-eastern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated the physical fertility of degraded and undegraded acid sands in Akwa Ibom State, South-eastern Nigeria. The soils were similar in texture, being predominantly sandy, averaging 90.1% in degraded and 89.9% in undegraded soil. Bulk density averaged 1.50g/cm3 and 1.45g/cm3, while macropores averaged ...

  14. Molecular phylogenetics and systematic revision of the south-eastern Australian Helicarionidae (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyman, I.T.; Iglesia Lamborena, de la I.; Köhler, F.

    2017-01-01

    The south-eastern Australian helicarionid clade currently comprises six genera of snails and semislugs united by genital characters, including an epiphallic flagellum that produces a spiraling, spinose spermatophore, the absence of an epiphallic caecum, and the presence of at most a very short

  15. Vulnerability and resilience of competing land-based livelihoods in south eastern Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murungweni, C.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: vulnerability; resilience; livelihood; drought; Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area; south eastern Zimbabwe.

    Vulnerability and resilience have emerged as powerful analytical concepts in the study of socio-ecological systems. In this research these concepts are used

  16. Toward an Understanding of People Management Issues in SMEs: a South-Eastern European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szamosi, Leslie T.; Duxbury, Linda; Higgins, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on developing an understanding, and benchmarking, human resource management HRM issues in small and medium enterprises SMEs in South-Eastern Europe. The importance of SMEs in helping transition-based economies develop is critical, but at the same time the research indicates that the movement toward westernized business…

  17. PROCSEE: Policy Challenges for Professional Higher Education in Central and South-Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policnik, Jasmina; Sauli Miklavcic, Alicia Leonor; Alupei-Durach, Flavia; Nožica, Žarko; Chrást, Ondrej; Voldánová, Iva; Karpíšek, Michal; Dinya, László; Medve, Anna; Wéber, György; Racsko, Réka; Perényi, Petra; Camilleri, Anthony F.

    2016-01-01

    PROCSEE is a policy-oriented project, aimed at strengthening the provision of professional higher education, by strengthening the policy-work conducted by umbrella organizations representing professional higher education institutions in Central and South-Eastern in Europe. Working together over three years, the project intends to: (1) identify the…

  18. Guidelines for inclusion: Ensuring Indigenous peoples' involvement in water planning processes across South Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz Quitian, Alejandra; Rodríguez, Gloria Amparo

    2016-11-01

    Indigenous peoples within the Murray-Darling Basin have traditionally struggled for the recognition of their cultural, social, environmental, spiritual, commercial and economic connection to the waters that they have traditionally used, as well as their right to engage in all stages of water planning processes. Despite Australian national and federal frameworks providing for the inclusion of Indigenous Australians' objectives in planning frameworks, water plans have rarely addressed these objectives in water, or the strategies to achieve them. Indeed, insufficient resources, a lack of institutional capacity in both Indigenous communities and agencies and an inadequate understanding of Indigenous people's objectives in water management have limited the extent to which Indigenous objectives are addressed in water plans within the Murray-Darling Basin. In this context, the adoption of specific guidelines to meet Indigenous requirements in relation to basin water resources is crucial to support Indigenous engagement in water planning processes. Using insights from participatory planning methods and human rights frameworks, this article outlines a set of alternative and collaborative guidelines to improve Indigenous involvement in water planning and to promote sustainable and just water allocations.

  19. Headwater peatland channels in south-eastern Australia; the attainment of equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanson, R. A.; Cohen, T. J.

    2014-05-01

    Many small headwater catchments (bank strengths have resulted in low width to depth ratios which accommodate rapid changes in flow velocity and depth with changes in discharge. In small peatland channels, planform adjustments have been sufficient to counter the energy provided by these hydraulically efficient cross-sections and have enabled the achievement of regime energy-slopes. In larger and higher energy peatland channels, large, armoured, stable, bedforms have developed. These bedforms integrate with planform adjustments to maintain a condition of minimum variance in energy losses as represented by the slope profiles and, therefore, a uniform increase in downstream entropy.

  20. Formula-Based Public School Funding System in Victoria: An Empirical Analysis of Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaranayake, Bandara

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the formula-based school funding system in the state of Victoria, Australia, where state funds are directly allocated to schools based on a range of equity measures. The impact of Victoria' funding system for education in terms of alleviating inequality and disadvantage is contentious, to say the least. It is difficult to…

  1. Gravity and magnetic modelling in the Vrancea Zone, south-eastern Carpathians: Redefinition of the edge of the East European Craton beneath the south-eastern Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocin, A.; Stephenson, R.; Matenco, L.; Mocanu, V.

    2013-11-01

    A 2D gravity and magnetic data model has been constructed along a 71 km densely observed profile, called DACIA PLAN GRAV MAN's. The profile crosses part of the nappe pile of the south-eastern Carpathians and includes the seismically active Vrancea Zone and was acquired with the objective to illuminate the basement structure and affinity in this area. The modelling approach was to create an initial model from well constrained geological information, integrate it with previous seismic ray tracing and tomographic models and then alter it outside the a priori constraints in order to reach the best fit between observed and calculated potential field anomalies. The results support a realignment of the position of the TTZ (Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone), the profound tectonic boundary within Europe that separates Precambrian cratonic lithosphere of the East European Craton (EEC) from younger accreted lithosphere of Phanerozoic mobile belts to its west. The TTZ is shown to lie further to the south-west than was previously inferred within Romania, where it is largely obscured by the Carpathian nappes. The crust of the EEC beneath the south-eastern Carpathians is inferred to terminate along a major crustal structure lying just west of the Vrancea seismogenic zone. The intermediate depth seismicity of the Vrancea Zone therefore lies within the EEC lithosphere, generally supporting previously proposed models invoking delamination of cratonic lithosphere as the responsible mechanism.

  2. IAEA/WHO postal dose audits for radiotherapy hospitals in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, J.; Vatnitsky, S.; Shortt, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA/WHO TLD programme has been in operation for 34 years. In this period the calibration of approximately 5200 high-energy photon beams in over 1300 radiotherapy hospitals in 115 countries worldwide was checked. Of these, 18% of the audits were performed in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. There are large contrasts in the region; while the results are very good for most countries, a few countries struggle with basic problems in dosimetry. The hospitals operating radiotherapy services without qualified medical physicists or dosimetry equipment have poorer results than those properly equipped and staffed. Only about 2/3 of TLD audit participants in Eastern Europe have the appropriate dosimetry equipment. To achieve consistency of the audit results within Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, strengthening of radiotherapy infrastructure in a few countries would be necessary. (authors)

  3. Corallimorpharia collected during the CANCAP expeditions (1976-1986) in the south-eastern part of the North Atlantic*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den J.C.; Ocaña, O.; Brito, A.

    1993-01-01

    Species of Corallimorpharia collected during the CANCAP expeditions in the south-eastern part of the North Atlantic are described and discussed, altogether five species belonging to three genera of Corallimorphidae: the shallow water forms Corynactis viridis Allman, 1846, Pseudocorynactis

  4. Synergistic effects of drought and deforestation on the resilience of the south-eastern Amazon rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Staal, A.; Dekkers, S.; Hirota Magalhaes, M.; Nes, van, E.H.

    2015-01-01

    The south-eastern Amazon rainforest is subject to ongoing deforestation and is expected to become drier due to climate change. Recent analyses of the distribution of tree cover in the tropics show three modes that have been interpreted as representing alternative stable states: forest, savanna and treeless states. This situation implies that a change in environmental conditions, such as in the climate, could cause critical transitions from a forest towards a savanna ecosystem. Shifts to savan...

  5. THE DAY OF THE WEEK EFFECT IN SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE STOCK MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    DRAGAN TEVDOVSKI; MARTIN MIHAJLOV; IGOR SAZDOVSKI

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this research is to examine existence of day of the week effect on the stock market indices in five countries from South Eastern Europe (SEE): Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia and Serbia in the most recent period which is characterized by the bear market (from 2006 to 2011). The methodology used the regression with dummy variables, or so called Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) model. In addition Wald test is applied. The results imply that the mean daily return...

  6. Tuberculosis among transhumant pastoralist and settled communities of south-eastern Mauritania

    OpenAIRE

    L?, Aissata; Tall-Dia, Anta; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Schelling, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Background: Transhumant pastoralists of Mauritania were assumed to have a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) because of reduced access to diagnostic testing. No population-based survey on TB has been published for Mauritania.Objective: The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of presumptive TB cases among mobile pastoralists and villagers in a remote zone of Mauritania.Design: In the south-eastern province of Hodh Ech Chargui, 250 adult pastoralists and 250 villagers were rando...

  7. Extensiveness and Effectiveness of Corporate Governance Regulations in South-Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Bobirca; Paul-Gabriel Miclaus

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to illustrate the main characteristics of the corporate governance challenge facing the countries of South-Eastern Europe (SEE) and to subsequently determine and assess the extensiveness and effectiveness of corporate governance regulations in these countries. Therefore, we start with an overview on the subject of the key problems of corporate governance in transition. We then address the issue of corporate governance measurement for SEE coun...

  8. Glazed pottery of the South-Eastern Crimea from the excavations of the Tsarev settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iudin Nikita I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the findings of glazed ceramics produced in the South-Eastern Crimea, and then excavated at the Tsarev settlement. Their typology, chronology and topography are being introduced by the author. On the basis of the 165 analyzed fragments and whole vessels the author suggests a 4-level classification scheme, which includes the production center, functional purpose of the items, morphological characteristics and ornamentation of the vessels. Basic types and variations of vessels’ shapes are being described according to three major chronological periods: 1. Early 1300s, 2. 1330s, 3. The second half of the 14th century. Notably, the earliest findings of ceramics dated by the first two periods were located on the South-Eastern part of the Tsarev settlement. Most of all, its are the bowls on a circular underpan lacking ornamentation and covered with green transparent glazing. Since the second half of the 14th century the vessels from the South-Eastern Crimea had been widely spread on the entire area of the settlement. The assortment of vessels’ shapes used at this time along with jars and bowls, was now widened by aftobes and apothecary amphoras.

  9. Aboriginal Students in Victoria. ACER Research Monograph No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lemos, Marion M.

    An estimated 80%-90% of all Aboriginal students enrolled in the primary and secondary schools of Victoria, Australia, were tested and surveyed to determine their numbers, distribution, attendance, achievement, attitudes, and school leaving patterns. Most of the 1244 Aboriginals surveyed attended state schools and 75% were schooled in rural areas.…

  10. "They Didn't Even Let Me Say Goodbye": A Study of Imprisoned Primary Carer Fathers' Care Planning for Children at the Point of Arrest in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Tess S.; Flynn, Catherine A.; Trotter, Christopher J.

    2018-01-01

    In Victoria, data indicates that in 2013-2014 there were 74,992 adult male arrests, yet little formal attention has been paid to the parenting status of these men, despite knowledge of the impact of parental arrest and incarceration on children being well established. This article addresses a gap in the literature by providing new insights into…

  11. Achelia shepherdi n. sp. and other Pycnogonida from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1973-01-01

    Records of 10 species of shallow water Pycnogonida from Western Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, and New South Wales, including Achelia shepherdi n. sp., Parapallene avida Stock, 1973 (♀ new to science), and Anoplodactylus pulcher Carpenter, 1907 (new to Australia).

  12. Polonium-210 in cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) from south-eastern Australian waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.J.; Towler, H.

    1993-01-01

    A study was made of the concentration of the naturally occurring radionuclide polonium-210 in the livers of cartilaginous fishes (chondrichthyans) caught in the waters of Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia in 1991. Five elasmobranch species had 210 Po concentrations in the range 1-31 Bq kg -1 (wet weight) and one holocephalian species, the elephant fish (Callorhynchus milii), was exceptional with a 210 Po range of 60-270 Bq kg -1 (n-3, mean 180 Bq kg -1 ). Lead-210 was present at 0.1-1.1 Bq kg -1 and activity concentration ratios of 210 Po: 210 Pb were all greater than 1, indicating that the 210 Po could not all have grown in from in situ decay of 210 Pb within the chondrichthyan liver. The concentration of 210 Po in the livers appeared to be species related. Concentrations of the trace metals Cu, Fe and Zn showed no correlation with the 210 Po and were not species-related. The mean concentration of 210 Po measured in Port Phillip Bay water was 0.32 mBq kg -1 . This yields concentration factors of 3.2 x 10 3 to 8.4 x 10 5 for unsupported 210 Po in the livers of the chondrichthyans. The total 210 Po (using Q=20) exposes the livers to a weighted absorbed dose of up to 140 mGy year -1 (16 μGy h -1 ), which is >99% of the total internal dose and three orders of magnitude greater than the external dose based on estimated levels of 40 K. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  13. Public Integrity and Performance of Governance. A Comparative Study for South-Eastern Europe

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    Lucica Matei

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The studies concerning the impact of corruption on the effectiveness of governance are numerous, valorising profound approaches, based on criteria and standards related to good governance, organizational behaviour.The concepts and mechanisms specific for econometrics and statistics provide the quantitative support for qualitative analyses, substantiating public policies, in view to assure effectiveness in performance measurement.For all South-Eastern European countries, the level of development and social organization determines specific ethical behaviours. In this context, the current paper aims a comparative economic and social evaluation of the correlations between corruption, performance and economic freedom in South-Eastern European countries, including Romania.The working hypotheses turn into consideration the following issues:- corruption holds national specific character and the statistic, econometric or sociologic analyses reveal that it is stable during the time;- an effective governance leads to increasing the citizens’ welfare;- if a country is poor and the economic freedom is reduced than the bureaucratic and political system tends to be more corrupted;- the perspective of accession into the EU has led to the perception concerning the reduction of the corruption level.The above hypotheses will be completed and we shall achieve comparative analyses, relevant for the group of South-Eastern European countries. The above quantitative analyses will use both own results of the researches carried out by the authors and public results of World Bank, Transparency International and Heritage Foundation, as well as results of authorities responsible for national statistics. The comparative research is achieved on a 10 years period, comprising also the moment of accession into the European Union for some states.

  14. Groundwater intensive use and mining in south-eastern peninsular Spain: Hydrogeological, economic and social aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Emilio; Andreu-Rodes, José Miguel; Aragón, Ramón; Estrela, Teodoro; Ferrer, Javier; García-Aróstegui, José Luis; Manzano, Marisol; Rodríguez-Hernández, Luis; Sahuquillo, Andrés; Del Villar, Alberto

    2016-07-15

    Intensive groundwater development is a common circumstance in semiarid and arid areas. Often abstraction exceeds recharge, thus continuously depleting reserves. There is groundwater mining when the recovery of aquifer reserves needs more than 50years. The MASE project has been carried out to compile what is known about Spain and specifically about the south-eastern Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands. The objective was the synthetic analysis of available data on the hydrological, economic, managerial, social, and ethical aspects of groundwater mining. Since the mid-20th century, intensive use of groundwater in south-eastern Spain allowed extending and securing the areas with traditional surface water irrigation of cash crops and their extension to former dry lands, taking advantage of good soils and climate. This fostered a huge economic and social development. Intensive agriculture is a main activity, although tourism plays currently an increasing economic role in the coasts. Many aquifers are relatively high yielding small carbonate units where the total groundwater level drawdown may currently exceed 300m. Groundwater storage depletion is estimated about 15km(3). This volume is close to the total contribution of the Tagus-Segura water transfer, but without large investments paid for with public funds. Seawater desalination complements urban supply and part of cash crop cultivation. Reclaimed urban waste water is used for irrigation. Groundwater mining produces benefits but associated to sometimes serious economic, administrative, legal and environmental problems. The use of an exhaustible vital resource raises ethical concerns. It cannot continue under the current legal conditions. A progressive change of water use paradigm is the way out, but this is not in the mind of most water managers and politicians. The positive and negative results observed in south-eastern Spain may help to analyse other areas under similar hydrogeological conditions in a less

  15. Vertebrate endemism in south-eastern Africa numerically redefines a biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Sandun J; ProcheŞ, Şerban; Ratnayake-Perera, Dayani; Ramdhani, Syd

    2018-02-20

    We use numerical methods to explore patterns of vertebrate endemism in south-eastern Africa, refining the boundaries of the intuitively-defined Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biodiversity hotspot, also proposing a zoogeographic regionalisation. An incidence matrix of 300 vertebrate species endemic to south-eastern Africa sensu lato in 37 operational geographic units were used in (a) phenetic cluster analysis (PCA) using the algorithm of unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (phenetic approach), and (b) parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE; parsimony approach), in order to numerically evaluate the bioregional delimitations. The analyses provide a valid biogeographical entity 37% larger than the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany hotspot, but substantially (131%) higher in vertebrate endemicity viz. the Greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (GMPA) region of vertebrate endemism. South-east Africa is recognised as a dominion in the global zoogeographical area hierarchy, with subordinate units including the GMPA province. Various spatially-based measures of endemism were mapped for vertebrate species restricted to the dominion, i.e. endemic to south-eastern Africa sensu stricto. Areas and centres of endemism detected respectively from PAE and PCA, within the south-east Africa dominion also support the refined boundary of the GMPA region of endemism, which provides a better spatial conservation priority compared to the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany hotspot. Reptiles and amphibians are found to be the main drivers of the overall pattern of endemism, while the pattern in freshwater fish is the most distinctive. Our analyses also indicate a good congruence of the centres of endemism across different terrestrial vertebrate taxa.

  16. THE ECONOMIC SITUATION IN SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE: A POSSIBLE THREAT TO THE SECURITY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Andreea PIRNUTA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The entire world has had to face the draconian effects of the economic recession recently. One of the regions marked by severe economic damages has been South Eastern Europe. The present article aims at analyzing the current economic situation in this particular region by trying to identify the strong and weak points, as well as possible ways to solve these specific issues. This paper lays emphasis upon states, such as: Turkey, Greece and Romania, but also on certain facts about the other states belonging to the previously mentioned region.

  17. Youth suicide in Victoria: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupinski, J; Tiller, J W; Burrows, G D; Hallenstein, H

    1994-02-07

    To determine the trends in youth suicide in Victoria and Australia as a whole, and their relation to youth unemployment. We used Australian Bureau of Statistics data to analyse suicide trends between 1907 and 1990 in young people aged 15-24 years and made an in-depth study of youth suicides between 1980 and 1990, for which computerised data are available. There has been a steady increase in youth suicide both in Victoria and Australia as a whole since 1960 in males but not females. There were significant differences in age, sex and area of residence in both the rate and the method of suicide. The increase in youth suicide was not associated with the rise in unemployment. Male (not female) suicide rates were higher in non-metropolitan areas and areas of high youth unemployment. The reasons for the increase in youth suicide remain obscure. There is a need for a prospective in-depth study to determine factors in the aetiology of youth suicide, with particular reference to possible areas for prevention.

  18. Emerging Administrations and Sustainable Development in South-Eastern Europe. Case study: Romania and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Berceanu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen years ago, Agenda 21, the United Nations' call to action for sustainable development, envisaged that the necessary harmonization and extension of existing policies and plans would occur through the adoption of an identifiable strategy for sustainable development. Since then, sustainable development is a widely used phrase and idea and it has many different meanings and therefore provokes many different responses. The aim of the article is to explore the role of the emerging South-Eastern administrations in the sustainable development under the changes and rules imposed by the European Union pressure. We will analyze both concepts, emerging administrations and sustainable development from the perspective of system theory and we will make the link with the concept of emergence, which is utilized to research and to analyze the nature of the changes in the public administration starting from the approach of the systemic theory. The research will be focused on the states form the south-eastern Europe, thus in the case study we will make a comparison between Romania and Bulgaria, as new member states of the European Union.

  19. DOES THE HIGHER EDUCATION PROMOTE STUDENTS’ ENTREPRENEURIAL POTENTIAL IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES?

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    DIMITAR NIKOLOSK

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a widespread recognition that business start-ups are a driving force of economic growth and significant job creation. Given the segmented characteristics of the labour markets, youth population is among those segments that are disproportionally affected by high and sustained unemployment. The situation with youth unemployment is particularly unfavourable in developing countries such as South-Eastern European countries where almost half of the active young population is jobless. Even though the governments in these countries have repeatedly undertaken measures for improving the position of youth on the labour markets, it seems that these endeavours have not reached the planned goals. From this perspective, it is important to analyse the potential contribution of education, and particularly the higher education to the development of entrepreneurship. The aim of this paper is to assess the role of the higher education in South-Eastern European countries in fostering the students’ entrepreneurial potential. For this purpose we have carried out a survey on representative samples of students in two universities: “St. Kliment Ohridski” (Macedonia and “Aleksander Xhuvani” (Albania. We found that considerable number of surveyed students have ideas for starting own businesses, but only a small portion of them attempted to develop their business ideas in practice. As a consequence, we can conclude that there exists a wide room for further policy recommendations that will shape directions for future reforms in the SEECs higher education systems and will improve the students’ entrepreneurial potential

  20. West Nile virus circulation in South-Eastern Romania, 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, S; Cotar, A I; Pănculescu-Gătej, I R; Fălcuţă, E; Prioteasa, F L; Sîrbu, A; Oprişan, G; Bădescu, D; Reiter, P; Ceianu, C S

    2015-05-21

    Lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV), previously found only in sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar, was identified in Hungary in 2004 and has rapidly expanded in Europe in the past decade. Following a significant outbreak of West Nile fever with neurological cases caused by lineage 1 WNV in Romania in 1996, scattered cases have been recorded in the south-east of the country in each transmission season. Another outbreak, affecting a larger area and caused by lineage 2 WNV, was recorded in 2010. We analysed human sera from neuroinvasive West Nile fever cases and mosquitoes, sampled in south-eastern Romania between 2011 and 2013, for the presence of WNV genome, and obtained partial NS5 and envelope glycoprotein sequences. Human- and mosquito-derived WNV sequences were highly similar (99%) to Volgograd 2007 lineage 2 WNV and differed from isolates previously detected in central and southern Europe. WNV was detected in one pool of Culex pipiens s.l. males, documenting vertical transmission. Lineage 4 WNV, of unknown pathogenicity to mammals, was found in the amphibian-feeding mosquito Uranotaenia unguiculata from the Danube Delta. Our results present molecular evidence for the maintenance of the same isolates of Volgograd 2007-like lineage 2 WNV in south-eastern Romania between 2011 and 2013.

  1. Genetic diversity and occurrence of the F129L substitutions among isolates of Alternaria solani in south-eastern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odilbekov, Firuz; Edin, Eva; Garkava-Gustavsson, Larisa; Hovmalm, Helena Persson; Liljeroth, Erland

    2016-01-01

    Early blight, caused by the fungus Alternaria solani, occurs on potato mainly in the south-eastern part of Sweden, but also in other parts of the country. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of A. solani populations from different potato growing regions in south-eastern Sweden using AFLP marker analysis. In addition, the cultured isolates were examined for substitutions in the gene encoding cytochrome b , associated with loss of sensitivity against QoI fungicides. Nei's gene diversity index for the Swedish populations of A. solani revealed a gene diversity of up to 0.20. Also genetic differentiation was observed among populations of A. solani from different locations in south-eastern Sweden. The mitochondrial genotype of the isolates of A. solani was determined and both known genotypes, GI (genotype 1) and GII (genotype 2), were found among the isolates. The occurrence of the F129L substitution associated with a loss of sensitivity to strobilurins was confirmed among the GII isolates. In vitro conidial germination tests verified that isolates containing the F129L substitution had reduced sensitivity to azoxystrobin and, at a lower extent, to pyraclostrobin. Genetic diversity was relatively high among isolates of A. solani in south-eastern part of Sweden. F129L substitutions, leading to reduced sensitivity to strobilurins, have been established in field populations, which may have implications for the future efficacy of QoI fungicides.

  2. DISCUSSING THE ROLE OF MIGRATION AND EDUCATION IN FIGHTING ECONOMIC VULNERABILITY IN SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Raileanu-Szeles

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the effects of the net migration rate and higher education on a set of economic vulnerability indicators in the South-Eastern EU countries, when controlling inter alia for other explanatory variables. These relationships are explored by panel data regression models, using macroeconomic variables collected over 10 years from the Eurostat dataset. The random effects Generalized Least Squares (GLS and the system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM estimators are comparatively examined. The paper finds that the tertiary education attainments do not represent a significant determinant of income inequality and subjective well-being, while the net migration rate and lifelong learning exert a significant and powerful impact on most our measures of economic vulnerability over the period of analysis.

  3. The nematode community in the Atlantic rainforest lizard Enyalius perditus Jackson, from south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto-Lima, A F; Toledo, G M; Anjos, L A

    2012-12-01

    Studies focusing on communities of helminths from Brazilian lizards are increasing, but there are many blanks in the knowledge of parasitic fauna of wild fauna. This lack of knowledge hampers understanding of ecological and parasitological aspects of involved species. Moreover, the majority of research has focused on parasitic fauna of lizards from families Tropiduridae and Scincidae. Only a few studies have looked at lizards from the family Leiosauridae, including some species of Enyalius. This study presents data on the gastrointestinal parasite fauna of Enyalius perditus and their relationships with ecological aspects of hosts in a disturbed Atlantic rainforest area in the state of Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brazil. Two nematode species, Oswaldocruzia burseyi [(Molineidae) and Strongyluris oscari (Heterakidae) were found. Nematode species showed an aggregated distribution in this host population, with O. burseyi being more aggregated than S. oscari. The present study extends the range of occurrence of O. burseyi to the Brazilian continental area.

  4. Spatial statistics detect clustering patterns of kidney diseases in south-eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben I.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Medical geography was conceptualized almost ten years ago due to its obvious usefulness in epidemiological research. Still, numerous diseases in many regions were neglected in these aspects of research, and the prevalence of kidney diseases in Eastern Europe is such an example. We evaluated the spatial patterns of main kidney diseases in south-eastern Romania, and highlighted the importance of spatial modeling in medical management in Romania. We found two statistically significant hotspots of kidney diseases prevalence. We also found differences in the spatial patterns between categories of diseases. We propose to speed up the process of creating a national database of records on kidney diseases. Offering the researchers access to a national database will allow further epidemiology studies in Romania and finally lead to a better management of medical services.

  5. Environmental Studies of Natural Radioactivity at Nugrus -Sikait Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sroor, A.; EI-Shershaby, A.; EI- Bahi, S.; Ali, N.; Ibrahim, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty seven representative samples were collected from two locations; Wadi Nugrus and Wadi Sikait, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. The area is characterized by abnormal radioactivity and has several archaeological sites (Sikait Temple). Emerald mining is a wide spread activity since Pharonic times at Sikait - Nugrus area. The concentration of the natural radionuclides ( 238 U-series, 232 Th-series and 40 K) are measured in all the rock samples by two techniques (HpGe detector and NaI(TI) detector). The Ra e q, and H e x for all samples are also determined. A comparative study between NaI and HpGe- detectors were carried out. The present work indicated that the equilibrium/disequilibrium ratios by using HpGe detector are more precise than that of Nal detectors. The radioactivity at Wadi Nugrus is higher than Wadi Sikait and also higher than the permissible level

  6. Observations on inshore and pelagic Dolphins on the South-Eastern Cape coast of South Africa

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    G. S Saayman

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence, size and seaward distribution of schools of inshore and pelagic dolphins is described for three study areas on the south-eastern Cape coast (Algoa Bay; the Tsitsikama Coastal National Park and Plettenberg Bay. Inshore dolphins {Tursiops and Sousa sp. frequented the coastline in relatively small schools whereas pelagic dolphins {Delphinus delphis and Stenella caeruleoalba occurred in very large schools far out to sea. Different ecological zones were used by Sousa for feeding and for social behaviour and maintenance activities. The frequency of occurrence of Sousa at Plettenberg Bay was not affected by seasonal fluctuations in sea surface temperatures. The role of dolphins as predators and their implication in the regulation of the ecosystem of the Tsitsikama Coastal National Park is discussed.

  7. THE STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE AND THE ACTORS OF SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE

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    Florin Eduard GROSARU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt regarding the importance that south-eastern Europe has gained over the past years in geopolitical and geostrategic terms. Due to its history and considering the changes that have taken place here after the fall of the Iron Curtain, and also as a consequence of the “hot spots” emerged here on ideological, political, economic and terrorist grounds, this part of the continent still is an area of control and interests confrontations orchestrated by the actors that provide the international affairs with a multipolar dimension. All the aforementioned factors lead to various phenomena in which individual or group interests result in regional as well as global consequences.

  8. Public health leadership competency level among health professionals in a South Eastern European country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orjola Pampuri

    2015-12-01

    the overall scores and the subscale scores of the current and the required level of leadership competencies among health professionals. Results: Mean value of the overall summary score for the 52 items of the instrument was significantly lower for the current leadership competency level compared with the required leadership competency level (138.4±11.2 vs. 159.7±25.3, respectively; P<0.001. Most of the subscales’ scores were significantly higher for the required than for the current leadership competency level. Conclusion: Our study provides useful evidence about the current and the required level of leadership competencies among health professionals in transitional Albania. Findings of this study may help policymakers in Albania to identify the gap between the required and the current level of leadership competencies among health  professionals. Furthermore, findings of this study should be expanded in the neighbouring countries of the South Eastern European region and beyond.

  9. Assessment of common otolaryngological diseases among children in rural primary schools in south eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukaegbe, Onyinyechi C; Umedum, Nnaemeka G; Chime, Ethel N; Orji, Foster T

    2016-10-01

    Despite a global improvement in health care delivery, rural areas in developing countries still have poor access to specialist care. This study aims to assess the occurrences of ear, nose, and throat (ENT) disorders among rural primary school children in south-eastern Nigeria. Two rural primary schools were selected randomly from one of the rural regions of South Eastern State of Nigeria. All the pupils of the schools who gave consent were recruited. A structured study proforma investigating the pupils' biodata, otolaryngological symptoms, ear, nose and throat examination findings, was used to evaluate each pupil in the presence of the teachers. A total of 246 children participated in the study. 145(58.9%) were males while 101(41.1%) were females with a mean age of 8.5 ± 2.4 years. The commonest symptoms reported were nasal discharge (20%) followed by nasal obstruction (11.1%), itching of the ears (11.1%) and sneezing bouts (10%), while 3.7% had subjective hearing impairment. The commonest ENT finding was cerumen auris (43%) and this was observed in 43.4% of males and 42.4% of females, 11% had abnormal tympanic membranes and 20% had grades 3/4 tonsils(Brodsky grading). ENT disorders are still common in children in the rural areas of developing countries. To avoid the morbidity associated with these preventable and easily manageable disorders, community health workers should be trained to manage common ENT disorders and mobile clinics with scheduled visits made available in areas where ENT services remain inaccessible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The household costs of visceral leishmaniasis care in south-eastern Nepal.

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    Surendra Uranw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is an important public health problem in south-eastern Nepal affecting very poor rural communities. Since 2005, Nepal is involved in a regional initiative to eliminate VL. This study assessed the economic impact of VL on households and examined whether the intensified VL control efforts induced by the government resulted in a decrease in household costs. METHODS: Between August and September 2010, a household survey was conducted among 168 patients that had been treated for VL within 12 months prior to the survey in five districts in south-eastern Nepal. We collected data on health-seeking behaviour, direct and indirect costs and coping strategies. RESULTS: The median total cost of one episode of VL was US$ 165 or 11% of annual household income. The median delay between the onset of symptoms and presentation to a qualified provider was 25 days. Once the patient presented to a qualified provider, the delay to correct diagnosis was minimal (median 3 days. Direct and indirect costs (income losses represented 47% and 53% of total costs respectively. Households used multiple strategies to cope with the cost of illness, mainly mobilizing cash/savings (71% or taking a loan (56%. CONCLUSIONS: The provision of free VL diagnosis and drugs by the Nepalese control programme has been an important policy measure to reduce the cost of VL to households. But despite the free VL drugs, the economic burden is still important for households. More effort should be put into reducing indirect costs, in particular the length of treatment, and preventing the transmission of VL through vector control.

  11. Concurrent validation of two key health literacy instruments in a South Eastern European population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toçi, Ervin; Burazeri, Genc; Sørensen, Kristine; Kamberi, Haxhi; Brand, Helmut

    2015-06-01

    Public health practice has come to increasing recognition of health promotion and the central role of knowledge, attitude, beliefs and practices in achieving health promotion. Health literacy (HL) is an under-explored topic in South Eastern European countries. There are no HL reports from Albania to date. The aim of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q) and the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) in a population-based sample of adults in Albania. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 in Tirana, Albania, including 239 individuals aged ≥ 18 years (61% women; 87% response). A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was applied twice (test and retest procedure after 2 weeks) including HLS-EU-Q and TOFHLA instruments. The internal consistency was high for both instruments (Cronbach's alpha for the test procedure was 0.92 for TOFHLA and 0.98 for HLS-EU-Q). Both tools exhibited a high stability over time (Spearman's rho: 0.88 for TOFHLA and 0.87 for HLS-EU). Mean values of both instruments were similar in men and women (mean score for TOFHLA: 76.0 vs. 76.5, P = 0.83; mean score for HLS-EU-Q: 32.2 vs. 32.6, P = 0.63). For both instruments, higher HL scores were significantly associated with younger age, higher educational and economic level and lower body mass index. Our study provides valuable novel evidence on concurrent validation of two major HL instruments in a South Eastern European population-based sample. Future studies should be conducted in order to confirm and expand our findings. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  12. USA, Russia and the Geopolitical Theatre in the South-Eastern Europe: The Place of Romania

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    Florin Pintescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Core issues addressed in this article are: the existing threats to address the interests of the US geopolitical and geostrategical, particularly in South-Eastern Europe; the resources available to the American State for the protection of those interests; main features (elements geopolitical of Romania; importance for Romania's Alliance with US. Only states or groups of states that may threaten the economic interests of the U.S. military are originated from Eurasia: China, Russia, the Organization of Shanghai cooperation, the European Union. The main opponent of the U.S. in South-Eastern Europe is Russia. Geostrategical interests of Russia remains fundamentally the attempt to divide alliance NATO (in particular by providing the economic benefits of Germany and France and isolate Eastern Europe; in this way, the US military presence in Europe would become problematic. Currently, the US has enough economic and military means in order to avoid this situation.Geopolitical and geostrategical problems of Romania are of two kinds: external and internal. Externally, Romania has some diplomatic disagreements with Ukraine. At the same time, Romania was not able to resolve in the manner of the former Federal Republic of Germany, a consequence of the Second World War: the unification with the Republic of Moldova, the State created artificially by former USSR after the Second World War. Internally, the main geopolitical problems of Romania are the following: underdevelopment and the absence of real economic competitiveness of industry and agriculture; the demographic decline, lowering the standard of living of population. In the absence of support of the USA for Romania, this country will increase the degree of economic dependence towards Russia.

  13. Indigenous Young People Transitioning from Out-of-Home Care (OOHC in Victoria, Australia: The Perspectives of Workers in Indigenous-Specific and Non-Indigenous Non-Government Services

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    Philip Mendes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous children and young people are overrepresented in the Australian out-of-home care (OOHC system. To date, specific research has not been undertaken on workers' perspectives regarding the Indigenous-specific and non-Indigenous supports and services available to Indigenous young people exiting the system. This exploratory research involved focus group consultations with workers from seven child and family welfare agencies to examine the current support services available to Indigenous young people who are in or will be leaving out-of-home care in the State of Victoria. Findings suggest that Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisations (ACCOs play a positive role in working with non-Indigenous agencies to assist Indigenous care leavers. Participants identified some key strategies to improve outcomes, such as facilitating stronger relationships between Indigenous and non-Indigenous services, and improving the resourcing of ACCOs.

  14. Evidence for high genetic diversity of NAD1 and COX1 mitochondrial haplotypes among triclabendazole resistant and susceptible populations and field isolates of Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, T; Muller, A; Brockwell, Y; Murphy, N; Grillo, V; Toet, H M; Anderson, G; Sangster, N; Spithill, T W

    2014-02-24

    In recent years, the global incidence of Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) infections exhibiting resistance to triclabendazole (TCBZ) has increased, resulting in increased economic losses for livestock producers and threatening future control. The development of TCBZ resistance and the worldwide discovery of F. hepatica population diversity has emphasized the need to further understand the genetic structure of drug susceptible and resistant Fasciola populations within Australia. In this study, the genetic diversity of liver flukes was estimated by sequencing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encoding the NAD1 (530 bp) and COX1 (420 bp) genes of 208 liver flukes (F. hepatica) collected from three populations: field isolates obtained from abattoirs from New South Wales (NSW) and Victoria (Vic); three TCBZ-resistant fluke populations from NSW and Victoria; and the well-established TCBZ-susceptible Sunny Corner laboratory isolate. Overall nucleotide diversity for all flukes analysed of 0.00516 and 0.00336 was estimated for the NAD1 and COX1 genes respectively. Eighteen distinct haplotypes were established for the NAD1 gene and six haplotypes for the COX1 gene, resulting in haplotype diversity levels of 0.832 and 0.482, respectively. One field isolate showed a similar low level of haplotype diversity as seen in the Sunny Corner laboratory isolate. Analysis of TCBZ-resistant infrapopulations from 3 individual cattle grazing one property revealed considerable sequence parasite diversity between cattle. Analysis of parasite TCBZ-resistant infrapopulations from sheep and cattle revealed haplotypes unique to each host, but no significant difference between parasite populations. Fst analysis of fluke populations revealed little differentiation between the resistant and field populations. This study has revealed a high level of diversity in field and drug resistant flukes in South-Eastern Australia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison between weather station data in south-eastern Italy and CRU precipitation datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglietta, D.

    2009-04-01

    Monthly precipitation data in south-eastern Italy from 1920 to 2005 have been extensively analyzed. Data were collected in almost 200 weather stations located 10-20km apart from each other and almost uniformly distributed in Puglia and Basilicata regions. Apart from few years around world war II, time series are mostly complete and allow a reliable reconstruction of climate variability in the considered region. Statistically significant trends have been studied by applying the Mann-Kendall test to annual, seasonal and monthly values. A comparison has been made between observations and precipitation data given by the Climate Research Unit (CRU), University of East Anglia, with both low (30') and high (10') space resolution grid. In particular, rainfall records, time series behaviors and annual cycles at each station have been compared to the corresponding CRU data. CRU time series show a large negative trend for winter since 1970. Trend is not significant if the whole 20th century is considered (both for the whole year and for winter only). This might be considered as an evidence of recent acceleration towards increasingly dry conditions. However correlation between CRU data and observations is not very high and large percent errors are present mainly in the mountains regions, where observations show a large annual cycle, with intense precipitation in winter, which is not present in CRU data. To identify trends, therefore observed data are needed, even at monthly scale. In particular observations confirm the overall trend, but also indicate large spatial variability, with locations where precipitation has even increased since 1970. Daily precipitation data coming from a subset of weather stations have also been studied for the same time period. The distributions of maximum annual rainfalls, wet spells and dry spells were analyzed for each station, together with their time series. The tools of statistical analysis of extremes have been used in order to evaluate

  16. The evaluation of public health in South Eastern Europe: from transition to progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Gjorgjev

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The public health services project of the South-eastern Europe health network has undertaken an evaluation of public health services in its nine member countries. The purpose of the evaluation of public health services provision in the South-eastern European (SEE countries is to understand where these countries now stand in public health, the institutional, organisational, legislative and service delivery developments that are taking place and to identify strengths and weaknesses in their public health systems and services in order to inform decision making about investment and future reform.

    Methods: The evaluation was orientated around “essential public health operations” that are deemed to form the core of public health activities and services and to be indispensable to the delivery of modern public health services in any country. The evaluation analysed these activities and services within the structure of the health system functions of stewardship, resource generation, financing and service delivery, as developed by WHO.

    Results: The results demonstrate a mixed picture of strengths and weaknesses within the context of significant social, economic and political challenges in the region. Among the many visible and significant strengths in public health services in the region are well developed networks of public health institutes with well defined surveillance systems, highly experienced and well educated public health professionals as well as many positive examples of service delivery. But there are also many concerns and challenges, not the least of which is political focus, direction and support for modern public health services, as well as funding. Collaboration and partnership among sectors is weak and information and communication systems are inadequate and not sufficiently integrated.

    Conclusions: Having emphasized the main weak and

  17. Most common road safety engineering deficiencies in South Eastern Europe as a part of safe system approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanov, D.; Vollpracht, H. J.; Beles, H.; Popa, V.; Tolea, B. A.

    2017-10-01

    Most common road safety engineering deficiencies identified by the authors in South Eastern Europe, including Romania, have been collected together and presented in this paper as a part of road safety unbreakably connected to the safe system approach (driver-vehicle-road). In different South Eastern Europe countries Road Safety Audit (RSA), Road Safety Inspection (RSI), as well as Black Spot Management (BSM) was introduced and practical implementation experience enabled the authors to analyze the road safety problems. Typical road safety engineering deficiencies have been presented in 8 different subsections, based on PIARC (World Road Association) RSA approach. This paper presents collected common road safety problems with relevant illustrations (real pictures) with associated accident risks.

  18. Seropositivity of agents causing abortion in local goat breeds in Eastern and South-eastern Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    BABÜR, Cahit; Tan, Tolga; ATASEVEN, Lale; ATASEVEN, Veysel Soydal; OĞUZOĞLU, Tuba Çiğdem

    2006-01-01

    The epidemiological information has not been available on the seroprevalenceof agents causing abortion and genital tract infection in indigenousgoats of Eastern and South-eastern regions of Turkey, yet. In these regions,the goats have importance for local economy and their production of meat,milk and mohair. There are also differences of the husbandry and climateconditions between two regions. The objective of this study was to describethe seroprevalence and distribution of antibodies to agen...

  19. Aspects of sismo-tectonic stability in the South-Eastern region of Brazil of interest to geology of engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioto, J.A.; Hasui, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The occurence of earthquakes in Brazil, mainly in the South-eastern region, and its relationship with the geologic features has been discussed by many Authors since the beginning of this Century. It is difficult to define intraplate seismicity and to understand the actual epirogenic displacent, but the definition of the regional stability is important for enginnering purposes and have been considered through seismologic, morphotectonic and geologic criteria. (Author) [pt

  20. Age and sex prevalence of infectious dermatoses among primary school children in a rural South-Eastern Nigerian community

    OpenAIRE

    Kalu, Eziyi Iche; Wagbatsoma, Victoria; Ogbaini-Emovon, Ephraim; Nwadike, Victor Ugochukwu; Ojide, Chiedozie Kingsley

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Various dermatoses, due to their morbidity characteristics, have been shown to negatively impact on learning. The most epidemiologically important seem to be the infectious types because of their transmissibility and amenability to simple school-health measures. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and sex/age correlates of infectious dermatoses in a rural South-eastern Nigerian community. Methods The pupils were proportionately recruited from the three primary scho...

  1. Chemical Quality of Water in Anopheles stephensi Habitats and its susceptibility to different insecticides in South Eastern of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davari, B.; Vatandoost, H.

    2009-01-01

    Using of insecticides depends on the knowledge of the susceptibility levels of malaria vectors to these chemical. In this study, the chemical quality of water in the larval breeding habitats and the susceptibility levels of Anopheles stephensi to DDT 4% dieldrin 0.4% permethrin 0.75, cyfluthrin 0.15 deltamethrin 0.05% and lambdacyhalothrin 0.05% were investigated according to WHO method in south eastern of Iran. (Author)

  2. Rising Against the Thieves. Anti-Corruption Campaigns in South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Milan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 2010s, bottom-up anti-corruption mobilizations have broken out in different countries of south-eastern Europe. Bosnia-Herzegovina in 2014 and Macedonia in 2015 and 2016 were amongst the states in democratic and economic transition in which thousands of people took to the streets to express their discontent against a ruling class blamed for corruption. Although triggered by different events, these mobilizations present a number of similarities. Building on qualitative interviews and ethnographic observation of interactions on social media platforms, this article investigates the discursive strategies that movement organizers used to frame their claims and the protestors' identity in both countries. The article explores the ways in which protest leaders in the two countries appropriated the topic of corruption "from below" to delegitimize the ruling class using similar motivational, identity and diagnostic frames, notwithstanding the protests being spurred by diverse events. Furthermore, it elucidates the similarities and differences among the prognostic frames, that is, the proposed solutions to the problem of political corruption.

  3. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE COUNTRIES ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad POPOVIĆ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available That influences the inflow of foreign direct investments (FDIs into South-Eastern Europe (SEE, whereby main emphasis will be put on republics of Former Yugoslavia, but also with some references to Romania’s case.Choice of the countries for comparison is made upon assumption that they were characterized by relatively the same industrial, market and social development before they entered the process of transition, so comparisons from the aspect of achieved results is of scientific importance. Special attention will be directed to the result made by the Republic of Serbia in the process of attracting FDIs. First of all, main terms of foreign direct investments will be defined in this paper and we will give general review of literature related to allocation of foreign direct investments. Then, recent trends of foreign direct investments in south-astern Europe will be described. Finally, the factors that influence allocation of FDIs,as well as relationship between index of global competitiveness of observed countries and accumulated FDIs during period of transition will be analyzed.

  4. The drought of the 1890s in south-eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribyl, Kathleen; Nash, David; Klein, Jorgen; Endfield, Georgina

    2016-04-01

    During the second half of the 1890s south-eastern Africa, from modern day Zimbabwe and Botswana down to South Africa, was hit by a drought driven ecological crisis. Using instrumental observations and previously unexploited documentary records in the form of British administrative sources, reports and letters by various Protestant mission societies and newspapers, the extent, duration and severity of the drought are explored. Generally the period was marked by a delayed onset of the rainy season of several months; rainfall totals dropped and perennial rivers such as the Limpopo dried up. The delay of the rainy season negatively impacted the rain-fed agriculture. Recurrent drought conditions during the rainy season frequently withered the young crops. In the interior of southern Africa, on the border of the Kalahari desert, the drought was more severe and continuous than towards the coast of the Indian Ocean. The prolonged dry conditions furthered the outbreak of locust plagues and cattle disease, which in the 1890s took the disastrous form of Rinderpest. A model is established showing how the drought as the original driver of the crisis, triggered a cascade of responses from harvest failure to famine and finally leading to profound socio-economic change.

  5. Availability of pearl producing marine bivalves in south-eastern coast of Bangladesh and culture potentialities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Ataur Rahman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted during September 2014 to July 2015 to identify the pearl bearing bivalves in south-eastern coast of Bangladesh and culture potentialities of marine oyster in captivity based on field investigation. A total of 7 pearl bearing bivalve species were identified in the coast with a salinity of 18-34 ppt, pH 8.1-8.3 and water depth ranged 0.2-2.0 meter in their habitat. From the collected bivalves, most abundant oyster species windowpane oyster, Placuna placenta (Linnaeus, 1758 was reared in fiber glass tanks with seawater for a period of 6 months. During rearing highest survival rate of 88% was observed in T1 with sandy and gravel substratum and lowest survival rate of 78% was found in T2 with muddy substratum. Average temperature and salinity were varied between 24 °C-25 °C and 21-26 ppt respectively. From the reared oyster, highest 54 nos. small pearls in the month of April and lowest 7 pearls in December from a single P. placenta were obtained. The study proved that pearls can be obtained from the marine oysters in captivity in Bangladesh, and this offers large scale culture potentialities in our coast.

  6. A warm thermal enclave in the late Pleistocene of the south-eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Dale A; Rich, Fredrick J; Schneider, Vincent; Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean

    2009-05-01

    Physical and biological evidence supports the probable existence of an enclave of relatively warm climate located between the Southern Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean in the United States during the Last Glacial Maximum. The region supported a mosaic of forest and prairie habitats inhabited by a "Floridian" ice-age biota. Plant and vertebrate remains suggest an ecological gradient towards Cape Hatteras (35 degreesN) wherein forests tended to replace prairies, and browsing proboscideans tended to replace grazing proboscideans. Beyond 35 degreesN, warm waters of the Gulf Stream were deflected towards the central Atlantic, and a cold-facies biota replaced "Floridian" biota on the Atlantic coastal plain. Because of niche diversity and relatively benign climate, biodiversity may have been greater in the south-eastern thermal enclave than in other unglaciated areas of North America. However, the impact of terminal Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions may also have been shorter and more severe in the enclave than further north. A comparison with biotic changes that occurred in North America approximately 55 million years (ma) ago at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum suggests that similar processes of change took place under both ice-house and greenhouse climates.

  7. Cyclicality of bank capital buffers in South-Eastern Europe: endogenous and exogenous aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kundid Novokmet

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The interdependence between the regulatory capital ratio and macroeconomic indicators, with reference to the phenomena cyclicality and pro-cyclicality is a widely emphasized disadvantage of the capital adequacy concept. Redesign of the aforementioned concept towards the countercyclical capital requirements is a kind of recognition of the creators of the Basel standards of the previous oversights in its development. This paper aims to explore empirically the direction, intensity and significance of endogenous and exogenous determinants of the changes in banks’ capital buffers by taking into consideration both the impact of the macroeconomic properties and the bank-specific characteristics of South-Eastern Europe. More than 80 commercial banks in the period from 2000-2010 have been encompassed by the research. Use of a dynamic panel analysis led to the conclusion that the bank capital buffers decreased during the observed period, with the exception of certain years during the economic expansion, which confirms the appropriateness of regulatory requirements considering the countercyclical capital buffers. Nevertheless, it might be that capital building and spending in the future will not follow the pattern from the last decade due to the specificities of the observed period, as well as the banking sector ownership transformations, economic and credit growth as well as asset prices growth in the post-transitional period, and finally, the real crisis which spilled over onto the financial sectors.

  8. ECONOMIC GROWTH IN SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE: AN INVESTIGATION FOR SIX EU CANDIDATE AND POTENTIAL CANDIDATE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Tache

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The South Eastern European region (SEE has seen major beneficial transformation in the recent years. Romania and Bulgaria in 2007 and Croatia in 2013 became members of the European Union and registered significant economic growth rates. This paper investigates some important factors that influence economic growth in 6 EU candidate and potential candidate countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia and offers to policy makers in those countries key insights for stimulating the economy. The paper proposes a dynamic growth model which will be developed using the Quasi-maximum likelihood (QML estimation. This model is suited for this type of analysis because of the small T sample and also to cope with missingness. The results indicate that nine out of the fourteen variables were statistically significant. The number of non-resident tourists, the number of passenger cars, the number of children in pre-primary and primary-education are positive factors for economic growth. In contrast, government debt, inflation, all energy imports, railway transportation and primary production of coal and lignite are hindering development.

  9. Transport of North Pacific 137Cs labeled waters to the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.; Levy, I.; Gastaud, J.; Eriksson, M.; Osvath, I.; Aoyama, M.; Povinec, P. P.; Komura, K.

    2011-04-01

    During the reoccupation of the WOCE transect A10 at 30°S by the BEAGLE2003 cruise, the SHOTS project partners collected a large number of samples for the analysis of isotopic tracers. 137Cs was mostly deposited on the oceans surface during the late 1950s and early 1960s, after the atmospheric detonation of large nuclear devices, which mostly occurred in the Northern Hemisphere. The development of advanced radioanalytical and counting techniques allowed to obtain, for the first time in this region, a zonal section of 137Cs water concentrations, where little information existed before, thus constituting an important benchmark for further studies. 137Cs concentrations in the upper waters (0-1000 m) of the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean are similar to those observed in the south-western Indian Ocean, suggesting transport of 137Cs labeled waters by the Agulhas current to the Benguela Current region. In contrast, bomb radiocarbon data do not show this feature, indicating the usefulness of 137Cs as a radiotracer of water mass transport from the Indian to the South Atlantic Ocean.

  10. ANALYSIS OF INCOME INEQUALITIES AND FOOD SECURITY AMONG FARMERS IN ABIA STATE, SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnanna M. AGWU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study analysed income inequalities and food security status of farmers in South Eastern Nigeria, using Abia State. Specifically, the study accessed the income inequalities of the farmers; determine the food security status of the farmers; estimate the factors that influence food security among the farmers in the study area. Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted in the selection of location and 180 respondents used for the study. The study employed Gini-coefficient, food security index and multiple regressions in the analysis of the data collected. Result shows that Gini coefficient value was 0.67, showing that there was high income inequality in the study area. Majority of the respondents, constituting about 68.57 percent were food insecurity in the study area. The regression results showed that age of the household head, educational attainment of the household head and monthly income of the head were the major determinants of food security status in the study area. The study recommends that government policies targeted at farmers should be strengthened, in order to bridge the gap in farmers’ income. Government should also create opportunities for small scale businesses to flourish in ural areas. This will provide the people the much needed income, amongst other things.

  11. Evaluation of critical thinking application in medical ultrasound practice among sonographers in south-eastern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agwu, K.K.; Ogbu, S.O.I.; Okpara, E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the application of critical thinking (CT) in medical ultrasound by sonographers in south-eastern Nigeria as a measure of the quality of practice. Methods: A semi-structured questionnaire based on six elements of CT was distributed to 82 sonographers selected through a simple random sampling. The questionnaire investigated the application of the elements of interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference, explanation and self-regulation involved in CT by medical sonographers. The data for each respondent were categorized into age, experience and the elements of CT. Statistical analyses were done using mean and Spearman's Rank correlation. Results: The overall mean score of the practitioners on all the elements of CT application was 8.65 ± 6.76 against a total of 60. The application of CT did not show any correlation with age or clinical experience using Spearman's Rank correlation (r = -0.017; p > 0.05 and r = -0.086; p > 0.05, respectively). Conclusions: The results show that there is poor application of CT by medical sonographers in the locality which may impact negatively on the outcome of this diagnostic process. Increase in the number of formal training programmes in sonography and inclusion of CT skills in the curriculum are recommended

  12. Natural radioactivity in groundwater from the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula and environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, A; Zhou, X D; Yi, P; Alshamsi, D; Aldahan, A; Hou, X L; Yu, Z B

    2014-10-01

    Groundwater is the most valuable resource in arid regions, and recognizing radiological criteria among other water quality parameters is essential for sustainable use. In the investigation presented here, gross-α and gross-β were measured in groundwater samples collected in the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula, 67 wells in Unite Arab Emirates (UAE), as well as two wells and one spring in Oman. The results show a wide gross-α and gross-β activities range in the groundwater samples that vary at 0.01∼19.5 Bq/l and 0.13∼6.6 Bq/l, respectively. The data show gross-β and gross-α values below the WHO permissible limits for drinking water in the majority of the investigated samples except those in region 4 (Jabel Hafit and surroundings). No correlation between groundwater pH and the gross-α and gross-β, while high temperatures probably enhance leaching of radionuclides from the aquifer body and thereby increase the radioactivity in the groundwater. This conclusion is also supported by the positive correlation between radioactivity and amount of total dissolved solid. Particular water purification technology and environmental impact assessments are essential for sustainable and secure use of the groundwater in regions that show radioactivity values far above the WHO permissible limit for drinking water.

  13. CHALLENGES OF THE PATH TOWARDS AN ENLARGED EUROPE: SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE - INEQUALITY AND SOCIAL EXCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Oneasca

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available “Challenges of the path towards an enlarged Europe: South Eastern Europe” is a series of articles dedicated to support the improvement of the national strategies for mitigating poverty and promoting social inclusion. It aims to make a better use of existing theories and studies, as well as of the national experiences and to support the co-operation on these topics between the transition countries in the region. This paper opens the series of articles, introducing the inequality and social exclusion problem. An overview of the issue is presented and the challenge of the path towards EU integration is analysed with a strong political focus. The main assistance programmes are identified and the challenge termed: regional learning process on a common social inclusion strategy. Sharing the transition and accession experiences in the region helps countries to strengthen the strategic dimension of their policies. It is a political project that takes into account the density of the developed strategic frameworks and the diversity of social economic trends and traditions in the region. It also considers the proximity of the EU and the transition and accession experience of its member states in the region. General policy guidance and some practical rules of the thumb shed some light on policy recommendations.

  14. Radioactivity of some domestic and imported building materials from South Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krstic, D.; Nikezic, D.; Stevanovic, N.; Vucic, D.

    2007-01-01

    Radioactivity of some building materials, gypsum, ceramic, marble, granite, etc., imported from some neighbour countries of South Eastern Europe (Macedonia, Greece and Bulgaria) or produced in Serbia is presented in this paper. Measurements were done with HpGe detector and multichannel analyser. Activity concentration index, I, defined in [EC 1999, 1999. European Commission. Radiation Protection Unit, Radiological protection principles concerning the natural radioactivity of building materials. Radiat. Prot. 112] was calculated for each investigated sample. The ranges of I are 0.0297-1.2545 and 0.0376-0.1521 for Macedonian and Bulgarian gypsum, respectively. The ranges of I for marble are 0.0124-0.6245, 0.0104-1.2089 and 0.0162-0.6747 for Macedonian, Greek and Bulgarian, respectively. The range of I for Greek ceramic and granite are 0.3508-1.0152 and 0.0438-1.0062, respectively. Concentration of natural radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K) are in usual range (except few exceptions) and below maximal permitted values, so that examined materials could be used for construction of new buildings (for interior and external works) as well as for covering of pavements, floors, etc

  15. Radioactivity of some domestic and imported building materials from South Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krstic, D. [Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac, R. Domanovic 12, Kragujevac 34000 (Serbia); Nikezic, D. [Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac, R. Domanovic 12, Kragujevac 34000 (Serbia)], E-mail: nikezic@kg.ac.yu; Stevanovic, N. [Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac, R. Domanovic 12, Kragujevac 34000 (Serbia); Vucic, D. [Institute oF Occupational Health, Vojislav Ilic bb, Nis 18000 (Serbia)

    2007-11-15

    Radioactivity of some building materials, gypsum, ceramic, marble, granite, etc., imported from some neighbour countries of South Eastern Europe (Macedonia, Greece and Bulgaria) or produced in Serbia is presented in this paper. Measurements were done with HpGe detector and multichannel analyser. Activity concentration index, I, defined in [EC 1999, 1999. European Commission. Radiation Protection Unit, Radiological protection principles concerning the natural radioactivity of building materials. Radiat. Prot. 112] was calculated for each investigated sample. The ranges of I are 0.0297-1.2545 and 0.0376-0.1521 for Macedonian and Bulgarian gypsum, respectively. The ranges of I for marble are 0.0124-0.6245, 0.0104-1.2089 and 0.0162-0.6747 for Macedonian, Greek and Bulgarian, respectively. The range of I for Greek ceramic and granite are 0.3508-1.0152 and 0.0438-1.0062, respectively. Concentration of natural radionuclides ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K) are in usual range (except few exceptions) and below maximal permitted values, so that examined materials could be used for construction of new buildings (for interior and external works) as well as for covering of pavements, floors, etc.

  16. Urban agglomerations in the function of regional integration of Serbia in South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Dragutin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article is analyzed the importance of urban agglomerations in the regional organization of Serbian space at one side, and on the other side they are taken as carriers of the future integration of the Serbian urban system into the urban of the South-Eastern Europe (SEE. In the regional configuration of Serbia, more different forms of territorial impacts of urbanization, urban areas and urban regions. High level of urban centralization is formed under the influence of the population density and functions of the metropolitan area of Belgrade. The problems of unbalanced disposition of population growth and qualitative transformation of urban centers are stressed and analyzed. Based on the role in integration process in the SEE, the metropolitan region of Belgrade is pointed out as its principal carrier and the metropolitan region of Niš as its secondary carrier, as well as the urban centers of importance for the cross-border regional cooperation. As the most suitable instrument of internal regional integration the model of Functional Urban Regions (FURs or Functional Urban Areas (FUAs is proposed, and for external regional integration is proposed the model of Metropolitan European Growth Areas (MEGAs. The coherent short-term and long-term development strategies for Serbian towns and their regions seem absent.

  17. THE DAY OF THE WEEK EFFECT IN SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE STOCK MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTIN MIHAJLOV

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to examine existence of day of the week effect on the stock market indices infive countries from South Eastern Europe (SEE: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia and Serbiain the most recent period which is characterized by the bear market (from 2006 to 2011. The methodology used theregression with dummy variables, or so called Analysis of Variance (ANOVA model. In addition Wald test is applied.The results imply that the mean daily return of the all five SEE indices is negative on Monday. The day of the weekeffect is found only in Croatian and Bulgarian Stock Market. In both stock markets, the mean daily returns of theleading indices are lower on Monday than the other days of the week and the results are statistically significant. Thelower Monday mean daily returns are found also in Macedonian stock exchange index, but the results are notstatistically significant. The mean daily returns of BELEX15 and BIFX indices in Tuesday are lower than mean dailyreturn on Monday, but also without statistical significance.

  18. Occupational Exposures during the U-Exploration Activities at Seila Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Razek, Y.A.; Masoud, M.S.; Hanfi, M.Y.; El-Nagdy, M.S.

    2017-01-01

    Twenty trenches distributed over a shear zone at Seila area, South Eastern Desert of Egypt were chosen to study the occupational exposures during the U-exploration activities in these trenches. The average value of the activity concentration of "2'3"8 U, "2"3"2Th and "4"0K in the studied granites are 866 , 57 and 1380 Bq.kg"-"1 respectively. These values are higher than the worldwide average of 33, 45 and 412 Bq/kg. According to these activity concentrations , trenches are divided into the non-regulated and regulated categories. The average value of the annual effective dose due to the terrestrial radionuclides is 0.306 mSv for the non-regulated trenches and 0.958 mSv for the regulated trenches corresponding to the absorbed dose rate 219 nGy.h"-"1 for the non-regulated trenches and 684 nGy.h"-"1 for the regulated trenches. The average measured annual effective dose for non-regulated and regulated trenches is 0.81 and 1.42 mSv respectively. This difference is ascribed to the geometry of the studied trenches. However, the total annual effective dose in the non-regulated and the regulated trenches is lower than the recommended value of 20 mSv

  19. Performance of a multi-RCM ensemble for South Eastern South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carril, A.F.; Menendez, C.G.; Salio, P. [Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires, Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera (CIMA), CONICET-UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos (DCAO), FCEN, Buenos Aires (Argentina); UMI IFAECI/CNRS, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Remedio, A.R.C.; Jacob, D.; Pfeifer, S. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M), Hamburg (Germany); Robledo, F.; Tencer, B. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos (DCAO), FCEN, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Soerensson, A.; Zaninelli, P. [Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires, Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera (CIMA), CONICET-UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); UMI IFAECI/CNRS, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Boulanger, J.P. [LOCEAN, UMR CNRS/IRD/UPMC, Paris (France); Castro, M. de; Sanchez, E. [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM), Toledo (Spain); Le Treut, H.; Li, L.Z.X. [Sciences de l' Environnement en Ile de France, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD), Institut-Pierre-Simon-Laplace et Ecole Doctorale, Paris (France); Penalba, O.; Rusticucci, M. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos (DCAO), FCEN, Buenos Aires (Argentina); UMI IFAECI/CNRS, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Samuelsson, P. [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    The ability of four regional climate models to reproduce the present-day South American climate is examined with emphasis on La Plata Basin. Models were integrated for the period 1991-2000 with initial and lateral boundary conditions from ERA-40 Reanalysis. The ensemble sea level pressure, maximum and minimum temperatures and precipitation are evaluated in terms of seasonal means and extreme indices based on a percentile approach. Dispersion among the individual models and uncertainties when comparing the ensemble mean with different climatologies are also discussed. The ensemble mean is warmer than the observations in South Eastern South America (SESA), especially for minimum winter temperatures with errors increasing in magnitude towards the tails of the distributions. The ensemble mean reproduces the broad spatial pattern of precipitation, but overestimates the convective precipitation in the tropics and the orographic precipitation along the Andes and over the Brazilian Highlands, and underestimates the precipitation near the monsoon core region. The models overestimate the number of wet days and underestimate the daily intensity of rainfall for both seasons suggesting a premature triggering of convection. The skill of models to simulate the intensity of convective precipitation in summer in SESA and the variability associated with heavy precipitation events (the upper quartile daily precipitation) is far from satisfactory. Owing to the sparseness of the observing network, ensemble and observations uncertainties in seasonal means are comparable for some regions and seasons. (orig.)

  20. Predicting the energy consumption of heated plastic greenhouses in south-eastern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, J. C.; Baile, A.; Bonachela, S.; Gonzalez-Real, M. M.; Perez-Parra, J.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of heat consumption in a parral type greenhouse, equipped with an air-heating system, were carried out in south-eastern Spain (Almeria) during the 1998/99 winter. From the daily values of heat consumption (Qd, MJ m-2 d-1) recorded in five identical greenhouses heated to different night temperature set-points (Tc), and data of minimum outside air temperature (Te,min), relationships between Qd and the temperature difference ( Tmin = Tc . Te,min) were established. Linear regressions between Qd and delta Tmin gave satisfactory fits (R2 ranging from 0.75 to 0.83), considering that Te,min was the only input data for the model. When all data were pooled, the correlation was curvilinear, the best fit to a 2nd order polynomial being Qd = 0.049 deltaTmin 2 . 0.001 Tmin + 1.107 (R2 = 0.89). Validation of this model was performed using data obtained during other years, giving a fair agreement at the daily (R2 0.86), 10-day (R2 = 0.95) and yearly (R2 = 0.99) time scales. This simple model could be of interest to growers for decision-making related to the choice of set-point temperature and crop planning in heated greenhouses. (Author)

  1. Awareness and use of contraception by women seeking termination of pregnancy in south eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echendu Dolly Adinma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the awareness and use of contraception by women seeking for termination of pregnancy in south eastern Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire based on the study of one hundred consecutive abortion seekers attending a clinic in southeastern Nigeria was utilized. Results: Mean age of the respondents was (23.5暲 4.4 years. The majority were students (55.0% with 64.0% having secondary education and 33.0% possesing tertiary educational qualifications. Seventy five percent were nulliparous while 49% had one or more previous pregnancy termination. The majority of the respondents (73% were aware of contraceptive methods but only 10% had ever used including 6% using male condom. Only 38% of the respondents desired to use contraceptives after the termination of index pregnancy. Conclusions: It is concluded that the majority have the high level of contraceptive awareness but contraceptive usage is shockingly low. Therefore, there is a strong need to conduct further and wide spread research not only into the various factors that influence access to contraception but also factors that promote induced abortion and overall unsafe abortion morbidity and mortality as a basis towards the enrichment of discussion related to family planning and contraception, the magnitude of abortion problems, and abortion laws in Nigeria.

  2. Pain symptoms of the spine and work ergonomics of people in south-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przysada, Grzegorz; Leszczak, Justyna; Czenczek-Lewandowska, Ewelina; Podgórska-Bednarz, Justyna; Rykała, Justyna; Glista, Joanna; Weres, Aneta; Drużbicki, Mariusz; Michalak, Barbara; Mazur, Artur

    2013-01-01

    Pain disorders of the spine are the most common causes of appointments with physiotherapists. It has been estimated that nine out of ten adults at least once in their lifetime experience spine pains and five out of ten working people have this kind of ailments a minimum once a year. The evaluation of the occurrence of spine pains in people who are professionally active with regards to obeying the rules of work ergonomics. The research group has been composed of 100 people professionally active from south-eastern Poland. Their ages have been from 20 to 50 years (average age has been 35 years). In the research the authors' own survey and VAS scale have been used on which the surveyed person has marked the intensity of pain experience in the area of the spine. Greater pain in the spine has been experienced by people who have never obeyed the rules of, among others, manual lifting and/or carrying the maximum load, lifting and carrying heavy objects, in their work. The lowest degree of pain has been experienced by those who obeyed the above-mentioned rules. Assuming the incorrect body posture during the everyday activities and disobeying the rules of ergonomics resulting from lack of knowledge are crucial factors in the occurrence of spine pains. People who disobey rules of ergonomics experienced spine pain to a higher degree.

  3. EGNOS Based APV Procedures Development Possibilities In The South-Eastern Part Of Poland

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    Kaleta Wojciech Z.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available On 14th and 15th March 2011 for the first time approach with vertical guidance (APV-I was conducted on Polish territory in Katowice, Kraków and Mielec. This was the milestone for GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System and Area Navigation (RNAV use as a new instrument approach chance for NPA (Non-Precision Approach and PA (Precision Approach in Poland. The paper presents the experiment study of EGNOS SIS (Signal in Space due to APV (Approach with Vertical Guidance procedures development possibilities in the south-eastern part of Poland. Researches were conducted from January 2014 till June 2014 in three Polish cities: Warszawa, Kraków and Rzeszów. EGNOS as SBAS (Satellite Based Augmentation System in according with ICAO's Annex 10 has to meet restrictive requirements for three dimensional accuracy, system integrity, availability and continuity of SIS. Because of ECAC (European Civil Aviation Conference states to EGNOS coverage in the eastern part of Europe, location of mention above stations, shows real usefulness for SIS tests and evaluation of the results [EUROCONTROL, 2008].

  4. The British-Indian species of Viscum revised and compared with those of South-Eastern Asia, Malaysia, and Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danser, B.H.

    1941-01-01

    When revising the Visca of the Malay Archipelago and Indo-China, I met with some nomenclatorial difficulties, for which a more thorough study of the British-Indian Visca seemed necessary. The distinction of the species in HOOKER’S Flora soon appeared not to be depended upon. At the time of HOOKER’S

  5. Relationship between body mass index and family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting style among African migrant parents and children in Victoria, Australia: a parent-child dyad study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyril, S; Halliday, J; Green, J; Renzaho, A M N

    2016-08-03

    Although childhood obesity prevalence is stabilised in developed countries including Australia, it is continuing to rise among migrants and socially disadvantaged groups in these countries. African migrants and refugees in particular, are at high risk of obesity due to changes in their family dynamics. The aim of this study was to examine the difference between children and parental perception of family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting styles and their relationship with body mass index. A cross-sectional parent-child dyad study was conducted among 284 African families from migrant and refugee backgrounds living in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Bilingual workers were trained to collect demographic, anthropometric and questionnaire data on family functioning, parenting, family type and family communication. Parents and children reported different levels of family dynamics. Children reported a higher prevalence of poor family functioning (61.5 %, 95 % CI: 55.6, 67.2 versus 56.8 %, 95 % CI: 49.7, 61.6) and protective family type (29 %, 95 % CI: 23.9, 34.5 vs. 13.4 %, 95 % CI: 9.9, 17.9), but a lower prevalence of authoritative parenting style (51.6 %, 95 % CI: 45.7, 57.5 vs. 63 %, 95 % CI: 57.5, 68.8) than parents. There was a positive relationship between poor family functioning and child BMI both before (β = 1.28; 95 % CI: 0.14, 2.41; p parental BMI and family functioning, communication, family type or parenting style. Children's perception of poor family functioning was associated with childhood obesity. Family interventions to reduce childhood obesity need to adopt an intergenerational approach to promote a clear understanding of family dynamics between children and parents. Unless these intergenerational challenges associated with family dynamics are clearly addressed in obesity interventions, current obesity prevention initiatives will continue to widen the childhood obesity gap in Australia.

  6. Relationship between body mass index and family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting style among African migrant parents and children in Victoria, Australia: a parent-child dyad study

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    S. Cyril

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although childhood obesity prevalence is stabilised in developed countries including Australia, it is continuing to rise among migrants and socially disadvantaged groups in these countries. African migrants and refugees in particular, are at high risk of obesity due to changes in their family dynamics. The aim of this study was to examine the difference between children and parental perception of family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting styles and their relationship with body mass index. Methods A cross-sectional parent-child dyad study was conducted among 284 African families from migrant and refugee backgrounds living in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Bilingual workers were trained to collect demographic, anthropometric and questionnaire data on family functioning, parenting, family type and family communication. Results Parents and children reported different levels of family dynamics. Children reported a higher prevalence of poor family functioning (61.5 %, 95 % CI: 55.6, 67.2 versus 56.8 %, 95 % CI: 49.7, 61.6 and protective family type (29 %, 95 % CI: 23.9, 34.5 vs. 13.4 %, 95 % CI: 9.9, 17.9, but a lower prevalence of authoritative parenting style (51.6 %, 95 % CI: 45.7, 57.5 vs. 63 %, 95 % CI: 57.5, 68.8 than parents. There was a positive relationship between poor family functioning and child BMI both before (β = 1.28; 95 % CI: 0.14, 2.41; p < 0.05 and after (β = 1.73; 95 % CI: 0.53, 2.94; p < 0.001 controlling for confounders, and an inverse relationship between consensual family type and child BMI after adjustment (β = −1.92; 95 % CI: −3.59, −0.24; p < 0.05. There was no significant relationship between parental BMI and family functioning, communication, family type or parenting style. Conclusion Children’s perception of poor family functioning was associated with childhood obesity. Family interventions to reduce childhood obesity need

  7. victoria cross awards warrants concerning the victoria cross (1920)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1. WARRANTS CONCERNING THE. VICTORIA CROSS (1920). In order to get a picture of the Royal Warrants promulgated from 1856 to 1920 in respect of the .... to confirmation by us. Eighthly. - It is ordained, where such an act shall not have been performed in the sight of a commanding officer as aforesaid, then the ...

  8. Hospital capacity and management preparedness for pandemic influenza in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Ben; Barr, Ian; Robinson, Priscilla

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate acute hospital pandemic influenza preparedness in Victoria, Australia, particularly focussing on planning and management efforts. A prospective study was conducted by questionnaire and semi-structured interview of health managers across the Victorian hospital system from July to October 2011. Participants with responsibility for emergency management, planning and operations were selected from every hospital in Victoria with an emergency department to complete a questionnaire (response rate 22/43 = 51%). Each respondent was invited to participate in a phone-based semi-structured interview (response rate 11/22 = 50%). Rural/regional hospitals demonstrated higher levels of clinical (86%) and non-clinical (86%) staff contingency planning than metropolitan hospitals (60% and 40% respectively). Pandemic plans were not being sufficiently tested in exercises or drills, which is likely to undermine their effectiveness. All respondents reported hand hygiene and standard precautions programs in place, although only one-third (33%) of metropolitan respondents and no rural/regional respondents reported being able to meet patient needs with high levels of staff absenteeism. Almost half Victoria's healthcare workers were unvaccinated against influenza. Hospitals across Victoria demonstrated different levels of influenza pandemic preparedness and planning. If a more severe influenza pandemic than that of 2009 arose, Victorian hospitals would struggle with workforce and infrastructure problems, particularly in rural/regional areas. Staff absenteeism threatens to undermine hospital pandemic responses. Various strategies, including education and communication, should be included with in-service training to provide staff with confidence in their ability to work safely during a future pandemic. © 2014 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  9. A 500-year history of floods in the semi arid basins of south-eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez García, Carlos; Schulte, Lothar; Peña, Juan Carlos; Carvalho, Filpe; Brembilla, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Floods are one of the natural hazards with higher incidence in the south-eastern Spain, the driest region in Europe, causing fatalities, damage of infrastructure and economic losses. Flash-floods in semi arid environments are related to intensive rainfall which can last from few hours to days. These floods are violent and destructive because of their high discharges, sediment transport and aggradation processes in the flood plain. Also during historical times floods affected the population in the south-eastern Spain causing sever damage or in some cases the complete destruction of towns. Our studies focus on the flood reconstruction from historical sources of the Almanzora, Aguas and Antas river basins, which have a surface between 260-2600 km2. We have also compiled information from the Andarax river and compared the flood series with the Guadalentín and Segura basins from previous studies (Benito et. al., 2010 y Machado et al., 2011). Flood intensities have been classified in four levels according to the type of damage: 1) ordinary floods that only affect agriculture plots; 2) extraordinary floods which produce some damage to buildings and hydraulic infrastructure; 3) catastrophic floods which caused sever damage, fatalities and partial or complete destruction of towns. A higher damage intensity of +1 magnitude was assigned when the event is recorded from more than one major sub-basin (stretches and tributaries such as Huércal-Overa basin) or catchment (e.g. Antas River). In total 102 incidences of damages and 89 floods were reconstructed in the Almanzora (2.611 km2), Aguas (539 km2), Antas (261 km2) and Andarax (2.100 km2) catchments. The Almanzora River was affected by 36 floods (1550-2012). The highest events for the Almanzora River were in 1580, 1879, 1973 and 2012 producing many fatalities and destruction of several towns. In addition, we identified four flood-clusters 1750-1780, 1870-1900, 1960-1977 and 1989-2012 which coincides with the periods of

  10. Temperature sensitivity of extreme precipitation events in the south-eastern Alpine forelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeer, Katharina; Kirchengast, Gottfried

    2016-04-01

    How will convective precipitation intensities and patterns evolve in a warming climate on a regional to local scale? Studies on the scaling of precipitation intensities with temperature are used to test observational and climate model data against the hypothesis that the change of precipitation with temperature will essentially follow the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) equation, which corresponds to a rate of increase of the water holding capacity of the atmosphere by 6-7 % per Kelvin (CC rate). A growing number of studies in various regions and with varying approaches suggests that the overall picture of the temperature-precipitation relationship is heterogeneous, with scaling rates shearing off the CC rate in both upward and downward directions. In this study we investigate the temperature scaling of extreme precipitation events in the south-eastern Alpine forelands of Austria (SEA) based on a dense rain gauge net of 188 stations, with sub-daily precipitation measurements since about 1990 used at 10-min resolution. Parts of the study region are European hot-spots for severe hailstorms and the region, which is in part densely populated and intensively cultivated, is generally vulnerable to climate extremes. Evidence on historical extremely heavy short-time and localized precipitation events of several hundred mm of rain in just a few hours, resulting in destructive flash flooding, underline these vulnerabilities. Heavy precipitation is driven by Mediterranean moisture advection, enhanced by the orographic lifting at the Alpine foothills, and hence trends in positive sea surface temperature anomalies might carry significant risk of amplifying future extreme precipitation events. In addition, observations from the highly instrumented subregion of south-eastern Styria indicate a strong and robust long-term warming trend in summer of about 0.7°C per decade over 1971-2015, concomitant with a significant increase in the annual number of heat days. The combination of these

  11. Preliminary comparative study of middle Anisian vertebrate ichnoassociation from South-Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiserri, D.; Todesco, R.; Avanzini, M.

    2009-04-01

    Anisian vertebrate tracks from the south-eastern Alps are known since the first decades of 1900s (Abel, 1926). The sedimentary units yielding footprints are characterized by the alternation of limestone influenced by terrigenous supply with mere marine and volcanic layers allowing a precise dating. In this study, we compare four different ichnoassociations from three different outcrops in the South-Eastern Alps correlating them chronologically and sedimentologically. They were found to be subsequent in time from Lower Pelsonian (Bad Gfrill-Voltago Conglomerate; Todesco, 2007) through middle Pelsonian (Bad Gfrill- Giovo Formation) (Valdiserri et al., 2006) and basal Illyrian (Piz da Peres- Richthofen Conglomerate; Todesco et al., 2008) to the middle Illyrian (Val Duron-Morbiac Limestone; Avanzini et al., 2007). In all these ichno-associations, Rhynchosauroides, an ichno-genus referable to a lizard - like trackmaker well known in the European Anisian, is dominant. Within this group at least four different morphotypes are known, probably reflecting both intraspecific variation (i.e. sexual dimorphism) and different ichnospecies. Although the Chirotheridae group, referred to Archosaurian trackmakers Synaptichnium is represented in both Pelsonian ichnoassociation of the Bad Gfrill outcrop, while Chirotherium , Isochirotherium and Brachichirotherium are recognized both in Pelsonian and in Illyrian ichnosites with a incremental presence in the Illyrian The ichofamiliae Rotodactylidae und Procolophonidae seem well represented in the Pelsonian strata but absent in the Illyrian ones. The preliminarly comparative analysis of these four correlated ichnosites and the comparision with the yet known ones (Avanzini and Mietto 2008) pointed out the expected predominance of the Lepidosaurian-Archosaurian association typical for the middle Triassic ichnofauna. The incremental presence of the Chirotherian track in Illyrian and the presence of the Procolophonichium just in the

  12. Breakfast habits and heath perceptions in South-eastern Spanish adolescents

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    Soriano-Ayala Encarnación

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal aims of this study are to describe breakfast consumption patterns of south-eastern Spanish adolescents, examine the relationship between breakfast consumption and feelings of well-being and fitness and compare breakfast behaviour between men and women to identify if there is a gender gap. Design: A cross-sectional research with cluster sampling in two primary schools and seven secondary schools. The instrument used was a modified version of the Kidscreen-27 questionnaire. Sample: 2,125 students aged between 10 and 19 years old from different nationalities, mainly Romanian, Moroccan and Spanish. Results: The study identifies some youngsters who skip breakfast and no have no food intake over the course of the morning. About 35% of the teenagers skip daily breakfast before they leave for school, and a worrying 1,8% do not eat any food during the whole morning. Questionnaire outcomes also expresses that the amount of biscuits ingested increased as the number of times that adolescents have breakfast at home decreases. There are significant gender differences, women it less foods than men. Differences are especially significant in case of milk, bread or cereals and butter or oil. Finally, chisquare contrast analysis show students that have breakfast before leaving to school perceive better feelings about how well and fit they are than those student who do not have breakfast daily. Conclusions. Findings supports the need for further enhance health education programs focused on breakfast habits, especially with women. This study is part of the project “Education for Cross-cultural Health in Immigrant and Native Adolescents from Almeria: Analysis and intervention for optimization and improvement” supported by the National R+D Plan of the Ministry of Economy and Finance (Ref: EDU2011-26887

  13. Phytosociological studies of the forests with sessile oak and Norway spruce from South-Eastern Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Indreica

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The forests with sessile oak (Quercus petraea and Norway spruce (Picea abies from south-eastern Transylvania represent a peculiar type of phytocenoses, rather unusual for the present-day vegetation of Romania’s territory. Aim of the study is to provide a detailed description of the vegetation and to identify the phytosociological and typological units to which it could belong. Beside this, stand structure and regeneration status of the main tree species are illustrated. The studied area is located around Carpathian intermountain depressions Braşov and Ciuc, where vegetation had a peculiar history and today sessile oak forests on high altitude exists, interfering with spruce forests. The hypothesis of the process naturalness is supported by vegetation history in the area, climate, stand structure and peculiarities of herb layer composition (the mixture of relic of both mountain-boreal origin and south-European origin, like Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Pyrola rotundifolia and respectively Potentilla micrantha, Lathyrus venetus respectively. Sintaxonomically, studied phytocenoses with sessile oak and spruce belong mainly to acidophilus oak forests (Luzulo luzuloidis-Quercetum petraeae, but some of them resemble oak-hornbeam forests (Carici pilosae-Carpinetum, indicating a more recent change in stand structure and suggesting that not the soil, but the climate is the driving force of succession. Regeneration of sessile oak is at least satisfactory, but the expansion of spruce in such stands could seriously restrict the survival of sessile oak. A new typological unit will be appropriate,for a better management of sessile oak forests with spruce admixture.

  14. Phytosociological studies of the forests with sessile oak and Norway spruce from South-Eastern Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Indreica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The forests with sessile oak (Quercus petraea and Norway spruce (Picea abies from south-eastern Transylvania represent a peculiar type of phytocenoses, rather unusual for the present-day vegetation of Romania’s territory. Aim of the study is to provide a detailed description of the vegetation and to identify the phytosociological and typological units to which it could belong. Beside this, stand structure and regeneration status of the main tree species are illustrated. The studied area is located around Carpathian intermountain depressions Brasov and Ciuc, where vegetation had a peculiar history and today sessile oak forests on high altitude exists, interfering with spruce forests. The hypothesis of the process naturalness is supported by vegetation history in the area, climate, stand structure and peculiarities of herb layer composition (the mixture of relic of both mountain-boreal origin and south-European origin, like Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Pyrola rotundifolia and respectively Potentilla micrantha, Lathyrus venetus respectively. Sintaxonomically, studied phytocenoses with sessile oak and spruce belong mainly to acidophilus oak forests (Luzulo luzuloidis-Quercetum petraeae, but some of them resemble oak-hornbeam forests (Carici pilosae-Carpinetum, indicating a more recent change in stand structure and suggesting that not the soil, but the climate is the driving force of succession. Regeneration of sessile oak is at least satisfactory, but the expansion of spruce in such stands could seriously restrict the survival of sessile oak. A new typological unit will be appropriate, for a better management of sessile oak forests with spruce admixture.

  15. Numerical modelling of the buoyant marine microplastics in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaev, Andrei; Mizyuk, Artem; Chubarenko, Irina; Khatmullilna, Liliya

    2017-04-01

    Microplastics is a burning issue in the marine pollution science. Its sources, ways of propagation and final destiny pose a lot of questions to the modern oceanographers. Hence, a numerical model is an optimal tool for reconstruction of microplastics pathways and fate. Within the MARBLE project (lamp.ocean.ru), a model of Lagrangian particles transport was developed. It was tested coupled with oceanographic transport fields from the operational oceanography product of Copernicus Marine Monitoring Environment Service. Our model deals with two major types of microplastics such as microfibres and buoyant spheroidal particles. We are currently working to increase the grid resolution by means of the NEMO regional configuration for the south-eastern Baltic Sea. Several expeditions were organised to the three regions of the Baltic Sea (the Gotland, the Bornholm, and the Gdansk basins). Water samples from the surface and different water layers were collected, processed, and analysed by our team. A set of laboratory experiments was specifically designed to establish the settling velocity of particles of various shapes and densities. The analysis in question provided us with the understanding necessary for the model to reproduce the large-scale dynamics of microfibres. In the simulation, particles were spreading from the shore to the deep sea, slowly sinking to the bottom, while decreasing in quantity due to conditional sedimentation. Our model is expected to map out the microplastics life cycle and to account for its distribution patterns under the impact of wind and currents. For this purpose, we have already included the parameterization for the wind drag force applied to a particle. Initial results of numerical experiments seem to indicate the importance of proper implicit parameterization of the particle dynamics at the vertical solid boundary. Our suggested solutions to that problem will be presented at the EGU-2017. The MARBLE project is supported by Russian Science

  16. Phylogeography of a Morphologically Cryptic Golden Mole Assemblage from South-Eastern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Mynhardt

    Full Text Available The Greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (GMPA region of southern Africa was recently designated as a centre of vertebrate endemism. The phylogeography of the vertebrate taxa occupying this region may provide insights into the evolution of faunal endemism in south-eastern Africa. Here we investigate the phylogeographic patterns of an understudied small mammal species assemblage (Amblysomus endemic to the GMPA, to test for cryptic diversity within the genus, and to better understand diversification across the region. We sampled specimens from 50 sites across the distributional range of Amblysomus, with emphasis on the widespread A. hottentotus, to analyse geographic patterns of genetic diversity using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and nuclear intron data. Molecular dating was used to elucidate the evolutionary and phylogeographic history of Amblysomus. Our phylogenetic reconstructions show that A. hottentotus comprises several distinct lineages, or evolutionarily significant units (ESUs, some with restricted geographic ranges and thus worthy of conservation attention. Divergence of the major lineages dated to the early Pliocene, with later radiations in the GMPA during the late-Pliocene to early-Pleistocene. Evolutionary diversification within Amblysomus may have been driven by uplift of the Great Escarpment c. 5-3 million years ago (Ma, habitat changes associated with intensification of the east-west rainfall gradient across South Africa and the influence of subsequent global climatic cycles. These drivers possibly facilitated geographic spread of ancestral lineages, local adaptation and vicariant isolation. Our study adds to growing empirical evidence identifying East and southern Africa as cradles of vertebrate diversity.

  17. Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera in springs in Trentino (south-eastern Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana SILVERI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the CRENODAT project (Biodiversity assessment and integrity evaluation of springs of Trentino - Italian Alps - and longterm ecological research, 2004-2008 we studied a total of 90 springs in Trentino (south-eastern Alps, Italy, 75 of which were used for statistical analysis. The springs were grouped into seven different types and represented all the available lithologies in the study area. Macrozoobenthos (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera; EPT was collected from stones, bryophytes and sediments. We investigated which physical, chemical or environmental features were important in determining EPT assemblage metrics at sites, by calculating the Shannon-Wiener diversity index, and applying a one-way ANOVA test, ANOSIM and SIMPER analyses. Statistical results highlighted the island character of the springs, each spring having its specific history and abiotic characteristics, which select for unique community patterns. For the faunistic analyses, we considered all springs where EPT taxa were recorded; a total of 88 taxa. Highest species richness was recorded among the Trichoptera, followed by the Plecoptera and Ephemeroptera, with 52, 30 and 6 taxa respectively. Fifteen Trichoptera and three Plecoptera species were recorded as new for the Autonomous Province of Trento. Our results confirm that, in the harsh environment of the Alps, the mild and stable ecological conditions that characterize spring-fed brooks contribute to maintaining and enhancing the regional biodiversity. Springs act as refuge areas for stream biota, providing more favourable conditions during spates or droughts (common in Alpine headwaters, or for particular stages of the insect life cycles. Springs also provide specific habitats for strictly crenobiontic species.

  18. Dissolved iron distribution in the tropical and sub tropical South Eastern Pacific

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    S. Blain

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved iron (DFe distributions (<0.2 μm were determined in the upper water column (0–400 m of the south eastern tropical and subtropical Pacific, in October–November 2004. Data were collected along a transect extending from the Marquesas Islands to the Chilean coast with most of the stations located in the south Pacific gyre. The concentrations of DFe presented large variability with highest values observed at both extremities of the transect. In the Chilean upwelling, DFe concentrations ranged between 1.2–3.9 nM. These high values result from inputs from the continental margin and are likely maintained by anoxic conditions in the water corresponding to the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ. In subsurface waters near the Marquesas, that were also associated with the extension of the OMZ, DFe concentrations varied between 0.15–0.41 nM. Vertical transport of this water by mesoscale activity eastward of the archipelago may explain the dissymmetric east-west distribution of chlorophyll-a evidenced by satellite images. Using the new tracer Fe*=DFe−rFe:P (PO43− we show that DFe was in deficit compared to PO43− resulting from the remineralisation of organic matter. This suggests that the Marquesas islands and the surrounding plateau are not a significant source of DFe. In the gyre, DFe concentrations in the upper 350 m water column were around 0.1 nM and the ferricline was located well below the nitracline. These low concentrations reflect the low input of DFe from the atmosphere, from the ventilation of the upper thermocline with water containing low DFe, and from the low biological activity within this ultra oligotrophic gyre.

  19. Patterns of radiotherapy for cancer patients in south-eastern Netherlands, 1975-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Jong, B.; Crommelin, M.; van der Heijden, L.H.; Coebergh, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Radiotherapy patterns were determined in all 34 487 cancer patients diagnosed between 1975 and 1989 in south-eastern Netherlands, a densely populated and prosperous area with a greying population of almost 1 million inhabitants. Specialised care was available in 10 community hospitals with expanding staffs and in a non-academic radiotherapy centre, the distance never exceeding 50 km. With respect to western Europe the cancer incidence rates for this area were relatively high for males and average for females during this period. We computed overall and tumour-specific percentages of patients receiving radiotherapy as primary treatment (RT1a) and estimated this for initial treatment of recurrence or metastasis (RT1b). The total number of patients receiving RT1a increased by about 2% per year, but age-adjusted figures remained stable at 36% for females and increased from 28% to 32% for males. Since 1986 about 40% of all new cases receive RT1a and RT1b and about 40% of all RT1a undergo secondary radiotherapy for recurrence or metastasis. Of all male and female patients 70% and 50%, respectively, were over 60. Diverse underlying tumour-specific trends in RT1a were observed: children and adolescents with cancer received RT1a less often (25% vs. 40%) as did patients with cervical (55% vs. 80%), ovarian (9% vs. 17%), small cell lung (25% vs. 55%) and non-melanoma skin cancer (5% vs. 55%); patients with stage 1 breast (70% vs. 45%), rectal (30% vs. 10%) and prostate cancer (31% vs. 13%) and adenocarcinoma of the lung (40% vs. 20%) received RT1a more often. Despite easy access to specialised care, waiting lists for radiotherapy (until 1987) and more diverse referral and treatment policies in the non-academic setting may have led to a modest application of radiotherapy

  20. Pesticide residues in berries harvested from South-Eastern Poland (2009-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyaszek, Aneta; Szpyrka, Ewa; Podbielska, Magdalena; Słowik-Borowiec, Magdalena; Kurdziel, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Poland is a leading grower/producer of berries in Europe that are either eaten raw or processed. As well as berries this includes fruit such as grapes, strawberries and other small fruits. Testing for the presence of active substances in Plant Protection Products, (PPP), in such fruit is however important, as part of measures taken to minimise human intake. To determine the incidence of pesticide residues in berries harvested from South-Eastern Poland in 2009-2011. . Chromatographic separation followed by analytical detection was performed on 250 samples of various test fruits using an accredited methodology: GC/ECD/NPD, together with spectrophotometric detection wherever necessary, according to PN-EN ISO/IEC 17025. As part of previous monitoring, 126 active substances were identified in 2009, 132 in 2010 and 153 in 2011; levels were compared to Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs). RESULTS;. Analyses showed that 46.4% of samples contained PPPs of which 4% exceeded the MRL. The most were found in raspberries, (58.8% of all tested), followed by 58.3% redcurrants, and gooseberries as well as 50% grapes. The most frequently found active substances of PPPs were pyrimethanil (15.6%), dithiocarbamates (12.4%), procymidone (8%), cyprodinil (5.6%) and difenoconazole (5.2%). The highest MRL exceedances were found in blackcurrants. Testing also revealed many examples of pesticides not recommended for the protection of specific crops: propiconazole in gooseberries, cyprodinil, flusilazole, iprodione, pyrimethanil in blackcurrants and folpet and captan in raspberries. Furthermore, active substances whose use in PPPs have been forbidden since 2008 were also detected, ie. endosulfan in blackcurrants and strawberries, fenitrothion in black and red currants as well as procymidone in raspberries, blackcurrants and strawberries. These data are consistent to those obtained from the whole of Poland and the European Union (EU). Most pesticides were present in raspberries, redcurrants

  1. Holocene fire activity and vegetation response in South-Eastern Iberia

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    Gil-Romera, Graciela; Carrión, José S.; Pausas, Juli G.; Sevilla-Callejo, Miguel; Lamb, Henry F.; Fernández, Santiago; Burjachs, Francesc

    2010-05-01

    Since fire has been recognized as an essential disturbance in Mediterranean landscapes, the study of long-term fire ecology has developed rapidly. We have reconstructed a sequence of vegetation dynamics and fire changes across south-eastern Iberia by coupling records of climate, fire, vegetation and human activities. We calculated fire activity anomalies (FAAs) in relation to 3 ka cal BP for 10-8 ka cal BP, 6 ka cal BP, 4 ka cal BP and the present. For most of the Early to the Mid-Holocene uneven, but low fire events were the main vegetation driver at high altitudes where broadleaved and coniferous trees presented a highly dynamic post-fire response. At mid-altitudes in the mainland Segura Mountains, fire activity remained relatively stable, at similar levels to recent times. We hypothesize that coastal areas, both mountains and lowlands, were more fire-prone landscapes as biomass was more likely to have accumulated than in the inland regions, triggering regular fire events. The wet and warm phase towards the Mid-Holocene (between ca 8 and 6 ka cal BP) affected the whole region and promoted the spread of mesophytic forest co-existing with Pinus, as FAAs appear strongly negative at 6 ka cal BP, with a less important role of fire. Mid and Late Holocene landscapes were shaped by an increasing aridity trend and the rise of human occupation, especially in the coastal mountains where forest disappeared from ca 2 ka cal BP. Mediterranean-type vegetation (evergreen oaks and Pinus pinaster- halepensis types) showed the fastest post-fire vegetation dynamics over time.

  2. Phytosociological and ecological study of springs in Trentino (south-eastern Alps, Italy

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    Alessandro PETRAGLIA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A phytosociological survey of the crenic vegetation was made in Trentino (south-eastern Alps, combining the field method of the Braun-Blanquet approach with a numerical syntaxonomical analysis. A set of 139 phytosociological relevés, including vascular plants and bryophytes, were classified using cluster analysis. The vegetation types were assigned to 7 different phytosociological classes: Platyhypnidio-Fontinalietea antipyreticae, Montio-Cardaminetea, Adiantetea, Scheuchzerio-Caricetea nigrae, Molinio- Arrhenatheretea, Galio-Urticetea, Mulgedio-Aconitetea. The classes Platyhypnidio-Fontinalietea antipyreticae and Montio- Cardaminetea represent the core of crenic vegetation, including permanently or intermittently submerged plant communities, mostly made up of bryophytes, or non-submerged communities dominated by bryophytes or vascular plants. The other classes include chasmophytic bryophyte-rich communities and hygrophilous or tall herb communities lying around the periphery of the springs. 23 vegetation types were identified and, whenever possible, classified at the association level, or as phytocoena. The environmental parameters showed different ranges among vegetation types. A number of environmental variables were recorded during the vegetation survey, including altitude, shading, discharge, flow velocity, with exhaustive hydrochemical sampling. Conductivity, alkalinity and pH showed similar distribution patterns, clearly separating the vegetation types into two distinct groups, differing in the nature of the substratum. The altitudinal range was very broad and shading was also very variable. Nitrate and phosphate levels showed that the majority of vegetation types were irrigated by oligotrophic crenic waters. Finally, the bryophyte-dominated vegetation types belonging to the class Platyhypnidio-Fontinalietea antipyreticae occurred in springs with the highest discharge values and variation. Discriminant analysis confirmed that the

  3. Development of Ash Dieback in South-Eastern Germany and the Increasing Occurrence of Secondary Pathogens

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    Heike D. Lenz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Since its first identification in Poland in 2006, the ascomycete Hymenoscyphus fraxineus has caused massive dieback of Fraxinus excelsior in the countries of eastern, northern and central Europe. This work shows the development, expansion, and severity of the disease in south-eastern Germany for a period of four years, starting in 2010. Differences between habitats, as well as age classes have been captured. The presence and the amount of potentially resistant trees were proven over the years, to determine how high the resistance level might be. Typical disease symptoms are the wilting of leaves, necrotic lesions in the bark and reddish discolorations of branches and stems. In addition, stem necroses also appear by infection with species of Armillaria. Therefore, special attention has been given to Armillaria species in affected ash stands but also to other secondary pathogens, like ash bark beetles. It is shown that breeding galleries of Hylesinus fraxini are only found in trees that have recently died and thus Hylesinus fraxini is still acting as a secondary opportunistic pathogen. In contrast, Armillaria spp. can be considered as serious pathogens of weakened ash trees. In different ash stands, typical symptoms of infection can be found. A relationship between stem base necrotic lesions and vitality was examined. It is shown that necrotic lesions severely contribute to accelerating the mortality of ash trees. In addition to the high infection pressure by H. fraxineus, the high inoculum of Armillaria in the soil facilitates further infections and, thus, likewise endangers the survival of potentially resistant trees. In the following years, forest conversion and seed harvest in affected ash stands will have to be urgently considered to avoid tree gaps on a large scale. Furthermore, infection assays of potentially resistant trees with ensuing breeding programmes should be initially started for the conservation of this ecologically and

  4. The bladed Bangiales (Rhodophyta) of the South Eastern Pacific: Molecular species delimitation reveals extensive diversity.

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    Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Contreras-Porcia, Loretto; Ramírez, María Eliana; Macaya, Erasmo C; Contador, Cristian Bulboa; Woods, Helen; Wyatt, Christopher; Brodie, Juliet

    2016-01-01

    A molecular taxonomic study of the bladed Bangiales of the South Eastern Pacific (coast of Chile) was undertaken based on sequence data of the mitochondrial COI and chloroplast rbcL for 193 specimens collected from Arica (18°S) in the north to South Patagonia (53°S) in the south. The results revealed for the first time that four genera, Porphyra, Pyropia, Fuscifolium and Wildemania were present in the region. Species delimitation was determined based on a combination of a General Mixed Yule Coalescence model (GMYC) and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) coupled with detection of monophyly in tree reconstruction. The overall incongruence between the species delimitation methods within each gene was 29%. The GMYC method led to over-splitting groups, whereas the ABGD method had a tendency to lump groups. Taking a conservative approach to the number of putative species, at least 18 were recognized and, with the exception of the recently described Pyropia orbicularis, all were new to the Chilean flora. Porphyra and Pyropia were the most diverse genera with eight 'species' each, whereas only a 'single' species each was found for Fuscifolium and Wildemania. There was also evidence of recently diverging groups: Wildemania sp. was distinct but very closely related to W. amplissima from the Northern Hemisphere and raises questions in relation to such disjunct distributions. Pyropia orbicularis was very closely related to two other species, making species delimitation very difficult but provides evidence of an incipient speciation. The difference between the 'species' discovered and those previously reported for the region is discussed in relation to the difficulty of distinguishing species based on morphological identification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tuberculosis among transhumant pastoralist and settled communities of south-eastern Mauritania

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    Aissata Lô

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transhumant pastoralists of Mauritania were assumed to have a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB because of reduced access to diagnostic testing. No population-based survey on TB has been published for Mauritania. Objective: The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of presumptive TB cases among mobile pastoralists and villagers in a remote zone of Mauritania. Design: In the south-eastern province of Hodh Ech Chargui, 250 adult pastoralists and 250 villagers were randomly enrolled using multistage cluster sampling in February 2012. A TB centre nurse examined participants using a standard clinical protocol, and a participant questionnaire was completed. Focus group discussions and interviews were conducted with community members and health personnel, respectively. Results: Fourteen new presumptive TB cases were identified, leading to an overall prevalence of 2.8%, (95% confidence interval (CI 1.5–4.7%. The prevalence was non-significantly higher among villagers than pastoralists (3.6% vs. 2.0%. Assuming illness duration was 3 years and all presumptive cases started treatment, an overall crude incidence of 933 cases/100,000 was derived. Five of six presumptive cases in Djiguenni were confirmed by sputum smear microscopy, but none out of eight presumptive cases were confirmed in Néma, although the same nurse performed all clinical examinations in both departments. This result was attributed to the use of expired reagents in Néma. Communities mentioned distance rather than lack of information as the main constraint to seeking diagnosis, but poor diagnostic centre performance also delayed decision-making. Conclusions: TB prevalences were high among both pastoralists and villagers. None of the 14 presumptive cases sought prior diagnostic testing. TB diagnostic centres in the remote rural study zone were poorly equipped. These centres must remain in operation to reduce TB incidence in vulnerable communities in insecure

  6. The disappearing Mammy Water myth and the crisis of values in Oguta, South Eastern Nigeria

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    Lawrence N. Okwuosa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Igbo value system is in crisis with an increase in crime rate, kidnapping, stealing, sexual immorality and divorce. Though several reasons have been given for this malaise, the influence of myths on value system has not been explored. To do this, we chose Oguta town in South-Eastern Nigeria, known for its belief and worship of Mammy Water. The intent is to verify if the disappearing myth has any adverse socio-cultural implications on the town. As the disappearing myth deals principally with the people’s life, the research methodology used historical as well as the descriptive phenomenological methods. These methods explain the phenomenon as it appeared in Oguta objectively from the historical point of view. One-on-one interviews and focus group discussion with the natives were carried out, thus making oral literature an important element of this research. It comprises three groups: the first group has the age bracket of 70 years and above; the second group has 40–69 years as age bracket and the last group has 20–39 years as age bracket. Efforts were made to distinguish meaningful facts from fictitious or emotional ideas expressed by the participants. Information was also gathered from published works. The research was able to identify the myth’s disappearance as a major contributing factor to the town’s crisis of values.

  7. Employment Shifts in the Technical and Further Education Workforce in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Chandra

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes changes in Technical and Further Education (TAFE) work force in Victoria, Australia, that occurred during the period 1993-98. Main changes include increased participation of women, significant growth in part-time employment, decline in full-time (mainly male) employment, and an increased use of seasonal teachers. (Includes 10 figures and…

  8. The Killing of the Workers' Educational Association of Victoria: A Myth Challenged

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    Dadswell, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    On 21 March 1941, the Council of the Workers' Educational Association of Victoria, Australia, (the Association) voted the organisation out of existence. The demise was in no way contemplated, and there was no practical reason why the Council acted in the way it did. This paper is the story of the destruction of a successful adult education…

  9. Utilisation of primary total knee joint replacements across socioeconomic status in the Barwon Statistical Division, Australia, 2006-2007: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Sharon Lee; Stanford, Tyman; Wluka, Anita E; Page, Richard S; Graves, Stephen E; Kotowicz, Mark A; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Pasco, Julie A

    2012-01-01

    There are few Australian data that examine the association between total knee joint replacement (TKR) utilisation and socioeconomic status (SES). This study examined TKR surgeries with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA) performed for residents of Barwon Statistical Division (BSD) for 2006-2007. Cross-sectional. BSD, South-eastern Victoria, Australia All patients who underwent a TKR for OA, 2006-2007, and whose residential postcode was identified as within the BSD of Australia, and for whom SES data were available, were eligible for inclusion. Primary TKR data ascertained from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. Residential addresses were matched with the Australian Bureau of Statistics census data, and the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage was used to determine SES, categorised into quintiles whereby quintile 1 indicated the most disadvantaged and quintile 5 the least disadvantaged. Age-specific and sex-specific rates of TKR utilisation per 1000 person-years were reported for 10-year age bands. Females accounted for 62.7% of the 691 primary TKR surgeries performed during 2006-2007. The greatest utilisation rates of TKR in males was 7.6 observed in those aged >79 years, and in 10.2 in females observed in those aged 70-79 years. An increase in TKR was observed for males in SES quintile four compared to quintile 1 in which the lowest utilisation which was observed (p=0.04). No differences were observed in females across SES quintiles. Further investigation is warranted on a larger scale to examine the role that SES may play in TKR utilisation, and to determine whether any social disparities in TKR utilisation reflect health system biases or geographic differences.

  10. Practical value of urban geography in urban planning - case study of the south-eastern part of Trbovlje

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    Naja Marot

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Two centuries of mining have significantly changed the town of Trbovlje in economic, social and spatial terms. This is especially evident in the south-eastern part of the town. On the basis of general geographical analysis of spatial, demographic and economic development, a query of public opinion and a survey of experts' ideas, with description of successful English urban renewal project we try to find out the most effective model and context of the future development in the area in question.

  11. FORECASTING AND ADAPTATION METHODS FOR HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT USED FOR TOURIST PURPOSE IN CITIES OF SOUTH-EASTERN CHINA

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    Qai Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers methodological statements concerning formation and development of cultural and tourist zones and complexes in the Chinese cities with precious historical and cultural heritage. Characteristic types of historical buildings in the cities of the Tsiansu province which are located in the south-eastern part ofChinaare given in the paper. The paper contains methods for renovation of historical development for tourist purpose and gives proposals pertaining to arrangement of tourist service objects there that permit to preserve individual image of historical regions.

  12. Silurian deltaic progradation, Tassili n’Ajjer plateau, south-eastern Algeria: Sedimentology, ichnology and sequence stratigraphy

    OpenAIRE

    Djouder, Hocine; Lüning, Sebastian; Da Silva, Anne-Christine; Abdallah, Hussein; Boulvain, Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    The economic potential for unconventional shale oil and gas production in the Silurian of the Berkine – Ghadames and Illizi basins (BGI) in south-eastern Algeria has been recently confirmed through exploration drilling. The aim of the present paper attempts a better understanding of the Intra-Tassilian depression within the entire Silurian of the Tassili n’Ajjer plateau. The continuous deposits of the Silurian are exposed at the southern margin of the prolific BGI basins, in the Tassili n’Ajj...

  13. Deep-water chaunacid and lophiid anglerfishes (Pisces: Lophiiformes) off the south-eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, John H.; Ross, Steve W.; Sulak, K.J.; Sedberry, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Recent research cruises to deep (80-910 m) reef habitats off the south-eastern U.S. and in the northern Gulf of Mexico have provided new information on the diagnostic characteristics, behaviours, colour patterns in life, bottom associations, distributions and maximum sizes of species of the anglerfish genera Chaunax, Lophiodes and Sladenia. Chaunax stigmaeus occurred much further south than previously known (Blake Plateau off South Carolina), and all C. stigmaeus observed were found associated with dense beds of dead coral (Lophelia pertusa) rubble or on broken hard bottom. In contrast, Chaunax suttkusi was found on soft bottoms. Chaunax stigmaeus and C. suttkusi appear to be sympatric over a major portion of their ranges. Because knowledge of pigmentation in live or freshly caught Chaunax is critical to distinguish some members of the genus, changes in the colouration of C. suttkusi were noted and documented photographically immediately after death and after fixation. The yellow spots found on some, but not all specimens, temporarily disappeared completely after death, but they reappeared after fixation, slowly disappearing thereafter along with other carotenoid pigments. Lophiodes beroe and Lophiodes monodi were collected for the first time off the Atlantic coast of the U.S., being previously known only from the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and the northern coast of South America. For both species (L. beroe and L. monodi), the collections included the two largest known representatives of the species (400 and 325 mm standard length, respectively). Lophiodes beroe commonly occurred on L. pertusa rubble, and seemed to prefer this habitat. Occupying such a habitat that is deep and difficult to sample probably explains how this common species escaped detection. Only a single L. monodi was collected or observed, so this species appears to be uncommon in this geographic area or at least so on coral rubble habitat. Detailed aspects of the colour patterns of both species

  14. Long term carbon fluxes in south eastern U.S. pine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, R. G.; Martin, T.; Gonzalez-Benecke, C. A.; Sharp, J.

    2015-12-01

    Forests in the southeastern U.S. are a critical component of the national carbon balance storing a third of the total forest carbon (C) in conterminous USA. South eastern forests occupy 60% of the land area, with a large fraction dominated by the genus Pinus distributed in almost equal proportions of naturally-regenerated and planted stands. These stands often differ in structure (e.g., stem density, leaf area index (LAI)) and in the intensity with which they are managed (e.g. naturally-regenerated, older pine stands are often managed less intensively, with prescribed fire). We measured C fluxes using the eddy covariance approach (net ecosystem production, -NEP) in planted (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii) and naturally-regenerated mixed stand of long leaf (Pinus palustris Mill) and slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii) accompanied by biometric estimations of C balance. Measurements spanned more than a decade and included interannual climatic variability ranging from severe droughts (e.g. Palmer Drought severity index (PDSI) averaged -2.7 from January 2000 to May 2002, and -3.3 from June 2006 to April 2008), to years with tropical storms. Annual NEP for the older, naturally-regenerated stand fluctuated from -1.60 to -5.38 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 with an average of -2.73 ± 1.17 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 while in plantations after canopy closure NEP fluctuated from -4.0 to -8.2 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 with an average of -6.17 ± 1.34 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Annual NEP in naturally-regenerated pine was mainly driven by a combination of water availability and understory burning while in plantations it was driven by water availability after canopy closure. Woody and above ground net primary productivity (NPP) followed gross ecosystem carbon exchange (GEE) in both ecosystems. Naturally-regenerated and planted pine are a strong carbon sink under the current management and environmental fluctuations accumulating 28 and 130 Mg C ha-1 in a decade, respectively, and are among the most productive forests in

  15. Mapping of SPI drought index in South-Eastern Europe, theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Z.; Szentimrey, T.; Lakatos, M.; Gregorič, G.; Likso, T.

    2010-09-01

    In recent decades drought has a major impact on the economy in South-Eastern Europe (SEE). The annual precipitation has decreased from the beginning of 20th century. Additional problem is that the intensity of precipitation increases in average. The part of runoff became larger, and greater part of the precipitation runs to the rivers, streamlets, and less part infiltrates into the soil. Therefore, the available water reduces for vegetation. Summarized, the drought tendency increases in the region. The Drought Management Centre for South East Europe was established to deal with these events and try to improve drought management and policy. One method to calculate the extent of a drought event is the application of drought indices. Several indices are used for this purpose, one of them is the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) developed by McKee et al. The SPI is based only on precipitation and can be used to monitor conditions on a variety of time scales. The SPI calculation for any location is based on long-term precipitation record for a desired period. This long-term record is fitted to a gamma probability distribution, which is then transformed into the standard normal distribution. In the practice SPI is calculated mainly for 1, 3, 6 months. The SPI calculator which is offered on the project page of DMCSEE is applied for SPI calculations in this study. For the interpolation of SPI we use the MISH interpolation method developed at Hungarian Meteorological Service (Meteorological Interpolation based on Surface Homogenized Data Basis; Szentimrey, Bihari, 2007). The interpolation can be realized in to ways: 1. The SPI values are calculated in grid points after gridding (by gridding part of MISH) the station precipitation data series 2. The station based SPI values are interpolated by method MISH One of the main feature of MISH is that it use longtime data series for modelling of the necessary climate statistical parameters while the SPI calculations are also based

  16. On official texts in Slavic dialects in the County of Korcha, South-Eastern Albania

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    Максим [Maxim] Макарцев [Makartsev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On official texts in Slavic dialects in the County of Korcha, South Eastern Albania In the article I consider official texts in Slavic dialects in Albania. Three texts are taken as examples: “An Internal Handbook for Organising the Work of a Regional Committee at a District/Prefecture Level of MAEI [Macedonian Alliance for European Integration]” (2009, a letter written by the villagers of Boboshtica to the Bulgarian Exarch (1873, and The “Charter of the Society of Kaynas” (2006. They make use of language in its symbolic function – the way these texts are written is almost as important as what exactly is written. These texts have been created to showcase the language and to underline its uniqueness against the background of another language or idiom, or, to put it another way, to underline through the language the special status of the people that use it.   Oficjalne teksty w słowiańskich dialektach okolic Korczy w południowo-wschodniej Albanii Artykuł omawia oficjalne teksty powstałe w słowiańskich dialektach Albanii. Wybrano przykładowo trzy teksty: Wewnętrzne wytyczne w sprawie organizacji pracy komitetu MAEI na poziomie okręgu/prefektury (2009, list mieszkańców Boboszticy do bułgarskiego egzarchy (1873 i Statut towarzystwa „Kajnas” (2006. Te trzy teksty posługują się językiem w sposób symboliczny. To, w jakiej odmianie języka są napisane, jest równie ważne, jak ich treść. Teksty te powstały bądź po to, aby pokazać język i podkreślić jego unikalność na tle innego języka, lub po to, aby poprzez język podkreślić szczególny status ludzi, którzy się nim posługują.

  17. An ethnobotanical survey of traditionally used plants on Suva planina mountain (south-eastern Serbia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarić, Snežana; Mačukanović-Jocić, Marina; Djurdjević, Lola; Mitrović, Miroslava; Kostić, Olga; Karadžić, Branko; Pavlović, Pavle

    2015-12-04

    This study documents the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal importance of plants in the Suva planina mountain region (south-eastern Serbia). It is reflected in their high diversity and their wide range of uses in the treatment of the local population. The aim of this study was a comparative analysis of data collected in the Suva planina region with relevant data from the Western Balkans, which included identifying the 'most popular' plants, as well as those species which are used specifically for treatment solely in the research area. Ethnobotanical research was carried out between 2012 and 2014 and data was collected through both open and semi-structured interviews with locals. A total of 66 people were interviewed (37 women and 29 men), aged between 49 and 90 (with a mean age of 71). This study identified 128 plants and 2 fungi which are used in ethnomedicine, 5 plant species used in ethnoveterinary medicine, and 16 plants used for 'other' purposes. Lamiaceae (20), Asteraceae (17), Rosaceae (16), Brassicaceae (5), Alliaceae (4) and Apiaceae (4) have the greatest diversity of species. Results showed that Achillea mellefolium, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi, Gentiana lutea, Hypericum perforatum, Juglans regia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, Plantago lanceolata, Plantago major, Salvia officinalis, Sempervivum tectorum, Tilia cordata and Thymus sepyllum are the 'most popular' medicinal plants (UV=1). Those plants with the most phytotherapeutic uses are Gentiana cruciata (14), H. perforatum (11) and A. sativum (10), while the most common conditions treated with medicinal plants are respiratory (79), urogenital (53), gastrointestinal (51), skin (43) and those relating to the circulatory system (35). A comparative analysis of the data collected in the research area and that from other parts of the Western Balkans showed that there are great similarities within Serbia between Suva planina and the Zlatibor region (37.2%) and Kopaonik Mt. (32

  18. Sedimentological Comparison of Recent Storm and Tsunami Deposits from the South-Eastern Coastline of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouramanis, Chris; Switzer, Adam; Srinivasalu, Seshachalam; Anandasabari, Karthik; Pham, Dat; Carson, Stephen; Pilarczyk, Jessica; Hussain, Mohammad; Yap, Wenshu; Jones, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Storm and tsunami deposits have been identified and described from many siliciclastic coastlines globally, but detailed comparison of both known storm and tsunami deposits from the same coastlines are lacking. An opportunity to compare storm and tsunami sedimentary deposits was recognised following sediment deposition by Cyclone Thane (25th to 31st December 2011) that were superimposed on sediments deposited during the Indian Ocean Tsunami (26th December 2004) in a pit (DPM3a) near Cuddalore, on the south-eastern Indian coastline. A second pit, at Silver Beach (SB1) was located 2 km south of Pit DPM3a, was examined for comparison with Pit DPM3a. Pit DPM3a contained four distinct units, an oldest intertidal unit, the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, and a reworked aeolian sand that is capped by the Cyclone Thane deposit. Pit SB1 contained an oldest intertidal deposit, an estuarine beach and capped by the Cyclone Thane deposit. The identification of these units was verified from satellite imagery. The pits were examined at 1cm increments for grainsize and grain shape characteristics, loss on ignition, heavy mineral concentrations and microfossils. Representative samples from each unit were collected for detailed mineralogy analysis using X-ray Diffraction. A suite of statistical analyses, including exploratory data analysis techniques, analysis of variance and principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to compare the measured parameters and the individual deposits within and between pits DPM3a and SB1. Individual deposits showed significant differences in many of the parameters, but no individual variable was diagnostic of the deposits. PCA of Pit DPM3a suggested that the proportion of heavy minerals was the strongest parameter to distinguish the storm deposit from the tidal, aeolian and tsunami deposit, but that significant overlap between the deposits occurred. The application of DFA showed that in Pit DPM3a, the storm deposit

  19. Variations in Nutrients Composition of Most Commonly Consumed Cassava (Manihot esculenta Mixed Dishes in South-Eastern Nigeria

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    G. I. Davidson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in nutrient composition of most commonly consumed cassava (Manihot esculenta mixed dishes in South-eastern Nigeria were determined. Four communities were randomly selected from each of the five states in the South-east. Focus group discussions (FGD were conducted in each of the communities to determine commonly consumed foods and variations in recipes. 24-Hour dietary recall was conducted using 50 randomly selected households in those communities. Recipes collected during the FGD were standardized, prepared, and chemically analysed using standard methods. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Cassava-based dishes were the most commonly consumed in South-eastern Nigeria. Ninety-two percent of the study population ate cassava either in form of “fufu” (fermented cassava meal/garri (fermented and roasted cassava meal with soup or as “abacha” (tapioca salad. Commonly consumed soups were melon (Citrullus vulgaris seeds, “ora” (Pterocarpus soyauxii, and vegetable soups. Seven melon seed, six “ora,” and four vegetable soups and five “abacha” variations were identified. Except for vegetable soup, coefficient of variation for moisture was <10%, while large variations (19–71% were observed for energy and nutrients. These variations in cassava-based dishes need to be reflected in the country-specific food composition database to enable nutrient intake assessment or provision of dietary guidance using such food composition database as a reference material to be more effective.

  20. Ten-year secular trend of overweight and obesity in school children in south-eastern Poland

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    Artur Mazur

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the trend in prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren from south-eastern Poland over a 10-year period. Materials and Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected primary schools. In total, 4,248 children (2,182 boys and 2,066 girls, mean age 10.5±2.4 years, were examined in 1998, and 2,412 children (1,184 boys and 1,228 girls, mean age 10.5±2.3 years in 2008. In each school the entire population was studied. Results. In 2008, the prevalence of overweight in girls was 13.3% and obesity 7.7%, compared to 12.0% and 10.1% in 1998. The decrease in obesity prevalence was statistically significant. In boys, the prevalence of overweight in 2008 was 14.2% and obesity 6.4%, compared to 10.5% and 6.8% in 1998. The increase in overweight prevalence among boys was statistically significant. Conclusions. A trend toward stabilization of the prevalence of overweight and obesity was noted in school children from south-eastern Poland between 1998–2008. The declining prevalence of obesity in girls and increased prevalence of overweight in boys demonstrates that in this age group of children the secular trend is gender dependent.

  1. Markov chain analysis of the rainfall patterns of five geographical locations in the south eastern coast of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshach Tettey

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study develops an objective rainfall pattern assessment through Markov chain analysis using daily rainfall data from 1980 to 2010, a period of 30 years, for five cities or towns along the south eastern coastal belt of Ghana; Cape Coast, Accra, Akuse, Akatsi and Keta. Transition matrices were computed for each town and each month using the conditional probability of rain or no rain on a particular day given that it rained or did not rain on the previous day. The steady state transition matrices and the steady state probability vectors were also computed for each town and each month. It was found that, the rainy or dry season pattern observed using the monthly steady state rainfall vectors tended to reflect the monthly rainfall time series trajectory. Overall, the probability of rain on any day was low to average: Keta 0.227, Akuse 0.382, Accra 0.467, Cape Coast, 0.50 and Akatsi 0.50. In particular, for Accra, the rainy season was observed to be in the months of May to June and September to October. We also determined that the probability of rainfall generally tended to increase from east to west along the south eastern coast of Ghana.

  2. Strategic challenges in upgrading the population’s health in the transition countries of South Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Bjegovic-Mikanovic

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the devastating nineties of the last century a slow but steady improvement of the living conditions in the region of South Eastern Europe (SEE has be observed. However, so far only three countries, i.e. Bulgaria, Romania and Slovenia, have managed to ascent to the European Union and only Slovenia has joined the European currency. All others are still struggling with a difficult heritage of inappropriate vertical management structures, overstaffing and outmigration of the well educated young. This résumé applies also to the field of public health where, for example, the old hygienic tradition remained dominant, often maintaining huge laboratory facilities in the institutes of public health and very small numbers of staff being allocated to health promotion and modern participative management. This situation cannot be overcome easily nor in short term. Supported by funds from the German contribution to the European Stability Pact, the Forum for Public Health in South Eastern Europe (FPH-SEE: www.snz.hr/fphsee has established a permanent collaboration between the public health institutions in the region, including foremost the Schools of Public Health (SPH, the National Public Health Associations (PHA and some national Institutes of Public Health (IPH.

  3. Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of food crops and fruits in Owerri, South Eastern, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orisakwe Orish

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed lead, cadmium, and nickel level in food crops, fruits and soil samples from Ohaji and Umuagwo and Owerri in South Eastern Nigeria and estimated the potential health risks of metals. Samples were washed, oven-dried at 70–80°C for 24 h and powdered. Samples were digested with perchloric acid and nitric acid. Metals were analysed with Unicam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Result The concentration of Pb, Cd, and Ni in Ohaji exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations for agricultural soil as recommended by EU. Lead, Cd, and Ni in the food crops were highest in Oryza sativa, Glycine max, and Pentabacta microfila respectively. Highest levels of Pb, Cd, and Ni, in fruits were detected in Canarium schweinfurthii, Citrus reticulata, Ananas comosus respectively. The true lead and cadmium intake for the rice based meal were 3.53 and 0.034 g/kg respectively. Whereas the true intake of lead and cadmium for the cassava based meal were 19.42 and 0.049 g/kg respectively. Conclusion Local food stuff commonly available in South Eastern Nigeria villages may contribute to the body burden of heavy metal. This is of public health importance.

  4. Establishment of the South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority Resource Center for Children with Prenatal Alcohol/Drug Exposure

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    Gro C. C. Løhaugen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new initiative in the South-Eastern Health Region of Norway to establish a regional resource center focusing on services for children and adolescents aged 2–18 years with prenatal exposure to alcohol or other drugs. In Norway, the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum (FAS is not known but has been estimated to be between 1 and 2 children per 1000 births, while the prevalence of prenatal exposure to illicit drugs is unknown. The resource center is the first of its kind in Scandinavia and will have three main objectives: (1 provide hospital staff, community health and child welfare personnel, and special educators with information, educational courses, and seminars focused on the identification, diagnosis, and treatment of children with a history of prenatal alcohol/drug exposure; (2 provide specialized health services, such as diagnostic services and intervention planning, for children referred from hospitals in the South-Eastern Health Region of Norway; and (3 initiate multicenter studies focusing on the diagnostic process and evaluation of interventions.

  5. Identification of vulnerable sites in salts affected agricultural soils from South-Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Jose A.; Faz, Angel; Kalbitz, Karsten; Jansen, Boris; Silvia, Martinez-Martinez

    2010-05-01

    Soil salinization is one of the main problems in many soils under intensive agricultural practices, especially in arid and semiarid zones. Two important reasons for the occurrence of salinization are i) the use of low quality irrigation water and ii) climatic conditions reducing soil quality. The results of salinization can be quite serious. It limits the growing of crops, constrains agricultural productivity, and in severe cases, leads to the abandonment of agricultural soils. There are mainly two kinds of soil salinity: naturally occurring dry-land salinity and human-induced salinity caused by the low quality of irrigation water, excessive water and fertilizer applications. In both cases the development of plants and soil organisms is limited. Natural occurrence of salts in soils is very difficult to handle and requires higher investments than the reduction of human-induced salinity. For these reasons, identification of vulnerable sites is essential for sustainable agricultural management, especially in these semiarid and arid environments. The main aim of this study was to examine spatial and vertical distribution pattern of salts in a semi-arid study site in South-Eastern Spain in order to identify vulnerable sites. In order to achieve this objective, surface soil samples were collected in January and July 2009 at 48 sites located in a representative lemon production area close to City of Murcia, covering a surface area of 44 km2. The area was divided using a square grid of 1000 m and the samples were taken from these squares. The ionic concentrations were used as the input data for distribution maps. The software used for the spatial analysis was Arcview 3.1. An interpolation method called the Inverse Distanced Weighted (IDW) method was adopted for the interpolation of the data. The results indicated that the concentrations of most anions are higher in summer. The difference was particularly large for chloride, most likely because of its high mobility and

  6. THE FIELD OF RECENT TECTONIC STRESSES IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH-EASTERN ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. L. Rebetsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available  The publication presents results of the study aimed at reconstruction of recent crustal stresses for Central and South-Eastern Asia with application of the method of cataclastic analysis of displacements caused by ruptures, which was proposed by Yu.L. Rebetsky. Two sources of seismic data were referred to: (1 the catalog comprising data from publications covering the period from 1904 to 1992, and (2 the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT Database of earthquake mechanisms (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqarchives/sopor, which covers the period from 1978 to 2010. The method of cataclastic analysis in its earliest version was applied in 1996 and 1997 when seismic data from the first catalog were analyzed, and it yielded only parameters of stress ellipsoids; the reconstructions were published in a Russian-Chinese journal (it does not exist now. In this paper, these reconstructions are presented in new graphical formats of GIS. Data from the Global CMT Database were analyzed by the method of cataclastic analysis in the new revision with application of its stages 1 and 2. Based on the calculations, orientations of axes of principal stresses, types of ellipsoids, correlations between spherical and deviatoric components of stress tensors, and reduced stresses were determined. The two sets of reconstructions are compared in this paper. The catalog of earthquake focal mechanisms for the period from 1904 to 1992 consolidated information provided by different authors, and thus focal data for many seismic events were highly inconsistent; therefore, the reliability of reconstructions based on such data seems to be lower than that on the basis the Global CMT Database for the period from 1978 to 2010. Some of the reconstructed stress tensor parameters are mapped. For the areas which data are given in the Global CMT Database and considered as more reliable, mapping is based on stress parameters calculated from such data. For the areas that are not covered by the

  7. Understanding virtual water flows: A multiregion input-output case study of Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Manfred

    2009-09-01

    This article explains and interprets virtual water flows from the well-established perspective of input-output analysis. Using a case study of the Australian state of Victoria, it demonstrates that input-output analysis can enumerate virtual water flows without systematic and unknown truncation errors, an issue which has been largely absent from the virtual water literature. Whereas a simplified flow analysis from a producer perspective would portray Victoria as a net virtual water importer, enumerating the water embodiments across the full supply chain using input-output analysis shows Victoria as a significant net virtual water exporter. This study has succeeded in informing government policy in Australia, which is an encouraging sign that input-output analysis will be able to contribute much value to other national and international applications.

  8. Urbanization and mental health: psychiatric morbidity, suicide and violence in the State of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupinski, J

    1979-06-01

    Australia is one of the most urbanized countries in the world with over 85% of the population living in metropolitan and other urban areas. More important, the change from a predominantly rural society to an urbanized society has occurred within the last 100 years. To assess the effects of urbanization on mental health, rates of admissions to psychiatric institutions, suicides and violent crime in Victoria have been analysed for the last hundred years. Data on admissions to psychiatric facilities in Victoria from metropolitan, other urban and rural areas, as well as results of community health surveys carried out in metropolitan and rural areas were compared to examine for evidence of urban-rural differences in psychiatric morbidity. The findings do not support the notion that the level of psychiatric and psychosocial disorders in Victoria are related to urbanization or to urban living.

  9. Hydrochemical and toxicological characteristics of state national nature park “Kolsay Kolderi" lakes (Kungei Alatau, South-Eastern Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa Elena G.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In August 2015 four ultrafresh mountain lakes of Kolsay National Nature Park, located at an altitude of 1829–3170 m a.s.l., were examined. The water mineralization of the lakes decreased from 123.9 to 26.6 mg/dm3 with decreasing altitude above sea level. The concentration of dissolved organic matter and nitrogen compounds was at levels below the temporary maximum allowable concentration (MAC. Phosphorus has not been found in the water. The concentration of iron in the water has reached 44.0–440.0 g/dm3. The concentration of heavy metals in the water, except copper, was 10–100 times lower than the maximum allowable concentrations for standards of fishery waterbodies. The concentration of copper in water exceeded the permissible limits 2.6–5.5 times. The concentration of lead, copper, zinc, nickel and chromium in water has decreased from Lower Kolsay to Upper Kolsay. The most highland and shallow lake, which located under the Sarybulak mountain pass, had a higher concentration of lead, copper, zinc and nickel in the water than in the downstream lakes. The concentration of zinc, cadmium, lead, chromium, cobalt and nickel in the water of the other high mountain reservoirs of South-Eastern Kazakhstan has not exceeded 0.7 of MAC temporary. The concentration of copper has reached 1.5–13.9 of MAC temporary. In mountain lakes and reservoirs, the metal concentrations in the water decreased at lower altitudes, similar but less pronounce to their spatial dynamics in mountain rivers. Background concentration of cadmium and zinc in the mountain reservoirs of South-Eastern Kazakhstan was equivalent to the uncontaminated waters of the Tien Shan, the Alps and the Western Sayan mountain ranges. However, the concentration of copper, lead and chromium were higher respectively. Considering the remoteness of the region from the sources of anthropogenic influences, the background concentrations of heavy metals for water reservoirs of South-Eastern Kazakhstan

  10. Australian doctors and the visual arts. Part 5. Doctor-artists in South Australia, Tasmania, Western Australia and Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D G

    1986-11-17

    The contributions of Australian doctors to the visual arts are being described in a series of six articles. Work from doctors in New South Wales and Victoria has been covered previously. Now activities in South Australia, Tasmania, Western Australia, Queensland and the Northern Territory are presented.

  11. Morphological records of storm floods exemplified by the impact of the 1872 Baltic storm on a sandy spit system in south-eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B; Bendixen, Mette; Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt

    2014-01-01

    Beach-ridge systems are important geo-archives providing evidence for past wave climate including catastrophic storm flood events. This study investigates the morphological impacts of the 1872 Baltic storm flood on a beach-ridge system (sandy spit) in south-eastern Denmark and evaluates the frequ...

  12. A hypocystal archeopyle in a freshwater dinoflagellate from the Peridinium umbonatum group (Dinophyceae) from Lake Nero di Cornisello, South Eastern Alps, Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tardio, Massimiliano; Ellegaard, Marianne; Lundholm, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Cornisello, a low-alkalinity high mountain lake of the Adamello mountain range (2233m above sea level, South Eastern Alps, Italy). The archeopyle is large, clearly hypocystal, polygonal, and slightly peanut-shaped. The species producing this cyst belongs to the Peridinium umbonatum group and is described...

  13. Letter to Editor: RESITA NETWORK - ACADEMIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND INNOVATION NETWORK OF SOUTH EASTERN EUROPEAN UNIVERSITIES: AN EXAMPLE OF SUCCESSFUL NETWORKING IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND INNOVATION AT ACADEMIC LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schulte

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The foundation, development, activities, and wider social impact of the AcademicEntrepreneurship and Innovation Network of South Eastern European Universities, or shortlyRESITA Network, is presented in this paper as a positive example of successful networking inentrepreneurship and innovation at academic level.

  14. Near-vertical seismic reflection image using a novel acquisition technique across the Vrancea Zone and Foscani Basin, south-eastern Carpathians (Romania).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panea, I; Stephenson, R.A.; Knapp, C.; Mocanu, V.I.; Drijkoningen, G.; Matenco, L.C.; Knapp, J.; Prodehl, K.

    2005-01-01

    The DACIA PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Process in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic sounding survey was performed in August-September 2001 in south-eastern Romania, at the same time as the regional deep refraction seismic survey VRANCEA 2001. The main goal of the

  15. Wood pellets, what else? : Greenhouse gas parity times of European electricity from wood pellets produced in the south-eastern United States using different softwood feedstocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, Steef V.; Duden, Anna S.; Junginger, Martin; Dale, Virginia H.; van der Hilst, Floortje

    Several EU countries import wood pellets from the south-eastern United States. The imported wood pellets are (co-)fired in power plants with the aim of reducing overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from electricity and meeting EU renewable energy targets. To assess whether GHG emissions are

  16. Morphological characteristics of the Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni Gmelin, 1789 in the south-eastern part of Kosovo and Metohija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labus Nenad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of the analysis of morphological characteristics of the Hermann's tortoise from three localities in south­eastern part of Kosovo and Metohija. 75 adult Hermann's tortoises (33 males and 42 females have been analyzed. Morphometric analysis has been done on 7 traits. We considered the plastron black pigmentation patterns and frequencies for each pigmentation states were calculated. Females were larger than males for all morphometric traits. Based on the most important dimensions of carapace and plastron length and width, the Hermann's tortoises from the south-eastern part of Kosovo and Metohija are the most similar to the individuals of the population from the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula (the southern part of Serbia and the northern part of Greece. In relation to the populations from central and eastern Serbia, individuals from our studied area have higher values.

  17. Sympatric and allopatric combinations of Lymnaea columella and Fasciola hepatica from southern and south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, L H L; Lima, W S; Guimaraes, M P

    2009-09-01

    Experimental infections of Lymnaea columella with Fasciola hepatica were carried out to test the effect of sympatric and allopatric combinations between parasite and host, by using snails and flukes from southern and south-eastern Brazil. Four groups of 50 snails were infected with four miracidia per snail: two groups in sympatric and two groups in allopatric combinations. Sympatric combinations between parasite and host were more efficient than allopatric ones when snails from Itajubá were used, but the opposite was observed in infections involving snails from Pelotas. The sympatric association between L. columella and F. hepatica from Itajubá was significantly higher than in the other combinations. We concluded that the host-parasite relationship between L. columnella and F. hepatica may vary according to the geographical origin of the snails and flukes involved.

  18. Trade Facilitation Indicators and their Potential Impact on Trade Between the Countries of South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toševska-Trpčevska Katerina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we base our analysis on previous OECD findings and analysis of trade facilitation indicators for assessing relative economic and trade impact of specific trade facilitation measures for the countries of South-Eastern Europe. In the analysis we plan to include all CEFTA-2006 members, except Moldova, and other countries which are part of this region: Bulgaria, Romania and Greece. We plan to construct twelve trade facilitation indicators (TFIs that correspond to the main policy areas under negotiations at the WTO. The indicators are composed from seventy-eight variables, whose values are drawn from publicly available data. We plan to use these indicators in gravity model in order to estimate the impact of those policy areas on trade volumes between the countries of the region. The use of individual trade facilitation indicators should also enable countries to better assess which trade facilitation measures deserve priority.

  19. Human Linguatulosis Caused by Linguatula serrata in the City of Kerman, South-eastern Iran- Case Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostam Yazdani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human linguatulosis poses an important medical and veterinary concern in endemic countries. Animals, as reservoir host, play a major role in transmission of infestation and epidemiology of the disease. This study reports a case of human linguatulosis caused by Linguatula serrata in the city of Kerman, South-eastern Iran. A woman suffering from upper respiratory symptoms is presented. The patient consumed raw liver of sheep who was admitted to the Afzalipour University Hospital in Kerman for the symptoms of upper respiratory tract. In microscopic examination of the nasopharyngeal discharge, L. serrata was detected. This report has future medical implication in precise diagnosis of L. serrata in patients with complaints of nasopharyngeal symptoms.

  20. The female reproductive cycle of the neotropical snake Atractus pantostictus (Fernandes and Puorto, 1993) from south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Resende, F C; Nascimento, L B

    2015-06-01

    Data on reproductive activity of fossorial species are limited because the specimens are difficult to be observed and captured. Here in, we present the reproductive cycle of female Atractus pantostictus, a fossorial neotropical species, and the sexual maturity of males and females in south-eastern Brazil. The female reproductive cycle of A. pantostictus is seasonal, with vitellogenic follicles being found from September to April and eggs in November, February, March and April with the number varying between two and four. Spermatozoa were found in the lumen of the glandular and non-glandular uterus in females collected during the rainy season. Sperm storage tubules were found in the posterior infundibulum of the females, where the storage of sperm occurs for a short time. The storage may occur because mating and ovulation are dissociated. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Influential Pioneers of Creative Music Education in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Throughout history, societies have been fascinated with creativity and the creative personality. Researching creativity and its place in music education however has been fraught with difficulties. After sixty years of intensive study mainly in the USA, there is still no accepted methodology for researching creativity or an agreed definition. In…

  2. Is Ips grandicollis disrupting the biological control of Sirex noctilio in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus J. Carnegie; Andrew D. Loch

    2011-01-01

    Sirex woodwasp (Sirex noctilio) is considered one of the most serious threats to exotic Pinus radiata plantations in Australia. This exotic wasp has been established in Australia for more than six decades. The most significant outbreak occurred in the Green Triangle region of southeastern South Australia-western Victoria in the...

  3. Using Key Informant Method to Determine the Prevalence and Causes of Childhood Blindness in South-Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaji, Ada E; Ezegwui, Ifeoma R; Shiweobi, Jude O; Mamah, Cyril C; Okoloagu, Mary N; Onwasigwe, Ernest N

    2017-12-01

    To determine the prevalence and causes of childhood blindness in an underserved community in south-eastern Nigeria using the key informant method. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Key informants (KI) appointed by their respective communities received 1-day training on identification of blind children in their communities. Two weeks later, the research team visited the agreed sites within the community and examined the identified children. The World Health Organization eye examination record for blind children was used for data collection. Data entry and analysis were done with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0. Fifteen blind or severely visually impaired children (age range 3 months to 15 years) were identified in this community; nine of these were brought by the KIs. The prevalence of childhood blindness/severe visual impairment (BL/SVI) was 0.12 per 1000 children. By anatomical classification, operable cataract in 6 (40.0%) was the leading cause of BL/SVI in the series; followed by optic nerve lesions (atrophy/hypoplasia) in 3 (20.0%). The etiology of BL/SVI is unknown for the majority of the children (66.7%). It was presumed hereditary in four children (26.7%). Sixty percent of the blindness was judged avoidable. Only three children (20.0%) were enrolled in the Special Education Centre for the Blind. The prevalence of childhood BL/SVI in our study population is low but over half of the blindness is avoidable. There may be a significant backlog of operable childhood cataract in south-eastern Nigeria. The KI method is a practical method for case finding of blind children in rural communities.

  4. Wild and native plants and mushrooms sold in the open-air markets of south-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper-Pakosz, Renata; Pietras, Marcin; Łuczaj, Łukasz

    2016-10-07

    The study of plants and fungi sold in open-air markets is an important part of ethnobotanical enquiry. Only few such studies were carried out in Europe. Four of the largest open-air markets of south-eastern Poland were visited regularly, and the plants sold in them were recorded between 2013 and 2015. The aim of the study was to record native and/or wild species sold in the markets. All the plants sold in the markets were photographed regularly. In each market, 25 sellers were interviewed. Voucher specimens were collected and fungi were identified using DNA barcoding. Altogether, 468 species of plants were recorded, 117 of them native to south-eastern Poland - 19 only collected from the wild and 11 both wild and cultivated. Seventeen of the species are under legal protection. Most protected plants were sold from cultivation, although proper authorization procedures had not been performed. Thirty-two species of fungi were sold (including two cultivated species), all of them for culinary purposes. Two species (Lactarius quieticolor, Leccinum schistophilum) are new to the mycobiota of Poland. Ornamental plants constituted a large section of the market, and they dominated the group of native species. Food plants dominated among wild-collected plants and were sold mainly as fruits for jams, juices and alcoholic drinks, or as culinary herbs. Very few medicinal or green vegetable plants were sold. An interesting feature of the markets was the sale of Ledum palustre as an insect repellent. Finding two species of fungi which are new to Poland highlights the importance of DNA barcoding in ethnomycological studies. Most items in the markets are ornamental plants, or edible fruits and mushrooms. Very few medicinal plants and green vegetables are sold, which differentiates the markets from southern European ones. Such a pattern is probably the model for most central European markets.

  5. Synchrotron radiation in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Synchrotron radiation research in Australia is entering a new era with the commencement of the Australian synchrotron project, which will construct a 3 GeV third generation synchrotron facility at Monash University in Victoria. To date Australian scientists have used overseas facilities, primarily those managed by the Australian Synchrotron Research Program in Japan and the USA. A fast developing and maturing Australian synchrotron user program has developed around these overseas facilities. The field of synchrotron radiation and its importance to a wide range of research will be introduced and Australia's current involvement and facilities will be described. The current status and technical specifications of the Australian synchrotron will be presented. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  6. Casemix funding in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, J; Hindle, D; Phelan, P D; Hanson, R

    1998-06-01

    Casemix funding for hospitals with the use of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), which organise patients' conditions into similar clinical categories with similar costs, was introduced in Australia five years ago. It has been applied in different ways and to a greater or lesser extent in different Australian States. Only Victoria and South Australia have implemented casemix funding across all healthcare services. Attempts have been made to formally evaluate its impact, but they have not met the required scientific standards in controlling for confounding factors. Casemix funding remains a much-discussed issue. In this Debate, Braithwaite and Hindle take a contrary position, largely to stimulate policy debate; Phelan defends the casemix concept and advocates retaining its best features; and Hanson adds a plea for consumer input.

  7. Possible implications of Rabbit Calicivirus Disease for malleefowl Leipoa ocellata Gould in the north-west of Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandell, P.

    1999-01-01

    Parks Victoria and the Department of Natural Resources & Environment (NRE) are collaborating with agencies from the other States and the Commonwealth of Australia in a national program of detailed monitoring and surveillance of the effects of Rabbit Calicivirus Disease (RCD). A component of the

  8. Adverse events in surgical inpatients: A comparative analysis of public hospitals in Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Katharina Hauck; Xueyan Zhao; Terri Jackson

    2010-01-01

    We compare adverse event rates for surgical inpatients across 36 public hospitals in the state of Victoria, Australia, conditioning on differences in patient complexity across hospitals. We estimate separate models for elective and emergency patients which stay at least one night in hospitals, using fixed effects complementary log-log models to estimate AEs as a function of patient and episode characteristics, and hospital effects. We use 4 years of patient level administrative hospital data ...

  9. Spiraal : uus Victoria & Alberti muuseum Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Daniel Libeskindi projekt Victoria & Alberti Muuseumi laiendamiseks on põhjustanud konservatiivsete londonlaste pahameele, kuid kutsunud esile ka hulgaliselt toetusavaldusi. Muuseumi uus osa (kokkuvarisemise piiril näiva ehitisena) peaks külastajaile avatama 2004. a.

  10. Balloon launching station, Mildura, Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mildura Balloon Launching Station was established in 1960 by the Department of Supply (now the Department of Manufacturing Industry) on behalf of the United States Atomic Energy Commission (USAEC) to determine the content of radioactive material in the upper atmosphere over Australia. The Station location and layout, staffing, balloon launching equipment, launching, tracking and recovery are described. (R.L.)

  11. Interventions that effectively target Anopheles funestus mosquitoes could significantly improve control of persistent malaria transmission in south-eastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaindoa, Emmanuel W; Matowo, Nancy S; Ngowo, Halfan S; Mkandawile, Gustav; Mmbando, Arnold; Finda, Marcelina; Okumu, Fredros O

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is transmitted by many Anopheles species whose proportionate contributions vary across settings. We re-assessed the roles of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus, and examined potential benefits of species-specific interventions in an area in south-eastern Tanzania, where malaria transmission persists, four years after mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). Monthly mosquito sampling was done in randomly selected households in three villages using CDC light traps and back-pack aspirators, between January-2015 and January-2016, four years after the last mass distribution of LLINs in 2011. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify members of An. funestus and Anopheles gambiae complexes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect Plasmodium sporozoites in mosquito salivary glands, and to identify sources of mosquito blood meals. WHO susceptibility assays were done on wild caught female An. funestus s.l, and physiological ages approximated by examining mosquito ovaries for parity. A total of 20,135 An. arabiensis and 4,759 An. funestus were collected. The An. funestus group consisted of 76.6% An. funestus s.s, 2.9% An. rivulorum, 7.1% An. leesoni, and 13.4% unamplified samples. Of all mosquitoes positive for Plasmodium, 82.6% were An. funestus s.s, 14.0% were An. arabiensis and 3.4% were An. rivulorum. An. funestus and An. arabiensis contributed 86.21% and 13.79% respectively, of annual entomological inoculation rate (EIR). An. arabiensis fed on humans (73.4%), cattle (22.0%), dogs (3.1%) and chicken (1.5%), but An. funestus fed exclusively on humans. The An. funestus populations were 100% susceptible to organophosphates, pirimiphos methyl and malathion, but resistant to permethrin (10.5% mortality), deltamethrin (18.7%), lambda-cyhalothrin (18.7%) and DDT (26.2%), and had reduced susceptibility to bendiocarb (95%) and propoxur (90.1%). Parity rate was higher in An. funestus (65.8%) than

  12. Qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastics particles during the expeditionary measurement program in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esiukova, Elena; Bagaeva, Margarita; Chubarenko, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    According to the tasks of the Russian Science Foundation project "Physical and dynamical properties of marine microplastics particles and their transport in a basin with vertical and horizontal salinity gradient on the example of the Baltic Sea" number 15-17-10020, a comprehensive expeditionary program of measurements in the South-Eastern Baltic started. The project is aimed at finding solutions for a number of problems caused by superfluous plastic pollution in the World Ocean and, in particular, in the Baltic Sea. This pollution has been accumulating for years and just recently it has become obvious that only multidisciplinary approach (geographical, biological, chemical, etc.) to the issues related to the processes of transformation of properties and propagation of plastic particles will allow the study of physical aspects of the problem. During the first stage of the study samples should be selected from the water surface, water column at various horizons, bottom sediments in the Baltic Sea, from different areas at the beaches - in order to further examine the qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastic particles in different seasons for different hydrophysical situations. Reconnaissance survey was begun to choose the fields for research close to point and distributed sources of microplastics. Preference is given to those beaches that are exposed to maximum anthropogenic pollution: areas around the town of Baltiysk, the northern part of the Vistula Spit (near the settlement of Kosa), and the Sambia peninsula coast (settlements of Yantarny, Donskoye, Primorye, Kulikovo, towns of Svetlogorsk, Pionersky, Zelenogradsk). Locations for experimental sites were found in order to assess time for formation of microplastics (Vistula Spit, Kosa settlement). In June-November, 2015 there were 5 expeditions in the waters of the South-Eastern Baltic, 7 expeditions along the coast line of the Baltic Sea (in Kaliningrad Oblast), and 5 expeditions to the Vistula

  13. Comparison through fission-track analysis of portions of Australia and Antarctica adjacent prior to continental drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stump, E.; Fitzgerald, P.G.

    1990-01-01

    Australia and Antarctica have been reconstructed by the matching of three terranes in western Victoria with three terranes in northern Victoria Land. Apparent fission-track ages from granitic rocks of these matched regions are compared. In western Victoria, Australia, data reflect a history of slow cooling following intrusion in early to middle Paleozoic time. In northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, a complex history of cooling and uplift is indicated, with uplift of the present-day mountains commencing approximately 50 Ma. Fission tracks in apatites from most samples from northern Victoria Land were completely re-set to zero by the thermal effects of Jurassic tholeiitic magmatism. Apatite in three samples however, predate the Jurassic and were only partially re-set by this event. Apparent sphene fission-track ages indicate that the three terranes in northern Victoria Land have shared a common thermal history since the Devonian. With the exception of one small area in western Victoria, neither western Victoria nor northern Victoria Land data show a clear influence of rifting and breakup in the late Cretaceous. Overall, the data indicate that once the breakup of Australia and Antarctica had occurred, their thermal and tectonic histories evolved independently along differing paths. (author)

  14. Prevalence of 1691G>A FV mutation in Poland compared with that in other Central, Eastern and South-Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Adler

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The 1691G>A FV variant has been described as a common genetic risk factor in venous thromboembolism. The purpose of this study was to provide a further frequency value for 1691G>A FV in Poland and to collate summary data from Central (Poland, Czech, Slovakia, Eastern (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and South-Eastern (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Bulgaria European countries. For this purpose in 2007 the 1691G>A FV variant was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism from DNA collected in 2005-2006. We studied 650 subjects: 400 newborns and 250 older individuals (mean age 46.1 y from Poland and compared results with reports from other countries, as well as with the frequency trend of 845G>A HFE across South-Eastern European countries using centroid cities. From our 1691G>A FV study we identified 626 GG homozygotes, 23 GA heterozygotes, and i AA homozygote (n = 650, giving an A allele frequency of 1.9%, and a summed frequency value for Poland of 2.0% (n = 1588; the frequency in Central European countries was 3.9% (n = 4559, mostly due to the high value in the Czech Republic: 5.1% (n = 2819; the South-Eastern European countries had 2.5% (n = 2410. Among the Eastern European countries the 1691G>A FV allele frequency was 1.9% (n=791, between the South-Eastern and Eastern European countries there was no significant difference (p=0.17. We confirm that the 1691G>A FV allele frequency in Poland, as well as other countries compared, is significantly lower than that in Czech.

  15. Prevalence of 1691G>A FV mutation in Poland compared with that in other Central, Eastern and South-Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Grażyna; Clark, Jeremy S C; Loniewska, Beata; Czerska, Ewa; Salkic, Nermin N; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej

    2012-05-01

    The 1691G>A FV variant has been described as a common genetic risk factor in venous thromboembolism. The purpose of this study was to provide a further frequency value for 1691G>A FV in Poland and to collate summary data from Central (Poland, Czech, Slovakia), Eastern (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine) and South-Eastern (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Bulgaria) European countries. For this purpose in 2007 the 1691G>A FV variant was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism from DNA collected in 2005-2006. We studied 650 subjects: 400 newborns and 250 older individuals (mean age 46.1 y) from Poland and compared results with reports from other countries, as well as with the frequency trend of 845G>A HFE across South-Eastern European countries using centroid cities. From our 1691G>A FV study we identified 626 GG homozygotes, 23 GA heterozygotes, and 1 AA homozygote (n = 650), giving an A allele frequency of 1.9%, and a summed frequency value for Poland of 2.0% (n = 1588); the frequency in Central European countries was 3.9% (n = 4559), mostly due to the high value in the Czech Republic: 5.1% (n = 2819); the South-Eastern European countries had 2.5% (n = 2410). Among the Eastern European countries the 1691G>A FV allele frequency was 1.9% (n=791), between the South-Eastern and Eastern European countries there was no significant difference (p=0.17). We confirm that the 1691G>A FV allele frequency in Poland, as well as other countries compared, is significantly lower than that in Czech.

  16. Potential Risk Areas of Aedes albopictus in South-Eastern Iran: A Vector of Dengue Fever, Zika, and Chikungunya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Nejati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the rapid and global spread of Zika, chikungunya, yellow fever, and dengue fever by Aedes albopictus is well documented and may be facilitated by changes in climate. To avert and manage health risks, climatic and topographic information can be used to model and forecast which areas may be most prone to the establishment of Ae. albopictus. We aimed to weigh and prioritize the predictive value of various meteorological and climatic variables on distributions of Ae. albopictus in south-eastern Iran using the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Out of eight factors used to predict the presence of Ae. albopictus, the highest weighted were land use, followed by temperature, altitude, and precipitation. The inconsistency of this analysis was 0.03 with no missing judgments. The areas predicted to be most at risk of Ae. albopictus-borne diseases were mapped using Geographic Information Systems and remote sensing data. Five-year (2011–2015 meteorological data was collected from 11 meteorological stations and other data was acquired from Landsat and Terra satellite images. Southernmost regions were at greatest risk of Ae. albopictus colonization as well as more urban sites connected by provincial roads. This is the first study in Iran to determine the regional probability of Ae. albopictus establishment. Monitoring and collection of Ae. albopictus from the environment confirmed our projections, though on-going field work is necessary to track the spread of this vector of life-threatening disease.

  17. Habitat suitability of Anopheles vector species and association with human malaria in the Atlantic Forest in south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, Gabriel Zorello; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2011-08-01

    Every year, autochthonous cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria occur in low-endemicity areas of Vale do Ribeira in the south-eastern part of the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, where Anopheles cruzii and Anopheles bellator are considered the primary vectors. However, other species in the subgenus Nyssorhynchus of Anopheles (e.g., Anopheles marajoara) are abundant and may participate in the dynamics of malarial transmission in that region. The objectives of the present study were to assess the spatial distribution of An. cruzii, An. bellator and An. marajoara and to associate the presence of these species with malaria cases in the municipalities of the Vale do Ribeira. Potential habitat suitability modelling was applied to determine both the spatial distribution of An. cruzii, An. bellator and An. marajoara and to establish the density of each species. Poisson regression was utilized to associate malaria cases with estimated vector densities. As a result, An. cruzii was correlated with the forested slopes of the Serra do Mar, An. bellator with the coastal plain and An. marajoara with the deforested areas. Moreover, both An. marajoara and An. cruzii were positively associated with malaria cases. Considering that An. marajoara was demonstrated to be a primary vector of human Plasmodium in the rural areas of the state of Amapá, more attention should be given to the species in the deforested areas of the Atlantic Forest, where it might be a secondary vector.

  18. Exceptional Chromosomal Evolution and Cryptic Speciation of Blind Mole Rats Nannospalax leucodon (Spalacinae, Rodentia from South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Savić

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mole rats are exclusively subterranean and highly specialized rodents. Their long lifespans, remarkable anti-cancer mechanisms, and various distinctive adaptive features make them a useful research model. Moreover, opposing convergence of morphological traits, they have developed extremely high karyotype variability. Thus, 74 chromosomal forms have been described so far and new ones are being revealed continuously. These evolved during the process of rapid radiation and occur in different biogeographical regions. During research into their reproductive biology we have already provided substantial evidence for species-level separation of these taxa. Here, we review diverse chromosomal forms of the lesser blind mole rat, Mediterranean Nannospalax leucodon, distributed in South-eastern Europe, their karyotype records, biogeography, origin, and phylogeny from our extensive research. In the light of new data from molecular genetic studies, we question some former valuations and propose a cryptospecies rank for seven reproductively isolated chromosomal forms with sympatric and parapatric distribution and clear ecogeographical discrepances in their habitats, as well as new experimental and theoretical methods for understanding the courses of speciation of these unique fossorial mammals.

  19. Hydration kinetics of some durum and bread wheat varieties grown in south-eastern region of turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirm, A.

    2017-01-01

    Hydration kinetics of wheat varieties grown in South-Eastern Region of Turkey, covering a temperature range from 25 to 50 degree C was examined. Peleg's model together with Arrhenius relationship were successfully used to evaluate water uptake of some Durum (Local names; Zenit and BurgosBurgos) and Bread (Local names; Dariyel and Karatopak) wheat varieties during soaking at a temperature range of 25-50 degree C. Model was found to be suitable for describing the soaking behaviour of wheat kernels with a coefficient of determination (R2) and Root mean square error (RMSE) greater than 0.9805, and less than 0.051, respectively. The Peleg rate and capacity constants, K1 and K2, were affected by temperature and wheat varieties. Activation energy values of Zenit, BurgosBurgos, Dariyel and Karatopak wheats were found as 39.94, 38.03, 36.25 and 29.54 kJ mol-1, respectively. Zenit wheat was the least hydrated while Karatopak was the most hydrated one due to kernel size and protein content. General equations to describe the water uptake of wheat varieties as a function of soaking time, temperature and initial moisture content were developed. These derived equations can be used for wheat operations such as tempering, mixing, knedding etc. (author)

  20. Characterization of non-calcareous 'thin' red clay from south-eastern Brazil: applicability in wall tile manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, S. J.G.; Holanda, J. N.F., [Grupo de Materiais Ceramicos - LAMAV-CCT, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    In this work the use of 'thin' red clay from south-eastern Brazil (Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ) as raw material for the manufacture of wall tile was investigated. A wide range of characterization techniques was employed, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), grain-size analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The wall tile body was prepared by the dry process. The tile pieces were uniaxially pressed and fired between 1080 - 1180 deg C using a fast-firing cycle. The following technological properties were determined: linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density, and flexural strength. The development of the microstructure was followed by SEM and XRD analyses. It was found that the 'thin' red clay is kaolinitic type containing a substantial amount of quartz. The results also showed that the 'thin' red clay could be used in the manufacture of wall tiles, as they present properties compatible with those specified for class BIII of ISO 13006 standard. (author)

  1. Behaviour and Ecology of Male Aye-Ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) in the Kianjavato Classified Forest, South-Eastern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randimbiharinirina, Doménico Roger; Raharivololona, Brigitte M; Hawkins, Melissa T R; Frasier, Cynthia L; Culligan, Ryan R; Sefczek, Timothy M; Randriamampionona, Richard; Louis, Edward E

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies found that aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) consume a variety of non-invertebrate resources, supporting the hypothesis that aye-ayes are too large-bodied to focus feeding efforts on insects. However, these conclusions were based on introduced populations, with little known about aye-aye behaviour and ecology in its natural habitat. This study investigates activity budgets, diet, and home range/territories of 2 male aye-ayes in the Kianjavato Classified Forest, a disturbed forest in south-eastern Madagascar, from October 2013 to October 2014. We used radiotelemetry and focal-animal sampling methods to collect behavioural data. We recorded GPS coordinates of the focal animal every 20 min, calculating the home range size for each individual. Results showed that male aye-ayes spent most of their time feeding and travelling. Their feeding time primarily focussed on larvae and adult insects from various substrates, and to a lesser extent Canarium spp. seeds. Home range sizes of the 2 males varied between individuals, overlapped greatly, and appeared to be related to the location of females. Our findings indicate that aye-aye behaviours are strongly indicative of insect-centric feeding ecology. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. High temperature combined with drought affect rainfed spring wheat and barley in South-Eastern Russia: I. Phenology and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Akbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.; Lozovskaya, Marina Viacheslavovna; Zvolinsky, Vacheslav Petrovich

    2012-01-01

    Heat stress, when combined with drought, is one of the major limitations to food production worldwide, especially in areas that use rainfed agriculture. As the world population continues to grow, and water resources for the crop production decline and temperature increases, so the development of heat- and drought-tolerant cultivars is an issue of global concern. In this context, four barley and two wheat genotypes were evaluated in south-eastern Russia to identify heat- and drought-tolerant genotypes for future breeding programmes by identifying suitable sowing times for specific genotypes. High temperature stress, when combined with drought during late sowing, decreased the days to visible awns, days to heading and days to ripe harvest, finally negatively affecting the growth and development of plants and resulting in a lower plant population m−2, tillers plant−1, plant height and dry matter production m−2. On the other hand, low temperature in combination with early sowing increased the number of days to germination, reduced seedling stand establishment and tillering capacity, finally affecting the growth and development of the crops. Compared to overall performance and optimum sowing date, barley genotypes ‘Zernograd.770’ and ‘Nutans’, and wheat genotype ‘Line4’ performed best in both late (high temperature with drought) and early (low temperature) stress conditions. PMID:23961209

  3. Factors Affecting Farmers’ Decision to Enter Agricultural Cooperatives Using Random Utility Model in the South Eastern Anatolian Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri Karlı

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Farmers’ decision and perceptions to be a member of agricultural cooperatives in the South Eastern Anatolian Region were investigated. Factors affecting the probability of joining the agricultural cooperatives were determined using binary logit model. The model released that most of variables such as education, high communication, log of gross income, farm size, medium and high technology variables play important roles in determining the probability of entrance. Small farmers are likely expected to join the agricultural cooperatives than the wealthier farmers are. Small farmers may wish to benefit cash at hand, input subsidies, and services provided by the agricultural cooperatives since the risks associated with intensive high-returning crops are high. Some important factors playing pole role in abstention of farmers towards agricultural cooperatives are gross income and some social status variables. In addition, conservative or orthodox farmers are less likely to join agricultural cooperatives than moderate farmers are. We also found that the direct government farm credit programs mainly should be objected to providing farmers to better access to capital markets and creating the opportunity to use with allocation of capital inputs via using modern technology.

  4. Overview of Iodine Deficiency Prevention Strategies in the South-Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region: 2009–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A. Gerasimov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Universal salt iodization (USI strategies gained strong momentum in countries of the Southern Europe and Central Asia (SECA region during the 2000–2009 decade. By the end of the first decade, several countries in the region had already reached the goal of optimum iodine nutrition; other countries were quickly approaching this goal, and in only a few countries the progress toward USI had remained slow. This paper reports an overview of the two Sub-Regional workshops (for countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia and South-Eastern Europe conducted in 2015 and 2016. Both workshops demonstrate that the SECA region remains on track in the pursuit of USI for sustainable IDD elimination. Notwithstanding the noted imperfections, none of the data or information from countries of the region suggested that the conquest of iodine deficiency is seriously threatened. However, more efforts should be made to develop and streamline USI strategies in Russia and Ukraine, two major countries that are lagging behind.

  5. The in-situ testing of high efficiency particulate filters in the CEGB south eastern region nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, A.W.; Wilkinson, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    High efficiency air filters are installed in the CEGB's Nuclear Power Stations to prevent discharge of radioactive material to the environment should the ventilation air become contaminated. The Board has determined that these filter units should be tested in-situ to ensure that the stringent design specifications are met. This paper describes the rig work comparing the British Standard method using sodium chloride aerosol with other test methods, such as Dioctyl Phthalate, naturally occurring dust aerosols and artificially produced condensation nuclei. This work led to the development of an in-situ test method using condensation nuclei and a Pollak-Nolan nucleus counter. The advantages and disadvantages of this method over other methods for in-situ testing is discussed. The test method has been used in the South Eastern Region for several years and considerable experience has been gained in its use on a wide variety of filter systems. The method adopted for each system is detailed including the injection, sampling and interpretation of the results obtained. Numerous faults and difficulties have been highlighted from the design, installation and filter changing aspects

  6. Assessment of streambed sediment contamination by heavy metals: The case of the Gabes Catchment, South-eastern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahri, Noura; Atoui, Abdelfattah; Ellouze, Manel; Abida, Habib

    2018-04-01

    This study deals with the assessment of the behaviour of seven heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr and As) in streambed sediments within the Gabes Catchment, located in South-eastern Tunisia. To understand the effect of intense human activities in the Gabes Basin on the quality of the environment, 22 sediment samples, spread all over the study basin, were taken and analyzed for heavy metals. Heavy metal concentrations were shown to vary in the following order: Zn > Pb > Cu > Cr > Ni > Cd > As. Sediment quality was assessed based on the evaluation of various indices. A total of 27% of the sampling stations are characterised by sediment Enrichment Factors (EF) exceeding 40, reflecting extremely severe pollution. This result was also confirmed by different indices, including Sediment Pollution Index (SPI), Pollution Load Index (PLI) and Geo-accumulation index. The calculation of Mean Effect Range-Median Quotient (M-ERM-Q) indicated that in stream discharge, all metals have a probability of 21% to be toxic. The ecological toxicity risk of heavy metals increases close to urban (traffic activity) and industrial activities (industrial complex of Gabes). Close to Gabes City, the situation and the degree of contamination that may be transferred into marine ecosystems is worrisome and requires immediate intervention.

  7. Distribution of metals and extent of contamination in sediments from the south-eastern Baltic Sea (Lithuanian zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijolė Remeikaitė-Nikienė

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The distribution of metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni, Cr, Zn in surface sediments and the potential pollution sources in the south-eastern part (SE of the Baltic Sea (Lithuanian zone were investigated in relation to the environmental characteristics (amount of fine-grained particles, TOC content in sediments, origin of sedimentary organic matter, salinity, water depth in 2011–2014. The higher metal concentrations were measured in sediments of the Curonian Lagoon and in the open waters. An approach using various environmental indices (enrichment factor EF, geoaccumulation index Igeo and contamination factor CF was used to quantitatively assess a contamination degree. The principal component analysis (PCA was applied in order to further scrutinize pollution from metal sources. The values of the contamination indices showed no/very low sediment contamination with Ni and Cr, minor–moderate contamination with Cu, Zn and Pb and moderate–considerable pollution with Cd. The strong relationships among metals suggested their similar distribution pattern and a combination of natural and anthropogenic sources. The higher metal concentrations coincided with an increasing amount of fine-grained fraction and organic carbon. In the territorial waters, the distribution of elements was related to the water depth. In addition, the binding of metals with insoluble iron sulphides might explain their high concentrations at the most remote and deepest stations. Keywords: Metals, Enrichment factor, Geoaccumulation index, Contamination factor, The Baltic Sea, The Curonian Lagoon

  8. 2.5D seismic velocity modelling in the south-eastern Romanian Carpathians Orogen and its foreland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocin, Andrei; Stephenson, Randell; Tryggvason, Ari; Panea, Ionelia; Mocanu, Victor; Hauser, Franz; Matenco, Liviu

    2005-12-01

    The DACIA-PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Processes in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic reflection survey was performed in August-September 2001, with the objective of obtaining new information on the deep structure of the external Carpathians nappe system and the architecture of the Tertiary/Quaternary basins developed within and adjacent to the Vrancea zone, including the rapidly subsiding Focsani Basin. The DACIA-PLAN profile is about 140 km long, having a roughly WNW-ESE direction, from near the southeast Transylvanian Basin, across the mountainous south-eastern Carpathians and their foreland to near the Danube River. A high resolution 2.5D velocity model of the upper crust along the seismic profile has been determined from a tomographic inversion of the DACIA-PLAN first arrival data. The results show that the data fairly accurately resolve the transition from sediment to crystalline basement beneath the Focsani Basin, where industry seismic data are available for correlation, at depths up to about 10 km. Beneath the external Carpathians nappes, apparent basement (material with velocities above 5.8 km/s) lies at depths as shallow as 3-4 km, which is less than previously surmised on the basis of geological observations. The first arrival travel-time data suggest that there is significant lateral structural heterogeneity on the apparent basement surface in this area, suggesting that the high velocity material may be involved in Carpathian thrusting.

  9. Seasonal and spatial variations of marine litter on the south-eastern Black Sea coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Yahya; Seyhan, Kadir

    2017-07-15

    The south-eastern Black Sea coast in Turkey was evaluated for marine litter composition and density covering nine beaches during four seasons. The marine litter (>2cm in size), was collected from the coast and categorized into material and usage categories. The data analysis showed that plastic was the most abundant litter (≥61.65%) by count and weight followed by styrofoam and fabric. The marine litter density ranged from 0.03 to 0.58 with a mean (±SD) of 0.16±0.02 items/m 2 by count. Based on weight, it varied between 0.44 and 14.74g/m 2 with 3.35±1.63. The east side had a higher marine litter density than the west side with significant differences between beaches. The variations due to different seasons were not significant for any beach. The results of this study should provide baseline information about the coastal marine pollution and will assist the mitigation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mapping health research capacity in 17 countries of the former Soviet Union and south-eastern Europe: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Alessio; Glonti, Ketevan; Bertollini, Roberto; Ricciardi, Walter; McKee, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Policies to improve health status, tackle disease and ensure equitable access to healthcare should be informed by evidence derived from high-quality research. However, health research capacity is unevenly distributed across countries, as revealed by mapping exercises that have been undertaken to provide a basis for concerted action to strengthen capacity. This study systematically describes capacity to undertake health research in the countries of the former Soviet Union and south-eastern Europe and identifies the elements required to create a national health research system. The mapping exercise comprised two elements: a survey of key informants in the respective countries and a bibliometric analysis of scientific publications in the field of public health. Our results confirm that health research remains a low priority in some countries of the WHO European Region. In these countries, most of the literature was produced by researchers outside the country, often to inform international donors. This study provides important information for countries seeking to initiate action to strengthen their research capacity. There is a need for a comprehensive strategy with sustained investment in training and career development of researchers. There is also a need to create new funding systems to provide financial support to those undertaking policy-relevant research. International collaboration and investment in mechanisms to bridge the gap between research and policy are urgently required. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. Feeding habit of the Brazilian tapir, Tapirus terrestris (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae in a vegetation transition zone in south-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia A. Talamoni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tapirs are considered generalist herbivores and the differences in the proportions of dietary items are often attributed to differences in the habitats where individuals live. This study characterized the feeding habit of Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758 in a nature reserve in south-eastern Brazil, located in a region considered a transition zone between the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna and the Atlantic Forest biomes. Fecal samples from T. terrestris individuals were collected monthly at six sampling areas that encompassed a total of 242.22 ha. There were 147 fresh samples found (77 during the dry season and 70 during the wet season. The diet of the tapirs in this reserve was characterized by the prevalent browsing on leaves and stems. There was a low frequency of fruit seeds in the diet of the tapirs during both the wet and dry seasons. However, in the dry season a higher percentage of samples containing seeds was observed. Fruits of Rubiaceae, Solanaceae, and Annonaceae were most consumed during the dry season. Most of the fruit seeds found presented small mean diameter (3.7-8.4 mm and most of the fruits were capsules and dry fruits. The characteristics of the fruits consumed by the tapirs indicate that they forage in the lower forest stratum and upon species from Cerrado. Additionally, Psidium myrtoides O. Berg. clusters found in the study site suggest that the tapirs may be acting as dispersal agents of this species.

  12. The October 2015 flash-floods in south eastern France: hydrological analyses, inundation mapping and impact estimations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payrastre, Olivier; Bourgin, François; Lebouc, Laurent; Le Bihan, Guillaume; Gaume, Eric

    2017-04-01

    The October 2015 flash-floods in south eastern France caused more than twenty fatalities, high damages and large economic losses in high density urban areas of the Mediterranean coast, including the cities of Mandelieu-La Napoule, Cannes and Antibes. Following a post event survey and preliminary analyses conducted within the framework of the Hymex project, we set up an entire simulation chain at the regional scale to better understand this outstanding event. Rainfall-runoff simulations, inundation mapping and a first estimation of the impacts are conducted following the approach developed and successfully applied for two large flash-flood events in two different French regions (Gard in 2002 and Var in 2010) by Le Bihan (2016). A distributed rainfall-runoff model applied at high resolution for the whole area - including numerous small ungauged basins - is used to feed a semi-automatic hydraulic approach (Cartino method) applied along the river network - including small tributaries. Estimation of the impacts is then performed based on the delineation of the flooded areas and geographic databases identifying buildings and population at risk.

  13. Population aging from 1950 to 2010 in seventeen transitional countries in the wider region of South Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlo Jakovljevic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Population aging has profoundly reshaped demographic landscapes in all South Eastern European (SEE countries. The aim of this study was to provide a thorough comparative inter-country assessment on the speed of population aging in the entire SEE region for the period 1950-2010. Methods: Descriptive observational analysis of long-term trends on core primary and composite indicators of population aging across seventeen countries of the wider SEE region, with panel data sets at a national level. Results: During the past six decades, the entire SEE region has experienced a rapid increase in the median age (from 25.2 years in 1950 to 37.9 years in 2010, with a simultaneous fall of fertility rates for two children per woman (from 3.55 children per each childbearing woman in 1950 to 1.49 in 2010, coupled with significant rise in the population of elderly citizens. The speed of population aging has vastly accelerated (with a 2.5 fold increase over the past three decades. The percentage of individuals over 65 years has doubled from 7% in 1950 to 14% in 2010. Conclusion: Complex national strategies are needed to cope with the shrinking labour force coupled with the growing proportion of the older population. With all likelihood, population aging will further accelerate in the near future. This profound long-term demographic transition will threaten financial sustainability of current health systems in all SEE countries.

  14. Geological record of tsunami inundations in Pantano Morghella (south-eastern Sicily both from near and far-field sources

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    F. Gerardi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of tsunami deposits from the Pantano Morghella area provided geological evidence for two inundations occurred along the south-eastern Ionian coast of Sicily. Pantano Morghella is a large pond characterised by a fine-grained sedimentation indicating a low-energy depositional environment. Two anomalous yellow sandy layers found at different depths indicate the occurrence of high-energy marine inundations. We studied sedimentological and paleontological features of the anomalous deposits as well as their spatial distribution observing the following properties: different facies with respect to the local stratigraphic sequence; erosive bases, rip-up clasts and broken elements testifying violent deposition mechanisms; macro and micro fauna of marine environment; relatively constant thickness throughout most of the depositional zone with thinning at the distal end; large sand sheets that extend inland. These observations, jointly with their infrequency in the sedimentary record and the age indicating a fast deposition, provided strong evidence for tsunami inundations. Correlations between anomalous layers and historical tsunamis are supported by radiocarbon and OSL dating results. The younger deposit is likely due to the 1908 near-source tsunami, whereas the flooding of the oldest event is most likely associated with a far and large source, the Crete 365 AD earthquake.

  15. Links between riparian landcover, instream environment and fish assemblages in headwater streams of south-eastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Bruna B.; Miranda, Leandro E.; Cetra, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesised and tested a hierarchical organisation model where riparian landcover would influence bank composition and light availability, which in turn would influence instream environments and control fish assemblages. The study was conducted during the dry season in 11 headwater tributaries of the Sorocaba River in the upper Paraná River Basin, south-eastern Brazil. We focused on seven environmental factors each represented by one or multiple environmental variables and seven fish functional traits each represented by two or more classes. Multivariate direct gradient analyses suggested that riparian zone landcover can be considered a higher level causal factor in a network of relations that control instream characteristics and fish assemblages. Our results provide a framework for a hierarchical conceptual model that identifies singular and collective influences of variables from different scales on each other and ultimately on different aspects related to stream fish functional composition. This conceptual model is focused on the relationships between riparian landcover and instream variables as causal factors on the organisation of stream fish assemblages. Our results can also be viewed as a model for headwater stream management in that landcover can be manipulated to influence factors such as bank composition, substrates and water quality, whereas fish assemblage composition can be used as indicators to monitor the success of such efforts.

  16. The understanding of the formation of valleys and its implication on site characterization: Moredalen and Pukedalen, south-eastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiren, Sven A.; Waenstedt, Stefan; Straeng, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    In south-eastern Sweden, there are a number of over-deepened narrow valleys, more than 20 m deep, formed in Precambrian bedrock located above the highest post-glacial shoreline. Canyon-like valleys, called 'kursu' or kursu valleys, are generally interpreted to be formed by glaciofluvial erosion. An example of such a valley is Moredalen, a canyon in the Fennoscandian Shield, which has an implication on site selection for radioactive waste disposal. There are also more open over-deepened valleys along which sub-glacial flow has occurred, e.g. Pukedalen. The main part of this paper discusses a combined geological and geophysical investigation of Moredalen, with the aim to investigate possible reasons for the formation of such an unusual feature formed in acid vulcanite and foliated tonalitic to granodioritic rocks. Moredalen is a marked, approximately 7 km long, E-W striking valley that cuts through a plateau (c. 140 m a.s.l.), and an elevated block of the sub-Cambrian peneplain. Glaciofluvial sediments can be found up-streams where the canyon widens to the west. Just east of the valley is a larger delta deposited at the highest post-glacial shoreline (c. 105 m a.s.l). Further east of, and in line with the Moredalen valley there is an esker. Rock debris in the valley is angular. Pukedalen is a northwest-southeast trending valley incised in massive granite. The valley is in its northern parts relatively open and becomes narrow in its south-eastern part having partly a vertical south-western wall. Rock surfaces are smooth along the valley and rock debris in the valley consists generally of rounded blocks. In line with Pukedalen, on both sides at great distances though, there are eskers. Geomorphological features of this kind indicate certain characteristics of the bedrock that need to be considered during safety analysis of repositories for nuclear waste. The distinct weakness zones along which the kursu-valleys are formed create prominent transport paths for

  17. The understanding of the formation of valleys and its implication on site characterization: Moredalen and Pukedalen, south-eastern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiren, Sven A.; Waenstedt, Stefan; Straeng, Thomas (GEOSIGMA AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    In south-eastern Sweden, there are a number of over-deepened narrow valleys, more than 20 m deep, formed in Precambrian bedrock located above the highest post-glacial shoreline. Canyon-like valleys, called 'kursu' or kursu valleys, are generally interpreted to be formed by glaciofluvial erosion. An example of such a valley is Moredalen, a canyon in the Fennoscandian Shield, which has an implication on site selection for radioactive waste disposal. There are also more open over-deepened valleys along which sub-glacial flow has occurred, e.g. Pukedalen. The main part of this paper discusses a combined geological and geophysical investigation of Moredalen, with the aim to investigate possible reasons for the formation of such an unusual feature formed in acid vulcanite and foliated tonalitic to granodioritic rocks. Moredalen is a marked, approximately 7 km long, E-W striking valley that cuts through a plateau (c. 140 m a.s.l.), and an elevated block of the sub-Cambrian peneplain. Glaciofluvial sediments can be found up-streams where the canyon widens to the west. Just east of the valley is a larger delta deposited at the highest post-glacial shoreline (c. 105 m a.s.l). Further east of, and in line with the Moredalen valley there is an esker. Rock debris in the valley is angular. Pukedalen is a northwest-southeast trending valley incised in massive granite. The valley is in its northern parts relatively open and becomes narrow in its south-eastern part having partly a vertical south-western wall. Rock surfaces are smooth along the valley and rock debris in the valley consists generally of rounded blocks. In line with Pukedalen, on both sides at great distances though, there are eskers. Geomorphological features of this kind indicate certain characteristics of the bedrock that need to be considered during safety analysis of repositories for nuclear waste. The distinct weakness zones along which the kursu-valleys are formed create prominent transport paths for

  18. Moisture source in the Hyblean Mountains region (south-eastern Sicily, Italy): Evidence from stable isotopes signature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassa, Fausto [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Palermo, Via Ugo La Malfa, 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy)]. E-mail: f.grassa@pa.ingv.it; Favara, Rocco [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Palermo, Via Ugo La Malfa, 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy); Valenza, Mariano [Dipartimento CFTA, Universita di Palermo, Palermo, Via Archirafi, 36, 90123, Palermo (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Here the authors present results of an isotope study on precipitation collected during a 2-a period from a rain-gauge network consisting of 6 stations located at different elevations in the Hyblean Mountains (HM) region, in south-eastern Sicily. The slope of the local meteoric water line ({delta}D = 6.50 {delta} {sup 18}O + 9.87) obtained for the region suggests that precipitation is affected by evaporation during rainfall events. The main variations in rainwater isotope composition are due to seasonal effects and elevation. An average {sup 2}H excess value of +21.2 per mille was found for precipitation events less affected by evaporation (i.e. when the rainfall was >65 mm/month). The spatial distribution of O isotope composition of precipitation shows a negative gradient from east and south to the inner areas. The depositional rate of Cl, used as a tracer of the origin of air masses, is highest at the coastal rain-gauges (SR and MRG stations) and lowest on the northern flank of the HM region (SC station). Based on these findings, a model is proposed for the origin of precipitation in the HM region, which assumes that a Mediterranean-derived component is the main source of moisture in the studied area. D/H and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratios of inferred meteoric recharge waters were also compared with the isotope composition of waters collected from the main local springs and wells. The best linear fit of the {delta} {sup 18}O vs {delta}D relationship for Hyblean groundwater is {delta}D = 4.85 {delta} {sup 18}O-2.01. The enrichment of heavy isotopes in Hyblean groundwater is probably due to evaporation occurring after precipitation events or to a recharging contribution from surface waters (lakes or rivers) enriched in heavy isotopes.

  19. Moisture source in the Hyblean Mountains region (south-eastern Sicily, Italy): Evidence from stable isotopes signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassa, Fausto; Favara, Rocco; Valenza, Mariano

    2006-01-01

    Here the authors present results of an isotope study on precipitation collected during a 2-a period from a rain-gauge network consisting of 6 stations located at different elevations in the Hyblean Mountains (HM) region, in south-eastern Sicily. The slope of the local meteoric water line (δD = 6.50 δ 18 O + 9.87) obtained for the region suggests that precipitation is affected by evaporation during rainfall events. The main variations in rainwater isotope composition are due to seasonal effects and elevation. An average 2 H excess value of +21.2 per mille was found for precipitation events less affected by evaporation (i.e. when the rainfall was >65 mm/month). The spatial distribution of O isotope composition of precipitation shows a negative gradient from east and south to the inner areas. The depositional rate of Cl, used as a tracer of the origin of air masses, is highest at the coastal rain-gauges (SR and MRG stations) and lowest on the northern flank of the HM region (SC station). Based on these findings, a model is proposed for the origin of precipitation in the HM region, which assumes that a Mediterranean-derived component is the main source of moisture in the studied area. D/H and 18 O/ 16 O ratios of inferred meteoric recharge waters were also compared with the isotope composition of waters collected from the main local springs and wells. The best linear fit of the δ 18 O vs δD relationship for Hyblean groundwater is δD = 4.85 δ 18 O-2.01. The enrichment of heavy isotopes in Hyblean groundwater is probably due to evaporation occurring after precipitation events or to a recharging contribution from surface waters (lakes or rivers) enriched in heavy isotopes

  20. Heterogeneity of environments associated with transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in South-Eastern France and implication for control strategies.

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    Benoit Faucher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum is currently spreading into new foci across Europe. Leishmania infantum transmission in the Old World was reported to be strongly associated with a few specific environments. Environmental changes due to global warming or human activity were therefore incriminated in the spread of the disease. However, comprehensive studies were lacking to reliably identify all the environments at risk and thereby optimize monitoring and control strategy. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: We exhaustively collected 328 cases of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis from 1993 to 2009 in South-Eastern France. Leishmaniasis incidence decreased from 31 yearly cases between 1993 and 1997 to 12 yearly cases between 2005 and 2009 mostly because Leishmania/HIV coinfection were less frequent. No spread of human visceral leishmaniasis was observed in the studied region. Two major foci were identified, associated with opposite environments: whereas one involved semi-rural hillside environments partly made of mixed forests, the other involved urban and peri-urban areas in and around the region main town, Marseille. The two neighboring foci were related to differing environments despite similar vectors (P. perniciosus, canine reservoir, parasite (L. infantum zymodeme MON-1, and human host. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This unprecedented collection of cases highlighted the occurrence of protracted urban transmission of L. infantum in France, a worrisome finding as the disease is currently spreading in other areas around the Mediterranean. These results complete previous studies about more widespread canine leishmaniasis or human asymptomatic carriage. This first application of systematic geostatistical methods to European human visceral leishmaniasis demonstrated an unsuspected heterogeneity of environments associated with the transmission of the disease. These findings modify the current view of leishmaniasis epidemiology. They

  1. Heterogeneity of environments associated with transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in South-Eastern France and implication for control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Benoit; Gaudart, Jean; Faraut, Francoise; Pomares, Christelle; Mary, Charles; Marty, Pierre; Piarroux, Renaud

    2012-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum is currently spreading into new foci across Europe. Leishmania infantum transmission in the Old World was reported to be strongly associated with a few specific environments. Environmental changes due to global warming or human activity were therefore incriminated in the spread of the disease. However, comprehensive studies were lacking to reliably identify all the environments at risk and thereby optimize monitoring and control strategy. We exhaustively collected 328 cases of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis from 1993 to 2009 in South-Eastern France. Leishmaniasis incidence decreased from 31 yearly cases between 1993 and 1997 to 12 yearly cases between 2005 and 2009 mostly because Leishmania/HIV coinfection were less frequent. No spread of human visceral leishmaniasis was observed in the studied region. Two major foci were identified, associated with opposite environments: whereas one involved semi-rural hillside environments partly made of mixed forests, the other involved urban and peri-urban areas in and around the region main town, Marseille. The two neighboring foci were related to differing environments despite similar vectors (P. perniciosus), canine reservoir, parasite (L. infantum zymodeme MON-1), and human host. This unprecedented collection of cases highlighted the occurrence of protracted urban transmission of L. infantum in France, a worrisome finding as the disease is currently spreading in other areas around the Mediterranean. These results complete previous studies about more widespread canine leishmaniasis or human asymptomatic carriage. This first application of systematic geostatistical methods to European human visceral leishmaniasis demonstrated an unsuspected heterogeneity of environments associated with the transmission of the disease. These findings modify the current view of leishmaniasis epidemiology. They notably stress the need for locally defined control strategies and extensive

  2. Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Nutritional Status among Primary School Children in Delo-mena District, South Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begna TULU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there are efforts being underway to control and prevent intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs in Ethiopia, they are still endemic and responsible for significant morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of IPIs and their association with nutritional status among primary school children of Delo-Mena district, South Eastern Ethiopia.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2013. Demographic data was obtained, and IPIs was investigated in a single-stool sample by both direct stool examination and formol-ether concentration techniques. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height for-age (HAZ, BMI-for-age (BAZ and weight-for-age (WAZ for the determination of stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively using WHO AntroPlus software. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis and p value less than 0.05 was considered significant.Results: Among 492 children studied (51% boys, aged 6–18 years, mean 10.93 +2.4 an overall IPIs prevalence of 26.6% was found. The prevalence of S. mansoni, E. histolytica/dispar, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, G. lambilia, T. trichiura, S. stercolaris, E. vermicularis, Hookworms and Taenia spp were 9.6%, 7.7%, 5.3%, 3.7%, 2.0%, 1.6%, 1.4%, 1.2%, 0.8% and 0.2% respectively. Stunting and underweightedness were observed in 4.5% and 13.6% of children and associated with IPIs (P<0.001 and (P=0.001, respectively.Conclusion: IPIs and its associated malnutrition remain a public health concern in Delo-Mena district. Therefore, the overall health promotion activities coupled with snail control and de-worming to the students is crucial. Additionally, initiatives aimed at improving the nutritional status of school children are also important.

  3. Out-of-pocket payments, health care access and utilisation in south-eastern Nigeria: a gender perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N Onah

    Full Text Available Out-of-pocket (OOP payments have severe consequences for health care access and utilisation and are especially catastrophic for the poor. Although women comprise the majority of the poor in Nigeria and globally, the implications of OOP payments for health care access from a gender perspective have received little attention. This study seeks to fill this gap by using a combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis to investigate the gendered impact of OOPs on healthcare utilisation in south-eastern Nigeria. 411 households were surveyed and six single-sex Focus Group Discussions conducted. This study confirmed the socioeconomic and demographic vulnerability of female-headed households (FHHs, which contributed to gender-based inter-household differences in healthcare access, cost burden, choices of healthcare providers, methods of funding healthcare and coping strategies. FHHs had higher cost burdens from seeking care and untreated morbidity than male-headed households (MHHs with affordability as a reason for not seeking care. There is also a high utilisation of patent medicine vendors (PMVs by both households (PMVs are drug vendors that are unregulated, likely to offer very low-quality treatment and do not have trained personnel. OOP payment was predominantly the means of healthcare payment for both households, and households spoke of the difficulties associated with repaying health-related debt with implications for the medical poverty trap. It is recommended that the removal of user fees, introduction of prepayment schemes, and regulating PMVs be considered to improve access and provide protection against debt for FHHs and MHHs. The vulnerability of widows is of special concern and efforts to improve their healthcare access and broader efforts to empower should be encouraged for them and other poor households.

  4. Severity of work in opinions of rural women living in the Bieszczady region of south-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Halina; Petkowicz, Beata; Maniak, Barbara; Kuna-Broniowska, Izabela; Petkowicz, Jacek; Buczaj, Agnieszka; Maksym, Piotr; Nowakowicz-Dębek, Bożena; Gawda, Piotr

    2018-03-14

    The objective of the study was recognition of the opinions of rural women living in the Bieszczady region of south-eastern Poland, concerning their perception of the degree of severity of work. The study was conducted among the inhabitants of the Cisna commune. The basic research instrument was a questionnaire form containing 15 items. The study covered 101 women living in the Cisna commune in the Bieszczady. The self-reported degree of work load on a farm was analyzed among women who were occupationally active, and those who were not occupationally active. The effect of assistance from family members on the severity of work perceived by women was considered. The women in the study focused on agro-tourism, a few of them were engaged in agricultural work and the majority worked in household gardens. The study showed that occupationally active women work considerably longer, on average, and are the most loaded, compared to those not engaged in occupational activity. The mean daily time devoted to duties on a farm did not significantly differ between occupationally active and non-active women, and amounted to 380 and 320 minutes, respectively. The majority of women who were non-active occupationally evaluated their household chores as the highest work load. In turn, the women who undertook occupational activity assessed them as most burdensome, despite great help from their family. The body positions assumed while performing field work were: standing, standing-bent-over, and walking. The mean evaluations of work load while standing and standing-bent-over did not significantly differ, but affected the work load among women who, however, could not assess the severity of their work resulting from the body position assumed.

  5. Antenatal care in practice: an exploratory study in antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessy Flora

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential of antenatal care for reducing maternal morbidity and improving newborn survival and health is widely acknowledged. Yet there are worrying gaps in knowledge of the quality of antenatal care provided in Tanzania. In particular, determinants of health workers' performance have not yet been fully understood. This paper uses ethnographic methods to document health workers' antenatal care practices with reference to the national Focused Antenatal Care guidelines and identifies factors influencing health workers' performance. Potential implications for improving antenatal care provision in Tanzania are discussed. Methods Combining different qualitative techniques, we studied health workers' antenatal care practices in four public antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania. A total of 36 antenatal care consultations were observed and compared with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Participant observation, informal discussions and in-depth interviews with the staff helped to identify and explain health workers' practices and contextual factors influencing antenatal care provision. Results The delivery of antenatal care services to pregnant women at the selected antenatal care clinics varied widely. Some services that are recommended by the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines were given to all women while other services were not delivered at all. Factors influencing health workers' practices were poor implementation of the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines, lack of trained staff and absenteeism, supply shortages and use of working tools that are not consistent with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Health workers react to difficult working conditions by developing informal practices as coping strategies or "street-level bureaucracy". Conclusions Efforts to improve antenatal care should address shortages of trained staff through expanding training opportunities, including health worker

  6. Southern blot analysis of skin biopsies for human papillomavirus DNA: renal allograft recipients in south-eastern Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenfield, K; Salmond, C A; Pope, J H; Hardie, I R

    1993-01-01

    The 104 skin biopsies from 34 patients who attended a Renal Transplant Unit in Brisbane over 12 months included 40 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 22 solar keratoses, 4 hyperkeratoses, 18 warts and 11 basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA was identified by Southern blot hybridisation using, as individual probes, purified insert DNA from recombinant HPV 1, 2, 3 or 3/10, 4, 5 or 5/8, 7, 11, 16, 18 and 41 under relaxed conditions and characterised by restriction enzyme analysis and Southern blot hybridisation under more stringent conditions. Genomic HPV DNA was characterised in 7 skin biopsies from 4 renal allograft recipients (RARs): HPV 1A in a SCC (20 copies/cell) and a BCC (10 copies/cell) from the one patient, HPV 36 (20 copies/cell) in a SCC, HPV 1A [symbol: see text] 1000 copies/cell) in a wart and HPV 2B (200-800 copies/cell) in 3 warts from the one patient. Only HPV 1A in the SCC exhibited a significant degree of subtype variation. HPV DNA was identified in another 5 skin biopsies from another 4 RARs: HPV 3A in a wart and a hyperkeratosis, HPV 3/10-related DNA in 2 solar keratoses and HPV 5/8-related DNA in another (20-50 copies/cell). The incidence of HPV 5 (or 5-related HPVs) in RAR SCC was very low and that of HPV DNA in RAR warts was lower than that recorded elsewhere but this was not due to insensitivity of the assays. There was no evidence for a role for HPV in the aetiology of skin cancer in RARs in south-eastern Queensland but the possibility remains that as yet unidentified HPV types are involved.

  7. Hydrometeorological extremes derived from taxation records for south-eastern Moravia, Czech Republic, 1751–1900 AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Valášek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Historical written records associated with tax relief at ten estates located in south-eastern Moravia (Czech Republic are used for the study of hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts during the period 1751–1900 AD. At the time, the taxation system in Moravia allowed farmers to request tax relief if their crop yields had been negatively affected by hydrological and meteorological extremes. The documentation involved contains information about the type of extreme event and the date of its occurrence, while the impact on crops may often be derived. A total of 175 extreme events resulting in some kind of damage are documented for 1751–1900, with the highest concentration between 1811 and 1860 (74.9% of all events analysed. The nature of events leading to damage (of a possible 272 types include hailstorm (25.7%, torrential rain (21.7%, flood (21.0%, followed by thunderstorm, flash flood, late frost and windstorm. The four most outstanding events, affecting the highest number of settlements, were thunderstorms with hailstorms (25 June 1825, 20 May 1847 and 29 June 1890 and flooding of the River Morava (mid-June 1847. Hydrometeorological extremes in the 1816–1855 period are compared with those occurring during the recent 1961–2000 period. The results obtained are inevitably influenced by uncertainties related to taxation records, such as their temporal and spatial incompleteness, the limits of the period of outside agricultural work (i.e. mainly May–August and the purpose for which they were originally collected (primarily tax alleviation, i.e. information about hydrometeorological extremes was of secondary importance. Taxation records constitute an important source of data for historical climatology and historical hydrology and have a great potential for use in many European countries.

  8. Mapping Of The Hydrothermal Alteration Zones At Haimur Gold Mine Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt, Using Remote Sensing Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madani, A.A.; Abdel Rahman, E.M.; FA WZY, Kh.M.; EMAM, A.

    2003-01-01

    The utilization of the Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery and scanned aerial photograph for mapping hydrothermal alteration zones at the Haimur gold mine area, south Eastern Desert, Egypt and the production of large scale geologic image map, scale 1 :20 000, using fusion technique are the main tasks of this article. The study area lies at the conjunction of two shear zones, namely the Allaqi shear zone (NW-SE) and the Haimur shear zone (NE-SW). The basement rocks covering Haimur gold mine area include ophiolitic blocks and sheets that were tectonically thrusted over and mixed within a matrix of island arc rocks. Principal Component Analysis, band ratios and data fusion are the main remote sensing techniques applied in the present work. The eigenvalue of the first principal component (PCl) includes 95.9% of the information content of the image whereas PC2 and PC5 mark 3.03% and 0.10%, respectively. The PC5 image was found to represent the highly altered rocks in the study area (serpentinites and carbonates), which display dark image signatures. The metagabbros and metapyroclastics can be easily discriminated on the PC1:R, PC2:G and PC5:B false color composite image in which they have dark red and blue image signatures, respectively. The talc carbonates and the serpentinites have bright image signatures on 5/7 band ratio image whereas metapyroxenites have dark image signatures. The talc carbonates are composed mainly of talc, magnesite and calcite with subordinate amounts of fibrous antigorite. These minerals have absorption features near 2.35 m which lead to increase 5/7 band ratio value. The false color composite ratio image 5/7:R, 4/5:G and 3/1:B was merged with scanned high spatial resolution aerial photograph using IHS transformation method. The resultant fused image was then used to delineate the hydrothermal alteration zones as well as listwaenite ridges exposed at the Haimur gold mine area

  9. Hydrometeorological extremes derived from taxation records for south-eastern Moravia, Czech Republic, 1751-1900 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brázdil, R.; Chromá, K.; Valášek, H.; Dolák, L.

    2012-03-01

    Historical written records associated with tax relief at ten estates located in south-eastern Moravia (Czech Republic) are used for the study of hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts during the period 1751-1900 AD. At the time, the taxation system in Moravia allowed farmers to request tax relief if their crop yields had been negatively affected by hydrological and meteorological extremes. The documentation involved contains information about the type of extreme event and the date of its occurrence, while the impact on crops may often be derived. A total of 175 extreme events resulting in some kind of damage are documented for 1751-1900, with the highest concentration between 1811 and 1860 (74.9% of all events analysed). The nature of events leading to damage (of a possible 272 types) include hailstorm (25.7%), torrential rain (21.7%), flood (21.0%), followed by thunderstorm, flash flood, late frost and windstorm. The four most outstanding events, affecting the highest number of settlements, were thunderstorms with hailstorms (25 June 1825, 20 May 1847 and 29 June 1890) and flooding of the River Morava (mid-June 1847). Hydrometeorological extremes in the 1816-1855 period are compared with those occurring during the recent 1961-2000 period. The results obtained are inevitably influenced by uncertainties related to taxation records, such as their temporal and spatial incompleteness, the limits of the period of outside agricultural work (i.e. mainly May-August) and the purpose for which they were originally collected (primarily tax alleviation, i.e. information about hydrometeorological extremes was of secondary importance). Taxation records constitute an important source of data for historical climatology and historical hydrology and have a great potential for use in many European countries.

  10. Out-of-pocket payments, health care access and utilisation in south-eastern Nigeria: a gender perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onah, Michael N; Govender, Veloshnee

    2014-01-01

    Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments have severe consequences for health care access and utilisation and are especially catastrophic for the poor. Although women comprise the majority of the poor in Nigeria and globally, the implications of OOP payments for health care access from a gender perspective have received little attention. This study seeks to fill this gap by using a combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis to investigate the gendered impact of OOPs on healthcare utilisation in south-eastern Nigeria. 411 households were surveyed and six single-sex Focus Group Discussions conducted. This study confirmed the socioeconomic and demographic vulnerability of female-headed households (FHHs), which contributed to gender-based inter-household differences in healthcare access, cost burden, choices of healthcare providers, methods of funding healthcare and coping strategies. FHHs had higher cost burdens from seeking care and untreated morbidity than male-headed households (MHHs) with affordability as a reason for not seeking care. There is also a high utilisation of patent medicine vendors (PMVs) by both households (PMVs are drug vendors that are unregulated, likely to offer very low-quality treatment and do not have trained personnel). OOP payment was predominantly the means of healthcare payment for both households, and households spoke of the difficulties associated with repaying health-related debt with implications for the medical poverty trap. It is recommended that the removal of user fees, introduction of prepayment schemes, and regulating PMVs be considered to improve access and provide protection against debt for FHHs and MHHs. The vulnerability of widows is of special concern and efforts to improve their healthcare access and broader efforts to empower should be encouraged for them and other poor households.

  11. Breast cancer in South-Eastern European countries since 2000: Rising incidence and decreasing mortality at young and middle ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Nadya; Znaor, Ariana; Agius, Dominic; Eser, Sultan; Sekerija, Mario; Ryzhov, Anton; Primic-Žakelj, Maja; Coebergh, Jan Willem

    2017-09-01

    Marked variations exist in the incidence and mortality trends of major cancers in South-Eastern European (SEE) countries which have now been detailed by age for breast cancer (BC) to seek clues for improvement. We brought together and analysed data from 14 cancer registries (CRs), situated in SEE countries or directly adjacent. Age-standardised rate at world standard (ASRw) and truncated incidence and mortality rates during 2000-2010 by year, and for four age groups, were calculated. Average annual percentage change of rates was estimated using Joinpoint regression. Annual incidence rates increased significantly in countries and age groups, by 2-4% (15-39 years), 2-5% (40-49), 1-4% (50-69) and 1-6% (at 70+). Mortality rates decreased significantly in all age-groups in most countries, but increased up to 5% annually above age 55 in Ukraine, Serbia, Moldova and Cyprus. The BC data quality was evaluated by internationally agreed indicators which appeared suboptimal for Moldova, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Romania. The observed variations of incidence trends reflect the influence of risk factors, as well as levels of early detection activities (screening). While mortality rates were mostly decreasing, probably due to improved cancer care and introduction of more effective systemic treatment regimens, the worrying increasing mortality trends in the 55-plus age groups in some countries have to be addressed by health professionals and policymakers. In order to assess and monitor the effects of cancer control activities in the region, the CRs need substantial investments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. HTA and decision-making processes in Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe: Results from a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mochón, Leticia; Espín Balbino, Jaime; Olry de Labry Lima, Antonio; Caro Martinez, Araceli; Martin Ruiz, Eva; Pérez Velasco, Román

    2017-03-31

    To gain knowledge and insights on health technology assessment (HTA) and decision-making processes in Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe (CESEE) countries. A cross-sectional study was performed. Based on the literature, a questionnaire was developed in a multi-stage process. The questionnaire was arranged according to 5 broad domains: (i) introduction/country settings; (ii) use of HTA in the country; (iii) decision-making process; (iv) implementation of decisions; and (v) HTA and decision-making: future challenges. Potential survey respondents were identified through literature review-with a total of 118 contacts from the 24 CESEE countries. From March to July 2014, the survey was administered via e-mail. A total of 22 questionnaires were received generating an 18.6% response rate, including 4 responses indicating that their institutions had no involvement in HTA. Most of the CESEE countries have entities under government mandates with advisory functions and different responsibilities for decision-making, but mainly in charge of the reimbursement and pricing of medicines. Other areas where discrepancies across countries were found include criteria for selecting technologies to be assessed, stakeholder involvement, evidence requirements, use of economic evaluation, and timeliness of HTA. A number of CESEE countries have created formal decision-making processes for which HTA is used. However, there is a high level of heterogeneity related to the degree of development of HTA structures, and the methods and processes followed. Further studies focusing on the countries from which information is scarcer and on the HTA of health technologies other than medicines are warranted. Reviews/comparative analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Nutritional Status among Primary School Children in Delo-mena District, South Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulu, Begna; Taye, Solomon; Zenebe, Yohannes; Amsalu, Eden

    2016-01-01

    Although there are efforts being underway to control and prevent intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in Ethiopia, they are still endemic and responsible for significant morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of IPIs and their association with nutritional status among primary school children of Delo-Mena district, South Eastern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2013. Demographic data was obtained, and IPIs was investigated in a single-stool sample by both direct stool examination and formol-ether concentration techniques. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height for-age (HAZ), BMI-for-age (BAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) for the determination of stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively using WHO AntroPlus software. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis and p value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Among 492 children studied (51% boys, aged 6-18 years, mean 10.93 +2.4) an overall IPIs prevalence of 26.6% was found. The prevalence of S. mansoni , E. histolytica/dispar , H. nana , A. lumbricoides , G. lambilia , T. trichiura , S. stercolaris , E. vermicularis , Hookworms and Taenia spp were 9.6%, 7.7%, 5.3%, 3.7%, 2.0%, 1.6%, 1.4%, 1.2%, 0.8% and 0.2% respectively. Stunting and underweightedness were observed in 4.5% and 13.6% of children and associated with IPIs ( P Mena district. Therefore, the overall health promotion activities coupled with snail control and de-worming to the students is crucial. Additionally, initiatives aimed at improving the nutritional status of school children are also important.

  14. Thrusting and multiple folding in the Neoproterozoic Pan-African basement of Wadi Hodein area, south Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeen, M. M.; Sadek, M. F.; Greiling, R. O.

    2008-09-01

    Detailed field mapping and structural studies of the area around the mouth of Wadi Hodein, some 20 km west of Shalatein at the Red Sea coast in the south Eastern Desert of Egypt, revealed four phases of structural deformation (D1-D4) affecting the Neoproterozoic Pan-African basement rocks. D1 is related to arc-arc collision and is represented by ENE-WSW oriented megascopic upright open folds associated with low angle thrusts and mesoscopic tight, overturned and recumbent F1 folds. Kinematic indicators indicate thrusting towards the SSE. D2 is represented by NNW-SSE oriented megascopic and mesoscopic folds, which are tight, verge towards the WSW and display a left-stepping en echelon pattern. D3 includes major NNW-SSE trending sinistral shear zones that show subordinate reverse fault components and dip steeply towards the ENE. These sinistral shear zones are comparable with the Najd Fault System, as they display a similar sense of movement and relationships to earlier structures. Therefore, they are interpreted to be the continuation of the Najd Shear System in southern Egypt. D2 and D3 are related to accretion of east and west Gondwana. D4 is represented by E-W oriented dextral faults with left-stepping segments. The first three deformation events are in agreement with the general evolutionary model for the East African Orogen in the Arabian-Nubian Shield that begins with NNW-SSE shortening, followed by ENE-WSW compression and subsequent deformation by the NNW-SSE striking Najd Fault System. The E-W dextral faults may be the conjugate shear fractures to the D3 NNW-SSE oriented sinistral wrench faults or are related to a subsequent event, D4. NW-SE oriented gold-bearing quartz veins originated during D1 and were subsequently deformed by D2-D4 events.

  15. Has climate change disrupted stratification patterns in Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Has climate change disrupted stratification patterns in Lake Victoria, East Africa? ... Climate change may threaten the fisheries of Lake Victoria by increasing density differentials in the water column, thereby strengthening stratification and increasing the ... Keywords: deoxygenation, fisheries, global warming, thermocline

  16. Survey report for fiscal 1997 on the survey report on the actual state of technical cooperation on industrial technologies by European countries in the South-eastern Asian region; 1997 nendo Tonan Asia chiiki ni okeru Obei shokoku no sangyo gijutsu ni kansuru gijutsu kyoryoku jittai chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The actual state was surveyed on the technical cooperation by European countries in the South-eastern Asian region. The U.S.A. is making research cooperation with Thailand on ethylene molecule structures to enhance productivity in rubber production, France on molecule markers for high production rubber clone selection, and Australia on grain storing and drying methods. For the Philippines, America is giving assistance on management of reproducible resources, France on climate information communications systems for local areas, Australia on grain storing and drying methods, and Germany on waste oil recovery and reutilization, and development of pollution-free energy resources. For Malaysia, the Great Britain is cooperating on building engineering research centers, Australia on search for plant patheology genetic organics available in the Pacific region, and Germany on investigative researches on pollution prevention for tin mines and processing areas, and forestry and plant information systems. With respect to the ASEAN, this paper reports its activities placing importance on biology and electronics engineering, while the organization is taking actions in the areas of foodstuffs, animals, electronics, information and material science, energy exploration, marine and earth physics, and resource development. (NEDO)

  17. Coal Corporation of Victoria annual report 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Information is presented on operations, strategic planning, brown coal production and finance. Divisional reports are presented for the following divisions of the Coal Corporation of Victoria: marketing, technical marketing and special projects, research and development, and corporate services. The activities of the technical marketing and special projects division are discussed under the following headings: the coal for industry programme, the Brown Coal Liquefaction (Victoria) Pty. Ltd. project, dried brown coal activities, and resource development planning and policy activities. The corporation is currently conducting research into the following areas: ion exchange materials, activated carbons, and horticultural and agricultural applications of brown coal.

  18. Cyphastrea salae, a new species of hard coral from Lord Howe Island, Australia (Scleractinia, Merulinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Andrew H; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Huang, Danwei

    2017-01-01

    A new zooxanthellate reef-dwelling scleractinian coral species, Cyphastrea salae sp. n. (Scleractinia, Merulinidae), is described from Lord Howe Island Australia. The new species can be distinguished morphologically from the only other congeneric species on Lord Howe Island, C. microphthalma , by the number of primary septa (12 vs. 10) and the much taller corallites (mean ± SE: 1.0 ± 0.07 mm v 0.4 ± 0.04 mm). The relationship of C. salae to four of the other eleven currently accepted species in the genus was explored through analyses of nuclear (28S rDNA) and mitochondrial (noncoding intergenic region) gene sequences. Cyphastrea salae sp. n. forms a strongly supported clade that is distinct from a clade containing three species found commonly in Australia, C. chalcidicum , C. serailia , and C. microphthalma . One specimen was also found in the Solitary Islands, another high latitude location in south-eastern Australia. The discovery of a new species in the genus Cyphastrea on high latitude reefs in south-eastern Australia suggests that other new species might be found among more diverse genera represented here and that the scleractinian fauna of these isolated locations is more distinct than previously recognised.

  19. Cyphastrea salae, a new species of hard coral from Lord Howe Island, Australia (Scleractinia, Merulinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H. Baird

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A new zooxanthellate reef-dwelling scleractinian coral species, Cyphastrea salae sp. n. (Scleractinia, Merulinidae, is described from Lord Howe Island Australia. The new species can be distinguished morphologically from the only other congeneric species on Lord Howe Island, C. microphthalma, by the number of primary septa (12 vs. 10 and the much taller corallites (mean ± SE: 1.0 ± 0.07 mm v 0.4 ± 0.04 mm. The relationship of C. salae to four of the other eleven currently accepted species in the genus was explored through analyses of nuclear (28S rDNA and mitochondrial (noncoding intergenic region gene sequences. Cyphastrea salae sp. n. forms a strongly supported clade that is distinct from a clade containing three species found commonly in Australia, C. chalcidicum, C. serailia, and C. microphthalma. One specimen was also found in the Solitary Islands, another high latitude location in south-eastern Australia. The discovery of a new species in the genus Cyphastrea on high latitude reefs in south-eastern Australia suggests that other new species might be found among more diverse genera represented here and that the scleractinian fauna of these isolated locations is more distinct than previously recognised.

  20. Young Pedestrians' Gendering of Mathematics: Australia and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgasz, Helen; Leder, Gilah; Gómez-Chacón, Inés Ma

    2012-01-01

    People aged 20-39 were stopped in the streets of Victoria (Australia) and Madrid (Spain) to gauge their views on the gendering of mathematics. The findings suggested that for respondents from both countries, if stereotyped beliefs are held they were more strongly associated with the traditional male stereotype, that is, that males are considered…

  1. Seabed surveys of Victoria harbour, Mahe, Seychelles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Wagle, B.G.

    The seabed surveys in the Victoria Harbour, Mahe, Seychelles shows that the prominent feature is the navigational channel aligned in the northeast-southwest direction with a width varying from 300 to 450m. The depth in the channel ranges from 14...

  2. Biological parameters and feeding behaviour of invasive whelk Rapana venosa Valenciennes, 1846 in the south-eastern Black Sea of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Saglam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine length-weight relationships, growth type and feeding behavior of the benthic predator Rapa whelk at the coast of Camburnu, south-eastern Black Sea. Methods: Rapa whelk was monthly collected by dredge sampling on the south-eastern Black Sea at 20 m depth. The relationships between morphometric parameters of Rapa whelk were described by linear and exponential models. The allometric growth of each variable relative to shell length (SL was calculated from the function Y=aSLb or logY=loga+blogSL. The functional regression b values were tested by t-test at the 0.05 significance level if it was significantly different from isometric growth. The total time spent on feeding either on mussel tissue or live mussels was recorded for each individual under controlled conditions in laboratory. Results: The length-weight relationships showed positive allometric growth and no inter-sex variability. Body size in the male population was significantly higher than in the individuals of the female. All characters in males and females showed a trend towards allometry rather than isometry. While the total time spent feeding increased with increasing prey size the total time that Rapana venosa spent feeding decreased with increasing Rapa whelk size. The total average feeding time needed by Rapa whelks was 160 min. But they took 310 min on live mussels in 27-28 °C in the laboratory conditions. Conclusions: Length and weight relationships, growth type, total time spent feeding of this species were explained in details for this region. It would be useful to sustainable management in the south-eastern Black Sea of Turkey. The results about the feeding behaviour of this species will contribute to the understanding of the role of this species within the ecosystem.

  3. Hemofilie onder die nasate van koningin Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Retief

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie studie bespreek die uitwerking van die sogenaamde Victoriaanse hemofilie op Europese koningshuise gedurende die negentiende en twintigste eeu. Hemofilie as molekulêre defek word verduidelik en die kliniese beeld van die siekte word aangedui. ’n Bespreking van toepaslike terapeutiese ingrepe volg. Dan word ’n historiese oorsig verskaf van die verspreiding van Victoriaanse hemofilie vanaf koningin Victoria (Britse monarg, 1837–1901 via sommige van haar dogters na ander lede van die Britse koningshuis en ook na die Duitse, Russiese en Spaanse koningshuise. Elf bevestigde gevalle van hemofilie onder lede van koningin Victoria se nageslag word vermeld, asook drie ander moontlike gevalle van die siekte. Die effek van hemofilie op die verloop van die geskiedenis word ook ondersoek.Haemophilia amongst the descendants of Queen Victoria. This study discusses the impact of ‘Victorian haemophilia’ on the royal houses of Europe during the 19th and 20th centuries. Haemophilia as a molecular defect is explained and the clinical picture of the condition is indicated. Applicable therapeutic interventions also receive attention. Next, an historical review is provided of how ‘Victorian haemophilia’ spread from Queen Victoria (British monarch, 1837–1901 via some of her daughters to other members of the British royal family and also to the royal houses of Germany, Russia and Spain. Eleven confirmed cases of haemophilia amongst the descendants of Queen Victoria are mentioned, as well as three other possible cases. The effect of haemophilia on the course of history is also investigated.

  4. Exploration of the South-Eastern Alps lithosphere with 3D refraction seismics project Alp 2002 – data acquisition in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Gosar

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Using combined seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection method project Alp 2002 explored the contact zone between South-Eastern Alps, Dinarides and Pannonian basin. In a network of 12 profiles of 4100 km total length, which are spread over seven countries,1055 portable seismographs were deployed and 31 strong (300 kg explosions fired. In Slovenia 127 seismographs were deployed along five profiles totalling 575 km and two explosions fired near Vojnik and Gradin. The collected data will allow construction of athree-dimensional model of the lithosphere and will contribute to the understanding of the tectonics and geodynamics at the junction of European, Adriatic and Tisza plates.

  5. Sightings of Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D' Orbigny, 1844 and Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais, 1853 (Cetacea in South-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula M. Di Beneditto

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D' Orbigny, 1844 and Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais, 1853 have typically coastal habits and are sympatric in South-eastern Brazil. The purpose of this work was to record sightings and describe aspects concerning the behaviour of both species in this region, between 1993 and 1998. The sightings were accomplished by cruises and from a fixed point. Information provided by fishermen were also considered. In general, P. blainvillei was observed in all seasons of the year, up to five nautical miles away from the coast, up to 15 m deep and the groups comprised up to five specimens. The most part of the groups of S. fluviatilis, were observed in autumm and winter times and comprised up to 10 specimens. In about half of the sightings, the presence of calves and/or juveniles was noted. The cooperative (group fishing was the foranging behaviour most frequently noted for S. fluviatilis.Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D’Orgigny, 1844 e Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais, 1853 possuem hábitos tipicamente costeiros e são simpátricas no Sudeste do Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar avistagens e descrever aspectos relacionados ao comportamento de ambas as espécies na região, entre 1993 e 1998. As avistagens foram realizadas através de cruzeiros e ponto fixo. Informações fornecidas por pescadores também foram consideradas. Em geral, P. blainvillei foi observada em todas as estações do ano, a até cinco milhas náuticas de distância da linha da costa e 15 m de profundidade e, os grupos eram formados por até cinco espécimens. A maior parte dos grupos de S. fluviatilis foi observada no período de outono e inverno e, era formada por até 10 espécimens. Em metade das avistagens, a presença de filhotes e/ou juvenis foi verificada. A pesca cooperativa (em grupo foi o comportamento alimentar observado com maior freqüência para S. fluviatilis.

  6. Current glaciation of the Chikhachev ridge (South-Eastern Altai and its dynamics after maximum of the Little Ice Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Ganyushkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaciation of the Chikhachev ridge (South-Eastern Altai remains poorly known: field observations were not performed since the mid-twentieth century, available schemes and estimates of the glaciation and its scale made on the basis of remote sensing cover only a part of the glaciers, reconstructions of the Little Ice Age (LIA glaciations are absent. This research was based on interpretation of the satellite images: Landsat-4 (1989, Landsat-7 (2001, and Spot-5 (2011, as well as with the use of data of the field season of 2015. Characteristics of glaciations of the Chikhachev ridge as the whole and of its individual centers (Talduair massif, Mongun-Taiga-Minor massif, and southern part of the Chikhachev ridge were determined for the first time. Recent glaciation is represented by 7 glaciers with their total area of 1.12 km2 in the Talduair massif, by 5 glaciers with total area of 0.75 km2 in the Mongun-Taiga-Minor massif, and by 85 glaciers with total area of 29 km2 in the southern part of the Chikhachev ridge. Since the LIA maximum, areas of glaciers decreased by 61% in the Talduair massif, by 74% in the Mongun-Taiga-Minor massif, by 56% in the southern part of the Chikhachev ridge with simultaneous lifting of the firn line by 50 m, 65 m, and 70 m, respectively.The largest rates of the glacier contractions were determined for the period 1989–2011. Different mechanisms of the glacier retreats were shown by the example of the glacier complexes Burgastyn-Gol (one-sided retreat and disintegration and the Grigorjev glacier (gradual retreat of the tongue. Retreat of the Grigorjev glacier has been reconstructed for the period from the LIA maximum until 2015. Average rate of the retreat increased from 1,6 m/year in 1957–1989 up to 11,3 m/year in 2011–2015. The present-day scales of the glaciers and rates of their retreating do not significantly differ from estimations made by other researchers for the nearest centers of glaciation of the

  7. A development plan for the south-eastern part of Pag island with an emphasis on olive-growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Koščak Miočić-Stošić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regardless of the fact that the traditional usage of rural landscapes was agricultural, a degradation of landscape values, as well as an onset of natural succession, occur due to contemporary lifestyle. This can lead to negative effects regarding land-use change. This paper focuses on the south-eastern part of Pag island and explores the possibilities for the revitalisation of its neglected areas by envisioning its future development as an olive-growing region. The final goal was to define a planning procedure framework which would enable the creation of a strategic vision to be transformed into a comprehensive spatial development strategy for the research area. This area encompasses the territory between Kaštela in the north-west and the Pag’s bridge in the south-east which administratively belongs to the Zadar County and includes the Town of Pag, and the Kolan and Povljana municipalities. Olive-growing has been recognized as the strategic choice for development because of its tradition in the area and the potential integration with other relatable activities. Based on the SWOT analysis, an appropriate mission, a vision and strategic goals were defined for developing Pag as an olive-growing region. Further landscape planning methods included (1 the Lynch mapping analysis, (2 the Forman and Godron landscape ecology analysis and (3 the landscape pattern analysis. The results were then used together with digital orthophoto imagery to overlay and analyse relevant information. Hand drawings as well as AutoCAD, ArcGIS and image editing computer programmes were used in the process. This analytical phase was then followed by the development of several alternative spatial zonings, diagrams and concepts based on a preferable neighbourhood matrix and the activity sizing table. The planning process resulted in a concept for spatial development of the research area which would enable the implementation of the strategic vision. The main goal of this

  8. Same Same, But Different: Sedimentological Comparison of Recent Storm and Tsunami Deposits from the South-Eastern Coastline of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouramanis, C.; Switzer, A.; Seshachalam, S.; Karthikeyan, A.; Pham, D. T.; Carson, S.; Pilarczyk, J.; Hussain, M.; Yap, W.

    2014-12-01

    Storm and tsunami deposits have been identified and described from many siliciclastic coastlines globally, but detailed comparison of both known storm and tsunami deposits from the same coastlines are lacking. An opportunity to compare storm and tsunami sedimentary deposits was recognised following sediment deposition by Cyclone Thane (25th to 31st December 2011) that were superimposed on sediments deposited during the Indian Ocean Tsunami (26th December 2004) in a pit (DPM3a) near Cuddalore, on the south-eastern Indian coastline. A second pit, at Silver Beach (SB1) was located 2 km south of Pit DPM3a, was examined for comparison with Pit DPM3a. Pit DPM3a contained four distinct units, an oldest intertidal unit, the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, and a reworked aeolian sand that is capped by the Cyclone Thane deposit. Pit SB1 contained an oldest intertidal deposit, an estuarine beach and capped by the Cyclone Thane deposit. The identification of these units was verified from satellite imagery. The pits were examined at 1cm increments for grainsize and grain shape characteristics, loss on ignition, heavy mineral concentrations and microfossils. A suite of statistical analyses, including exploratory data analysis techniques, analysis of variance and principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to compare the measured parameters and the individual deposits within and between pits DPM3a and SB1. Individual deposits showed significant differences in many of the parameters, but no individual variable was diagnostic of the deposits. PCA of Pit DPM3a suggested that the proportion of heavy minerals was the strongest parameter to distinguish the storm deposit from the tidal, aeolian and tsunami deposit, but that significant overlap between the deposits occurred. The application of DFA showed that in Pit DPM3a, the storm deposit could be distinguished from the tsunami, tidal and aeolian deposits. However, applying the same data analysed

  9. Analysis of rainfall related to landslide activity during January-February 2003, South-Eastern Sector of Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorillo, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    On 24-26 th January 2003 a heavy storm struck the South-Eastern sector of the Italian peninsula, causing severe damage to agriculture and roads of the Abruzzo, Molise, Campania and Puglia regions. The areas involved are characterised by hilly morphology, up to 900m a.s.l. inland, and are made up of mainly argillaceous sequences of Flysch and fore deep deposits of the Apennine chain. Thousands of landslides occurred along hilly areas, generally characterized by shallow movements which ceased after some meters; deep-seated landslides also occurred and with reactivations of previous instabilities. Flood phenomena occurred in several places, mainly along the high-order drainage lines. The area is known to fall within a Mediterranean climate, with a long, hot 'dry season' between June and September and a temperate-wet season between October and May. Thus, the 24-26 January 2003 storm occurred in the mid-wet season, during winter; moreover, neither solid precipitation nor snow melt phenomena occurred. The first available hydrological data show that the 24-26 th January 2003 storm was the maximum in the historical series of some rain gauges, considering 24-hour and 2-day cumulative rainfall; return time reaches values exceeding 70 years, with usual distribution function (Gumbel, GEV, Lognormal). The storm occurred after a wet period, characterized by previous storms, which most likely caused the reaching of field capacity of the soil. All shallow landslides occurred during or immediately after this storm and, thus, were most likely caused by positive pore pressure development. At least 10 continuous rainy days after the storm (until 6th February 2003) were recorded, though they were characterized by low rainfall; it is important to highlight that it was mainly during these rainy days that some deep seated landslides were reactivated. On the bases of historical hydrological data and landslide activity, this study analyses the possible relation between rainfall and

  10. Understanding the Relationship between Social Change and Its Impacts: The Experience of Rural Land Use Change in South-Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn J. H.; Schirmer, Jacki

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated socio-economic impacts of land use change, giving explicit attention to the relationships between independently observed land use change and associated socio-economic changes, perceived land use change and socio-economic change, attributed cause of change, and experienced impacts of change. Using a case study region in…

  11. Relationship between leaf traits and fire-response strategies in shrub species of a mountainous region of south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, Lyndsey M; Cary, Geoffrey J

    2012-01-01

    Resprouting and seed recruitment are important ways in which plants respond to fire. However, the investments a plant makes into ensuring the success of post-fire resprouting or seedling recruitment can result in trade-offs that are manifested in a range of co-occurring morphological, life history and physiological traits. Relationships between fire-response strategies and other traits have been widely examined in fire-prone Mediterranean-type climates. In this paper, we aim to determine whether shrubs growing in a non-Mediterranean climate region exhibit relationships between their fire-response strategy and leaf traits. Field surveys were used to classify species into fire-response types. We then compared specific leaf area, leaf dry-matter content, leaf width, leaf nitrogen and carbon to nitrogen ratios between (a) obligate seeders and all other resprouters, and (b) obligate seeders, facultative resprouters and obligate resprouters. Leaf traits only varied between fire-response types when we considered facultative resprouters as a separate group to obligate resprouters, as observed after a large landscape-scale fire. We found no differences between obligate seeders and obligate resprouters, nor between obligate seeders and resprouters considered as one group. The results suggest that facultative resprouters may require a strategy of rapid resource acquisition and fast growth in order to compete with species that either resprout, or recruit from seed. However, the overall lack of difference between obligate seeders and obligate resprouters suggests that environmental factors are exerting similar effects on species' ecological strategies, irrespective of the constraints and trade-offs that may be associated with obligate seeding and obligate resprouting. These results highlight the limits to trait co-occurrences across different ecosystems and the difficulty in identifying global-scale relationships amongst traits.

  12. Gambling revenues as a public administration issue: electronic gaming machines in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickernell, David; Keast, Robyn; Brown, Kerry; Yousefpour, Nina; Miller, Chris

    2013-12-01

    Gambling activities and the revenues derived have been seen as a way to increase economic development in deprived areas. There are also, however, concerns about the effects of gambling in general and electronic gaming machines (EGMs) in particular, on the resources available to the localities in which they are situated. This paper focuses on the factors that determine the extent and spending of community benefit-related EGM-generated resources within Victoria, Australia, focusing in particular on the relationships between EGM activity and socio-economic and social capital indicators, and how this relates to the community benefit resources generated by gaming.

  13. A new genus and species of native exotic millipede in Australia (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesibov, Robert; Car, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Taxidiotisoma portabile gen. n., sp. n. is described from scattered populations in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania, Australia. Populations of Taxidiotisoma portabile in Victoria, Tasmania and parts of New South Wales occur in urban, suburban and agricultural areas, with no collections of the species in natural habitats in the same district. Taxidiotisoma portabile is likely to be a native exotic species whose home range is in eastern New South Wales. PMID:25931961

  14. A new genus and species of native exotic millipede in Australia (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mesibov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Taxidiotisoma portabile gen. n., sp. n. is described from scattered populations in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania, Australia. Populations of T. portabile in Victoria, Tasmania and parts of New South Wales occur in urban, suburban and agricultural areas, with no collections of the species in natural habitats in the same district. Taxidiotisoma portabile is likely to be a native exotic species whose home range is in eastern New South Wales.

  15. Variability in the air–sea interaction patterns and timescales within the south-eastern Bay of Biscay, as observed by HF radar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fontán

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two high-frequency (HF radar stations were installed on the coast of the south-eastern Bay of Biscay in 2009, providing high spatial and temporal resolution and large spatial coverage of currents in the area for the first time. This has made it possible to quantitatively assess the air–sea interaction patterns and timescales for the period 2009–2010. The analysis was conducted using the Barnett–Preisendorfer approach to canonical correlation analysis (CCA of reanalysis surface winds and HF radar-derived surface currents. The CCA yields two canonical patterns: the first wind–current interaction pattern corresponds to the classical Ekman drift at the sea surface, whilst the second describes an anticyclonic/cyclonic surface circulation. The results obtained demonstrate that local winds play an important role in driving the upper water circulation. The wind–current interaction timescales are mainly related to diurnal breezes and synoptic variability. In particular, the breezes force diurnal currents in waters of the continental shelf and slope of the south-eastern Bay. It is concluded that the breezes may force diurnal currents over considerably wider areas than that covered by the HF radar, considering that the northern and southern continental shelves of the Bay exhibit stronger diurnal than annual wind amplitudes.

  16. Mathematical Problems in Biology : Victoria Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1974-01-01

    A conference on "Some Mathematical Problems in Biology" was held at the University of Victoria, Victoria, B. C. , Canada, from May 7 - 10, 1973. The participants and invited speakers were mathematicians interested in problems of a biological nature, and scientists actively engaged in developing mathematical models in biological fields. One aim of the conference was to attempt to assess what the recent rapid growth of mathematical interaction with the biosciences has accomplished and may accomplish in the near future. The conference also aimed to expose the problems of communication bet~",een mathematicians and biological scientists, and in doing so to stimulate the interchange of ideas. It was recognised that the topic spans an enormous breadth, and little attempt was made to balance the very diverse areas. Widespread active interest was shown in the conference, and just over one hundred people registered. The varied departments and institutions across North America from which the participants came made it bo...

  17. Chemistry models in the Victoria code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimley, A.J. III

    1988-01-01

    The VICTORIA Computer code consists of the fission product release and chemistry models for the MELPROG severe accident analysis code. The chemistry models in VICTORIA are used to treat multi-phase interactions in four separate physical regions: fuel grains, gap/open porosity/clad, coolant/aerosols, and structure surfaces. The physical and chemical environment of each region is very different from the others and different models are required for each. The common thread in the modelling is the use of a chemical equilibrium assumption. The validity of this assumption along with a description of the various physical constraints applicable to each region will be discussed. The models that result from the assumptions and constraints will be presented along with samples of calculations in each region

  18. Queen Victoria, her physicians, and her cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravin, J G

    1994-01-01

    Decreasing vision due to cataracts became a significant problem for Queen Victoria toward the end of the 19th century. Her personal physician, Sir James Reid, obtained consultations with two eminent British ophthalmologists, George Lawson and Edward Nettleship. The Queen was not satisfied, and requested an opinion from the German professor Hermann Pagenstecher. All the doctors agreed on the diagnosis, but the Queen never underwent surgery.

  19. Pancam Peek into 'Victoria Crater' (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08776 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08776 A drive of about 60 meters (about 200 feet) on the 943rd Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's exploration of Mars' Meridiani Planum region (Sept. 18, 2006) brought the NASA rover to within about 50 meters (about 160 feet) of the rim of 'Victoria Crater.' This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months. Opportunity reached a location from which the cameras on top of the rover's mast could begin to see into the interior of Victoria. This stereo anaglyph was made from frames taken on sol 943 by the panoramic camera (Pancam) to offer a three-dimensional view when seen through red-blue glasses. It shows the upper portion of interior crater walls facing toward Opportunity from up to about 850 meters (half a mile) away. The amount of vertical relief visible at the top of the interior walls from this angle is about 15 meters (about 50 feet). The exposures were taken through a Pancam filter selecting wavelengths centered on 750 nanometers. Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is the expectation that a thick stack of geological layers will be exposed in the crater walls, potentially several times the thickness that was previously studied at Endurance and therefore, potentially preserving several times the historical record.

  20. Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of rare-metal pegmatites at Abu Rusheid granitic gneisses, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fahmy Raslan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Abu Rushied area, situated in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt is a distinctive occurrence of economically important rare-metal mineralization where the host rocks are represented by granitic gneisses. Correspondingly, mineralogical and geochemical investigation of pegmatites pockets scattered within Abu Rusheid granitic gneisses revealed the presence of Hf-zircon, ferrocolumbite and uranyl silicate minerals (uranophane and kasolite. Electronmicroprobe analyses revealed the presence of Nb-Ta multioxide minerals (ishikawaite, uranopyrochlore, and fergusonite, uraninite, thorite and cassiterite as numerous inclusions in the recorded Hf-zircon and ferrocolumbite minerals.Abu Rusheid pegmatites are found as small and large bodies that occur as simple and complex (zoned pegmatites.Abu Rusheid rare-metal pegmatites occur as steeply dipping bodies of variable size, ranging from 1 to 5 m in width and 10 to 50 m in length. The zoned pegmatites are composed of wall zone of coarser granitic gneisses, intermediated zone of K-feldspar and pocket of mica (muscovite and biotite, and core of quartz and pocket ofmica with lenses of rare metals.The zircon is of bipyramidal to typical octahedral form and short prisms. Because the zircon of the investigated Abu Rushied pegmatite frequently contains hafnium in amounts ranging between 2.31 and 11.11%, the studied zircon was designated as Hf-rich zircon. This zircon commonly exhibits a normal zoning with rims consistentlyhigher in Hf than cores. The bright areas in the crystal either in core or rim showed a remarkable enrichment in hafnium content (8.83–11.11% with respect to the dark zones (3.19%. The investigated ferroclumbite commonly exhibits zoning; the dark zone is low in the Ta and U but the light zone is enriched in Ta (13% and U (1%. EMPAanalyses indicate the chemical composition of ishikawaite with U ranging from 0.68 to 0.79 per formula unit.Uranopyrochlore species has dominant uranium in the A

  1. Silurian deltaic progradation, Tassili n'Ajjer plateau, south-eastern Algeria: Sedimentology, ichnology and sequence stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djouder, Hocine; Lüning, Sebastian; Da Silva, Anne-Christine; Abdallah, Hussein; Boulvain, Frédéric

    2018-06-01

    The economic potential for unconventional shale oil and gas production in the Silurian of the Berkine - Ghadames and Illizi basins (BGI) in south-eastern Algeria has been recently confirmed through exploration drilling. The aim of the present paper attempts a better understanding of the Intra-Tassilian depression within the entire Silurian of the Tassili n'Ajjer plateau. The continuous deposits of the Silurian are exposed at the southern margin of the prolific BGI basins, in the Tassili n'Ajjer plateau, offering the chance to understand the sedimentology, ichnology, and to present a detailed sequence stratigraphy framework for the region. The 410 m-thick clastic Silurian sedimentary strata are subdivided into three formations in the context of sequence stratigraphy, namely: (i) the Oued Imihrou Fm. (Llandoverian) overlain by (ii) the Atafaïtafa Fm. (late Llandoverian to Wenlockian), and (iii) the Oued Tifernine Fm. (late Wenlockian to Pridolian). These can be also distinguished across the entire investigated area and laterally traceable over kilometers. Clear cyclic stacking patterns are identified within the four studied sections showing progressively a general trend of thickening- and coarsening-upward, over a complete 2nd-order megasequence (SIL-1 MS). This transgressive-regressive succession suggests deltaic progradation, shallowing and basin infilling as evidenced by numerous diagnostic sedimentary features and trace fossils, largely from eastern-to western-Tassili plateau. Indeed, the wealth of outcrop data in the Silurian siliciclastic succession enables us to distinct thirteen facies (facies A-M), ranging from shallow-to marginal-marine facies, and in turn, grouped into six facies associations (FA1-FA6). The lowermost part of the succession, which is the most prolific sources of hydrocarbons in North Africa, consists of thick organic-rich graptolite-yielding black 'hot' shales and 'lean' shales with sparse bioturbation with small Thalassinoides belonging

  2. Factors enabling and inhibiting facilitator development: lessons learned from Essentials of Care in South Eastern Sydney Local Health District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamera Watling

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Building and sustaining facilitation capacity for the creation of person-centred workplace cultures is a strategic priority of the South Eastern Sydney Local Health District Nursing and Midwifery Practice and Workforce Unit. Skilled facilitation is considered critical to the successful implementation and sustainability of practice development-based programmes, including Essentials of Care. Review of facilitator activity across the district revealed that less than half of those who had participated in a facilitation development programme were actively applying their knowledge to the facilitation of Essentials of Care. Aim: To understand the enablers and barriers to the development and application of facilitation skills and the implementation of Essentials of Care from the perspective of the programme’s facilitators. The purpose was to inform ongoing strategies to build and sustain facilitation capacity for its effective implementation. Method: A 21-question qualitative survey was designed using Survey Monkey. Questions were framed to allow free text responses for qualitative content analysis. Ethics approval was applied for and deemed unnecessary by the local health district ethics committee; the committee deemed the project to be a quality improvement activity not requiring independent ethical review. The survey was distributed electronically to 230 health professionals who had participated in the facilitation development programme between 2008 and 2013. Findings: The key enablers for both facilitator development and implementation of Essentials of Care were time, engagement of staff and leadership support. Additional enablers for facilitation development included access to development opportunities and practical application of skills. Facilitation was an enabler of Essentials of Care implementation. Leadership support is pivotal, especially where time and patient acuity impinge on the release of staff for facilitated activities

  3. Transition, Reconstruction and Stability in South-Eastern Europe. The Role of Vocational Education and Training. Working Document. [European Training Foundation and Kulturkontakt Austria Joint Workshop on "Civil Society and Vocational Education Training. The Role of Democratic Citizenship and Diversity Education" (Mavrovo, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, September 9-11, 1999)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This document includes the following papers: "The European Training Foundation's Experience in Supporting Human Resource Development in South-Eastern Europe" (Peter de Rooij); "Transition, Reconstruction and Stability in South-Eastern Europe; The Role of Vocational Education and Training" (Cesar Birzea, Peter Grootings, Tzako…

  4. VICTORIA Class Submarine Human-in-the-Loop Experimentation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    1472G. VICTORIA Class Submarine Human-in-the-Loop Experimentation Plan and Preliminary Results © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of...19 th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium Title: VICTORIA Class Submarine Human-in-the-Loop...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE VICTORIA Class Submarine Human-in-the-Loop Experimentation Plan 5a. CONTRACT

  5. Out of the ashes: the new bachelor of midwifery curriculum at Victoria University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Mary; Kruger, Gina; Brown, Vera

    2007-09-01

    In the past decade, midwifery education has changed significantly in Australia. Previously, a nursing qualification (division 1) was required for entry into midwifery programs and on completion, graduands obtained a postgraduate diploma of midwifery. More recently, bachelor of midwifery programs have also been offered in Australia and currently, a considerable percentage of midwives are prepared for practice in this way. In Victoria, the bachelor of midwifery has been available since 2002, and at this time the third group of graduands are poised to enter the field. Implementation of the bachelor of midwifery program has given rise to many concerns about the development and applicability of this course. Concerns include: complexities of registration with a regulatory board set up primarily for nursing registration; concerns about readiness for practice among bachelor of midwifery graduands; escalating requirements within midwifery courses; and difficulties with meeting course requirements. As this course comes of age in Victoria, it is useful to reflect on some of the challenges encountered along the way. Thus, this paper reports on the journey of one university as it approaches the end of a first year of implementing an independent bachelor of midwifery program, following 5 years involvement as a consortium partner. In particular, it addresses concerns and difficulties encountered during early implementation of the program and then outlines strategies used to improve and strengthen the course. The basic premise of the paper is lessons learnt along the way.

  6. Isotopic Investigation of the Origin of Ammonia and Nitrate in the Mineral Spring Waters of Scuol (Lower Engadine, South Eastern Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, J.; Leuenberger, F.; Balderer, W. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, Geological Institute, Engineering Geology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Eichinger, L. [Hydroisotop GmbH, Schweitenkirchen (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    The mineral springs of scuol-Tarasp are located in the lower Engadine Valley, Graubuenden, south eastern Switzerland. In the last century, they have been investigated with respect to their basic chemical parameters. These springs yield a highly mineralized carbon dioxide water, with large quantities of free CO{sub 2}. Some of the springs also contain high amounts of ammonia. In order to better understand the origin of the water of the different springs, 13 were investigated, focusing this study on the ammonia content and the isotopic composition of the ammonia in the waters. It results from the study that 7 of the 13 springs contain ammonia. Based on the isotope and chemical results we suggest an origin of that ammonia by natural processes as water-rock interaction within the sedimentary and mantle rocks along the water flow path resulting in the enrichment of ammonia as seen in the investigated spring waters. (author)

  7. Isotopic Investigation of the Origin of Nitrate of Waters Outflowing from a Waste Deposit Site Near Scuol (Lower Engadine, South Eastern Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschwend, M.; Leuenberger, F.; Eichinger, L. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, Geological Institute, Engineering Geology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Balderer, W. [Hydroisotop GmbH, Schweitenkirchen, Germany (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Near the village of Scuol in the Lower Engadine Valley (South Eastern Switzerland) Sot Ruinas, a waste disposal site for domestic and construction refuse, has been in use since the 1960s. It is situated in the vicinity of the Inn River. Over the last years enhanced concentrations of ammonia were found in the outflow of this waste site. But the observed elevated ammonia concentrations could also be a result of natural origin, by inflows of mineral water as observed in the mineral springs of the area. These springs could have acquired their high ammonia content by water-rock interaction with adjacent ultramafic rocks. The isotope analyses were oriented towards the hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen isotopes on the ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen molecules. The effect of the waste on the outflowing water downstream could be proved by isotope ratios based on chemical processes of the nitrogen cycle and an influence of natural spring water was excluded. (author)

  8. [Low rate of oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection among women with cervical lesion. Preliminary results from the South-Eastern Hungarian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanya, Melinda; Jakó, Mária; Terhes, Gabriella; Szakács, László; Kaiser, László; Deák, Judit; Bártfai, György

    2016-01-10

    Although the natural history of cervical and oral human papillomavirus infection has been intensively investigated in the past years, the ability of this virus to infect oral and genital mucosae in the same individual and its potential to co-infect both cervical and oral mucosa are still unclear. The aim of the authors was to assess the presence of oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection in women with cervical lesions in the South-Eastern Hungarian population. The total of 103 women have been included in the study between March 1, 2013 and January 1, 2015. Brushing was used to collect cells from the oropharyngeal mucosa. Human papillomavirus DNA was detected using polymerase chain reaction, and Amplicor line blot test was used for genotyping. Oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection was detected in 2 cases (3%). The detected genotypes were 31, 40/61 and 73 in the oropharyngeal region. The results indicate that in women with cervical lesions oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection rarely occurs.

  9. THE RECENT STRUCTURE AND THE ASSUMED HISTORY OF FORMATION OF THE CRUST IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN SEGMENT OF THE NORTH ASIAN CRATON ALONG REFERENCE PROFILE 3-DV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. Goshko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of specialized processing of the deep seismic profile along a part of Reference Profile 3-DV which crosses the Aldan-Stanovoi shield in the meridian direction and goes across its buried northern slope. The study is aimed at determining frequency-energy characteristics of the seismic wave field which are related to physical conditions of geological features of the crust. Based on analysis and interpretation of the dynamic profiles, it is possible to reveal and contour the Archean cores of consolidation of the Aldan shield and its buried continuation that is covered by sediments of the Middle Lena monocline and to input new facts in the proposed geodynamic model showing formation of the crust in the south-eastern segment of the North Asian craton.

  10. 'My wife, you are supposed to have a rest now': an analysis of norms influencing men's role in prenatal care in south-eastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karin; Mayumana, Iddy; Obrist, Brigit

    2013-04-01

    Men as sexual partners, fathers and household heads have a direct bearing on women's reproductive health. However, little is known about the influence of changing norms and values on men's role in ensuring women's health during pregnancy and childbirth. This study from rural south-eastern Tanzania explores men's and women's discussions on men's roles and responsibilities in prenatal care and links them to an analysis of norms and values at the household level and beyond. Data from eight focus group discussions with men and women were consensually coded and analysed using a qualitative content analysis. Four dimensions of norms and values, which emerged from analysis, bear upon men's support towards pregnant women: changing gender identities; changing family and marriage structures; biomedical values disseminated in health education; and government regulations. The findings suggest that Tanzanian men are exposed to a contradictory and changing landscape of norms and values in relation to maternal health.

  11. Coal Corporation of Victoria strategic plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The Coal Corporation has been established by the Victorian Parliament to plan for and to manage the responsible utilisation of the brown coal resource (Victoria's most abundant fossil resource) in order to underpin economic growth and job creation. For each of 5 issues, the Strategic Plan outlines the current situation, reviews recent factors which have affected or may affect the situation and outlines the goals, strategies and targets which have been set for the period 1985/1989. In each case, the achievements to date are also outlined. The issues addressed are: project development, marketing, resource planning and inter corporate relations, organisation of the Corporation, and finance.

  12. Post-Palaeozoic uplift history of southeastern Australia revisited: results from a process-based mode of landscape evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Beek, P.A.; Braun, J.; Lambeck, K.

    1999-01-01

    Developments over the last decade in the debate concerning the geomorphic evolution of the south-eastern Australian highlands are reviewed, taking as a starting point the model of passive denudation and isostatic rebound of a Palaeozoic mountain belt presented by Lambeck and Stephenson (1986). This model has been popular in the geomorphological community because it provides a quantitative framework to explain the very low rates of landscape evolution inferred from most geomorphological studies. The model has, however, also been criticised for its treatment of erosion as being linearly dependent on elevation, as well as for its predictions of regional uplift and denudation patterns that are not in accord with inferences from fission-track thermochronological data. Part of controversy stems from conceptual misunderstandings on the interpretation of data and from insufficient consideration of questions of spatial and temporal scale. First results of a new physical process-based model for large-scale long-term landscape evolution in the south-eastern highlands are presented. These show that the denudation history and drainage development of south-eastern Australia can be explained to a first order without invoking large-scale mid-Cretaceous or Tertiary uplift events. The model predicts drainage patterns in southeastern Australia to have evolved by rearrangement of an initially north-westerly directed drainage net, caused by drops in base-level during Mesozoic rifting along the southern and eastern margins of the study region. The geomorphology and available fission-track data in the Snowy Mountains region (and possibly also in the Bathurst - Blue Mountains region) do require renewed (mid Cretaceous?) uplift to have taken place. The model results are discussed in the light of recent controversies surrounding the southeastern highlands-their uplift history, denudation rates, depth of denudation of the coastal strip and inferred Mesozoic drainage patterns. Copyright (1999

  13. Requirements for VICTORIA Class Fire Control System: Contact Management Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Requirements for VICTORIA Class Fire Control System Contact Management Function Tab Lamoureux CAE Integrated Enterprise Solutions...Contract Report DRDC-RDDC-2014-C190 July 2014 © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the...i Abstract …….. The VICTORIA Class Submarines (VCS) are subject to a continuing program of technical upgrades. One such program is

  14. Causes and effects of the Lake Victoria ecological revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, Pleun Cornelis

    2006-01-01

    Nile perch was introduced in Lake Victoria in the 1950s and exploded in number during the 1980s. The process of colonization of the lake by this predatory fish is described and explained. The changes in a number of other fauna elements of Lake Victoria are described and explained. Not only Nile

  15. Adaptive responses to environmental changes in Lake Victoria cichlids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijssel, Jacobus Cornelis van (Jacco)

    2014-01-01

    Lake Victoria cichlids show the fastest vertebrate adaptive radiation known which is why they function as a model organism to study evolution. In the past 40 years, Lake Victoria experienced severe environmental changes including the boom of the introduced, predatory Nile perch and eutrophication.

  16. The burden of hospitalised fall-related injury in community-dwelling older people in Victoria: a database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Trang; Day, Lesley; Finch, Caroline F

    2014-04-01

    To estimate the burden of hospitalised fall-related injury in community-dwelling older people in Victoria. We analysed fall-related, person-identifying hospital discharge data and patient-level hospital treatment costs for community-dwelling older people aged 65+ years from Victoria between 1 July 2005 and 30 June 2008, inclusive. Key outcomes of interest were length of stay (LOS)/episode, cumulative LOS (CLOS)/patient and inpatient costs. The burden of hospitalised fall-related injury in community-dwelling older people aged 65+ years in Victoria was 284,781 hospital bed days in 2005-06, rising to 310,031 hospital bed days in 2007-08. Seventy-one per cent of episodes were multiday. One in 15 acute care episodes was a high LOS outlier and 14% of patients had ≥1 episode classified as high LOS outlier. The median CLOS/patient was nine days (interquartile range 2-27). The annual costs of inpatient care, in June 2009 prices, for fall-related injury in community-dwelling people aged 65+ years in Victoria rose from $213 million in 2005-06 to $237 million in 2007-08. The burden of hospitalised fall-related injury in community-dwelling older women, people aged 85+ years and those with comorbidity was considerable. The burden of hospitalised fall-related injury in community-dwelling older people aged 65+ years in Victoria is significantly more than previously projected. Importantly, this study identifies that women, patients with comorbidity and those aged 85+ years account for a considerable proportion of this burden. A corresponding increase in falls prevention effort is required to ensure that the burden is properly addressed. © 2014 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  17. Prokaryotic Abundance and Activity in Permafrost of the Northern Victoria Land and Upper Victoria Valley (Antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Ferla, Rosabruna; Azzaro, Maurizio; Michaud, Luigi; Caruso, Gabriella; Lo Giudice, Angelina; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Cabral, Anderson S; Conte, Antonella; Cosenza, Alessandro; Maimone, Giovanna; Papale, Maria; Rappazzo, Alessandro Ciro; Guglielmin, Mauro

    2017-08-01

    Victoria Land permafrost harbours a potentially large pool of cold-affected microorganisms whose metabolic potential still remains underestimated. Three cores (BC-1, BC-2 and BC-3) drilled at different depths in Boulder Clay (Northern Victoria Land) and one sample (DY) collected from a core in the Dry Valleys (Upper Victoria Valley) were analysed to assess the prokaryotic abundance, viability, physiological profiles and potential metabolic rates. The cores drilled at Boulder Clay were a template of different ecological conditions (different temperature regime, ice content, exchanges with atmosphere and with liquid water) in the same small basin while the Dry Valleys site was very similar to BC-2 conditions but with a complete different geological history and ground ice type. Image analysis was adopted to determine cell abundance, size and shape as well as to quantify the potential viable and respiring cells by live/dead and 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl-tetrazolium chloride staining, respectively. Subpopulation recognition by apparent nucleic acid contents was obtained by flow cytometry. Moreover, the physiological profiles at community level by Biolog-Ecoplate™ as well as the ectoenzymatic potential rates on proteinaceous (leucine-aminopeptidase) and glucidic (ß-glucosidase) organic matter and on organic phosphates (alkaline-phosphatase) by fluorogenic substrates were tested. The adopted methodological approach gave useful information regarding viability and metabolic performances of microbial community in permafrost. The occurrence of a multifaceted prokaryotic community in the Victoria Land permafrost and a large number of potentially viable and respiring cells (in the order of 10 4 -10 5 ) were recognised. Subpopulations with a different apparent DNA content within the different samples were observed. The physiological profiles stressed various potential metabolic pathways among the samples and intense utilisation rates of polymeric carbon compounds and carbohydrates

  18. Paediatric doses from diagnostic radiology in Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boal, T.J.; Cardillo, I.; Einsiedel, P.F.

    1998-01-01

    This study examines doses to paediatric patients from diagnostic radiology. Measurements were made at 29 hospitals and private radiology practices in the state of Victoria. Entrance skin doses in air were measured for the exposure factors used by hospital radiology departments and private radiology practices for a standard size 1, 5, 10 and 15 year old child, for the following procedures: chest AP/PA, lat; abdomen AP; pelvis AP; lumbar spine AP, lat; and skull AP, lat. There was a large range of doses for each particular procedure and age group. Factors contributing to the range of doses were identified. Guidance levels for paediatric radiology based on the third quartile value of the skin entrance doses have been recommended and are compared with guidance levels. Copyright (1998) Australasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine

  19. Layers of 'Cabo Frio' in 'Victoria Crater'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This view of 'Victoria crater' is looking southeast from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cabo Frio.' The small crater in the right foreground, informally known as 'Sputnik,' is about 20 meters (about 65 feet) away from the rover, the tip of the spectacular, layered, Cabo Frio promontory itself is about 200 meters (about 650 feet) away from the rover, and the exposed rock layers are about 15 meters (about 50 feet) tall. This is an approximately true color rendering of images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  20. Analysis and evaluation of WRF microphysical schemes for deep moist convection over south-eastern South America (SESA) using microwave satellite observations and radiative transfer simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sol Galligani, Victoria; Wang, Die; Alvarez Imaz, Milagros; Salio, Paola; Prigent, Catherine

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, three meteorological events of extreme deep moist convection, characteristic of south-eastern South America, are considered to conduct a systematic evaluation of the microphysical parameterizations available in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model by undertaking a direct comparison between satellite-based simulated and observed microwave radiances. A research radiative transfer model, the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS), is coupled with the WRF model under three different microphysical parameterizations (WSM6, WDM6 and Thompson schemes). Microwave radiometry has shown a promising ability in the characterization of frozen hydrometeors. At high microwave frequencies, however, frozen hydrometeors significantly scatter radiation, and the relationship between radiation and hydrometeor populations becomes very complex. The main difficulty in microwave remote sensing of frozen hydrometeor characterization is correctly characterizing this scattering signal due to the complex and variable nature of the size, composition and shape of frozen hydrometeors. The present study further aims at improving the understanding of frozen hydrometeor optical properties characteristic of deep moist convection events in south-eastern South America. In the present study, bulk optical properties are computed by integrating the single-scattering properties of the Liu(2008) discrete dipole approximation (DDA) single-scattering database across the particle size distributions parameterized by the different WRF schemes in a consistent manner, introducing the equal mass approach. The equal mass approach consists of describing the optical properties of the WRF snow and graupel hydrometeors with the optical properties of habits in the DDA database whose dimensions might be different (Dmax') but whose mass is conserved. The performance of the radiative transfer simulations is evaluated by comparing the simulations with the available coincident

  1. Mapping the isotopic signature of methane in South-Eastern Spain: complementing biogeochemical long-term research with short term observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Àgueda, Alba; Morguí, Josep Anton; Vazquez Garcia, Eusebi; Curcoll, Roger; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E.; Nisbet, Euan G.

    2016-04-01

    As a greenhouse gas, methane has a global warming potential of 25 in a 100 year scale. In order to establish mitigation plans it is important to assess its sources and sinks which can be both of geological and biological origin. South-Eastern Spain is a region with many different possible methane sources: i) by seismic activity of many geological faults both inland and in the neighbouring marine region (i.e. the Carboneras fault crossing the Alborán Sea along Málaga coastline); ii) by seepage of methane from hydrates present in the marine regions close to the Gibraltar Strait and the Gulf of Cádiz; iii) by emissions from fossil fuels caused by high traffic of merchant ships and the presence of large harbours (Algeciras, Tetuan and Cádiz), and the Africa - Europe Gas Transport Network in the Gibraltar Strait region; iv) by organic matter decomposition in both highly productive marshlands and eutrophic reservoirs; v) by burning of agricultural debris for energy supply, mainly from olive residues. In this study, a methane mapping survey has been conducted in the area around three atmospheric stations of the ClimaDat Atmospheric Network for Continuous Measurements of Greenhouse Gases (www.climadat.es) located in South-Eastern Spain (Sierra de Grazalema (SGC3), Tarifa (EEC3) and Sierra de Segura (SSC3). A cavity ring down spectrometer (CRDS) (G2301m, Picarro®) installed on a car has been used to measure methane concentrations. Additionally, in selected points, air samples have been collected in Tedlar bags for isotopic signature analysis by CF-GC-IRMS (Continuous Flow Gas Chromatography-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry). In order to obtain a map facilitating the identification of the different methane sources in the background air at regional scale, the mapping of isotopic signature of methane together with its concentration is a useful tool to obtain fast and direct information that will contribute to the knowledge of methane transport at the regional scale and

  2. Near-vertical seismic reflection image using a novel acquisition technique across the Vrancea Zone and Foscani Basin, south-eastern Carpathians (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panea, I.; Stephenson, R.; Knapp, C.; Mocanu, V.; Drijkoningen, G.; Matenco, L.; Knapp, J.; Prodehl, K.

    2005-12-01

    The DACIA PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Process in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic sounding survey was performed in August-September 2001 in south-eastern Romania, at the same time as the regional deep refraction seismic survey VRANCEA 2001. The main goal of the experiment was to obtain new information on the deep structure of the external Carpathians nappes and the architecture of Tertiary/Quaternary basins developed within and adjacent to the seismically-active Vrancea zone, including the Focsani Basin. The seismic reflection line had a WNW-ESE orientation, running from internal East Carpathians units, across the mountainous south-eastern Carpathians, and the foreland Focsani Basin towards the Danube Delta. There were 131 shot points along the profile, with about 1 km spacing, and data were recorded with stand-alone RefTek-125s (also known as "Texans"), supplied by the University Texas at El Paso and the PASSCAL Institute. The entire line was recorded in three deployments, using about 340 receivers in the first deployment and 640 receivers in each of the other two deployments. The resulting deep seismic reflection stacks, processed to 20 s along the entire profile and to 10 s in the eastern Focsani Basin, are presented here. The regional architecture of the latter, interpreted in the context of abundant independent constraint from exploration seismic and subsurface data, is well imaged. Image quality within and beneath the thrust belt is of much poorer quality. Nevertheless, there is good evidence to suggest that a thick (˜10 km) sedimentary basin having the structure of a graben and of indeterminate age underlies the westernmost part of the Focsani Basin, in the depth range 10-25 km. Most of the crustal depth seismicity observed in the Vrancea zone (as opposed to the more intense upper mantle seismicity) appears to be associated with this sedimentary basin. The sedimentary successions within this basin and other horizons

  3. Two Birds with One Social Policy Stone: Youth Employment and Regional Skills Shortages in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Joanne; Bertone, Santina; Grace, Marty; Broadbent, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    In June 2005, the Victorian State Government introduced the Regional Jobs Package (RJP)--a twelve-month pilot program that attempted to kill two social policy problems with one stone. The problems were youth unemployment and skills shortages in regional areas of Victoria, Australia. The intention of the RJP was to create a "win-win"…

  4. Towards "Law Education for All": Teaching School Students about the Law in Australia and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaardingerbroek, Barend; Traikovski, Louie; Hussain, Irshad

    2014-01-01

    Law-related topics arise in the school curricula of both developed and developing countries. Civics/citizenship education and social studies tend to be the curricular mediums into which law topics are inserted. This paper details law education at school level in Australia (State of Victoria) and Pakistan. The main challenge facing the…

  5. The glue that holds the community together? Sport and sustainability in rural Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on the author's research in northwest Victoria, Australia, this essay examines the forms of capital that are created in and through rural sport as well as the processes of social inclusion and exclusion that structure access to social networks and to the resources these networks contain. In

  6. Unsettling Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    This book is a critical intervention into debates on Australia's cultural history. The book demonstrates the interconnectedness of themes commonly seen as separate discursive formations, and shows the fruitfulness of bringing a combined cultural studies and postcolonial approach to bear on a number...

  7. Corrigendum to "Three climatic cycles recorded in a loess-palaeosol sequence at Semlac (Romania)-Implications for dust accumulation in south-eastern Europe" [Quat. Sci. Rev. 154C (2016) 130-142

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeden, C.; Kels, H.; Hambach, U.; Schulte, P.; Protze, J.; Eckmeier, E.; Marković, S. B.; Klasen, N.; Lehmkuhl, F.

    2018-05-01

    In the article 'Three climatic cycles recorded in a loess-palaeosol sequence at Semlac (Romania)-Implications for dust accumulation in south-eastern Europe' (Zeeden et al., 2016) we employed rock magnetic and grain size proxy data in combination with OSL- and correlative age models. The data and dating is combined to discuss glacial-interglacial paleoclimate variability in an Eurasian context. This dataset was also interpreted regarding the dust source in the eastern Carpathian (Middle Danube) Basin.

  8. Victoria Land, Ross Sea, and Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On December 19, 2001, MODIS acquired data that produced this image of Antarctica's Victoria Land, Ross Ice Shelf, and the Ross Sea. The coastline that runs up and down along the left side of the image denotes where Victoria Land (left) meets the Ross Ice Shelf (right). The Ross Ice Shelf is the world's largest floating body of ice, approximately the same size as France. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  9. Accession of non-nitrogenous ions dissolved in rainwater to soils in Victoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, J T; Leslie, T I

    1958-01-01

    Analyses of rainwater samples from 24 stations in Victoria have shown that with increasing distance from the coast there is a sharp decrease in the influence of the ocean on the nature of the dissolved ions. About 150 miles inland the ionic ratio of sodium to potassium falls below 10, that of sodium to chloride exceeds unity, and calcium becomes the dominant cation. This is considered to reflect the influence of terrestrial material such as the dry surface of soils. As soils also contain sodium and chloride ions, the common assumption that all the chloride in the rain is derived from the ocean is unjustified, hence calculations of the net accession of salts are unwarranted. In southern Australia, sulphate ions are present in much smaller amounts than in other countries and this may contribute to the observed deficiencies of sulphur in plant nutrition. Details are given of the method of collecting the rainwater and of its analysis.

  10. Neoproterozoic Evolution and Najd‒Related Transpressive Shear Deformations Along Nugrus Shear Zone, South Eastern Desert, Egypt (Implications from Field‒Structural Data and AMS‒Technique)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagag, W.; Moustafa, R.; Hamimi, Z.

    2018-01-01

    The tectonometamorphic evolution of Nugrus Shear Zone (NSZ) in the south Eastern Desert of Egypt was reevaluated through an integrated study including field-structural work and magnetofabric analysis using Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) technique, complemented by detailed microstructural investigation. Several lines of evidence indicate that the Neoproterozoic juvenile crust within this high strain zone suffered an impressive tectonic event of left-lateral transpressional regime, transposed the majority of the earlier formed structures into a NNW to NW-directed wrench corridor depicts the northwestern extension of the Najd Shear System (NSS) along the Eastern Desert of Egypt. The core of the southern Hafafit dome underwent a high metamorphic event ( M 1) developed during the end of the main collisional orogeny in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). The subsequent M 2 metamorphic event was retrogressive and depicts the tectonic evolution and exhumation of the Nugrus-Hafafit area including the Hafafit gneissic domes, during the origination of the left-lateral transpressive wrench corridor of the NSS. The early tectonic fabric within the NSZ and associated highly deformed rocks was successfully detected by the integration of AMS-technique and microstructural observations. Such fabric grain was checked through a field-structural work. The outcomes of the present contribution advocate a complex tectonic evolution with successive and overlapped deformation events for the NSZ.

  11. Evaluation of the effectiveness and compliance of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) in the control of malaria in pregnant women in south eastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduka, F O; Nwosu, E; Oguariri, R M

    2011-01-01

    Controlling malaria in pregnancy has been an important component of the millennium development goal and intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is considered an important tool in controlling malaria among pregnant women. In this study, we evaluated the level of compliance to IPT use as well as its effect on malaria infection among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in south eastern Nigeria. Peripheral blood smears and placental histology were used as diagnostic tools to determine infection rate. Our data show that compliance to IPT use was poor (33%) when compared with non-compliance (67%). Infection rate was significantly lower among IPT users (39%) than in non-users (71%) (X2 = 39.95; P<0.05). Maternal anaemia was also lower in IPT users (4%) than in non-users (18%). Taken together, IPT use appears to be important in reducing infection rate and maternal anaemia. Therefore, its adoption is highly recommended and this could be improved through public enlightenment campaign and adequate funding. PMID:22325819

  12. Microelement contents and fatty acid compositions of Rhus coriaria L. and Pistacia terebinthus L. fruits spread commonly in the south eastern Anatolia region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizil, Suleyman; Turk, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) and terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) are two important spice plants of south eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Nutrients, physical properties including moisture, ash, dry matter, protein, fatty oil and essential oil content, along with Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Ni, Pb, Zn and characteristics of fruit sizes and fatty acid compositions of both plants were determined from ripe fruits. The free fatty acid content was determined in the fruit oil, and the main fatty acids of sumac and terebinth were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. They included oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a ratio of 37.7% and 34.8%, 27.4% and 17.3%, 21.1% and 21.7% and, 4.7% and 2.5%, respectively. The fruits of both plants were rich in oil, fatty acids and minerals, suggesting that they are valuable for using in food. The data may also be useful for the evaluation of nutritional information.

  13. Prevalence of bovine herpes virus type 1 in small herds of young beef cattle in south-eastern Poland – a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernicki Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was performed on nasal swabs, tracheal samples, and sera obtained from young beef heifers aged between 6 and 12 months, from farms in eastern and south-eastern Poland. The samples were evaluated using bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1 ELISA kits (ELISA BHV1 antibody and ELISA BHV1 antigen and PCR. Among all the animals examined, 37 (32.2% were positive in the ELISA BHV1 antigen test. The presence of BHV-1 was confirmed by PCR in 42 (36.5% animals. In the ELISA BHV1 antibody test, 39 (33.9% seropositive animals were identified. The presence of BHV-1 positive samples was observed in all the examined breeds of young cattle. There were no significant differences (P ≤ 0.05 in BHV-1 positive samples. The results indicate that the incidence of BHV-1 infections in feedlot cattle herds studied was 32.2%-36.5%, which suggests that preventive measures should be implemented in order to limit transmission of the virus.

  14. Light microscopic study of four plagiorchiid trematodes infecting marine fish in the south-eastern Mediterranean Sea, Alexandria City, with descriptions of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Morsy, Kareem; Maher, Sherein

    2018-05-01

    During the present investigation, a total of 220 fish specimens belonging to three different species, namely, little tunny Euthynnus alletteratus, African snook Lates niloticus, and striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus, were collected from January-November 2016 from the coasts off Abu Qir landing site, Alexandria City, south-eastern Mediterranean Sea, Egypt. The collected fish samples were dissected and examined for the presence of helminth parasites. Twenty-three out of 220 (10.45%) fish specimens were found to be naturally infected with four species of trematode parasites belonging to three different families of the order Plagiorchiida. The recovered parasite species were collected and identified by applying light microscopic examinations. The present study recorded two new parasite species, namely, Stephanostomum alletterani sp. nov. and Bathycreadium mulli sp. nov., belonging to the families Acanthocolpidae and Opecoelidae and infecting E. alletteratus and M. surmuletus, respectively and re-descriptions of the two remaining species, namely, Acanthostomum spiniceps and Aponurus mulli of the families Acanthostomatidae and Opecoelidae, respectively, to clarify the measurements of some body parts. Morphological and morphometric characterizations revealed some differences between the present species and other related species detected previously. Future studies are recommended to include advanced molecular characteristics for these species.

  15. Characterization of non-calcareous 'thin' red clay from south-eastern Brazil: applicability in wall tile manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, S.J.G.; Holanda, J.N.F., E-mail: sidnei_rjsousa@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: holanda@uenf.br [Grupo de Materiais Ceramicos - LAMAV-CCT, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    In this work the use of 'thin' red clay from south-eastern Brazil (Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ) as raw material for the manufacture of wall tile was investigated. A wide range of characterization techniques was employed, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), grain-size analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The wall tile body was prepared by the dry process. The tile pieces were uniaxially pressed and fired between 1080 - 1180 deg C using a fast-firing cycle. The following technological properties were determined: linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density, and flexural strength. The development of the microstructure was followed by SEM and XRD analyses. It was found that the 'thin' red clay is kaolinitic type containing a substantial amount of quartz. The results also showed that the 'thin' red clay could be used in the manufacture of wall tiles, as they present properties compatible with those specified for class BIII of ISO 13006 standard. (author)

  16. Sibling vole species (Microtus in the fragmented landscape of south-eastern part of Thrace, Balkan Peninsula: species presence, habitat selection and craniometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGI MARKOV

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of sibling vole species (Microtus in the most common forests and open landscapes in south-eastern part of Thrace (Balkan Peninsula of contemporary territories of Bulgaria and Turkey was studied. Only the southern vole (Microtus levis was found in the investigated region. In his northern part, the Southern vole is associated with semi dry, upland habitats such as deserted and overgrown with wild vegetation vines near sparse forests and large agricultural fields under autumn crops with adjacent non-arable lands with shrub vegetation. In the southern part, it is presented in open landscape related to water areas (meadows near rivers and wetlands. On the basis of trapping the Southern vole is a common species in the north part of Strandzha region. The established craniological characteristics of the Southern vole from investigated region, which can be considered as a zoogeographical crossroads, with a late Pleistocene connection between the Balkan Peninsula and the mammalian fauna of Anatolian peninsula, enriched the knowledge about its craniological variation in Europe.

  17. Description and implementation of a surveillance network for bluetongue in the Balkans and in adjoining areas of south-eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Acqua, F; Paladini, C; Meiswinkel, R; Savini, L; Calistri, P

    2006-01-01

    During the recent severe outbreaks of bluetongue (BT) in the Mediterranean Basin, the BT virus (BTV) spread beyond its historical limits into the Balkan region. One of the primary impacts of BT is the cessation in livestock trade which can have severe economic and social consequences. The authors briefly describe the development of the collaborative East-BTnet programme which aims to assist all affected and at-risk Balkan states and adjoining countries in the management of BT, and in the development of individual national surveillance systems. The beneficiary countries involved, and led by the World organisation for animal health (Office International des Epizooties) Collaborating Centre for veterinary training, epidemiology, food safety and animal welfare of the Istituto Zooprofilattico dell'Abruzzo e del Molise 'G. Caporale' in collaboration with the Institute for the Protection and the Security of the Citizen, the European Commission Joint Research Centre (IPSC-JRC), were Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Former Yugoslavia Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo, Malta, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovenia and Turkey. A regional web-based surveillance network is a valuable tool for controlling and managing transboundary animal diseases such as BT. Its implementation in the Balkan region and in adjoining areas of south-eastern Europe is described and discussed.

  18. Evaluation of two MM5-PBL parameterization for solar radiation and temperature estimation in the South-Eastern area of the Iberian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Arias, J.A.; Pozo-Vasquez, D.; Sanchez-Sanchez, N.; Hayas-Barru, A.; Tovar-Pescador, J.; Montavez, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    We study the relative performance of two different MM5-PBL parametrizations (Blackadar and MRF) simulating hourly values of solar irradiance and temperature in the south-eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula. The evaluation was carried out throughout the different season of the year 2005 and for three different sky conditions: clear-sky, broken-clouds and overcast conditions. Two integrations, one per PBL parameterization, were carried out for every sky condition and season of the year and results were compared with observational data. Overall, the MM5 model, both using the Blackadar or MRF PBL parameterization, revealed to be a valid tool to estimate hourly values of solar radiation and temperature over the study area. The influence of the PBL parameterization on the model estimates was found to be more important for the solar radiation than for the temperature and highly dependent on the season and sky conditions. Particularly, a detailed analysis revealed that, during broken-clouds conditions, the ability of the model to reproduce hourly changes in the solar radiation strongly depends upon the selected PBL parameterization. Additionally, it was found that solar radiation RMSE values are about one order of magnitude higher during broken-clouds and overcast conditions compared to clear-sky conditions. For the temperature, the two PBL parameterizations provide very similar estimates. Only under overcast conditions and during the autumn, the MRF provides significantly better estimates.

  19. Occurrence of the Retromolar Foramen in Dry Mandibles of South-Eastern Part of India: A Morphological Study with Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Kumar, Vinod; Salem, Abdel-Halim; Abu-Hijleh, Marwan

    2014-01-01

    The retromolar foramen (RMF) is a rare anatomical structure situated in the retromolar fossa behind the third molar tooth. When it is present, the foramen is connected with the mandibular canal and is believed to transmit neurovascular structures that provide accessory source to the mandibular molars and the buccal area. Reports from the literature show that the presence of RMF could pose a challenge in complete blockage of the inferior alveolar nerve during mandibular surgeries. We report the incidence of retromolar foramen from ninety-four dry mandibles of south-eastern part of Karnataka State, India. The foramen was observed in 11 mandibles out of 94 included in the study (11.7%). In three mandibles, the foramen was present bilaterally (3.2%) and in three it was on the left side (3.2%) and in five it was on the right side (5.3%). For the first time, we also measured the dimensions of the retromolar area and distance of the foramen from third molar tooth to understand its risks during the surgical extraction of the lower third molar tooth. A thorough review of the literature has also been done to compare the present findings with the studies reported from the various populations. PMID:25489487

  20. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in liver tissue of dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar C. plumbeus and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jann M; Baduel, Christine; Li, Yan; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Butcher, Paul A; McGrath, Shane P; Peddemors, Victor M; Hearn, Laurence; Mueller, Jochen; Christidis, Les

    2015-12-30

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous pollutants in the marine environment that are known to accumulate in apex predators such as sharks. Liver samples from dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar Carcharhinus plumbeus, and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters were analysed for the seven indicator PCBs 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180. Median ∑PCBs were significantly higher in white than sandbar sharks (3.35 and 0.36 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively, p=0.05) but there were no significant differences between dusky sharks (1.31 μg g(-1) lipid) and the other two species. Congener concentrations were also significantly higher in white sharks. Significant differences in PCB concentrations between mature and immature dusky (3.78 and 0.76 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively) and sandbar (1.94 and 0.18 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively) sharks indicated that PCB concentrations in these species increased with age/growth. Higher-chlorinated congeners (hexa and heptachlorobiphenyls) dominated results, accounting for ~90% of ∑PCBs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds and predictors of exposure in children living in agricultural communities from South-Eastern Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Alzaga, B.; Lacasaña, M.; Hernández, A. F.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information on exposure levels to organochlorine compounds (OCs) in child population is limited, despite their greater vulnerability to the adverse health effects of these chemicals. OBJECTIVE: To determine serum concentrations of 10 OCs (including organochlorine pesticides and polych...... are no longer used. Their presence in children serum can be explained by their high lipophilicity and environmental persistence, leading to contamination of fatty food. In this line, fish consumption seemed to be the most relevant determinant of OC levels found in our study....... and polychlorinated biphenyls -PCBs-) in children living in agricultural communities from Almería (South-Eastern Spain), and to identify the main predictors of exposure related to socio-economic characteristics, diet and lifestyle. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 133 children aged 6-11 years...... selected from public schools of the study area. OCs compounds were determined in serum samples by GC/ECD. Anthropometric measures were obtained during sample collection. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, parental occupation, residential history, lifestyle and frequency of food consumption...

  2. Effects of Reforestation and Site Preparation Methods on Early Growth and Survival of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in South-Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Aleksandrowicz-Trzcińska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful tree regeneration is a key process in ensuring forest sustainability and one of the most crucial investments made in silviculture. This study compared the effects of three reforestation methods (planting, direct seeding, and natural regeneration and three mechanical site preparation methods (double mould-board forest plough (FP; active plough (AP; and forest mill (FM on biometric parameters, survival, and density of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings in the first 4 years of growth in a clear-cut area in south-eastern Poland. Planted seedlings were higher, thicker in root collar, and had higher survival rates after the fourth growing season than trees from natural regeneration and direct seeding. Site preparation methods did not affect the density of planted seedlings. After natural regeneration and direct seeding, seedling density was lower and less homogeneous (plots with no seedlings in FM soil preparation in comparison to other methods. The survival of pines in all reforestation methods was not affected significantly by site preparation methods. Our results indicate that the best mechanical site preparation method for planting is FM, as this is the one that least disturbs the soil environment. For direct seeding the best results were achieved after AP preparation. Natural regeneration of Scots pine was most effective after FP use, and in relatively wet years also after AP use.

  3. Recent plant studies using Victoria 2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixler, Nathan E.; Gasser, Ronald D.

    2000-01-01

    VICTORIA 2.0 is a mechanistic computer code designed to analyze fission product behavior within the reactor coolant system (RCS) during a severe nuclear reactor accident. It provides detailed predictions of the release of radioactive and nonradioactive materials from the reactor core and transport and deposition of these materials within the RCS and secondary circuits. These predictions account for the chemical and aerosol processes that affect radionuclide behavior. VICTORIA 2.0 was released in early 1999; a new version VICTORIA 2.1, is now under development. The largest improvements in VICTORIA 2.1 are connected with the thermochemical database, which is being revised and expanded following the recommendations of a peer review. Three risk-significant severe accident sequences have recently been investigated using the VICTORIA 2.0 code. The focus here is on how various chemistry options affect the predictions. Additionally, the VICTORIA predictions are compared with ones made using the MELCOR code. The three sequences are a station blackout in a GE BWR and steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) and pump-seal LOCA sequences in a 3-loop Westinghouse PWR. These sequences cover a range of system pressures, from fully depressurized to full system pressure. The chief results of this study are the fission product fractions that are retained in the core, RCS, secondary, and containment and the fractions that are released into the environment

  4. vVICTORIA Console Development: Design and Fabrication of VICTORIA Console Emulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    successful set-up and readiness to conduct experimentation on facets of new Combat System concept development including equipment capabilities, system...émulateurs, faits de bois, de plastiques et de métaux légers, ont été fabriqués selon les données matérielles et les spécifications des consoles actuelles...mise sur pied du laboratoire d’évaluation de la capacité vVictoria et assureront que celui-ci est prêt pour les essais de nouveaux concepts de système

  5. Turning attention to clinician engagement in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Christine; Hudson, Robyn; Wallace, Euan

    2017-11-16

    The engagement of clinicians with employing organisations and with the broader health system results in better safer care for patients. Concerns about the adequacy of clinician engagement in the state of Victoria led the Victorian Department of Health and Human Services to commission a scoping study. During this investigation more than 100 clinicians were spoken with and 1800 responded to surveys. The result was creation of a clear picture of what engagement and disengagement looked like at all levels - from the clinical microsystem to state health policy making. Multiple interventions are possible to enhance clinician engagement and thus the care of future patients. A framework was developed to guide future Victorian work with four elements: setting the agenda, informing, involving and empowering clinicians. Concepts of work or employee engagement that are used in other industries don't directly translate to healthcare and thus the definition of engagement chosen for use centred on involvement. This was designed to encourage system managers to ensure clinicians are full participants in design, planning and evaluation and in all decisions that affect them and their patients.

  6. Efficient renewable energy scenarios study for Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, Graham

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the possible evolution of Victorian energy markets over the 1998-2030 period from technical, economic and environmental perspectives. The focus is on the technical and economic potential over the study period for renewable energy and energy efficiency to increase their share of energy markets, through their economic competitiveness with the non-renewables of oil, gas and fossil fulled electricity. The study identifies a range of energy options that have a lower impact on carbon dioxide emissions that current projections for the Victorian energy sector, together with the savings in energy, dollars and carbon dioxide emissions. In addition the macroeconomic implications of the energy paths are estimated. Specifically it examines a scenario (R-efficient renewable) where energy efficiency and renewable energy sources realise their estimated economic potential to displace non-renewable energy over the 1988-2030 period. In addition, a scenario (T-Toronto) is examined where energy markets are pushed somewhat harder, but again on an economic basis, so that what is called the Toronto target of reducing 1988 carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions by 20 per cent by 2005 is attained. It is concluded that over the next forty years there is substantial economic potential in Victoria for significant gains from energy efficiency in all sectors - residential, commercial, industrial and transport - and contributions from renewable energy both in those sectors and in electricity generations. 7 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Australia: Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Australian Bureau of Census and Statistics reported on 27 August 1979 that Australia's total population was 14,376,400 at the end of the first quarter of 1979. Net immigration gain during the same period was 12,700. Natural increase was 32,100--births were 57,100 and deaths were 25,000. In January 1979, Australia introduced a new immigration scheme to improve methods of selecting immigrants. Points are awarded on the basis of personal qualities and employability; an applicant must score 60 out of 100. This scheme supersedes the earlier system under which immigrants were selected on the family reunion criterion and employability. Migrants from Britain and Ireland made up the bulk of the new comers, but their proportion has dropped from 50% in the mid-1960s to 30% in early 1979. In contrast, Asian immigrants have risen from 2% to 22% over the same period. Asian immigration began in the mid-1960s with the relaxation of the "White Australia" policy which barred non-European migrants, and increased when the ban was abolished by Prime Minister Gough Whitlam in 1973.

  8. Stroke Incidence in Victoria, Australia—Emerging Improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin B. Clissold

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEvidence of a decline in the incidence of stroke has emerged from population-based studies. These have included retrospective and prospective cohorts. However, in Australia and other countries, government bodies and stroke foundations predict a rise in the prevalence of stroke that is anticipated to increase the burden of stroke across the entire domain of care. This increase in prevalence must be viewed as different from the decline in incidence being observed, a measure of new stroke cases. In Victoria, all public emergency department visits and public and private hospital admissions are reported to the Department of Health and Human Services and include demographic, diagnostic, and procedural/treatment information.MethodsWe obtained data from financial years 1997/1998 to 2007/2008 inclusive, for all cases with a primary stroke diagnosis (ICD-10-AM categories with associated data fields. Incident cases were established by using a 5-year clearance period.ResultsFrom 2003/2004 to 2007/2008 inclusive, there were 53,425 patients with a primary stroke or TIA diagnosis. The crude incident stroke rate for first ever stroke was 211 per 100,000 per year (95% CI 205–217 [females—205 per 100,000 per year (95% CI 196–214 and males—217 per 100,000 per year (95% CI 210–224]. The overall stroke rates were seen to significantly decline over the period [males (per 100,000 per year 227 in 2003/2004 to 202 in 2007/2008 (p = 0.0157 and females (per 100,000 per year 214 in 2003/2004 to 188 in 2007/2008 (p = 0.0482]. Ischemic stroke rates also appeared to decline; however, this change was not significant.ConclusionThese results demonstrate a significant decline in stroke incidence during the study period and may suggest evidence for effectiveness of primary and secondary prevention strategies in cerebrovascular risk factor management.

  9. Australia`s uranium opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alder, K.

    1996-12-31

    The book is a personal account by an insider who was deeply involved in the rise and fall of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC), and in particular in its efforts to bring Australia into the nuclear age. It reveals the thinking behind the Commission`s research programmes and major projects, such as the centrifuge enrichment program and Jervis Bay Nuclear Power project. It shows how politics, politicians and sensational journalism had disastrous effects on the AAEC, its programmes and aspirations. ills.

  10. Prevalence and its associated risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among Yadot primary school children of South Eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulu, Begna; Taye, Solomon; Amsalu, Eden

    2014-11-26

    Intestinal parasitic infections are posing significant morbidity worldwide. In Ethiopia, due to poor socio-economic status, intestinal parasitic infections are highly prevalent. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and its associated risk factors among Yadot primary school children which is found in South-Eastern part of Ethiopia, in the district called Delo-Mena. Institution based cross-sectional study was employed from March to April 2013. In this study, a total of 340 students were selected using simple random sampling, and data on socio-demographic characteristics and factors associated with the prevalence of intestinal parasites as well as stool samples were collected and processed accordingly. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 16, and binary and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to measure the strength of association between dependent and independent variables. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 26.2%. Poly-parasitism was detected in 6.2% of the students. Consistently, students who were infected with single, double, triple and quadruple parasites were 20%, 4.7%, 1.2% and 0.3% respectively. In line with this, the most prevalent parasites were Schistosoma mansoni 12.6%, followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 5%, Ascaris lumbricoides 4.7%, and Hymenolepis nana 4.4%. Regarding the risk factors for the infections, not knowing why they wash their hands before meal [(AOR=0.20, 95% CI=0.10-0.40), pintestinal parasitic infections. Intestinal parasitic infections were found to be highly prevalent among Yadot primary school children. Hence, health education, improving sanitation, provision of safe drinking water, increasing latrine use, snail control and deworming to the students are crucial.

  11. Current status of transplantation and organ donation in the Balkans--could it be improved through the South-eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN) initiative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasovski, Goce; Busic, Mirela; Pipero, Pellumb; Sarajlić, Lada; Popović, Andreja Subotić; Dzhaleva, Theodora; Codreanu, Igor; Ratković, Marina Mugosa; Popescu, Irinel; Lausević, Mirjana; Avsec, Danica; Raley, Lydia; Ekberg, Henrik; Ploeg, Rutger; Delmonico, Francis

    2012-04-01

    Organ donation and transplantation activity in the majority of Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria) are lagging far behind international averages. Inadequate financial resources, unclear regional data and lack of government infrastructure are some of the issues which should be recognized to draw attention and lead to problem-solving decisions. The Regional Health Development Centre (RHDC) Croatia, a technical body of the South-eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN), was created in 2011 after Croatia's great success in the field over the last 10 years. The aim of the RHDC is to network the region and provide individualized country support to increase donation and transplantation activity in collaboration with professional societies (European Society of Organ Transplantation, European Transplant Coordinators Organization, The Transplantation Society and International Society of Organ Donation and Procurement). Such an improvement would in turn likely prevent transplant tourism. The regional data from 2010 show large discrepancies in donation and transplantation activities within geographically neighbouring countries. Thus, proposed actions to improve regional donation and transplantation rates include advancing living and deceased donation through regular public education, creating current and accurate waiting lists and increasing the number of educated transplant nephrologists and hospital coordinators. In addition to the effort from the professionals, government support with allocated funds per deceased donation, updated legislation and an established national coordinating body is ultimately recognized as essential for the successful donation and transplantation programmes. By continuous RHDC communication and support asked from the health authorities and motivated professionals from the SEEHN initiative, an increased number of deceased as well as living donor kidney

  12. A balanced solution to the cumulative threat of industrialized wind farm development on cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus in south-eastern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris P Vasilakis

    Full Text Available Wind farm development can combat climate change but may also threaten bird populations' persistence through collision with wind turbine blades if such development is improperly planned strategically and cumulatively. Such improper planning may often occur. Numerous wind farms are planned in a region hosting the only cinereous vulture population in south-eastern Europe. We combined range use modelling and a Collision Risk Model (CRM to predict the cumulative collision mortality for cinereous vulture under all operating and proposed wind farms. Four different vulture avoidance rates were considered in the CRM. Cumulative collision mortality was expected to be eight to ten times greater in the future (proposed and operating wind farms than currently (operating wind farms, equivalent to 44% of the current population (103 individuals if all proposals are authorized (2744 MW. Even under the most optimistic scenario whereby authorized proposals will not collectively exceed the national target for wind harnessing in the study area (960 MW, cumulative collision mortality would still be high (17% of current population and likely lead to population extinction. Under any wind farm proposal scenario, over 92% of expected deaths would occur in the core area of the population, further implying inadequate spatial planning and implementation of relevant European legislation with scant regard for governmental obligations to protect key species. On the basis of a sensitivity map we derive a spatially explicit solution that could meet the national target of wind harnessing with a minimum conservation cost of less than 1% population loss providing that the population mortality (5.2% caused by the operating wind farms in the core area would be totally mitigated. Under other scenarios, the vulture population would probably be at serious risk of extinction. Our 'win-win' approach is appropriate to other potential conflicts where wind farms may cumulatively threaten

  13. Medicinal plants used by the people of Nsukka Local Government Area, south-eastern Nigeria for the treatment of malaria: An ethnobotanical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoh, Uchenna E; Uzor, Philip F; Eze, Chidimma L; Akunne, Theophine C; Onyegbulam, Chukwuma M; Osadebe, Patience O

    2018-05-23

    Malaria is a serious public health problem especially in sub-Saharan African countries such as Nigeria. The causative parasite is increasingly developing resistance to the existing drugs. There is urgent need for alternative and affordable therapy from medicinal plants which have been used by the indigenous people for many years. This study was conducted to document the medicinal plant species traditionally used by the people of Nsukka Local Government Area in south-eastern Nigeria for the treatment of malaria. A total of 213 respondents, represented by women (59.2%) and men (40.8%), were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The results were analysed and discussed in the context of previously published information on anti-malarial and phytochemical studies of the identified plants. The survey revealed that 50 plant species belonging to 30 botanical families were used in this region for the treatment of malaria. The most cited families were Apocynaceae (13.3%), Annonaceae (10.0%), Asteraceae (10.0%), Lamiaceae (10.0%), Poaceae (10.0%), Rubiaceae (10.0%) and Rutaceae (10.0%). The most cited plant species were Azadirachta indica (11.3%), Mangifera indica (9.1%), Carica papaya (8.5%), Cymbopogon citratus (8.5%) and Psidium guajava (8.5%). The present findings showed that the people of Nsukka use a large variety of plants for the treatment of malaria. The identified plants are currently undergoing screening for anti-malarial, toxicity and chemical studies in our laboratory. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Adherence to a predominantly Mediterranean diet decreases the risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a cross-sectional study in a South Eastern European population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mone, I; Kraja, B; Bregu, A; Duraj, V; Sadiku, E; Hyska, J; Burazeri, G

    2016-10-01

    Our aim was to assess the association of a Mediterranean diet and gastroesophageal reflux disease among adult men and women in Albania, a former communist country in South Eastern Europe with a predominantly Muslim population. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012, which included a population-based sample of 817 individuals (≥18 years) residing in Tirana, the Albanian capital (333 men; overall mean age: 50.2 ± 18.7 years; overall response rate: 82%). Assessment of gastroesophageal reflux disease was based on Montreal definition. Participants were interviewed about their dietary patterns, which in the analysis was dichotomized into: predominantly Mediterranean (frequent consumption of composite/traditional dishes, fresh fruit and vegetables, olive oil, and fish) versus largely non-Mediterranean (frequent consumption of red meat, fried food, sweets, and junk/fast food). Logistic regression was used to assess the association of gastroesophageal reflux disease with the dietary patterns. Irrespective of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and lifestyle factors including eating habits (meal regularity, eating rate, and meal-to-sleep interval), employment of a non-Mediterranean diet was positively related to gastroesophageal reflux disease risk (fully adjusted odds ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.2-4.5). Our findings point to a beneficial effect of a Mediterranean diet in the occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in transitional Albania. Findings from this study should be confirmed and expanded further in prospective studies in Albania and in other Mediterranean countries. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  15. A balanced solution to the cumulative threat of industrialized wind farm development on cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in south-eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, D. Philip; Kati, Vassiliki

    2017-01-01

    Wind farm development can combat climate change but may also threaten bird populations’ persistence through collision with wind turbine blades if such development is improperly planned strategically and cumulatively. Such improper planning may often occur. Numerous wind farms are planned in a region hosting the only cinereous vulture population in south-eastern Europe. We combined range use modelling and a Collision Risk Model (CRM) to predict the cumulative collision mortality for cinereous vulture under all operating and proposed wind farms. Four different vulture avoidance rates were considered in the CRM. Cumulative collision mortality was expected to be eight to ten times greater in the future (proposed and operating wind farms) than currently (operating wind farms), equivalent to 44% of the current population (103 individuals) if all proposals are authorized (2744 MW). Even under the most optimistic scenario whereby authorized proposals will not collectively exceed the national target for wind harnessing in the study area (960 MW), cumulative collision mortality would still be high (17% of current population) and likely lead to population extinction. Under any wind farm proposal scenario, over 92% of expected deaths would occur in the core area of the population, further implying inadequate spatial planning and implementation of relevant European legislation with scant regard for governmental obligations to protect key species. On the basis of a sensitivity map we derive a spatially explicit solution that could meet the national target of wind harnessing with a minimum conservation cost of less than 1% population loss providing that the population mortality (5.2%) caused by the operating wind farms in the core area would be totally mitigated. Under other scenarios, the vulture population would probably be at serious risk of extinction. Our ‘win-win’ approach is appropriate to other potential conflicts where wind farms may cumulatively threaten wildlife

  16. Composition and structure of the molluscan assemblage associated with a Cymodocea nodosa bed in south-eastern Spain: seasonal and diel variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Pablo; Urra, Javier; Rueda, José L.; Salas, Carmen

    2012-12-01

    The molluscan taxocoenosis associated with a Cymodocea nodosa seagrass bed was studied throughout 1 year in Genoveses Bay, in the MPA "Parque Natural Cabo de Gata-Níjar" (south-eastern Spain). A total of 64,824 individuals were collected and 54 species identified. The molluscan fauna was mainly composed of gastropods (99.56% of individuals, 43 spp.). The families Rissoidae (72.98%, 11 spp.) and Trochidae (16.93%, 7 spp.) were the most abundant and diversified in terms of number of species. Rissoa monodonta (47.1% dominance), Rissoa membranacea (25.1%) and Gibbula leucophaea (11.6%) proved the top dominant species in both diurnal and nocturnal samples. Bivalves (0.41%, 10 species) and cephalopods (0.03%, 1 species) represented only a low percentage of the molluscan taxocoenosis. The molluscan assemblage was mainly composed of species with a wide geographical distribution in Europe, followed by strictly Mediterranean species. The abundance was significantly higher in the cold (December, March) than in the warm months (June, July). Species richness ( S) was higher in nocturnal than in diurnal samples, reaching maximal values in diurnal samples of March and June. Shannon-Wiener diversity ( H') values were generally higher in nocturnal samples than in diurnal ones, displaying minimum values in December and June, respectively. Evenness was similar in diurnal and nocturnal samples, with maximum values in July in both groups. S and H' were also significantly different between diurnal and nocturnal samples. Multivariate analyses based on both qualitative and quantitative data showed a significant seasonal and diel variation. Diel changes revealed to be more distinct than seasonal ones.

  17. Natural attenuation of uranium and formation of autunite at the expense of apatite within an oxidizing environment, south Eastern Desert of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Naby, Hamdy H.; Dawood, Yehia H.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD), back scattered electron imaging (BSE), wavelength-dispersion spectral scan (WDS), X-ray compositional mapping and quantitative electron probe micro analyses (EPMA) have been used to examine a natural attenuation of U during low temperature alteration of the Sela granite, south Eastern Desert of Egypt. The data confirmed that a pre-existing hydroxyapatite was transformed to autunite through an unidentified intermediate phase. The boundaries between these three phases are not sharp and are generally interfering indicative of the replacement of Ca by U. The hydroxyapatite, intermediate phase and autunite show similar chondrite normalized rare earth elements (REE) patterns suggesting a genetic relationship. Alteration processes have enriched the three phases with heavy rare earth elements (HREE) and Eu and caused Ce, Dy and Yb negative anomalies. Based on the pH of the aqueous solutions, two mechanisms may explain the conversion of hydroxyapatite to autunite: (1) the dissolution of hydroxyapatite and precipitation of autunite which would happen when the uranyl bearing solutions were acidic enough (pH = 3-6.8) to be able to dissolve the pre-existing hydroxyapatite and (2) sorption of the uranyl ion on the surface of hydroxyapatite followed by substitution of (UO 2 ) 2+ at the expense of Ca 2+ . The latter mechanism would have happened if the pH of the aqueous solutions were near neutral and at low dissolved concentrations of uranyl ion. The genesis of uranyl mineralization in the Sela area supports the use of apatite-based technologies for U remediation in an oxidizing environment

  18. Hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts, as derived from taxation records for south-eastern Moravia, Czech Republic, AD 1751-1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brázdil, R.; Chromá, K.; Valášek, H.; Dolák, L.

    2011-12-01

    Historical written records associated with tax relief at ten estates located in south-eastern Moravia (Czech Republic) are used for the study of hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts during the period AD 1751-1900. At the time, the taxation system in Moravia allowed farmers to request tax relief if their crop yields had been negatively affected by hydrological and meteorological extremes. The documentation involved contains information about the type of extreme event and the date of its occurrence, while the impact on crops may often be derived. A total of 175 extreme events resulting in some kind of damage is documented for 1751-1900, with the highest concentration between 1811 and 1860 (74.9% of all events analysed). The nature of events leading to damage (of a possible 272 types) include hailstorm (25.7%), torrential rain (21.7%), and flood (21.0%), followed by thunderstorm, flash flood, late frost and windstorm. The four most outstanding events, affecting the highest number of settlements, were thunderstorms with hailstorms (25 June 1825, 20 May 1847 and 29 June 1890) and flooding of the River Morava (mid-June 1847). Hydrometeorological extremes in the 1816-1855 period are compared with those occurring during the recent 1961-2000 period. The results obtained are inevitably influenced by uncertainties related to taxation records, such as their temporal and spatial incompleteness, the limits of the period of outside agricultural work (i.e. mainly May-August) and the purpose for which they were originally collected (primarily tax alleviation, i.e. information about hydrometeorological extremes was of secondary importance). Taxation records constitute an important source of data for historical climatology and historical hydrology and have a great potential for use in many European countries.

  19. Wood pellets, what else? Greenhouse gas parity times of European electricity from wood pellets produced in the south-eastern United States using different softwood feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanssen, Steef V. [Radboud Univ., Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science; Utrecht Univ., Utrecht (The Netherlands). Copernicus Inst. of Sustainable Development, Faculty of Geosciences; Duden, Anna S. [Utrecht Univ., Utrecht (The Netherlands). Copernicus Inst. of Sustainable Development, Faculty of Geosciences; Junginger, Martin [Utrecht Univ., Utrecht (The Netherlands). Copernicus Inst. of Sustainable Development, Faculty of Geosciences; Dale, Virginia H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division, Center for BioEnergy Sustainability; van der Hilst, Floor [Utrecht Univ., Utrecht (The Netherlands). Copernicus Inst. of Sustainable Development, Faculty of Geosciences

    2016-12-29

    Several EU countries import wood pellets from the south-eastern United States. The imported wood pellets are (co-)fired in power plants with the aim of reducing overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from electricity and meeting EU renewable energy targets. To assess whether GHG emissions are reduced and on what timescale, we construct the GHG balance of wood-pellet electricity. This GHG balance consists of supply chain and combustion GHG emissions, carbon sequestration during biomass growth, and avoided GHG emissions through replacing fossil electricity. We investigate wood pellets from four softwood feedstock types: small roundwood, commercial thinnings, harvest residues, and mill residues. Per feedstock, the GHG balance of wood-pellet electricity is compared against those of alternative scenarios. Alternative scenarios are combinations of alternative fates of the feedstock material, such as in-forest decomposition, or the production of paper or wood panels like oriented strand board (OSB). Alternative scenario composition depends on feedstock type and local demand for this feedstock. Results indicate that the GHG balance of wood-pellet electricity equals that of alternative scenarios within 0 to 21 years (the GHG parity time), after which wood-pellet electricity has sustained climate benefits. Parity times increase by a maximum of twelve years when varying key variables (emissions associated with paper and panels, soil carbon increase via feedstock decomposition, wood-pellet electricity supply chain emissions) within maximum plausible ranges. Using commercial thinnings, harvest residues or mill residues as feedstock leads to the shortest GHG parity times (0-6 years) and fastest GHG benefits from wood-pellet electricity. Here, we find shorter GHG parity times than previous studies, for we use a novel approach that differentiates feedstocks and considers alternative scenarios based on (combinations of) alternative feedstock fates, rather than on alternative land

  20. Obesity and its cardio-metabolic co-morbidities among adult Nigerians in a primary care clinic of a tertiary hospital in South-Eastern, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Uche Pascal Iloh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity once thought the medical problem of affluent countries now exist in Nigeria and has been described as a time bomb for the future explosion in the frequency of cardio-metabolic diseases. The most deleterious health consequences of obesity are on the cardiovascular system and associated disorder of lipid and glucose homeostasis. Aim: This study was designed to determine the magnitude of obesity and its cardio-metabolic co-morbidities among adult Nigerians in a primary care clinic of a tertiary hospital South-Eastern, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out on 2391 adult Nigerians who were assessed for obesity using body mass index (BMI criterion. 206 patients who had BMI ΃30kg/m 2 were screened for cardio-metabolic co-morbidities. The data collected included basic demographic variables, weight, height, blood pressure; fasting plasma glucose and lipid profile. Results: The prevalence of obesity was 8.6%. Grade I obesity (67.5% was the most common pattern; others included grade II obesity (23.3% and grade III obesity (9.2%. Hypertension (42.7% was the most common cardio-metabolic morbidity. Others included low HDL-cholesterol (22.8%, diabetes mellitus (15.1%, high triglyceride (12.6%, high total cholesterol (9.2%, and high LDL-cholesterol (6.8%. Conclusion: Obesity and its cardio-metabolic morbidities exist among the study population. Anthropometric determination of obesity and screening for its associated cardio-metabolic co-morbidities should constitute clinical targets for intervention in primary care clinics.

  1. State Electricity Commission of Victoria. Annual report 1984-1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The State Electricity Commission of Victoria is a body corporate first constituted under the Electricity Commissioner's Act 1918. It now operates under the State Electricity Commission Act 1958. It generates, transmits and distributes electricity throughout Victoria's 228,000 square kilometres and supplies directly to 1.424 million customers. In addition 277,800 customers are supplied by eleven municipal authorities which purchase electricity in bulk from the Commission. The Commission also has a regulatory responsibility to ensure the safe use of electricity. It employs 22,518 people. The installed capacity of generators in the Commission's system, plus Victoria's share of Snowy and Hume generation, totalled 6603 MW at 30 June 1985 and the main transmission system comprises 500 kV, 300 kV and 220 kV lines. Corporate objectives have been developed in seven broad areas: customers,employee, finance, ntural resources, environment, conservationand community. These areas of activity are detailed in this report.

  2. Adult Education and Radical Habitus in an Environmental Campaign: Learning in the Coal Seam Gas Protests in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollis, Tracey; Hamel-Green, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the adult learning dimensions of protestors as they participate in a campaign to stop coal seam gas exploration in Gippsland in Central Victoria, Australia. On a global level, the imposition of coal seam gas exploration by governments and mining companies has been the trigger for movements of resistance from environmental…

  3. Enhancing Care for Older People Living in Nursing Homes in Rural Australia Using Action Learning as a Catalyst for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Wendy; Meyer, Julienne; Cash, Penny; Clinnick, Lisa; Martin, Louise

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of action learning workshops in three nursing homes in rural Victoria, Australia has been critical in the re-visioning of how care can be enhanced for residents. The workshops were designed with the intent of improving quality of care for residents by providing health care staff with opportunities to learn together and effect…

  4. Still in the LEGO (LEGOS) Room: Female Teachers Designing Curriculum around Girls' Popular Culture for the Coeducational Classroom in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Lucinda

    2015-01-01

    While the issue of boys' dominance of the curriculum has a long history, the article examines this phenomenon in a contemporary context, through an empirical study with female teachers designing English curriculum around girls' media in a coeducational secondary school in Victoria, Australia. In this space, teachers, and the researcher, produce…

  5. Funding Victoria's public hospitals: the casemix policy of 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Peter; Duckett, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    On 1 July 1993 Victoria became the first Australian state to use casemix information to set budgets for its public hospitals commencing with casemix funding for inpatient services. Victoria's casemix funding approach now embraces inpatient, outpatient and rehabilitation services.

  6. Harvesting Australia's mineral wealth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    Anderson Strathclyde plc is becoming increasingly involved in supplying equipment for the coal industry in Australia. It now has 2 subsidiary companies based in Australia: Anderson Strathclyde Australia and A B Rea.

  7. Myxomatosis on the Western Plains of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, F G; Edmonds, J W; Nolan, I F; Shepherd, R C; Gocs, A

    1977-10-01

    Myxomatosis on the Western Plains is an enzootic disease in contrast with the epizootic pattern which is general in eastern Australia. The most unusual aspects are the presence of significant numbers of diseased rabbits throughout the winter and the continuously low percentage of rabbits with antibodies to myxoma virus. Climatic and topographic conditions are unsuited to the production of the high densities of mosquitoes necessary for widespread epizootics. Under these conditions the effects of less efficient methods of myxomatosis transmission are apparent. The unusual epidemiology of myxomatosis has resulted in selection for virulence of the virus similar to that which has occurred under summer epizootic conditions. All field strains are now in the mid range of virulence.

  8. Victoria Law School Ten Years On—A Time to Pause and Reflect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Clarke

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available On 4 November 2010, a large and distinguished audience assembled at the Queen Street Campus of Victoria University to celebrate the tenth anniversary of the founding of Victoria Law School. This Foreword records the diverse achievements of Victoria Law School over the past decade.

  9. Victoria Law School Ten Years On—A Time to Pause and Reflect

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Clarke

    2013-01-01

    On 4 November 2010, a large and distinguished audience assembled at the Queen Street Campus of Victoria University to celebrate the tenth anniversary of the founding of Victoria Law School. This Foreword records the diverse achievements of Victoria Law School over the past decade.

  10. The diversity of benthic mollusks of Lake Victoria and Lake Burigi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molluscan diversity, abundance and distribution in sediments of Lake Victoria and its satellite lake, Lake Burigi, were investigated. The survey was carried out in January and February 2002 for Lake Victoria and in March and April 2002 for Lake Burigi. Ten genera were recorded from four zones of Lake Victoria while only ...

  11. Labouring Together: collaborative alliances in maternity care in Victoria, Australia—protocol of a mixed-methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Cate; Kent, Bridie; Hutchinson, Alison M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction For over a decade, enquiries into adverse perinatal outcomes have led to reports that poor collaboration has been detrimental to the safety and experience of maternity care. Despite efforts to improve collaboration, investigations into maternity care at Morecambe Bay (UK) and Djerriwarrh Health Services (Australia) have revealed that poor collaboration and decision-making remain a threat to perinatal safety. The Labouring Together study will investigate how elements hypothesised to influence the effectiveness of collaboration are reflected in perceptions and experiences of clinicians and childbearing women in Victoria, Australia. The study will explore conditions that assist clinicians and women to work collaboratively to support positive maternity outcomes. Results of the study will provide a platform for consumers, clinician groups, organisations and policymakers to work together to improve the quality, safety and experience of maternity care. Methods and analysis 4 case study sites have been selected to represent a range of models of maternity care in metropolitan and regional Victoria, Australia. A mixed-methods approach including cross-sectional surveys and interviews will be used in each case study site, involving both clinicians and consumers. Quantitative data analysis will include descriptive statistics, 2-way multivariate analysis of variance for the dependent and independent variables, and χ2 analysis to identify the degree of congruence between consumer preferences and experiences. Interview data will be analysed for emerging themes and concepts. Data will then be analysed for convergent lines of enquiry supported by triangulation of data to draw conclusions. Ethics and dissemination Organisational ethics approval has been received from the case study sites and Deakin University Human Research Ethics Committee (2014–238). Dissemination of the results of the Labouring Together study will be via peer-reviewed publications and conference

  12. Evidence of Variscan and Alpine tectonics in the structural and thermochronological record of the central Serbo-Macedonian Massif (south-eastern Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antić, Milorad D.; Kounov, Alexandre; Trivić, Branislav; Spikings, Richard; Wetzel, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    The Serbo-Macedonian Massif (SMM) represents a composite crystalline belt within the Eastern European Alpine orogen, outcropping from the Pannonian basin in the north to the Aegean Sea in the south. The central parts of this massif (south-eastern Serbia) consist of the medium- to high-grade Lower Complex and the low-grade Vlasina Unit. Outcrop- and micro-scale ductile structures in this area document three major stages of ductile deformation. The earliest stage D1 is related to isoclinal folding, commonly preserved as up to decimetre-scale quartz-feldspar rootless fold hinges. D2 is associated with general south-eastward tectonic transport and refolding of earlier structures into recumbent metre- to kilometre-scale tight to isoclinal folds. Stages D1 and D2 could not be temporally separated and probably took place in close sequence. The age of these two ductile deformation stages was constrained to the Variscan orogeny based on indirect geological evidence (i.e. ca. 408-ca. 328). During this period, the SMM was involved in a transpressional amalgamation of the western and eastern parts of the Galatian super-terrane and subsequent collision with Laurussia. Outcrop-scale evidence of the final stage D3 is limited to spaced and crenulation cleavage, which are probably related to formation of large-scale open upright folds as reported previously. 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology was applied on hornblende, muscovite, and biotite samples in order to constrain the age of tectonothermal events and activity along major shear zones. These 40Ar/39Ar data reveal three major cooling episodes affecting the central SMM. Cooling below greenschist facies conditions in the western part of the Vlasina Unit took place in a post-orogenic setting (extensional or transtensional) in the early Permian (284 ± 1 Ma). The age of activity along the top-to-the-west shear zone formed within the orthogneiss in the Božica area of the Vlasina Unit was constrained to Middle Triassic (246 ± 1 Ma). This

  13. A Study of the Distribution of Natural Radionuclides and their Environmental Impacts in Halayeb Triangle Area, along the South Eastern Coast of the Red Sea, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, M.H.M.; Khedr, R.F.E.

    2017-01-01

    Thirty samples (14 surficial soil, 3 Sea water-3 desalinated water, and 10 plant) were collected from halayeb triangle are a along the south eastern Coast of the Red Sea, Egypt . Distributions of natural radionuclides of "2"2"6 Ra, "2"3"2 Th, "4"0 K and "1"3"7Cs in these samples were determined using γ-ray spectrometry. The average activities of natural radionuclides in all samples in the study are a are 19.38 (3.35-61.09) Bq kg"-"1 for "2"2"6 Ra, 10.87 (1.39-24.28) Bq kg"-"1 for "2"3"2 Th, 245.25 (132.46-531.19) Bq kg"-"1 for "40 K, and 1.48 (0.67 - 2.52) Bq kg"-"1 "1"3"7 Cs for surficial soil samples . These values were 8.59 (1.48-21.57) Bq kg"-"1 for 226 Ra, 11.34 (2. 64-25.44) Bq kg"-"1 for "2"3"2Th, and 254.66(69.73-450.58) Bq kg"-"1 for "4"0K, for plant samples. For sea water samples, the average activity for "2"2"6 Ra is 3.20 (1.99-3.91) Bq kg"-"1, for "2"3"2Th is 1.73(1.24-2.45) Bq kg"-"1, and 15.10 (8.67-23.25) Bq kg"-"1 for "4"0 K. For desalinised water the average activity is under detection limits for "2"2"6Ra, "2"3"2Th, and 13.49 (8.67-17.85) Bq kg"-"1 for "4"0K. A comparison of radionuclide activities in the study area and in other coastal and aquatic environments is given. The radiation hazard parameters (absorbed dose rate, radium equivalent activity, internal hazard index, external hazard index ,annual gonadal dose equivalent); and transfer factor of elements from soil to plant were calculated. The results of measurements will serve as base line data and background reference level for south Egyptian coastlines

  14. Quantitative summer temperature reconstruction derived from a combined biogenic Si and chironomid record from varved sediments of Lake Silvaplana (south-eastern Swiss Alps) back to AD 1177

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachsel, M.; Grosjean, M.; Larocque-Tobler, I.; Schwikowski, M.; Blass, A.; Sturm, M.

    2010-09-01

    High-resolution quantitative temperature records are needed for placing the recent warming into the context of long-term natural climate variability. In this study we present a quantitative high-resolution (9-year) summer (June-August) temperature reconstruction back to AD 1177 for the south-eastern Swiss Alps. This region is a good predictor for summer temperatures in large parts of western and central Europe. Our reconstruction is based on a combination of the high-frequency component of annually resolved biogenic silica (bSi flux) data and the low-frequency component of decadal chironomid-inferred temperatures from annually laminated well dated sediments (varves) from proglacial Lake Silvaplana, eastern Swiss Alps. For the calibration (period AD 1760-1949) we assess systematically the effects of six different regression methods (Type I regressions: Inverse Regression IR, Inverse Prediction IP, Generalised Least Squares GLS; Type II regressions: Major Axis MA, Ranged Major Axis RMA and Standard Major Axis SMA) with regard to the predicted amplitude and the calibration statistics such as root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP), reduction of error (RE) and coefficient of efficiency (CE). We found a trade-off in the regression model choice between a good representation of the amplitude and good calibration statistics. The band-pass filtered bSi flux record is in close agreement both in the structure and the amplitude with two fully independent reconstructions spanning back to AD 1500 and AD 1177, respectively. All known pulses of negative volcanic forcing are represented as cold anomalies in the bSi flux record. Volcanic pulses combined with low solar activity (Spörer and Maunder Minimum) are seen as particularly cold episodes around AD 1460 and AD 1690. The combined chironomid and bSi flux temperature record (RMSEP = 0.57 °C) is in good agreement with the glacier history of the Alps. The warmest (AD 1190) and coldest decades (17th century; 1680-1700) of our

  15. An application of luminiscence dating to building archaeology: The study of ceramic building materials in early medieval churches in north-western France and south-eastern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blain, Sophie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this thesis concerns the re-evaluation of an archaeological assumption surrounding the origin of Ceramic Building Materials (CBM used from the 9th to the 11th century in religious buildings of north-western France and south-eastern England. Are the bricks used in the masonry structures Roman spolia or a novo productions? Amongst the dating methods that can contribute to building archaeology, it is the technique of stimulated luminescence applied to CBM that is the focus of this study. Results from thermoluminescence (TL and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL dating performed on 52 CBM samples from 11 churches showed that the practice of reusing Roman brick was commonplace in small parish churches, but also that brick-making was not a totally unknown skill of the early medieval craftsmen as it has long been supposed. Most importantly, by identifying that the building material is contemporary to the church, a defined chronology emerges resulting in a new and extremely useful reference point in the history of early medieval architecture.La investigación presentada en esta tesis se ocupa de la reevaluación de un supuesto arqueológico entorno al origen del material cerámico constructivo (CBM empleado entre los siglos IX y XI en los edificios religiosos del Noroeste de Francia y el Sudeste de Inglaterra. ¿Son los ladrillos empleados en las estructuras de fábrica spolia romana o producciones a novo? Entre los métodos de datación que pueden contribuir a la arqueología del edificio, la técnica de luminiscencia estimulada aplicada al CBM es el centro de este estudio. Los resultados de la termoluminiscencia (TL y de la luminiscencia estimulada ópticamente (OSL, aplicadas en 52 muestras de CBM tomadas en 11 iglesias, evidencian que la práctica de reutilizar ladrillos romanos era común en pequeñas iglesias parroquiales, pero que también la técnica de elaboración de ladrillos no era totalmente desconocida para los

  16. Factors affecting the attrition of community-directed distributors of ivermectin, in an onchocerciasis-control programme in the Imo and Abia states of south-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emukah, E C; Enyinnaya, U; Olaniran, N S; Akpan, E A; Hopkins, D R; Miri, E S; Amazigo, U; Okoronkwo, C; Stanley, A; Rakers, L; Richards, F O; Katabarwa, M N

    2008-01-01

    In areas of Nigeria where onchocerciasis is endemic, community-directed distributors (CDD) distribute ivermectin annually, as part of the effort to control the disease. Unfortunately, it has been reported that at least 35% of the distributors who have been trained in Nigeria are unwilling to participate further as CDD. The selection and training of new CDD, to replace those unwilling to continue, leads to annual expense that the national onchocerciasis-programme is finding difficult to meet, given other programme priorities and the limited resources. If the reported levels of attrition are true, they seriously threaten the sustainability of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in Nigeria. In 2002, interviews were held with 101 people who had been trained as CDD, including those who had stopped serving their communities, from 12 communities in south-eastern Nigeria that had high rates of CDD attrition. The results showed that, although the overall reported CDD attrition was 40.6%, the actual rate was only 10.9%. The CDD who had ceased participating in the annual rounds of ivermectin blamed a lack of incentives (65.9%), the demands of other employment (14.6%), the long distances involved in the house-to-house distribution (12.2%) or marital duties (7.3%). Analysis of the data obtained from all the interviewed CDD showed that inadequate supplies of ivermectin (P<0.01), lack of supervision (P<0.05) and a lack of monetary incentives (P<0.001) led to significant increases in attrition. Conversely, CDD retention was significantly enhanced when the distributors were selected by their community members (P<0.001), supervised (P<0.001), supplied with adequate ivermectin tablets (P<0.05), involved in educating their community members (P<0.05), and/or involved in other health programmes (P<0.001). Although CDD who were involved in other health programmes were relatively unlikely to cease participating in the distributions, they were more likely to take longer

  17. Urbanization is a main driver for the larval ecology of Aedes mosquitoes in arbovirus-endemic settings in south-eastern Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahouli, Julien B Z; Koudou, Benjamin G; Müller, Pie; Malone, David; Tano, Yao; Utzinger, Jürg

    2017-07-01

    Failure in detecting naturally occurring breeding sites of Aedes mosquitoes can bias the conclusions drawn from field studies, and hence, negatively affect intervention outcomes. We characterized the habitats of immature Aedes mosquitoes and explored species dynamics along a rural-to-urban gradient in a West Africa setting where yellow fever and dengue co-exist. Between January 2013 and October 2014, we collected immature Aedes mosquitoes in water containers in rural, suburban, and urban areas of south-eastern Côte d'Ivoire, using standardized sampling procedures. Immature mosquitoes were reared in the laboratory and adult specimens identified at species level. We collected 6,159, 14,347, and 22,974 Aedes mosquitoes belonging to 17, 8, and 3 different species in rural, suburban, and urban environments, respectively. Ae. aegypti was the predominant species throughout, with a particularly high abundance in urban areas (99.374%). Eleven Aedes larval species not previously sampled in similar settings of Côte d'Ivoire were identified: Ae. albopictus, Ae. angustus, Ae. apicoargenteus, Ae. argenteopunctatus, Ae. haworthi, Ae. lilii, Ae. longipalpis, Ae. opok, Ae. palpalis, Ae. stokesi, and Ae. unilineatus. Aedes breeding site positivity was associated with study area, container type, shade, detritus, water turbidity, geographic location, season, and the presence of predators. We found proportionally more positive breeding sites in urban (2,136/3,374, 63.3%), compared to suburban (1,428/3,069, 46.5%) and rural areas (738/2,423, 30.5%). In the urban setting, the predominant breeding sites were industrial containers (e.g., tires and discarded containers). In suburban areas, containers made of traditional materials (e.g., clay pots) were most frequently encountered. In rural areas, natural containers (e.g., tree holes and bamboos) were common and represented 22.1% (163/738) of all Aedes-positive containers, hosting 18.7% of the Aedes fauna. The predatory mosquito species

  18. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis: could it be influenced by a petrochemical complex? Data from a cytological study in South-Eastern Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Salvatore; Latina, Adele; Baratta, Roberto; Burgio, Giuseppe; Gullo, Damiano; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    In genetically predisposed individuals, exogenous factors (including pollution) influence the development of Hashimoto's thyroiditis/chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT). CLT may also be a risk factor for associated thyroid cancer. Few data are available on the role of pollution from petrochemical complexes, one of which is located in the Siracusa province (South-Eastern Sicily), in the pathogenesis of CLT. i) To study the frequency of CLT in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC)-interrogated thyroid nodules from patients who were stably resident in their zones, comparing it in patients living in the petrochemical complex area (zone A) with that of patients from a control area (zone B). ii) To study the frequency of CLT in the FNAC categories of malignancy risk, comparing the two zones. We retrospectively evaluated cytologically adequate slides of 1323 nodules in 1013 outpatients who underwent ultrasound-guided FNAC from 2006 to 2012. We stratified by area of residence, gender, and FNAC categories of malignancy risk. CLT was detected with significantly greater frequency in either patients or nodules from zone A compared with zone B (32.0% vs 23.1%, P=0.002 or 28.2% vs 18.8%, P=0.0001), with a female preponderance (F=35.2% vs M=21.1% or 30.4% vs 20.4%, zone A and F=26.5% vs 12.3% or 21.6% vs 9.5%, zone B). Regardless of zone, CLT was approximately twofold more frequent in the suspiciously malignant+malignant classes (TH4+THY5=47.6%, zone A and 32.4%, zone B) compared with the benign+intermediate classes (THY2+THY3=27.3%, zone A and 18.2%, zone B), but with a clear stepwise THY2 through THY5 increase only in zone A (THY2=25.3%, THY5=66.7%; THY2=18.6%, THY5=28.6% in zone B). The petrochemical complex-related pollution is an environmental factor involved in the development of CLT and, likely, in the CLT association with thyroid neoplasms. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  19. Hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts derived from taxation records for south-eastern Moravia (Czech Republic) in the period 1751-1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromá, K.; Brázdil, R.; Valášek, H.; Dolák, L.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrometeorological extremes always influenced human activities and caused great material damage or even loss of human lives. In the Czech Lands (recently the Czech Republic), systematic meteorological and hydrological observations started generally in the latter half of the 19th century. In order to create long-term series of hydrometeorological extremes, it is necessary to search for other sources of information for their study before 1850. In this study, written records associated with tax relief at ten estates located in south-eastern Moravia are used for the study of hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts during the period 1751-1900. The taxation system in Moravia allowed farmers to request tax relief if their crop yields had been negatively affected by hydrological and meteorological extremes. The documentation involved contains information about the type of extreme event and the date of its occurrence, and the impacts on crops may often be derived. A total of 175 extreme events resulting in some kind of damage is documented for 1751-1900, with the highest concentration between 1811 and 1860. The nature of events leading to damage (of a possible 272 types) include hailstorm (25.7%), torrential rain (21.7%), and flood (21.0%), followed by thunderstorm, flash flood, late frost and windstorm. The four most outstanding events, affecting the highest number of settlements, were thunderstorms with hailstorms (25 June 1825, 20 May 1847 and 29 June 1890) and flooding of the River Morava (mid-June 1847). Hydrometeorological extremes in the 1816-1855 period are compared with those occurring during the recent 1961-2000 period. The results obtained are inevitably influenced by uncertainties related to taxation records, such as their temporal and spatial incompleteness, the limits of the period of outside agricultural work (i.e. mainly May-August) and the purpose for which they were originally collected (primarily tax alleviation, i.e. information about

  20. Salinity tolerance of non-native suckermouth armoured catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys) in south-eastern Mexico: implications for invasion and dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Krista A.; Nico, Leo G.; Mendoza-Carranza, Manuel; Arevalo-Frias, Wendi; Ropicki, Andrew J.; Heilpern, Sebastian A.; Rodiles-Hernandez, Rocio

    2011-01-01

    1. Salinity tolerance is one of several important physiological attributes that determine invasion success and the pattern of dispersal of introduced aquatic organisms. Introduced freshwater fishes able to tolerate elevated salinities have the potential to invade and exploit brackish-water (mixohaline) environments and use estuaries and coastal waters as 'bridges' for dispersing from one coastal river system to another. 2. Several members of the neotropical suckermouth armoured catfish genus Pterygoplichthys (Siluriformes: L