Sample records for victoria basin kenya

  1. affect rice in integrated rice-fish culture in Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    To ensure increased adoption of rice-fish farming, we have to be certain that practices and adoption of these technologies fit within the available resources, the socio-cultural and economic conditions of the Lake. Victoria Basin (LVB). Practices and technologies from. Asia may be inappropriate due to differences in agro cli-.

  2. Stable isotope paleoecology of Late Pleistocene Middle Stone Age humans from the Lake Victoria basin, Kenya. (United States)

    Garrett, Nicole D; Fox, David L; McNulty, Kieran P; Faith, J Tyler; Peppe, Daniel J; Van Plantinga, Alex; Tryon, Christian A


    Paleoanthropologists have long argued that environmental pressures played a key role in human evolution. However, our understanding of how these pressures mediated the behavioral and biological diversity of early modern humans and their migration patterns within and out of Africa is limited by a lack of archaeological evidence associated with detailed paleoenvironmental data. Here, we present the first stable isotopic data from paleosols and fauna associated with Middle Stone Age (MSA) sites in East Africa. Late Pleistocene (∼100-45 ka, thousands of years ago) sediments on Rusinga and Mfangano Islands in eastern Lake Victoria (Kenya) preserve a taxonomically diverse, non-analog faunal community associated with MSA artifacts. We analyzed the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of paleosol carbonate and organic matter and fossil mammalian tooth enamel, including the first analyses for several extinct bovids such as Rusingoryx atopocranion, Damaliscus hypsodon, and an unnamed impala species. Both paleosol carbonate and organic matter data suggest that local habitats associated with human activities were primarily riverine woodland ecosystems. However, mammalian tooth enamel data indicate that most large-bodied mammals consumed a predominantly C4 diet, suggesting an extensive C4 grassland surrounding these riverine woodlands in the region at the time. These data are consistent with other lines of paleoenvironmental evidence that imply a substantially reduced Lake Victoria at this time, and demonstrate that C4 grasslands were significantly expanded into equatorial Africa compared with their present distribution, which could have facilitated dispersal of human populations and other biotic communities. Our results indicate that early populations of Homo sapiens from the Lake Victoria region exploited locally wooded and well-watered habitats within a larger grassland ecosystem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bulinus globosus (Planorbidae; Gastropoda) populations in the Lake Victoria basin and coastal Kenya show extreme nuclear genetic differentiation. (United States)

    Nyakaana, Silvester; Stothard, J Russell; Nalugwa, Allen; Webster, Bonnie L; Lange, Charles N; Jørgensen, Aslak; Rollinson, David; Kristensen, Thomas K


    Bulinus globosus, a key intermediate host for Schistosoma haematobium that causes urinary schistosomiasis, is a hermaphroditic freshwater Planorbid snail species that inhabits patchy and transient water bodies prone to large seasonal variations in water availability. Although capable of self-fertilizing, this species has been reported to be preferentially out crossing. In this study, we characterized the population genetic structure of 19 B. globosus populations sampled across the Lake Victoria basin and coastal Kenya using four polymorphic microsatellite loci. Population genetic structure was characterized and quantified using FST statistics and Bayesian clustering algorithms. The four loci used in this study contained sufficient statistical power to detect low levels of population genetic differentiation and were highly polymorphic with the number of alleles per locus across populations ranging from 16 to 22. Average observed and expected heterozygosities across loci in each population ranged from 0.13 to 0.69 and from 0.39 to 0.79, respectively. Twenty-five of the seventy-six possible population-locus comparisons significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium proportions after Bonferroni corrections, mostly due to the deficiency of heterozygotes. Significant genetic differentiation was observed between populations and Bayesian inferences identified 15 genetic clusters. The excess homozygosity, significant inbreeding and population genetic differentiation observed in B. globosus populations are likely to be due to the habitat patchiness, mating system and the proneness to cyclic extinction and recolonization in transient habitats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Schistosomes of small mammals from the Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya: new species, familiar species, and implications for schistosomiasis control. (United States)

    Hanelt, B; Mwangi, I N; Kinuthia, J M; Maina, G M; Agola, L E; Mutuku, M W; Steinauer, M L; Agwanda, B R; Kigo, L; Mungai, B N; Loker, E S; Mkoji, G M


    Recent schistosomiasis control efforts in sub-Saharan Africa have focused nearly exclusively on treatment of humans with praziquantel. However, the extent to which wild mammals act as reservoirs for Schistosoma mansoni and therefore as sources of renewed transmission following control efforts is poorly understood. With the objective to study the role of small mammals as reservoir hosts, 480 animals belonging to 9 rodent and 1 insectivore species were examined for infection with schistosomes in Kisumu, in the Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya. Animals were collected from 2 sites: near the lakeshore and from Nyabera Marsh draining into the lake. A total of 6.0% of the animals captured, including 5 murid rodent species and 1 species of shrew (Crocidura olivieri) were infected with schistosomes. Four schistosome species were recovered and identified using cox1 DNA barcoding: S. mansoni, S. bovis, S. rodhaini and S. kisumuensis, the latter of which was recently described from Nyabera Marsh. Schistosoma mansoni and S. rodhaini were found infecting the same host individual (Lophuromys flavopunctatus), suggesting that this host species could be responsible for the production of hybrid schistosomes found in the area. Although the prevalence of S. mansoni infection in these reservoir populations was low (1.5%), given their potentially vast population size, their impact on transmission needs further study. Reservoir hosts could perpetuate snail infections and favour renewed transmission to humans once control programmes have ceased.

  5. Schistosoma kisumuensis n. sp. (Digenea: Schistosomatidae) from murid rodents in the Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya and its phylogenetic position within the S. haematobium species group. (United States)

    Hanelt, B; Brant, S V; Steinauer, M L; Maina, G M; Kinuthia, J M; Agola, L E; Mwangi, I N; Mungai, B N; Mutuku, M W; Mkoji, G M; Loker, E S


    Schistosoma kisumuensis n. sp. is described based on 6 adult males and 2 adult females collected from the circulatory system of 3 murid rodent species, Pelomys isseli, Mastomys natalensis, and Dasymys incomtus. Specimens were collected from a single location, Nyabera Swamp, in Kisumu, Kenya in the Lake Victoria Basin. This new species is morphologically similar to members of the S. haematobium group, currently represented by 8 species parasitizing artiodactyls and primates, including humans. Schistosoma kisumuensis differs from these species by producing relatively small Schistosoma intercalatum-like eggs (135.2 x 52.9 microm) with a relatively small length to width ratio (2.55). Comparison of approximately 3000-base-pair sequences of nuclear rDNA (partial 28S) and mtDNA (partial cox1, nad6, 12S) strongly supports the status of S. kisumuensis as a new species and as a sister species of S. intercalatum. The cox1 genetic distance between these two species (6.3%) is comparable to other pairwise comparisons within the S. haematobium group. Separation of the Congo River and Lake Victoria drainage basins is discussed as a possible factor favoring the origin of this species.

  6. Estimation of design floods in ungauged catchments using a regional index flood method. A case study of Lake Victoria Basin in Kenya (United States)

    Nobert, Joel; Mugo, Margaret; Gadain, Hussein

    Reliable estimation of flood magnitudes corresponding to required return periods, vital for structural design purposes, is impacted by lack of hydrological data in the study area of Lake Victoria Basin in Kenya. Use of regional information, derived from data at gauged sites and regionalized for use at any location within a homogenous region, would improve the reliability of the design flood estimation. Therefore, the regional index flood method has been applied. Based on data from 14 gauged sites, a delineation of the basin into two homogenous regions was achieved using elevation variation (90-m DEM), spatial annual rainfall pattern and Principal Component Analysis of seasonal rainfall patterns (from 94 rainfall stations). At site annual maximum series were modelled using the Log normal (LN) (3P), Log Logistic Distribution (LLG), Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) and Log Pearson Type 3 (LP3) distributions. The parameters of the distributions were estimated using the method of probability weighted moments. Goodness of fit tests were applied and the GEV was identified as the most appropriate model for each site. Based on the GEV model, flood quantiles were estimated and regional frequency curves derived from the averaged at site growth curves. Using the least squares regression method, relationships were developed between the index flood, which is defined as the Mean Annual Flood (MAF) and catchment characteristics. The relationships indicated area, mean annual rainfall and altitude were the three significant variables that greatly influence the index flood. Thereafter, estimates of flood magnitudes in ungauged catchments within a homogenous region were estimated from the derived equations for index flood and quantiles from the regional curves. These estimates will improve flood risk estimation and to support water management and engineering decisions and actions.

  7. The sero-epidemiology of Rift Valley fever in people in the Lake Victoria Basin of western Kenya (United States)

    Grossi-Soyster, Elysse Noel; de Glanville, William Anson; Thomas, Lian Francesca; Kariuki, Samuel; Bronsvoort, Barend Mark de Clare; Wamae, Claire Njeri; LaBeaud, Angelle Desiree; Fèvre, Eric Maurice


    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic arbovirus affecting livestock and people. This study was conducted in western Kenya where RVFV outbreaks have not previously been reported. The aims were to document the seroprevalence and risk factors for RVFV antibodies in a community-based sample from western Kenya and compare this with slaughterhouse workers in the same region who are considered a high-risk group for RVFV exposure. The study was conducted in western Kenya between July 2010 and November 2012. Individuals were recruited from randomly selected homesteads and a census of slaughterhouses. Structured questionnaire tools were used to collect information on demographic data, health, and risk factors for zoonotic disease exposure. Indirect ELISA on serum samples determined seropositivity to RVFV. Risk factor analysis for RVFV seropositivity was conducted using multi-level logistic regression. A total of 1861 individuals were sampled in 384 homesteads. The seroprevalence of RVFV in the community was 0.8% (95% CI 0.5–1.3). The variables significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity in the community were increasing age (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.1–1.4, pslaughterhouse workers were sampled in 84 ruminant slaughterhouses. The seroprevalence of RVFV in slaughterhouse workers was 2.5% (95% CI 1.5–4.2). Being the slaughterman, the person who cuts the animal’s throat (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.0–12.1, p = 0.047), was significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity. This study investigated and compared the epidemiology of RVFV between community members and slaughterhouse workers in western Kenya. The data demonstrate that slaughtering animals is a risk factor for RVFV seropositivity and that slaughterhouse workers are a high-risk group for RVFV seropositivity in this environment. These risk factors have been previously reported in other studies providing further evidence for RVFV circulation in western Kenya. PMID:28686589

  8. The sero-epidemiology of Rift Valley fever in people in the Lake Victoria Basin of western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Anne Jessie Cook


    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a zoonotic arbovirus affecting livestock and people. This study was conducted in western Kenya where RVFV outbreaks have not previously been reported. The aims were to document the seroprevalence and risk factors for RVFV antibodies in a community-based sample from western Kenya and compare this with slaughterhouse workers in the same region who are considered a high-risk group for RVFV exposure. The study was conducted in western Kenya between July 2010 and November 2012. Individuals were recruited from randomly selected homesteads and a census of slaughterhouses. Structured questionnaire tools were used to collect information on demographic data, health, and risk factors for zoonotic disease exposure. Indirect ELISA on serum samples determined seropositivity to RVFV. Risk factor analysis for RVFV seropositivity was conducted using multi-level logistic regression. A total of 1861 individuals were sampled in 384 homesteads. The seroprevalence of RVFV in the community was 0.8% (95% CI 0.5-1.3. The variables significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity in the community were increasing age (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.4, p<0.001, and slaughtering cattle at the homestead (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.0-10.5, p = 0.047. A total of 553 slaughterhouse workers were sampled in 84 ruminant slaughterhouses. The seroprevalence of RVFV in slaughterhouse workers was 2.5% (95% CI 1.5-4.2. Being the slaughterman, the person who cuts the animal's throat (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.0-12.1, p = 0.047, was significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity. This study investigated and compared the epidemiology of RVFV between community members and slaughterhouse workers in western Kenya. The data demonstrate that slaughtering animals is a risk factor for RVFV seropositivity and that slaughterhouse workers are a high-risk group for RVFV seropositivity in this environment. These risk factors have been previously reported in other studies providing further

  9. Paleoenvironmental context of the Middle Stone Age record from Karungu, Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya, and its implications for human and faunal dispersals in East Africa. (United States)

    Faith, J Tyler; Tryon, Christian A; Peppe, Daniel J; Beverly, Emily J; Blegen, Nick; Blumenthal, Scott; Chritz, Kendra L; Driese, Steven G; Patterson, David


    The opening and closing of the equatorial East African forest belt during the Quaternary is thought to have influenced the biogeographic histories of early modern humans and fauna, although precise details are scarce due to a lack of archaeological and paleontological records associated with paleoenvironmental data. With this in mind, we provide a description and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Late Pleistocene Middle Stone Age (MSA) artifact- and fossil-bearing sediments from Karungu, located along the shores of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. Artifacts recovered from surveys and controlled excavations are typologically MSA and include points, blades, and Levallois flakes and cores, as well as obsidian flakes similar in geochemical composition to documented sources near Lake Naivasha (250 km east). A combination of sedimentological, paleontological, and stable isotopic evidence indicates a semi-arid environment characterized by seasonal precipitation and the dominance of C4 grasslands, likely associated with a substantial reduction in Lake Victoria. The well-preserved fossil assemblage indicates that these conditions are associated with the convergence of historically allopatric ungulates from north and south of the equator, in agreement with predictions from genetic observations. Analysis of the East African MSA record reveals previously unrecognized north-south variation in assemblage composition that is consistent with episodes of population fragmentation during phases of limited dispersal potential. The grassland-associated MSA assemblages from Karungu and nearby Rusinga Island are characterized by a combination of artifact types that is more typical of northern sites. This may reflect the dispersal of behavioral repertoires-and perhaps human populations-during a paleoenvironmental phase dominated by grasslands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. within the lake victoria basin, tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Levels of nitrates (NOg-N) and phosphates (PO4~P) in some satellite lakes within the Lake. Victoria basin were determined in Kagera (Lake Burigt), in Mara (River Mara) and in Mwanza region (Lake Malimbe) during August/September 2002 (dry season) and January/February 2003. (wet season).


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water, sediment and soil samples collected from Southern Lake Victoria and its basin were analysed for 76 organochlorine, organophosphorous, carbamate and pyrethroid pesticide residues. The samples were collected from sampling stations in nine districts on the Tanzanian side of the lake, namely Mwanza, Sengerema ...

  12. Monitoring exposure to heavy metals among children in Lake Victoria, Kenya: Environmental and fish matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okoth, E.O.; Admiraal, W.; Osano, O.; Ngure, V.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Omutange, E.S.


    This study used hair and nails to biomonitor heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr and Cu) from geological source and exposure through regular fish consumption among children in Lake Victoria, Kenya. Concentration of Pb and Cu in water reflected anthropogenic pathways, while Cd and Cr reflected accumulation from

  13. Assessment of spatial rainfall variability in Lake Victoria Basin (United States)

    Kizza, M.; Westerberg, I.; Rodhe, A.; Ntale, H. K.


    A gridded monthly rainfall dataset having a spatial resolution of 2 km and covering the period 1960-2004 was derived for the Lake Victoria basin. Such a dataset is useful for hydrological modelling aimed at resource utilisation and for estimation of catchment inflow to Lake Victoria. The lake and its basin support more than 30 million people and also contribute substantially to the River Nile flow. The major challenge in analysing the lake water balance is the estimation of the rainfall over the lake which is complicated by the varying quality and spatial coverage of rain-gauge data in the basin. In this study we addressed these problems by using satellite-derived precipitation data from two products and rain-gauge data for 362 stations around the basin to derive a monthly precipitation dataset for the entire basin, including the lake. First, the rain-gauge data were quality controlled; resulting in a rejection of 13% of the stations while 12% needed corrective actions. These results emphasise the importance of a systematic quality control of rain-guage data in this region. Thereafter we filled short gaps in the daily data series which resulted in 9,429 additional months of data. Two interpolation methods were then assessed for spatial interpolation and the universal kriging method performed slightly better than the inverse distance weighting method. The rainfall patterns in the interpolated dataset were shown to be consistent with the spatial and temporal patterns expected at the large scale as a result of the climate variability in the basin. The key problem of how to account for the enhancement of rainfall over the lake surface because of the lake-land thermal contrasts was addressed by estimating a relationship between rain-gauge and satellite data. Two satellite rainfall products, TRMM 3B43 and PERSIANN were compared to the interpolated monthly rain-gauge data for the land part of the basin. The bias in the TRMM 3B43 rainfall estimates was higher than the bias

  14. Lunnyu soils in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda: Link to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lunnyu soils in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda: Link to toposequence and soil type. B Fungo, S Grunwald, MM Tenywa, B Vanlauwe, P Nkedi-Kizza. Abstract. We compared the physico-chemical characteristics of Lunnyu soils using soil type and slope position in order to explain their variability in the Lake Victoria basin ...

  15. Gastropod diversity, distribution and abundance in habitats with and without anthropogenic disturbances in Lake Victoria, Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, C. N.; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Madsen, Henry


    We investigated freshwater gastropod diversity, abundance and distribution in habitats with and without anthropogenic disturbance in two localities, Ndere in the Winam Gulf and Mbita Point, Lake Victoria, Kenya, from May 2002 to January 2004. A total of 133 984 gastropod specimens belonging to 15...... and other wastes so as to reduce local eutrophication, thereby reducing risks associated with transmission of potential snail-borne diseases. © 2013...... species were recorded, 14 from Mbita and 12 from Ndere. Two species, Ferrissia kavirondica and Cleopatra cridlandi, which were recorded only from undisturbed habitats, could be indicators of least disturbed habitats. Water chemistry did differ between fish landing sites and undisturbed habitats at some...

  16. Editorial The “Eye” of Africa: A Vision of Lake Victoria Basin as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The “Eye” of Africa: A Vision of Lake Victoria Basin as an Environmental. Observatory. Since my days as a schoolboy in geography class, I have not been able to observe maps of the African continent without also “seeing” the profile of a face, with Lake Victoria representing the right eye, gazing adoringly at Madagascar.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nyamuhanga Mwita


    Full Text Available This paper considers the modeling and prediction of  households food security status using a sample of households in the  Lake Victoria region of Kenya. A priori expected food security  factors and their measurements are given. A binary logistic regression model  derived was fitted to thirteen priori expected factors. Analysis of the marginal effects revealed that effecting the use of the seven significant determinants: farmland size, per capita aggregate production, household size, gender of household head, use of fertilizer, use of pesticide/herbicide and education of household head,  increase the likelihood of a household being food secure. Finally, interpretations  of   predicted conditional probabilities, following improvement of significant determinants,  are given.

  18. Monthly water balance model for Ndarugu basin, Kenya | Nyadawa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... model in Ndarugu river basin in Kenya. The model is slightly modified to suit hydrologic conditions in the basin. The study apart from establishing relevant model parameters has recommended optimum length of period for continuous simulation to reduce effect dynamic changes in the basin. Journal of Civil Engineering, ...

  19. Kenya's Foreign Policy and Geopolitical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (i) Are Kenya's foreign policy interests vis-a-vis the Nile River question influenced by her internal demand for water? g ... This article examines Kenya's foreign policy interests on the Nile water question and the implications of the ...... Okodi, C. Odidi, 1980, 'Legal and Policy Regime of Lake Victoria and Nile Basins', Indian.

  20. Application of Satellite Observations to Manage Natural Disasters in the Lake Victoria Basin (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Policelli, F.; Irwin, D.; Korme, Tesfaye; Adler, Bob; Hong, Yang


    Lake Victoria, the second largest fresh water lake in the Eastern part of Africa is a vital natural resource for the economic well being and prosperity of over 30 million people located in riparian regions of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania. It covers a large area of about 68,870 km2 and produces a GDP of about US $30 billion per year. The region is also very much prone to natural disasters such as severe floods during heavy precipitation periods in the Eastern part of Africa. In addition to floods, the precipitation also produces large infestations of mosquito larvae due to the standing water in many areas. This further causes multiple vector borne diseases such as Malaria, Rift Valley Fever and more. These problems are of serious concern and require active and aggressive surveillance and management to minimize the loss of human and animal lives and property damage. Satellite imagery and observations along with the in situ measurements provide a great tool to analyze and study this area and inform the policy makers to make calculated policy decisions which are more beneficial to the environment. Recently, NASA and USAID have joined forces with the Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) located in Nairobi, Kenya to utilize multiple NASA sensors such as TRMM, SRTM and MODIS to develop flood potential maps for the Lake Victoria Basin. The idea is to generate a flood forecasts and "nowcasts" that can be sent to the disaster management organizations of Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania. Post flood event satellite imagery is becoming a common tool to assess the areas inundated by flooding. However, this work is unique undertaking by utilizing land imaging and atmospheric satellites to build credible flood potential maps. At same time, we are also studying the potential occurrence and spread of Rift Valley Fever disease based on the short term climate records and precipitation data. These activities require multi-nation coordination and agreements and

  1. Impacts of population growth and economic development on water quality of a lake: case study of Lake Victoria Kenya water. (United States)

    Juma, Dauglas Wafula; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Fengting


    Anthropogenic-induced water quality pollution is a major environmental problem in freshwater ecosystems today. As a result of this, eutrophication of lakes occurs. Population and economic development are key drivers of water resource pollution. To evaluate how growth in the riparian population and in the gross domestic product (GDP) with unplanned development affects the water quality of the lake, this paper evaluates Lake Victoria Kenyan waters basin. Waters quality data between 1990 and 2012 were analyzed along with reviews of published literature, papers, and reports. The nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), soluble phosphorus (PO4-P), chlorophyll a, and Secchi transparencies were evaluated as they are key water quality indicators. The NO3-N increased from 10 μg l(-1) in 1990 to 98 μg 1(-1) in 2008, while PO4-P increased from 4 μg l(-1) in 1990 to 57 μg l(-1) in 2008. The population and economic growth of Kenya are increasing with both having minimums in 1990 of 24.143 million people and 12.18 billion US dollars, to maximums in 2010 of 39.742 million people and 32.163 billion US dollars, respectively. A Secchi transparency is reducing with time, indicating an increasing pollution. This was confirmed by an increase in aquatic vegetation using an analysis of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) images of 2000 and 2012 of Kenyan waters. This study found that increasing population and GDP increases pollution discharge thus polluting lakes. One of major factors causing lake water pollution is the unplanned or poor waste management policy and service.

  2. satellite lakes of lake victoria basin (tanzanian side)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on phytoplankton species diversity and abundance were carried out in 8 selected satellite lakes within the Lake Victoria ... cyanobacteria occurrence and their unforeseen effects such as toxin production and oxygen depletion during nights that may ..... Species extinction and concomitant ecological changes in Lake.

  3. Hydro-climatic trends and water resource management implications based on multi-scale data for the Lake Victoria region, Kenya (United States)

    Koutsouris, A. J.; Destouni, G.; Jarsjö, J.; Lyon, S. W.


    Unreliable rainfall may be a main cause of poverty in rural areas, such as the Kisumu district by Lake Victoria in Kenya. Climate change may further increase the negative effects of rainfall uncertainty. These effects could be mitigated to some extent through improved and adaptive water resource management and planning, which relies on our interpretations and projections of the coupled hydro-climatic system behaviour and its development trends. In order to identify and quantify the main differences and consistencies among such hydro-climatic assessments, this study investigates trends and exemplifies their use for important water management decisions for the Lake Victoria drainage basin (LVDB), based on local scale data for the Orongo village in the Kisumu district, and regional scale data for the whole LVDB. Results show low correlation between locally and regionally observed hydro-climatic trends, and large differences, which in turn affects assessments of important water resource management parameters. However, both data scales converge in indicating that observed local and regional hydrological discharge trends are primarily driven by local and regional water use and land use changes.

  4. The rise and fall of water hyacinth in Lake Victoria and the Kagera River basin, 1989-2001 (United States)

    Albright, Thomas P.; Moorhouse, T.G.; McNabb, T.J.


    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) is an invasive aquatic macrophyte associated with major negative economic and ecological impacts to the Lake Victoria region since the plant's establishment in Uganda in the 1980s. Reliable estimates of water hyacinth distribution and extent are required to gauge the severity of the problem through time, relate water hyacinth abundance to environmental factors, identify areas requiring management action, and assess the efficacy of management actions. To provide such estimates and demonstrate the utility of remote sensing for this application, we processed and analyzed remotely sensed imagery to determine the distribution and extent of water hyacinth. Maps were produced and coverage was quantified using a hybrid unsupervised image classification approach with manual editing for each of the riparian countries of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, as well as for numerous gulfs and bays. A similar procedure was carried out for selected lakes in the Rwanda-Tanzania borderlands lakes region in the Kagera River basin. Results confirm the severity of the water hyacinth infestation, especially in the northern parts of the lake. A maximum lake-wide extent of at least 17,374 ha was attained in 1998. Following this, a combination of factors, including conditions associated with the 1997 to 1998 El Nin??o and biocontrol with water hyacinth weevils, appear to have contributed to a major decline in water hyacinth in the most affected parts of the lake. Some lakes in the Kagera basin, such as Lake Mihindi, Rwanda, were severely infested in the late 1990s, but the level of infestation in most of these decreased markedly by the early 2000s.

  5. The population structure of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes in the Lake Victoria basin in Uganda: implications for vector control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyseni Chaz


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glossina fuscipes fuscipes is the primary vector of trypanosomiasis in humans and livestock in Uganda. The Lake Victoria basin has been targeted for tsetse eradication using a rolling carpet initiative, from west to east, with four operational blocks (3 in Uganda and 1 in Kenya, under a Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC. We screened tsetse flies from the three Ugandan PATTEC blocks for genetic diversity at 15 microsatellite loci from continental and offshore populations to provide empirical data to support this initiative. Methods We collected tsetse samples from 11 sites across the Lake Victoria basin in Uganda. We performed genetic analyses on 409 of the collected tsetse flies and added data collected for 278 individuals in a previous study. The flies were screened across 15 microsatellite loci and the resulting data were used to assess the temporal stability of populations, to analyze patterns of genetic exchange and structuring, to estimate dispersal rates and evaluate the sex bias in dispersal, as well as to estimate demographic parameters (NE and NC. Results We found that tsetse populations in this region were stable over 4-16 generations and belong to 4 genetic clusters. Two genetic clusters (1 and 2 corresponded approximately to PATTEC blocks 1 and 2, while the other two (3 and 4 fell within PATTEC block 3. Island populations grouped into the same genetic clusters as neighboring mainland sites, suggesting presence of gene flow between these sites. There was no evidence of the stretch of water separating islands from the mainland forming a significant barrier to dispersal. Dispersal rates ranged from 2.5 km per generation in cluster 1 to 14 km per generation in clusters 3 and 4. We found evidence of male-biased dispersal. Few breeders are successfully dispersing over large distances. Effective population size estimates were low (33–310 individuals, while census size estimates

  6. Preliminary assessment of the cocial, economic and environmental impacts of Water Hyacinth in Lake Victoria basin and status of control


    Mailu, A.M.


    The paper presents preliminary data collected in an assessment of the social, economic and environmental impacts of water hyacinth in the Lake Victoria Basin. A summary of the status of control and strategies for the future is given. The report draws on field observations made, studies through interviews of affected communities and organisations, personal communications and published reports by scientists in the region. Lake Victoria, the world’s second largest freshwater body, su...

  7. New hominids from the Lake Turkana Basin, Kenya. (United States)

    Brown, B; Brown, F H; Walker, A


    New hominid fossils from the Lake Turkana Basin range in age from ca. 3.35 to ca. 1.0 Ma. Those recovered from sediments stratigraphically just above the Tulu Bor Tuff in the Lomekwi Member of the Nachukui Formation are best attributed to Australopithecus afarensis. This species is rare in Kenya, probably because of the scarcity of sediments deposited during its time span. Younger specimens are referable either to the megadont A. boisei or early Homo. Collectively the new fossils promote further understanding of morphological variation in East African Plio-Pleistocene hominids. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  8. Composition and Genetic Diversity of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) on Islands and Mainland Shores of Kenya's Lakes Victoria and Baringo. (United States)

    Ajamma, Yvonne Ukamaka; Villinger, Jandouwe; Omondi, David; Salifu, Daisy; Onchuru, Thomas Ogao; Njoroge, Laban; Muigai, Anne W T; Masiga, Daniel K


    The Lake Baringo and Lake Victoria regions of Kenya are associated with high seroprevalence of mosquito-transmitted arboviruses. However, molecular identification of potential mosquito vector species, including morphologically identified ones, remains scarce. To estimate the diversity, abundance, and distribution of mosquito vectors on the mainland shores and adjacent inhabited islands in these regions, we collected and morphologically identified adult and immature mosquitoes and obtained the corresponding sequence variation at cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) gene regions. A total of 63 species (including five subspecies) were collected from both study areas, 47 of which have previously been implicated as disease vectors. Fourteen species were found only on island sites, which are rarely included in mosquito diversity surveys. We collected more mosquitoes, yet with lower species composition, at Lake Baringo (40,229 mosquitoes, 32 species) than at Lake Victoria (22,393 mosquitoes, 54 species). Phylogenetic analysis of COI gene sequences revealed Culex perexiguus and Cx tenagius that could not be distinguished morphologically. Most Culex species clustered into a heterogeneous clade with closely related sequences, while Culex pipiens clustered into two distinct COI and ITS2 clades. These data suggest limitations in current morphological identification keys. This is the first DNA barcode report of Kenyan mosquitoes. To improve mosquito species identification, morphological identifications should be supported by their molecular data, while diversity surveys should target both adults and immatures. The diversity of native mosquito disease vectors identified in this study impacts disease transmission risks to humans and livestock. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  9. Characteristics of potential gasifier fuels in selected regions of the Lake Victoria Basin

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    Geoffrey O. Mosiori


    Full Text Available All countries in the Lake Victoria Basin depend mostly on hydroelectric power for the provision of energy. Gasification technology has a high potential for reducing biomass energy consumption whilst increasing access to modern energy services. The key aspect for the failure of gasification operations in the Lake Victoria Basin is inadequate adaptation of gasification equipment to fuel characteristics, lack of fuel specification and inappropriate material choice. We therefore investigated the thermo-chemical characterisation of six biomass fuels, namely Pinus caribaea, Calitris robusta, Cupressus lusitanica, Eucalyptus grandis, Pinus patula and sugarcane bagasse from selected regions of the Lake Victoria Basin. Ultimate analysis was done using a Flash 2000 elemental analyser. Moisture content, ash content and volatile matter were determined in oven and muffle furnaces while heating values were determined using a Gallenkamp calorimeter. The mean percentage levels obtained indicate that all six biomass fuels had a mean range for nitrogen of 0.07±0.2–0.25±0.07%, for carbon of 40.45±0.61–48.88±0.29%, for hydrogen of 4.32±0.13–5.59±0.18% and for oxygen of 43.41±1.58–51.1±0.64%. Moisture content ranged between 25.74±1.54% and 56.69±0.52%, ash content between 0.38±0.02% and 2.94±0.14%, volatile matter between 74.68±0.49% and 82.71±0.19% and fixed carbon between 14.35±0.33% and 24.74±0.27%. Heating values ranged between 16.95±0.10 MJ/kg and 19.48±0.42 MJ/kg. The results suggest that all six biomass fuels are potential biomass gasification materials.

  10. Tsetse fly (G. f. fuscipes distribution in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda.

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    Mugenyi Albert


    Full Text Available Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes, the causative agent of human and animal African trypanosomiasis. The tsetse vector is extensively distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosomiasis maintenance is determined by the interrelationship of three elements: vertebrate host, parasite and the vector responsible for transmission. Mapping the distribution and abundance of tsetse flies assists in predicting trypanosomiasis distributions and developing rational strategies for disease and vector control. Given scarce resources to carry out regular full scale field tsetse surveys to up-date existing tsetse maps, there is a need to devise inexpensive means for regularly obtaining dependable area-wide tsetse data to guide control activities. In this study we used spatial epidemiological modelling techniques (logistic regression involving 5000 field-based tsetse-data (G. f. fuscipes points over an area of 40,000 km2, with satellite-derived environmental surrogates composed of precipitation, temperature, land cover, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI and elevation at the sub-national level. We used these extensive tsetse data to analyse the relationships between presence of tsetse (G. f. fuscipes and environmental variables. The strength of the results was enhanced through the application of a spatial autologistic regression model (SARM. Using the SARM we showed that the probability of tsetse presence increased with proportion of forest cover and riverine vegetation. The key outputs are a predictive tsetse distribution map for the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda and an improved understanding of the association between tsetse presence and environmental variables. The predicted spatial distribution of tsetse in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda will provide significant new information to assist with the spatial targeting of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control.

  11. Tsetse fly (G. f. fuscipes) distribution in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda. (United States)

    Albert, Mugenyi; Wardrop, Nicola A; Atkinson, Peter M; Torr, Steve J; Welburn, Susan C


    Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes, the causative agent of human and animal African trypanosomiasis. The tsetse vector is extensively distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosomiasis maintenance is determined by the interrelationship of three elements: vertebrate host, parasite and the vector responsible for transmission. Mapping the distribution and abundance of tsetse flies assists in predicting trypanosomiasis distributions and developing rational strategies for disease and vector control. Given scarce resources to carry out regular full scale field tsetse surveys to up-date existing tsetse maps, there is a need to devise inexpensive means for regularly obtaining dependable area-wide tsetse data to guide control activities. In this study we used spatial epidemiological modelling techniques (logistic regression) involving 5000 field-based tsetse-data (G. f. fuscipes) points over an area of 40,000 km2, with satellite-derived environmental surrogates composed of precipitation, temperature, land cover, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and elevation at the sub-national level. We used these extensive tsetse data to analyse the relationships between presence of tsetse (G. f. fuscipes) and environmental variables. The strength of the results was enhanced through the application of a spatial autologistic regression model (SARM). Using the SARM we showed that the probability of tsetse presence increased with proportion of forest cover and riverine vegetation. The key outputs are a predictive tsetse distribution map for the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda and an improved understanding of the association between tsetse presence and environmental variables. The predicted spatial distribution of tsetse in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda will provide significant new information to assist with the spatial targeting of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control.

  12. Climatic, socio-economic, and health factors affecting human vulnerability to cholera in the Lake Victoria basin, East Africa. (United States)

    Olago, Daniel; Marshall, Michael; Wandiga, Shem O; Opondo, Maggie; Yanda, Pius Z; Kanalawe, Richard; Githeko, Andrew K; Downs, Tim; Opere, Alfred; Kavumvuli, Robert; Kirumira, Edward; Ogallo, Laban; Mugambi, Paul; Apindi, Eugene; Githui, Faith; Kathuri, James; Olaka, Lydia; Sigalla, Rehema; Nanyunja, Robinah; Baguma, Timothy; Achola, Pius


    Cholera epidemics have a recorded history in the eastern Africa region dating to 1836. Cholera is now endemic in the Lake Victoria basin, a region with one of the poorest and fastest growing populations in the world. Analyses of precipitation, temperatures, and hydrological characteristics of selected stations in the Lake Victoria basin show that cholera epidemics are closely associated with El Niño years. Similarly, sustained temperatures high above normal (T(max)) in two consecutive seasons, followed by a slight cooling in the second season, trigger an outbreak of a cholera epidemic. The health and socioeconomic systems that the lake basin communities rely upon are not robust enough to cope with cholera outbreaks, thus rendering them vulnerable to the impact of climate variability and change. Collectively, this report argues that communities living around the Lake Victoria basin are vulnerable to climate-induced cholera that is aggravated by the low socioeconomic status and lack of an adequate health care system. In assessing the communities' adaptive capacity, the report concludes that persistent levels of poverty have made these communities vulnerable to cholera epidemics.

  13. Assessing Future Hydrological Changes in the Tana River Basin, Kenya (United States)

    Jenkins, Rhosanna


    Changes in precipitation will be one of the most significant factors in determining the overall impact of global climate change but are also one of the most uncertain and difficult to project. The reliability of global climate models (GCMs) for predicting changes in rainfall is particularly concerning for East Africa. This research focuses on Kenya's Tana River Basin and aims to project the impacts of climate change upon the hydrology in order to inform national climate change adaptation plans. The Tana basin has been identified as crucial for Kenya's development, with increased irrigated agriculture and additional dams planned. The area is also important for biodiversity and contains already-threatened ecosystems and endemic species. Kenya is already a water-scarce country and demand for water is expected to increase in the future as the country develops. Therefore, examining changes to precipitation with climate change is vital. The WaterWorld Policy Support System (, a physically-based hydrological model, has been used to determine annual and monthly changes in hydrology. WaterWorld utilises the WorldClim (Hijmans et al., 2005) climate projections for the latest generation of climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5 (CMIP5) to characterise the temperature and precipitation changes. In order to better understand the high uncertainties in projections of climate change, the full range of latest emissions scenarios (the representative concentration pathways or RCPs) were used to force the WaterWorld model. The WorldClim baseline values were evaluated by comparing them to observations and were found to correctly represent the annual cycle of precipitation. In addition, the CRU TS3.22 data (Harris et al., 2014) have also been examined and provide a valuable comparison to the WorldClim dataset. These simulations encompass a broad range of climate projections, but show a general trend towards

  14. Rock Glaciers in the Upper Basin of Bermejo River, Santa Victoria, Argentina (United States)

    Ahumada, A. L.; Íbáñez Palacios, G. P.; Toledo, M. A.; Páez, S. V.


    The Bermejo River is an international basin in the Tropical Andes, Santa Victoria range. The Santa Victoria range extend in N-S sense (22°08' and 23°00' South latitude between 65° and 65°30' West longitude). It maxim height is about 5.055 m s.n.m. and it average height is 3000 m s.n.m. There have been localize intact rock glaciers (active and inactive) and relict. The rock glaciers are frozen water reservoir and regulate the water regime in the high mountain over the world. The global warming effects have been express in this region with average annual air temperatures in increase: The series of temperatures of La Quiaca weather station, years 1911-2010, shows an increase about 1° C (from 9,14° C to 10,08° C) since 70' decade to actuality. This study aims to contribute to the survey of intact rock glaciers and the suite of accompanying landforms. The geographic identification and location of rock glaciers have made through the interpretation of aerial photographs and LandSat 7 and Aster Images in comparison with Google Earth using GIS and visual interpretation technics. This information has controlled with fieldwork in several campaigns. The rock glaciers are classified (in base of it activity) in actives, inactives and relict. The first and the second class were grouped in a category called intact rock glaciers for simplify it identification. The unified categories are water-storing. In the fieldwork have determinated the following aspects: 1- Active processes determination (needle ice, lenticular ice formation, etc.) and its sedimentary products: sucrose structure, inverted gradation, extrusion, open work gravels. 2- Location and geomorphologic measurement of rock glaciers and periglacial forms. There are identified 318 intact rock glaciers in high basin of Bermejo river, Sub-basins Condado river, Los Toldos-Lipeo river and Iruya river, Santa Victoria range. The actives rock glaciers, indicators of discontinuous permafrost, are installed from 4300 m s

  15. Monitoring basin-scale land cover changes in Kagera Basin of Lake Victoria using ancillary data and remote sensing (United States)

    Wasige, John E.; Groen, Thomas A.; Smaling, Eric; Jetten, Victor


    The Kagera Basin is a high value ecosystem in the Lake Victoria watershed because of the hydrological and food services it provides. The basin has faced large scale human induced land use and land cover changes (LUCC), but quantitative data is to date lacking. A combination of ancillary data and satellite imagery were interpreted to construct LUCC dynamics for the last century. This study is an initial step towards assessing the impact of LUCC on sustainable agriculture and water quality in the watershed. The results show that large trends of LUCC have rapidly occurred over the last 100 years. The most dominant LUCC processes were gains in farmland areas (not detectable in 1901 to 60% in 2010) and a net reduction in dense forest (7% to 2.6%), woodlands (51% to 6.9%) and savannas (35% to 19.6%) between 1901 and 2010. Forest degradation rapidly occurred during 1974 and 1995 but the forest re-grew between 1995 and 2010 due to forest conservation efforts. Afforestation efforts have resulted in plantation forest increases between 1995 and 2010. The rates of LUCC observed are higher than those reported in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) and other parts of the world. This is one of the few studies in SSA at a basin scale that combines multi-source spatio-temporal data on land cover to enable long-term quantification of land cover changes. In the discussion we address future research needs for the area based on the results of this study. These research needs include quantifying the impacts of land cover change on nutrient and sediment dynamics, soil organic carbon stocks, and changes in biodiversity.

  16. Paleoclimatic and paleoecological reconstruction of early Miocene terrestrial equatorial deposits, Rusinga and Mfangano Islands, Lake Victoria, Kenya (United States)

    Michel, L. A.; Peppe, D. J.; McNulty, K. P.; Driese, S. G.; Lutz, J.; Nightingale, S.; Maxbauer, D. P.; Horner, W. H.; DiPietro, L. M.; Lehmann, T.; Dunsworth, H. M.; Harcourt-Smith, W. E.; Ogondo, J.


    Biological responses to climatic shifts are often studied to inform us on future anthropogenic-driven climate change. However, few of these climatic shifts occur over time scales appropriate to modern change and few occur with biota similar to modern. The Miocene Climatic Optimum is an ideal interval to study because of its rapid duration and because it occurred during the rise and proliferation of apes. The sediments on Rusinga and Mfangano Islands, Lake Victoria, Kenya were deposited between 18 and 20 Ma and record a changing equatorial climate just prior to the Miocene Climate Optimum. This location also offers an opportunity to use multiple proxies to constrain climate and landscape, including paleosol geochemistry, paleobotany and paleontology. Additionally, due to the rich fossil preservation on the islands, climatic shifts are framed within the context of early caterrhine evolution. Here, we report a climate shift recorded through three time slices spanning two formations over ~2 myr. The oldest unit, the Wayando Formation, records an arid, probably open ecosystem with pedogenic calcite rhizoliths, a high groundwater table, poorly-formed paleosols and permineralized sedges. The middle time slice, the Grit Member-Fossil Bed Member contact of the Hiwegi Formation, shows evidence of a local saline lake, with desiccation features, satin-spar after gypsum deposits and salt hoppers. Paleobotanical and sedimentological data from roughly contemporaneous strata indicate a warm, highly seasonal environment that supported a mixture of woodland and forested elements across the landscape. The youngest unit, which is within the Kibanga Member of the Hiwegi Formation, displays demonstrable evidence for a closed-canopy multistoried forest with the presence of tree-stump casts and permineralized root systems within a red-brown paleosol. Within the same paleosol horizon, the dental remains of the catarrhines Proconsul and Dendropithecus have been discovered in situ. This

  17. High concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in water and sediments of car wash and Kisat areas of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria-Kenya. (United States)

    Kwach, B O; Lalah, J O


    Mean concentrations of selected USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments and water samples from Car Wash and Kisat areas of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria in Kenya have been determined using GC-FID and GC-MS. Sampling was done during the rainy season in April 2006. The PAH concentrations in sediment and water ranged from 0.04 to 31.95 microg/g dry weight and 3.32 to 55.8 microg/L, respectively, depending upon the sampling location. The total concentration levels of PAHs in both the sediment and water phase in this study were found to be much higher compared with those reported from other regions worldwide, revealing significant PAH pollution of Car Wash and Kisat areas of Kisumu city bay as a consequent of anthropogenic activities as described in the text. The GC-detected PAHs were confirmed by GC-MS.

  18. Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obura, David O. [CORDIO East Africa, Mombassa (Kenya)


    The Kenya coast is bathed by the northward-flowing warm waters of the East Africa Coastal Current, located between latitudes 1 and 5deg S. With a narrow continental shelf, the coastal marine environments are dominated by coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves, with large expanses of sandy substrates where river inputs from Kenya's two largest rivers, the Tana and Athi rivers, prevent the growth of coral reefs. The northern part of the coast is seasonally influenced by upwelling waters of the Somali Current, resulting in lower water temperatures for part of the year. The coast is made up of raised Pleistocene reefs on coastal plains and hills of sedimentary origin, which support native habitats dominated by scrub bush and remnant pockets of the forests that used to cover East Africa and the Congo basin. The marine environment is characterised by warm tropical conditions varying at the surface between 25degC and 31degC during the year, stable salinity regimes, and moderately high nutrient levels from terrestrial runoff and groundwater. The semi-diurnal tidal regime varies from 1.5 to 4 m amplitude from neap to spring tides, creating extensive intertidal platform and rocky-shore communities exposed twice-daily during low tides. Fringing reef crests dominate the whole southern coast and parts of the northern coast towards Somalia, forming a natural barrier to the wave energy from the ocean. Coral reefs form the dominant ecosystem along the majority of the Kenya coast, creating habitats for seagrasses and mangroves in the lagoons and creeks protected by the reef crests. Kenya's marine environment faces a number of threats from the growing coastal human population estimated at just under three million in 2000. Extraction of fish and other resources from the narrow continental shelf, coral reef and mangrove ecosystems increases each year with inadequate monitoring and management structures to protect the resource bases. Coastal development in urban and tourist

  19. Uncertainties in Flow-Duration-Frequency Relationships of High and Low Flow Extremes in Lake Victoria Basin


    Charles Onyutha; Patrick Willems


    This paper focuses on uncertainty analysis to aid decision making in applications of statistically modeled flow-duration-frequency (FDF) relationships of both daily high and low flows. The analysis is based on 24 selected catchments in the Lake Victoria basin in Eastern Africa. The FDF relationships were derived for aggregation levels in the range 1–90 days for high flows and 1–365 days for low flows. The validity of the projected FDF quantiles for high return periods T was checked using grow...

  20. Distribution and origin of suspended matter and organic carbon pools in the Tana River Basin, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamooh, F.; Van den Meersche, K.; Meysman, F.; Marwick, T.R.; Borges, A.V.; Merckx, R.; Dehairs, F.; Schmidt, S.; Nyunja, J.; Bouillon, S.


    We studied patterns in organic carbon pools and their origin in the Tana River Basin (Kenya), in February 2008 (dry season), September–November 2009 (wet season), and June–July 2010 (end of wet season), covering the full continuum from headwater streams to lowland mainstream sites. A consistent

  1. Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    Kenya's 2002 general election, replacing a notoriously corrupt regime with a coalition government committed to reform, was seen as a landmark event in the country's history. IDRC, active in Kenya for some 30 years by then, reacted quickly with a package of projects expressly designed to advance and take advantage of ...

  2. Interactions between natural populations of human and rodent schistosomes in the Lake Victoria region of Kenya: a molecular epidemiological approach.

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    Michelle L Steinauer


    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni exists in a complex environmental milieu that may select for significant evolutionary changes in this species. In Kenya, the sympatric distribution of S. mansoni with S. rodhaini potentially influences the epidemiology, ecology, and evolutionary biology of both species, because they infect the same species of snail and mammalian hosts and are capable of hybridization.Over a 2-year period, using a molecular epidemiological approach, we examined spatial and temporal distributions, and the overlap of these schistosomes within snails, in natural settings in Kenya. Both species had spatially and temporally patchy distributions, although S. mansoni was eight times more common than S. rodhaini. Both species were overdispersed within snails, and most snails (85.2% for S. mansoni and 91.7% for S. rodhaini only harbored one schistosome genotype. Over time, half of snails infected with multiple genotypes showed a replacement pattern in which an initially dominant genotype was less represented in later replicates. The other half showed a consistent pattern over time; however, the ratio of each genotype was skewed. Profiles of circadian emergence of cercariae revealed that S. rodhaini emerges throughout the 24-hour cycle, with peak emergence before sunrise and sometimes immediately after sunset, which differs from previous reports of a single nocturnal peak immediately after sunset. Peak emergence for S. mansoni cercariae occurred as light became most intense and overlapped temporally with S. rodhaini. Comparison of schistosome communities within snails against a null model indicated that the community was structured and that coinfections were more common than expected by chance. In mixed infections, cercarial emergence over 24 hours remained similar to single species infections, again with S. rodhaini and S. mansoni cercarial emergence profiles overlapping substantially.The data from this study indicate a lack of obvious spatial or

  3. Molecular Detection of Tick-Borne Pathogen Diversities in Ticks from Livestock and Reptiles along the Shores and Adjacent Islands of Lake Victoria and Lake Baringo, Kenya

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    David Omondi


    Full Text Available Although diverse tick-borne pathogens (TBPs are endemic to East Africa, with recognized impact on human and livestock health, their diversity and specific interactions with tick and vertebrate host species remain poorly understood in the region. In particular, the role of reptiles in TBP epidemiology remains unknown, despite having been implicated with TBPs of livestock among exported tortoises and lizards. Understanding TBP ecologies, and the potential role of common reptiles, is critical for the development of targeted transmission control strategies for these neglected tropical disease agents. During the wet months (April–May; October–December of 2012–2013, we surveyed TBP diversity among 4,126 ticks parasitizing livestock and reptiles at homesteads along the shores and islands of Lake Baringo and Lake Victoria in Kenya, regions endemic to diverse neglected tick-borne diseases. After morphological identification of 13 distinct Rhipicephalus, Amblyomma, and Hyalomma tick species, ticks were pooled (≤8 individuals by species, host, sampling site, and collection date into 585 tick pools. By supplementing previously established molecular assays for TBP detection with high-resolution melting analysis of PCR products before sequencing, we identified high frequencies of potential disease agents of ehrlichiosis (12.48% Ehrlichia ruminantium, 9.06% Ehrlichia canis, anaplasmosis (6.32% Anaplasma ovis, 14.36% Anaplasma platys, and 3.08% Anaplasma bovis,, and rickettsiosis (6.15% Rickettsia africae, 2.22% Rickettsia aeschlimannii, 4.27% Rickettsia rhipicephali, and 4.95% Rickettsia spp., as well as Paracoccus sp. and apicomplexan hemoparasites (0.51% Theileria sp., 2.56% Hepatozoon fitzsimonsi, and 1.37% Babesia caballi among tick pools. Notably, we identified E. ruminantium in both Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus pools of ticks sampled from livestock in both study areas as well as in Amblyomma falsomarmoreum (66.7% and Amblyomma nuttalli (100

  4. Molecular Detection of Tick-Borne Pathogen Diversities in Ticks from Livestock and Reptiles along the Shores and Adjacent Islands of Lake Victoria and Lake Baringo, Kenya. (United States)

    Omondi, David; Masiga, Daniel K; Fielding, Burtram C; Kariuki, Edward; Ajamma, Yvonne Ukamaka; Mwamuye, Micky M; Ouso, Daniel O; Villinger, Jandouwe


    Although diverse tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) are endemic to East Africa, with recognized impact on human and livestock health, their diversity and specific interactions with tick and vertebrate host species remain poorly understood in the region. In particular, the role of reptiles in TBP epidemiology remains unknown, despite having been implicated with TBPs of livestock among exported tortoises and lizards. Understanding TBP ecologies, and the potential role of common reptiles, is critical for the development of targeted transmission control strategies for these neglected tropical disease agents. During the wet months (April-May; October-December) of 2012-2013, we surveyed TBP diversity among 4,126 ticks parasitizing livestock and reptiles at homesteads along the shores and islands of Lake Baringo and Lake Victoria in Kenya, regions endemic to diverse neglected tick-borne diseases. After morphological identification of 13 distinct Rhipicephalus, Amblyomma, and Hyalomma tick species, ticks were pooled (≤8 individuals) by species, host, sampling site, and collection date into 585 tick pools. By supplementing previously established molecular assays for TBP detection with high-resolution melting analysis of PCR products before sequencing, we identified high frequencies of potential disease agents of ehrlichiosis (12.48% Ehrlichia ruminantium, 9.06% Ehrlichia canis), anaplasmosis (6.32% Anaplasma ovis, 14.36% Anaplasma platys, and 3.08% Anaplasma bovis,), and rickettsiosis (6.15% Rickettsia africae, 2.22% Rickettsia aeschlimannii, 4.27% Rickettsia rhipicephali, and 4.95% Rickettsia spp.), as well as Paracoccus sp. and apicomplexan hemoparasites (0.51% Theileria sp., 2.56% Hepatozoon fitzsimonsi, and 1.37% Babesia caballi) among tick pools. Notably, we identified E. ruminantium in both Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus pools of ticks sampled from livestock in both study areas as well as in Amblyomma falsomarmoreum (66.7%) and Amblyomma nuttalli (100%) sampled from tortoises

  5. Plio-Pleistocene magnetostratigraphy of the Turkana basin, Kenya (United States)

    Lepre, C. J.; Quinn, R.; Feibel, C. S.; Brown, F. H.; Kent, D. V.


    Archaeological and fossil sites from the Turkana basin provide a unique record of important human evolutionary junctures, which have been linked to terrestrial environmental change as a consequence of late Cenozoic climate phenomenon. However, because of low geochronological resolution, spatial discontinuities, and the episodic nature of sedimentation in the half-graben basins of the East African Rift System, it has been difficult to directly connect the terrestrial sites with marine archives of Pliocene and Pleistocene climate. For the purpose of addressing these issues, a magnetic polarity stratigraphy and a corresponding geochronology are presented for 12 sampling sites spanning about 400 m of continental sediments that crop out in eastern (Areas 118 and 130 of the Karari ridge, Areas 102 and 104 of the Koobi Fora ridge, Areas 107 and 123 of Bara Hasuma) and western (Kokiselei, Naiyena Engol, Kalochoro, Lomekwi, South Turkwel, and Kanapoi) parts of the Turkana basin. Characteristic magnetizations isolated through thermal demagnetization experiments on mudstone specimens pass reversal tests and are indistinguishable in mean direction regardless if samples were collected from ancient fluvial floodplain or lacustrine strata of correlative stratigraphic intervals. The sequence of the composite paleomagnetic reversal stratigraphy consists of 15 magnetozones that vary from less than a meter to tens of meters thick and can be unambiguously correlated within limits of the previously established tephrochronology to the Gilbert through Matuyama portion of the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale dated to about 4.0-1.5 Ma. Sedimentation rates through lacustrine intervals (e.g., 22-29 cm/kyr) are comparable with high-fidelity marine cores. This factor coupled with copious amounts of magnetic mineral detritus from basin-bounding rift volcanics probably contributes to a high natural remanent magnetization of the sediments and the recording of temporally brief magnetozones (e

  6. The Development of a Customization Framework for the WRF Model over the Lake Victoria Basin, Eastern Africa on Seasonal Timescales

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    R. Argent


    Full Text Available Lake Victoria, Africa, supports millions of people. To produce reliable climate projections, it is desirable to successfully model the rainfall over the lake accurately. An initial step is taken here with customization of the Weather, Research, and Forecast (WRF model. Of particular interest is an asymmetrical rainfall pattern across the lake basin, due to a diurnal land-lake breeze. The main aim is to present a customization framework for use over the lake. This framework is developed by conducting several series of model runs to investigate aspects of the customization. The runs are analyzed using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission rainfall data and Climatic Research Unit temperature data. The study shows that the choice of parameters and lake surface temperature initialization can significantly alter the results. Also, the optimal physics combinations for the climatology may not necessarily be suitable for all circumstances, such as extreme years. The study concludes that WRF is unable to reproduce the pattern across the lake. The temperature of the lake is too cold and this prevents the diurnal land-lake breeze reversal. Overall, this study highlights the importance of customizing a model to the region of research and presents a framework through which this may be achieved.

  7. Uncertainties in Flow-Duration-Frequency Relationships of High and Low Flow Extremes in Lake Victoria Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Onyutha


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on uncertainty analysis to aid decision making in applications of statistically modeled flow-duration-frequency (FDF relationships of both daily high and low flows. The analysis is based on 24 selected catchments in the Lake Victoria basin in Eastern Africa. The FDF relationships were derived for aggregation levels in the range 1–90 days for high flows and 1–365 days for low flows. The validity of the projected FDF quantiles for high return periods T was checked using growth factor curves. Monte Carlo simulations were used to construct confidence intervals CI on both the estimated Ts for given flows and the estimated FDF quantiles for given T. The average bias of the modeled T of high and low flows are for all catchments and Ts up to 25 years lower than 8%. Despite this relatively small average bias in the modeled T, the limits of the CI on the modeled 25-year flows go up to more than 100% for high flows and more than 150% for low flows. The assessed FDF relationships and accompanied uncertainties are useful for various types of risk based water engineering and water management applications related to floods and droughts.

  8. Temporal Variability and Trends of Rainfall and Streamflow in Tana River Basin, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Kibet Langat


    Full Text Available This study investigated temporal variabilities and trends of rainfall and discharges in Tana River Basin in Kenya using Mann–Kendall non-parametric test. Monthly rainfall data from ten stations spanning from 1967 to 2016 and daily streamflow data time series of observations from 1941 to 2016 (75 years were analyzed with the aim of capturing and detecting multiannual and seasonal variabilities and monotonic trends. The results for the datasets suggested that the streamflow is largely dependent on increasing rainfall at the highlands. The rainfall trends seemed to have been influenced by altitudinal factors. The coefficient of variation of the ten rainfall stations ranged from 12% to 17% but 70% of rainfall stations showed negative monotonic trends and 30% show significant trends. The streamflow showed statistically significant upward monotonic trend and seasonal variability indicating a substantial change in the streamflow regime. Although the increasing trend of the streamflow during this period may not pose future risks and vulnerability of energy and irrigated agricultural production systems across the basin, variability observed indicates the need for enhanced alternative water management strategies during the low flow seasons. The trends and time series data indicate the potential evidence of climate and land use change and their impacts on the availability of water and sustainability of ecology and energy and agricultural production systems across the basin. Variability and trends of rainfall and streamflow are useful for planning studies, hydrological modeling and climate change impacts assessment within Tana River Basin.

  9. Assessment of Wetland Hydrological Dynamics in a Modified Catchment Basin: Case of Lake Buninjon, Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Yihdego, Yohannes; Webb, John A


      The common method to estimate lake levels is the water balance equation, where water input and output result in lake storage and water level changes. However, all water balance components cannot always be quickly assessed, such as due to significant modification of the catchment area. A method that assesses general changes in lake level can be a useful tool in examining why lakes have different lake level variation patterns. Assessment of wetlands using the dynamics of the historical hydrological and hydrogeological data set can provide important insights into variations in wetland levels in different parts of the world. A case study from a saline landscape, Lake Buninjon, Australia, is presented. The aim of the present study was to determine how climate, river regime, and lake hydrological properties independently influence lake water levels and salinity, leaving the discrepancy, for the effect of the non-climatic/catchment modification in the past and the model shows that surface inflow is most sensitive variable. The method, together with the analysis and interpretation, might be of interest to wider community to assess its response to natural/anthropogenic stress and decision choices for its ecological, social, scientific value, and mitigation measures to safe guard the wetland biodiversity in a catchment basin.

  10. Understanding phenology and drought recovery in the Amboseli Basin of Kenya with MODIS Vegetation Indices (United States)

    Williams, R. T.; Geddes, Q. A.; Baker, A.; Gao, M.; Voelker, E.; Oluwakonyinsola, A.


    The Amboseli Conservation Centre (ACC) has been gathering comprehensive field data for 47 years within the Amboseli Basin near Mount Kilimanjaro in Kenya. Over the past half century, the region has suffered from near complete deforestation and continues to suffer from land degradation due to the increasingly sedentary and segregated human and animal concentrations. Overall, Kenya has experienced a loss of over 50% of biodiversity countrywide since 1977. 30% of remaining biodiversity is found in protected areas, which take up only 8% of the country's total land area. The Amboseli National Park has been identified as having the highest level of habitat irreplaceability of all 33 protected areas in the Somali-Masai Ecoregion. The successional cycles between woody vegetation and grassland affect levels of biodiversity in the region, and are largely driven by the grazing and migratory activities of elephants, as well as human land use and land management practices. Understanding the dynamics of land cover change as a continuum is therefore critical to framing conservation objectives. Currently, few land cover classifications derived from remote sensing are consistent with ACC field data, specifically in terms of differentiation between woody versus grassland vegetation. The ACC is interested in refining these distinctions in the Basin and across the Kenya-Tanzania borderlands and identifying which vegetation types are suffering from degradation and where. Therefore, the goal of this project is to 1) establish phenological profiles of differing vegetation in the Kenya-Tanzania borderlands and 2) characterize trends and drought resilience across the landscape. By analyzing MODIS vegetation indices in 8-day time steps from 2002 to 2012, this study establishes phenological profiles of primary vegetation cover classes including woodlands, bushlands, grasslands, and swamps and identifies areas that are drought-resistant or drought-sensitive at a large scale. By enhancing the

  11. Cryogenic brines as diagenetic fluids: Reconstructing the diagenetic history of the Victoria Land Basin using clumped isotopes (United States)

    Staudigel, Philip T.; Murray, Sean; Dunham, Daniel P.; Frank, Tracy D.; Fielding, Christopher R.; Swart, Peter K.


    The isotopic analyses (δ13C, δ18O, and Δ47) of carbonate phases recovered from a core in McMurdo Sound by ANtarctic geologic DRILLing (ANDRILL-2A) indicate that the majority of secondary carbonate mineral formation occurred at cooler temperatures than the modern burial temperature, and in the presence of fluids with δ18Owater values ranging between -11 and -6‰ VSMOW. These fluids are interpreted as being derived from a cryogenic brine formed during the freezing of seawater. The Δ47 values were converted to temperature using an in-house calibration presented in this paper. Measurements of the Δ47 values in the cements indicate increasingly warmer crystallization temperatures with depth and, while roughly parallel to the observed geothermal gradient, consistently translate to temperatures that are cooler than the current burial temperature. The difference in temperature suggests that cements formed when they were ∼260 ± 100 m shallower than at the present day. This depth range corresponds to a period of minimal sediment accumulation from 3 to 11 Myr; it is therefore interpreted that the majority of cements formed during this time. This behavior is also predicted by time-integrated modeling of cementation at this site. If this cementation had occurred in the presence of these fluids, then the cryogenic brines have been a longstanding feature in the Victoria Land Basin. Brines such as those found at this site have been described in numerous modern high-latitude settings, and analogous fluids could have played a role in the diagenetic history of other ice-proximal sediments and basins during glacial intervals throughout geologic history. The agreement between the calculated δ18Owater value and the measured values in the pore fluids shows how the Δ47 proxy can be used to identify the origin of negative δ18O values in carbonate rocks and that extremely negative values do not necessarily need to be a result of the influence of meteoric fluids or reaction at

  12. Pliocene volcano-tectonics and paleogeography of the Turkana Basin, Kenya and Ethiopia (United States)

    Bruhn, Ronald L.; Brown, Francis H.; Gathogo, Patrick N.; Haileab, Bereket


    The distribution of hominin fossil sites in the Turkana Basin, Kenya is intimately linked to the history of the Omo River, which affected the paleogeography and ecology of the basin since the dawn of the Pliocene. We report new geological data concerning the outlet channel of the Omo River between earliest Pliocene and final closure of the Turkana Basin drainage system in the latest Pliocene to earliest Quaternary. Throughout most of the Pliocene the Omo River entered the Turkana Basin from its source in the highlands of Ethiopia and exited the eastern margin of the basin to discharge into the Lamu embayment along the coast of the Indian Ocean. During the earliest Pliocene the river's outlet was located in the northern part of the basin, where a remnant outlet channel is preserved in basalts that pre-date eruption of the Gombe flood basalt between 4.05 and 3.95 Ma. The outlet channel was faulted down to the west prior to 4.05 Ma, forming a natural dam behind which Lake Lonyumun developed. Lake Lonyumun was drained between 3.95 and 3.9 Ma when a new outlet channel formed north of Loiyangalani in the southeastern margin of the Turkana Basin. That outlet was blocked by Lenderit Basalt lava flows between 2.2 and 2.0 Ma. Faulting that initiated either during or shortly after eruption of the Lenderit Basalt closed the depression that is occupied by modern Lake Turkana to sediment and water. Several large shield volcanoes formed east of the Turkana Basin beginning by 2.5-3.0 Ma, volcanism overlapping in time, but probably migrating eastward from Mount Kulal on the eastern edge of the basin to Mount Marsabit located at the eastern edge of the Chalbi Desert. The mass of the volcanic rocks loaded and depressed the lithosphere, enhancing subsidence in a shallow southeast trending depression that overlay the Cretaceous and Paleogene (?) Anza Rift. Subsidence in this flexural depression guided the course of the Omo River towards the Indian Ocean, and also localized

  13. Are Small-Scale Irrigators Water Use Efficient? Evidence from Lake Naivasha Basin, Kenya (United States)

    Njiraini, Georgina W.; Guthiga, Paul M.


    With increasing water scarcity and competing uses and users, water use efficiency is becoming increasingly important in many parts of developing countries. The lake Naivasha basin has an array of different water users and uses ranging from large scale export market agriculture, urban domestic water users to small holder farmers. The small scale farmers are located in the upper catchment areas and form the bulk of the users in terms of area and population. This study used farm household data to explore the overall technical efficiency, irrigation water use efficiency and establish the factors influencing water use efficiency among small scale farmers in the Lake Naivasha basin in Kenya. Data envelopment analysis, general algebraic and modeling system, and Tobit regression methods were used in analyzing cross sectional data from a sample of 201 small scale irrigation farmers in the lake Naivasha basin. The results showed that on average, the farmers achieved only 63 % technical efficiency and 31 % water use efficiency. This revealed that substantial inefficiencies occurred in farming operations among the sampled farmers. To improve water use efficiency, the study recommends that more emphasis be put on orienting farmers toward appropriate choice of irrigation technologies, appropriate choice of crop combinations in their farms, and the attainment of desirable levels of farm fragmentation.

  14. Evolution of the Lake Victoria basin in the context of coeval rift initiation in East Africa: a 3D numerical model approach (United States)

    Wichura, Henry; Quinteros, Javier; Melnick, Daniel; Brune, Sascha; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Strecker, Manfred R.


    Over the last four years sedimentologic and thermochronologic studies in the western and eastern branches of the Cenozoic East African Rift System (EARS) have supported the notion of a broadly contemporaneous onset of normal faulting and rift-basin formation in both segments. These studies support previous interpretations based on geophysical investigations from which an onset of rifting during the Paleogene had been postulated. In light of these studies we explore the evolution of the Lake Victoria basin, a shallow, unfaulted sedimentary basin centered between both branches of the EARS and located in the interior of the East African Plateau (EAP). We quantify the fluvial catchment evolution of the Lake Victoria basin and assess the topographic response of African crust to the onset of rifting in both branches. Furthermore, we evaluate and localize the nature of strain and flexural rift-flank uplift in both branches. We use a 3D numerical forward model that includes nonlinear temperature- and stress-dependent elasto-visco-plastic rheology. The model is able to reproduce the flexural response of variably thick lithosphere to rift-related deformation processes such as lithospheric thinning and asthenospheric upwelling. The model domain covers the entire EAP and integrates extensional processes in a heterogeneous, yet cold and thick cratonic block (Archean Tanzania craton), which is surrounded by mechanically weaker Proterozoic mobile belts, which are characterized by thinner lithosphere ("thin spots"). The lower limits of the craton (170 km) and the mobile belts (120 km) are simulated by different depths of the 1300 °C lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. We assume a constant extension rate of 4 mm/a throughout the entire simulation of 30 Ma and neglect the effect of dynamic topography and magmatism. Even though the model setup is very simple and the resolution is not high enough to calculate realistic rift-flank uplift, it intriguingly reveals important topographic

  15. Holistic view to integrated climate change assessment and extreme weather adaptation in the Lake Victoria Basin East Africa (United States)

    Mutua, F.; Koike, T.


    Extreme weather events have been the leading cause of disasters and damage all over the world.The primary ingredient to these disasters especially floods is rainfall which over the years, despite advances in modeling, computing power and use of new data and technologies, has proven to be difficult to predict. Also, recent climate projections showed a pattern consistent with increase in the intensity and frequency of extreme events in the East African region.We propose a holistic integrated approach to climate change assessment and extreme event adaptation through coupling of analysis techniques, tools and data. The Lake Victoria Basin (LVB) in East Africa supports over three million livelihoods and is a valuable resource to five East African countries as a source of water and means of transport. However, with a Mesoscale weather regime driven by land and lake dynamics,extreme Mesoscale events have been prevalent and the region has been on the receiving end during anomalously wet years in the region. This has resulted in loss of lives, displacements, and food insecurity. In the LVB, the effects of climate change are increasingly being recognized as a significant contributor to poverty, by its linkage to agriculture, food security and water resources. Of particular importance are the likely impacts of climate change in frequency and intensity of extreme events. To tackle this aspect, this study adopted an integrated regional, mesoscale and basin scale approach to climate change assessment. We investigated the projected changes in mean climate over East Africa, diagnosed the signals of climate change in the atmosphere, and transferred this understanding to mesoscale and basin scale. Changes in rainfall were analyzed and similar to the IPCC AR4 report; the selected three General Circulation Models (GCMs) project a wetter East Africa with intermittent dry periods in June-August. Extreme events in the region are projected to increase; with the number of wet days

  16. SUGAR CANE GROWING AND CATTLE GRAZING AS DRIVERS TO WETLAND DEGRADATION IN UGANDA: A case of upper river Ruizi and Iguluibi catchments Lake Victoria basin (United States)

    Nakiyemba Were, Alice; Isabirye, Moses; Mathijs, Erik; Deckers, Jozef; Poesen, Jean


    Introduction: This study was conducted with in the framework of the VLIR-OI project with the aim of making contributions to the Diagnosis and Remediation of Land Degradation Processes in the Riparian Zone of Lake Victoria Uganda in view of reducing sediment pollution of the Lake Waters with a special focus on the upper river Ruiz and Iguluibi catchments. The study seeks to investigate Sugarcane growing and cattle grazing as drivers to wetland degradation in light of the current farming systems and practices and their contributions to land degradation and pollution of the Lake Victoria waters. Vegetation especially wetlands improves the resistance to erosion. The removal of riparian vegetation tends to accelerate surface erosion as a result of human activities. Increased erosion with in the catchments due to clearing of wetlands for sugarcane growing and cattle grazing has caused adverse increased sedimentation, degraded the water quality, and reduced the water productivity of the Lake Victoria Basin. Methods: We conducted a qualitative and quantitative study to investigate Sugarcane growing and cattle grazing as drivers to wetland degradation in Uganda in light of the current farming systems and practices and their socio-economic contributions to wetland degradation and pollution of the Lake Victoria waters. Focus group discussions, key informant interviews, semi structured interviews and observations were undertaken with the relevant stakeholders in the community. Results: Findings reveal that in Iguluibi catchment, sugarcane growing is now a major activity indicating land use change since the 1990s. Community members said when planting sugarcane all vegetations including all trees are cut leaving the land bare to allow the tractor to clear the land for cultivation. This has left the land bare without any natural vegetation with increased erosion hence eventually loss of soil fertility and increased sediment pollution to the Lake Victoria waters. As a result of

  17. Lake Victoria basin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    measured using a portable echo sounder prior to collecting samples. The net was lowered close to the bottom and then slowly hauled to allow the water to be ... counting chamber and examined under the microscope at x 40 magnification. Taxonomic identification was done using. identification keys as adopted by Ruttner-.

  18. Sustainable water use and management options in a water-stressed river basin in Kenya (United States)

    Hirpa, Feyera; Dadson, Simon; Dyer, Ellen; Barbour, Emily; Charles, Katrina; Hope, Robert


    Sustainable water resource is critical for maintaining healthy ecosystems and supporting socio-economic sectors. Hydro-climatic change and variability, population growth as well as new infrastructure developments create water security risks. Therefore, evidence-based management decisions are necessary to improve water security and meet the future water demands of multiple competing sectors. In this work we perform water resource modelling in order to investigate the impact of increasing water demand (expanding agriculture, booming industry, growing population) on the sustainable water use in Turkwel river basin, located in arid north-western Kenya. We test different management options to determine those that meet the water demands of the concerned sectors whilst minimising environmental impact. We perform scenario analysis using Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) model to explore different ranges of climate conditions, population growth rates, irrigation scale, reservoir operations, and economic development. The results can be used as a scientific guideline for the policy makers who decide the alternative management options that ensure the sustainable water use in the basin. The work is part of the REACH - improving water security for the poor program (, aiming to support a pathway to sustainable growth and poverty reduction

  19. Climate-driven lacustrine dynamics from the Early Pleistocene Lorenyang Lake, Turkana Basin, Kenya (United States)

    Joordens, Josephine; Beck, Catherine; Sier, Mark; Van der Lubbe, Jeroen; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Langereis, Cor; Vonhof, Hubert; Cohen, Andy; Olago, Dan; Campisano, Chris; Feibel, Craig


    Two stratigraphic records from Kaitio in West Turkana, Kenya, span 1.87 - 1.34 Ma, and document environmental character and variability through a critical interval for human evolution and cultural development. The WTK13 core collected by the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) recovered 216 m of sediment at 95% recovery. A parallel outcrop record of 180 m was investigated in exposures along the Kaitio laga close to the drill site. Six tephrostratigraphic markers, the Chari, Lokapetamoi, 22Q-3, Etirr, Ebei and KBS Tuffs are present in the outcrop and/or core. These were characterized by single-shard geochemical analysis, and provide links to the well-established tephrochronology of the Turkana Basin. Magnetic polarity stratigraphy of the two records documents the top of the Olduvai Subchron (C2N) at 1.78 Ma. The lithostratigraphic record, bolstered by magnetic susceptibility and sedimentary facies characterization, demonstrates a first-order transition from a deeper lacustrine system to a dynamic lake margin setting, followed by delta progradation. Facies analysis reveals repeated fluctuations of lake level at Milankovitch and sub-Milankovitch scales. Core-outcrop correlation allows detailed comparisons between diagenetically-prone outcrop samples and more pristine samples from the deep core. The excellent preservation of the core sediments makes it possible to obtain critical climate records of organic biomarkers, pollen, phytoliths and other proxies. This detailed archive of environmental variability is closely linked to the rich paleontological and archaeological discoveries from nearby sites and around the Turkana Basin.

  20. Changes in feeding biology of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), after invasion of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, in Lake Victoria, Kenya


    Njiru, M.


    Oreochrimis niloticus (L.) was introduced to Lake victoria in the 1950s. It remained relatively uncommon in catches until 1965, when the numbers began to increase dramatically. It is now the third most important commercial fish species after the Nile perch, Lates niloticus (L.) and Rastrineobola argentea (Pellegrin). Oreochromis niloticus is considered a herbivore, feeding mostly on algae and plant material. The diet now appears to be more diversified , with insects, fish, algae and plant mat...

  1. Spartial and seasonal variations in concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and sediment of Kisumu City bay of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria-Kenya. (United States)

    Kwach, Bowa O; Lalah, Joseph O; Shem, Wandiga O


    Seasonal and offshore concentration variations for selected sixteen priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments and water of Car Wash and Kisat areas of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria, have been investigated. PAHs concentrations in sediments and water range from 0.4 to 31.95 microg/g dry weight and 3.32 to 55.8 microg/L, respectively. Statistical analysis of the PAHs concentrations showed that the most contaminated samples are found during rainy season (April, 2006), 5 m offshore for sediments and 10 m offshore for water. Dry season (October, 2005) generally recorded lower concentrations. The variations showed significant difference (p < or = 0.05) with season and distance of sampling from the shore.

  2. Wetland vegetation and nutrient retention in Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda (United States)

    Mugisha, P.; Kansiime, F.; Mucunguzi, P.; Kateyo, E.

    Wetlands form an important part of the catchment area of the African Great Lakes and protect water resources therein. One of the most important functions is the retention of nutrients from the inflowing water from the catchment, by wetland plants which store them in their phytomass. An assessment of the capacity in storing nutrients by dominant plants ( Cyeprus papyrus, Miscanthus violaceus, Phragmites mauritianus and Colocasia C. esculenta), of Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands at the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda, was studied through the determination of phytomass production and nutrient concentration in the plant parts at different stages of growth. The above ground phytomass production increased rapidly during the exponential growth for C. papyrus and P. mauritianus. In all the dominant plants, nitrogen concentration was highest in juvenile plants and decreased with increasing age. The most pronounced nitrogen level occurred in the young umbels of C. papyrus during the first month of growth with total nitrogen content of 1.95% DW which dropped to 0.62% DW after the fifth month in Nakivubo wetland. Corms (tubers) of yams had the highest nitrogen content in Kirinya and Nakivubo wetlands exhibiting respective values of 4.8% DW and 3.7% DW. There is a close relationship between nutrient content and increase in phytomass. In Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands, the rapid increase in phytomass during the third and fourth month corresponded with high nutrient levels. Since plants store significant amounts of nitrogen during their growth, periodic harvesting of above ground plant parts can remove significant amounts of nutrients (during the first five months of growth) from the wastewater flowing into the two wetlands. Wetland plant species with high phytomass productivity and well developed root systems and ability to withstand flooding are the best in nutrient removal.

  3. China's first intermediate resolution multi-channel seismic survey in the northern Victoria Land Basin and Terror Rift, Ross Sea, Antarctica (United States)

    Shen, Zhongyan; Gao, Jinyao; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Wei; Ding, Weifeng; Zhang, Sheng


    The West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) represents one of the largest active continental rift systems on Earth and is less well known than other rift systems because it is largely covered by thick ice. The Terror Rift (TR), superimposing on the Victoria Land Basin (VLB) in the western Ross Sea, is identified as the most recent deformational zone of the WARS, thus will provide knowledge of the active deformation process of the WARS. The structure and kinematics of the TR is under debate. Originally, the TR was thought to consist of two parts: the Discovery Graben and the magmatically-intruded Lee Arch. New denser seismic grid in the middle and southern segments of the TR revealed a different structure of the Lee Arch while the northern segment of the TR is not well studied. The glacial history of the VLB/TR region is another attractive issue to the geologists since this area records the behavior information of EAIS and WAIS. In the southern part of the VLB, especially in the McMurdo Sound, the framework of the glacial history is well established after several deep cores which recovery the whole stratigraphic sequences since the onset of the glaciation. However, the glacial history of the northern part of the VLB/TR is less well studied and here we emphasize its importance because the northern part of the VLB/TR is a link between the well-studied southern VLB and the sediment-well-preserved Northern Basin. During the 32nd Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition, on the board of the RV XueLong, we collected intermediate resolution multi-channel seismic reflection data in the northern VLB/TR. These data will establish new constraints on the timing of deformation, structure and kinematics of the TR, and the history of the EAIS and WAIS.

  4. Distribution and origin of suspended matter and organic carbon pools in the Tana River Basin, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tamooh


    Full Text Available We studied patterns in organic carbon pools and their origin in the Tana River Basin (Kenya, in February 2008 (dry season, September–November 2009 (wet season, and June–July 2010 (end of wet season, covering the full continuum from headwater streams to lowland mainstream sites. A consistent downstream increase in total suspended matter (TSM, 0.6 to 7058 mg l−1 and particulate organic carbon (POC, 0.23 to 119.8 mg l−1 was observed during all three sampling campaigns, particularly pronounced below 1000 m above sea level, indicating that most particulate matter exported towards the coastal zone originated from the mid and low altitude zones rather than from headwater regions. This indicates that the cascade of hydroelectrical reservoirs act as an extremely efficient particle trap. Although 7Be / 210Pbxs ratios/age of suspended sediment do not show clear seasonal variation, the gradual downstream increase of suspended matter during end of wet season suggests its origin is caused by inputs of older sediments from bank erosion and/or river sediment resuspension. During wet season, higher TSM concentrations correspond with relatively young suspended matter, suggesting a contribution from recently eroded material. With the exception of reservoir waters, POC was predominantly of terrestrial origin as indicated by generally high POC : chlorophyll a (POC : Chl a ratios (up to ~41 000. Stable isotope signatures of POC (δ13CPOC ranged between −32 and −20‰ and increased downstream, reflecting an increasing contribution of C4-derived carbon in combination with an expected shift in δ13C for C3 vegetation towards the more semi-arid lowlands. δ13C values in sediments from the main reservoir (−19.5 to −15.7‰ were higher than those found in any of the riverine samples, indicating selective retention of particles associated with C4

  5. Projecting the future levels of Lake Victoria (United States)

    Vanderkelen, Inne; van Lipzig, Nicole; Thiery, Wim


    Lake Victoria directly sustains 30 million people living in its basin and 200 000 fishermen operating from its shores. As the one of the two sources of the Nile River, it also supports natural resources that impact the livelihood of over 300 million people living in the Nile basin. The outlet to the Nile is controlled by two hydropower dams. The water balance of Lake Victoria is controlled both by climatic conditions (precipitation and evaporation) and human management (dam outflow). Future climate simulations with a high resolution coupled lake-land-atmosphere model project decreasing mean precipitation and increasing evaporation over Lake Victoria. As these two are important factors in the water balance of Lake Victoria, these projected changes may induce a drop in future levels of Lake Victoria. Moreover, as Lake Victoria is also a relatively shallow lake, lake surface area may decrease as well. Here we present a water balance model for Lake Victoria that provides lake level and extent as output. We first force our model with observational input (new satellite products providing high quality precipitation and evaporation data) and evaluate it using measured lake levels. The skill of the model is subsequently assessed by forcing it with present-day regional climate simulations (CORDEX evaluation simulations). In a third step the future lake levels and surface area changes of Lake Victoria are simulated by forcing the model with CORDEX projections under RCP4.5 and 8.5. Finally, the role of human decisions regarding future dam outflow are investigated.

  6. Influence of Plio-Pleistocene aridification on human evolution: evidence from paleosols of the Turkana Basin, Kenya. (United States)

    Wynn, Jonathan Guy


    New stable carbon isotope measurements, coupled with paleoprecipitation estimates, both from Plio-Pleistocene paleosols of the Turkana Basin, Kenya, provide a high-resolution record of aridification and increasing C4 biomass during the past 4.3 Ma. This aridification trend is marked by several punctuations at 3.58-3.35, 2.52-2, and 1.81-1.58 Ma, during which the running mean and variance of delta13C and paleoaridity estimates increase, suggesting that the proportion of C4 biomass increases in savanna mosaics during periods of heightened aridity. Increase in C4 biomass during these aridification events not only increases the proportion of open habitats, but increases the spatial neg-entropy, or heterogeneity of the ecosystem. The aridification events identified correspond to intervals of increased turnover, but more importantly, increased diversity of bovids. Although the record of hominins from the Turkana Basin lacks the temporal resolution and diversity of the bovid record, the aridification intervals identified are marked by similar increases in the diversity and turnover of hominins. These results support the hypothesis that hominins evolved in savanna mosaics that changed through time, and suggest that the evolution of bovids and hominins was driven by shifts in climatic instability and habitat variability, both diachronic and synchronic. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. The fate of organic matter in a papyrus (Cyperus papyrus L.) dominated tropical wetland ecosystem in Nyanza Gulf (Lake Victoria, Kenya) inferred from delta13C and delta15N analysis. (United States)

    Gichuki, John W; Triest, Ludwig; Dehairs, Frank


    Papyrus swamps usually form at the interface between river inlet and open lake. From one such wetland ecosystem (the Kibos system located in the Nyanza Gulf, Lake Victoria, Kenya), three sediment cores were recovered using piston corer in order to determine the fate of organic matter derived from papyrus and possible nutrient pathways in this system. The coring represented a transect from the river through the floating papyrus mat to the lake. Two short cores were retrieved from the lake and river. One long core (2 m) was recovered on a floating papyrus mat. The C:N ratio showed similar trends down core from the three locations. This may possibly be due to diagenic processes such as autolysis, dissolution and microbial mineralisation occurring in the sediments. Statistical analysis through one-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences in the C:N ratios between stations. Results of the stable carbon isotope ratios revealed that the delta(13)C of the river and lake samples were persistently more negative than -20 per thousand over the whole profile indicating possible contribution from terrestrial derived carbon. Regarding the floating mat core, the delta(13)C values ranged from -18.99 per thousand on the top of the floating mat but gradually increased to -16.82 per thousand towards the bottom of the core indicating possible contribution of carbon from Cyperus papyrus that has a delta(13)C value of -13.45+/-0.62 per thousand. Statistical analysis through one-way ANOVA revealed significant differences in the delta(13)C values between stations. The stable nitrogen isotope values were highly positive both in the river and in the lake station (delta(15)N > 10 per thousand), indicating possible contamination from sewage wastes. Values in the swamp were less positive suggesting first, the formation of ammonium depleted in (15)N from intense organic matter mineralisation, secondly indicating the delta(15)N signal of papyrus and, finally that nitrogen fixation processes

  8. The Victoria Project, Sri Lanka. Hydrological analysis for Victoria Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, B.S. [GU Projects (United Kingdom); Sutcliffe, J.V. [Gibb (Sir Alexander) and Partners (United Kingdom); Parks, Y.P. [Institute of Hydrology (United Kingdom)


    The hydrological analyses described in this paper formed an important part of the studies for the Victoria Project of which the Victoria Dam is the major component. The purpose of the hydrological studies was to provide consistent sets of river flow and climate data at the sites of the major components of the project, and to provide flood estimates for sizing the spillway and river diversion works. This paper outlines the approach used in the overall study, and then concentrates on aspects of specific relevance to the Victoria Dam. The main hydrological characteristics of the upper Mahaweli basin are presented as an introduction to the overall water balance; the humid climate made the appraisal of flow records relatively simple. Time series modelling was used to fill gaps in the observed flow records used for reservoir operation studies. The spillway design flood was based on the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) derived by maximizing a historic storm in which rainfall approaching the PMP covered most of the basin. Construction floods of moderate return period were estimated from a dimensionless analysis of regional flood records. The main lessons to be drawn are that water balance methods are of particular value in these humid monsoon conditions, while the ratio of the PMP to the maximum recorded storm is lower than would be the case in more arid regions. (author)

  9. Steady rifting in northern Kenya inferred from deformed Holocene lake shorelines of the Suguta and Turkana basins (United States)

    Melnick, Daniel; Garcin, Yannick; Quinteros, Javier; Strecker, Manfred R.; Olago, Daniel; Tiercelin, Jean-Jacques


    A comparison of deformation rates in active rifts over different temporal scales may help to decipher variations in their structural evolution, controlling mechanisms, and evolution of sedimentary environments through time. Here we use deformed lake shorelines in the Suguta and Turkana basins in northern Kenya as strain markers to estimate deformation rates at the 103-104 yr time scale and compare them with rates spanning 101-107 yr. Both basins are internally drained today, but until 7 to 5 kyr lake levels were 300 and 100 m higher, respectively, maintained by the elevation of overflow sills connecting them with the Nile drainage. Protracted high lake levels resulted in formation of a maximum highstand shoreline — a distinct geomorphic feature virtually continuous for several tens of kilometers. We surveyed the elevation of this geomorphic marker at 45 sites along > 100 km of the rift, and use the overflow sills as vertical datum. Thin-shell elastic and thermomechanical models for this region predict up to ~ 10 m of rapid isostatic rebound associated with lake-level falls lasting until ~ 2 kyr ago. Holocene cumulative throw rates along four rift-normal profiles are 6.8-8.5 mm/yr, or 7.5-9.6 mm/yr if isostatic rebound is considered. Assuming fault dips of 55-65°, inferred from seismic reflection profiles, we obtained extension rates of 3.2-6 mm/yr (including uncertainties in field measurements, fault dips, and ages), or 3.5-6.7 mm/yr considering rebound. Our estimates are consistent, within uncertainties, with extension rates of 4-5.1 mm/yr predicted by a modern plate-kinematic model and plate reconstructions since 3.2 Myr. The Holocene strain rate of 10- 15 s- 1 is similar to estimates on the ~ 106 yr scale, but over an order of magnitude higher than on the ~ 107 yr scale. This is coherent with continuous localization and narrowing of the plate boundary, implying that the lithospheric blocks limiting the Kenya Rift are relatively rigid. Increasing strain rate

  10. Water governance within Kenya's Upper Ewaso Ng'iro Basin: Assessing the performance of water projects (United States)

    McCord, P. F.; Evans, T. P.; Dell'Angelo, J.; Gower, D.; McBride, L.; Caylor, K. K.


    Climate change processes are projected to change the availability and seasonality of streamflow with dramatic implications for irrigated agricultural systems. Within mountain environments, this alteration in water availability may be quite pronounced over a relatively short distance as upstream users with first access to river water directly impact the availability of water to downstream users. Livelihood systems that directly depend on river water for both domestic consumption and practices such as irrigated agriculture are particularly vulnerable. The Mount Kenya region is an exemplary case of a semi-arid upstream-downstream system in which water availability rapidly decreases and directly impacts the livelihoods of river water users existing across this steep environmental gradient. To effectively manage river water within these water-scarce environs, water projects have been established along the major rivers of the Mount Kenya region. These water projects are responsible for managing water within discrete sub-catchments of the region. While water projects develop rules that encourage the responsible use of water and maintenance of the project itself, the efficiency of water allocation to the projects' members remains unclear. This research analyzes water projects from five sub-catchments on the northwest slopes of Mount Kenya. It utilizes data from household surveys and water project management surveys as well as stream gauge data and flow measurements within individual water projects to assess the governance structure and performance of water projects. The performance of water projects is measured through a variety of household level metrics including: farm-level water flow and volume over time, mean and variability in maize yield, per capita crop productivity, household-level satisfaction with water availability, number of days where water volume was insufficient for irrigation, and quantity harvested compared with expected quantity harvested. We present

  11. Stratigraphic context of fossil hominids from the Omo group deposits: northern Turkana Basin, Kenya and Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feibel, C.S.; Brown, F.H.; McDougall, I.


    The chronometric framework developed for Plio-Pleistocene deposits of the northern Turkana Basin is reviewed in light of recent advances in lithostratigraphy, geochemical correlation, paleomagnetic stratigraphy, and isotopic dating. The sequence is tightly controlled by 20 precise ages on volcanic materials. These ages are internally consistent but are at variance with estimates for the boundaries of the magnetic polarity time scale by about 0.07 my. This discrepancy can be only partially resolved at present. Based on the established chronometric framework and stratigraphic sequences, depositional ages can be estimated for significant marker beds. These ages can in turn be used to constrain the 449 hominid specimens thus far reported from the basin. Ages for most hominid specimens can be estimated with a precision of +/- 0.05 my. In addition, the chronometric framework will be applicable to other paleontological collections, archeological excavations, and future discoveries in the basin.

  12. Transactional sex in the fishing communities along Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study describes the nature, context and implications of a unique form of transactional sexual relationships in the fishing communities along Lake Victoria in Kisumu County, Kenya. We conducted 12 focus group discussions and 17 key informant interviews among fishermen, fishmongers and fish transporters in Kisumu.

  13. n-Paraffins in the sediments and in situ fossils of the Lake Turkana Basin, Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abell, P.I.; Margolis, M.J.


    Residual hydrocarbons were extracted from a number of vertebrate fossils and their surrounding sediments collected at six sites in the Plio-Pleistocene sediments of paleo-Lake Turkana in northern Kenya. Gas chromatographic separation of these alkane fractions showed three recognizable suites of hydrocarbons, a C-15 to C-19 group derived from algae, a C-20 to C-30 group with no odd/even preference derived from microbial action on soil organics, and a C-21 to C-35 group with high odd/even preference derived from plant waxes. No alkanes identifiable as being derived from the original animal fats were observed. The plant wax alkanes and microbial hydrocarbons were nearly ubiquitous, in sands, silts, clays and the fossils. The algal hydrocarbons, on the other hand, were found only in the sands and silts. There were no consistent differences between the hydrocarbon content of the fossils and the surrounding sediments. There were great local variations in alkane distribution, but no patterns were discernible. The total hydrocarbon content of these arid region sediments is almost vanishingly small compared to sediments in more temperate climates.

  14. The Pleistocene archaeology and environments of the Wasiriya Beds, Rusinga Island, Kenya. (United States)

    Tryon, Christian A; Tyler Faith, J; Peppe, Daniel J; Fox, David L; McNulty, Kieran P; Jenkins, Kirsten; Dunsworth, Holly; Harcourt-Smith, Will


    Western Kenya is well known for abundant early Miocene hominoid fossils. However, the Wasiriya Beds of Rusinga Island, Kenya, preserve a Pleistocene sedimentary archive with radiocarbon age estimates of >33-45 ka that contains Middle Stone Age artifacts and abundant, well-preserved fossil fauna: a co-occurrence rare in eastern Africa, particularly in the region bounding Lake Victoria. Artifacts and fossils are associated with distal volcanic ash deposits that occur at multiple localities in the Wasiriya Beds, correlated on the basis of geochemical composition as determined by electron probe microanalysis. Sediment lithology and the fossil ungulates suggest a local fluvial system and associated riparian wooded habitat within a predominantly arid grassland setting that differs substantially from the modern environment, where local climate is strongly affected by moisture availability from Lake Victoria. In particular, the presence of oryx (Oryx gazella) and Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) suggest a pre-Last Glacial Maximum expansion of arid grasslands, an environmental reconstruction further supported by the presence of several extinct specialized grazers (Pelorovis antiquus, Megalotragus sp., and a small alcelaphine) that are unknown from Holocene deposits in eastern Africa. The combination of artifacts, a rich fossil fauna, and volcaniclastic sediments makes the Wasiriya Beds a key site for examining the Lake Victoria basin, a biogeographically important area for understanding the diversification and dispersal of Homo sapiens from Africa, whose pre-Last Glacial Maximum history remains poorly understood. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Paleoecological insights from fossil freshwater mollusks of the Kanapoi Formation (Omo-Turkana Basin, Kenya). (United States)

    Van Bocxlaer, Bert


    The Early Pliocene Kanapoi Formation of the Omo-Turkana Basin consists of two fluvial/deltaic sedimentary sequences with an intermediate lacustrine sequence that was deposited in Paleolake Lonyumun, the earliest large lake in the basin. Overall, the geology and vertebrate paleontology of the Kanapoi Formation are well studied, but its freshwater mollusks, despite being a major component of the benthic ecosystem, have not been subjected to in-depth study. Here I present the first treatment of these mollusks, which have been retrieved mainly from the lacustrine but also from the upper fluvial sediments, with a focus on paleoecological implications. Overall, the freshwater mollusk fauna is reasonably diverse and contains the gastropods Bellamya (Viviparidae), Melanoides (Thiaridae), Cleopatra (Paludomidae) and Gabbiella (Bithyniidae), as well as the unionoid bivalves Coelatura, Pseudobovaria (Unionidae), Aspatharia, Iridina (Iridinidae) and Etheria (Etheriidae). Material is typically recrystallized and lithified and its taphonomy suggests deposition in a system with intermediate energy, such as a beach, with post-depositional deformation and abrasion. The mollusk assemblage is indicative of perennial, fresh and well-oxygenated waters in the Kanapoi region. It suggests that Paleolake Lonyumun had largely open shores with limited vegetation and that swampy or ephemeral backwaters were rare. Overall, these findings support earlier paleoecological interpretations based on the fish assemblage of Paleolake Lonyumun at Kanapoi. Moreover, mollusk assemblages from this lake are very similar across the Omo-Turkana Basin (Nachukui, Usno, Mursi and Koobi Fora Formations) suggesting that the lacustrine paleoecological conditions found in the Kanapoi Formation existed throughout the basin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sr isotope stratigraphy and lithogenic grain-size distributions of the Pleistocene Turkana Basin, Kenya (United States)

    Lubbe, J. V. D.; Sier, M.; Feibel, C. S.; Beck, C.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Vonhof, H.; Joordens, J. J.; Cohen, A.; Prins, M. A.; Olago, D.


    The Pleistocene sedimentary infillings of the Turkana basin, a hotspot for early human evolution, document both human evolutionary and climatic events between 2.1-1.4 Ma. During this time interval, several early Homo species inhabited the vicinity of the Lorenyang paleo-lake, which was mainly fed by the Omo River, draining the Ethiopian Highlands. Paleo-Omo discharge could be expected to be modulated by changes in orbital eccentricity, causing wet-dry climate variability at ~20 kyr timescales, superimposed upon a long-term transition to drier conditions. To reconstruct climate and environmental changes during this key period of human evolution, we obtained high-resolution records of strontium (Sr) isotope ratios in lacustrine fossils as well as lithogenic grain-size distributions. High resolution sampling of sediment sequences containing abundant lacustrine fossils was carried out at outcrops situated to the east and the west of the lake. The sequences can be stratigraphically linked by several volcanic tuff layers, as well as paleomagnetic data. The Turkana basin is a half-graben and, as a consequence, the lacustrine sediment sequences along the western margin are relatively more continuous and deposited in a relatively deeper part of the lake, when compared to sequences at the eastern margin, where the paleo-Omo delta was situated. The outcrops to the west of Lake Turkana are situated in close proximity to core WTK13-1A, which was retrieved for the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSDPD), and span approximately the same stratigraphic interval. In this study, we successfully linked the stratigraphies of the sediment core and the outcrops, the latter of which were logged in great detail in the field. In addition, time-synchronous Sr isotope records from both sides of Lake Lorenyang display similar trends in Sr isotope stratigraphy, thereby confirming the lateral correlations. However, large differences in grain-size distribution and accumulation of

  17. Bulinus globosus (Planorbidae; Gastropoda) populations in the Lake Victoria basin and coastal Kenya show extreme nuclear genetic differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyakaana, Silvester; Stothard, J. Russell; Nalugwa, Allen


    . Average observed and expected heterozygosities across loci in each population ranged from 0.13 to 0.69 and from 0.39 to 0.79, respectively. Twenty-five of the seventy-six possible population-locus comparisons significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium proportions after Bonferroni corrections...

  18. Orbital forcing of glacial/interglacial variations in chemical weathering within the White Nile basin: stable-isotope and biomarker evidence from Lakes Victoria and Edward (United States)

    Cockerton, Helen E.; Alayne Street-Perrott, F.; Barker, Philip A.; Leng, Melanie J.; Sloane, Hilary J.; Horstwood, Matthew S. A.; Snelling, Andrea


    The continental Si cycle on Quaternary time scales has been largely neglected. Emphasis has been placed on long-term geochemical processes of silicate-rock weathering and the resulting drawdown of atmospheric CO2, rather than on shorter-term biogenic processes occurring along the land-ocean continuum. Si-accumulating plants (notably tropical rainforest hardwoods, savanna and wetland grasses, and Papyrus) and aquatic organisms (such as diatoms and sponges in lakes, rivers and swamps) have the potential to take up, store and recycle significant amounts of Si, thereby modifying the riverine flux of Si to the oceans, the productivity of siliceous marine organisms and the rate of atmospheric CO2 drawdown on an orbital time scale. The main aim of this study was to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of Si cycling along the Nile system during the last 20ka BP. Utilising sediment cores from Lakes Victoria and Edward, coupled measurements of stable Si and O isotopes on cleaned diatom separates were employed to reconstruct millennial-scale variations in biotic Si cycling and palaeohydrology, respectively. Abundance ratios of lipid biomarkers (n-alkanes) were used to track major changes in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The results have been interpreted in the light of multi-isotope analyses (2H,18O,30Si) of modern water samples collected along the courses of the modern White and Blue Niles during both wet- and dry-season conditions. During drier intervals (the Last Glacial Maximum and the late Holocene: high 18Odiatom), Si cycling was greatly reduced. Diminished vegetation cover, reduced biotic rock weathering, a declining soil stock of amorphous silica (ASi) and decreased runoff resulted in reduced dissolved silica (DSi) supply to the lakes in relation to aquatic demand (high 30Sidiatom). In contrast, enhanced monsoon rainfall (low 18Odiatom) during the early to mid-Holocene promoted a substantial increase in terrestrial biomass within the White Nile headwaters

  19. Discriminating Between Tectonic and Climatic Controls on Early Hominin Paleoenvironments From the Koobi Fora Region, Northeastern Turkana Basin, Kenya: Part II (United States)

    Quinn, R. L.; Lepre, C. J.


    Global climate is often elected as a catalyst for environmental change and used to characterize selective pressures acting on Plio-Pleistocene African hominins. Vrba's Habitat Theory (1992) and Pott's Variability Selection (1998) credit mammalian evolutionary pattern and process to global climate regulated by orbital forcing. Feibel (1999: 276) argues the need for a middle ground, tethering the "global-scale climatic phenomena" to "environmental change, habitat shift, and biotic evolution" and offers the basin as a scale for analysis. Feibel suggests that all basins are not created equal, and will respond to climate change with different sensitivities and thresholds. As such, interpretations of climate proxies must account for differences in basin size, climatic regime(s), topography, geology, and water availability when drawing relationships to global phenomena. Here we examine pedogenic carbonate isotopes (d13C, d18O) from the Plio-Pleistocene Koobi Fora Region to elucidate the differential influences of climate, tectonics, and deposition on ecological factors of early hominin evolution in the northeastern Turkana Basin of Kenya. One of the richest Plio-Pleistocene fossil localities in Africa, Koobi Fora has served as a setting for hominin evolution between 4.0 and 1.0 Ma. Numerous paleosols, stratigraphically controlled by tuffaceous marker beds, are preserved in the Plio-Pleistocene sediments of the Koobi Fora Formation. Cerling and others (1988) and Wynn (2000) conducted isotopic studies of pedogenic carbonates from the Plio-Pleistocene Omo Group deposits of the Turkana Basin. With these data Wynn (2004) demonstrates stepwise d13C shifts over the last 4.0 Ma, with marked events at 2.5 and 1.8 Ma, and interprets increased aridity on a basin scale due to comparable records on the east and west side of present Lake Turkana. In this study, we increased the sample size of the current database and conducted widespread sampling of synchronous lateral horizons in the

  20. Water as a crucial driver in a community's development, elucidating human - water feedbacks in the Upper Ewaso Ngi'ro basin, Kenya (United States)

    Kuil, Linda; McCord, Paul; Evans, Tom; Bloeschl, Guenter


    In Kenya, as in all of East/Southern Africa, agriculture is dominated by smallholder farmers. Small scale farming systems produce a significant amount of food contributing up to 70 % of the world's food need. Thus despite the increase in large-scale farming systems, smallholder farms have a continued role to play in feeding our growing world population. At the same time, farmers are subject to multiple stressors including resource uncertainty and pressure due to population growth threatening the livelihood of these communities. Informed by a rich empirical data set at household level collected in the Upper Ewaso Ngi'ro basin, Kenya in 2013, we take a socio-hydrological approach to improve our understanding of the interplay between water and society in regard to these smallholder systems. Stepwise, we identify the system's main drivers and the community's adaptive responses. We conceptualize the system using the state variables soil moisture (S), wealth (W), memory (M) and crop fraction (C). We find a gradual positive relation between water availability and the proportion of shallow rooted crops. Also, agricultural income is higher for those who cultivate shallow rooted crops, although here the transition is discontinuous. These findings suggest that although water is not a sufficient condition to obtain a better income, it currently seems a necessary feature. One of the goals of Kenyan IWRM water policy is to accomplish an equitable division water in times of scarcity to ensure the sustenance of all people including the most vulnerable. The chance to successfully achieve this goal will greatly increase when farmers that currently depend on the higher water availability to maintain their wealth are, at the same time, able to individually and collectively find ways to improve the efficiency of water use.

  1. Performance of the WRF model to simulate the seasonal and interannual variability of hydrometeorological variables in East Africa: a case study for the Tana River basin in Kenya (United States)

    Kerandi, Noah Misati; Laux, Patrick; Arnault, Joel; Kunstmann, Harald


    This study investigates the ability of the regional climate model Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) in simulating the seasonal and interannual variability of hydrometeorological variables in the Tana River basin (TRB) in Kenya, East Africa. The impact of two different land use classifications, i.e., the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the US Geological Survey (USGS) at two horizontal resolutions (50 and 25 km) is investigated. Simulated precipitation and temperature for the period 2011-2014 are compared with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Climate Research Unit (CRU), and station data. The ability of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Climate Research Unit (CRU) data in reproducing in situ observation in the TRB is analyzed. All considered WRF simulations capture well the annual as well as the interannual and spatial distribution of precipitation in the TRB according to station data and the TRMM estimates. Our results demonstrate that the increase of horizontal resolution from 50 to 25 km, together with the use of the MODIS land use classification, significantly improves the precipitation results. In the case of temperature, spatial patterns and seasonal cycle are well reproduced, although there is a systematic cold bias with respect to both station and CRU data. Our results contribute to the identification of suitable and regionally adapted regional climate models (RCMs) for East Africa.

  2. Cross-cutting Ties and Coexistence: Intermarriage, Land Rentals and Changing Land Use Patterns among Maasai and Kikuyu of Maiella and Enoosupukia, Lake Naivasha Basin, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Mutisya Kioko


    Full Text Available This paper explores the value of cross-cutting ties and conflicting loyalties for the peaceful management of conflicts and the emergence of collective action across previously violently contested community boundaries in two communities in the Lake Naivasha Basin, Kenya. In the researched communities cross-cutting ties result from intermarriages, land rentals and friendship. Fieldwork was conducted in six neighbouring villages on the border between Nakuru and Narok Counties in 2013 and early 2014. Half of these villages fall within the Maiella Sub-location and the other half within Enoosupukia Location. Enoosupukia, especially, has become notorious in the history of ethnicised violence in Kenya’s Rift Valley. In October 1993 more than 20 farmers of Kikuyu descent were killed in an organised assault perpetrated by hundreds of Maasai vigilantes with the assistance of game wardens and administration police; later thousands of farmers were evicted from the area at the instigation of leading local politicians. Nowadays, intercommunity relations between Maasai and Kikuyu are surprisingly peaceful and the cooperative use of natural resources is the rule rather than the exception. How did formerly violent conflicts develop into peaceful relations? How did competition turn into cooperation facilitating changing land use? In this paper we explore the role of cross-cutting ties and the conflicting loyalties associated with them to explain changing community relations.

  3. victoria cross awards warrants concerning the victoria cross (1920)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. In the military history of both the British Empire and of the Western World, the highest British military decoration, namely the Victoria Cross, has attained con- siderable renown. The Victoria Cross was introduced in terms of the Royal Warrant of 29 January,. 1856 and by 1957 a total of 1346 had been ...

  4. Hydrological modelling of the Mara River Basin, Kenya: Dealing with uncertain data quality and calibrating using river stage (United States)

    Hulsman, P.; Bogaard, T.; Savenije, H. H. G.


    In hydrology and water resources management, discharge is the main time series for model calibration. Rating curves are needed to derive discharge from continuously measured water levels. However, assuring their quality is demanding due to dynamic changes and problems in accurately deriving discharge at high flows. This is valid everywhere, but even more in African socio-economic context. To cope with these uncertainties, this study proposes to use water levels instead of discharge data for calibration. Also uncertainties in rainfall measurements, especially the spatial heterogeneity needs to be considered. In this study, the semi-distributed rainfall runoff model FLEX-Topo was applied to the Mara River Basin. In this model seven sub-basins were distinguished and four hydrological response units with each a unique model structure based on the expected dominant flow processes. Parameter and process constrains were applied to exclude unrealistic results. To calibrate the model, the water levels were back-calculated from modelled discharges, using cross-section data and the Strickler formula calibrating parameter `k•s1/2', and compared to measured water levels. The model simulated the water depths well for the entire basin and the Nyangores sub-basin in the north. However, the calibrated and observed rating curves differed significantly at the basin outlet, probably due to uncertainties in the measured discharge, but at Nyangores they were almost identical. To assess the effect of rainfall uncertainties on the hydrological model, the representative rainfall in each sub-basin was estimated with three different methods: 1) single station, 2) average precipitation, 3) areal sub-division using Thiessen polygons. All three methods gave on average similar results, but method 1 resulted in more flashy responses, method 2 dampened the water levels due to averaging the rainfall and method 3 was a combination of both. In conclusion, in the case of unreliable rating curves

  5. Analysis of spatio-temporal land cover changes for hydrological impact assessment within the Nyando River Basin of Kenya. (United States)

    Olang, Luke Omondi; Kundu, Peter; Bauer, Thomas; Fürst, Josef


    The spatio-temporal changes in the land cover states of the Nyando Basin were investigated for auxiliary hydrological impact assessment. The predominant land cover types whose conversions could influence the hydrological response of the region were selected. Six Landsat images for 1973, 1986, and 2000 were processed to discern the changes based on a methodology that employs a hybrid of supervised and unsupervised classification schemes. The accuracy of the classifications were assessed using reference datasets processed in a GIS with the help of ground-based information obtained through participatory mapping techniques. To assess the possible hydrological effect of the detected changes during storm events, a physically based lumped approach for infiltration loss estimation was employed within five selected sub-basins. The results obtained indicated that forests in the basin declined by 20% while agricultural fields expanded by 16% during the entire period of study. Apparent from the land cover conversion matrices was that the majority of the forest decline was a consequence of agricultural expansion. The model results revealed decreased infiltration amounts by between 6% and 15%. The headwater regions with the vast deforestation were noted to be more vulnerable to the land cover change effects. Despite the haphazard land use patterns and uncertainties related to poor data quality for environmental monitoring and assessment, the study exposed the vast degradation and hence the need for sustainable land use planning for enhanced catchment management purposes.

  6. Annoted checklist of the freshwater fishes of Kenya (excluding the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A checklist of the freshwater fishes of Kenya is presented. Pending more accurate information on their status, the lacustrine Lake Victoria haplochromines have been omitted from the list. Currently 206 species belonging to 38 families are known from Kenyan fresh waters. With at least 50 species, Cyprinidae are by far the ...

  7. Kenya | Page 39 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Research on Business Process Outsourcing. Langue English. Read more about Recherche sur l'impartition des processus administratifs. Langue French. Read more about Integrated Water, Sanitation and Solid Waste Management in Small Urban Centres around Lake Victoria (Kenya). Langue English.

  8. Balancing ecosystem services with energy and food security - Assessing trade-offs from reservoir operation and irrigation investments in Kenya's Tana Basin (United States)

    Hurford, A. P.; Harou, J. J.


    Competition for water between key economic sectors and the environment means agreeing allocations is challenging. Managing releases from the three major dams in Kenya's Tana River basin with its 4.4 million inhabitants, 567 MW of installed hydropower capacity, 33 000 ha of irrigation and ecologically important wetlands and forests is a pertinent example. This research seeks firstly to identify and help decision-makers visualise reservoir management strategies which result in the best possible (Pareto-optimal) allocation of benefits between sectors. Secondly, it seeks to show how trade-offs between achievable benefits shift with the implementation of proposed new rice, cotton and biofuel irrigation projects. To approximate the Pareto-optimal trade-offs we link a water resources management simulation model to a multi-criteria search algorithm. The decisions or "levers" of the management problem are volume-dependent release rules for the three major dams and extent of investment in new irrigation schemes. These decisions are optimised for eight objectives covering the provision of water supply and irrigation, energy generation and maintenance of ecosystem services. Trade-off plots allow decision-makers to assess multi-reservoir rule-sets and irrigation investment options by visualising their impacts on different beneficiaries. Results quantify how economic gains from proposed irrigation schemes trade-off against the disturbance of ecosystems and local livelihoods that depend on them. Full implementation of the proposed schemes is shown to come at a high environmental and social cost. The clarity and comprehensiveness of "best-case" trade-off analysis is a useful vantage point from which to tackle the interdependence and complexity of "water-energy-food nexus" resource security issues.

  9. Balancing ecosystem services with energy and food security - assessing trade-offs for reservoir operation and irrigation investment in Kenya's Tana basin (United States)

    Hurford, A. P.; Harou, J. J.


    Competition for water between key economic sectors and the environment means agreeing on allocation is challenging. Managing releases from the three major dams in Kenya's Tana River basin with its 4.4 million inhabitants, 567 MW of installed hydropower capacity, 33 000 ha of irrigation and ecologically important wetlands and forests is a pertinent example. This research seeks to identify and help decision-makers visualise reservoir management strategies which result in the best possible (Pareto-optimal) allocation of benefits between sectors. Secondly we seek to show how trade-offs between achievable benefits shift with the implementation of new proposed rice, cotton and biofuel irrigation projects. To identify the Pareto-optimal trade-offs we link a water resources management model to a multi-criteria search algorithm. The decisions or "levers" of the management problem are volume dependent release rules for the three major dams and extent of investment in new irrigation schemes. These decisions are optimised for objectives covering provision of water supply and irrigation, energy generation and maintenance of ecosystem services which underpin tourism and local livelihoods. Visual analytic plots allow decision makers to assess multi-reservoir rule-sets by understanding their impacts on different beneficiaries. Results quantify how economic gains from proposed irrigation schemes trade-off against disturbance of the flow regime which supports ecosystem services. Full implementation of the proposed schemes is shown to be Pareto-optimal, but at high environmental and social cost. The clarity and comprehensiveness of "best-case" trade-off analysis is a useful vantage point from which to tackle the interdependence and complexity of water-energy-food "nexus" challenges.

  10. within the lake victoria basin, tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriate pollution control measures should be taken though levels encountered are still within those recommended in the Tanzania Water Utilization (Control and Regulation). Amendment Act of1981 for receiving waters. ..... these vulnerable water bodies. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. The author would like to thank the ...

  11. [The epilepsy of Guadalupe Victoria]. (United States)

    Soto-Pérez-de-Celis, Enrique


    Guadalupe Victoria, the first President of Mexico, passed away in 1843 uictim of an ailment that, at the time, was diagnosed as epilepsy. The clinical data and the pathologic findings, however, suggest the possibility that Victoria had an underlying disease that was responsible for the seizures that affected him. In this article I propose that Guadalupe Victoria had in fact Chagas Disease, and that he was infected with this parasitic malady while he lived in the tropical jungles of Veracruz, in eastern Mexico. Even though there aren't many published works regarding seizures secondary to chronic Chagas Disease, there are good descriptions of epileptic syndromes in patients with this infection. At the same time, the cardiac findings in Victoria's autopsy support the idea that he had some kind of cardiac pathology; in this case Chagasic dilated cardiomyopathy, which ultimately led to his death.

  12. VICTORIA'S SECRET Prepares for Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jordan K Speer


      After the upcoming holiday season, Victoria's Secret will take the first steps toward launching its e-commerce business on a cross-channel on-demand platform from partner n2N Commerce, a company...

  13. An Integrated Hydrological and Water Management Study of the Entire Nile River System - Lake Victoria to Nile Delta (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Alo, Clement; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Anderson, Martha; Policelli, Fritz


    The Nile basin River system spans 3 million km(exp 2) distributed over ten nations. The eight upstream riparian nations, Ethiopia, Eretria, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Congo, Tanzania and Kenya are the source of approximately 86% of the water inputs to the Nile, while the two downstream riparian countries Sudan and Egypt, presently rely on the river's flow for most of the their needs. Both climate and agriculture contribute to the complicated nature of Nile River management: precipitation in the headwaters regions of Ethiopia and Lake Victoria is variable on a seasonal and inter-annual basis, while demand for irrigation water in the arid downstream region is consistently high. The Nile is, perhaps, one of the most difficult trans-boundary water issue in the world, and this study would be the first initiative to combine NASA satellite observations with the hydrologic models study the overall water balance in a to comprehensive manner. The cornerstone application of NASA's Earth Science Research Results under this project are the NASA Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) and the USDA Atmosphere-land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model. These two complementary research results are methodologically independent methods for using NASA observations to support water resource analysis in data poor regions. Where an LDAS uses multiple sources of satellite data to inform prognostic simulations of hydrological process, ALEXI diagnoses evapotranspiration and water stress on the basis of thermal infrared satellite imagery. Specifically, this work integrates NASA Land Data Assimilation systems into the water management decision support systems that member countries of the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) and Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD, located in Nairobi, Kenya) use in water resource analysis, agricultural planning, and acute drought response to support sustainable development of Nile Basin water resources. The project is motivated by the recognition that

  14. Special Issue on Lake Victoria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diversity of benthic mollusks of Lake Victoria and Lake Burigi · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JA Mwambungu, 21-32. ...

  15. Kenya Veterinarian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal accepts articles and reports in the areas of Anatomy and Histology, Animal Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Animal Sciences, Pathology and Microbiology, Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology Food Animal Practice, Companion Animal Practice as well as Wildlife Sciences in Kenya, East ...

  16. An inter-basinal comparison of the sedimentology of Late Holocene to recent sediments in the Rift Valley, Lake Turkana, Kenya (United States)

    Olago, D. O.; Odada, E. O.


    Grain size variations, sediment chemistry and general mineralogical assemblages of sediments in Lake Turkana reflect provenance. Allogenic sediments in Lake Turkana are mainly supplied by the Omo and Kerio-Turkwel Rivers. Minor inputs are from seasonal streams and strong southeasterly winds. The depth profiles of the grain size distributions in lake sediment cores exhibit enantiomorphism, which is interpreted as being diagnostic both of shifts in the equilibrium energy regime of the transporting media and of the dominant provenance of particular size grades within the specific basins of the lake. The North Sub-basin is dominated by fine-grained sediments, which reflect the texture of the volcanic rocks of the Omo River drainage basin. The Central Sub-basin sediments reflect, as sources, the coarser metamorphic terrane of the Kerio-Turkwel Rivers drainage basin. Kaolinite and fine-grained iron oxides are brought into the lake mainly by the two large fluvial input systems: the Omo River in the North Sub-basin and the Kerio-Turkwel Rivers in the Central Sub-basin. Some fine-grained overflow of this material makes its way into the South Sub-basin. Illite in the North and Central Sub-basins is strongly related to transport of material from near-shore sediments and, in the Central Sub-basin and northern reaches of the South Sub-basin, from the Kerio and Turkwel Rivers input. Smectite and calcite are mainly authigenic. In the South Sub-basin, however, the relatively coarser detrital particles are derived from silt and sand-sized in situ biogenic (calcitic and siliceous) debris and ˦olian-transported particles from regions southeast of the lake. The ˦olian fraction accounts largely for the ubiquitous and distinct very fine sand size grade, and consists of quartz, feldspar and blue-green amphiboles.

  17. Characterization and ecological aspects of rice yellow mottle virus in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, W.


    Rice yellow mottle virus(RYMV)is the causal pathogen of yellow mottle of rice in the area around Kisumu near Lake Victoria in Kenya. Affected plants show a yellow or orange discolouration of the leaves, reduced tillering and stunting of the plants, and sterility of the

  18. Plio-Pleistocene facies environments from the KBS Member, Koobi Fora Formation: implications for climate controls on the development of lake-margin hominin habitats in the northeast Turkana Basin (northwest Kenya). (United States)

    Lepre, Christopher J; Quinn, Rhonda L; Joordens, Josephine C A; Swisher, Carl C; Feibel, Craig S


    Climate change is hypothesized as a cause of major events of Plio-Pleistocene East African hominin evolution, but the vertically discontinuous and laterally confined nature of the relevant geological records has led to difficulties with assessing probable links between the two. High-resolution sedimentary sequences from lacustrine settings can provide comprehensive data of environmental changes and detailed correlations with well-established orbital and marine records of climate. Hominin-bearing deposits from Koobi Fora Ridge localities in the northeast Turkana Basin of Kenya are an archive of Plio-Pleistocene lake-margin sedimentation though significant developmental junctures of northern African climates, East African environments, and hominin evolution. This study examines alluvial channel and floodplain, nearshore lacustrine, and offshore lacustrine facies environments for the approximately 136-m-thick KBS Member (Koobi Fora Formation) exposed at the Koobi Fora Ridge. Aspects of the facies environments record information on the changing hydrosedimentary dynamics of the lake margin and give insights into potential climatic controls. Seasonal/yearly climate changes are represented by the varve-like laminations in offshore mudstones and the slickensides, dish-shaped fractures, and other paleosol features overprinted on floodplain strata. Vertical shifts between facies environments, however, are interpreted to indicate lake-level fluctuations deriving from longer-term, dry-wet periods in monsoonal rainfall. Recurrence periods for the inferred lake-level changes range from about 10,000 to 50,000 years, and several are consistent with the average estimated timescales of orbital precession ( approximately 20,000 years) and obliquity ( approximately 40,000 years). KBS Member facies environments from the Koobi Fora Ridge document the development of lake-margin hominin habitats in the northeast Turkana Basin. Environmental changes in these habitats may be a result of

  19. Modeling the impact of development and management options on future water resource use in the Nyangores sub-catchment of the Mara Basin in Kenya (United States)

    Omonge, Paul; Herrnegger, Mathew; Fürst, Josef; Olang, Luke


    Despite the increasing water insecurity consequent of competing uses, the Nyangores sub-catchment of Kenya is yet to develop an inclusive water use and allocation plan for its water resource systems. As a step towards achieving this, this contribution employed the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) system to evaluate selected policy based water development and management options for future planning purposes. Major water resources of the region were mapped and quantified to establish the current demand versus supply status. To define a reference scenario for subsequent model projections, additional data on urban and rural water consumption, water demand for crop types, daily water use for existing factories and industries were also collated through a rigorous fieldwork procedure. The model was calibrated using the parameter estimation tool (PEST) and validated against observed streamflow data, and subsequently used to simulate feasible management options. Due to lack of up-to-date data for the current year, the year 2000 was selected as the base year for the scenario simulations up to the year 2030, which has been set by the country for realizing most flagship development projects. From the results obtained, the current annual water demand within the sub-catchment is estimated to be around 27.2 million m3 of which 24% is being met through improved and protected water sources including springs, wells and boreholes, while 76% is met through informal and unprotected sources which are insufficient to cater for future increases in demand. Under the reference scenario, the WEAP model predicted an annual total inadequate supply of 8.1 million m3 mostly in the dry season by the year 2030. The current annual unmet water demand is 1.3 million m3 and is noteworthy in the dry seasons of December through February at the irrigation demand site. The monthly unmet domestic demand under High Population Growth (HPG) was projected to be 1.06 million m3 by the year 2030. However

  20. Land use and climate change impacts on the hydrology of the upper Mara River Basin, Kenya: results of a modeling study to support better resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Mango


    Full Text Available Some of the most valued natural and cultural landscapes on Earth lie in river basins that are poorly gauged and have incomplete historical climate and runoff records. The Mara River Basin of East Africa is such a basin. It hosts the internationally renowned Mara-Serengeti landscape as well as a rich mixture of indigenous cultures. The Mara River is the sole source of surface water to the landscape during the dry season and periods of drought. During recent years, the flow of the Mara River has become increasingly erratic, especially in the upper reaches, and resource managers are hampered by a lack of understanding of the relative influence of different sources of flow alteration. Uncertainties about the impacts of future climate change compound the challenges. We applied the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT to investigate the response of the headwater hydrology of the Mara River to scenarios of continued land use change and projected climate change. Under the data-scarce conditions of the basin, model performance was improved using satellite-based estimated rainfall data, which may also improve the usefulness of runoff models in other parts of East Africa. The results of the analysis indicate that any further conversion of forests to agriculture and grassland in the basin headwaters is likely to reduce dry season flows and increase peak flows, leading to greater water scarcity at critical times of the year and exacerbating erosion on hillslopes. Most climate change projections for the region call for modest and seasonally variable increases in precipitation (5–10 % accompanied by increases in temperature (2.5–3.5 °C. Simulated runoff responses to climate change scenarios were non-linear and suggest the basin is highly vulnerable under low (−3 % and high (+25 % extremes of projected precipitation changes, but under median projections (+7 % there is little impact on annual water yields or mean discharge. Modest increases in precipitation

  1. Spiraal : uus Victoria & Alberti muuseum Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Daniel Libeskindi projekt Victoria & Alberti Muuseumi laiendamiseks on põhjustanud konservatiivsete londonlaste pahameele, kuid kutsunud esile ka hulgaliselt toetusavaldusi. Muuseumi uus osa (kokkuvarisemise piiril näiva ehitisena) peaks külastajaile avatama 2004. a.

  2. Impacts of changing water price and availability on irrigated dairy farms in northern Victoria


    Ho, Christie K.M.; Armstrong, Dan P.; Doyle, Peter T.; Malcolm, Bill


    Farming systems throughout the Murray-Darling Basin are under increasing scrutiny from the perspective of ecological sustainability of farm and catchment systems. In northern Victoria, the dairy industry is a major user of water, and contributes to the environmental issues. Changes in irrigation water price, availability and policy will invariably impact on the viability of dairy farming in this region, but the diversity of dairy farm systems suggests that the impact will vary between farms. ...

  3. The Victoria Project, Sri Lanka: Victoria Power-Station. [Hydroelectric power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creber, B. (Sir Alexander Gibb and Partners (GB))


    The Victoria Hydroelectric Power-Station forms part of the Victoria Project on the Mahaweli Ganga in Sri Lanka and it provides the country's largest single power source. The Paper describes the planning, design and construction of the civil engineering works, including problems encountered, and also describes, in outline, the electrical and mechanical works. (Author).

  4. total mercury concentration in common fish species of lake victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total mercury (THg) concentration was analysed in muscles of common fish species of Lake. Victoria in the eastern and southern parts of the lake using cold vapour Atomic Absorption. Spectrophotometric ... INTRODUCTION. The Lake Victoria ...

  5. Employment Challenges in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    To reverse the trend in slow employment growth, Kenya must focus on ensuring high and sustained economic growth. .... (KYEP), Youth. Employment Scheme Abroad (YESA) and Women Enterprise Fund (WEF). ..... This study undertakes a simple extrapolation exercise to examine Kenya's employment challenge over the ...

  6. Orthopaedic training in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Orthopaedic training in Kenya, like in other East, central and southern Africa college of surgeons (cOsEcsA) countries is varied leading to specialists with varying exposures and competencies. the experience in Kenya is used here to study the problem, point out the shortcomings and suggest possible remedies ...

  7. Archives: Kenya Veterinarian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 21 of 21 ... Archives: Kenya Veterinarian. Journal Home > Archives: Kenya Veterinarian. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 21 of 21 Items. 2014. Vol 38, No ...

  8. All projects related to kenya | Page 15 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Project. Lake Naivasha basin located in the Great Rift Valley in Kenya is the site of increasing economic activity, especially floriculture. Start Date: November 5, 2009. End Date: October 26, 2013. Topic: PESTICIDE RESIDUES, WATER POLLUTION, HEALTH HAZARDS, HEALTH SURVEYS, ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, ...

  9. Seabed surveys of Victoria harbour, Mahe, Seychelles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Wagle, B.G.

    The seabed surveys in the Victoria Harbour, Mahe, Seychelles shows that the prominent feature is the navigational channel aligned in the northeast-southwest direction with a width varying from 300 to 450m. The depth in the channel ranges from 14...

  10. Geography and Geographical Education in Victoria (United States)

    Kriewaldt, Jeana


    Victoria has just emerged from 10 years where Geography has been one of three strands in the key learning area of Studies of Society and Environment (SOSE). The overarching framework emerged from an attempt to develop a national curriculum. Whilst the national curriculum was rejected by Australian state and territories who each hold legislative…

  11. D Digital Cadastre Journey in Victoria, Australia (United States)

    Shojaei, D.; Olfat, H.; Briffa, M.; Rajabifard, A.


    Land development processes today have an increasing demand to access three-dimensional (3D) spatial information. Complex land development may need to have a 3D model and require some functions which are only possible using 3D data. Accordingly, the Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM), as a national body in Australia provides leadership, coordination and standards for surveying, mapping and national datasets has developed the Cadastre 2034 strategy in 2014. This strategy has a vision to develop a cadastral system that enables people to readily and confidently identify the location and extent of all rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to land and real property. In 2014, the land authority in the state of Victoria, Australia, namely Land Use Victoria (LUV), has entered the challenging area of designing and implementing a 3D digital cadastre focused on providing more efficient and effective services to the land and property industry. LUV has been following the ICSM 2034 strategy which requires developing various policies, standards, infrastructures, and tools. Over the past three years, LUV has mainly focused on investigating the technical aspect of a 3D digital cadastre. This paper provides an overview of the 3D digital cadastre investigation progress in Victoria and discusses the challenges that the team faced during this journey. It also addresses the future path to develop an integrated 3D digital cadastre in Victoria.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Seventeen species of parasites were recovered from 107 I Clarias gariepinus examined flom the. Mwanza Gulf of Lake Victoria. The parasite fauna comprised of four ectoparasites, a. Monogenea, Hirudinea, crustacean and a Digenea,' and fourteen endoparasites, five nematodes,. five trematodes and three ...

  13. Mathematical Problems in Biology : Victoria Conference

    CERN Document Server


    A conference on "Some Mathematical Problems in Biology" was held at the University of Victoria, Victoria, B. C. , Canada, from May 7 - 10, 1973. The participants and invited speakers were mathematicians interested in problems of a biological nature, and scientists actively engaged in developing mathematical models in biological fields. One aim of the conference was to attempt to assess what the recent rapid growth of mathematical interaction with the biosciences has accomplished and may accomplish in the near future. The conference also aimed to expose the problems of communication bet~",een mathematicians and biological scientists, and in doing so to stimulate the interchange of ideas. It was recognised that the topic spans an enormous breadth, and little attempt was made to balance the very diverse areas. Widespread active interest was shown in the conference, and just over one hundred people registered. The varied departments and institutions across North America from which the participants came made it bo...

  14. Pancam Peek into 'Victoria Crater' (Stereo) (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08776 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08776 A drive of about 60 meters (about 200 feet) on the 943rd Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's exploration of Mars' Meridiani Planum region (Sept. 18, 2006) brought the NASA rover to within about 50 meters (about 160 feet) of the rim of 'Victoria Crater.' This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months. Opportunity reached a location from which the cameras on top of the rover's mast could begin to see into the interior of Victoria. This stereo anaglyph was made from frames taken on sol 943 by the panoramic camera (Pancam) to offer a three-dimensional view when seen through red-blue glasses. It shows the upper portion of interior crater walls facing toward Opportunity from up to about 850 meters (half a mile) away. The amount of vertical relief visible at the top of the interior walls from this angle is about 15 meters (about 50 feet). The exposures were taken through a Pancam filter selecting wavelengths centered on 750 nanometers. Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is the expectation that a thick stack of geological layers will be exposed in the crater walls, potentially several times the thickness that was previously studied at Endurance and therefore, potentially preserving several times the historical record.

  15. Implementation of the victoria bowel performance scale. (United States)

    Hawley, Philippa; Barwich, Doris; Kirk, Lisa


    There is a lack of evidence to guide constipation management in patients receiving palliative care. Data collection requires the systematic use of validated assessment tools. The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of the Victoria Bowel Performance Scale (BPS) as an audit tool. Charts were reviewed before and after the implementation of a program to monitor constipation through repeated use of the Victoria Bowel Scale. The program was initiated at three oncology pain and symptom management clinics, four palliative care units, and four residential hospices. An additional "control" palliative care unit introduced new nursing assessment tools without the new scale. The Victoria BPS was recorded at 86% of 192 postimplementation outpatient clinic visits and was easy to use in this setting. Documentation of bowel performance at comparable visits improved from 44% to 66% (Passessment tool, uniquely incorporating the patient's usual bowel function. Modifications to the scale have been made to improve clarity and allow for the expected drop in bowel activity seen in end-of-life care. Considerable educational effort and appropriate organization of the charts are required for optimal implementation. The proportion of revised BPS scores ranging from -1 to +1 is proposed as an indicator of satisfactory bowel management for clinical, audit, and research purposes. Copyright © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lake Victoria water resources management challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... more sustainable and equitable framework governing management measures capable of meeting the needs of riparian states and ensuring sustainability within the basin is highlighted. Keywords: biodiversity loss; East Africa; eutrophication; heavy metal pollution; international treaties; Nile Basin; shared water resources

  17. Candaciidae) off the Kenya Coast

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute, KMFRI, P. 0. Box 81651 ... Paracandacia (family Candaciidae) within the inshore, shelf and offshore waters of the Kenya coast are ... Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, United Kingdom and the ...

  18. Structural style of the Turkana Rift, Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkelman, T.J.; Karson, J.A.; Rosendahl, B.R.


    Multifold seismic reflection and geologic mapping in part of the eastern branch of the East African Rift system of northern Kenya reveal a major rift structure containing at least 3 km of Neogene sediment fill beneath Lake Turkana. This includes a series of half-graben basins, with centrally located quaternary volcanic centers, which are linked end-to-end by structural accommodation zones. Whereas the geometry of rifting is similar to that of the nonvolcanic western branch of the East African Rift system, the Turkana half-grabens are much smaller and may reflect extension of a thinner lithosphere or development of more closely spaced fracture patterns during rift evolution, or both.

  19. Recent reduction in the water level of Lake Victoria has created more habitats for Anopheles funestus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futami Kyoko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The water level of Lake Victoria has fallen more than 1.5 m since 1998, revealing a narrow strip of land along the shore. This study determined whether the recent drop in the water level has created additional breeding grounds for malaria vectors. Methods The recent and past shorelines were estimated using landmarks and a satellite image. The locations of breeding habitats were recorded using a GPS unit during the high and low lake water periods. GIS was used to determine whether the breeding habitats were located on newly emerged land between the new and old shorelines. Results Over half of the breeding habitats existed on newly emerged land. Fewer habitats for the Anopheles gambiae complex were found during the low water level period compared to the high water period. However, more habitats for Anopheles funestus were found during the high water level period, and they were all located on the newly emerged land. Conclusion The recent reduction in water level of Lake Victoria has increased the amount of available habitat for A. funestus. The results suggest that the water drop has substantially affected the population of this malaria vector in the Lake Victoria basin, particularly because the lake has a long shoreline that may harbour many new breeding habitats.

  20. Urban eutrophication and its spurring conditions in the Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria. (United States)

    Kabenge, Martin; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Fengting


    The efficiency of Lake Victoria in providing its ecosystem services to riparian states, both immediate and along the Nile river basin, is strongly related to its water quality. Over the past few decades, eutrophication has increased in the lake arising from increased inflow of nutrients. This study was carried out in the Murchison Bay area of Lake Victoria with the aims of assessing the progress of eutrophication nutrient enrichment into the lake between 1990 and 2014. Using Landsat satellite floating algae index (FAI) products and data from laboratory analysis of water samples, the study revealed that floating algae reoccurred periodically with coverage varying between 1 and 18 km(2). The findings also indicated that the range of nitrate-nitrogen concentrations increased greatly with maximum concentrations recorded at 31.2 mg l(-1) in 2007 from 0.084 mg l(-1) in 1990. The soluble reactive phosphorus concentration range showed a maximum of 1.45 mg l(-1) in 2007 from 0.043 mg l(-1) in 1990. The chlorophyll levels increased from an average of 17 μg l(-1) in 1992 by threefold in 1996 but had however declined and halved in intensity by 2011. The eutrophication that has occurred in Lake Victoria over the past decades has been due to pollution from industrial, residential, and agricultural areas within the catchment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Ochieng OGELLO


    Full Text Available Lake Victoria is the largest among the African Great Lakes in East African region that are believed to have both dynamic and fragile aquatic ecosystems. Within two decades, the lake has experienced extensive resource exploitation leading to constrained productivity and drastic decline of native biodiversity. Intensive non-selective fishing, catchment vegetation degradation, industrial and agricultural pollution, the introduction of exotic species and uneven patchwork of governmental laws are some of the reasons for the current ecological woes facing Lake Victoria. This paper intends to stimulate recognition of Lake Victoria and its catchment as a lived Com­mons, to be shared, protected, managed and enjoyed by all who live around it. The paper compares the original biodiversity status of the lake with the current status and discusses the role of unlimited access as a function of the loss of the Lake’s biological wealth. The Lake’s water resource base, fishery, wetlands and other aquatic resources have been exhaustively discussed. In this review, we uphold the Hardin’s school of thought that freedom of the commoners causes resource overuse leading to poverty. Therefore, limiting freedom could be essential. However, there is need for provision of alternative means of survival since people with no choices would continue over-exploiting ecosystems even under limited access. The Lake Victoria basin commons should be protected by strict legal and clear political frame­work based on public trust doctrine, reinforced in law that the Lake is vital for the survival of people, plants and animals living on or near it and therefore must be protected for the common good. The political jurisdictions should consider governing the Lake basin as one integrated watershed. It is our fervent hope that bordering communities will secure grass root movements to protect and nurture Lake Victoria and its environs for the benefit of the present and future

  2. Modelling density-dependent flow and solute transport at the Lake Tutchewop saline disposal complex, Victoria (United States)

    Simmons, Craig T.; Narayan, Kumar A.


    Intercepted saline groundwaters and drainage effluent from irrigation are commonly stored in both natural and artificial saline disposal basins throughout the Murray-Darling Basin of Australia. Their continued use as wastewater evaporation sites requires an understanding of existing groundwater dynamics. The useful of individual basins, their sustainability and possible environmental impacts remain largely unknown. In this work, the movement of salt to the underlying groundwater system from Lake Tutchewop, a saline disposal complex in north-central Victoria, was modelled in cross-section. Due to the salinity contrast between the hypersaline basin waters and the regional groundwater, it was necessary to simulate density-dependent flow behaviour. Under certain conditions, these density-stratified systems may become unstable leading to the onset of convective behaviour, which greatly increases the movement of salt from the basin to the groundwater system. Modelled concentration profiles in the aquifer system and calculated seepage rates from the basin show that Lake Tutchewop is stable under its present operating regime. The downward movement of salt is mainly controlled by diffusion and dispersion. The calibrated model was used to assess the impact of several management scenarios using time-dependent boundary conditions for lake salinity and water levels. The influence of heterogeneous basin linings on ensuing salt flux rates is examined, and results show that increased solute transport will occur under such conditions. A sensitivity analysis performed on governing variables showed that salt fluxes were most sensitive to lake salinity levels. A solute Rayleigh number defined in terms of basin salinity and hydrogeologic parameters is seen to be an effective tool for predicting the long term behaviour of such saline disposal basins. The models and concepts developed in this work may find application in the design and management of saline disposal complexes.

  3. Deep seismic sounding in the Turkana depression, northern Kenya Rift (United States)

    Gajewski, Dirk; Schulte, Andreas; Riaroh, Don; Thybo, Hans


    Existing models of the structure and evolution of the Kenya Rift such as pure shear lithospheric extension, extension by simple shear or rift development by diapiric upwelling of an asthenolith, were based upon surface geology and a few geophysical (mainly gravity and seismic) data sets. Since the knowledge of the lithospheric structure plays an important role to distinguish between these different models, the Kenya Rift International Seismic Project was conducted in 1990 in the area of the Kenya Rift. The project involved a detailed multi-fold refraction wide-angle reflection line in the northern Kenya Rift along the western shore of Lake Turkana which is the most prominent feature of the so-called Turkana depression. Under-water explosions were used as sources and a good signal-to-noise ratio was obtained allowing the identification of arrivals from the crust and upper mantle. The most important result of modelling the data is a crustal thickness of 21 km in the area of Lake Turkana, whereas in the area of the Kenya dome the crustal thickness is 34 km. This points to an extension not previously expected in the northern Kenya Rift. The Moho discontinuity appears as a transition zone in the northern part of the profile, whereas in the southern part it changes to a first-order discontinuity. The largest vertical and lateral heterogeneities are observed in the rift infill displaying basins of varying thickness. The upper and lower crust which are separated by the Conrad discontinuity (the velocity changes from 6.2 to 6.4 km/s here) show very little lateral heterogeneity. The P-wave velocity in the upper mantle was modelled to be 7.7 km/s and thus can be distinguished from that in the southern Kenya Rift, where a velocity of 7.5 km/s was observed. The crustal structure of the graben supports a model of a southerly propagation of the rift.

  4. Kenya cardinal burns condoms. (United States)


    Kenya's top Roman Catholic church official burned condoms and safe sex literature in a ceremony organized by a group opposed to contraception and sex education. About 250 people watched as Cardinal Maurice Otunga and two gynecologists prayed and sang before setting fire to several boxes of condoms and 100 copies of pamphlets promoting safe sex. The pamphlets encouraged condom use to fight the spread of HIV. The World Health Organization has estimated that 1 million of Kenya's 26 million people are infected with HIV or AIDS. full text


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Victoria. Netherlands Journal of. Zoology 42'. 214 -232. Witte F, Goldschmidt PC and Wanink JH. 1995. Dynamics of the haplochromine cichlid fauna and other ecological changes in the. Mwanza gmlf of Lake Victoria. In: Pitcher TH and Hart PJB (eds):. Impact of species change in fiican lakes. Chapman & Hall, London, pp.

  6. Adaptive responses to environmental changes in Lake Victoria cichlids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijssel, Jacobus Cornelis van (Jacco)


    Lake Victoria cichlids show the fastest vertebrate adaptive radiation known which is why they function as a model organism to study evolution. In the past 40 years, Lake Victoria experienced severe environmental changes including the boom of the introduced, predatory Nile perch and eutrophication.

  7. Gender Integration in the Management of the Lake Victoria Fisheries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The riparian governments of Lake Victoria have adopted co-management approach in fisheries management. This paper discusses gender mainstreaming in fisheries management of Lake Victoria, user rights, successes and challenges of the process. This paper has used gender-disaggregated data from several studies ...

  8. The Tana River Basin and the opportunity for research on the land-ocean interaction in the Tana Delta


    Kitheka, Johnson U.; Ongwenyi, George S.


    The Tana River basin is one of the five main drainage basins in the Republic of Kenya. In terms of river discharge, it is one of the largest and also one of the most important drainage basins. It occupies about 23% of the total land area and contributes 32% of the total river runoff in Kenya. The basin is composed of the vast eastern plateau forelands, which sprawl between the Central Kenya Highlands to the west and the coastal strip on the east. The river flows down a gentle slope towards th...

  9. Degradation of Victoria Crater, Meridiani Planum, Mars (United States)

    Grant, J. A.; Wilson, S. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Golombek, M. P.; Geissler, P. E.; Sullivan, R. J.


    Victoria crater (2.05N, 354.51E) is ~750 m in diameter and the largest crater on Mars observed in situ. The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity traversed NW to SE across a broad annulus dominated by dark sand that at least partially surrounds the crater before navigating the northern crater rim. Rover observations of the crater and ejecta deposits are complemented by images with 26-52 cm/pixel scales from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and enable assessment of degradation state. The present depth/diameter ratio for Victoria is 0.1, less than the 0.2 expected for a pristine primary impact structure. Together with the eroded, serrated rim, this implies an originally smaller crater diameter and/or considerable infilling consistent with occurrence of a large dune field and few exposed rocks on the crater floor. The height and width of the raised rim is generally 4-5 m and 150-225 m, respectively, less than the 30 m and 500-600 m, respectively, expected for a pristine 750 m diameter crater. Ejecta thicknesses around the rim were derived using rover-based and HiRISE images and yield consistent estimates averaging ~3 m. The serrated rim plan creates a series of promontories extending up to 50 m into the crater and generally fronted by 30-60 degree slopes that are locally vertical and are separated by bays whose floors typically slope 15-25 degrees. A crater originally on order of 600-650 m in diameter and subsequently enlarged by mass wasting and aeolian erosion may yield a structure resembling Victoria today. The steep expression of the promontories and local outcroppings of rocks in the ejecta blanket points to some ongoing mass wasting, but the relative paucity of associated flanking talus indicates derived blocks of sulfate sandstone are not resistant to saltating sand and are rapidly broken down by the wind or are completely covered/filled in by aeolian drift. At Cape St. Vincent, the promontory appears undercut

  10. Lake Naivasha, Kenya (United States)


    If you live in Europe and buy roses, there is a good chance that they were grown in Kenya specifically, in one of the colossal greenhouses that blot out the once wild shores of Lake Naivasha, 90km north-west of Nairobi. Some 25% of Europe's cut flowers come from Kenya. After a tentative start in the 1980s the industry is now the country's third-largest foreign-currency earner, bringing in $120m a year. But the recent violence in Kenya is having a major impact on the flower growers. A local trade union says 3,000 of the 30,000 workers employed in Naivasha's flower farms have abandoned their jobs. Kenya emerged as a flower power when Israel scaled down its own industry. It has since lost business to neighboring Ethiopia, which offers tax breaks and better security, but Naivasha's perfect intensity of sunlight and days of near-constant length should keep it on top. The ASTER image was acquired February 2, 2008, covers an area of 25 x 26.6 km, and is located near 0.8 degrees south latitude, 36.4 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  11. foodborne diseases in kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 2, 2001 ... foodborne disease outbreaks in Kenya and efforts employed in combating the diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A cross-sectional survey was carried out using annual reports at the Ministry's Headquarters and medical and laboratory records available at various district hospitals. Records and reports ...

  12. IDRC in Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Then, in the violent aftermath of the 2007 elections, IDRC's. Nairobi Peace Initiative team presented to parliamentarians lessons from its con- tinuing research. This input influenced legislation to establish a Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission. IDRC. IDRC in Kenya. INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH ...

  13. Kenya Veterinarian: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal accepts articles and reports in the areas of Anatomy and Histology, Animal Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Animal Sciences, Pathology and Microbiology, Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology Food Animal Practice, Companion Animal Practice as well as Wildlife Sciences in Kenya, East ...

  14. IDRC in Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    and growth of national economies. Communication for development. IDRC's experience in the area of digital technologies helped Kenya's government develop a comprehensive information and communication technology policy to foster economic and social development. Funding for the country's independent regulatory ...

  15. Mtwapa Creek, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: trophic ecology, fish, Mtwapa, Kenya. Abstract—~The trophic status of common fish species in Mtwapa creek on the Kenyan coast was studied. Both the qualitative and quantitative spectra ... Selar crumenophthalmus fed mainly on fish scales. Polychaetes were an important diet for Gerres oyena and Leiognalhus.

  16. Empirical Evidence from Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 18, 2011 ... developing countries participating in trade blocs arrangements, Kenya has experienced an influx of imported goods; amongst them is sugar from. COMESA member states, which has significantly skewed the local sugar market in favour of imported sugar. In result, some sugar manufacturing firms have ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 18, 1992 ... African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 39-47,1993. Printed in Kenya. All rights ... Experiments to determine alternative hosts of the LGB have shown it capable of feeding and breeding in 16 ... NANG'AYO,F.L.O.efö/. recent studies of its biology in Central America have shown that it occurs in natural ...

  18. IDRC in Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    debates on the economy and promote evidence-based decision-making — has also been an IDRC priority. In 1988 we helped launch the Nairobi-based African .... Grantee: The Consulting House Limited,. Kenya. In the Horn of Africa, security and development are threatened by the presence of militias and their illegal.

  19. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report in adults in Kenya and its associated risk factors, an analysis from a household survey in a demographic surveillance site


    Jenkins, R; Othieno, C.; Ongeri, L.; Ogutu, B; Sifuna, P; Mboroki, J.; Omollo, R


    Background. There have been no household surveys of adult attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Kenya, and only one in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods. Data on ADHD was used from a household survey of mental disorders and their associated risk factors conducted in Maseno area (population 70?805), near Lake Victoria in Kenya, using a demographic surveillance site as the sample frame, as part of a wider survey of mental health, malaria and immunity A total of 1190 households were s...

  20. Geomorphological characteristics of upper athi basin and their effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims at comparing runoff response of two subbasins in upper Athi basin in Kenya on the basis of their geomorphological characteristics. The study revealed that the distribution of bifurcation ratios and form factors agree with the observed runoff variation in the two subbasins, however basin relief indicate the ...

  1. Kenya mental health country profile. (United States)

    Kiima, David Musau; Njenga, Frank G; Okonji, Max M O; Kigamwa, Pius A


    The Kenya country profile is a description of Kenya covering the demographic, economic, cultural, religious, and health aspects including mental health in the country today. Like any other developing countries, Kenya is faced today with major challenges in terms of poverty, economic decline, and lack of adequate resources to meet the health needs and demands, including the mental health of the population. The situational analysis is described in the country profile with a snapshot of the approach in terms of objectives to address the way forward for Kenya.

  2. The Bands Culture in Victoria, Australia: Live Music Benefits Career Paths, Employment and Community (United States)

    Watson, Amanda; Forrest, David


    This study explores the career paths, employment, business opportunities and community contributions made available through the provision and development of the contemporary performance bands' culture in the State of Victoria. It is framed with the support given to live music performers by Arts Victoria, Small Business Victoria and Music Victoria.…

  3. Le CRDI au Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    et de l'agriculture. En produisant des connaissances dans ces secteurs essentiels, le programme contribuera à la sécurité alimentaire et améliorera la santé au Kenya. Les noms et les frontières indiqués sur la carte n'impliquent ni reconnaissance ni acceptation officielle de la part du CRDI. C. U. R. T. C. A. R. N. EM. A. R. K.

  4. River Basin Development and Human Rights in Eastern Africa — A Policy Crossroads

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carr, Claudia J


    .... It examines major river basin development underway in the semi-arid borderlands of Ethiopia, Kenya and South Sudan and its disastrous human rights consequences for a half-million indigenous people...

  5. Extent and drainage status of organic soils in the Lake Victoria catchment (United States)

    Barthelmes, Reni; Barthelmes, Alexandra; Joosten, Hans


    When considering peatlands and organic soils in the tropics, the huge areas in SE Asia prevail in public and scientific perception, whereas Africa has largely been out of focus. However, East Africa contains large areas of organic soils as well. They basically occur in the high altitudes of the uplifted flanks of the East African Rift System, isolated volcanoes and the Ethiopian highlands, in the Zambezian floodplains (e.g. Zambia), and in coastal environments (e.g. Mozambique and Madagascar). We used a mapping approach that integrates old field data and maps, specialized landscape and peatland-related knowledge, and modern RS and GIS techniques to elaborate a comprehensive and rather reliable overview of organic soils (incl. peatlands) in the Lake Victoria catchment. Maps at a scale of 1:25,000 have been prepared for Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. The land use intensity has been estimated for all organic soil areas based on satellite and aerial imagery. Feeding the Nile River, sustaining a fast growing and widely poor population and already facing climatic changes, organic soils of the Lake Victoria neighbouring countries are partially under heavy threat. We mapped 10,645 km2 of organic soils for the entire area of which 8,860 km2 (83.2%) seem to be in near natural condition. We assume slightly drainage and low degradation for 564 km2 (5.3%) and intensive drainage and heavy degradation for 1,222 km2 (11.5%). Degradation hotspot is Burundi with 522 km2 (79.5%) of heavily drained and degrading organic soils. This area assessment has been quite conservative to not overestimate the extent of organic soils. A reserve of 5-7,000 km2 of wetlands in the Lake Victoria catchment may include peatlands too, which needs to be confirmed in field surveys. Considering the key role of peatlands and organic soils for water provision and regulation and their rapid degradation due to drainage and inappropriate use, this inventory might be a step towards organic soil

  6. Accounting for Violence at the Victoria Industrial School

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bryan Hogeveen


    Boys who were inmates at the Victoria Industrial School (VIS) from its opening in 1887 to its closure in 1934 often suffered extreme, violent, and capricious penalties and encountered calculated psychological manipulation...

  7. Ecological Biogeography of the Terrestrial Nematodes of Victoria Land, Antarctica (United States)

    Adams, Byron J.; Wall, Diana H.; Virginia, Ross A.; Broos, Emma; Knox, Matthew A.


    Abstract The terrestrial ecosystems of Victoria Land, Antarctica are characteristically simple in terms of biological diversity and ecological functioning. Nematodes are the most commonly encountered and abundant metazoans of Victoria Land soils, yet little is known of their diversity and distribution. Herein we present a summary of the geographic distribution, habitats and ecology of the terrestrial nematodes of Victoria Land from published and unpublished sources. All Victoria Land nematodes are endemic to Antarctica, and many are common and widely distributed at landscape scales. However, at smaller spatial scales, populations can have patchy distributions, with the presence or absence of each species strongly influenced by specific habitat requirements. As the frequency of nematode introductions to Antarctica increases, and soil habitats are altered in response to climate change, our current understanding of the environmental parameters associated with the biogeography of Antarctic nematofauna will be crucial to monitoring and possibly mitigating changes to these unique soil ecosystems. PMID:25061360

  8. Victoria Land, Ross Sea, and Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica (United States)


    On December 19, 2001, MODIS acquired data that produced this image of Antarctica's Victoria Land, Ross Ice Shelf, and the Ross Sea. The coastline that runs up and down along the left side of the image denotes where Victoria Land (left) meets the Ross Ice Shelf (right). The Ross Ice Shelf is the world's largest floating body of ice, approximately the same size as France. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unfortunately, road safety trends in Kenya are worsening. The mean annual fatality rate from all road traffic accidents in Kenya is estimated at 50 deaths per 10 000 registered vehicles (1,2). The numbers of reported accidents have been showing an increasing trend from 10,300 in 1990 to 16,800 in 2000 and. 17,400 in ...

  10. Kenya Veterinarian - Vol 29 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Comparison of the Nutritional Quality of Kenya\\'s Omena Fishmeal and Anchovy Fishmeal Fed to Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus Linn) · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. J G Maina, R M Beames, D Higgs, P N Mbugua, S M Kisia, G Iwama, 1-6 ...

  11. Er Kenya klar til valget?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Henrik

    Den 17. januar begyndte nomineringen af Kenyas kommende politikere. De politikere, der efter valget skal lede Østafrikas regionale stormagt frem til 2018. Nomineringsprocessen gav flere forskellige interessante indikationer på Kenyas ”demokratiske parathed” og dermed måske også en god fornemmelse...

  12. The Early (Feminist Essays of Victoria Ocampo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Meyer


    Full Text Available This study examines the essays written by Ocampo between 1920 and 1934, prior to the time when she publicly voiced her adhesion to feminism and the rights of women in Argentine society. In these works from her Testimonios in which Ocampo struggles to find her voice as a female writer, the maleable essay serves her need to engage in discursive dialogues from the margins of the literary culture of her time. Both as a woman and a member of the oligarchy, she questions cultural assumptions and gender-based binary structures common among the male writers of her time, many of whom she knew personally. Using rhetorical strategies that show the self-reflexive and subversive nature of her writing, Ocampo reads and reinterprets these works from a parenthetical feminist perspective, contesting their intellectual and aesthetic biases. The active agency of the reader as writer in these early essays shows Ocampo's awareness of her own unorthodox subject position—alienated from the conventions of her class, her gender, her national culture and language. Her autobiographical musings and her engagement with literary modernity in the 1920s and 1930s reveal a woman who accepted the liabilities of articulating an autonomous self, both in a European and a Latin American context. The influence of family bonds and patriarchal morality decisively shaped, but did not ultimately control, the way Victoria Ocampo eventually defined herself as a feminist author.

  13. Unforeseen misuses of bed nets in fishing villages along Lake Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futami Kyoko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To combat malaria, the Kenya Ministry of Health and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs have distributed insecticide-treated nets (ITNs for use over beds, with coverage for children under five years of age increasing rapidly. Nevertheless, residents of fishing villages have started to use these bed nets for drying fish and fishing in Lake Victoria. This study investigated the extent of bed net misuse in fishing villages. Methods Seven fishing villages along the lake were surveyed to estimate how widely bed nets were being used for fishing and drying fish. Villagers were asked why they used the bed nets for such purposes. Results In total, 283 bed nets were being used for drying fish. Of these, 239 were long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLIN and 44 were non-long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (NLLIN. Further, 72 of the 283 bed nets were also being used for fishing. The most popular reasons were because the bed nets were inexpensive or free and because fish dried faster on the nets. LLINs were preferred to NLLINs for fishing and drying fish. Conclusion There is considerable misuse of bed nets for drying fish and fishing. Many villagers are not yet fully convinced of the effectiveness of LLINs for malaria prevention. Such misuses may hamper the efforts of NGOs and governmental health organizations.

  14. Phytoplankton patterns along a series of small man-made reservoirs in Kenya. (United States)

    Straubinger-Gansberger, Nadja; Kaggwa, Mary N; Schagerl, Michael


    We studied nine small man-made reservoirs located in different climate regions of Kenya to get an insight into the relationship between phytoplankton community structure and its environment. The investigated ponds form three groups of three reservoirs each found in the rural areas of Machakos district, Mount Kenya region, and Lake Victoria area with varied climatic characteristics. The ponds were sampled in monthly intervals between May 2007 and June 2008 for physicochemical variables including water chemistry, phytoplankton community composition, zooplankton abundance, and bacterial numbers. All ponds were classified as hypertrophic. Seasonal changes were reflected in the phytoplankton pattern, as all ponds showed a community shift after the short dry season in February. Due to high nutrient loads and increased turbidity, Cyanobacteria, which were initially thought to be predominating in all investigated water bodies, were found to play only a minor role except for the Bomet reservoir in Lake Victoria region. Instead, Chloro- and Streptophyta, Dinophyta, and Euglenophyta were abundant in the pelagial. A principal component analysis explained around 85 % of the data variance with four principal components (PCs) interpreted as "location", "ions", "zooplankton", and "particulate matter". A clear separation of ponds with and without cattle access based on algal species community data was found indicating the need for a sustainable use and regular monitoring program as the local population is largely dependent on these sensitive small-scale ecosystems.

  15. An assessement of the ecosystem health of Lake Victoria (East Africa)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessement of the ecosystem health of Lake Victoria (East Africa): Current status, trends and impacts to fishery. ... complicated the ecosystem dynamics of Lake Victoria and pose serious uncertainties about its future stability and sustainability of the fisheries resources. Lake Victoria's future sustainability requires ...

  16. Contravention of town planning regulations in Ikoyi and Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated possible relationships between educational attainment, awareness of town planning regulations and contravening these regulations in Ikoyi and Victoria Island, Lagos. Both primary and secondary data were used for the study. Secondary data were obtained from both published and unpublished ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shojaei


    Full Text Available Land development processes today have an increasing demand to access three-dimensional (3D spatial information. Complex land development may need to have a 3D model and require some functions which are only possible using 3D data. Accordingly, the Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM, as a national body in Australia provides leadership, coordination and standards for surveying, mapping and national datasets has developed the Cadastre 2034 strategy in 2014. This strategy has a vision to develop a cadastral system that enables people to readily and confidently identify the location and extent of all rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to land and real property. In 2014, the land authority in the state of Victoria, Australia, namely Land Use Victoria (LUV, has entered the challenging area of designing and implementing a 3D digital cadastre focused on providing more efficient and effective services to the land and property industry. LUV has been following the ICSM 2034 strategy which requires developing various policies, standards, infrastructures, and tools. Over the past three years, LUV has mainly focused on investigating the technical aspect of a 3D digital cadastre. This paper provides an overview of the 3D digital cadastre investigation progress in Victoria and discusses the challenges that the team faced during this journey. It also addresses the future path to develop an integrated 3D digital cadastre in Victoria.

  18. Research on School-Based Management in Victoria. (United States)

    Gamage, David T.; And Others


    Describes a 1992-93 research project involving 66 state schools that attempted to ascertain the overall effectiveness of school-based management in Victoria, Australia. Findings of the Likert-style survey revealed substantial participant satisfaction with school councils' current composition, information provision, and overall functioning. (20…

  19. Fishing Business Arrangements and Sustainability in Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article an attempt is made to analyse the existing production relations between the owners of the vessels and the crewmembers and the concern for sustainability. Our results found that the existing sharing system in Lake Victoria poses a big challenge in as far as sustainability is concerned. Some of the system such ...

  20. Implementing Co-management of Lake Victoria's Fisheries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are still many challenges facing the sustainable management of Lake Victoria fisheries, including; lack of compliance with regulations and rapid increase in fishing effort, environmental degradation, inadequate service provision and the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS amongst the fishing communities. Key words: Lake ...

  1. The Lake Victoria Intense Storm Early Warning System (VIEWS) (United States)

    Thiery, Wim; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Bedka, Kristopher; Semazzi, Fredrick; Lhermitte, Stef; Willems, Patrick; van Lipzig, Nicole; Seneviratne, Sonia I.


    Weather extremes have harmful impacts on communities around Lake Victoria in East Africa. Every year, intense nighttime thunderstorms cause numerous boating accidents on the lake, resulting in thousands of deaths among fishermen. Operational storm warning systems are therefore crucial. Here we complement ongoing early warning efforts based on NWP, by presenting a new satellite data-driven storm prediction system, the prototype Lake Victoria Intense storm Early Warning System (VIEWS). VIEWS derives predictability from the correlation between afternoon land storm activity and nighttime storm intensity on Lake Victoria, and relies on logistic regression techniques to forecast extreme thunderstorms from satellite observations. Evaluation of the statistical model reveals that predictive power is high and independent of the input dataset. We then optimise the configuration and show that also false alarms contain valuable information. Our results suggest that regression-based models that are motivated through process understanding have the potential to reduce the vulnerability of local fishing communities around Lake Victoria. The experimental prediction system is publicly available under the MIT licence at

  2. Study of genetic variation in population of Bipolaris victoriae , the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolates of Bipolaris victoriae were analysed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) techniques to determine the amount of intraspecific genetic variability. Seven primers were applied and DNA bands of 200-5000 bp were produced. Cluster analysis using UPGMA method gave five groups. Levels of polymorphism ...

  3. Governance and Welfare of Fishing Communities of Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... have potable water or electricity. Educational standards remain low and many communities lack proper sanitation, and are therefore at risk of disease, while most basic facilities such as hospitals, schools and clinics are not within their reach. Key Words; Co-management, Beach Management Units, Lake Victoria, Health, ...

  4. Total mercury concentration in common fish species of Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total mercury (THg) concentration was analysed in muscles of common fish species of Lake Victoria in the eastern and southern parts of the lake using cold vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric technique. Mercury concentration in all fish species was generally lower than the WHO maximum allowable ...

  5. Domestication of medicinal tree species in the Victoria lakeshore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Therefore, there is high potential of marketing forest products by the subsistence farmers. Growing medicinal plants is one great opportunity for raising household incomes in this area. A survey was conducted among herbalists living around the Victoria lakeshore region. Questionnaires were administered through formal ...

  6. Catalogue Use at the State Library of Victoria (United States)

    Hider, Philip


    A questionnaire survey conducted at the State Library of Victoria indicates that users in general, and not just scholars, value the standard elements of bibliographic data found in the Library's catalogues, and consider all these elements useful for finding, identifying and selecting items. Rather than making do with less, users wanted more…

  7. Vocabulary Size Research at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand (United States)

    Nation, Paul; Coxhead, Averil


    The English Language Institute (now the School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies) at Victoria University of Wellington has a long history of corpus-based vocabulary research, especially after the arrival of the second director of the institute, H. V. George, and the appointment of Helen Barnard, whom George knew in India. George's…

  8. Early warnings of hazardous thunderstorms over Lake Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiery, Wim; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Bedka, Kristopher; Semazzi, Fredrick H.M.; Lhermitte, S.L.M.; Willems, Patrick; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.


    Weather extremes have harmful impacts on communities around Lake Victoria in East Africa. Every year, intense nighttime thunderstorms cause numerous boating accidents on the lake, resulting in thousands of deaths among fishermen. Operational storm warning systems are therefore crucial. Here we

  9. Lake Victoria's Water Budget and the Potential Effects of Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the Lake Victoria water budget for the period 1950-2004 and findings of a study on potential climate change impact on the lake's Hydrology through the 21st Century. The mass balance components are computed from measured and simulated data. A2 and B2 emission scenarios of the Special Report ...

  10. Early warnings of hazardous thunderstorms over Lake Victoria (United States)

    Thiery, Wim; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Bedka, Kristopher; Semazzi, Fredrick H. M.; Lhermitte, Stef; Willems, Patrick; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.


    Weather extremes have harmful impacts on communities around Lake Victoria in East Africa. Every year, intense nighttime thunderstorms cause numerous boating accidents on the lake, resulting in thousands of deaths among fishermen. Operational storm warning systems are therefore crucial. Here we complement ongoing early warning efforts based on numerical weather prediction, by presenting a new satellite data-driven storm prediction system, the prototype Lake Victoria Intense storm Early Warning System (VIEWS). VIEWS derives predictability from the correlation between afternoon land storm activity and nighttime storm intensity on Lake Victoria, and relies on logistic regression techniques to forecast extreme thunderstorms from satellite observations. Evaluation of the statistical model reveals that predictive power is high and independent of the type of input dataset. We then optimise the configuration and show that false alarms also contain valuable information. Our results suggest that regression-based models that are motivated through process understanding have the potential to reduce the vulnerability of local fishing communities around Lake Victoria. The experimental prediction system is publicly available under the MIT licence at

  11. Climate Change and Fishery Sustainability in Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fisheries of Lake Victoria have recently undergone rapid ecological and social change. Loss of diversity in terms of species richness and economic opportunity has increased the system's vulnerability to additional economic, ecological, and social stressors predicted with future climate change. This paper discusses the ...

  12. Upper Paleozoic glacigenic deposits of Gondwana: Stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental significance of a tillite succession in Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica) (United States)

    Cornamusini, Gianluca; Talarico, Franco M.; Cirilli, Simonetta; Spina, Amalia; Olivetti, Valerio; Woo, Jusun


    deposits of Northern Victoria Land record the evolution from a setting characterized by a terrestrial small ice cap that underwent repeated advances and retreats due to climate cycles in a lacustrine setting, into a postglacial paleoenvironmental scenario with a wide fluvial system draining northwards from Victoria Land towards the Tasmanian Basin. The results contribute to increasing knowledge of the timing and modalities of the Late Paleozoic Ice Age in Gondwana, particularly for polar regions such as Antarctica.

  13. DNA barcoding of schistosome cercariae reveals a novel sub-lineage within Schistosoma rodhaini from Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary, Lake Victoria. (United States)

    Standley, C J; Stothard, J R


    While Schistosoma rodhaini is typically considered a parasite of small mammals and is very scantly distributed in the Lake Victoria basin, it is known to hybridize with the more widespread Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of intestinal schistosomiasis. As part of broader parasitological and malacological surveys for S. mansoni across Lake Victoria, schistosome cercariae were harvested from a field-caught Biomphalaria choanomphala taken on Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary, Uganda. Upon DNA barcoding, these cercariae were found to be a mixture of both S. rodhaini and S. mansoni, with further phylogenetic analysis revealing a hitherto unknown sub-lineage within S. rodhaini. Despite repeated sampling for eggs and miracidia from both chimpanzees and staff on Ngamba Island Sanctuary, detection of S. rodhaini within local definitive hosts awaits additional efforts, which should be mindful of a potential host role of spotted-necked otters.

  14. Linking Land Use Changes to Surface Water Quality Variability in Lake Victoria: Some Insights From Remote Sensing (GC41B-1101) (United States)

    Limaye, Ashutosh; Mugo, Robinson; Wanjohi, James; Farah, Hussein; Wahome, Anastasia; Flores, Africa; Irwin, Dan


    Various land use changes driven by urbanization, conversion of grasslands and woodlands into farmlands, intensification of agricultural practices, deforestation, land fragmentation and degradation are taking place in Africa. In Kenya, agriculture is the main driver of land use conversions. The impacts of these land use changes are observable in land cover maps, and eventually in the hydrological systems. Reduction or change of natural vegetation cover types increases the speed of surface runoff and reduces water and nutrient retention capacities. This can lead to high nutrient inputs into lakes, resulting in eutrophication, siltation and infestation of floating aquatic vegetation. To assess if changes in land use could be contributing to increased phytoplankton blooms and sediment loads into Lake Victoria, we analyzed land use land cover data from Landsat, as well as surface chlorophyll-a and total suspended matter from MODIS-Aqua sensor.

  15. Scenario-based water resources planning for utilities in the Lake Victoria region (United States)

    Mehta, V. K.; Aslam, O.; Dale, L.; Miller, N.; Purkey, D.


    Cities in the Lake Victoria (LV) region are experiencing the highest growth rates in Africa, at the same time that their water resource is threatened by domestic waste and industrial pollution. Urban centers use local springs, wetlands and Lake Victoria as source waters. As efforts to meet increasing demand accelerate, integrated water resources management (IWRM) tools provide opportunities for utilities and other stakeholders to develop a planning framework comprehensive enough to include short term (e.g. landuse change), as well as longer term (e.g. climate change) scenarios. This paper presents IWRM models built using the Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) decision support system, for three pilot towns in the LV region - Bukoba (Tanzania), Masaka (Uganda), and Kisii (Kenya). Their current populations are 100,000, 70,000 and 200,000 respectively. Demand coverage is ~70% in Masaka and Bukoba, and less than 50% in Kisii. IWRM models for each town were calibrated under current system performance based on site visits, utility reporting and interviews. Projected water supply, demand, revenues and costs were then evaluated against a combination of climate, demographic and infrastructure scenarios upto 2050. In Masaka, flow and climate data were available to calibrate a runoff model to simulate streamflow at water intake. In Masaka, without considering climate change, the system is infrastructure-limited and not water availability (hydrology) limited until 2035, under projected population growth of 2.17%. Under a wet climate scenario as projected by GCM’s for the LV region, the current wetland source could supply all expected demands until 2050. Even under a drought scenario, the wetland could supply all demand until 2032, if the supply infrastructure is updated at an estimated cost of USD 10.8 million. However, demand targets can only be met at the expense of almost no water returning to the wetland downstream of the intake by 2035, unless substantial investments

  16. Observations on Foot and Mouth Disease in Kenya | Wariru | Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) first was characterized in Kenya in 1932. Typing results are available since 1954. Five serotypes namely A, C, O, SAT1 and SAT2 have been confirmed and every district in the country has recorded one serotype or another. Serotypes A and O were predominant upto 1974 and serotypes O ...

  17. Destruction and management of Mount Kenya`s forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussmann, R.W. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Biologie, Chemie und Geowissenschaften


    This article presents data on the destruction of the montane forests on Mount Kenya. The material was obtained during field-work for a phytosociological study in 1992-1994. Special emphasis was given to the observation of regeneration patterns and succession cycles within the different forest communities, with regard to the impact of humans and big game. Although private tree planting is reducing the fuelwood deficit in Kenya, large parts of the 200 000 ha of Mount Kenya`s forests - the largest natural-forest area in the country - are heavily impacted by among other things illegal activities. The wet camphor forests of the south and southeast mountain slopes are being destroyed at an alarming speed, by large-scale selective logging of Ocotea usambarensis and marihuana cultivation. The drier Juniperus procera are also logged, but are even more endangered by the new settlement schemes. The large elephant population does not affect forest regeneration; whereas browsing and chaffing by buffaloes inhibits regeneration of the dry forests, and damages many trees. Suggestions are presented for better management of the forest resources. 12 refs, 1 fig

  18. All projects related to Kenya | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    intervention initiatives and non-refugee populations. Region: Kenya. Program: Maternal ... Women in Zimbabwe, Kenya, and Uganda experience disadvantages and gender inequalities in labour and production. Region: Kenya, Uganda, Zimbabwe.

  19. Kenya Veterinarian - Vol 27 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prudent Use of Veterinary Drugs: Impact on Safe Animal Products for Increased Productivity · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Fluoride Levels in Water, Animal Feeds, Cow Milk, Cow Urine and Milk Production of Dairy Cattle from Kiambu and Thika Districts in Kenya · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  20. Urban farmers in Nakuru, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Owuor, S.O.


    The present report contains the result of a general survey, carried out in June-July 1999, on farming practices performed by the inhabitants of Nakuru town, Kenya. The two major objectives of the survey were: 1) to collect basic data on farming by the Nakuru townspeople and 2) to provide the


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food and Nutritional Sciences: Vol. 2 No. 2 July 2002. Makokha. INTRODUCTION. Digestibility of sorghum protein is of ¡mínense interest, particularly to communities in Kenya and elsewhere who depend on sorghum as their staple food. In such situations, the cereal is often also the main source of.

  2. Healthcare priority setting in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukachi, Salome A.; Onyango-Ouma, Washington; Siso, Jared Maaka


    improves the priority setting decisions. This paper describes the healthcare priority setting processes in Malindi district, Kenya, prior to the implementation of A4R in 2008 and evaluates the process for its conformance with the conditions for A4R. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions with key...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    many developmental issues investigated, nutrition concerns were top priority. The ... Kenya. The comprehensive survey was carried out to explore developmental issues that might exist in this target group, particularly school age children. .... on some sort of socioeconomic determinants and environmental issues, in order to.

  4. Kenya Veterinarian - Vol 14 (1990)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of Canine Parvovirus Enteritis in Kenya · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M K Njenga, P M Nyaga, I B Buoro, 16-19. ...

  5. Kenya's Foreign Policy and Geopolitical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the flow of the Nile. (v) Egypt claimed the right to construct engineering works on the Nile without the consent of other riparian states' (N g'wandu 2003). This article examines Kenya's foreign policy interests on the Nile water question and the implications of the geopolitics of the region as well as the riparian states' policies.

  6. The geomorphology of Southeast Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterom, A.P.


    A geomorphological map of an area of 66 500 km 2 in the southeastern part of Kenya has been prepared. In the littoral zone eight major terrace levels occurring between the present shore and approximately 160 m +MSL have been described. Analysis of radiometric datings and

  7. Kenya Veterinarian - Vol 18 (1994)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Breed, Month of the Year and Age of Bulls on Semen Quality of Bos Taurus Bulls in a Tropical Environment · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... The effect of Graded Dosages of Bovine Somatropin on Milk Production of Sahiwal-Brown Swiss Crossbred Dairy Cows in the Coastal Region on Kenya · EMAIL ...

  8. Measles outbreak in young adults in Victoria, 1999. (United States)

    Lambert, S B; Morgan, M L; Riddell, M A; Andrews, R M; Kelly, H A; Leydon, J A; Catton, M C; Lynch, P A; Gercovich, D K; Lester, R A; Carnie, J A; Rouch, G J


    To describe an outbreak of measles in Victoria. Case series with cases identified through enhanced passive surveillance and outbreak-related active surveillance. State of Victoria, 1999. Number of cases; epidemiological links and patterns of transmission; patient demographic features and vaccination status; complications. 75 cases were identified (74 laboratory-confirmed; and one epidemiologically linked to a laboratory-confirmed case), with onset between 11 February and 2 May 1999. The first case was in a 21-year-old woman who had recently holidayed in Bali and worked at a large cinema complex in Melbourne. Sixteen cases occurred in people who had contact with the index case at the cinema on one evening. The outbreak spread to regional Victoria and South Australia. Median age of patients was 22 years; 64 (85%) were born between 1968 and 1981, with only one patient in the age group targeted by the primary school component of the 1998 Australian Measles Control Campaign; this child had not been vaccinated. More than a third of patients (28) were hospitalised (total, 97 inpatient days), and five were healthcare workers. This outbreak was caused by international importation of measles virus. It highlights the change in epidemiology of measles in Australia, from a disease of childhood to one predominantly affecting young adults. A strong two-dose childhood vaccination program, vigilant surveillance, and rapid response to outbreaks will continue to be the basis of measles control, but better protection for young adults should be considered.

  9. Kenya sõdurid tungisid Somaaliasse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Kenya sõjaväelased tungisid Lõuna-Somaaliasse, et tabada mässulisi, kes on viimastel nädalatel korraldanud Kenyas mitmeid inimrööve. Kenya väed tungisid Lõuna-Somaaliasse päev pärast seda, kui Nairobi kuulutas sõja Al-Qaedaga seostatud äärmusrühmitusele Shabaab

  10. Kenya: Current Conditions and the Challenges Ahead (United States)


    embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania in 1998. As many as 5,000 people were injured in the Nairobi blast, and 86 people in Dar es Salaam . Kenya...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Kenya: Current Conditions and the Challenges Ahead Ted Dagne...Congressional Research Service, The Library of Congress ,101 Independence Avenue SE,Washington,DC,20540-7500 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9

  11. An examination of injection drug use trends in Victoria and Vancouver, BC after the closure of Victoria's only fixed-site needle and syringe programme. (United States)

    Ivsins, Andrew; Chow, Clifton; Macdonald, Scott; Stockwell, Tim; Vallance, Kate; Marsh, David C; Michelow, Warren; Duff, Cameron


    Needle and syringe programmes (NSPs) have been established as effective harm reduction initiatives to reduce injection drug use (IDU)-related risk behaviours, including sharing needles. On May 31, 2008, Victoria, BC's only fixed site NSP was shut down due to community and political pressure. This study examines and compares IDU trends in Victoria with those in Vancouver, BC, a city which has not experienced any similar disruption of IDU-related public health measures. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by interviewer-administered questionnaires conducted with injection drug users (n=579) in Victoria and Vancouver between late 2007 and late 2010. Needle sharing increased in Victoria from under 10% in early 2008 to 20% in late 2010, whilst rates remained relatively low in Vancouver. Participants in Victoria were significantly more likely to share needles than participants in Vancouver. Qualitative data collected in Victoria highlight the difficulty participants have experienced obtaining clean needles since the NSP closed. Recent injection of crack cocaine was independently associated with needle sharing. The closure of Victoria's fixed site NSP has likely resulted in increased engagement in high-risk behaviours, specifically needle sharing. Our findings highlight the contribution of NSPs as an essential public health measure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avec le développement rapide des activités de recherche et développement en biotechnologie au Kenya. le pays reconnait le besoin d'avoir de lignes directrices et de réglements sur la biosécurité nationale. Les lois actuelles re'gissant la sécurite générale en agriculture et en santé puplique et le bien-étre ne traitent pas.

  13. Increasing deaths involving oxycodone, Victoria, Australia, 2000-09. (United States)

    Rintoul, Angela C; Dobbin, Malcolm D H; Drummer, Olaf H; Ozanne-Smith, Joan


    In light of an emerging epidemic identified in the United States and Canada, to identify trends in fatal drug toxicity involving oxycodone and the demographic characteristics and indicators of socioeconomic disadvantage of the deceased. Population-based observational study in Victoria, Australia. Decedents whose death was reported to the Victorian Coroner between 2000 and 2009 and where oxycodone was detected. Association between supply of oxycodone and deaths. Demographic characteristics of decedents. Rate ratios of the rural or metropolitan location and socioeconomic indicators of disadvantage of the deceased. Supply to Victoria has increased nine-fold from 7.5 mg per capita in 2000 to 67.5 mg per capita in 2009. Detection of oxycodone in deaths reported to the Victorian Coroner has increased from 4 (0.08/100,000 population) in 2000 to 97 (1.78/100,000 population) in 2009-a 21-fold increase in deaths. Of the 320 cases described, 53.8% (172) were the result of drug toxicity. Of these, 52.3% were unintentional and 19.8% intentional self-harm; the remaining 27.9% are either still under investigation by the coroner or intent is unknown. Drug toxicity deaths were overrepresented in both rural areas and areas indexed with high levels of disadvantage. The substantial increase in the number of deaths involving oxycodone is strongly and significantly associated with the increase in supply. Most drug toxicity deaths involving oxycodone were unintentional. This newly identified trend in fatalities in Victoria supports concerns that a pattern of increasing deaths involving oxycodone is emerging globally.

  14. Reforming Victoria's primary health and community service sector: rural implications. (United States)

    Alford, K


    In 1999 the Victorian primary care and community support system began a process of substantial reform, involving purchasing reforms and a contested selection process between providers in large catchment areas across the State. The Liberal Government's electoral defeat in September 1999 led to a review of these reforms. This paper questions the reforms from a rural perspective. They were based on a generic template that did not consider rural-urban differences in health needs or other differences including socio-economic status, and may have reinforced if not aggravated rural-urban differences in the quality of and access to primary health care in Victoria.

  15. Exploration of Victoria crater by the mars rover opportunity (United States)

    Squyres, S. W.; Knoll, A.H.; Arvidson, R. E.; Ashley, James W.; Bell, J.F.; Calvin, W.M.; Christensen, P.R.; Clark, B. C.; Cohen, B. A.; De Souza, P.A.; Edgar, L.; Farrand, W. H.; Fleischer, I.; Gellert, Ralf; Golombek, M.P.; Grant, J.; Grotzinger, J.; Hayes, A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Jolliff, B.; Klingelhofer, G.; Knudson, A.; Li, R.; McCoy, T.J.; McLennan, S.M.; Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Rice, J. W.; Schroder, C.; Sullivan, R.J.; Yen, A.; Yingst, R.A.


    The Mars rover Opportunity has explored Victoria crater, a ???750-meter eroded impact crater formed in sulfate-rich sedimentary rocks. Impact-related stratigraphy is preserved in the crater walls, and meteoritic debris is present near the crater rim. The size of hematite-rich concretions decreases up-section, documenting variation in the intensity of groundwater processes. Layering in the crater walls preserves evidence of ancient wind-blown dunes. Compositional variations with depth mimic those ???6 kilometers to the north and demonstrate that water-induced alteration at Meridiani Planum was regional in scope.

  16. Becoming a teacher at teacher training colleges in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kari

    Paper presented at International Conference "Health Education and Teacher Training in Kenya" at Sarova Stanley Hotel 8. December 2010, Nairobi, Kenya.......Paper presented at International Conference "Health Education and Teacher Training in Kenya" at Sarova Stanley Hotel 8. December 2010, Nairobi, Kenya....

  17. Development research in Kenya | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Kenya's 2002 general election, replacing a notoriously corrupt regime with a coalition government committed to reform, was seen as a landmark event in the country's history. IDRC, active in Kenya for some 30 years by then, reacted quickly with a package of projects expressly designed to advance and take advantage of ...

  18. Kenya | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research on the impact of communications and information technologies is strengthening Kenya's health system. Thanks to our funding, the Kenya Medical Research Institute has generated the evidence needed by the Ministry of Health to revise the national e-Health strategy, develop the first-ever e-Health policy, and ...

  19. Eagle Hill, Kenya: changes over 60 years

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cline. What we do not often appreciate is the extent of these losses, down to the very last eagle. What occurred on Eagle Hill is no different from what has occurred in some 50% to 90% of Kenya in the same time span. Given that less than 10% of Kenya is effec- tively protected within national parks, reserves and sanctuaries ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 9, 2012 ... Perodontology, Community and Preventive Dentistry, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. MAXILLOFACIAL SOFT TISSUE INJURIES IN NAIROBI, KENYA ..... dog- bites in which the peak incidence occurred in children aged less than ten years with an exponential decrease in ...

  1. Girls' Attitudes towards Science in Kenya (United States)

    Chetcuti, Deborah A.; Kioko, Beriter


    This study investigated girls' attitudes towards science in Kenya. It was carried out with 120 girls from four secondary schools in the Eastern province of Kenya. These were an urban single-sex (SS) and co-educational (Co-Ed) school and a rural SS and Co-Ed school. Different schools were chosen in order to explore whether there are any differences…

  2. Lexicography in Kenya: A Historical Survey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: This paper traces the historical development of lexicography in Kenya. Attempts are made to show that although Kenya's linguistic landscape boasts with about SO indigenous African languages, very little has been done in the field of compiling their dictionaries, especially by. Kenyans themselves. Particular ...

  3. Eesti NATO Ühing juurutab demokraatlikke väärtusi / Victoria Punga ; interv. Aive Antsov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Punga, Victoria, 1977-


    Eesti NATO Ühingu tegevjuht organisatsiooni eesmärkidest, projektidest, koostööst teiste riikidega ning kaitsepoliitika ja majanduse seostest. Lisa: Väljavõte Victoria CVst; Eesti kaitsepoliitika viis plussi Victoria meelest

  4. A Snapshot: Multicultural Music Teaching in Schools in Victoria, Australia, Portrayed by School Teachers (United States)

    Nethsinghe, Rohan Nishantha


    Due to the changing demographic factors and as demanded by the governmental policies and regulations, schools in Victoria, Australia, are expected to foster multicultural educational programs that address the diverse needs of students. Research has found that school teachers in Victoria struggle to provide the aspired to multicultural education…

  5. Victoria suudlus teeb maapoisist printsi, kuid mitte tulevase kuninga / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo


    Printsess Victoria tulevasest abikaasast Daniel Westlingist, printsess Madelaine'i kihluse lõpetamisest, Bernadotte'ide dünastia asutajast Jean Bernadotte'ist. Monarhia toetajate vähenemisest Rootsis. Printsess Victoria ja Daniel Westlingi pulmatseremooniast 19. juunil

  6. An examination of the selenium nutrition of sheep in Victoria. (United States)

    Caple, I W; Andrewartha, K A; Edwards, S J; Halpin, C G


    The selenium nutrition of sheep throughout Victoria was assessed by a survey of the blood glutathione peroxidase activity in 708 flocks. It was shown that the blood glutathione peroxidase activity in sheep had a seasonal variation with lowest levels in the spring. The enzyme activity was correlated with the blood selenium concentration. Areas where blood selenium was less than 0.03 micrograms/ml in spring were defined. Sheep with low selenium nutrition were grazing pastures in the high rainfall areas on acid soils, particularly those derived from granite. Selenium concentrations in pasture samples examined were greater than 0.02 mg/kg, and it was found that superphosphate application had no significant effect on the selenium content of pasture. However, management practices such as high stocking rates and rates of application of superphosphate to pasture were associated with low blood glutathione peroxidase activities in sheep. It was concluded that the selenium nutrition of most of the sheep flocks in Victoria is adequate, and that the deficient areas are localised. There seems little requirement for supplementation of adult sheep. As the delayed type of white muscle disease in spring lambs appears to be the main selenium-responsive disorder, direct supplementation of lambs in the low selenium areas would be the most effective method of ensuring adequate selenium nutrition.

  7. Epidemiology of the 2012 influenza season in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Fielding


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the magnitude and severity of the 2012 influenza season in Victoria, Australia using surveillance data from five sources. Methods: Data from influenza notifications, sentinel general practices, a sentinel hospital network, a sentinel locum service and strain typing databases for 2012 were descriptively analysed. Results: Influenza and influenza-like illness activity was moderate compared to previous years, although a considerable increase in notified laboratory-confirmed influenza was observed. Type A influenza comprised between 83% and 87% of cases from the general practitioners, hospitals and notifiable surveillance data. Influenza A/H3 was dominant in July and August, and most tested isolates were antigenically similar to the A/Perth/16/2009 virus used in the vaccine. There was a smaller peak of influenza type B in September. No tested viruses were resistant to any neuraminidase inhibitor antivirals. Higher proportions of type A/H3, hospitalized cases and those with a comorbid condition indicated for influenza vaccination were aged 65 years or older. Influenza vaccination coverage among influenza-like illness patients was 24% in sentinel general practices and 50% in hospitals. Discussion: The 2012 influenza season in Victoria was average compared to previous years, with an increased dominance of A/H3 accompanied by increases in older and hospitalized cases. Differences in magnitude and the epidemiological profile of cases detected by the different data sources demonstrate the importance of using a range of surveillance data to assess the relative severity of influenza seasons.

  8. Comprehensive nursing education in Victoria: rhetoric or reality? (United States)

    Happell, B


    Significant and widespread changes to the education of the psychiatric nursing workforce in Victoria, Australia are resulting in serious problems in the recruitment of new nursing staff. In reviewing the available literature, it is evident that undergraduate nursing students do not commence their educational program with a strong interest in pursuing a career in psychiatric nursing. In light of this knowledge, the role of education in providing a comprehensive view of the nursing profession becomes paramount. Research investigating the impact of education on the attitudes of students to psychiatric nursing as a career option has produced mixed and often inconclusive results. A longitudinal study was undertaken in Victoria, Australia. Students of the majority of universities in which undergraduate nursing programs were operating participated in this study. The participants were asked to rank nine areas of nursing specialty in order of preference at the commencement and immediately prior to the completion of the nursing program. Despite a significant improvement in the popularity of psychiatric nursing as a career choice, this area was ranked at number 8 at both pre- and post-program test. The analysis of open-ended questions demonstrated a marked change in the overall attitudes towards the mentally ill and psychiatric nursing.

  9. Predictors of extra-marital partnerships among women married to fishermen along Lake Victoria in Kisumu County, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Kwena

    Full Text Available The vulnerability of women to HIV infection makes establishing predictors of women's involvement in extra-marital partnerships critical. We investigated the predictors of extra-marital partnerships among women married to fishermen.The current analyses are part of a mixed methods cross-sectional survey of 1090 gender-matched interviews with 545 couples and 12 focus group discussions (FGDs with 59 couples. Using a proportional to size simple random sample of fishermen as our index participants, we asked them to enrol in the study with their spouses. The consenting couples were interviewed simultaneously in separate private rooms. In addition to socio-economic and demographic data, we collected information on sexual behaviour including extra-marital sexual partnerships. We analysed these data using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. For FGDs, couples willing to participate were invited, consented and separated for simultaneous FGDs by gender-matched moderators. The resultant audiofiles were transcribed verbatim and translated into English for coding and thematic content analysis using NVivo 9.The prevalence of extra-marital partnerships among women was 6.2% within a reference time of six months. Factors that were independently associated with increased likelihood of extra-marital partnerships were domestic violence (aOR, 1.45; 95% CI 1.09-1.92, women reporting being denied a preferred sex position (aOR, 3.34; 95% CI 1.26-8.84 and spouse longer erect penis (aOR, 1.34; 95% CI 1.00-1.78. Conversely, women's age--more than 24 years (aOR, 0.33; 95% CI 0.14-0.78 and women's increased sexual satisfaction (aOR, 0.92; 95% CI 0.87-0.96 were associated with reduced likelihood of extra-marital partnerships.Domestic violence, denial of a preferred sex positions, longer erect penis, younger age and increased sexual satisfaction were the main predictors of women's involvement in extra-marital partnerships. Integration of sex education, counselling and life skills training in couple HIV prevention programs might help in risk reduction.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmonangan Manurung


    Full Text Available Victoria Park is the largest city park in Hong Kong. This city park is not only known in Hong Kong, but also very well known in Indonesia as a gathering place for Indonesia domestic helpers (TKW in Hong Kong. This research tried to find out some determinant factors that have been affected the public open spac of Victoria Park to be a gathering place for thousands of TKW in Sunday and holidays as their day off. In order to get the results of research, some methodological research had been conducted such as: observation (survey, mapping, interviews and literature studies. The results showed that Victoria Park has a number of factors capable of meeting the needs of domestic help-ers in Hong Kong, these factors consist of internal factors and external factors. Internally, the character and functions held Victoria Park became a very influential factor, while externally, the accessibility and support functions around Victoria Park also has a considerable influence.

  11. Women in development: Kenya's experience. (United States)

    Herz, B


    In Kenya, the government has promoted economic policies, development programs, and a legal system geared to increase incentives and productive capacity for women. Economic strength, family health and population growth can be greatly effected by programs in women's education, health care, family planning and agriculture extension. There are 10 million women in Kenya and 60% are below 20 years of age. Women's groups have been successful in improving health and family planning practice. Women manage most small farms: 75% of the labor on the farms is provided by women. Kenya has introduced an extension system nationally focusing on women farmers as well as men. Women's demand for credit is strong and the government is considering helping expand credit through women's groups. Water is obtained by women and 9 of 10 spend more than an hour getting water each day for the family. By providing better access to water, more time can be spent on farming, family and other more important pursuits. There are many projects to improve community water supplies sponsored by both governmental and non- governmental organizations. About 1/3 girls and 2/5 boys complete primary school. Women that have more than 5 years of education have less than 3 children. There have been difficulties getting girls into later primary and secondary education, because fewer spots are allocated for girls in government-aided schools. The government it trying to improve this, but many girls drop out because of pregnancy. A third of the deaths of women between 15-35 is caused by maternal mortality. This high rate can be reduced with better prenatal care, better family planning, and more effective care at child birth. There are now about 100,000 new family planning acceptors each year. The World Bank and many international organizations have given support to the women's needs in the development process.

  12. Lunnyu soils in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda: Link to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    1Department of Forest Biology and Ecosystems Management, Faculty of Forestry and Nature Conservation, ... average annual temperature is 21.5°C (Komutunga and Musiitwa, ...... storage prediction in temperate hydromorphic soils using a.

  13. Integrated Climate Change Impact Assessment and Extreme Event Forecasting in the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB)


    Mutua, Felix Nzive


    Extreme weather events have been the leading cause of disasters and damage all over the world. Recent events have led to mass displacement, loss of income, and hampered access to clean water and health to many. The primary ingredient to these disasters especially floods is rainfall which over the years, despite advances in modeling, computing power and use of new data and technologies, has proven to be difficult to predict. Numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate models using global fo...

  14. Kenya’s Cultural Complexity (United States)


    year’s end. Approximately 30,000 new refugees and asylum seekers fled to Kenya during 2001, primarily from Somalia, Sudan, and Tanzania. In the...ages of 0 and 14 years; 56.1 percent are between 15 and 64; and 2.8 percent are 65 years or older . The infant mortality rate is estimated at 67.24...4,096 in 1997 to 4145 in 1998. Annual contribution to the National Social Security Fund decreased by 3.1 percent. Kenya’s adult literacy rate exceeds

  15. The geomorphology of Southeast Kenya


    Oosterom, A.P.


    A geomorphological map of an area of 66 500 km 2 in the southeastern part of Kenya has been prepared. In the littoral zone eight major terrace levels occurring between the present shore and approximately 160 m +MSL have been described. Analysis of radiometric datings and uplift rates of the coastal succession suggested that the formation of the terraces extends over the last 1.4 my of the Pleistocene. Soil development indicate a climatic change from humid to savannah co...

  16. VENUS - The Victoria Experimental Network Under the Sea: First Light (United States)

    Dewey, R. K.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Round, A.


    The Victoria Experimental Network Under the Sea (VENUS) is a recently installed cabled ocean observatory representing the next generation of infrastructure technology. VENUS is scheduled to consist of two major segments, one in Saanich Inlet (installed in February 2006), and a second in the Strait of Georgia (planned for October 2006). The technologies associated with both the hardware and software that will deliver data from instruments to scientists is being developed in collaboration with both the NEPTUNE Canada and MARS observatories. The presentation will provide an overview of the science projects planned for stage one of the installed instruments, the engineering design of the infrastructure, the preliminary design of the Data Management and Archive System (DMAS), lessons learned so far, and preliminary results from the first few months of data from Saanich Inlet.

  17. Myxomatosis in the Mallee region of Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Shepherd, R C; Edmonds, J W; Nolan, I F; Gocs, A


    Sharp reductions in the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.)) population in the Mallee are associated with annual myxomatosis epizootics. The extent to which the population reductions are the direct result of the epizootics varies with time of epizootic occurrence. All grazing animals in the Mallee are under nutritional stress each summer and autumn. When the epizootic occurs during the early summer heavy losses occur in a previously healthy population. Similar losses which occur in the late summer and autumn are the result of a nutritional stress - epizootic complex. The end result in each case is a population reduction of about 80%. This reduction occurs in a population which is the most resistant to myxomatosis known in Victoria and in association with epizootics caused by field strains of myxoma virus of moderate virulence only. The earlier summer epizootics are of considerable economic importance because they sharply reduce the pressure on the limited food available for other grazing animals.

  18. Literatura y vida. Una lectura de Victoria Ocampo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Celia Vázquez


    Full Text Available The relation of literature, writer and life, particularly, the way life is understood within this relation constitutes a key element to define the peculiar way of reading literature that Victoria Ocampo had. This can be seen in her essay on Emily Brontë; though she gives priority to biography over aesthetics, Ocampo does not adopt a biographical approach nor identifies the meaning of life with that of the writer's biography since she searches the key for interpretation in natural forces such as "character" and "fate" (instead of the positivistic interaction of social and historical environment. Thus, she identifies the vital experience of nature (the moors as the key for the writer's personality as well as her novel's, Wuthering Heights.

  19. Color variations on Victoria quadrangle: support for the geological mapping (United States)

    Zambon, F.; Galluzzi, V.; Carli, C.; Giacomini, L.; Massironi, M.; Palumbo, P.; Guzzetta, L.; Mancinelli, P.; Vivaldi, V.; Ferranti, L.; Pauselli, C.; Frigeri, A.; Zusi, M.; Pozzobon, R.; Cremonese, G.; Ferrari, S.; Capaccioni, F.


    Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun. Its extreme thermal environment makes it difficult to explore onsite. In 1974, Mariner 10, the first mission dedicated to Mercury, covered 45% of the surface during of the three Hermean flybys [1]. For about 30 years after Mariner 10, no other mission has flownto Mercury. Many unresolved issues need an answer, and in recent years the interest about Mercury has increased. MESSENGER mission contributed to understand Mercury's origin, its surface structure, and the nature of its magnetic field, exosphere, and magnetosphere [1]. The Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) provided a global coverage of Mercury surface with variable spatial resolution. MDIS is equipped with a narrow angle camera (NAC), dedicated to the study of the geology and a wide angle camera (WAC) with 12 filters useful to investigate the surface composition[2]. Mercury has been divided into 15 quadrangles for mapping purposes [3]. The mapping process permits integration of different geological surface information to better understand the planet crust formation and evolution. Merging spectroscopically data is a poorly followed approach in planetary mapping, but it gives additional information about lithological composition, contributing to the construction of a more complete geological map [e.g. 4]. Recently, [5] proposed a first detailed map of all the Victoria quadrangle (H2). Victoria quadrangle is located in a longitude range between 270°E and 360°E and a latitude range of 22.5°N and 65°N,and itwas only partially mapped by Mariner 10 data[3]. Here we investigate the lithological variation by using the MDIS-WAC data to produce a set of color map products which could be asupport to the geological mapping [5]. The future ESA-JAXA mission to Mercury, BepiColombo, will soon contribute to improve the knowledge of Mercury surface composition and geology thanks to the Spectrometer and Imagers for MPO BepiColombo-Integrated Observatory SYStem (SIMBIO-SYS)[6].

  20. Linking land use changes to surface water quality variability in Lake Victoria: some insights from remote sensing (United States)

    Mugo, R. M.; Limaye, A. S.; Nyaga, J. W.; Farah, H.; Wahome, A.; Flores, A.


    The water quality of inland lakes is largely influenced by land use and land cover changes within the lake's catchment. In Africa, some of the major land use changes are driven by a number of factors, which include urbanization, intensification of agricultural practices, unsustainable farm management practices, deforestation, land fragmentation and degradation. Often, the impacts of these factors are observable on changes in the land cover, and eventually in the hydrological systems. When the natural vegetation cover is reduced or changed, the surface water flow patterns, water and nutrient retention capacities are also changed. This can lead to high nutrient inputs into lakes, leading to eutrophication, siltation and infestation of floating aquatic vegetation. To assess the relationship between land use and land cover changes in part of the Lake Victoria Basin, a series of land cover maps were derived from Landsat imagery. Changes in land cover were identified through change maps and statistics. Further, the surface water chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity were derived from MODIS-Aqua data for Lake Victoria. Chlrophyll-a and turbidity are good proxy indicators of nutrient inputs and siltation respectively. The trends in chlorophyll-a and turbidity concentrations were analyzed and compared to the land cover changes over time. Certain land cover changes related to agriculture and urban development were clearly identifiable. While these changes might not be solely responsible for variability in chlrophyll-a and turbidity concentrations in the lake, they are potentially contributing factors to this problem. This work illustrates the importance of addressing watershed degradation while seeking to solve water quality related problems.

  1. Critical Comments on Brian Victoria's "Engaged Buddhism: Skeleton in the Closet?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Miyata


    Full Text Available In "Engaged Buddhism: A Skeleton in the Closet?" (Vol. 2 Brian Daizen Victoria claims, among other things, that Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871-1944, founder of the Soka Kyoiku Gakkai (forebear of the Soka Gakkai and Soka Gakkai International, was an active supporter of the Japanese wars of aggression. In this response, Koichi Miyata argues that Victoria's claims rest on the highly selective use of quotes, and ignore key interpretative issues associated with Japanese imperial fascism and its underlying belief structures. Miyata discusses the significance of Makiguchi's arrest and imprisonment under a law specifically aimed at opponents of the war efforts, in his analysis of critical lapses in Victoria's article.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 7, 2010 ... diseases; emigration of trained professionals; difficult working conditions and low motivation (5, 6). The ... surgery, ophthalmology, radiology, dermatology, anaesthesiology and dentistry and in Kenya training ..... AIDS Health Care Foundation Global Immunity: Consensus Recommendations from the ...

  3. Magmatism in rifting and basin formation (United States)

    Thybo, H.


    Whether heating and magmatism cause rifting or rifting processes cause magmatic activity is highly debated. The stretching factor in rift zones can be estimated as the relation between the initial and the final crustal thickness provided that the magmatic addition to the crust is insignificant. Recent research demonstrates substantial magmatic intrusion into the crust in the form of sill like structures in the lowest crust in the presently active Kenya and Baikal rift zones and the DonBas palaeo-rift zone in Ukraine. This result may be surprising as the Kenya Rift is associated with large amounts of volcanic products, whereas the Baikal Rift shows very little volcanism. Identification of large amounts of magmatic intrusion into the crust has strong implications for estimation of stretching factor, which in the case of Baikal Rift Zone is around 1.7 but direct estimation gives a value of 1.3-1.4 if the magmatic addition is not taken into account. This may indicate that much more stretching has taken place on rift systems than hitherto believed. Wide sedimentary basins may form around aborted rifts due to loading of the lithosphere by sedimentary and volcanic in-fill of the rift. This type of subsidence will create wide basins without faulting. The Norwegian- Danish basin in the North Sea area also has subsided gradually during the Triassic without faulting, but only few rift structures have been identified below the Triassic sequences. We have identified several mafic intrusions in the form of large batholiths, typically more than 100 km long, 20-40 km wide and 20 km thick. The associated heating would have lifted the surface by about 2 km, which may have been eroded before cooling. The subsequent contraction due to solidification and cooling would create subsidence in a geometry similar to basins that developed by loading. These new aspects of magmatism will be discussed with regard to rifting and basin formation.

  4. Nutrition Status - Rural and Urban Kenya


    Frohberg, H.; Shah, M.M.


    The paper presents a detailed nutritional analysis in the context of the food intake levels of various income groups in rural and urban Kenya. Nutritional surveys covering the majority of the population are not feasible and perhaps not necessary. The main contributions of this study are to provide an overall nutritional picture of Kenya and in particular identify the target groups within the overall population for whom in depth nutritional surveillance may be necessary.

  5. Agrobiodiversity endangered by sugarcane farming in Mumias and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sugarcane can be considered as the single most important cash crop extensively grown in the Lake. Victoria basin of Kenya and Uganda. In Kenya sugarcane is commercially grown in Western and Nyanza provinces, primarily by small scale farmers followed by large-scale farmers and company/factory nucleus estates ...

  6. A Comparison of the Nutritional Quality of Kenya\\'s Omena Fishmeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was done to determine the apparent digestibility and the nutritional and feeding values of Kenya\\'s omena fish meal fed to tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, and to compare them with that of a high quality (LT) anchovy fish meal. Digestibility was assessed using chromic oxide as an external marker. A reference diet was ...

  7. Causes of Late Pleistocene water level change in Lake Victoria, Equatorial East Africa, derived from clumped isotopes of land snails and fresh water mollusks. (Invited) (United States)

    Zaarur, S.; Affek, H. P.; Tryon, C.; Peppe, D. J.; Faith, J.


    mean annual precipitation that is significantly greater than modern. However, this is inconsistent with regional climate reconstructions. This suggests that either lake level was controlled by non-climatic factors, or that local climate in the Lake Victoria basin was different than regional patterns of climate across eastern Africa. We use oxygen and clumped isotopes of modern and fossil shells (Corbicula sp., Melanoides sp. and Bellamya unicolor) from this 18 m beach outcrop on Mfangano Island to (1) compare with modern lake water δ18O values and (2) calculate paleo-water compositions. We combine these results with calculated snail body water δ18O composition (using oxygen and clumped isotopes) of land snails (Limicoloria cf. martensiana) from Rusinga and Mfangano Islands, to study hydrological changes of Lake Victoria. We use these data to evaluate the relative importance of climate change and tectonics as mechanisms for the Late Pleistocene expansion of Lake Victoria.

  8. Supporting 'Young Carers' in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovdal, Morten; Campbell, C.; Onyango, V.


    African children who care for sick or dying adults are receiving less than optimal support due to confusion about whether or not young caregiving constitutes a form of child labour and the tendency of the authorities to play it "safe" and side with more abolitionist approaches to children's work......, avoiding engagement with support strategies that could be seen as support of child labour. To challenge this view, and move from policy paralysis to action, we present a study from western Kenya that explores community perceptions of children's work and caregiving as well as opportunities for support...... as community recommendations on how they and external service providers can work together in supporting children faced with excessive caregiving and income-generation responsibilities. We use our findings to call for less restrictive regulations of children's work and to develop a plan for policy and action...

  9. End‐of‐life decisions in medical practice: a survey of doctors in Victoria (Australia) (United States)

    Neil, D A; Coady, C A J; Thompson, J; Kuhse, H


    Objectives To discover the current state of opinion and practice among doctors in Victoria, Australia, regarding end‐of‐life decisions and the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia. Longitudinal comparison with similar 1987 and 1993 studies. Design and participants Cross‐sectional postal survey of doctors in Victoria. Results 53% of doctors in Victoria support the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia. Of doctors who have experienced requests from patients to hasten death, 35% have administered drugs with the intention of hastening death. There is substantial disagreement among doctors concerning the definition of euthanasia. Conclusions Disagreement among doctors concerning the meaning of the term euthanasia may contribute to misunderstanding in the debate over voluntary euthanasia. Among doctors in Victoria, support for the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia appears to have weakened slightly over the past 17 years. Opinion on this issue is sharply polarised. PMID:18055904

  10. Eutrophication, Nile perch and food-web interactions in south-east Lake Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, I.J.M.


    The increasing eutrophication, the introduction of Nile perch (Lates niloticus) and the increasing fishing pressure has changed Lake Victoria tremendously the last century. Since the 1960s, eutrophication increased primary production, enabling an increase in fish production. However, eutrophication

  11. Ecological Biogeography of the Terrestrial Nematodes of Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Adams


    Full Text Available The terrestrial ecosystems of Victoria Land, Antarctica are characteristically simple in terms of biological diversity and ecological functioning. Nematodes are the most commonly encountered and abundant metazoans of Victoria Land soils, yet little is known of their diversity and distribution. Herein we present a summary of the geographic distribution, habitats and ecology of the terrestrial nematodes of Victoria Land from published and unpublished sources. All Victoria Land nematodes are endemic to Antarctica, and many are common and widely distributed at landscape scales. However, at smaller spatial scales, populations can have patchy distributions, with the presence or absence of each species strongly influenced by specific habitat requirements. As the frequency of nematode introductions to Antarctica increases, and soil habitats are altered in response to climate change, our current understanding of the environmental parameters associated with the biogeography of Antarctic nematofauna will be crucial to monitoring and possibly mitigating changes to these unique soil ecosystems.

  12. Analysis of an Organisation: A University of the Third Age (U3A), Mornington, Victoria (United States)

    Small, Michael


    The purpose of this paper is two fold: to look at Mornington U3A in organisational terms and then look at U3AM as a loosely coupled system. One outcome of the study would be to undertake further analyses of U3As in Victoria to determine the levels of bureaucracy under which each operates. Questions to be asked: are U3As in Victoria operating as…

  13. Sensitivity analysis of the GNSS derived Victoria plate motion (United States)

    Apolinário, João; Fernandes, Rui; Bos, Machiel


    Fernandes et al. (2013) estimated the angular velocity of the Victoria tectonic block from geodetic data (GNSS derived velocities) only.. GNSS observations are sparse in this region and it is therefore of the utmost importance to use the available data (5 sites) in the most optimal way. Unfortunately, the existing time-series were/are affected by missing data and offsets. In addition, some time-series were close to the considered minimal threshold value to compute one reliable velocity solution: 2.5-3.0 years. In this research, we focus on the sensitivity of the derived angular velocity to changes in the data (longer data-span for some stations) by extending the used data-span: Fernandes et al. (2013) used data until September 2011. We also investigate the effect of adding other stations to the solution, which is now possible since more stations became available in the region. In addition, we study if the conventional power-law plus white noise model is indeed the best stochastic model. In this respect, we apply different noise models using HECTOR (Bos et al. (2013), which can use different noise models and estimate offsets and seasonal signals simultaneously. The seasonal signal estimation is also other important parameter, since the time-series are rather short or have large data spans at some stations, which implies that the seasonal signals still can have some effect on the estimated trends as shown by Blewitt and Lavellee (2002) and Bos et al. (2010). We also quantify the magnitude of such differences in the estimation of the secular velocity and their effect in the derived angular velocity. Concerning the offsets, we investigate how they can, detected and undetected, influence the estimated plate motion. The time of offsets has been determined by visual inspection of the time-series. The influence of undetected offsets has been done by adding small synthetic random walk signals that are too small to be detected visually but might have an effect on the

  14. Compositional variations on Mercury: Results from the Victoria quadrangle (United States)

    Zambon, Francesca; Carli, Cristian; Galluzzi, Valentina; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Giacomini, Lorenza; Massironi, Matteo; Palumbo, Pasquale; Cremonese, Gabriele


    Mercury was recently explored by the MESSENGER mission that orbited around the planet from March 2011 until April 2015 allowing a complete coverage of its surface. The Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS), mapped the Hermean surface at different spatial resolutions, due to variable altitude of the spacecraft from the surface. MDIS consists of two instruments: a Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) centered at 747nm, which acquired high-resolution images for the geological analysis, and the Wide Angle Camera (WAC), provided with 11 filters dedicated to the compositional analysis, operating in a range of wavelengths between 395 and 1040 nm. Mercury's surface has been divided into 15 quadrangles for mapping purposes. Here, we analyze the results obtained by the color composite mosaic of the quadrangle Victoria (H02) located at longitudes 270 ° - 360 ° E, and latitudes 22.5 ° N - 65 ° N. We produced a color mosaic, by using the images relative to the filters with the best spatial coverage. To obtain the 8-color mosaic of the Victoria quadrangle, we calibrated and georefenced the WAC raw images. Afterwards, we applied the Hapke photometric correction by using the parameters derived by Domingue et al. (2015). We projected and coregistered the data, and finally, we produced the mosaic. To analyze the compositional variations of the Victoria quadrangle, we consider different techniques of analysis, such as specific RGB color combinations and band ratios, which emphasize the different compositional characteristics of the surface. Furthermore, the use of clustering and classification methods allows for recognizing various terrain units, in terms of reflectance and spectral characteristics. In the H02 quadrangle, we observed a dichotomy in the RGB mosaic (R: second principal component (PC2), G: first principal component (PC1), B: 430/1000 nm; see Denevi et al. 2009) between the northern region of the quadrangle, dominated by smooth plains, and the southern part, characterized by

  15. Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 6, 2003 ... EFFECTS OF KHAT (CATHA EDULIS) CONSUMPTION ON REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTIONS: A REVIEW. JM. Mwenda, MPhil, PhD ... family Celastraceae (the bitter-sweet family of plants). It grows to a height of seven .... aspects of reproduction. Reproductive organ/function Khat extract Effects Reference(s).

  16. Linguistic realities in Kenya: A preliminary survey | Dwivedi | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present paper investigates the linguistic realities of Kenya. In this multilingual country every language is not equal in status. Broadly, there are three language groups in Kenya, namely Bantu, Nilotic and Cushitic, and each group includes more than five languages which makes Kenya as a multilingual country with about ...

  17. Kenya | Page 30 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · South of Sahara. Kenya. Kenya. Read more about Toward a Regional Research Agenda on Pharmaceutical Manufacturing and Access to Medicines in Sub-Saharan Africa. Language English. Read more about Soutien organisationnel de la phase 2 de l'ITT : Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis.

  18. Kenya | Page 22 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Accueil · Sud du Sahara. Kenya. Kenya. Read more about Determination of Mucosal Secretory Factors that Influence Susceptibility to HIV Infection Among Female Sex Workers in Kenya. Langue English. Read more about From Data to Development: Exploring the Emerging Impact of Open Government Data in Developing ...

  19. Smallholder dairying in Kenya: the assessment of the technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dairying in Kenya remains a multi-purpose cattle system providing milk, manure and capital assets to the farmer. Dairy activities in Kenya are predominantly run by smallholders and are concentrated in the high and medium potential areas. Smallholders operating 1-3 dairy cows on small farms are predominant in Kenya.

  20. Resistance of the predacious mite, euseius kenyae (acari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess whether the predacious phytoseiid mite, Euseius kenyae (Swirski and Ragusa), commonly found in major coffee growing regions in Kenya has developed resistance to Chlorpyrifos. Mite populations were collected from coffee farms harbouring E. kenyae and where Chlorpyrifos or other ...

  1. Stratigraphic relations of australites in the Port Campbell embayment, Victoria (United States)

    Shoemaker, Eugene M.; Uhlherr, H. Ralph


    In the Port Campbell Embayment of Victoria, australites have been found in situ in channel deposits of the Hanson Plain Sand of Pliocene and Pleistocene age. The large majority of the australites, however, occur as a lag deposit at the basal contact of the Sturgess Sand of late Pleistocene and Holocene age and are spatially correlated with ferruginous sandstone clasts that are derived from the Hanson Plain Sand. Some of the tektites are imbedded in or bonded to the ferruginous sandstone clasts, but most are found as individual tektite fragments. A few percent of the tektites have nearly perfectly preserved, complete aerodynamically shaped forms. The sandstone clasts and associated tektites have been reworked from the much older underlying Hanson Plain and have been locally concentrated in the lag deposit. Some tektites also occur at higher levels in the Sturgess Sand, almost invariably in association with stone flakes, exotic stones transported by the aborigines, and, locally, with middens of mollusc shells. Circumstantial evidence indicates that the aborigines transported the tektites found in the upper part of the Sturgess, particularly at Stanhope Bay. As Port Campbell australites unequivocally occur in strata much older than the late Pleistocene and Holocene Sturgess, there is no longer any conflict between the apparent stratigraphic age of the tektites and the middle Pleistocene ages obtained by various chronometric methods.

  2. The bone microstructure of polar "hypsilophodontid" dinosaurs from Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Woodward, Holly N; Rich, Thomas H; Vickers-Rich, Patricia


    High-latitude (i.e., "polar") Mesozoic fauna endured months of twilight and relatively low mean annual temperatures. Yet non-avian dinosaurs flourished in this taxing environment. Fossils of basal ornithopod dinosaurs ("hypsilophodontids") are common in the Early Cretaceous high-latitude sediments of Victoria, Australia, and four taxa have been described; although their ontogenetic histories are largely unexplored. In the present study, eighteen tibiae and femora were utilized in the first multi-specimen ontogenetic histological analysis of Australian polar hypsilophodontids. The sample consists of eleven individuals from the Flat Rocks locality (Late Valanginian or Barremian), and five from the Dinosaur Cove locality (Albian). In both groups, growth was most rapid during the first three years, and skeletal maturity occurred between five and seven years. There is a weak asymptotic trend in a plot of growth mark count versus femur length, with considerable individual variation. Histology suggests two genera are present within the Dinosaur Cove sample, but bone microstructure alone could not distinguish genera within the Flat Rocks sample, or across the two geologically separate (~ 26 Ma) localities. Additional histologic sampling, combined with morphological analyses, may facilitate further differentiation between ontogenetic, individual, and species variation.

  3. Diversity of soil yeasts isolated from South Victoria Land, Antarctica (United States)

    Connell, L.; Redman, R.; Craig, S.; Scorzetti, G.; Iszard, M.; Rodriguez, R.


    Unicellular fungi, commonly referred to as yeasts, were found to be components of the culturable soil fungal population in Taylor Valley, Mt. Discovery, Wright Valley, and two mountain peaks of South Victoria Land, Antarctica. Samples were taken from sites spanning a diversity of soil habitats that were not directly associated with vertebrate activity. A large proportion of yeasts isolated in this study were basidiomycetous species (89%), of which 43% may represent undescribed species, demonstrating that culturable yeasts remain incompletely described in these polar desert soils. Cryptococcus species represented the most often isolated genus (33%) followed by Leucosporidium (22%). Principle component analysis and multiple linear regression using stepwise selection was used to model the relation between abiotic variables (principle component 1 and principle component 2 scores) and yeast biodiversity (the number of species present at a given site). These analyses identified soil pH and electrical conductivity as significant predictors of yeast biodiversity. Species-specific PCR primers were designed to rapidly discriminate among the Dioszegia and Leucosporidium species collected in this study. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  4. Adolescent Experience of Menstruation in Rural Kenya. (United States)

    Secor-Turner, Molly; Schmitz, Kaitlin; Benson, Kristen


    Although menstruation is a universal experience, girls in resource-poor areas face unique challenges related to menstruation management. In Kenya, girls miss nearly 3.5 million learning days per month because of limited access to sanitary products and lack of adequate sanitation. Global priorities to address gender inequality-especially related to education-often do not consider the impact of poverty on gendered experiences, such as menstruation. The aim of the study was to describe the experiences of menstruation from the perspective of adolescent girls living in rural Kenya. Data for this qualitative study were collected through 29 individual interviews with adolescent girls and separate field observations. Descriptive content analysis was used to identify themes reflective of the data from the individual interviews and field notes. Four themes were developed to summarize the data: (a) receiving information about menstruation, (b) experiences of menstruation, (c) menstrual hygiene practices, and (d) social norms and the meaning of menstruation. Findings from this study describe the impact of menstruation on the lives of adolescent girls in rural Kenya. Menstrual hygiene management and its associated challenges may impact girls' academic continuity. Experiences of menstruation also reinforce gender inequality and further marginalize girls in low-income, rural areas of Kenya. Consideration of menstruation is critical to promote health and academic continuity for girls in rural Kenya.

  5. Kenya Hospices and Palliative Care Association: integrating palliative care in public hospitals in Kenya


    Ali, Zipporah


    Background In Kenya, cancers as a disease group rank third as a cause of death after infectious and cardiovascular diseases. It is estimated that the annual incidence of cancer is about 37,000 new cases with an annual mortality of 28,000 cases (Kenya National Cancer Control Strategy 2010). The incidence of non-communicable diseases accounts for more than 50% of total hospital admissions and over 55% of hospital deaths (Kenya National Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Non Communicable...

  6. Flow structures and fluid transport for the hydromedusae Sarsia tubulosa and Aequorea victoria. (United States)

    Lipinski, Doug; Mohseni, Kamran


    The flow structures produced by the hydromedusae Sarsia tubulosa and Aequorea victoria are examined using direct numerical simulation and Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS). Body motion of each hydromedusa is digitized and input to a CFD program. Sarsia tubulosa uses a jetting type of propulsion, emitting a single, strong, fast-moving vortex ring during each swimming cycle while a secondary vortex of opposite rotation remains trapped within the subumbrellar region. The ejected vortex is highly energetic and moves away from the hydromedusa very rapidly. Conversely, A. victoria, a paddling type hydromedusa, is found to draw fluid from the upper bell surface and eject this fluid in pairs of counter-rotating, slow-moving vortices near the bell margins. Unlike S. tubulosa, both vortices are ejected during the swimming cycle of A. victoria and linger in the tentacle region. In fact, we find that A. victoria and S. tubulosa swim with Strouhal numbers of 1.1 and 0.1, respectively. This means that vortices produced by A. victoria remain in the tentacle region roughly 10 times as long as those produced by S. tubulosa, which presents an excellent feeding opportunity during swimming for A. victoria. Finally, we examine the pressure on the interior bell surface of both hydromedusae and the velocity profile in the wake. We find that S. tubulosa produces very uniform pressure on the interior of the bell as well as a very uniform jet velocity across the velar opening. This type of swimming can be well approximated by a slug model, but A. victoria creates more complicated pressure and velocity profiles. We are also able to estimate the power output of S. tubulosa and find good agreement with other hydromedusan power outputs. All results are based on numerical simulations of the swimming jellyfish.

  7. New radiocarbon dates for terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene settlements in West Turkana, northern Kenya (United States)

    Beyin, Amanuel; Prendergast, Mary E.; Grillo, Katherine M.; Wang, Hong


    The Turkana Basin in northern Kenya is located in an environmentally sensitive region along the eastern African Rift system. Lake Turkana's sensitivity to fluctuations in precipitation makes this an ideal place to study prehistoric human adaptations during key climatic transitions. Here we present eleven radiocarbon dates from two recently excavated sites in West Turkana, Kokito 01 and Kokito 02. The sites span the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, a time of fluctuating lake levels and novel cultural responses within the region. Several scenarios are laid out for the interpretation of site chronologies, and these are discussed with reference to the terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene chronological record for the region. Given the paucity of well-dated sites from this timespan in the Turkana Basin, the new radiocarbon dates are an important step toward establishing human settlement history and associated cultural developments in the region.

  8. Spatial determinants of poverty in rural Kenya. (United States)

    Okwi, Paul O; Ndeng'e, Godfrey; Kristjanson, Patti; Arunga, Mike; Notenbaert, An; Omolo, Abisalom; Henninger, Norbert; Benson, Todd; Kariuki, Patrick; Owuor, John


    This article investigates the link between poverty incidence and geographical conditions within rural locations in Kenya. Evidence from poverty maps for Kenya and other developing countries suggests that poverty and income distribution are not homogenous. We use spatial regression techniques to explore the effects of geographic factors on poverty. Slope, soil type, distance/travel time to public resources, elevation, type of land use, and demographic variables prove to be significant in explaining spatial patterns of poverty. However, differential influence of these and other factors at the location level shows that provinces in Kenya are highly heterogeneous; hence different spatial factors are important in explaining welfare levels in different areas within provinces, suggesting that targeted propoor policies are needed. Policy simulations are conducted to explore the impact of various interventions on location-level poverty levels. Investments in roads and improvements in soil fertility are shown to potentially reduce poverty rates, with differential impacts in different regions.

  9. Innovation and Financial Inclusion in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omanga, Josphat; Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian


    This chapter analyzes the role of financial innovation and mobile phone technologies to financial inclusion in Kenya. In order to do so, a case study on M-PESA is conducted, the leading mobile service of money transfers in Africa, which is offered by Safaricom. M-PESA services are cheap and easy...... to use in comparison to other formal and informal providers of financial services. It solves two different problems in Kenya: customers do not have to travel anymore long distances to reach financial services and more people can afford them. As result and in line with the literature, this chapter...... suggests that M-PESA services can be considered a type of disruptive innovation that promotes financial inclusion and wealth growth in Kenya....

  10. Girl domestic workers in Kenya. (United States)

    Mzungu, M


    This article exposes the conditions among children who are forced by their poor families to assume domestic work in households in Kenya. It is an accepted practice for parents to place daughters in households to help with housework and baby-sitting. The Sinaga Women and Child Labor Resource Center in Nairobi finds this exploitative and part of a wider practice that institutionalizes violence against women. The Center was established in 1995 to challenge the practice of child domestic labor. The Center's research reveals that child domestic workers tend to come from large, poor, and rural families or from urban slums. Wages are low or exchanged for shoes, clothes, and food. The hours of work are long. Mistreatment may include sexual molestation by male household members, beatings, verbal abuse, and mistrust. There is little recourse. Complaints from child workers or others outside the household can result in further mistreatment. Action against mistreatment is complicated by the prevailing image of activists as frustrated women with vendettas against men. The Center focuses on rehabilitation, literacy training, marketable skill development, and awareness creation. Counseling includes parents, children, and employers. Public awareness campaigns have resulted in employer referrals of youth workers for training. Other groups are joining the effort to improve conditions for child domestic workers.

  11. Characterising groundwater dynamics in Western Victoria, Australia using Menyanthes software (United States)

    Woldeyohannes, Yohannes; Webb, John


    Water table across much of the western Victoria, Australia have been declining for at least the last 10-15 years, and this is attributed to the consistently low rainfall for these years, but over the same period of time there has been substantial change in land use, with grazing land replaced by cropping and tree plantations appearing in some areas. Hence, it is important to determine the relative effect the climate and land use factors on the water table changes. Monitoring changes in groundwater levels to climate variables and/or land use change is helpful in indicating the degree of threat faced to agricultural and public assets. The dynamics of the groundwater system in the western Victoria, mainly on the basalt plain, have been modelled to determine the climatic influence in water table fluctuations. In this study, a standardized computer package Menyanthes was used for quantifying the influence of climatic variables on the groundwater level, statistically estimating trends in groundwater levels and identify the properties that determine the dynamics of groundwater system. This method is optimized for use on hydrological problems and is based on the use of continuous time transfer function noise model, which estimates the Impulse response function of the system from the temporal correlation between time series of groundwater level and precipitation surplus. In this approach, the spatial differences in the groundwater system are determined by the system properties, while temporal variation is driven by the dynamics of the input into the system. 80 time series models are analysed and the model output parameter values characterized by their moments. The zero-order moment Mo of a distribution function is its area and M1 is related to the mean of the impulse response function. The relation is M1/Mo. It is a measure of the system's memory. It takes approximately 3 times the mean time (M1/Mo) for the effect of a shower to disappear completely from the system. Overall

  12. A mafic-ultramafic cumulate sequence derived from boninite-type melts (Niagara Icefalls, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica) (United States)

    Tribuzio, Riccardo; Tiepolo, Massimo; Fiameni, Stefania


    The layered sequence from Niagara Icefalls (northern Victoria Land, Antarctica) is related to the Cambrian-Early Ordovician Ross Orogeny. The sequence consists of dunites, harzburgites, orthopyroxenites, melagabbronorites and gabbronorites of cumulus origin. The Mg# of olivine, spinel, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene from these rocks yields positive correlations, thus indicating formation from melts that mainly evolved through fractional crystallisation. The following fractionation sequence was identified: olivine (up to 94 mol% forsterite) + Cr-rich spinel → olivine + orthopyroxene ± spinel → orthopyroxene → orthopyroxene + anorthite-rich plagioclase ± clinopyroxene. Clinopyroxenes retain the peculiar trace element signature of boninite melts, such as extremely low concentrations of HREE and HFSE, and LILE enrichment over REE and HFSE. U-Pb isotope data on zircons separated from a gabbronorite have allowed us to constrain the age of emplacement of the Niagara Icefalls sequence at ˜514 Ma. The occurrence of inherited zircons dated at ˜538 Ma indicates that the boninitic melts experienced, at least locally, crustal contamination. The Niagara Icefalls sequence can be related to a regional scale magmatic event that affected the eastern margin of the Gondwana supercontinent in the Middle Cambrian. We propose that the formation of the sequence was associated with the development of an embryonic back-arc basin in an active continental margin.

  13. Evaluation of vehicle side airbag effectiveness in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    D'Elia, Angelo; Newstead, Stuart; Scully, Jim


    Side airbag systems were first introduced into vehicles around 1995 to help protect occupants from injury in side impact crashes. International studies have shown that side airbags are effective in reducing the risk of death and injury, however, serious injuries can still occur even when side airbags deploy. The objective of this study was to use detailed injury information from insurance injury compensation claims data linked to Police reported crash data to determine the effectiveness of side airbags in reducing the risk of death or injury for occupants involved in side impact crashes in Victoria, Australia based on the specific body regions that side airbag systems are designed to protect. It was found that head and torso-protecting dual airbag systems designed to protect the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen are highly effective in reducing driver death or injury due to near side crashes. They were associated with a statistically significant reduction of 41.1% (25.9%, 53.2%) in the odds of death or injury across all body regions; and a 48.0% (28.0%, 62.4%) reduction in the odds of death or injury to the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen. The study did not find any evidence that torso-protecting airbags alone are effective in reducing death or injury. Analysis results indicate that head and torso-protecting side airbag systems in vehicles are a highly effective technology for reducing the risk of death or injury to vehicle occupants in near side crashes. The magnitude of the injury reduction benefits estimated indicate that fitment of this technology to all vehicles should be a high priority and will yield significant savings in overall road trauma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of the Bottom Sediment Velocity-Depth Relationship for the Somali Basin and the Arabian Sea (United States)


    north by the Carlsberg Ridge, on the west by the east coast of Somali, Kenya and Tanzania, on the south by the Comoros Islands and Madagascar and on...E3RIDGE IIJPLATEAU W CONE M RISE BASIN TERRACE SEAMOUNT ABYSSAL HILLS TRENCH MID-OCEAN RIDGE TRANVERSE FAULT 5 Figure 2. Arabian Sea Physiography and...African Coast, the Mascarene Plateau and the Carlsberg Ridge. In the northern portion of the basin, Chain Ridge separates two abyssal plain areas and almost

  15. Drying out the Nile? Regional Climate Change and Water Resources in East Africa with a focus on Lake Victoria and Lake Tana (United States)

    Mottram, Ruth; Fox Maule, Cathrine; Thejll, Peter; Stendel, Martin; Drews, Martin; Davies, Sarah; Lamb, Henry


    The East African lakes Victoria and Tana are important local water resources for agriculture, fisheries and hydropower; they are also the main sources of the Nile. In this study we focus on the evaporative and evapotranspirative regimes of the hydrological basins for Lakes Tana and Victoria to determine how regional climate change under the A1B scenario is likely to affect the local and regional hydrology. We show results from a very high resolution (10km) simulation, where the state-of-the-art regional climate model (RCM) HIRHAM5 was driven by the global circulation model (GCM) ECHAM5 under the A1B scenario. Three time-slices have been investigated for present day (1980-1999), mid-century (2046-2065) and end of the 21st century (2080-2099) periods. Our analysis includes a comparison with a coarser 0.44o (~50 km) resolution run which demonstrates the importance of using high resolution (10km or higher) in RCM studies of this type to correctly simulate the seasonal and geographical characteristics of the present day east African monsoon system. The projections also indicate that climate change under the intermediate SRES A1B scenario is expected to cause more frequent failures of the East African rains with important consequences for the region and for the hydrology of the East African Lakes. This work introduces the proposed DACEA (Drivers of Aridity Change in East Africa) project which aims to investigate regional and global teleconnections that affect aridity in East Africa. Future work will combine climate palaeoproxies from Lake Tana and Lake Victoria with model experiments carried out with the EC-Earth coupled Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Model and downscaled to very high resolution with the RCM HIRHAM5 to determine regional and global scale influences on the African monsoon system. The HIRHAM5 simulations will be dynamically coupled to a regional hydrological model based on MIKE SHE, to evaluate the consequences and the feedback from the regional

  16. Morfologia da flor, fruto e plântula de Victoria amazonica (Poepp. J.C. Sowerby (Nymphaeaceae Morphology of flower, fruit and seedling of Victoria amazonica (Poepp. J.C. Sowerby (Nymphaeaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maciel da Rosa-Osman


    Full Text Available Victoria amazonica (Poepp. J.C. Sowerby é uma hidrófita que ocorre nas várzeas de águas brancas e igapós da Bacia Amazônica e na Bacia do rio Paraguai. A morfologia da flor, fruto e plântula/"tirodendro" é objeto do presente trabalho. O material botânico foi coletado em Parintins e Manaus, estado do Amazonas, Brasil. A análise morfológica foi feita em material fresco e fixado em FAA 50. O desenvolvimento das plântulas foi realizado no escuro em frascos com água com teor reduzido de oxigênio. As flores possuem pedicelo longo e são hemicíclicas, diclamídeas, monoclinas e com antese vespertina. Os frutos são carnosos, indeiscentes, com pseudossincarpia. As sementes apresentam arilo que atua na dispersão pela água. As plântulas se desenvolvem em condições de hipoxia e apresentam um cotilédone exposto acicular. O "tirodendro" apresenta eofilos com heterofilia. As flores apresentam caracteres morfológicos básicos da família, a definição do tipo de fruto exige estudo ontogenético e a heterofilia é um caráter típico de plântulas/"tirodendros"de Nymphaeaceae.Victoria amazonica (Poepp. J.C. Sowerby is a hydrophyte that occurs in the white water leas and igapos of the Amazonian and Paraguay Basin. The flower, fruit and seedling/"tirodendro" morphology is the object of the present work. The botanical material was collected at Parintins and Manaus, Amazonian state, Brazil. The morphological analysis was made in both fresh and fixed material. The seedling development was accomplished in flasks with water containing little oxygen and maintained in the darkness. Flowers present long pedicel and they are hemicyclic, dichlamydeous, bisexual with vespertine anthesis. Fruits are fleshy, indehiscent with pseudo-syncarpy. Seeds present aril that acts in the water dispersion. Seedlings grow in hypoxy conditions and they present an acicular and exposed cotyledon. The "tirodendro" stage presents eophylls with heterophylly. Flowers

  17. Marine research in the Latitudinal Gradient Project along Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Arthur Berkman


    Full Text Available This paper describes the conceptual framework of the Latitudinal Gradient Project that is being implemented by the New Zealand, Italian and United States Antarctic programmes along Victoria Land, Antarctica, from 72°S to 86°S. The purpose of this interdisciplinary research project is to assess the dynamics and coupling of marine and terrestrial ecosystems in relation to global climate variability. Preliminary data about the research cruises from the R/V “Italica” and R/V “Tangaroa” along the Victoria Land Coast in 2004 are presented. As a global climate barometer, this research along Victoria Land provides a unique framework for assessing latitudinal shifts in ‘sentinel’ environmental transition zones, where climate changes have an amplified impact on the phases of water.

  18. Reducing vulnerability among pastoralists in Northern Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Climate data confirms pastoral livelihoods are at risk from rising surface temperatures, more intense rainfall and more frequent droughts. Figure 2 shows a ... 1 Rainfall and drought data from “An assessment of drought induced vulnerability of the Turkana pastoralist community livelihoods in northern Kenya and its ability to.

  19. Kenya | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Could affordable daycare be the key to unlocking women's earning power in Africa? Language English. En juillet dernier, des membres du Conseil des gouverneurs du CRDI se sont rendus en Afrique de l'Est pour rencontrer des bénéficiaires de subventions de recherche du Centre au Kenya, ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    appliances demands specialty training. Indeed, in unskilled hands, these appliances can produce a very ... training in Kenya and at the moment there are three dentists pursuing the specialty outside the country. This ... dental and facial aesthetics below the norm as perceived by self and public is a handicap that can lead to.

  1. Clinical Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer in Kenya tients with sufficient information on CRC pathology, treatment and follow up were included. Patient profile, tumor sub-site, pathology details, recurrence and mor- tality data were ... Introduction. The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the devel- .... included the presence of co-morbidity, recurrence, cura-.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 7, 2014 ... Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Medicine, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. Request for reprint to: Dr. ... Settings: Department of Radiology Kenyatta National Hospital,Department of Imaging and Radiation Medicine .... Chernobyl nuclear accident (7). One author has vividly ...

  3. International Tourism in Kenya: Development, Problems and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reviews the main features of international tourism development in Kenya, with particular reference to the problems and difficulties of development and the challenges that the industry faces on the eve of the millennium. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review (EASSRR) VOLUME XVI No. 2 June 2000, pp.

  4. Tracking and tracing tobacco products in Kenya. (United States)

    Ross, Hana


    This report evaluates the effectiveness of various measures to control the size of illicit cigarette trade in Kenya. It is based on a literature review, a review of conference proceedings/materials, online searches, and analyses of data from the National Statistical Office of Kenya, ERC, and Euromonitor. I used both published and grey literature, official government reports, and online news articles. In response to the presence of illicit cigarettes in the market in the early 2000s, Kenya adopted numerous measures to reduce tobacco tax evasion, with varying degrees of success. The latest solution involving a tracking and tracing system accompanied by electronic cargo monitoring of export seems to be the most effective, as it reduced the size of the illicit cigarette market and increased tax revenue. In addition, it seems to be more resistant to tampering. The experience of Kenya highlights the importance of consistency and comprehensiveness of the system addressing tax evasion, because piecemeal measures have only short-term effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngeno, K.


    Abstract Ngeno, K. (2015). Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya. Analysis of diversity in indigenous chicken populations. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands The objective of this research was to generate knowledge required for the development of an

  6. Kenya Veterinarian - Vol 38, No 1 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of Bovine Papillomatosis using an Autogenous Vaccine: A case study in Bukura Agricultural College, Western Kenya · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. DM Lubembe, SM Githigia, P Chogo, HM Athumani, JM Kitaa, 43-44 ...

  7. Kenya Veterinarian - Vol 36, No 1 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outbreak of neurological disorder associated with Streptococcus suis in a pig multiplication unit in Kenya · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Prevalence of ringworm (dermatophytosis) in dogs and cats submitted to the small animal clinic of the University of Nairobi between 2001 and 2010 · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL ...

  8. Preparing for major incidents in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.W. Wachira*


    This report provides a review of some of the major incidents in Kenya for the period 2000–2012, with the hope of highlighting the importance of developing an integrated and well-trained Ambulance and Fire and Rescue service appropriate for the local health care system.

  9. Information seeking and communication behaviour of Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the findings of a study which sought insight into engineer's information seeking and communication behaviour at Kenya Railways Corporation. The study employed a user centered approach to information seeking and use unlike many past studies which were system centered. It focused broadly and ...

  10. Congenital malformations among newborns in Kenya | Muga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Available literature suggests that congenital malformations are a major cause of prenatal infant deaths and postnatal physical defects [1, 2]. Therefore, a study was conducted to determine the patterns and incidence of congenital malformations at birth in newborns in Kenya and thereby analyze associated predisposing ...

  11. Print, Newspapers and Audiences in Colonial Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Bodil Folke


    in newspapers. They depended on voluntary and political associations and anti-colonial struggles in Kenya and on links to nationalists in India and the passive resistance movement in South Africa. They sidestepped the European-dominated print culture and created an anti-colonial counter-voice. Editors insisted...

  12. Firearm Injuries at Selected Hospitals in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    socioeconomic crises and law enforcement activities (10). Changes in the referral system are an unlikely explanation as KNH has remained the only public institution with the capacity to handle the complex injuries that may result from gun shots. Kenya's neighbours continue to have wars and rebellions and this has resulted.

  13. Early Primary Literacy Instruction in Kenya (United States)

    Dubeck, Margaret M.; Jukes, Matthew C. H.; Okello, George


    We report on a study that used observations, conversations, and formal interviews to explore literacy instruction in 24 lower-primary classrooms in coastal Kenya. Specifically, we report the ways literacy instruction is delivered and how that delivery aligns with practices understood to promote reading acquisition. We find (1) prioritization of…

  14. Aflatoxins and child health in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. de Vries


    textabstractIn this thesis it has become evident that aflatoxin contamination is wide spread in tropical Kenya. The source of aflatoxins is in the food consumed by these people. It is sad to reflect that if western standards for aflatoxin contamination (11) were applied to the food consumed by

  15. Kenya Veterinarian - Vol 31, No 1 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary Findings on the Carrier Status of Pasteurella multocida in Farmed and Traded Healthy-appearing Scavenging Indigenous Chickens and Ducks in Kenya · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. P G Mbuthia, L W Njagi, L C Bebora, G M Mugera, T A Ngatia, ...

  16. Child Labor and School Attendance in Kenya (United States)

    Moyi, Peter


    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Kenya dealing with natural products. The many and various forms of herbal medicine have evolved against widely different ethnological, cultural, climatic, geographic and even philosophical background. The evaluation of these products and ensuring their safety and efficacy through registration and regulation present.

  18. Seasons and nutrition at the Kenya coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Klaver, W.


    This monograph reports on the seasonal fluctuations in food and nutrition that occur in Coast Province, Kenya, on the basis of data gathered during five survey rounds held in selected locations in Kwale and Kilifi districts between mid 1985 and late 1986. The study population seems to have developed

  19. Chemodenitrification in the cryoecosystem of Lake Vida, Victoria Valley, Antarctica. (United States)

    Ostrom, N E; Gandhi, H; Trubl, G; Murray, A E


    Lake Vida, in the Victoria Valley of East Antarctica, is frozen, yet harbors liquid brine (~20% salt, >6 times seawater) intercalated in the ice below 16 m. The brine has been isolated from the surface for several thousand years. The brine conditions (permanently dark, -13.4 °C, lack of O2 , and pH of 6.2) and geochemistry are highly unusual. For example, nitrous oxide (N2 O) is present at a concentration among the highest reported for an aquatic environment. Only a minor 17 O anomaly was observed in N2 O, indicating that this gas was predominantly formed in the lake. In contrast, the 17 O anomaly in nitrate (NO3-) in Lake Vida brine indicates that approximately half or more of the NO3- present is derived from atmospheric deposition. Lake Vida brine was incubated in the presence of 15 N-enriched substrates for 40 days. We did not detect microbial nitrification, dissimilatory reduction of NO3- to ammonium (NH4+), anaerobic ammonium oxidation, or denitrification of N2 O under the conditions tested. In the presence of 15 N-enriched nitrite (NO2-), both N2 and N2 O exhibited substantial 15 N enrichments; however, isotopic enrichment declined with time, which is unexpected. Additions of 15 N-NO2- alone and in the presence of HgCl2 and ZnCl2 to aged brine at -13 °C resulted in linear increases in the δ15 N of N2 O with time. As HgCl2 and ZnCl2 are effective biocides, we interpret N2 O production in the aged brine to be the result of chemodenitrification. With this understanding, we interpret our results from the field incubations as the result of chemodenitrification stimulated by the addition of 15 N-enriched NO2- and ZnCl2 and determined rates of N2 O and N2 production of 4.11-41.18 and 0.55-1.75 nmol L-1  day-1 , respectively. If these rates are representative of natural production, the current concentration of N2 O in Lake Vida could have been reached between 6 and 465 years. Thus, chemodenitrification alone is sufficient to explain the high levels of N2 O

  20. Stroke Incidence in Victoria, Australia—Emerging Improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin B. Clissold


    Full Text Available BackgroundEvidence of a decline in the incidence of stroke has emerged from population-based studies. These have included retrospective and prospective cohorts. However, in Australia and other countries, government bodies and stroke foundations predict a rise in the prevalence of stroke that is anticipated to increase the burden of stroke across the entire domain of care. This increase in prevalence must be viewed as different from the decline in incidence being observed, a measure of new stroke cases. In Victoria, all public emergency department visits and public and private hospital admissions are reported to the Department of Health and Human Services and include demographic, diagnostic, and procedural/treatment information.MethodsWe obtained data from financial years 1997/1998 to 2007/2008 inclusive, for all cases with a primary stroke diagnosis (ICD-10-AM categories with associated data fields. Incident cases were established by using a 5-year clearance period.ResultsFrom 2003/2004 to 2007/2008 inclusive, there were 53,425 patients with a primary stroke or TIA diagnosis. The crude incident stroke rate for first ever stroke was 211 per 100,000 per year (95% CI 205–217 [females—205 per 100,000 per year (95% CI 196–214 and males—217 per 100,000 per year (95% CI 210–224]. The overall stroke rates were seen to significantly decline over the period [males (per 100,000 per year 227 in 2003/2004 to 202 in 2007/2008 (p = 0.0157 and females (per 100,000 per year 214 in 2003/2004 to 188 in 2007/2008 (p = 0.0482]. Ischemic stroke rates also appeared to decline; however, this change was not significant.ConclusionThese results demonstrate a significant decline in stroke incidence during the study period and may suggest evidence for effectiveness of primary and secondary prevention strategies in cerebrovascular risk factor management.

  1. Stratigraphic architecture of bedrock reference section, Victoria Crater, Meridiani Planum, Mars (United States)

    Edgar, Lauren A.; Grotzinger, John P.; Hayes, Alex G.; Rubin, David M.; Squyres, Steve W.; Bell, James F.; Herkenhoff, Ken E.


    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has investigated bedrock outcrops exposed in several craters at Meridiani Planum, Mars, in an effort to better understand the role of surface processes in its geologic history. Opportunity has recently completed its observations of Victoria crater, which is 750 m in diameter and exposes cliffs up to ~15 m high. The plains surrounding Victoria crater are ~10 m higher in elevation than those surrounding the previously explored Endurance crater, indicating that the Victoria crater exposes a stratigraphically higher section than does the Endurance crater; however, Victoria strata overlap in elevation with the rocks exposed at the Erebus crater. Victoria crater has a well-developed geomorphic pattern of promontories and embayments that define the crater wall and that reveal thick bedsets (3–7m) of large-scale cross-bedding, interpreted as fossil eolian dunes. Opportunity was able to drive into the crater at Duck Bay, located on the western margin of Victoria crater. Data from the Microscopic Imager and Panoramic Camera reveal details about the structures, textures, and depositional and diagenetic events that influenced the Victoria bedrock. A lithostratigraphic subdivision of bedrock units was enabled by the presence of a light-toned band that lines much of the upper rim of the crater. In ascending order, three stratigraphic units are named Lyell, Smith, and Steno; Smith is the light-toned band. In the Reference Section exposed along the ingress path at Duck Bay, Smith is interpreted to represent a zone of diagenetic recrystallization; however, its upper contact also coincides with a primary erosional surface. Elsewhere in the crater the diagenetic band crosscuts the physical stratigraphy. Correlation with strata present at nearby promontory Cape Verde indicates that there is an erosional surface at the base of the cliff face that corresponds to the erosional contact below Steno. The erosional contact at the base of Cape Verde

  2. Archiving the Web: A Case Study from the University of Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Davis


    Full Text Available The University of Victoria Libraries started archiving websites in 2013, and it quickly became apparent that many scholarly websites being produced by faculty, especially in the digital humanities, were going to prove very challenging to effectively capture and play back. This article will provide an overview of web archiving and explore the considerable legal and technical challenges of implementing a web archiving initiative at a research library, using the University of Victoria's implementation of Archive-it, a web archiving service from the Internet Archive, as a case study, with a special focus on capturing complex, interactive websites that scholars are creating to disseminate their research in new ways.

  3. Turkana Grits - a Cretaceous braided alluvial system in northern Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handford, C.R.


    Rather spotty but excellent exposures of the Cretaceous-age Turkana Grits occur near the western shore of Lake Turkana, northern Kenya. These very coarse to pebbly arkosic sandstones and sandy conglomerates were derived from and rest unconformably upon Precambrian metamorphic basement; they are overlain by late Tertiary basaltic flows that comprise much of the volcanics in the East African Rift Zone. The formation ranges up to 2000 ft thick in the Laburr Range. Several outcrops contain sauropod, crocodile, and tortoise remains as well as abundant trunks of petrified wood (Dryoxylon). Five major facies make up the Turkana Grits and record a major episode of continental fluvial deposition in basins flanked by Precambrian basement. Facies 1 is crudely stratified, cobble and boulder conglomerate (clast-supported); Facies 2 is crudely stratified pebble-cobble conglomerate and pebbly sandstone; Facies 3 is trough cross-bedded, very coarse sandstones containing fossils wood and vertebrate remains; Facies 4 is crudely stratified to massive sandstones with ironstone nodules; and Facies 5 is red, purple, and gray mudstone and mud shale with carbonate nodules. Facies 1 through 3 record deposition in proximal to medial braided-stream channel, longitudinal bar and dune complexes. Facies 4 is a lowland, hydromorphic paleosol, and Facies 5 represents overbank and abandoned channel-fill sedimentation in an alluvial plain.

  4. Monitoring Lake Victoria Water Quality from Space: Opportunities for Strengthening Trans-boundary Information Sharing for Effective Resource Management (United States)

    Mugo, R. M.; Korme, T.; Farah, H.; Nyaga, J. W.; Irwin, D.; Flores, A.; Limaye, A. S.; Artis, G.


    Lake Victoria (LV) is an important freshwater resource in East Africa, covering 68,800 km2, and a catchment that spans 193,000km2. It is an important source of food, energy, drinking and irrigation water, transport and a repository for agricultural, human and industrial wastes generated from its catchment. For such a lake, and a catchment transcending 5 international boundaries, collecting data to guide informed decision making is a hard task. Remote sensing is currently the only tool capable of providing information on environmental changes at high spatio-temporal scales. To address the problem of information availability for LV, we tackled two objectives; (1) we analyzed water quality parameters retrieved from MODIS data, and (2) assessed land cover changes in the catchment area using Landsat data. We used L1A MODIS-Aqua data to retrieve lake surface temperature (LST), total suspended matter (TSM), chlorophyll-a (CHLa) and diffuse attenuation coefficient (KD490) in four temporal periods i.e. daily, weekly, monthly and seasonal scales. An Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis was done on monthly data. An analysis of land cover change was done using Landsat data for 3 epochs in order to assess if land degradation contributes to water quality changes. Our results indicate that MODIS-Aqua data provides synoptic views of water quality changes in LV at different temporal scales. The Winam Gulf in Kenya, the shores of Jinja town in Uganda, as well as the Mwanza region in Tanzania represent water quality hotspots due to their relatively high TSM and CHLa concentrations. High levels of KD490 in these areas would also indicate high turbidity and thus low light penetration due to the presence of suspended matter, algal blooms, and/or submerged vegetation. The EOF analysis underscores the areas where LST and water color variability are more significant. The changes can be associated with corresponding land use changes in the catchment, where for instance wetlands are

  5. The Impact of Terrorism on Foreign Direct Investment in Kenya


    Solomon Kinyanjui


    This paper assessed the relationship between terrorism and foreign direct investment in Kenya. Secondary data on the Terrorism attacks and FDI from 2010 to 2012 was used for the study. Multiple regression model was used to test of the relationship between the study variables. By applying the model, the study found that terrorism negatively affects FDI in Kenya. It was concluded that Terrorism activities negatively affect the FDI in Kenya. Terrorism activities decrease the foreign investor con...

  6. Food consumption and food prices in Kenya: a review


    Meilink, H.A.


    Abr. sum.: This report reviews government policies concerning consumer food prices in Kenya. In respect of official food pricing, Kenya can be said to pursue a 'cheap food' policy. It was found that most foods falling under price control measures showed less price increases than the average rate of inflation during recent years (1975-1984). Moreover, when compared to international prices, the data reveal that domestic maize prices (maize is Kenya's staple food) were kept well below comparable...

  7. Assessing Holocene water level changes of Lake Turkana, Kenya with potential linkages to monsoon variability (United States)

    Bloszies, C.; Forman, S. L.; Wright, D. K.


    This study focuses on better defining water level variability in the past 10 ka for Lake Turkana, Kenya. The water level of Lake Turkana was approximately 90m higher than today ca. 8 ka years ago, and in the past century lake levels have varied by up to 15 m. Lake level is especially sensitive to shifts in water balance with changes in regional rainfall linked to the relative strength of the Indian Ocean Monsoon. Variations in monsoonal precipitation in Kenya may be controlled by distinct modes of the Indian Ocean Dipole, with one mode associated with increased sea surface temperatures and concomitant heavy rainfall in the Turkana basin, and the other mode resulting in low precipitation. Well preserved beach ridges up to 90 m above present water level occur around the lake representing a record of varying elevations of lake level still-stands during the Holocene. Along this prograded strand plain there is evidence of a shift in human subsistence from fishing villages to pastoral encampments, possibly associated with pronounced mid-Holocene drying and a precipitous (>30 m) fall in lake level ca. between 7 and 5 ka. However, a recent GPS campaign of beach ridges on the east and west sides of the lake reveal variability in highstand beach ridge elevations, implying deferential tectonic deformation across the basin and possible crustal warping due to hydroisostatic processes. Radiocarbon dating of aquatic shells will resolve the ages of beach ridges and these ages will be tested by direct dating of littoral quartz grains by OSL. Stratigraphic exposures of this littoral system reveal new evidence for lake still-stands, transgressions and regressions. Ultimately, the data will constrain a basin hydrologic model to assess the catchment changes and evaporative conditions required to yield the tens of meters of lake level change in the Holocene and provide new insights into the magnitude and linkage to monsoon variability.

  8. Coupled human and natural system dynamics as key to the sustainability of Lake Victoria's ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Downing, Andrea S.; van Nes, Egbert H.; Balirwa, John S.; Beuving, Joost; Bwathondi, P. O. J.; Chapman, Lauren J.; Cornelissen, Ilse J. M.; Cowx, Iain G.; Goudswaard, Kees P. C.; Hecky, Robert E.; Janse, Jan H.; Janssen, Annette B. G.; Kaufman, Les; Kishe-Machumu, Mary A.; Kolding, Jeppe; Ligtvoet, Willem; Mbabazi, Dismas; Medard, Modesta; Mkumbo, Oliva C.; Mlaponi, Enock; Munyaho, Antony T.; Nagelkerke, Leopold A. J.; Ogutu-Ohwayo, Richard; Ojwang, William O.; Peter, Happy K.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Seehausen, Ole; Sharpe, Diana; Silsbe, Greg M.; Sitoki, Lewis; Tumwebaze, Rhoda; Tweddle, Denis; van de Wolfshaar, Karen E.; van Dijk, Han; van Donk, Ellen; van Rijssel, Jacco C.; van Zwieten, Paul A. M.; Wanink, Jan; Witte, F.; Mooij, Wolf M.


    East Africa's Lake Victoria provides resources and services to millions of people on the lake's shores and abroad. In particular, the lake's fisheries are an important source of protein, employment, and international economic connections for the whole region. Nonetheless, stock dynamics are poorly

  9. The diversity of benthic mollusks of Lake Victoria and Lake Burigi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molluscan diversity, abundance and distribution in sediments of Lake Victoria and its satellite lake, Lake Burigi, were investigated. The survey was carried out ... Melanoides tuberculata and Biomphalaria chaonomphala were the only two gastropods represented and widely distributed in the two lakes. Bivalvia constituting of ...

  10. Connections '98. Proceedings of a Faculty Conference (4th, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, May 1998). (United States)

    Gibbons, Sandra L., Ed.; Anderson, John O., Ed.

    This proceedings contains 13 papers from the 1998 annual Faculty of Education conference at the University of Victoria, British Columbia (Canada). The papers are: (1) "Struggling with Re-Presentation, Voice, and Self in Narrative Research" (Marla Arvay); (2) "Women's Soccer in Canada: A Slow Road to Equity" (Meredith Bogle,…

  11. Nile perch fish processing waste along Lake Victoria in East Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide, fish industry wastes are an important contaminant having an impact on the environment. The recovery of value added products from these residues constitutes an important waste reduction strategy for the industry. In East Africa, Nile perch fish processing into chilled fish fillet for export along Lake Victoria ...

  12. Water hyacinth hotspots in the Ugandan waters of Lake Victoria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water hyacinth invaded Lake Victoria in the 1980s and, by 1998, had attained peak coverage of approximately 2 000 ha in the Ugandan waters of the lake. Control interventions, especially via biological means, significantly reduced the weed's coverage to non-nuisance levels (<10 ha) by 1999. Although resurgence was ...

  13. Perception of Aquaculture Education to Support Further Growth of Aquaculture Industry in Victoria, Australia (United States)

    Awal, Sadiqul; Christie, Andrew; Watson, Matthew; Hannadige, Asanka G. T.


    Purpose: The central aim of this study was to determine the perception of aquaculture educational provisions in the state of Victoria, and whether they are sufficient to ultimately support further growth of the industry. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires were formulated and distributed to participants in a variety of ways, including via…

  14. Lake Victoria wetlands and the ecology of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Linne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balirwa, J.S.


    An ecological study of wetlands was undertaken in northern Lake Victoria (East Africa) between 1993 and 1996 with a major aim of characterising shallow vegetation-dominated interface habitats, and evaluating their importance for fish, in particular, for the stocked and socio-economically

  15. People Management Practices in the Public Health Sector: Developments from Victoria, Australia (United States)

    Stanton, Pauline; Bartram, Timothy; Harbridge, Raymond


    This study investigates the impact on human resource management (HRM) practices in the public health sector in Victoria, Australia of two different government policy environments. First, it explores the Liberal Coalition Government's decentralisation of public health sector management, from 1992-1999 and second, the Labor Government's…

  16. From Aspiration to Destination: Understanding the Decisions of University Applicants in Regional Victoria (United States)

    Harvey, Andrew; Burnheim, Catherine; Joschko, Lucie; Luckman, Michael


    This paper examines the choices and destinations of prospective university students from three regional areas in Victoria. The study is based on information collected for tertiary applicants in the Gippsland, Bendigo and Mildura areas, all of which host a local university campus. Using application and enrollment data, we examine the choices that…

  17. What Do the Public Search for on the Catalogue of the State Library of Victoria? (United States)

    Waller, Vivienne


    This study examines what the public search for in the catalogue of the State Library of Victoria (SLV). As well as indicating the type of content being accessed, this gives an indication of what catalogue users expect of the State Library collection. A content analysis was undertaken of a random, stratified sample of 4,000 search queries typed in…

  18. Do invasive bullfrogs in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, show evidence of parasite release? (United States)

    Dare, O K; Forbes, M R


    Few studies have examined vertebrate models of invasive species to explore parasite release as a proposed mechanism through which host species might become invasive. In this study, we examined evidence for parasite release in invasive American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana/Lithobates catesbeianus) from five sites in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. We examined helminth species richness, as well as the prevalence, intensity and abundance of lung and kidney fluke infections. These flukes are expected to impose costs on host survival, growth and reproductive output. We compared measures of these parasite taxa with bullfrogs from Ontario and New Brunswick where they are endemic. Helminth species richness in bullfrogs from the Victoria sites was lower than in Ontario bullfrogs, but comparable to reported indices for other endemic populations. The prevalence of lung flukes (Haematoloechus spp.) in bullfrogs from Victoria was twice as high as was observed in the Ontario bullfrogs, and higher than has been reported from other endemic locations. In four of the five study sites in Victoria, numbers of Echinostoma spp. kidney cysts were lower than observed in endemic populations; however, the fifth site had uncharacteristically high numbers of cysts. In this study, there did not appear to be clear evidence to support parasite release using either parasite species numbers, or infection by specific parasite taxa. Instead, the invasive bullfrogs demonstrated high parasite species richness and high levels of infection for parasites known to be harmful to their hosts.

  19. Parasite-mediated sexual selection and species divergence in Lake Victoria cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, Martine E.; Van Rooijen, Anne M. C.; Van Alphen, Jacques J. M.; Seehausen, Ole

    We investigate the role of parasite-mediated sexual selection in the divergence of two species of Lake Victoria cichlids. Pundamilia pundamilia and Pundamilia nyererei represent a common pattern of male nuptial colour divergence between haplochromine sister species: metallic grey-blue in P.

  20. Lake Victoria wetlands and the ecology of the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis Niloticus Linné

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balirwa, J.S.


    The importance of LalVictoria wetlands for the Nile tilap'a was studied. Five wetland types were defined: papyrus, reed, bulrush, hippo grass, water hyacinth. Hydrology, vegetation and distance towards open water explained the variation in abiotic and biotic factors. Over 30 fish species were

  1. Distribution of Nile perch Lates niloticus in southern Lake Victoria is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although Nile perch Lates niloticus is assumed to be sensitive to low oxygen concentrations, it was found in deep water in Lake Victoria, where oxygen depletion is common during the rainy season. Since factors determining Nile perch distribution are not well understood its spatial distribution in the Mwanza Gulf of Lake ...

  2. Metal concentrations in sediment and fish of Lake Victoria near and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentrations of metals in sediment and fish as well as organic matter contents of sediment from Lake Victoria were investigated. The objective of the study was to compare levels of metals in sediment and fish from areas of the lake that are within and outside catchments with gold mining activities. The results showed that ...

  3. San Mateo Creek Basin (United States)

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  4. Dublin Basin


    Somerville, I.D.; C. N. Waters


    The Carboniferous rocks of the Dublin Basin extend from the east coast of north Co. Dublin westwards to the River Shannon at Athlone and northwards to the Lower Palaeozoic rocks of the Longford-Down Massif (see Strogen et al. 1996, fig. 5; Sevastopulo & Wyse Jackson 2001, fig. 10.12; Fig. 21.1). They occur in counties Longford, Westmeath, Meath, north Co. Dublin, north Co. Offaly, north Co. Kildare and south Co. Dublin. Most of the rocks in the region belong to the Mississippia...

  5. Testing the Marine Hypothesis for The Opportunity Landing Site at Victoria Crater (United States)

    Parker, T. J.


    Hypothesis Summary: 1. Meridiani Planum is a marine sulfate platform deposit, analogous to terrestrial carbonate platforms but with sulfate mineralogy, laid down during one or multiple marine transgressions over the landing site region. 2. Outcrop laminations, ripples, and larger, dune-scale bedforms are subaqueous in origin, produced by tidal currents. Aqueous deposits may be interbedded with crossbedded aeolian deposits of same composition derived from subjacent water-lain deposits during lowstands. At the scale of observations made by Opportunity, the marine hypothesis differs from the consensus, sabkha model, in two relatively minor ways (but with important differences in the inferred paleoenvironments). 3. Blueberry and cobble "lag" on top of outcrop is a lag, but indicates erosion of perhaps many meters, even tens of meters or more of outcrop material from the region by water. Wind erosion has been very limited over geologic time (perhaps less than a meter locally). 4. Remarkably-flat, horizontal geomorphic surface of outcrop was produced by shallow standing water locally, controlling both deposition and erosion of the sulfate outcrop material to within a few meters of sea level. 5. Craters in the landing site exhibit a continuum of degradation states, with Endurance and Victoria typifying the best preserved craters visited (or to be visited) by Opportunity, and Erebus and Terra Nova representing the most degraded craters visited that are larger than 100 meters across. Terra Nova is similar to numerous kilometer-scale "rock ring" craters in the Meridiani Planum landing site. 6. "Serrated" rim at Victoria is similar to, but fresher in expression, rim morphology at Erebus Crater, and may indicate water pouring over crater rim during tidal or storm surges in water level across the region. Predictions to be tested at Victoria Crater: 1. The crater's ejecta and raised rim have been destroyed by tidal currents in shallow standing water. There is no Endurance

  6. Rabies and African wild dogs in Kenya. (United States)

    Kat, P W; Alexander, K A; Smith, J S; Munson, L


    Three packs of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) ranging to the north of the Masai Mara National Reserve in southwestern Kenya were monitored from 1988 to 1990. During a six week period (August 2-September 14, 1989), 21 of 23 members of one of these packs died. Histological examination of two brain samples revealed eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Negri bodies), supporting a diagnosis of rabies viral encephalitis. An additional brain sample tested positive for rabies with a fluorescent antibody test. Nucleotide sequence of the rabies viral N and G genes from isolates of four African wild dogs (including an individual from Tanzania) indicated that infection was with a viral variant common among domestic dogs in Kenya and Tanzania. A hypothesis linking African wild dog rabies deaths to researcher handling is evaluated and considered implausible.

  7. Entrepreneurs and Informal Finance in Kenya (United States)


    Schneider. 2014. “Social Entrepreneurship , Microfinance, and Economic Development in Africa.” Journal of Economic Issues 48 (2): 367–376. 70... ECONOMIC WELFARE MATTER Growth is key to the future development of Africa, and alternative finance might be a way to facilitate that growth. Despite... economic policies. President Obama’s participation in the sixth global entrepreneurship summit in 2015, during his visit to Kenya, highlights a

  8. Energy Diversity and Development in Kenya (United States)


    efforts to expand this resource.32 Private-sector firms and individual entrepreneurs , to some extent sup- ported by both governmental and nongovern...measure the interference with ecosystems . Kenya desires to encourage investments in clean energy to augment the current energy sources to meet...turbines, and other key energy accessories. Wind remains readily available, and the gov- ernment ought to encourage entrepreneurs to deploy windmills

  9. from Kisumu District, Kenya: Cross sectional study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    foods and feeds. However in Kenya, like in other developing countries, monitoring and enforcement of standards are rare. People are being exposed to unsafe levels ..... Q l JP Inc": I]: g 40000 32, D u. C D Rig-'13 n D u v U D“. 20000- a: i D. ' a =1. U - - - . D . mu - . 0 2 4 s a 14 16 1e moisture in %. Fig. 2 The Relationship ...

  10. Neonatal tetanus mortality in coastal Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Steinglass, R; Mutie, D M


    In a house-to-house survey in Kilifi District, Kenya, mothers of 2556 liveborn children were interviewed about neonatal mortality, especially from neonatal tetanus (NNT). The crude birth rate was 60.5 per 1000 population, the neonatal mortality rate 21.1 and the NNT mortality rate 3.1 per 1000 li...... indicates that over the past decade the surveyed area has greatly reduced neonatal and NNT mortality. Possible strategies for accelerated NNT control have been identified by the survey....

  11. Elevated temperature and acclimation time affect metabolic performance in the heavily exploited Nile perch of Lake Victoria. (United States)

    Nyboer, Elizabeth A; Chapman, Lauren J


    Increasing water temperatures owing to anthropogenic climate change are predicted to negatively impact the aerobic metabolic performance of aquatic ectotherms. Specifically, it has been hypothesized that thermal increases result in reductions in aerobic scope (AS), which lead to decreases in energy available for essential fitness and performance functions. Consequences of warming are anticipated to be especially severe for warm-adapted tropical species as they are thought to have narrow thermal windows and limited plasticity for coping with elevated temperatures. In this study we test how predicted warming may affect the aerobic performance of Nile perch (Lates niloticus), a commercially harvested fish species in the Lake Victoria basin of East Africa. We measured critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and key metabolic variables such as AS and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) across a range of temperatures, and compared responses between acute (3-day) exposures and 3-week acclimations. CTmax increased with acclimation temperature; however, 3-week-acclimated fish had higher overall CTmax than acutely exposed individuals. Nile perch also showed the capacity to increase or maintain high AS even at temperatures well beyond their current range; however, acclimated Nile perch had lower AS compared with acutely exposed fish. These changes were accompanied by lower EPOC, suggesting that drops in AS may reflect improved energy utilization after acclimation, a finding that is supported by improvements in growth at high temperatures over the acclimation period. Overall, the results challenge predictions that tropical species have limited thermal plasticity, and that high temperatures will be detrimental because of limitations in AS. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Improving Performance of Urban Areas in the Context of Kenya's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project's findings will provide the basis for the development of social and economic policies tailored to each of the six urban centres under review and for building public support for reforms to promote private-sector entrepreneurship and the efficient use of scarce public resources in Kenya. IEA-Kenya is implementing ...

  13. Nutritional diversity of leafy amaranth species grown in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study indicates that the Amaranth species found in Kenya are a good source of key nutrients, which can be used in mitigation of malnutrition. A.dubius is a superior source of calcium and iron and can help curb the micronutrient deficiencies in Kenya, while A.cruentus is a superior source of protein and phytochemicals ...

  14. Globalisation and Higher Education Funding Policy Shifts in Kenya (United States)

    Wangenge-Ouma, Gerald


    This paper identifies, examines and discusses higher education funding policy shifts that have taken place in Kenya. The paper argues that even though Kenya's higher education funding policy shifts, from free higher education to cost-sharing, and privatisation and commercialisation, are (to a greater extent) products of the country's encounter…

  15. Farmers chart a new course in Kenya | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Jan 20, 2014 ... Why have previous efforts to introduce improved farming techniques and better seed varieties in Kenya's semi-arid lands — home to 20% of the country's population — not succeeded? Answering this question is key to efforts by researchers from the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and ...

  16. Mainstreaming climate change into Kenya's new environmental policy

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    May 5, 2016 ... Climate change poses one of the greatest challenges to human development in Kenya. Extreme weather events in the form of droughts and floods are undermining the country's development planning as well as the socio-economic well-being of its citizens. Kenya is experiencing perennial crop failures, ...

  17. Institutional Support : Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In 2006 the Government of Kenya passed an Act of Parliament making the Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA) the government's lead socioeconomic research ... A new website and resource library will help improve developing country registration and information systems for vital events.

  18. Two new species of Hesperiidae from Western Kenya (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de R.


    The belt of lowland forest that stretches from West Africa eastward ends in a number of isolated forests in East Uganda and West Kenya, the most eastern extremity being the Kakamega Forest in the Western Province of Kenya, about 50 km north of Kisumu. Although impoverished as compared with the

  19. Surveillance of injuries among Kenya Rugby Union (KRU) players ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the incidence and characteristics of injury amongst Kenya rugby union players and associated factors. Design: A whole population prospective cohort study. Methods: 364 registered Kenya rugby union (KRU) players were studied throughout the 2010 season. Data on their demographics, injury ...

  20. Reflecting on the Challenges of Applied Theatre in Kenya (United States)

    Okuto, Maxwel; Smith, Bobby


    In this article the authors draw on their own experience and research in applied theatre in Kenya in order to reflect on challenges currently facing practitioners working in the country. In order to outline the range of challenges faced by practitioners, issues related to the wider landscapes of government and politics in Kenya are explored,…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 1, 2000 ... Medicine, Nagasaki University, 12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki, 852 Japan. Request for reprints to: S. M. Njenga, Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, P.O. Box 20778, Mbagathi Road, Nairobi, Kenya. BANCROFTIAN ... an important public health problem(5,6). In general, the.

  2. Enhancing Kenya's Competitiveness in the Knowledge-Based ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Kenya's universities face increasing pressure to play a more active role in national development over and above their traditional teaching and research functions. This project will contribute to Kenya's social and economic development by enhancing the research capacity of public universities through a Research Chairs ...

  3. Sugarcane in vitro culture technology: Opportunities for Kenya's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    order to sustain profitable sugar industries in Kenya, while there are several diseases attacking ... industry in Kenya. Though, some problems have now been resolved to considerable extents which have been described in this review however, some constraints still require intensive .... License 4.0 International License ...

  4. Human group C rotaviruses identified in Kenya | Mwenda | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and characterisation by SDS-PAGE showed the presence of human group C rotaviruses. Conclusion:This is the first report of group C rotaviruses in Kenya. Further studies are underway to continue the surveillance of rotavirus strains in Kenya; as this information will be useful in planning rotavirus vaccine trials in Africa.

  5. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Kenya Institute for Public Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This funding will help strengthen the Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis' (KIPPRA) role as a credible public policy institution in Kenya by enhancing its ability to provide ... -apply monitoring and evaluation processes to ensure internal goals and targets are met and to assess the impact of KIPPRA's work

  6. Students' Leadership in Selected Public Universities in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Students' Leadership in Selected Public Universities in. Kenya: Disfranchised Pressure Groups or an Integral. Component in University Management? Bosire, Joseph, C. Chemnjor and M. Ngware. Abstract. This paper was based on an exploratory study carried out on student leadership in three public universities in Kenya ...

  7. Kenya | Page 40 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Langue French. Read more about Diversification des moyens de subsistance des petits producteurs de tabac du sud de la province de Nyanza, au Kenya - Phase I. Langue French. Read more about Livelihood Diversification for Smallholder Tobacco Farmers in South Nyanza, Kenya - Phase I. Langue English. Read more ...

  8. Kenya | Page 40 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language French. Read more about Diversification des moyens de subsistance des petits producteurs de tabac du sud de la province de Nyanza, au Kenya - Phase I. Language French. Read more about Livelihood Diversification for Smallholder Tobacco Farmers in South Nyanza, Kenya - Phase I. Language English.

  9. Dragonfly ( odanata ) records of Kakamega Forest, Western Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A list of dragonflies recorded in Kakamega Forest, Western Kenya is presented, including ten new records for Kenya. Some of the species have their centre of distribution in West Africa. Ecological notes on different adaptation strategies of rain forest dragonflies are given, mainly focusing on visibility and flight behaviour of ...

  10. Road traffic injuries in Kenya: a survey of commercial motorcycle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Motorcycle injuries contribute a substantial number of deaths and hospital admissions in Kenya. There is paucity of data to inform prevention strategies to address the issue. Therefore, the current study sought to explore the characteristics of 2 and 3-wheeler related road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Kenya. Methods: ...

  11. All projects related to Kenya | Page 11 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Kenya's failure to create and maintain the momentum of reform has had several consequences, culminating in the disputed general elections of December 2007. Start Date: March 1, 2010. End Date: ... Topic: SANITARY FACILITIES, SANITATION SERVICES, TOILETS, GENDER ANALYSIS. Region: Kenya, Uganda, North of ...

  12. The challenges of human resources in mental health in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Machakos. 1. 1. Machakos. 10. Embu. 1. 1. Embu. 11. Thika. 1. 1. Thika. 12. Nakuru. 1. 1. Nakuru. Table VI: Location of Kenyan psychiatrists by place of training. (April 2004). Overseas trained. Kenyan trained. Total. In public Services 4. 30. 34 (excluding 1 in Kenya expatriate). In private practice 5. 13. 18 in Kenya. Overseas.

  13. Maxillary incisor root forms in orthodontic patients in Nairobi, Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective:To evaluate, radiographically, the root forms of maxillary incisors in a sample of patients seeking orthodontic treatment in Nairobi, Kenya. Design:A retrospective study of maxillary incisor root forms based on periapical radiographs. Setting: A private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. Materials and Methods:The study ...

  14. Using VCT statistics from Kenya in understanding the association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper demonstrates the importance of utilising official statistics from the voluntary counselling and testing centres (VCT) to determine the association between gender and HIV infection rates in Kenya.The study design adopted was a record based survey of data collected from VCT sites in Kenya between the second ...

  15. Accounting Systems in Small and Micro Enterprises in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For a long time in Kenya, the practices and principles of accounting have been viewed to be for use by corporate and other formally structured organizations. This paper seeks to investigate what accounting means to small and micro traders in Kenya, by reviewing the practices and principles they use in running their ...

  16. Dynamics of Revenue Generation in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dynamics of revenue generation in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda are explored. Results demonstrate that revenue generation is sluggish in Tanzania compared to Kenya and Uganda. Macroeconomic environment, economic structure, and level of development are fundamental at explaining these differences. Results ...

  17. Helminthiasis in free-ranging indigenous domestic poultry in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Kenya data on poultry helminthiasis are scarce and its research has received little attention owing to the less visible and chronic symptoms of helminthiasis that are difficult to discern. To bridge this gap, we examined 604 chicken guts from local slaughter houses in Kenya and then visited 22 homesteads in Central ...

  18. Evaluating compliance to Kenya national cancer guidelines on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In Kenya, breast cancer is one of the most prevalent diseases among women. Early diagnosis and stage-directed treatment are vital in reducing morbidity and mortality associated with it. The Kenya National Cancer Guidelines (KNCG) was developed in 2013. Utility of the guidelines is expected to improve early ...

  19. Characterization of Armillaria isolates from tea (Camellia sinensis) in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otieno, W.; Perez Sierra, A.; Termorshuizen, A.J.


    Armillaria is a primary root rot pathogen of tea (Camellia sinensis) in Kenya. The main species presently described in this country are A. mellea and A. heimii. A survey covering fourteen districts of Kenya was carried out and forty-seven isolates of Armillaria collected. Cultural morphology,

  20. Cellphones are improving agriculture in Kenya | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Kenya's small-scale farmers have a new tool to help them break out of the cycle of poverty and declining productivity — the cellphone. Although they account for 70% of Kenya's agricultural production, families farming on plots smaller than one acre are among the country's poorest. Exploited by predatory intermediaries they ...

  1. Food consumption and food prices in Kenya : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meilink, H.A.


    Abr. sum.: This report reviews government policies concerning consumer food prices in Kenya. In respect of official food pricing, Kenya can be said to pursue a 'cheap food' policy. It was found that most foods falling under price control measures showed less price increases than the average rate of

  2. evolution of hiv training for enhanced care provision in kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    12 (Supplement) December 2013. EVOLUTION OF HIV TRAINING FOR ENHANCED CARE PROVISION IN KENYA: CHALLENGES AND ... Objective: To provide an overview of the evolution of HIV training in Kenya, from. 2003 to date ..... for training, lack of necessary equipment, inadequate remuneration and benefit and.

  3. Cellphones are improving agriculture in Kenya | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Oct 27, 2010 ... Kenya's small-scale farmers have a new tool to help them break out of the cycle of poverty and declining productivity — the cellphone. Although they account for 70% of Kenya's agricultural production, families farming on plots smaller than one acre are among the country's poorest. Exploited by predatory ...

  4. Soil surface lowering due to soil erosion in villages near Lake Victoria, Uganda (United States)

    de Meyer, A.; Deckers, J.; Poesen, J.; Isabirye, M.


    In the effort to pinpoint the sources of sediment pollution in Lake Victoria, the contribution of sedi-ment from compounds, landing sites, main roads and footpaths is determined in the catchment of Na-bera Bay and Kafunda Bay at the northern shore of Lake Victoria in southern Uganda. The amount of soil loss in compounds and landing sites is determined by the reconstruction of the original and current soil surface according to botanical and man-made datable objects. The soil erosion rate is then deter-mined by dividing the eroded soil volume (corrected for compaction) by the age of the oldest datable object. In the study area, the average soil erosion rate in compounds amounts to 107 Mg ha-1 year-1 (per unit compound) and in landing sites to 207 Mg ha-1 year-1 (per unit landing site). Although com-pounds and landing sites occupy a small area of the study area (1.1 %), they are a major source of sediment to Lake Victoria (63 %). The soil loss on footpaths and main roads is calculated by multip-lying the total length of footpaths and main roads with the average width and depth (measured towards a reference surface). After the correction for compaction is carried out, the soil erosion rate on foot-paths amounts to 34 Mg ha-1 year-1 and on main roads to 35 Mg ha-1 year-1. Also footpaths and main roads occupy a small area of the study area (1.1 %), but contribute disproportionately to the total soil loss in the catchment (22 %). In this research, the information about the village/compound given by the villager/owner is indispensable. In accordance to an adaptation of the model of McHugh et al. (2002), 32 % of the sediment that is generated in the catchment, is deposited in Lake Victoria (i.e. 2 209 Mg year-1 or 0.7 Mg ha-1 year-1). The main buffer in the study area is papyrus at the shore of Lake Victoria. Also sugarcane can be a major buffer. However, the sugarcane-area is intersected by com-pounds, landing sites, footpaths and main roads that generate large amounts of

  5. Species-specific relationships between water transparency and male coloration within and between two closely related Lake Victoria cichlid species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castillo Cajas, Ruth F; Selz, Oliver M; Ripmeester, Erwin A P; Seehausen, Ole; Maan, Martine E


    Environmental variation in signalling conditions affects animal communication traits, with possible consequences for sexual selection and reproductive isolation. Using spectrophotometry, we studied how male coloration within and between populations of two closely related Lake Victoria cichlid

  6. Community Water Governance on Mount Kenya: An Assessment Based on Ostrom’s Design Principles of Natural Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jampel Dell’Angelo


    Full Text Available Kenyan river basin governance underwent a pioneering reform in the Water Act of 2002, which established new community water-management institutions. This article focuses on community water projects in the Likii Water Resource Users Association in the Upper Ewaso Ng’iro River basin on Mount Kenya, and the extent to which their features are consistent with Ostrom’s design principles of natural resource management. Although the projects have developed solid institutional structures, pressures such as hydroclimatic change, population growth, and water inequality challenge their ability to manage their water resources. Institutional homogeneity across the different water projects and congruence with the design principles is not necessarily a positive factor. Strong differences in household water flows within and among the projects point to the disconnection between apparently successful institutions and their objectives, such as fair and equitable water allocation.

  7. New Australopithecus boisei specimens from east and west Lake Turkana, Kenya. (United States)

    Leakey, R E; Walker, A


    New specimens of Plio-Pleistocene Australopithecus boisei are described from east and west Lake Turkana in Northern Kenya. These include a cranium and partial mandible from deposits close to 2.5 Myr and two partial crania and two mandibles from later horizons. The earlier fossils enable us to decipher, for the first time, some of the in situ evolution of this species within the Turkana Basin. The following are among the important changes in the cranium through time: 1) increase in size and change in shape of the braincase, 2) changes in the meningeal vessel pattern and possibly in the venous drainage pattern, 3) increased flexion of the cranial base and decreased prognathism, and 4) changes in the temporal bone to bring about a more vertical posterior face of the petrous pyramid and the development of a strong articular eminence.

  8. Hydrogeology of sedimentary basins (United States)

    Kreitler, Charles W.


    Hydrogeologic environments in sedimentary basins are as variable as are the different types of basins. Important hydrologic characteristics can be used to distinguish the different types of basin: (1) the topographic setting as determined by the geologic and structural history of the basin; (2) permeability distribution within the basin; and (3) potential energy distributions and flow mechanisms. These parameters control residence times of waters, rates and directions of saline groundwater flow and the origin and chemical composition of the saline waters. The Gulf Coast and Palo Duro Basins, Texas, exemplify two end member types of sedimentary basins. The Gulf Coast Basin is a relatively young, Tertiary-age basin which is presently compacting; fluid movement is from the overpressured, undercompacted sediments up the structural dip or up fault zones into the hydrostatic section, natural fluid pressures are either hydrostatic or overpressured. The Palo Duro is an older, Paleozoic-age basin that has been tectonically uplifted. Fluid flow is gravity driven from topographically high recharge areas to discharge in topographically low areas. Fluid pressures are subhydrostatic. Fluids discharge more easily than they are recharged. Not all flow is derived by a simple recharge discharge model. Brines may flow from other basins into the Palo Duro Basin and waters may discharge from the Palo Duro Basin into other basins. Areal differences in the chemical composition of the basin brines may be the result of different origins.

  9. Towards understanding hydroclimatic change in Victoria, Australia – preliminary insights into the "Big Dry"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kiem


    Full Text Available Since the mid-1990s the majority of Victoria, Australia, has experienced severe drought conditions (i.e. the "Big Dry" characterized by streamflow that is the lowest in approximately 80 years of record. While decreases in annual and seasonal rainfall totals have also been observed, this alone does not seem to explain the observed reduction in flow. In this study, we investigate the large-scale climate drivers for Victoria and demonstrate how these modulate the regional scale synoptic patterns, which in turn alter the way seasonal rainfall totals are compiled and the amount of runoff per unit rainfall that is produced. The hydrological implications are significant and illustrate the need for robust hydrological modelling, that takes into account insights into physical mechanisms that drive regional hydroclimatology, in order to properly understand and quantify the impacts of climate change (natural and/or anthropogenic on water resources.

  10. Use of regionalisation approach to develop fire frequency curves for Victoria, Australia (United States)

    Khastagir, Anirban; Jayasuriya, Niranjali; Bhuyian, Muhammed A.


    It is important to perform fire frequency analysis to obtain fire frequency curves (FFC) based on fire intensity at different parts of Victoria. In this paper fire frequency curves (FFCs) were derived based on forest fire danger index (FFDI). FFDI is a measure related to fire initiation, spreading speed and containment difficulty. The mean temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and areal extent of open water (LC2) during summer months (Dec-Feb) were identified as the most important parameters for assessing the risk of occurrence of bushfire. Based on these parameters, Andrews' curve equation was applied to 40 selected meteorological stations to identify homogenous stations to form unique clusters. A methodology using peak FFDI from cluster averaged FFDIs was developed by applying Log Pearson Type III (LPIII) distribution to generate FFCs. A total of nine homogeneous clusters across Victoria were identified, and subsequently their FFC's were developed in order to estimate the regionalised fire occurrence characteristics.

  11. Art at Second Hand: Prints after European Pictures in Victoria before 1870

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Inglis


    Full Text Available This article examines the significance of the large number of European reproductive prints present in the public and private art collections of early colonial Victoria. Several factors are identified as contributing to this popularity; ranging from the suitability of the print medium for the export market to the existence of informed print connoisseurs amongst colonial collectors and artists. This article also demonstrates some of the typical features of Australian art history; in that it is concerned with the evaluation of the Australian art world through reference to European culture (the centre-periphery debate and also that it limits its discussion to the art of a particular Australian state (Victoria. The nineteenth-century division of Australia into different colonies had ramifications for Australian art history that continue to the present day – namely; the tendency to interpret colonial artistic activities from a regional perspective.

  12. ZnO-Fe2O3 heterojunction for photocatalytic degradation of victoria blue dye (United States)

    Kumar, Pushpendra; Khatri, Taslimahemad; Bawa, Harpreet; Kaur, Jashandeep


    In the present study, ZnO-Fe2O3 heterojunction has been successfully synthesized by co-precipitation method for photocatalytic degradation of Victoria blue dye. The synthesized samples were subjected to XRD for microstructural characterization and scanning electron microscopy for morphological investigation. The typical X-ray diffraction pattern shows exhaustive evolution of hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO and α-Fe2O3 having crystalline in the range of 34-54 nm. The synthesized samples were applied for degradation of victoria blue dye under UV illumination. ZnO-Fe2O3 heterojunction showed higher photocatalytic activity for dye degradation compared to bare ZnO. This rise in photocatalytic activity can be attributed to enhanced charge separation derived from coupling of ZnO and Fe2O3. In this manuscript, the effect of photocatalyst dose, irradiation time and initial dye concentration on photodegradation of dye is reported in detail.

  13. Strain and displacement measurements for the June 9, 1980 Victoria, Mexico Earthquake (United States)

    Darby, D.; Nyland, E.; Suarez, F.; Chavez, D.; Gonzalez, J.

    A microgeodetic network 22 km south east of Est. Guadalupe Victoria, Baja California Norte, installed in late May 1980, has been resurveyed in an experiment that started 12 hours after the June 9, 1980 Victoria earthquake, which had an epicenter at 10 km depth about 12 km from the network. The resurvey was complete by June 13. Both the initial observations and the resurvey were done with HP3800 distance meter equipment. Some angular control was provided with a Wild T3 theodolite. The network underwent a compressive strain of 7 ± 3 micro strain essentially parallel the Cerro Prieto fault about the time of the earthquake. Strains of this size are associated with simple dislocation models of earthquakes of this magnitude. Its direction appears to be anomalous however. This may indicate compression related to soil liquefaction processes or strain near the end of the slip plane.

  14. Geochronology of the Turkana depression of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia. (United States)

    Brown, Francis H; McDougall, Ian


    Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in the Turkana Depression of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia rest on basement rocks that yield K/Ar cooling ages between 433 and 522 Ma. Proven Cretaceous strata are exposed in Lokitaung Gorge in northwest Kenya. Eocene basalts and rhyolites in Lokitaung Gorge, the Nabwal Hills, and at Kangamajoj, date between 34 and 36 Ma, recording the earliest volcanism in the region. Oligocene volcanic rocks, with associated fossiliferous sedimentary strata at Eragaleit, Nakwai, and Lokone, all west of Lake Turkana, are 23 to 28 Ma old, as is the Langaria Formation east of Lake Turkana. Lower and Middle Miocene volcanic and sedimentary sequences are present both east and west of Lake Turkana, where ages from 17.9 to 9.1 Ma have been measured at many levels. Upper Miocene strata are presently known only at Lothagam, with ages ranging from 7.4 to 6.5 Ma. Deposition of Pliocene strata of the Omo Group begins in the Omo-Turkana, Kerio, and South Turkana basins -4.3 Ma ago and continues in parts of those basins until nearly the present time, but with some gaps. These strata are linked through volcanic ash correlations at many levels, as are Pleistocene strata of the Omo Group (principally the Shungura, Koobi Fora, and Nachukui formations). (40) Ar/(39) Ar dates on many volcanic ash layers within the Omo Group, supplemented by K/Ar ages on intercalated basalts and paleomagnetic polarity stratigraphy, provide excellent age control from 4.2 to 0.75 Ma, although there is a gap in the record between -1 Ma and 0.8 Ma. Members I to III of the Kibish Formation in the lower Omo Valley record deposition between 0.2 and 0.1 Ma ago; Member IV, correlative with the Galana Boi Formation, was deposited principally between 12 and 7 ka BP. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Imperialist women in Edwardian Britain : the Victoria League, 1899-1914


    Riedi, Elizabeth L.


    This thesis, based on private papers, society records, autobiographies and memoirs, newspapers and periodicals, examines one mainly female imperialist organisation - the Victoria League - and the women who ran it. It considers two related questions - what made Edwardian women imperialist, and how, within the limits of Edwardian society, could they express their imperialism? The thesis shows that several of the League's founders and executive had visited South Africa during or s...

  16. Lake Victoria wetlands and the ecology of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Linne


    Balirwa, J.S.


    An ecological study of wetlands was undertaken in northern Lake Victoria (East Africa) between 1993 and 1996 with a major aim of characterising shallow vegetation-dominated interface habitats, and evaluating their importance for fish, in particular, for the stocked and socio-economically important Oreochromis niloticus LINNÉ (the Nile tilapia). From field and laboratory experiments, five major habitat types could be defined by the type of the dominant emergent ma...

  17. Intestinal schistosomiasis among preschool children along the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalugwa, A.; Olsen, Annette; Tukahebwa, M. E.


    prevalence and intensity of infection were examined in 3058 children from 5 districts along Lake Victoria shoreline, eastern Uganda. For each child one stool sample was collected on three consecutive days. The Kato-Katz technique was used to prepare stool smears on slides for microscopic examination. Short...... for schistosomiasis takes preschool children into consideration and that health education on transmission of schistosomiasis is delivered to the endemic communities regularly....

  18. A Bottom-Up Understanding of Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated Fishing in Lake Victoria

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    Joseph Luomba


    Full Text Available Illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU fishing is a major concern in fisheries management around the world. Several measures have been taken to address the problem. In Lake Victoria, the alleviation of IUU fishing is implemented through the Regional Plan of Action (RPOA-IUU, which restricts use of certain fishing gear, as well as prohibits fishing in closed areas and during closed seasons. Despite the long-term efforts to monitor and control what goes on in the fisheries, IUU fishing has persisted in Lake Victoria. Inspired by interactive governance theory, this paper argues that the persistence of IUU fishing could be due to different images that stakeholders have about the situation, rather than the lack of management competency. Through structured interviews with 150 fisheries stakeholders on Ijinga Island in the southeastern part of Lake Victoria, Tanzania, using paired comparison questionnaires, the study elicits stakeholders’ perspective about the severity of different locally-pertinent fishing-related activities. The results show that while fisheries stakeholder groups agree on their judgments about certain fishing gears, some differences are also apparent. For instance, fisheries managers and scientists do not always agree with fishing people about what activities cause the most damage to fisheries resources and ecosystem. Further, they tend to consider some IUU fishing-related activities less damaging than some non-IUU fishing. Such disparity creates governability challenges, pointing to the need to revisit relevant regulatory measures and to make them consistent with the knowledge and judgments of all stakeholders. Based on these findings, we discuss governing interventions that may contribute to addressing IUU fishing in Lake Victoria and elsewhere.

  19. A Comparison of digestive Tract Morphology in muskoxen and caribou from Victoria Island, Northwest Territories, Canada

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    Hans Staaland


    Full Text Available Although caribou and muskoxen coexist in close proximity on southeastern Victoria Island, they appear primarily adapted to different diets and foraging strategies. Visual inspection and analysis of rumen contents for fiber and lignin from the study (unpubl. also indicate a predominantly graminoid diet in the muskoxen and a more varied diet with a substantial browse component in the caribou.This should reduce the likelihood of competition for limited food resources in winter.

  20. B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination in Lake Victoria cichlid fishes.

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    Kohta Yoshida


    Full Text Available The endemic cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria are a model system for speciation through adaptive radiation. Although the evolution of the sex-determination system may also play a role in speciation, little is known about the sex-determination system of Lake Victoria cichlids. To understand the evolution of the sex-determination system in these fish, we performed cytogenetic analysis in 11 cichlid species from Lake Victoria. B chromosomes, which are present in addition to standard chromosomes, were found at a high prevalence rate (85% in these cichlids. In one species, B chromosomes were female-specific. Cross-breeding using females with and without the B chromosomes demonstrated that the presence of the B chromosomes leads to a female-biased sex ratio in this species. Although B chromosomes were believed to be selfish genetic elements with little effect on phenotype and to lack protein-coding genes, the present study provides evidence that B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination. FISH analysis using a BAC clone containing B chromosome DNA suggested that the B chromosomes are derived from sex chromosomes. Determination of the nucleotide sequences of this clone (104.5 kb revealed the presence of several protein-coding genes in the B chromosome, suggesting that B chromosomes have the potential to contain functional genes. Because some sex chromosomes in amphibians and arthropods are thought to be derived from B chromosomes, the B chromosomes in Lake Victoria cichlids may represent an evolutionary transition toward the generation of sex chromosomes.

  1. Salinity in Water Markets : An ExperimentalInvestigation of the Sunraysia Salinity Levy, Victoria


    C. Duke; L. Gangadharan


    Irrigation can have a significant negative impact on the environment. Irrigation impacts contribute a significant portion to the estimated forty six million dollar cost per annum of salinity in the Murray River, Australia. Policies available to regulators include externality taxes and levies. In 2002 the Victorian Government introduced a system of salinity levies in the irrigation regions of Sunraysia, northern Victoria. These levies differ from typical taxes because they also introduce trade...

  2. Satellite-Based Assessment of the spatial extent of Aquatic Vegetation in Lake Victoria (United States)

    Clark, W.; Aligeti, N.; Jeyaprakash, T.; Martins, M.; Stodghill, J.; Winstanley, H.


    Lake Victoria in Africa is the second largest freshwater lake in the world and is known for its abundance of aquatic wildlife. In particular over 200 different fish species are caught and sold by local fisherman. The lake is a major contributor to the local economy as a corridor of transportation, source of drinking water, and source of hydropower. However, the invasion of aquatic vegetation such as water hyacinth in the lake has disrupted each of these markets. Aquatic vegetation now covers a substantial area of the coastline blocking waterways, disrupting hydropower, hindering the collection of drinking water and decreasing the profitability of fishing. The vegetation serves as a habitat for disease carrying mosquitoes as well as snakes and snails that spread the parasitic disease bilharzia. The current control measures of invasive aquatic vegetation rely on biological, chemical and mechanical control. The objective of this study was to utilize remote sensing to map aquatic vegetation within Lake Victoria from 2000 to 2011. MODIS, Landsat 4-5TM, and Landsat 7-ETM imagery was employed to perform change detections in vegetation and identify the extent of aquatic vegetation throughout the years. The efficiency of containment efforts were evaluated and ideal time for application of such efforts were suggested. A methodology for aquatic vegetation surveillance was created. The results of this project were presented as a workshop to the Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization, SERVIR, and other partner organizations. The workshop provided instruction into the use of NASA and other satellite derived products. Time series animations of the spatial extent of aquatic vegetation within the lake were created. By identifying seasons of decreased aquatic vegetation, ideal times to employ control efforts were identified. SERVIR will subsequently utilize the methodologies and mapping results of this study to develop operational aquatic vegetation surveillance for Lake Victoria.

  3. B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination in Lake Victoria cichlid fishes. (United States)

    Yoshida, Kohta; Terai, Yohey; Mizoiri, Shinji; Aibara, Mitsuto; Nishihara, Hidenori; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Kuroiwa, Asato; Hirai, Hirohisa; Hirai, Yuriko; Matsuda, Yoichi; Okada, Norihiro


    The endemic cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria are a model system for speciation through adaptive radiation. Although the evolution of the sex-determination system may also play a role in speciation, little is known about the sex-determination system of Lake Victoria cichlids. To understand the evolution of the sex-determination system in these fish, we performed cytogenetic analysis in 11 cichlid species from Lake Victoria. B chromosomes, which are present in addition to standard chromosomes, were found at a high prevalence rate (85%) in these cichlids. In one species, B chromosomes were female-specific. Cross-breeding using females with and without the B chromosomes demonstrated that the presence of the B chromosomes leads to a female-biased sex ratio in this species. Although B chromosomes were believed to be selfish genetic elements with little effect on phenotype and to lack protein-coding genes, the present study provides evidence that B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination. FISH analysis using a BAC clone containing B chromosome DNA suggested that the B chromosomes are derived from sex chromosomes. Determination of the nucleotide sequences of this clone (104.5 kb) revealed the presence of several protein-coding genes in the B chromosome, suggesting that B chromosomes have the potential to contain functional genes. Because some sex chromosomes in amphibians and arthropods are thought to be derived from B chromosomes, the B chromosomes in Lake Victoria cichlids may represent an evolutionary transition toward the generation of sex chromosomes.

  4. Leuconidae (Crustacea: Cumacea) from the collections of the Museum Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Gerken, Sarah


    The collections of the Museum Victoria have yielded six new leuconid species in five genera from Australian waters: Austroleucon adiazetos n. sp., A. dolosolevis n. sp., Eudorellopsis mykteros n. sp., Kontiloleucon australiensis n. gen., n. sp., Leucon (Alytoleucon) dolichorhinos n. sp., Ommatoleucon megalopos n. sp. as well as the new genus Kontiloleucon. Leucon (Leucon) echinolophotos n. sp. is a new species from off Enderby Land, Antarctica. Keys to the Australian leuconid genera and species are included.

  5. Genetic structure of pelagic and littoral cichlid fishes from Lake Victoria.

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    Miyuki Takeda

    Full Text Available The approximately 700 species of cichlids found in Lake Victoria in East Africa are thought to have evolved over a short period of time, and they represent one of the largest known examples of adaptive radiation. To understand the processes that are driving this spectacular radiation, we must determine the present genetic structure of these species and elucidate how this structure relates to the ecological conditions that caused their adaptation. We analyzed the genetic structure of two pelagic and seven littoral species sampled from the southeast area of Lake Victoria using sequences from the mtDNA control region and 12 microsatellite loci as markers. Using a Bayesian model-based clustering method to analyze the microsatellite data, we separated these nine species into four groups: one group composed of pelagic species and another three groups composed mainly of rocky-shore species. Furthermore, we found significant levels of genetic variation between species within each group at both marker loci using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA, although the nine species often shared mtDNA haplotypes. We also found significant levels of genetic variation between populations within species. These results suggest that initial groupings, some of which appear to have been related to habitat differences, as well as divergence between species within groups took place among the cichlid species of Lake Victoria.

  6. Women's experience of domiciliary postnatal care in Victoria and South Australia: a population-based survey. (United States)

    Biro, Mary Anne; Yelland, Jane S; Sutherland, Georgina A; Brown, Stephanie J


    Despite the expansion of postnatal domiciliary services, we know little about the women receiving visits and how they regard their care. The aim of this study is to examine the provision of postnatal domiciliary care from a consumer perspective. All women who gave birth in September-October 2007 in South Australia and Victoria were mailed questionnaires 6 months after the birth. Women were asked if they had received a midwifery home visit, and to rate the care they received. More women in South Australia reported receiving a domiciliary visit than in Victoria (88.0% v. 76.0%) and they were more likely to rate their care as 'very good' (69.1% v. 63.4%). Younger women, women on a lower income, who were holding a healthcare concession card or who had not completed secondary education were less likely to receive a visit. Although the majority of women in public maternity care in Victoria and South Australia receive domiciliary care and rate it positively, there are significant state-based differences. Those more likely to benefit from domiciliary care are less likely to receive a visit. There is a need to further explore the purpose, aims and content of domiciliary care at individual and state-wide levels.

  7. Sediment Production from Settlements and Farmlands within Lake Victoria Shoreline Zone in Uganda and Tanzania

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    Isabirye, M.


    Full Text Available In spite of the general acceptance that the current land use changes are unlikely to yield a sustainable environment, the source of sediment that causes eutrophication in Lake Victoria is not clearly understood. It is hypothesized that roads, footpaths, and compounds (settlement are a major source of sediments. This study was conducted on the northern Lake Victoria shoreline to determine the rate of sediment generated by agricultural and settlement land use types. Results show that settlements generate significantly higher sediment yields i.e. between 17- 87 ton.ha-1. yr -1 whereas agricultural land use types produced between 0-27 ton ha-1.yr-1. The high sediment yield from settlements is attributed to high runoff coefficients and the occurrence of gully erosion. The high sediment yield from settlements justifies the need to conduct further investigations on the contribution of settlements to sediment production in catchments with different soil - landscape and climatic setting in the Lake Victoria catchment.

  8. Kenya – world leader in mobile payments

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    Eugeniusz Gostomski


    Full Text Available In the last decade, there has been a real revolution in the Kenyan banking associated with the development of mobile telephony and mobile payments in the reporting country. In 2007, the largest mobile operator in Kenya launched M-Pesa system which is an innovative solution that enables its users to make mobile payments. M-Pesa system has become a big success. Nowadays, the Kenya’s inhabitants have access to other basic financial services while using their mobile phones. In particular, they can make savings and access loan products.

  9. The tax reform experience of Kenya


    Karingi, Stephen Njuguna; Wanjala, Bernadette


    In evaluating tax reform in the developing countries, one first needs to determine what is the unique role of the tax system in each particular country. One of the key reasons for undertaking tax reforms in Kenya was to address issues of inequality and to create a sustainable tax system that could generate adequate revenue to finance public expenditures. In this respect, the tax modernization programme introduced in the country was to achieve a tax system that was sustainable in the face of c...

  10. Fossil mammals and paleoenvironments in the Omo-Turkana Basin. (United States)

    Bobe, René


    Although best known for its fossil hominins, the Omo-Turkana Basin of Kenya and Ethiopia is the source of one of the best records of vertebrate evolution from the Late Cenozoic of Africa. Located near the heart of the East African Rift Valley, the basin serves as an important frame of reference for the continent. The fossil record from this region plays a key role in our efforts to understand the environmental and ecological context of human evolution in Africa. The Omo-Turkana faunal data shed light on key questions of human evolution: What kinds of environments did early humans inhabit? How did these environments change over time? What is the relationship between faunal change in East Africa and broader patterns of climatic change? Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. HIV infection in fishing communities of Lake Victoria Basin of Uganda--a cross-sectional sero-behavioral survey. (United States)

    Opio, Alex; Muyonga, Michael; Mulumba, Noordin


    Uganda's first AIDS case was reported in a fishing village. Thereafter, due to varying risk factors, the epidemic spread heterogeneously to all regions, with some populations more affected. Given the recent rising trends in HIV infection in Uganda, it is crucial to know the risk factors in different populations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of HIV infection among fishing communities. A cross-sectional survey of 46 fishing communities was conducted in 2010. Following written consent, 911 randomly selected respondents age 15-59 years were interviewed and gave blood for HIV testing. HIV testing was conducted in the field and central laboratory according to national algorithm. Survey protocol was approved by the Science and Ethics Committee of Uganda Virus Research Institute, and cleared by Uganda National Council for Science and Technology. Data was captured by EPIINFO and statistical analysis done in SPSS. Overall HIV prevalence was 22%; there was no difference by sex (x (2) test, p>0.05). Association with HIV infection was determined by x (2) test, p<0.5. Never married respondents had lower HIV prevalence (6.2%) than the ever married (24.1%). HIV prevalence was lower in younger respondents, age 15-24 years (10.8%) than in age group 25 years and above (26.1%). Muslims had lower HIV prevalence (14.4%) than Christians (25.2%). HIV prevalence was higher among respondents reporting 3 or more lifetime sexual partners (25.3%) than in those reporting less numbers (10.8%). HIV prevalence was higher among uncircumcised men (27%) than in circumcised men (11%). Multivariate analysis identified 4 risk factors for HIV infection; age, religion, ever condom use and number of lifetime sexual partners. HIV prevalence in the surveyed communities was three times higher than of general population. This underscores the need for tailor made HIV combination prevention interventions targeting fishing communities.

  12. HIV infection in fishing communities of Lake Victoria Basin of Uganda--a cross-sectional sero-behavioral survey.

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    Alex Opio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uganda's first AIDS case was reported in a fishing village. Thereafter, due to varying risk factors, the epidemic spread heterogeneously to all regions, with some populations more affected. Given the recent rising trends in HIV infection in Uganda, it is crucial to know the risk factors in different populations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of HIV infection among fishing communities. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional survey of 46 fishing communities was conducted in 2010. Following written consent, 911 randomly selected respondents age 15-59 years were interviewed and gave blood for HIV testing. HIV testing was conducted in the field and central laboratory according to national algorithm. Survey protocol was approved by the Science and Ethics Committee of Uganda Virus Research Institute, and cleared by Uganda National Council for Science and Technology. Data was captured by EPIINFO and statistical analysis done in SPSS. FINDINGS: Overall HIV prevalence was 22%; there was no difference by sex (x (2 test, p>0.05. Association with HIV infection was determined by x (2 test, p<0.5. Never married respondents had lower HIV prevalence (6.2% than the ever married (24.1%. HIV prevalence was lower in younger respondents, age 15-24 years (10.8% than in age group 25 years and above (26.1%. Muslims had lower HIV prevalence (14.4% than Christians (25.2%. HIV prevalence was higher among respondents reporting 3 or more lifetime sexual partners (25.3% than in those reporting less numbers (10.8%. HIV prevalence was higher among uncircumcised men (27% than in circumcised men (11%. Multivariate analysis identified 4 risk factors for HIV infection; age, religion, ever condom use and number of lifetime sexual partners. CONCLUSIONS: HIV prevalence in the surveyed communities was three times higher than of general population. This underscores the need for tailor made HIV combination prevention interventions targeting fishing communities.

  13. HIV Infection in Fishing Communities of Lake Victoria Basin of Uganda – A Cross-Sectional Sero-Behavioral Survey (United States)

    Opio, Alex; Muyonga, Michael; Mulumba, Noordin


    Background Uganda's first AIDS case was reported in a fishing village. Thereafter, due to varying risk factors, the epidemic spread heterogeneously to all regions, with some populations more affected. Given the recent rising trends in HIV infection in Uganda, it is crucial to know the risk factors in different populations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of HIV infection among fishing communities. Methodology A cross-sectional survey of 46 fishing communities was conducted in 2010. Following written consent, 911 randomly selected respondents age 15–59 years were interviewed and gave blood for HIV testing. HIV testing was conducted in the field and central laboratory according to national algorithm. Survey protocol was approved by the Science and Ethics Committee of Uganda Virus Research Institute, and cleared by Uganda National Council for Science and Technology. Data was captured by EPIINFO and statistical analysis done in SPSS. Findings Overall HIV prevalence was 22%; there was no difference by sex (x2 test, p>0.05). Association with HIV infection was determined by x2 test, p<0.5. Never married respondents had lower HIV prevalence (6.2%) than the ever married (24.1%). HIV prevalence was lower in younger respondents, age 15–24 years (10.8%) than in age group 25 years and above (26.1%). Muslims had lower HIV prevalence (14.4%) than Christians (25.2%). HIV prevalence was higher among respondents reporting 3 or more lifetime sexual partners (25.3%) than in those reporting less numbers (10.8%). HIV prevalence was higher among uncircumcised men (27%) than in circumcised men (11%). Multivariate analysis identified 4 risk factors for HIV infection; age, religion, ever condom use and number of lifetime sexual partners. Conclusions HIV prevalence in the surveyed communities was three times higher than of general population. This underscores the need for tailor made HIV combination prevention interventions targeting fishing communities. PMID:23940638

  14. Two new species of African suckermouth catfishes, genus Chiloglanis (Siluriformes: Mochokidae), from Kenya with remarks on other taxa from the area. (United States)

    Schmidt, Ray C; Bart, Henry L; Nyingi, Wanja Dorothy


    Recent expeditions in Kenya and examination of existing collections confirmed the presence of two undescribed Chiloglanis species and revealed previously unknown diversity within the Athi River system. The two new species are easily distinguished from described congeners in the area by external morphology, allopatric distributions, and genetic markers. Chiloglanis kerioensis sp. nov., is restricted to the Kerio River system and is the only known suckermouth catfish from the Lake Turkana basin. Chiloglanis devosi sp. nov., is known only from the type locality, the Northern Ewaso Nyiro (Ng'iro) below Chanler's Falls. In addition to these two new species, this study confirmed the presence of an undescribed Chiloglanis sp. occurring sympatrically with Chiloglanis brevibarbis in the Tsavo River. A dichotomous key for identifying all described Chiloglanis species found within Kenya is presented along with comments.

  15. Comparison of mortality following hospitalisation for isolated head injury in England and Wales, and Victoria, Australia.

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    Belinda J Gabbe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI remains a leading cause of death and disability. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines recommend transfer of severe TBI cases to neurosurgical centres, irrespective of the need for neurosurgery. This observational study investigated the risk-adjusted mortality of isolated TBI admissions in England/Wales, and Victoria, Australia, and the impact of neurosurgical centre management on outcomes. METHODS: Isolated TBI admissions (>15 years, July 2005-June 2006 were extracted from the hospital discharge datasets for both jurisdictions. Severe isolated TBI (AIS severity >3 admissions were provided by the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN and Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR for England/Wales, and Victoria, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare risk-adjusted mortality between jurisdictions. FINDINGS: Mortality was 12% (749/6256 in England/Wales and 9% (91/1048 in Victoria for isolated TBI admissions. Adjusted odds of death in England/Wales were higher compared to Victoria overall (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.6, 2.5, and for cases <65 years (OR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.51, 3.69. For severe TBI, mortality was 23% (133/575 for TARN and 20% (68/346 for VSTR, with 72% of TARN and 86% of VSTR cases managed at a neurosurgical centre. The adjusted mortality odds for severe TBI cases in TARN were higher compared to the VSTR (OR 1.45, 95% CI: 0.96, 2.19, but particularly for cases <65 years (OR 2.04, 95% CI: 1.07, 3.90. Neurosurgical centre management modified the effect overall (OR 1.12, 95% CI: 0.73, 1.74 and for cases <65 years (OR 1.53, 95% CI: 0.77, 3.03. CONCLUSION: The risk-adjusted odds of mortality for all isolated TBI admissions, and severe TBI cases, were higher in England/Wales when compared to Victoria. The lower percentage of cases managed at neurosurgical centres in England and Wales was an explanatory factor, supporting the changes made to the NICE

  16. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of mine waters from the Migori Gold Mining Belt in Southern Nyanza, Kenya. (United States)

    Odumo, O B; Mustapha, A O; Patel, J P; Angeyo, H K


    Analyses of water samples from Mikei, Osiri, Masara and Macalder (Makalda) gold mines of the Migori gold mining belt of Southwestern Kenya were done to determine the level of heavy metals using the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence technique. The concentrations of the heavy metals were; copper (29.34 ± 5.01-14,975.59 ± 616.14 μg/L); zinc (33.69 ± 4.29-683.15 ± 32.93 μg/L); arsenic (958.16 ± 60.14-18,047.52 ± 175.00 μg/L) and lead (19.51 ± 5.5-214.53 ± 6.29 μg/L). High levels of arsenic and lead were noted. These heavy metals are not only dangerous to the lives of miners and the local inhabitants; they are also a threat to aquatic life since these waters finally find their way into Lake Victoria.

  17. Reproductive health issues in rural Western Kenya

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    Ouma Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe reproductive health issues among pregnant women in a rural area of Kenya with a high coverage of insecticide treated nets (ITNs and high prevalence of HIV (15%. Methods We conducted a community-based cross-sectional survey among rural pregnant women in western Kenya. A medical, obstetric and reproductive history was obtained. Blood was obtained for a malaria smear and haemoglobin level, and stool was examined for geohelminths. Height and weight were measured. Results Of 673 participants, 87% were multigravidae and 50% were in their third trimester; 41% had started antenatal clinic visits at the time of interview and 69% reported ITN-use. Malaria parasitemia and anaemia (haemoglobin Conclusion In this rural area with a high HIV prevalence, the reported use of condoms before pregnancy was extremely low. Pregnancy health was not optimal with a high prevalence of malaria, geohelminth infections, anaemia and underweight. Chances of losing a child after birth were high. Multiple interventions are needed to improve reproductive health in this area.

  18. Initiatives: Kenya. Puppets say it better. (United States)

    Mworogo, P


    It is taboo in Africa to discuss sexual issues with strangers and even trained family planning providers often feel uncomfortable discussing reproductive health issues with groups of people, especially men. In the wake of the successful use of puppets to teach audiences in South Africa about AIDS, the Family Planning Association of Kenya used puppets to teach men about family planning, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV/AIDS. Trained puppetry troops now perform regularly in Kenya at male-dominated institutions in Nakuru and Kakamega. The approach has proved highly effective in drawing crowds of men to listen to reproductive health information. Puppetry represents real life, but remains one step removed from the real world. As such, puppets can be used to break down racial, social, and political barriers and stereotypes; they can say more on controversial issues than can a live actor without offending the audience; and they are highly portable and adaptable. Puppets offer the viewer and listener a nonthreatening opportunity to look and laugh at themselves.

  19. Girls' Attitudes Towards Science in Kenya (United States)

    Chetcuti, Deborah A.; Kioko, Beriter


    This study investigated girls' attitudes towards science in Kenya. It was carried out with 120 girls from four secondary schools in the Eastern province of Kenya. These were an urban single-sex (SS) and co-educational (Co-Ed) school and a rural SS and Co-Ed school. Different schools were chosen in order to explore whether there are any differences in attitudes in SS and Co-Ed schools and in schools in rural and urban areas. The methodology included the use of both questionnaires and focus group interviews. The main aim was to gain insight into the extent and depth of students' attitudes towards science. The findings of the study showed that the majority of Kenyan girls who participated in the study have a favourable attitude towards science. Girls in SS schools were found to have a more favourable attitude than those in Co-Ed schools, while girls in rural area schools were found to find science more relevant than those in urban schools. It emerged from this study that the attitudes of Kenyan girls are influenced by their perceptions of the relevance of science, enjoyment of studying science, perceptions of the suitability of science for a career, and their perceptions of subject difficulty.

  20. Aquatic and fisheries survey of the upper Victoria Nile: a report prepared for AES Nile Power Bujagali hydropower project, final report



    The aquatic ecosystem of the Upper Victoria Nile is part of a wider complex of water bodies (lakes and rivers) in Uganda that is of immense socioeconomic importance, especially the fisheries. A source of food, income, energy, irrigation and drinking water, the protection, sustainable use and management of the Upper Victoria Nile water resources are vital to Uganda's economy. The Upper Victoria Nile,due to its abundance of socio-economic benefits,provides a significant contribution to Ugand...

  1. Paleogeographic variations of pedogenic carbonate delta13C values from Koobi Fora, Kenya: implications for floral compositions of Plio-Pleistocene hominin environments. (United States)

    Quinn, Rhonda L; Lepre, Christopher J; Wright, James D; Feibel, Craig S


    Plio-Pleistocene East African grassland expansion and faunal macroevolution, including that of our own lineage, are attributed to global climate change. To further understand environmental factors of early hominin evolution, we reconstruct the paleogeographic distribution of vegetation (C(3)-C(4) pathways) by stable carbon isotope (delta(13)C) analysis of pedogenic carbonates from the Plio-Pleistocene Koobi Fora region, northeast Lake Turkana Basin, Kenya. We analyzed 202 nodules (530 measurements) from ten paleontological/archaeological collecting areas spanning environments over a 50-km(2) area. We compared results across subregions in evolving fluviolacustrine depositional environments in the Koobi Fora Formation from 2.0-1.5 Ma, a stratigraphic interval that temporally brackets grassland ascendancy in East Africa. Significant differences in delta(13)C values between subregions are explained by paleogeographic controls on floral composition and distribution. Our results indicate grassland expansion between 2.0 and 1.75 Ma, coincident with major shifts in basin-wide sedimentation and hydrology. Hypotheses may be correct in linking Plio-Pleistocene hominin evolution to environmental changes from global climate; however, based on our results, we interpret complexity from proximate forces that mitigated basin evolution. An approximately 2.5 Ma tectonic event in southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya exerted strong effects on paleography in the Turkana Basin from 2.0-1.5 Ma, contributing to the shift from a closed, lacustrine basin to one dominated by open, fluvial conditions. We propose basin transformation decreased residence time for Omo River water and expanded subaerial floodplain landscapes, ultimately leading to reduced proportions of wooded floras and the establishment of habitats suitable for grassland communities.

  2. British History is Their History: Britain and the British Empire in the History Curriculum of Ontario, Canada and Victoria, Australia 1930-1975

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephen J Jackson


    This article investigates the evolving conceptions of national identity in Canada and Australia through an analysis of officially sanctioned history textbooks in Ontario, Canada and Victoria, Australia...

  3. Simbi Nyaima: An Interplay of Nature and Mythology in the Lake Victoria Region; Planning and Management for Ecotourism Transformation in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick Argwenge Odede


    Full Text Available Many countries in the world exploit cultural heritage to reduce poverty, enhance livelihood and transform of the community and support local livelihood. This paper focuses of ecotourism transformation, namely, nature (Simbi as unique Crater Lake and the mythology associated with the lake depicting the curse of a village of a strange old woman by the name Simbi. These two constellations have been used to preserve the site and needs to be used in the planning, conservation and management of this unique heritage. Stakeholder participation should use the two concepts in planning and conservation. The study aimed at mapping the site, examining its cultural identity, assessing the values and potential of the site, identifying the challenges facing the site and developing appropriate strategies for ecotourism promotion. The study used ethnographic and phenomenological modes of data collection using purposive sampling method. The data was qualitatively analysed and yielded themes with respect to research objectives. The documented the location, nature and mythology of the site as planning, conservation and branding tools, established the level of community participation in its planning, conservation and branding, identified its potential and challenges for ecotourism promotion, and proposed appropriate strategies for planning management and conservation of Simbi Nyaima for upscaling ecotourism in the study area.

  4. Contribution of soil, water and food consumption to metal exposure of children from geological enriched environments in the coastal zone of Lake Victoria, Kenya.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyoo-Okoth, E.; Admiraal, W.; Osano, O.; Manguya-Lusega, D; Ngure, V.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Chepkirui-Boit, V.; Makwali, J.


    Geologically enriched environments may contain high concentrations of some metals. In areas where industrial exposures remain superficial, children may be exposed to these geological metals through soil, drinking water and consumption of food locally grown. The aim of this study was to assess the

  5. Short-term mobility and the risk of HIV infection among married couples in the fishing communities along Lake Victoria, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary A Kwena

    Full Text Available Mobility has long been associated with high HIV prevalence. We sought to assess sex differences in the relationship between mobility and risk for HIV infection among married couples in the fishing communities.We conducted 1090 gender-matched interviews and rapid HIV testing with 545 couples proportionally representing all the different sizes of the fish-landing beaches in Kisumu County. We contacted a random sample of fishermen as our index participants and asked them to enroll in the study together with their spouses. The consenting couples were separated into different private rooms for concurrent interviews and thereafter reunited for couple rapid HIV counselling and testing. In addition to socio-economic and behavioural data, we collected information on overnight travels and divided couples in 4 groups as follows both partners not mobile, both partners mobile, only woman mobile, and only man mobile. Other than descriptive statistics, we used X(2 and U tests to compare groups of variables and multivariate logistic regression to measure association between mobility and HIV infection.We found significant differences in the number of trips women travelled in the preceding month (mean 4.6, SD 7.1 compared to men (mean 3.3, SD 4.9; p<0.01 and when the women did travel, they were more likely to spend more days away from home than their male partners (mean 5.2 [SD 7.2] versus 3.4 SD 5.6; p = 0.01. With an HIV prevalence of 22.7% in women compared to 20.9% among men, mobile women who had non-mobile spouses had 2.1 times the likelihood of HIV infection compared to individuals in couples where both partners were non-mobile.The mobility of fishermen's spouses is associated with HIV infection that is not evident among fishermen themselves. Therefore, interventions in this community could be a combination of sex-specific programming that targets women and combined programming for couples.

  6. Current status of sea turtle protection in Lamu Seascape, Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current status of sea turtle protection in Lamu Seascape, Kenya: Trends in nesting, nest predation and stranding levels. Mike Olendo, Cosmas Nzaka Munga, Gladys Moragwa Okemwa, Harrison Ong'anda, Lilian Mulupi, Lily Mwasi, Hassan Mohamed ...

  7. All projects related to Kenya | Page 9 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Appropriate intellectual property (IP) rights policies could foster creativity and innovation, thereby promoting globally competitive African industries and services. Start Date: November 15, 2010. End Date: November 15, 2014. Topic: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, COPYRIGHT, COMPETITIVENESS. Region: Egypt, Kenya ...

  8. All projects related to Kenya | Page 13 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


  9. Amphibian abundance and diversity in Meru National Park, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasonga, D.V.; Bakele, A.; Lötters, S.; Balakrishnan, M.


    The diversity and abundance of amphibians were investigated in Meru National Park, Kenya, using transect sampling, drift-fence and pitfall trapping and opportunistic collecting. A total of 430 individuals under seven genera (Amietophrynus, Hemisus, Hyperolius, Phrynobatrachus, Phrynomantis,

  10. African Urban Harvest: Agriculture in the Cities of Cameroon, Kenya ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    . Book cover African Urban Harvest: Agriculture in the Cities of Cameroon, Kenya and Uganda. Editor(s):. Gordon Prain, Nancy Karanja, and Diana Lee-Smith. Publisher(s):. Springer, CIP, IDRC. January 1, 2010. ISBN: 9781441969620.

  11. All projects related to Kenya | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)



  12. All projects related to Kenya | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: SOCIAL PROBLEMS, LOW INCOME GROUPS, MIDDLE CLASS, SCHOLARSHIPS, POLICY MAKING, RESEARCH NETWORKS, Social Policy, PUBLIC HEALTH, RESEARCH CAPACITY. Region: Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda. Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: CA$ 365,500.00 ...

  13. Highlight: Kenya selects first research chair on health systems ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    NACOSTI), in collaboration with IDRC, launched Kenya's first Research Chair on March 31, 2015 in Nairobi. Professor Fabian Omoding Esamai, the current Principal of Moi University's College of Health Sciences, has been selected ...

  14. Changing Face of Family Planning Funding in Kenya: A Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changing Face of Family Planning Funding in Kenya: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Two Urban Counties. Nelson Keyonzo, Julius Korir, Faith Abilla, Morine Sirera, Peter Nyakwara, Eva Bazant, Charles Waka, Nancy Koskei, Mark Kabue ...

  15. Kenya : tous les projets | Page 14 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: PESTICIDE RESIDUES, WATER POLLUTION, HEALTH HAZARDS, HEALTH SURVEYS, ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, WATER RESOURCES, WATER MANAGEMENT. Région: Kenya, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Programme: Alimentation, environnement et santé. Financement total : CA$ 569,120.00 ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The incursion of Kenya Defence Forces (KDF into Somalia was met by a series of threats from the Al-Shabaab that it would increase the attacks against Kenya if the troops were not withdrawn. The capture of Kismayu by KDF has weakened the nerve of Al-Shabaab but has not eliminated the imminent danger of a substantive terror attack. Since the incursion by KDF, Kenya has succumbed to a sequence of grenade and Improvised Explosive Devices attacks, roadside bombs, landmines and raids by fighters using small arms and light weapons and Rocket Propelled Grenades against Kenyans mostly in North Eastern, Coastal and Nairobi counties, marking the resurgence of terrorism in the country. We argue that Kenya is more vulnerable to Al-Shabaab terrorists attack than before the KDF incursion by citing the frequencies of reprisal attacks from October 2011 to January 2013. Hence, our troops should be withdrawn and deployed within our boundary.

  17. Kenya : tous les projets | Page 13 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


  18. Towards a national policy on wastewater reuse in Kenya | Kaluli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards a national policy on wastewater reuse in Kenya. ... This implied that Nairobi sewage needed to be treated for the removal of BOD, turbidity and ... allowable levels of pesticides, herbicides, and heavy metals in wastewater reuse.

  19. All projects related to Kenya | Page 14 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS, MARKETING, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, TELEPHONE, TELECOMMUNICATIONS, INFORMATION NETWORKS. Region: Kenya, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Total Funding: CA$ 348,977.00. Panafrican Research Agenda on the Integration of ...

  20. Assessment of coastal governance for climate change adaptation in Kenya

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ojwang, L


    Full Text Available The coastline of Kenya already experiences effects of climate change, adding to existing pressures such as urbanization. Integrated coastal management (ICM) is increasingly recognized as a key policy response to deal with the multiple challenges...

  1. Detention in Kenya: risks for refugees and asylum seekers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Kiama


    Full Text Available Refugees and asylum seekers detained in Kenya risk multiple convictions and protracted detention due to poor coordination between immigration officials, police and prison officers, coupled with lack of interpreters and low levels of knowledge among government officers.

  2. kenya : tous les projets | Page 10 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


  3. All projects related to Kenya | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: POLICY MAKING, AFRICA, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT, BIODIVERSITY, CONSERVATION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE. Region: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Canada. Program: Foundations for Innovation. Total Funding: CA$ 2,600,000.00. Hungry Cities Initiative: Informality, Inclusive Growth, and Food Security in ...

  4. All projects related to kenya | Page 13 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


  5. All projects related to kenya | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: EAST AFRICA, URBAN COMMUNITIES, SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT, ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. Region: ... Program: Maternal and Child Health ... Kenya's universities face increasing pressure to play a more active role in national development over and above their traditional teaching and research functions.

  6. Intervention in child nutrition : evaluation studies in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.


    In this monograph three major types of intervention in child nutrition are examined: nutrition education, food supplementation and nutrition rehabilitation. Detailed evaluations were carried out, between 1976 and 1979, of programmes in Central Kenya operating under different ecological


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    considering national priorities for application of biotechnology for more than a decade ... while safeguarding human health and environmental integrity. .... NACBAA, 1991. National Advisory Committee on Biotechnology Advances and Their. Applications. Ministry of Research, Technical. Training & Technology, Nairobi, Kenya.

  8. All projects related to Kenya | Page 12 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: EPIDEMIOLOGY, WEATHER, EPIDEMICS, MALARIA, PROPHYLAXIS, Disease control. Region: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Rwanda. Program: Climate Change. Total Funding: CA$ 782,802.00. Advancing Capacity to Support Climate Change Adaptation : Five Pilot Projects. Project.

  9. All projects related to kenya | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: ECONOMIC RECESSION, WOMEN WORKERS, UNEMPLOYMENT, GENDER ANALYSIS, YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT, SURVEYS. Region: Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Uganda, South Africa, South of Sahara. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 791,200.00. Linking African Researchers with ...

  10. All projects related to Kenya | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: ECONOMIC RECESSION, WOMEN WORKERS, UNEMPLOYMENT, GENDER ANALYSIS, YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT, SURVEYS. Region: Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Uganda, South Africa, South of Sahara. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 791,200.00. Linking African Researchers with ...

  11. kenya : tous les projets | Page 12 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , FORECASTING TECHNIQUES, SMALLHOLDERS. Région: Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, Tanzania, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Programme: Changements climatiques. Financement total : CA$ 1,306,013.00. Travaux d'un chercheur ...

  12. Kenya; Ex Post Assessment of Longer-Term Program Engagement


    International Monetary Fund


    This paper discusses key findings of the Ex Post Assessment (EPA) of Longer-Term Program Engagement paper for Kenya. This EPA focuses on 1993–2007, when Kenya was engaged in four successive IMF arrangements. Macroeconomic policy design was broadly appropriate, and implementation was generally sound. Growth slowed in the 1990s, but picked up after the 2002 elections, reflecting buoyant global conditions, structural reforms, and a surge of private capital inflows. Monetary policies were complic...

  13. Kenya : tous les projets | Page 13 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    DrumNet : mise sur pied d'un système d'information GSM pour petits exploitants agricoles au Kenya - phase II. Projet. DrumNet incite les petits exploitants agricoles du Kenya à produire des cultures destinées à l'exportation en leur fournissant un ensemble de services intégrés - du crédit lié à la vulgarisation agricole et à la ...

  14. Soutien institutionnel au Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Une loi adoptée par le gouvernement du Kenya en 2006 a désigné le Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA) comme principal institut de recherche socioéconomique du gouvernement. Cette loi exerce une pression énorme sur le KIPPRA qui se relève difficilement de l'important roulement de son ...

  15. What's up in Kenya? (Besides population). (United States)

    Yinger, N; Carty, W


    There are some indications that things are changing in Kenya, a nation with 1 of the world's fastest growing populations. Kenya's population will increase from the present 22.4 million to 44.8 million in the next 18 years if the 3.9% annual population growth rate remains constant. The government has renewed its campaign to increase awareness of the relationship between population growth and economic progress. There is not much progress to report as yet. Contraceptive prevalence is increasing slowly and now stands at 20% of eligible women. The government family planning program has been only minimally effective in recruiting or keeping family planning clients, but some smaller scale, private family planning programs demonstrate that Kenyans are receptive to family planning if they have access to appropriate and well-operated services. The key to the successful community-based program at Chogoria Hospital has been the use of the tradition of self-help. The original targets of the Family Planning Private Sector Project (FPPS), funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID), have been met, and the new goals are for a total of 50 subprojects and 50,000 acceptors. The strategy of FPPS is to convince a company, plantation, para-state organization, private clinic, or school that its social and economic interests would be served by adopting a strong family planning program. The project then trains health clinic staff, and programs are designed to carry out the individual projects. Workers are educated about the economic and health benefits of smaller families and provided with appropriate information, contraceptives, and followup services. After 2 years of support, FPPS leaves the projects to the companies to operate and finance on a permanent basis. This approach works because Kenya has 1 of the largest and most socially responsible nongovernmental sectors in Africa. Project such as Chogoria and FPPS show that many Kenyans recognize the health and economic

  16. The water hyacinth problem and the biological control option in the highland lake region of the upper Nile basin: Uganda's experience


    Twongo, T.; Balirwa, J.S.


    The rapid proliferation and extensive spread of water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms in the highland lakes of the Nile Basin within less than 15 years of introduction into the basin in the 1980s pauses potential environmental and social economic menace if the noxious weed is not controlled soon. The water weed has spread all round Lake Victoria and, in Uganda where infes tation is mos t severe, water hyacinth estimated at 1,330,000 ton smothers over 2,000 ha of the lakeshore...

  17. Monitoring geodynamic activity in the Victoria Land, East Antarctica: Evidence from GNSS measurements (United States)

    Zanutta, A.; Negusini, M.; Vittuari, L.; Cianfarra, P.; Salvini, F.; Mancini, F.; Sterzai, P.; Dubbini, M.; Galeandro, A.; Capra, A.


    GNSS networks in Antarctica are a fundamental tool to define actual crustal displacements due to geological and geophysical processes and to constrain the glacial isostatic models (GIA). A large network devoted to the detection and monitoring of crustal deformations in the Northern Victoria Land (Victoria Land Network for DEFormation control - VLNDEF), was monumented during the 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 field campaigns, as part of Italian National Program for Antarctic Research and surveyed periodically during the Southern summer seasons. In this paper, GPS observations of VLNDEF collected over a more than 15-year span, together with various selected POLENET sites and more than 70 IGS stations, were processed with Bernese Software, using a classical double difference approach. A solution was obtained combining NEQs by means of ADDNEQ2/FODITS tools embedded in Bernese Software. All the Antarctic sites were kept free and a subset of 50 IGS stations were used to frame VLNDEF into ITRF2008. New evidence provided by analysis of GPS time series for the VLNDEF network is presented; also displacements along the vertical component are compared with the recently published GIA models. The absolute velocities indicate an overall displacement of the northern Victoria Land region along the south-east direction (Ve = 10.6 mm/yr, Vn = -11.5 mm/yr) and an average uplift rate of Vu = 0.5 mm/yr. Two GIA models have been analyzed: ICE-6G_C-VM5a proposed by Argus et al. (2014), Peltier et al. (2015) and W12A_v1 by Whitehouse et al. (2012a,b). Up rates, predicted over the VLNDEF sites by the mentioned GIA models, have been extracted and compared with those observed. A preliminary comparison with GPS-derived vertical rates shows that the Victoria Land ICE-6G_C-VM5 and W12A_v1 GIA models predict overestimated uplift rates of 0.7 and 0.9 mm/yr weighted mean residuals respectively. The mean horizontal relative motions within the Victoria Land (VL) area are in most cases negligible, while only

  18. Hydrocarbon potential of the Meso-Cenozoic Turkana Depression, northern Kenya. 2. Source rocks: quality, maturation, depositional environments and structural control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbot, M.R. [University of Bergen (Norway). Geological Institute; Morley, C.K. [Universiti Brunei Darassalam (Brunei Darussalam). Jalan Tungku Link; Tiercelin, J.-J.; Le Herisse, A.; Le Gall, B. [UMR CNRSUBO, Plouzane (France). Institut Universitaire Europeen de la Mer; Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France); Potdevin, J.-J. [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille (France). UFR des Sciences de la Terre


    Source rocks identified by drilling (Loperot-1 well) in the Lokichar Basin of the northern Kenya Rift were evaluated for source potential using RockEval pyrolysis and palynofacies analysis. Results indicate moderate to good oil source potential from algal-prone source rocks. The original sediments accumulated in a large freshwater lake similar to some modem rift lakes. In the Loperot-1 well, the section with the highest source potential lies within the Lokhone Shale Member (up to 17% total organic carbon (TOC), average 2.4% TOC from well-log calculation). The other potential source interval is the deeper Loperot Shale Member, which is highly mature to post-mature (R{sub 0} = 1.1%; average 1.2% TOC from well-log calculation). The poorer quality of the lower shale interval while partly due to maturity, is thought to be largely a result of the basin evolution. The Loperot Shale Member was restricted to the Lokichar Basin, while the Lokhone Shale Member was deposited during a time when displacement on the main boundary fault system was greater, and adjacent basins had been established. Consequently, lacustrine conditions appear to have extended into adjacent basins, thus allowing the accumulation of relatively higher concentrations of algal material in sediment-starved parts of the basin. (author)

  19. The molecular epidemiology of norovirus outbreaks in Victoria, 2014 to 2015
. (United States)

    Bruggink, Leesa D; Moselen, Jean M; Marshall, John A


    Noroviruses are a leading cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis. This study examined the incidence and molecular characteristics of norovirus outbreaks in healthcare and non-healthcare settings in Victoria, Australia, over 2 years (2014-2015). Norovirus was detected in 65.7% and 60.4% of gastroenteritis outbreaks investigated for the years 2014 and 2015 respectively. There was a significant decline in the number of norovirus outbreaks in the period 2014 to 2015 although in both years norovirus outbreaks peaked in the latter part of the year. Norovirus Open Reading Frame (ORF) 2 (capsid) genotypes identified included GI.2, GI.3, GI.4, GI.5, GI.6, GI.9, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.6, GII.7, GII.8, GII.13 and GII.17. GII.4 was the most common genotype detected. In addition, the following ORF 1/ORF 2 recombinant forms were confirmed: GII.P4_NewOrleans_2009/GII.4_Sydney_2012, GII.P12/GII.3, GII.Pb (GII.21)/GII.3, GII.Pe/GII.2 and GII.Pe/GII.4_Sydney_2012. A significant decline was noted in the chief norovirus strain GII.Pe/GII.4_Sydney_2012 between 2014 and 2015 but there was a re-emergence of a GII.P4_ NewOrleans _2009 norovirus strain. Outbreaks involving the GII.P17/GII.17 genotype were also detected for the first time in Victoria. GI genotypes circulating in Victoria for the 2 years 2014 and 2015 underwent a dramatic change between the 2 years of the survey. Many genotypes could occur in both healthcare and non-healthcare settings although GI.3, GII.6, and GII.4 were significantly more common in healthcare settings. The study emphasises the complex way in which norovirus circulates throughout the community.

  20. Sex and sport: sexual risk behaviour in young people in rural and regional Victoria. (United States)

    Kong, Fabian Y S; Hocking, Jane S; Link, Chris Kyle; Chen, Marcus Y; Hellard, Margaret E


    To determine the prevalence of chlamydia and understand sexual risk behaviour in 16-29 year olds in rural Victoria through a chlamydia testing program undertaken at local sporting clubs. Young people were recruited from the Loddon Mallee region of Victoria, Australia between May and September 2007. After a night of sporting practice, participants provided a first pass urine sample and completed a brief questionnaire about sexual risk behaviour. Those positive for chlamydia were managed by telephone consultation with a practitioner from Melbourne Sexual Health Centre. A total of 709 young people participated (77% male, 23% female) in the study; 77% were sexually active. Overall chlamydia prevalence in sexually active participants was 5.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.4-7.3); 7.4% in females (95% CI: 3.5-13.6) and 4.5% in males (95% CI: 2.7-6.9). Approximately 60% of males and 20% of females consumed alcohol at high 'Risky Single Occasion Drinking' levels at least weekly and 60% had used an illicit drug in their lifetime. Nearly 45% reported having sex in the past year when they usually would not have because they were too drunk or high. Sexually transmissible infection (STI) knowledge was generally poor and only 25% used a condom the last time they had sex. Chlamydia prevalence was high in our study population. Many participants had poor knowledge about STIs and low condom use. These findings combined with high levels of risky alcohol use and having sex while intoxicated highlights the need for programs in rural and regional Victoria that combine both STI testing and prevention and education programs.

  1. Computerizing primary schools in rural kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogembo, J.G.; Ngugi, B.; Pelowski, Matthew John


    This paper investigates the outstanding challenges facing primary schools' computerization in rural Kenya. Computerization of schools is often envisaged as a 'magic', or at least a particularly efficient, solution to many of the problems that developing countries face in improving primary school...... education. However, while a great deal of consideration is given to the technical issues surrounding computer implementation, government policy makers, administrators, aid organizations and individuals participating in school computerization programs often have not carefully considered the contextual...... questions surrounding this endeavour. Specifically: 1.) what problems do rural schools actually want to solve with computerization; 2.) is computerization the most important priority for rural schools; 3.) are schools ready, in terms of infrastructure, for a computer in the classroom; or 4.) might...

  2. The Most Effective Methods for Delivering Severe Weather Early Warnings to Fishermen on Lake Victoria. (United States)

    Tushemereirwe, Richard; Tuhebwe, Doreen; Cooper, Mary Ann; D'ujanga, Florence Mutonyi


    Introduction : It is estimated that five thousand people die on Lake Victoria every year by drowning which is triggered by severe weather hazards like lightning. Objectives :  In order to improve predictability of severe weather conditions on Lake Victoria, there is need to deliver timely and effective Severe Weather Early Warning Systems (SWEWS) to those at risk. On Lake Victoria, previous SWEW service trials ceased with the end of the funding grants. This study therefore assessed the possibility of sustaining the SWEW service by assessing willingness to pay.   Methods : An assessment was conducted between March and May 2015 to determine the SWEW service improvements desired by the population. A convenience sample of respondents was gathered and interviewed during impromptu visits to landing sites on Lake Victoria. The respondents were also among community members that had earlier participated in a pilot assessing the feasibility of mobile phones is delivering SWEW alerts.  Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to fishermen and fisher folks at the landing site to gather suggestions/strategies for (i) better design and implementation of SWEW service, (ii) use of smart phones, and (iii) their ability and willingness to pay for a SWEW service. Results were presented as frequencies. Results : Two hundred fifteen respondents from fourteen landing sites (communities) were interviewed. Over 50% of the respondents (113/215) were aware about at least one community member who had been injured due to lightening on the lake in the past year. Ninety two percent (198/215) of the respondents reported using mobile phones as their main tool of communication but only 4% had smart phones that could receive early warning weather alerts through internet connectivity. Seventy five percent of respondents said they would welcome a system that could deliver commercial weather alerts and 65% were willing to pay for such a service.   Conclusions : A SWEW service is feasible

  3. Gambling revenues as a public administration issue: electronic gaming machines in Victoria. (United States)

    Pickernell, David; Keast, Robyn; Brown, Kerry; Yousefpour, Nina; Miller, Chris


    Gambling activities and the revenues derived have been seen as a way to increase economic development in deprived areas. There are also, however, concerns about the effects of gambling in general and electronic gaming machines (EGMs) in particular, on the resources available to the localities in which they are situated. This paper focuses on the factors that determine the extent and spending of community benefit-related EGM-generated resources within Victoria, Australia, focusing in particular on the relationships between EGM activity and socio-economic and social capital indicators, and how this relates to the community benefit resources generated by gaming.

  4. A Baseline Air Quality Assessment Onboard a Victoria Class Submarine: HMCS Windsor (United States)


    défense Canada – Toronto; May 2006. Pour faciliter l’élaboration de futurs plans de gestion de la qualité de l’air à bord des nouveaux sous-marins de...visant à améliorer la gestion de la qualité de l’air à bord de sous-marins de classe Victoria. Ces recommandations comprennent : l’examen de tous les... ambient air from the WSC (centre of the torpedo racks, used as bunk space); Senior Rates Mess Accommodation Space (aft compartment); Junior Rates

  5. Microbial quality and safety of fresh and dried Rastrineobola argentea from Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baniga, Zebedayo; Dalsgaard, Anders; Mhongole, Ofred J


    Rastrineobola argentea (silver cyprinid/sardines) is an important commercial fish species found in Lake Victoria. It is an important protein source for consumers in several African countries including Tanzania. A cross-sectional study was conducted using standard methods to assess the bacteriolog...... sites contained 30% (n = 20) and those from the markets contained 15% (n = 20) Salmonella spp. Salmonella spp. were not detected in sardines dried on racks. To conclude, sun drying of sardines on racks is an effective drying method providing a safe product for human consumption....

  6. A new species of Anabarhynchus (Diptera: Therevidae from an ocean beach in south east Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ferguson


    Full Text Available Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae (Diptera that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchus oceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic A. kampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001, but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Megathereva Lyneborg, 1992. This new species brings the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 113.

  7. Poverty and health care demand in Kenya. (United States)

    Awiti, Japheth Osotsi


    There is a wide range of actions an individual could take when sick or injured such as self-care, consulting a traditional healer, or seeking treatment from a private or public health care facility. The specific action taken is influenced by individual characteristics, provider characteristics, societal factors, and geographical factors. A key individual characteristic is the ability to afford the required health care. The study examines the effect of poverty on an individual's choice of a health care provider in the event of sickness or injury in Kenya. Using data from the Kenya Integrated Household and Budget Survey carried out between 2005 and 2006, we estimate a multinomial probit model that links an individual's poverty status to the individual's health care provider choice. The choices are classified as none, non-modern, and modern. The model is estimated for four age groups: infants, children aged 1 to 5 years, children aged 6 to 14 years, and adults. We control for the potential endogeneity of poverty status. Our results indicate that for all age groups, the predictors of poverty include large household sizes and longer distances to the nearest health facility. We further find that poverty reduces the probability of visiting a modern health care provider amongst all age groups. Poverty has a negative effect on the individual's demand for modern health care services, holding other factors constant. To encourage the use of modern health care facilities, therefore, requires the pursuit of poverty-reduction strategies. Some of the ways this could be done include lowering the household sizes and reducing the average distance to modern health care facilities.

  8. Kenya's Radio Language Arts Project: evaluation results. (United States)

    Oxford, R L


    The Kenya Radio Language Arts Project (RLAP), which has just been completed, documents the effectiveness of interactive radio-based educational instruction. Analyses in the areas of listening, reading, speaking, and writing show that children in radio classrooms consistently scored better than children in nonradio classrooms in every test. An evaluation of the project was conducted with the assistance of the Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL). Evaluation results came from a variety of sources, including language tests, observations, interviews, demographic and administrative records, and an attitude survey. A large proportion of the project's students were considerably transient. Only 22% of the total student population of 3908 were "normal progression" students -- that is, they advanced regularly through their education during the life of the project. Students who moved from the area, failed a standard (grade), dropped out, or were otherwise untrackable, comprised the remaining 78% of the total. 7 districts were included in the project. Tests were developed for listening and reading in Standards 1, 2, and 3 and in speaking and writing in Standards 2 and 3. The achievement tests were based on the official Kenya curriculum for those standards, so as to measure achievement against the curriculum. Nearly all the differences were highly significant statistically, with a probability of less than 1 in 1000 that the findings could have occurred by chance. Standard 1 radio students scored nearly 8 points higher than did their counterparts in the control group. Standard 2 and 3 radio students outperformed the control students by 4 points. The radio group consistently outperformed the control group in reading, writing, and speaking. Unstructured interviews and observations were conducted by the RLAP field staff. Overwhelmingly positive attitudes about the project prevailed among project teachers and headmasters. The data demonstrate that RLAP works. In fact, it works so

  9. Spatio-temporal variations in phytoplankton community structure in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 6, 2013 ... Spatio-temporal variations of phytoplankton, expressed in terms of species composition and diversity collected at various sampling sites in small water bodies (SWBs) within Lake Victoria basin, Kenya, were investigated monthly from November 2010 to June 2011, in relation to selected physical and.

  10. Factors determining the use of botanical insect pest control methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A farm survey was conducted in three representative administrative districts of the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB), Kenya to document farmers' indigenous knowledge and the factors that influence the use of botanicals instead of synthetic insecticides in insect pest management. A total of 65 farm households were randomly ...

  11. Some conservation aspects of papyrus endemic passerines around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conservation of papyrus Cyperus papyrus swamps is a neglected issue in Kenya. These swamps occur in patches. Whilst the best patches of intact habitat still occur in the Lake Victoria basin (where they previously formed a continuous fringe along the shoreline), this landscape has been severely disrupted and ...

  12. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology - Vol 7 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatio-temporal variations in phytoplankton community structure in small water bodies within Lake Victoria basin, Kenya · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. SO Ngodhe, PO Raburu, BK Arara, PO Orwa, AA Otieno, 862-873 ...

  13. Knowledge and perceptions on malaria and its association with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 1, 2011 ... children in Kenya. about 70 percent of the population is at risk of infection, and roughly 34,000 young children die of malaria-related causes annually. Objective: to investigate the knowledge and perceptions of the local people for malaria in relation to aquatic habitats along the Kenyan lake Victoria basin.

  14. Integrated Water, Sanitation and Solid Waste Management in Small ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Inadequate water and sanitation services are having an negative effect on human health and polluting Lake Victoria in East Africa. At the request of the governments of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, UN-Habitat has undertaken an initiative to provide water and sanitation services in the region and protect the Lake basin.

  15. Livelihood diversification and implications on poverty and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper on livelihood diversification is based on an ongoing study under VicRes programme being undertaken in the Lake Victoria Basin, in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. We examine how changing socio-economic and environmental conditions contribute to livelihood diversification, land-use changes, poverty ...

  16. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of processing on the quality, composition and antioxidant properties of Terminalia catappa (Indian almond) seed oil · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL ... Comparison of antimicrobial activities of brine salting, Chlorinated solution and Moringa oleifera plant extracts in fish from Lake Victoria basin of Kenya ...

  17. Spatio-temporal variations in phytoplankton community structure in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatio-temporal variations of phytoplankton, expressed in terms of species composition and diversity collected at various sampling sites in small water bodies (SWBs) within Lake Victoria basin, Kenya, were investigated monthly from November 2010 to June 2011, in relation to selected physical and chemical water quality ...

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 89 of 89 ... CO Omondi, PO Ayiecho. Vol 68 (2002), Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) response to manganese in a sand culture, Abstract. JS Tenywa, DJ Eckert. Vol 68 (2003), Yield and storage quality of improved sweetpotato cultivars in the Lake Victoria basin, Kenya, Abstract. BA Were, AO Onkware, S Gudu. 51 - 89 of ...

  19. VICTORIA: A mechanistic model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system under severe accident conditions. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heams, T J [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, D A; Johns, N A; Mason, A [UKAEA, Winfrith, (England); Bixler, N E; Grimley, A J [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wheatley, C J [UKAEA, Culcheth (England); Dickson, L W [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada); Osborn-Lee, I [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Domagala, P; Zawadzki, S; Rest, J [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Alexander, C A [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Lee, R Y [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)


    The VICTORIA model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a light water reactor during a severe accident is described. It has been developed by the USNRC to define the radionuclide phenomena and processes that must be considered in systems-level models used for integrated analyses of severe accident source terms. The VICTORIA code, based upon this model, predicts fission product release from the fuel, chemical reactions involving fission products, vapor and aerosol behavior, and fission product decay heating. Also included is a detailed description of how the model is implemented in VICTORIA, the numerical algorithms used, and the correlations and thermochemical data necessary for determining a solution. A description of the code structure, input and output, and a sample problem are provided.

  20. Petrology, geochronology and emplacement model of the giant 1.37 Ga arcuate Lake Victoria Dyke Swarm on the margin of a large igneous province in eastern Africa (United States)

    Mäkitie, Hannu; Data, Gabriel; Isabirye, Edward; Mänttäri, Irmeli; Huhma, Hannu; Klausen, Martin B.; Pakkanen, Lassi; Virransalo, Petri


    A comprehensive description of the petrography, geochemical composition, Sm-Nd data and intrinsic field relationships of a giant arcuate Mesoproterozoic mafic dyke swarm in SW Uganda is presented for the first time. The swarm is ∼100 km wide and mainly hosted in the Palaeoproterozoic Rwenzori Belt between the Mesoproterozoic Karagwe-Ankole Belt and the Archaean Uganda Block. The dykes trend NW-SE across Uganda, but can be correlated across Lake Victoria to another set of arcuate aeromagnetic anomalies that continue southwards into Tanzania, resulting in a remarkably large semi-circular swarm with an outer diameter of ∼500 km. We propose that this unique giant dyke structure be named the Lake Victoria Dyke Swarm (LVDS). The dykes are tholeiites with Mg numbers between 0.69 and 0.44, and with inherited marked negative Nb and P anomalies in spider diagrams. Two dykes provide Sm-Nd mineral ages of 1368 ± 41 Ma and 1374 ± 42 Ma, with initial εNd values of -2.3 and -3.2, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of ∼0.706-0.709. Geotectonic discrimination diagrams for the swarm exhibit more arc type than within-plate tectonic signatures, but this is in accordance with systematic enrichments in LREE, U and Th in the dolerites, more likely due to the involvement of the continental lithosphere during their petrogenesis. The LVDS is coeval with a regional ∼1375 Ma bimodal magmatic event across nearby Burundi, Rwanda and NW Tanzania, which can collectively be viewed as a large igneous province (LIP). It also indicates that the nearby Karagwe-Ankole Belt sequences - bracketed between 1.78 and 1.37 Ga and assumed by some to have been deposited within intracratonic basins - were capped by flood basalts that have subsequently been removed by erosion. Different geochemical signatures (e.g. LaN/SmN) suggest that most of the arcuate swarm was derived from an enriched SCLM, whereas related intrusions in the centre of this semi-circular segment have more or less enriched asthenospheric mantle

  1. La construcción de legitimidad del Frente para la Victoria (1988-1991 Frente para la Victoria's construction of legitimacy (1988-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Sosa


    Full Text Available El trabajo aborda la construcción de legitimidad del Frente para la Victoria (FV en el escenario político de Santa Cruz desde su nacimiento en 1988 hasta llegar a la gobernación en 1991. Se identifican tres fuentes de legitimidad construidas de manera alternativa al debilitamiento de la credibilidad de los partidos políticos tradicionales: la UCR, el PJ, el PI y el MID, entre otros. En este contexto, el Frente para la Victoria desplegó sus estrategias de legitimación apelando a la unidad de lo diverso y sumando referentes individuales de todo el arco político. Por otro lado, apeló a través de sus discursos y la conformación de los elencos y organizaciones a representar la fragmentación social propia de una sociedad compuesta por capas migratorias y, por último, construyó una novedosa oferta política a-partidaria acorde a las representaciones de la crisis estatal a mediados del '80 a partir de la reivindicación de los valores de la gestión, la eficiencia, el orden, el trabajo y la gobernabilidad. Sus estrategias de legitimación muestran cómo la primera etapa de construcción de poder político del FV fue efecto de su trayectoria en la frontera de los débiles grupos sociales y políticos.O trabalho aborda a construção de legitimidade do Frente para la Victoria (FV no cenário político de Santa Cruz desde seu nascimento em 1988 até chegar ao governo em 1991. Identificam-se três fontes de legitimidade construídas de maneira alternativa ao enfraquecimento da credibilidade dos partidos políticos tradicionais: a UCR, o PJ, o PI e o MID, entre outros. Neste contexto, o Frente para la Victoria desdobrou suas estratégias de legitimação apelando à unidade do que for diverso e somando referências individuais de todo o arco político. Por outro lado, apelou, através de seus discursos e a conformação dos elencos e organizações, a representar a fragmentação social própria de uma sociedade composta por camadas migrat

  2. An outbreak of anthrax in endangered Rothschild’s giraffes in Mwea National Reserve, Kenya


    Kaitho T; Ndeereh D; Ngoru B


    Titus Kaitho,1 David Ndeereh,1 Bernard Ngoru21Veterinary, Capture and Captive Wildlife Management Department, Wildlife Conservation Division, Kenya Wildlife Service, Nairobi, Kenya; 2Ecological Monitoring, Bio-Prospecting and Biodiversity Information Management Department, Biodiversity Research and Monitoring Division, Kenya Wildlife Service, Nairobi, KenyaAbstract: An anthrax outbreak occurred at the Mwea National Reserve between May 2011 and July 2011. This outbreak affected endangered Roth...

  3. Influence of the Pearl River estuary and vertical mixing in Victoria Harbor on water quality in relation to eutrophication impacts in Hong Kong waters. (United States)

    Yin, Kedong; Harrison, Paul J


    This study presents water quality parameters such as nutrients, phytoplankton biomass and dissolved oxygen based on 11 years of water quality data in Victoria Harbor and examined how the Pearl River estuary discharge in summer and year round sewage discharge influenced these parameters. Nutrients in Victoria Harbor were strongly influenced by both the Pearl River and sewage effluent, as indicated by the high NO(3) inputs from the Pearl River in summer and higher NH(4) and PO(4) in Victoria Harbor than both its sides. N:P ratios were low in the dry season, but increased to >16:1 in the wet season, suggesting that P is potentially the most limiting nutrient in this area during the critical period in the summer. Although there were generally high nutrients, the phytoplankton biomass was not as high as one would expect in Victoria Harbor. In fact, there were high concentrations of chl near the bottom well below the photic zone. Salinity near the bottom was lower in Victoria Harbor than at the two entrances to Victoria Harbor, suggesting strong vertical mixing within Victoria Harbor. Therefore, strong vertical mixing and horizontal advection appear to play an important role in significantly reducing eutrophication impacts in Victoria Harbor. Consequently, dissolved oxygen near the bottom was low in summer, but only occasionally dipped to 2 mgL(-1) despite the high organic loading from sewage effluent.

  4. Round the bend: a brief history of mental health nursing in Victoria, Australia 1848 to 1950's. (United States)

    Sands, Natisha Marina


    This paper presents a history of mental health nursing in Victoria, Australia from 1848 to the 1950's, or the asylum years to the era of the mental hospital. The research for this historical overview was conducted as part of a literature review for a mental health nursing doctoral thesis, which included an account of the evolution of the profession from asylum attendant to the present time. The literature reviewed for this project revealed a distinct lack of a coherent, chronological account of the historical development of mental health nursing in Victoria, and this paper seeks to address that knowledge gap.

  5. Potentials of hybrid maize varieties for small-holder farmers in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize is the primary staple crop in Kenya and plays an important role in the livelihood of the people of Kenya. Its availability and abundance determines the level of welfare and food security in the country. In Kenya, future increases in maize production to meet domestic demand will have to rely on improvements in yield per ...

  6. Kenya Bird Map: an internet-based system for monitoring bird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kenya Bird Map: an internet-based system for monitoring bird distribution and populations in Kenya. Background. Data collection for the first Kenya Bird Atlas started in the 1970s and continued until. 1984, and also included pre-1970 data mainly from museum specimens. Over 200 contributors, mainly Kenyan citizens, were ...

  7. kenya : tous les projets | Page 2 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Renforcer la gestion financière publique au niveau du gouvernement de comté au Kenya. Projet. Ce projet aidera les comtés du Kenya à surmonter des défis importants découlant du transfert de certains pouvoirs détenus auparavant par le gouvernement central. Sujet: LEGISLATION. Région: South of Sahara, Kenya.

  8. Aprendiendo a entender. Victoria Ocampo y su descubrimiento de los Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plotkin, Mariano


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the evolving relationship that Argentine intellectual and cultural entrepreneur Victoria Ocampo established with the United States. Through her trajectory the article analyzes broader topics such as the evolution of the Argentine social and intellectual élite’s project of modernization. Ocampo was at the same time a typical and a unique representative of the Argentine social élite. She was typical in the way she was educated in a cosmopolitan environment. She was unique because she occupied a central figure in the Argentine field of cultural production since the 1920 until her death in the late 1970s.

    El artículo analiza la evolución de la compleja relación que la intelectual y empresaria cultural argentina Victoria Ocampo estableció con los Estados Unidos. A través de esta trayectoria, el artículo analiza también temas mas amplios como la evolución de los proyectos modernizadores de la élite social e intelectual argentina. Ocampo era a la vez una representante típica y única de su clase social. Era típica por la manera en que fue educada en un ambiente cosmopolita. Era única por el lugar central que ocupó en el campo intelectual argentino desde la década de 1920 hasta su muerte a finales de los años 70.

  9. Reasons women give for contemplating or undergoing abortion: a qualitative investigation in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Kirkman, Maggie; Rosenthal, Doreen; Mallett, Shelley; Rowe, Heather; Hardiman, Annarella


    To increase understanding of women's perspectives on considering or undergoing elective abortion. Qualitative study. A large public women's hospital in the state of Victoria, Australia. Sixty women who had contacted a public pregnancy advisory service in Victoria, Australia, seeking information, advice, or appointments in relation to an unplanned or unwanted pregnancy. Qualitative telephone interviews. The iterative qualitative analysis employed the five stages of a thematic framework approach. Themes in women's accounts of considering or undergoing elective abortion. Women's accounts emphasized their reasons for considering or seeking abortion. Decisions were made in the context of their lives as a whole; influences were usually contingent and multiple. Reasons related to the woman herself, the potential child, existing children, her partner and other significant relationships, and financial matters. This research used qualitative methods to produce the only recent study of its kind in Australia. Women's accounts reveal the complex personal and social contexts within which reproductive events must be comprehended and the thoughtfulness with which they make decisions. Results of this research will assist health-care professionals to increase their insights into women's reproductive experiences. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Individual and community correlates of young people's high-risk drinking in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Livingston, Michael; Laslett, Anne-Marie; Dietze, Paul


    To examine key individual- and community-level correlates of regular very high-risk drinking (more than 20 drinks at least 12 times a year for males and more than 11 drinks at least 12 times a year for females) among young (16-24) drinkers in Victoria. CATI survey of 10,879 young Victorian drinkers. Multi-level modelling of correlates of proportion drinking at very high-risk levels at both individual (e.g. age, gender) and community levels (e.g. alcohol outlet density, remoteness). One-fifth of the sample reported regular (at least monthly) very high-risk drinking. Significant individual-level correlates of very high-risk drinking included age, gender, cultural background, recreational spending money, life stage, living situation, family conflict and age at first drink. Significant community-level correlates included remoteness (living in a rural area) and packaged liquor outlet density. The study highlights a range of important factors relating to regular drinking of dangerous amounts of alcohol by youth. Interventions aimed at preventing early initiation or managing recreational spending should be explored. Further, regulatory management of packaged liquor outlets and or remote rural communities in Victoria with high levels of dangerous drinking should be a priority.

  11. A longitudinal study of the cost of food in Victoria influenced by geography and nutritional quality. (United States)

    Palermo, Claire; McCartan, Julia; Kleve, Sue; Sinha, Kompal; Shiell, Alan


    To monitor the cost and affordability of a nutritious diet and to assess the influence of distance from the capital city and socioeconomic status on the cost of nutritious food in Victoria. Twenty-six of Victoria's 79 local government areas (33%) were randomly chosen for inclusion in the study. A random sample of stores was selected for inclusion from each local government area. The cost of the 44 'healthy' and 10 'discretionary' food and drinks in the healthy food basket for a family of four for a fortnight was collected during the winter and summer of 2012, 2013 and 2014. The mean cost of the basket increased from $424.06 ± 38.22 in winter 2012 to $451.19 ± 33.83 in summer 2014 (pcost. These findings show that a healthy diet may be unaffordable for some Victorians. The cost of food is a key factor influencing intake. Public health strategies may need to consider strategies to make healthy food more affordable for some. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  12. Prescription opioid dispensing and prescription opioid poisoning: Population data from Victoria, Australia 2006 to 2013. (United States)

    Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Hassani-Mahmooei, Behrooz; Clapperton, Angela; McClure, Roderick


    To describe recent trends in opioid prescribing and prescription opioid poisoning resulting in hospitalisation or death in Victoria, Australia. This is a population-based ecological study of residents of Victoria, 2006 - 14. Australian Bureau of Statistics residential population data were combined with Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) opioid prescription data, Victorian Admitted Episodes Data (VAED) and cause of death data. Annual opioid dispensings increased by 78% in 2006 - 13, from 0.33 to 0.58 per population. Opioid use increased with age: in 2013, 14% of Victorian residents aged ≥65 years filled at least one oxycodone prescription. In 2006 - 14, prescription opioid related hospital admissions increased by 6.8% per year, from 107 to 187 /1,000,000 person-years; 56% were due to intentional self-poisoning. Annual deaths increased from 21 to 28 /1,000,000 persons, in 2007 - 11. Admissions and deaths peaked at 25-44 years. Although both opioid prescribing and poisoning have increased, there is discrepancy between the exposed group (dispensings increased with age) and those with adverse consequences (rates peaked at ages 25-44 years). A better understanding is needed of drivers of prescribing and adverse consequences. Together with monitoring of prescribing and poisoning, this will facilitate early detection and prevention of a public health problem. © 2016 The Authors.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Salomone


    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan una serie de textos ensayísticos de la escritora argentina Victoria Ocampo (1890-1979, en los que ella aborda la relación que la ligó a Virginia Woolf, su principal referente en términos literarios y feministas. Desde perspectivas teóricas postcoloniales y feministas, se hace una interpretación de los textos de Ocampo, observando los límites que la cosmovisión colonialista impone no solo a sus diálogos con Woolf, sino al despliegue de su propia escrituraThis article reviews a series of essays by the Argentine writer Victoria Ocampo (1890-1979 in which she deals with the relationship that bound her to Virginia Woolf, her main referent in literary and feminist terms. From postcolonial theoretical perspectives, an interpretation of Ocampo's texts is made, while noticing the limits that the colonialist cosmic vision imposed not only on her dialogues with Woolf but on the development of her own writing

  14. Reproductive efficiency of Thoroughbred and Standardbred horses in north-east Victoria. (United States)

    Nath, L C; Anderson, G A; McKinnon, A O


    To evaluate the reproductive efficiency of horse farms in north-east Victoria and identify aspects of management to be targeted for improving reproductive efficiency. Retrospective study. Records from seven Thoroughbred (TB) and four Standardbred (STB) studs in north-east Victoria from 1990 to 2001 were reviewed; 8813 cycles in 4455 mares were analysed. TB mares were inseminated by natural mating, whereas STB mares (89%) were artificially inseminated. The overall early pregnancy rate per cycle was 68.8% for TB mares and for STB mares, 68.3%. Multiple pregnancy per cycle was more frequent in TB (8.3%) than in STB (4.6%) mares (P reproductive status within the TB than the STB mares. Pregnancy rate per cycle among stallions ranged from 48% to 79%. On-farm pregnancy rates in both breeds were higher than previously reported and likely reflect improvements in reproductive management. The disparity between breeds in the inseminations per cycle and proportion of barren mares exposed the differing structures of the two industries, and presents a target for improving the reproductive efficiency in STBs. The difference between breeds in the multiple pregnancy rate per cycle likely reflects the higher ovulation rate of TB mares. The variability in pregnancy rate per cycle between the 22 stallions was associated with differences in individual inherent fertility and the quality of stallion management.

  15. Climatic variability in combination with eutrophication drives adaptive responses in the gills of Lake Victoria cichlids. (United States)

    van Rijssel, Jacco C; Hecky, Robert E; Kishe-Machumu, Mary A; Meijer, Saskia E; Pols, Johan; van Tienderen, Kaj M; Ververs, Jan D; Wanink, Jan H; Witte, Frans


    Textbook examples of adaptive radiation often show rapid morphological changes in response to environmental perturbations. East Africa's Lake Victoria, famous for its stunning adaptive radiation of cichlids, has suffered from human-induced eutrophication over the past decades. This cultural eutrophication is thought to be partly responsible for the dramatically reduced cichlid biodiversity, but climatic variability in itself might also have contributed to the eutrophication which resulted in low oxygen levels and decreased water transparency. To determine how recent environmental changes have influenced the lake and its cichlids over the past 50 years, we gathered environmental and meteorological variables and compared these with gill surface area of four cichlid species. We found that during the period of severe eutrophication and temperature increase (1980s), reduced wind speeds coincided with a reduction in oxygen levels and a decrease in both water temperature and transparency. The gill surface area in three out of the four cichlid species increased during this period which is consistent with adaptive change in response to increased hypoxia. During the 2000s, wind speeds, oxygen levels, water transparency and water temperature increased again, while cichlid gill surface area decreased. Our results imply that climatic changes and especially wind speed and direction might play a crucial role in tropical lake dynamics. The changes in Lake Victoria's water quality coincide with fluctuations in cichlid gill surface area, suggesting that these fish can respond rapidly to environmental perturbations, but also that climatic variability, together with continued eutrophication, might be detrimental to the lake's cichlid biodiversity.

  16. Acute stress ulceration prophylaxis: point prevalence surveys in intensive care units in Victoria, 1997 and 2005. (United States)

    Robertson, Megan S; Wilson, Stuart J; Cade, John F


    To assess current practice in acute stress ulceration (ASU) prophylaxis in adult intensive care units in Victoria, Australia, in 1997 and 2005. Point prevalence surveys using a structured telephone questionnaire of ASU prophylaxis practices were performed in adult ICUs in Victoria on 11 November 1997 and 13 April 2005. All Victorian ICUs identified on each study day participated, comprising 30 ICUs in 1997 and 35 ICUs in 2005. Presence of a clinical protocol or guideline for ASU prophylaxis increased significantly from 23% in 1997 to 54% in 2005 (P = 0.01). Overall provision of ASU prophylaxis to ICU patients also increased significantly from 67% in 1997 to 86% in 2005 (P 1997 to 45% in 2005 (P 1997 and 2005. Use of ASU prophylaxis for patients admitted to Victorian ICUs increased significantly from 1997 to 2005, with an associated increase in the presence of protocols or guidelines for ASU prophylaxis. Although agents currently used for ASU prophylaxis in Victorian ICUs are consistent with available evidence, we are concerned that ASU prophylaxis is given to all patients admitted to the ICU rather than targeted to patients in high-risk categories.

  17. Re-visitando a Federica Montseny. Una lectura de La Victoria y sus lecturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano de la Pola, Ana


    Full Text Available This article wants to be a close reading of La Victoria, Federica Montseny’s novel published in 1925, in order to achieve two objectives: on the one hand, to break down the clichés that normally appear in Montseny’s work –her “revolutionary melodrama”- as a perfect example of the eternal “ethic-aesthetic” paradox and, on the other hand, to point out the capability of this kind of study to dynamize the so-called “women’s literature” in the context of the XX Century Spanish literature.Este artículo pretende hacer una lectura atenta de La Victoria, novela de Federica Montseny publicada en 1925, con dos objetivos: en primer lugar, deshacer los clichés que suelen tratar la obra de esta autora como representante de la eterna “paradoja ético-estética” que suponen sus “folletines revolucionarios” y, en segundo, señalar la capacidad que tiene el estudio de este tipo de obras para dinamizar la categoría de “literatura de mujeres” con el fin de evitar su estancamiento en el ámbito de la literatura española del s. XX.

  18. Comparison of Sterol Biomarkers for Sewage with other Measures in Victoria Harbour, B.C., Canada (United States)

    Mudge, S. M.; Lintern, D. Gwyn


    A lipid biomarker survey was conducted in Victoria Harbour, Canada, to compare the distribution of sewage-derived organic matter with existing results from bacterial studies. Previous surveys [Miller (1993) Report prepared by Capital Regional District Engineering Department, Victoria, B.C. Canada and Miller et al. (1995) Report prepared by CRD Environmental Services Group and Aquatic Science Consultants Ltd., B.C., Canada] of sewage contamination in the harbour were based principally on infrequent faecal coliform counts. The use of lipid biomarkers to determine time-averaged concentrations of sewage components in sediments may be a more appropriate method for defining areas where sewage is causing environmental or human health risks. 5β-Coprostanol was measured together with other sterols, fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Generally, sewage contamination shown by these lipid biomarkers was coincident with high faecal coliform counts from previous studies. However, this survey suggests, contrary to faecal coliform counts, that Portage Inlet was a region where sewage had accumulated in the sediments, possibly due to nearby overflow facilities or tidal pumping. Although the bacterial counts were low, sewage-derived organic matter was accumulating in the slack areas. In sediments of the Gorge and West Bay there were low faecal biomarker concentrations; this was probably due to the strong tidal currents which do not allow faecal matter to settle in sediments. Faecal coliform counts, however, indicated poor water quality in these same regions but this probably reflects fresh discharges passing through this area without leading to settlement.

  19. Rural Health and Spiritual Care Development: A Review of Programs across Rural Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Carey, Lindsay B; Hennequin, Christine; Krikheli, Lillian; O'Brien, Annette; Sanchez, Erin; Marsden, Candace R


    Given declining populations in rural areas and diminishing traditional religious support, this research explores whether spiritual care education programs would be beneficial for and appreciated by those working in rural health and/or community organizations. An overview of literature identified three dominant rural health issues affecting the provision of spiritual care in rural areas, namely the disparity between rural and urban areas in terms of resources, the lack of access to services, plus the need for education and training within rural areas. Spiritual Health Victoria Incorporated (Victoria, Australia) sought to address these issues with the implementation of a variety of spiritual education programs within rural areas. Results of an evaluation of these programs are presented specifying participant demographics, reasons why participants attended, their evaluation of the program and any recommendations for future programs. In overall terms, the results indicated that at least 90% of participants favorably rated their attended program as either 'very good' or 'good' and indicated that the main reason for their attendance was to develop their own education and/or practice of spiritual care within their rural context for the benefit of local constituents. Several recommendations are made for future programs.

  20. Algal biomass and pigments along a latitudinal gradient in Victoria Land lakes, East Antarctica

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    Francesca Borghini


    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that Antarctic terrestrial diversity decreases as latitude increases, but latitudinal patterns of several organisms are not always as clear as expected. The Victoria Land region is rich in lakes and ponds and spans 8 degrees of latitude that encompasses gradients in factors such as solar radiation, temperature, ice cover and day length. An understanding of the links between latitudinally driven environmental and biodiversity changes is essential to the understanding of the ecology and evolution of Antarctic biota and the formulation of hypotheses about likely future changes in biodiversity. As several studies have demonstrated that photosynthetic pigments are an excellent, although underused, tool for the study of lacustrine algal communities, the aim of the present study was to investigate variations in algal biomass and biodiversity across the latitudinal gradient of Victoria Land using sedimentary pigments. We test the hypothesis that the biodiversity of freshwater environments decreases as latitude increases. On the basis of our results, we propose using the number of sedimentary pigments as a proxy for algal diversity and the sum of chlorophyll a and bacteriochlorophyll a with their degradation derivatives as an index of biomass. Overall, our data show that biomass and diversity decrease as latitude increases but local environmental conditions, in particular, natural levels of eutrophy, can affect both productivity and diversity.

  1. Potential relation between equatorial sea surface temperatures and historic water level variability for Lake Turkana, Kenya (United States)

    Bloszies, Chris; Forman, Steven L.


    Water level in Lake Turkana, Kenya in the past ca. 150 years is controlled primarily from the biannual passage of the East and West African Monsoon, with rainfall volume related partially to sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Western Indian and East Atlantic oceans. Empirical orthogonal function analyses show significant correlation between Eastern Atlantic or Western Indian SSTs and lake level anomalies, with the first mode accounting for 66% and 55% of the variability. The primary geographic loadings are consistent with a Gulf of Guinea moisture source and positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) state. The second mode explains 10% of variability, and reflects the westward extension of an Indian Ocean cool pool, potentially indicative of a normal to a negative IOD state. There is significant spatial correlation between basin rainfall anomalies associated with Eastern Atlantic SSTs and a low in the continental divide between the Kenyan and the Ethiopian Highlands, which is a passage for moisture from the Congo Basin. Linear regression analysis with Bootstrap sampling and Monte Carlo simulations define numeric relations between Western Indian and Eastern Atlantic SSTs and lake level change for AD 1992-2013. The monthly and yearly lake level reconstructions based on this numeric analysis capture the decadal-scale variability and the 15 m drop in water level in the early 20th century. Meter-scale variability in lake level since ca. AD 1930 is associated with precipitation sourced from the Western Indian Ocean with IOD variability, whereas the 15 m drop in water level in the early 20th century may reflect a profound decrease in moisture from Atlantic/Congo Basin source. These numerical solutions are poised to reconstruct water level variations in the past ca. 300 years for Lake Turkana with new proxy records of SSTs from the Western Indian Ocean and the Gulf of Guinea.

  2. Performance of 119 Brazilian children on Stroop paradigm: Victoria version Desempenho de 119 crianças brasileiras no paradigma Stroop: versão Victoria

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    Helenice Charchat-Fichman


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Stroop paradigm evaluates susceptibility to interference and is sensitive to dysfunction in frontal lobes. Performance in the Stroop changes along the development. Despite its usefulness in research and clinical settings, there are few studies with Brazilian samples. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the performance and age effect on Stroop paradigm of Brazilian children. METHOD: A sample of 119 children, aged from 7 to 10 years, was submitted to the Victoria version of Stroop. RESULTS: The pattern of results observed was similar to that observed in foreign studies with adults and children. Younger children were overall slower than older ones (positive correlation between age and naming time. Also, younger children showed more susceptible to interference than older ones (negative correlation between age and number of errors for the maximal interference condition. CONCLUSION: There was an age effect explained in terms of developmental changes in information processing velocity and attention selectivity.INTRODUÇÃO: O paradigma Stroop avalia a susceptibilidade à interferência e é sensível a disfunção nos lobos frontais. O desempenho no Stroop muda durante o desenvolvimento. Apesar de sua utilidade na pesquisa e na clínica, existem poucos estudos brasileiros. OBJETIVO: Investigar o desempenho e efeito de idade de crianças brasileiras no Stroop. MÉTODO: A versão Victoria do Stroop foi aplicada em 119 crianças (7 a 10 anos. RESULTADOS: O padrão de resultados observado é comparável a estudos estrangeiros com adultos e crianças. Crianças mais jovens foram mais lentas do que as mais velhas (correlação positiva entre idade e tempo de nomeação. Os mais jovens apresentaram maior susceptibilidade à interferência, comparados aos mais velhos (correlação negativa entre idade e número de erros para a condição de interferência máxima. CONCLUSÃO: O efeito de idade foi observado e discutido em termos de mudanças na

  3. Kenya and UNESCO-IHP Coordinated research Projects on Water Resources Assessment. (United States)

    Omondi, C. J.; Mbugua, A. W.


    The 2011-2012 Horn of Africa drought crisis affected Kenya, resulting in destruction of livelihoods and weakening of traditional drought coping mechanisms and reduced capacities for humanitarian agencies. In response to this catastrophe and in line with the Nairobi Declaration of the Heads of States Summit regarding the crisis, and building on the experience and expertise of its International Hydrological programme, UNESCO launched the Groundwater Resources Investigation for Drought Mitigation in Africa Programme (GRIDMAP). Through GRIDMAP the Turkana groundwater Survey was implemented. The approach comprised of integrating existing ancillary field data, satellite imagery and ground-truthing. High resolution maps identifying groundwater occurrence, soil textures and recharge areas were constructed. Exploratory wells were drilled in some of the identified aquifers.A network of shallow aquifers was identified to spread across the area, only hidden by a few meters of the overburden below the surface. Presently 5 boreholes have been drilled within this aquifer and the average yield per borehole is about 80cu m/hour. The large paleo lake Lotikipi Basin aquifer covers a surface of and hosts over 248 BCM in its 3-km deep graben structure. These deep aquifer-bearing structures comprise highly permeable Plio-Pleistocene fluvio-deltaic and lacustrine deposits interlayed with volcanic ash layers reworked by nearby rivers. Groundwater in these aquifers is partly static and partly dynamic in the graben-like structures. In view of these findings, the Government of Kenya and UNESCO Nairobi office have signed a cooperative framework agreement in May 2015 to continue with these groundwater assessments in a phased approach but eventually to cover the whole country. In addition and following UNESCO-IHP strategic plan-VIII: Water Security: Responses to Local, Regional, and Global Challenges (2014-2021) under theme 2: Groundwater in a changing environment, Kenya and Tanzania

  4. Assessing and managing water scarcity within the Nile River Transboundary Basin (United States)

    Butts, M. B.; Wendi, D.; Jessen, O. Z.; Riegels, N. D.


    The Nile Basin is the main source of water in the North Eastern Region of Africa and is perhaps one of the most critical river basins in Africa as the riparian countries constitute 40% of the population on the continent but only 10% of the area. This resource is under considerable stress with rising levels of water scarcity, high population growth, watershed degradation, and loss of environmental services. The potential impacts of climate change may significantly exacerbate this situation as the water resources in the Nile Basin are critically sensitive to climate change (Conway, Hanson, Doherty, & Persechino, 2007). The motivation for this study is an assessment of climate change impacts and adaptation potential for floods and droughts within the UNEP project "Adapting to climate change induced water stress in the Nile River Basin", supported by SIDA. This project is being carried out as collaboration between DHI, the UK Met Office, and the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI). The Nile Basin exhibits highly diverse climatological and hydrological characteristics. Thus climate change impacts and adaptive capacity must be addressed at both regional and sub-basin scales. While the main focus of the project is the regional scale, sub-basin scale modelling is required to reflect variability within the basin. One of the major challenges in addressing this variability is the scarcity of data. This paper presents an initial screening modelling study of the water balance of the Nile Basin along with estimates of expected future impacts of climate change on the water balance. This initial study is focussed on the Ethiopian Highlands and the Lake Victoria regions, where the impact of climate change on rainfall is important. A robust sub-basin based monthly water balance model is developed and applied to selected sub-basins. The models were developed and calibrated using publicly available data. One of the major challenges in addressing this variability within the basin is the

  5. Recent changes in terrestrial water storage in the Upper Nile Basin: an evaluation of commonly used gridded GRACE products (United States)

    Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Taylor, Richard G.; Jones, Darren; Longuevergne, Laurent; Owor, Michael; Tindimugaya, Callist


    GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite data monitor large-scale changes in total terrestrial water storage (ΔTWS), providing an invaluable tool where in situ observations are limited. Substantial uncertainty remains, however, in the amplitude of GRACE gravity signals and the disaggregation of TWS into individual terrestrial water stores (e.g. groundwater storage). Here, we test the phase and amplitude of three GRACE ΔTWS signals from five commonly used gridded products (i.e. NASA's GRCTellus: CSR, JPL, GFZ; JPL-Mascons; GRGS GRACE) using in situ data and modelled soil moisture from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) in two sub-basins (LVB: Lake Victoria Basin; LKB: Lake Kyoga Basin) of the Upper Nile Basin. The analysis extends from January 2003 to December 2012, but focuses on a large and accurately observed reduction in ΔTWS of 83 km3 from 2003 to 2006 in the Lake Victoria Basin. We reveal substantial variability in current GRACE products to quantify the reduction of ΔTWS in Lake Victoria that ranges from 80 km3 (JPL-Mascons) to 69 and 31 km3 for GRGS and GRCTellus respectively. Representation of the phase in TWS in the Upper Nile Basin by GRACE products varies but is generally robust with GRGS, JPL-Mascons, and GRCTellus (ensemble mean of CSR, JPL, and GFZ time-series data), explaining 90, 84, and 75 % of the variance respectively in "in situ" or "bottom-up" ΔTWS in the LVB. Resolution of changes in groundwater storage (ΔGWS) from GRACE ΔTWS is greatly constrained by both uncertainty in changes in soil-moisture storage (ΔSMS) modelled by GLDAS LSMs (CLM, NOAH, VIC) and the low annual amplitudes in ΔGWS (e.g. 1.8-4.9 cm) observed in deeply weathered crystalline rocks underlying the Upper Nile Basin. Our study highlights the substantial uncertainty in the amplitude of ΔTWS that can result from different data-processing strategies in commonly used, gridded GRACE products; this uncertainty is disregarded in analyses of

  6. Three Decades of Implementation of School-Based Management in the Australian Capital Territory and Victoria in Australia (United States)

    Gammage, David T.


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how the process of implementation of school-based management (SBM) has worked within the public school systems in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and Victoria in Australia. The period covered was 1976-2006. Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted was the mixed methodology which…

  7. Language in the Workplace Project and Workplace Communication for Skilled Migrants Course at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand (United States)

    de Bres, Julia; Holmes, Janet; Joe, Angela; Marra, Meredith; Newton, Jonathan; Riddiford Nicky; Vine, Bernadette


    The School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies (LALS) at Victoria University of Wellington conducts research and teaching in Linguistics, Applied Linguistics, Writing and Deaf Studies. It incorporates a Deaf Studies Research Unit, which undertakes research on topics relating to deaf people and their language in New Zealand, and the New…

  8. University of Victoria Genome British Columbia Proteomics Centre Partners with CPTAC | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (United States)

    University of Victoria Genome British Columbia Proteomics Centre, a leader in proteomic technology development, has partnered with the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) to make targeted proteomic assays accessible to the community through NCI’s CPTAC Assay Portal (

  9. Possible implications of Rabbit Calicivirus Disease for malleefowl Leipoa ocellata Gould in the north-west of Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandell, P.


    Parks Victoria and the Department of Natural Resources & Environment (NRE) are collaborating with agencies from the other States and the Commonwealth of Australia in a national program of detailed monitoring and surveillance of the effects of Rabbit Calicivirus Disease (RCD). A component of the

  10. Victoria Khiterer. Jewish City or Inferno of Russian Israel? A History of the Jews in Kiev Before February 1917.

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    Kimberly St. Julian-Varnon


    Full Text Available Book review of Victoria Khiterer. Jewish City or Inferno of Russian Israel? A History of the Jews in Kiev Before February 1917. Academic Studies Press, 2016. Jews of Russia and Eastern Europe and Their Legacy, series editor, Maxim D. Shrayer. xx, 474 pp. Illustrations. Tables. Maps. Appendix. Bibliography. Index. $89.00, cloth.

  11. The Development and Use of Individual Learning Plans for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in Victoria, Australia (United States)

    Brown, P. Margaret; Byrnes, Linda J.


    This study investigated the Individual Learning Plans of eighty-eight students who were deaf and hard of hearing attending facilities and schools for the deaf in Victoria Australia. The students' assessment and planning portfolios were scrutinised for evidence of formal and informal assessment used to generate goals for the Individual Learning…

  12. Chequered fortunes in global exports: The sociogenesis of African entrepreneurship in the Nile Perch Business at Lake Victoria, Uganda

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    Beuving, J.J.


    This article looks at African entrepreneurship in the Nile perch export business at Lake Victoria, Uganda. Often heralded as an economic success story, this business has perhaps another tale to tell. The fishermen, traders and other small-scale entrepreneurs at the lower end of the export chain face

  13. Inter-guild differences and possible causes of the recovery of cichlid species in Lake Victoria, Tanzania

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    Kishe-Machumu, Mary Alphonce


    Until the 1970s, the fish fauna of Lake Victoria was dominated by 500+ endemic haplochromine cichlid species in which detritivores was the dominant group followed by zooplanktivores. With the upsurge of Nile perch in the 1980s, a strong decline of haplochromines occurred. During the1990s, a

  14. Poética de la autotraducción: María Victoria Atencia

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    López Martínez, María Isabel


    Full Text Available Self-translation is an ancient but poorly researched practice. This article analyses an exceptional case: the reflection on self-translation as exposed in poetry. A case in point is the poem «Voz traducida», from the poetry collection De la llama en que arde (1988. Indeed, the poem selected for examination was written by M.ª Victoria Atencia (Málaga, 1931, an expert both in writing poetry and in translating literature. Her book of poems also contains an original text, «Rosas», in Galician, and its corresponding Spanish translation. Both translation and reflection are complementary in her compositions. These poetic creations attest to the fact that artfulness works as a depiction of the next creation. Furthermore, this study will deeply explore the poet’s most important literary thoughts.La autotraducción es una práctica antigua, pero poco estudiada. El presente artículo analiza un caso excepcional: la reflexión sobre la autotraducción expuesta en la lírica. Para ello, se analiza el poema de M.ª Victoria Atencia «Voz traducida», perteneciente al libro titulado De la llama en que arde (1988. Es un ejemplo de que la tarea de traducir funciona como un motivo que origina una nueva creación. Además, permite que el lector conozca facetas importantes del pensamiento literario de la escritora. M.ª Victoria Atencia, además de poeta, es una experta traductora. El libro contiene también dos versiones del poema «Rosas», en gallego y en español, pruebas de la dimensión práctica de los planteamientos teóricos de la autora y de su coherencia estética. Ambas facetas, la traducción y la reflexión, son complementarias en la obra de la autora.

  15. Temperature and hydrologic variability of Lake Victoria, East Africa since the Late Pleistocene (United States)

    Berke, M. A.; Johnson, T. C.; Werne, J. P.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.


    Recent organic geochemical advances have facilitated the comparison between continental temperature change and hydrologic variability. TEX86, a proxy based on the lipids of aquatic Crenarchaeota that show a positive correlation with growth temperature, was used to reconstruct surface water temperatures from Lake Victoria, East Africa during the latest Pleistocene-Holocene. Hydrologic conditions were interpreted using paleoecological implications of shifting pollen and diatom assemblages found in the lake (Kendall, 1969; Stager et al., 2003) and will be compared with future compound specific δ13C data from terrestrial biomarkers in order to determine the patterns of rainfall and aridity in this region. Initial comparisons of climatic changes seen in temperature and hydrologic records appear to show consistency between warm/wet intervals and cool/dry intervals that is often assumed, but more rarely shown, in tropical Africa. Lake Victoria temperatures show a steady warming beginning 16 cal ka, with a pause around the Younger Dryas, dominated by arid conditions and strong savannah grassland development during this interval. There is continued warming to a sustained thermal maximum for this portion of the record at ~10.5-8.5 ka, which generally coincides with the beginning of the Holocene Hypsithermal, an interval of elevated temperatures and precipitation throughout much of tropical Africa. This thermal maximum occurs during the most humid interval of this record (~9.5-8.3 ka), shown by an increase of humid forest pollen and high diatom abundance (due to increased water column mixing and nutrient runoff). Temperatures abruptly cool ~1.5°C in <800 years while precipitation becomes somewhat more seasonally restricted, coinciding with an abrupt drop in inferred P:E ratio and reduction in wind-driven mixing. The record then shows a general cooling, reaching a Holocene thermal minimum of ~18.4°C at ~4.5 ka, contrary to other East African continental and marine

  16. The Meaning of ‘General Paralysis of the Insane’ in Victoria, Australia; 1886 to 1906

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    Roberts, Phillip


    Full Text Available This paper presents a conclusion to the meaning of the historical diagnosis “general paralysis of the insane” in nineteenth century Victorian Registrar General”s reports. Most studies suggest that in the past the diagnosis refers to neuro-syphilis, and while after 1906 this is not disputed, this paper will show that the diagnosis had a much broader meaning incorporating many forms of degenerative brain disease during the study period (Victoria 1886 to 1906. It is acknowledged, however, that the use of this diagnosis may have varied dramatically in the past based on a doctor’s education and/or background. This conclusion has been arrived at by analysing both government and general hospital records on the Australian, Victorian population. This paper also presents methods for determining the meaning of obsolete medical diagnoses where the definition is poorly understood.En este trabajo presenta una conclusión sobre el significado de la “parálisis general de los locos” como diagnóstico en los informes del Victorian Registrar General durante el siglo XIX. La mayoría de los estudios sugieren que en el pasado el diagnóstico se refiere a la neuro-sífilis, y aunque después de 1906 no se discute, este trabajo mostrará que el diagnóstico tiene un significado mucho más amplio e incorpora muchas formas de enfermedad degenerativa del cerebro durante el período de estudio (Victoria 1886 a 1906. Se reconoce, sin embargo, que el uso de este diagnóstico puede haber variado drásticamente en el pasado dependiendo de la formación y del ambiente médico. Se ha llegado a esta conclusión mediante el análisis de los registros hospitalarios de la población de Victoria, Australia. Este documento también presenta métodos para determinar el significado de los diagnósticos médicos obsoletos cuya definición es confusa.

  17. Zinc isotope ratios of bones and teeth as new dietary indicators: results from a modern food web (Koobi Fora, Kenya) (United States)

    Jaouen, Klervia; Beasley, Melanie; Schoeninger, Margaret; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Richards, Michael P.


    In order to explore the possibilities of using zinc (Zn) stable isotope ratios as dietary indicators, we report here on the measurements of the ratio of stable isotopes of zinc (66Zn/64Zn, expressed here as δ66Zn) in bioapatite (bone and dental enamel) of animals from a modern food web in the Koobi Fora region of the Turkana Basin in Kenya. We demonstrate that δ66Zn values in both bone and enamel allow a clear distinction between carnivores and herbivores from this food web. Differences were also observed between browsers and grazers as well as between carnivores that consumed bone (i.e. hyenas) compared to those that largely consume flesh (i.e. lions). We conclude that Zn isotope ratio measurements of bone and teeth are a new and promising dietary indicator.

  18. Community radio and peace-building in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jessica


    In December 2007, violence broke out after the disputed general election in Kenya, which resulted in the death of 1100 Kenyans and left more than 660,000 displaced. Reports criticised media, especially vernacular media, for inflating the violence by using hate speech and incitement to violence......, and suggested that Kenya would benefit from more community media to prevent history from repeating itself. This article focuses on how Koch FM and Pamoja FM, two community radio stations in Nairobi, Kenya, worked during the 2007–08 tumult and 2013 general election. The article is based on observations...... and interviews with community radio practitioners conducted between 2007 and 2013, and addresses the following questions: How do the community radio stations work during elections – times of increased tensions? How do they discourage ethnic violence in their community? How is participation used in order to bring...

  19. Delivery of Open, Distance, and E-Learning in Kenya

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    Jackline K. A. Nyerere,


    Full Text Available The increased demand and need for continuous learning have led to the introduction of open, distance, and e-learning (ODeL in Kenya. Provision of this mode of education has, however, been faced with various challenges, among them infrastructural ones. This study was a survey conducted in two public universities offering major components of ODeL, the University of Nairobi and Kenyatta University. These universities were purposely selected for the study, whose respondents included the students registered in ODeL and the lecturers and senior administrators involved. Analysis of the relevant documents was also undertaken, while library literature was reviewed on the integration of ODeL into the provision of education in Kenya. The study established that efficient and optimal delivery of ODeL in Kenya faces both economic and infrastructural challenges. However, strengthening the existing relevant structures would address some of the challenges.

  20. The Changing Concept of Adolescence in Kenya

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    Pauline E. Ginsberg


    Full Text Available Kenya has at least 42 tribes. Each of these tribes had a unique way of marking the boundary between childhood and adulthood. It is like once pubertal signs emerged, the adolescent was said to be ready for adulthood. Traditional conceptualization of adolescence is not clearly defined, because while puberty marks the beginning of adolescence today, this was not the case in the traditional society. In the traditional society, when a girl started getting her menstrual periods, she was considered mature and arrangements for marriage were started. Modern rites of passage tend to come closer to how modern text books define adolescence. Most boys undertake circumcision after completing primary school, as they wait to join high school. Upon realizing that the hospital ceremony, unlike the traditional one, is lacking in complementary teachings, some Churches have organized teachings prior to circumcision. For girls, after circumcision for them was banned, alternative rites of passage (ARPs are being instituted, most often targeting urban girls, but these, too, raise questions: Do alternative rites of passage fulfill the same functions for modern society that traditional ceremonies once fulfilled? And, if they do so for girls, is there reason to believe that they ought to be developed for both genders? This paper examines self-reports of Kenyans spanning three generations regarding social roles and identity-seeking among those who did (primarily older men and did not (primarily younger men and women of all ages participate in traditional initiation ceremonies.

  1. The prospects of enhanced space science training in kenya (United States)

    Aseno, J. O.; Obel, J. D.

    To a limited extent, space exploration has been conducted in Kenya for almost the last two decades through a joint project (San Marco Project) between the Government of Kenya and the Government of Italy. Other space science activities in the country include remote sensing, space communications, meteorology and the use o f navigation and positioning satellite systems. To sustain space science activities in Kenya will require specialized training in the various disciplines of space sciences. Currently, there are no well coordinated training programmes in the country. Consequently, there is an urgent need for a well planned and a well coordinated space science training programme. This could be achieved through international co-operation and joint ventures between Kenya and space science institutions/organizations worldwide. The paper justifies the need for training in space science in Kenya and discusses socio-economic as well as environmental gains which would be realized due to increased space science activities arising from such training. Some of these gains would include participation in the launching and tracking, and control of satellite, managing and running a space centre or satellite launching and tracking station, decoding and synthesizing data from satellites and disseminating such data for public and scientific uses. The paper further offers suggestions on how the training requirements cited above could be achieved. It also highlights the level of expertise in space science disciplines and provides specific recommendations on the types of personnel that need to be trained. In addition, various forms and levels of training required to strengthen the role of space science in socio-economic development in Kenya, are discussed.

  2. Great Basin insect outbreaks (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; Diane Alston; Ted Evans


    Outbreaks of native and exotic insects are important drivers of ecosystem dynamics in the Great Basin. The following provides an overview of range, forest, ornamental, and agricultural insect outbreaks occurring in the Great Basin and the associated management issues and research needs.

  3. Residual susceptibility to measles among young adults in Victoria, Australia following a national targeted measles-mumps-rubella vaccination campaign

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    Leydon Jennie A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Past measles immunisation policies in Australia have resulted in a cohort of young adults who have been inadequately vaccinated, but who also have low levels of naturally acquired immunity because immunisation programs have decreased the circulation of wild virus. A measles-mumps-rubella (MMR immunisation campaign aimed at addressing this susceptibility to measles among young adults was conducted in Australia in 2001–2. By estimating age-specific immunity, we aimed to evaluate the success of this campaign in the state of Victoria. Methods We conducted serosurveys after the young adult MMR program at state and national levels to estimate immunity among young adults born between 1968–82. We compared results of the Victorian (state surveys with the Victorian component of the national surveys and compared both surveys with surveys conducted before the campaign. We also reviewed all laboratory confirmed measles cases in Victoria between 2000–4. Results The Victorian state serosurveys indicated no significant change in immunity of the cohort following the young adult MMR campaign (83.9% immune pre and 85.5% immune post campaign while the Victorian component of the national serosurvey indicated a significant decline in immunity (91.0% to 84.2%; p = 0.006. Both surveys indicated about 15% susceptibility to measles among young Victorian adults after the campaign. Measles outbreaks in Victoria between 2000–4 confirmed the susceptibility of young adults. Outbreaks involved a median of 2.5 cases with a median age of 24.5 years. Conclusion In Victoria, the young adult MMR program appears to have had no effect on residual susceptibility to measles among the 1968–82 birth cohort. Young adults in Victoria, as in other countries where past immunisation policies have left a residual susceptible cohort, represent a potential problem for the maintenance of measles elimination.

  4. Kenya | Page 2 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Il semble évident qu'il faille utiliser les technologies de l'information et de la communication pour aider les populations défavorisées et marginalisées du Kenya à avoir accès à des soins de santé. Les régions rurales isolées du Kenya n'ont pas suffisamment d'établissements de soins de santé et font face à une grave ...

  5. Coprophilous ascomycetes in Kenya: Saccobolus species from wildlife dung

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    Mungai PG


    Full Text Available The taxonomy, occurrence and distribution of Saccobolus species was investigated from wild herbivore dung types in Kenya. Dung samples incubated in a moist chamber culture were examined for fungi over three months. Seven species, Saccobolus citrinus, S. depauperatus, S. diffusus, S. infestans, S. platensis, S. truncatus and S. versicolor were isolated from African elephant, black rhinoceros, Cape buffalo, dikdik, giraffe, hartebeest, hippopotamus, impala, waterbuck and zebra dung. Five taxa, S. citrinus, S. diffusus, S. infestans, S. platensis and S. truncatus, are new records for Kenya. The most common taxa were S. depauperatus and S. citrinus. The diversity of coprophilous Saccobolus species in wildlife dung is very high.

  6. Elided Populations: A Baseline Survey on Human Trafficking in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owiso, Michael


    -regional, as well as inter-regional trafficking, is available. This study seeks to build synergy in the counter-trafficking efforts in Kenya. In so doing it aims to in the overall identify gaps in combating and responding to human trafficking and offer programmatic recommendations/suggestions particularly for IRC......Trafficking in persons is a crime. It is gaining momentum in the continent and particularly in Kenya and also attracting the attention of actors who are working to combat it. This focus shows the multiplicity of actors working together to prosecute, prevent and protect. Evidence of both intra...

  7. Kenya | Page 64 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les élections générales de 2002 au Kenya, à la suite desquelles un régime notoire pour sa corruption a été remplacé par un gouvernement de coalition désireux d'instaurer une réforme, ont été considérées comme un événement charnière dans l'histoire du pays. Le CRDI, déjà actif au Kenya depuis plus de 30 ans, ...

  8. K Basin safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.


    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall.

  9. Seismicity and arrival-time residuals from the Victoria Earthquake of June 9, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, V.; Frez, J.


    Hypocenter distribution in space and time of the aftershock activity from the Victoria Earthquake of June 9, 1980 was studied. It was concluded that the main event excited aftershocks in several pre-existing nests at the northwest end of the Cerro Prieto Fault, but no significant activity occurred at the immediate neighborhood of the main event. The depth of the aftershocks increases with the distance from the northwest end of the fault and this feature might be related with the higher temperatures and the spreading center located between the ends of the Imperial and Cerro Prieto Faults. The significance of the arrival-times residuals for local and regional stations is discussed both for P and S-waves and the importance of obtaining station corrections is emphasized. The non-uniqueness in determining a structure which minimizes the residuals is illustrated. Two different structures which satisfy the local data are presented.

  10. Journalist to the interview: professionals routines. The case of Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The newspaper interview is sort of use in printed newspapers in Ciudad Victoria Tamaulipas, Mexico. Journalists argue lack of time-space and is to develop this type of work. An analysis of the publications of the largest newspapers in this city dad throws the result that no literary interviews are published, the em-ployee's resource for structuring news and sporadically of reports. This paper develops conducting depth interviews with journalists pe-active, which reaffirm the limited use given the corresponding gender, as well as an analysis of the works published in newspapers printed cases in the capital of Tamaulipas, only on local information section. Lack of time for preparation, few spaces and I shift to electronic means are the most common causes.

  11. Compliance with regulations by "swim-with-dolphins" operations in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Scarpaci, Carol; Dayanthi, Nugegoda; Corkeron, Peter J


    Managing the activities of commercial wildlife viewing tends to involve either restricting the number of industry participants and/or regulating the activities or industry participants. We report on operator compliance with regulations regarding humans swimming with free-ranging bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops sp.) in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia. A total of 128 commercial dolphin-swim trips was studied between September 1998 and April 2000. Four permit conditions were investigated: approach type, swim time, time in proximity of dolphins, and presence of "fetal fold" calves. Results demonstrate noncompliance by operators to all of the four permit conditions studied. Compliance with temporal conditions was poorer than with other conditions. When conducting studies on the extent to which tourism affects cetaceans, investigators should consider whether tourist operations comply with existing regulations or guidelines.

  12. Suffering by comparison: Twitter users' reactions to the Victoria's Secret Fashion Show. (United States)

    Chrisler, Joan C; Fung, Kaitlin T; Lopez, Alexandra M; Gorman, Jennifer A


    Social comparison theory suggests that evaluating the self in comparison with others (e.g., peers, celebrities, models) can influence body image. Experimental studies that have tested effects of viewing idealized images in the media often show that women feel worse about themselves after seeing images that illustrate the beauty ideal. Twitter presents a naturally occurring opportunity to study viewers' reactions. An analysis was conducted of 977 tweets sent immediately before and during the 2011 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show that reference the show. Although the majority were idiosyncratic remarks, many tweets contain evidence of upward social comparisons to the fashion models. There were tweets about body image, eating disorders, weight, desires for food or alcohol, and thoughts about self-harm. The results support social comparison theory, and suggest that vulnerable viewers could experience negative affect, or even engage in harmful behaviors, during or after viewing the show or others like it. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental factors associated with the foliage cover of invasive fairy grass (Lachnagrostis filiformis) in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Gosney, Kate; Florentine, Singarayer K


    Fairy grass (Lachnagrostis filiformis) is an Australian native grass that has recently become a major concern for rural communities. Its dried inflorescences are blown by the wind and build up against fences and buildings, becoming a severe fire hazard. Understanding the ecology of fairy grass and its impacts on rural communities is relevant to its management. Four dry lake beds in Western Victoria were selected to determine if environmental factors, such as lake, location, direction, altitude and road type and the covariates of pH, soil salinity, soil moisture and distance to nearest road, are related to the presence of fairy grass. The 'lake' factor was the only environmental parameter that was significantly associated with the presence of this weed.

  14. Fine resolution AMS {sup 14}C chronology for Lunette-Lake sediment sequences, Lake Bolac, Victoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, E. [Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Centre for Palynology and Palaeoecology, Department of Geography and Environmental Science


    This study aims to provide a fine-resolution chronology for lake sediment records from Lakes Bolac and Turangmoroke, located within the drier part of the Western Plains, Victoria. These lakes are expected to be sensitive to subtle climate and vegetation variability and have long been recognised as archaeologically rich, bearing stone tools, hearth and other cultural materials dated to the late Pleistocene (Horton, 1984; former Victorian Aboriginal Survey, unpublished data). Fine-resolution chronological control has rarely been attempted in this sedimentary and (semi-arid) climatic context owing to the paucity of material available for conventional {sup 14}C dating. However, pollen and microscopic charcoal in the lake sediments at Bolac and Turangmoroke are suitable for AMS age determination with the most important sedimentary section well within the range of {sup 14}C making them ideal records for such a study. Recent dating results, which have substantially increased chronostratigraphic interpretation of concurrent palaeoecological and sedimentological work in progress, are presented

  15. Reality check of laboratory service effectiveness during pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Catton, Michael; Druce, Julian; Papadakis, Goergina; Tran, Thomas; Birch, Christopher


    In Australia, the outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 began in Melbourne, Victoria; in the first 17 days, the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory detected 977 cases. Although the laboratory had a pandemic plan in place, a retrospective evaluation found 3 major variations from plan assumptions: 1) higher peak demand not limited by a case definition, 2) prolonged peak demand because containment attempts continued despite widespread influenza, and 3) unexpected influence of negative test results on public health actions. Although implementation of the plan was generally successful, the greatest challenges were limited availability of skilled staff and test reagents. Despite peak demand of 1,401 tests per day, results were provided within the usual 24 hours of specimen receipt; however, turnaround time seemed slower because of slow transport times (>3 days for 45% of specimens). Hence, effective laboratory capability might be enhanced by speeding transport of specimens and improving transmission of clinical data.

  16. La legobiografía de Victoria Ocampo: evocaciones de una lectora (des)autorizada


    Vélez, Irma


    Pero no conseguiré hacer nada en el campo de la novela. Tengo que escribir à batons rompus, cuando se me antoje. Jamás podré crear un personaje. Lo llevaría a la rastra, y eso no sirve. Y todos mis personajes serían “yo” disfrazada. Perfectamente insoportable. ¿Cómo demonios puede uno deshacerse de su “yo” ?(Fragmento de Carta a Delfina Bunge, Autobiografía II, p. 85)En 1910, Victoria Ocampo cumple 20 años, apenas dos años después que en Santiago se auspiciara la sede del Primer Congreso Cien...

  17. La legobiografía de Victoria Ocampo: evocaciones de una lectora (desautorizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Vélez


    Full Text Available Pero no conseguiré hacer nada en el campo de la novela. Tengo que escribir à batons rompus, cuando se me antoje. Jamás podré crear un personaje. Lo llevaría a la rastra, y eso no sirve. Y todos mis personajes serían “yo” disfrazada. Perfectamente insoportable. ¿Cómo demonios puede uno deshacerse de su “yo” ?(Fragmento de Carta a Delfina Bunge, Autobiografía II, p. 85En 1910, Victoria Ocampo cumple 20 años, apenas dos años después que en Santiago se auspiciara la sede del Primer Congreso Cien...

  18. Coupled human and natural system dynamics as key to the sustainability of Lake Victoria's ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S. Downing


    Full Text Available East Africa's Lake Victoria provides resources and services to millions of people on the lake's shores and abroad. In particular, the lake's fisheries are an important source of protein, employment, and international economic connections for the whole region. Nonetheless, stock dynamics are poorly understood and currently unpredictable. Furthermore, fishery dynamics are intricately connected to other supporting services of the lake as well as to lakeshore societies and economies. Much research has been carried out piecemeal on different aspects of Lake Victoria's system; e.g., societies, biodiversity, fisheries, and eutrophication. However, to disentangle drivers and dynamics of change in this complex system, we need to put these pieces together and analyze the system as a whole. We did so by first building a qualitative model of the lake's social-ecological system. We then investigated the model system through a qualitative loop analysis, and finally examined effects of changes on the system state and structure. The model and its contextual analysis allowed us to investigate system-wide chain reactions resulting from disturbances. Importantly, we built a tool that can be used to analyze the cascading effects of management options and establish the requirements for their success. We found that high connectedness of the system at the exploitation level, through fisheries having multiple target stocks, can increase the stocks' vulnerability to exploitation but reduce society's vulnerability to variability in individual stocks. We describe how there are multiple pathways to any change in the system, which makes it difficult to identify the root cause of changes but also broadens the management toolkit. Also, we illustrate how nutrient enrichment is not a self-regulating process, and that explicit management is necessary to halt or reverse eutrophication. This model is simple and usable to assess system-wide effects of management policies, and can

  19. Maternal and Child Health Nurses work with refugee families: Perspectives from regional Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Willey, Suzanne M; Cant, Robyn P; Williams, Allison; McIntyre, Meredith


    This study aimed to explore service provision for Victorian regional refugee families from the perspective of Maternal and Child Health nurses. Increasingly, more families from a refugee background are resettling in regional Victoria. The refugee journey has significant effect on families. Refugee families with infants and young children can be provided with support by Maternal and Child Health services; however, many families experience barriers to ongoing engagement with this service. This descriptive study used focus group and questionnaire. A purposive sample of 26 Maternal and Child Health Nurses was drawn from six municipalities throughout regional Victoria, where higher numbers of people from a refugee background resettle. Six focus groups were held in 2014. Audio-recorded narratives were transcribed, prior to inductive thematic analysis. Participating nurses were experienced nurses, averaging 12 years in the service. Four major themes emerged: 'How to identify women from a refugee background'; 'The Maternal and Child Health nurse role when working with families from a refugee background'; 'Interpreting issues', and 'Access to other referral agencies'. Nurses worked to develop a relationship with families, attending to a complex mix of issues which were complicated by language barriers. Nurses found their role in supporting refugee families required additional time and more home visits. To provide best practice, Maternal and Child Health nurses need (i) ongoing professional development; (ii) time, flexibility, and creativity to build relationships with refugee families and (iii) better access to services that enhance communication, such as interpreting services and translated resources. Nurses require ongoing professional development to help them address the multifaceted needs of families of refugee background. With limited resources available in regional areas, accessing further education can be challenging. Distance education models and organisational

  20. Intended and unintended consequences of abortion law reform: perspectives of abortion experts in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Keogh, L A; Newton, D; Bayly, C; McNamee, K; Hardiman, A; Webster, A; Bismark, M


    In Victoria, Australia, abortion was decriminalised in October 2008, bringing the law in line with clinical practice and community attitudes. We describe how experts in abortion service provision perceived the intent and subsequent impact of the 2008 Victorian abortion law reform. Experts in abortion provision in Victoria were recruited for a qualitative semi-structured interview about the 2008 law reform and its perceived impact, until saturation was reached. Nineteen experts from a range of health care settings and geographic locations were interviewed in 2014/2015. Thematic analysis was conducted to summarise participants' views. Abortion law reform, while a positive event, was perceived to have changed little about the provision of abortion. The views of participants can be categorised into: (1) goals that law reform was intended to address and that have been achieved; (2) intent or hopes of law reform that have not been achieved; (3) unintended consequences; (4) coincidences; and (5) unfinished business. All agreed that law reform had repositioned abortion as a health rather than legal issue, had shifted the power in decision making from doctors to women, and had increased clarity and safety for doctors. However, all described outstanding concerns; limited public provision of surgical abortion; reduced access to abortion after 20 weeks; ongoing stigma; lack of a state-wide strategy for equitable abortion provision; and an unsustainable workforce. Law reform, while positive, has failed to address a number of significant issues in abortion service provision, and may have even resulted in a 'lull' in action. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to