Sample records for victoria basin east

  1. Holistic view to integrated climate change assessment and extreme weather adaptation in the Lake Victoria Basin East Africa (United States)

    Mutua, F.; Koike, T.


    Extreme weather events have been the leading cause of disasters and damage all over the world.The primary ingredient to these disasters especially floods is rainfall which over the years, despite advances in modeling, computing power and use of new data and technologies, has proven to be difficult to predict. Also, recent climate projections showed a pattern consistent with increase in the intensity and frequency of extreme events in the East African region.We propose a holistic integrated approach to climate change assessment and extreme event adaptation through coupling of analysis techniques, tools and data. The Lake Victoria Basin (LVB) in East Africa supports over three million livelihoods and is a valuable resource to five East African countries as a source of water and means of transport. However, with a Mesoscale weather regime driven by land and lake dynamics,extreme Mesoscale events have been prevalent and the region has been on the receiving end during anomalously wet years in the region. This has resulted in loss of lives, displacements, and food insecurity. In the LVB, the effects of climate change are increasingly being recognized as a significant contributor to poverty, by its linkage to agriculture, food security and water resources. Of particular importance are the likely impacts of climate change in frequency and intensity of extreme events. To tackle this aspect, this study adopted an integrated regional, mesoscale and basin scale approach to climate change assessment. We investigated the projected changes in mean climate over East Africa, diagnosed the signals of climate change in the atmosphere, and transferred this understanding to mesoscale and basin scale. Changes in rainfall were analyzed and similar to the IPCC AR4 report; the selected three General Circulation Models (GCMs) project a wetter East Africa with intermittent dry periods in June-August. Extreme events in the region are projected to increase; with the number of wet days

  2. Climatic, socio-economic, and health factors affecting human vulnerability to cholera in the Lake Victoria basin, East Africa. (United States)

    Olago, Daniel; Marshall, Michael; Wandiga, Shem O; Opondo, Maggie; Yanda, Pius Z; Kanalawe, Richard; Githeko, Andrew K; Downs, Tim; Opere, Alfred; Kavumvuli, Robert; Kirumira, Edward; Ogallo, Laban; Mugambi, Paul; Apindi, Eugene; Githui, Faith; Kathuri, James; Olaka, Lydia; Sigalla, Rehema; Nanyunja, Robinah; Baguma, Timothy; Achola, Pius


    Cholera epidemics have a recorded history in the eastern Africa region dating to 1836. Cholera is now endemic in the Lake Victoria basin, a region with one of the poorest and fastest growing populations in the world. Analyses of precipitation, temperatures, and hydrological characteristics of selected stations in the Lake Victoria basin show that cholera epidemics are closely associated with El Niño years. Similarly, sustained temperatures high above normal (T(max)) in two consecutive seasons, followed by a slight cooling in the second season, trigger an outbreak of a cholera epidemic. The health and socioeconomic systems that the lake basin communities rely upon are not robust enough to cope with cholera outbreaks, thus rendering them vulnerable to the impact of climate variability and change. Collectively, this report argues that communities living around the Lake Victoria basin are vulnerable to climate-induced cholera that is aggravated by the low socioeconomic status and lack of an adequate health care system. In assessing the communities' adaptive capacity, the report concludes that persistent levels of poverty have made these communities vulnerable to cholera epidemics.

  3. Evolution of the Lake Victoria basin in the context of coeval rift initiation in East Africa: a 3D numerical model approach (United States)

    Wichura, Henry; Quinteros, Javier; Melnick, Daniel; Brune, Sascha; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Strecker, Manfred R.


    Over the last four years sedimentologic and thermochronologic studies in the western and eastern branches of the Cenozoic East African Rift System (EARS) have supported the notion of a broadly contemporaneous onset of normal faulting and rift-basin formation in both segments. These studies support previous interpretations based on geophysical investigations from which an onset of rifting during the Paleogene had been postulated. In light of these studies we explore the evolution of the Lake Victoria basin, a shallow, unfaulted sedimentary basin centered between both branches of the EARS and located in the interior of the East African Plateau (EAP). We quantify the fluvial catchment evolution of the Lake Victoria basin and assess the topographic response of African crust to the onset of rifting in both branches. Furthermore, we evaluate and localize the nature of strain and flexural rift-flank uplift in both branches. We use a 3D numerical forward model that includes nonlinear temperature- and stress-dependent elasto-visco-plastic rheology. The model is able to reproduce the flexural response of variably thick lithosphere to rift-related deformation processes such as lithospheric thinning and asthenospheric upwelling. The model domain covers the entire EAP and integrates extensional processes in a heterogeneous, yet cold and thick cratonic block (Archean Tanzania craton), which is surrounded by mechanically weaker Proterozoic mobile belts, which are characterized by thinner lithosphere ("thin spots"). The lower limits of the craton (170 km) and the mobile belts (120 km) are simulated by different depths of the 1300 °C lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. We assume a constant extension rate of 4 mm/a throughout the entire simulation of 30 Ma and neglect the effect of dynamic topography and magmatism. Even though the model setup is very simple and the resolution is not high enough to calculate realistic rift-flank uplift, it intriguingly reveals important topographic

  4. within the lake victoria basin, tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Levels of nitrates (NOg-N) and phosphates (PO4~P) in some satellite lakes within the Lake. Victoria basin were determined in Kagera (Lake Burigt), in Mara (River Mara) and in Mwanza region (Lake Malimbe) during August/September 2002 (dry season) and January/February 2003. (wet season).

  5. Paleoenvironmental context of the Middle Stone Age record from Karungu, Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya, and its implications for human and faunal dispersals in East Africa. (United States)

    Faith, J Tyler; Tryon, Christian A; Peppe, Daniel J; Beverly, Emily J; Blegen, Nick; Blumenthal, Scott; Chritz, Kendra L; Driese, Steven G; Patterson, David


    The opening and closing of the equatorial East African forest belt during the Quaternary is thought to have influenced the biogeographic histories of early modern humans and fauna, although precise details are scarce due to a lack of archaeological and paleontological records associated with paleoenvironmental data. With this in mind, we provide a description and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Late Pleistocene Middle Stone Age (MSA) artifact- and fossil-bearing sediments from Karungu, located along the shores of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. Artifacts recovered from surveys and controlled excavations are typologically MSA and include points, blades, and Levallois flakes and cores, as well as obsidian flakes similar in geochemical composition to documented sources near Lake Naivasha (250 km east). A combination of sedimentological, paleontological, and stable isotopic evidence indicates a semi-arid environment characterized by seasonal precipitation and the dominance of C4 grasslands, likely associated with a substantial reduction in Lake Victoria. The well-preserved fossil assemblage indicates that these conditions are associated with the convergence of historically allopatric ungulates from north and south of the equator, in agreement with predictions from genetic observations. Analysis of the East African MSA record reveals previously unrecognized north-south variation in assemblage composition that is consistent with episodes of population fragmentation during phases of limited dispersal potential. The grassland-associated MSA assemblages from Karungu and nearby Rusinga Island are characterized by a combination of artifact types that is more typical of northern sites. This may reflect the dispersal of behavioral repertoires-and perhaps human populations-during a paleoenvironmental phase dominated by grasslands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water, sediment and soil samples collected from Southern Lake Victoria and its basin were analysed for 76 organochlorine, organophosphorous, carbamate and pyrethroid pesticide residues. The samples were collected from sampling stations in nine districts on the Tanzanian side of the lake, namely Mwanza, Sengerema ...

  7. An assessement of the ecosystem health of Lake Victoria (East Africa)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessement of the ecosystem health of Lake Victoria (East Africa): Current status, trends and impacts to fishery. ... complicated the ecosystem dynamics of Lake Victoria and pose serious uncertainties about its future stability and sustainability of the fisheries resources. Lake Victoria's future sustainability requires ...

  8. Assessment of spatial rainfall variability in Lake Victoria Basin (United States)

    Kizza, M.; Westerberg, I.; Rodhe, A.; Ntale, H. K.


    A gridded monthly rainfall dataset having a spatial resolution of 2 km and covering the period 1960-2004 was derived for the Lake Victoria basin. Such a dataset is useful for hydrological modelling aimed at resource utilisation and for estimation of catchment inflow to Lake Victoria. The lake and its basin support more than 30 million people and also contribute substantially to the River Nile flow. The major challenge in analysing the lake water balance is the estimation of the rainfall over the lake which is complicated by the varying quality and spatial coverage of rain-gauge data in the basin. In this study we addressed these problems by using satellite-derived precipitation data from two products and rain-gauge data for 362 stations around the basin to derive a monthly precipitation dataset for the entire basin, including the lake. First, the rain-gauge data were quality controlled; resulting in a rejection of 13% of the stations while 12% needed corrective actions. These results emphasise the importance of a systematic quality control of rain-guage data in this region. Thereafter we filled short gaps in the daily data series which resulted in 9,429 additional months of data. Two interpolation methods were then assessed for spatial interpolation and the universal kriging method performed slightly better than the inverse distance weighting method. The rainfall patterns in the interpolated dataset were shown to be consistent with the spatial and temporal patterns expected at the large scale as a result of the climate variability in the basin. The key problem of how to account for the enhancement of rainfall over the lake surface because of the lake-land thermal contrasts was addressed by estimating a relationship between rain-gauge and satellite data. Two satellite rainfall products, TRMM 3B43 and PERSIANN were compared to the interpolated monthly rain-gauge data for the land part of the basin. The bias in the TRMM 3B43 rainfall estimates was higher than the bias

  9. Lunnyu soils in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda: Link to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lunnyu soils in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda: Link to toposequence and soil type. B Fungo, S Grunwald, MM Tenywa, B Vanlauwe, P Nkedi-Kizza. Abstract. We compared the physico-chemical characteristics of Lunnyu soils using soil type and slope position in order to explain their variability in the Lake Victoria basin ...

  10. Editorial The “Eye” of Africa: A Vision of Lake Victoria Basin as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The “Eye” of Africa: A Vision of Lake Victoria Basin as an Environmental. Observatory. Since my days as a schoolboy in geography class, I have not been able to observe maps of the African continent without also “seeing” the profile of a face, with Lake Victoria representing the right eye, gazing adoringly at Madagascar.

  11. Nile perch fish processing waste along Lake Victoria in East Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide, fish industry wastes are an important contaminant having an impact on the environment. The recovery of value added products from these residues constitutes an important waste reduction strategy for the industry. In East Africa, Nile perch fish processing into chilled fish fillet for export along Lake Victoria ...

  12. satellite lakes of lake victoria basin (tanzanian side)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on phytoplankton species diversity and abundance were carried out in 8 selected satellite lakes within the Lake Victoria ... cyanobacteria occurrence and their unforeseen effects such as toxin production and oxygen depletion during nights that may ..... Species extinction and concomitant ecological changes in Lake.

  13. affect rice in integrated rice-fish culture in Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    To ensure increased adoption of rice-fish farming, we have to be certain that practices and adoption of these technologies fit within the available resources, the socio-cultural and economic conditions of the Lake. Victoria Basin (LVB). Practices and technologies from. Asia may be inappropriate due to differences in agro cli-.

  14. Reproductive efficiency of Thoroughbred and Standardbred horses in north-east Victoria. (United States)

    Nath, L C; Anderson, G A; McKinnon, A O


    To evaluate the reproductive efficiency of horse farms in north-east Victoria and identify aspects of management to be targeted for improving reproductive efficiency. Retrospective study. Records from seven Thoroughbred (TB) and four Standardbred (STB) studs in north-east Victoria from 1990 to 2001 were reviewed; 8813 cycles in 4455 mares were analysed. TB mares were inseminated by natural mating, whereas STB mares (89%) were artificially inseminated. The overall early pregnancy rate per cycle was 68.8% for TB mares and for STB mares, 68.3%. Multiple pregnancy per cycle was more frequent in TB (8.3%) than in STB (4.6%) mares (P reproductive status within the TB than the STB mares. Pregnancy rate per cycle among stallions ranged from 48% to 79%. On-farm pregnancy rates in both breeds were higher than previously reported and likely reflect improvements in reproductive management. The disparity between breeds in the inseminations per cycle and proportion of barren mares exposed the differing structures of the two industries, and presents a target for improving the reproductive efficiency in STBs. The difference between breeds in the multiple pregnancy rate per cycle likely reflects the higher ovulation rate of TB mares. The variability in pregnancy rate per cycle between the 22 stallions was associated with differences in individual inherent fertility and the quality of stallion management.

  15. Preliminary assessment of the cocial, economic and environmental impacts of Water Hyacinth in Lake Victoria basin and status of control


    Mailu, A.M.


    The paper presents preliminary data collected in an assessment of the social, economic and environmental impacts of water hyacinth in the Lake Victoria Basin. A summary of the status of control and strategies for the future is given. The report draws on field observations made, studies through interviews of affected communities and organisations, personal communications and published reports by scientists in the region. Lake Victoria, the world’s second largest freshwater body, su...

  16. Drying out the Nile? Regional Climate Change and Water Resources in East Africa with a focus on Lake Victoria and Lake Tana (United States)

    Mottram, Ruth; Fox Maule, Cathrine; Thejll, Peter; Stendel, Martin; Drews, Martin; Davies, Sarah; Lamb, Henry


    The East African lakes Victoria and Tana are important local water resources for agriculture, fisheries and hydropower; they are also the main sources of the Nile. In this study we focus on the evaporative and evapotranspirative regimes of the hydrological basins for Lakes Tana and Victoria to determine how regional climate change under the A1B scenario is likely to affect the local and regional hydrology. We show results from a very high resolution (10km) simulation, where the state-of-the-art regional climate model (RCM) HIRHAM5 was driven by the global circulation model (GCM) ECHAM5 under the A1B scenario. Three time-slices have been investigated for present day (1980-1999), mid-century (2046-2065) and end of the 21st century (2080-2099) periods. Our analysis includes a comparison with a coarser 0.44o (~50 km) resolution run which demonstrates the importance of using high resolution (10km or higher) in RCM studies of this type to correctly simulate the seasonal and geographical characteristics of the present day east African monsoon system. The projections also indicate that climate change under the intermediate SRES A1B scenario is expected to cause more frequent failures of the East African rains with important consequences for the region and for the hydrology of the East African Lakes. This work introduces the proposed DACEA (Drivers of Aridity Change in East Africa) project which aims to investigate regional and global teleconnections that affect aridity in East Africa. Future work will combine climate palaeoproxies from Lake Tana and Lake Victoria with model experiments carried out with the EC-Earth coupled Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Model and downscaled to very high resolution with the RCM HIRHAM5 to determine regional and global scale influences on the African monsoon system. The HIRHAM5 simulations will be dynamically coupled to a regional hydrological model based on MIKE SHE, to evaluate the consequences and the feedback from the regional

  17. Monitoring geodynamic activity in the Victoria Land, East Antarctica: Evidence from GNSS measurements (United States)

    Zanutta, A.; Negusini, M.; Vittuari, L.; Cianfarra, P.; Salvini, F.; Mancini, F.; Sterzai, P.; Dubbini, M.; Galeandro, A.; Capra, A.


    GNSS networks in Antarctica are a fundamental tool to define actual crustal displacements due to geological and geophysical processes and to constrain the glacial isostatic models (GIA). A large network devoted to the detection and monitoring of crustal deformations in the Northern Victoria Land (Victoria Land Network for DEFormation control - VLNDEF), was monumented during the 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 field campaigns, as part of Italian National Program for Antarctic Research and surveyed periodically during the Southern summer seasons. In this paper, GPS observations of VLNDEF collected over a more than 15-year span, together with various selected POLENET sites and more than 70 IGS stations, were processed with Bernese Software, using a classical double difference approach. A solution was obtained combining NEQs by means of ADDNEQ2/FODITS tools embedded in Bernese Software. All the Antarctic sites were kept free and a subset of 50 IGS stations were used to frame VLNDEF into ITRF2008. New evidence provided by analysis of GPS time series for the VLNDEF network is presented; also displacements along the vertical component are compared with the recently published GIA models. The absolute velocities indicate an overall displacement of the northern Victoria Land region along the south-east direction (Ve = 10.6 mm/yr, Vn = -11.5 mm/yr) and an average uplift rate of Vu = 0.5 mm/yr. Two GIA models have been analyzed: ICE-6G_C-VM5a proposed by Argus et al. (2014), Peltier et al. (2015) and W12A_v1 by Whitehouse et al. (2012a,b). Up rates, predicted over the VLNDEF sites by the mentioned GIA models, have been extracted and compared with those observed. A preliminary comparison with GPS-derived vertical rates shows that the Victoria Land ICE-6G_C-VM5 and W12A_v1 GIA models predict overestimated uplift rates of 0.7 and 0.9 mm/yr weighted mean residuals respectively. The mean horizontal relative motions within the Victoria Land (VL) area are in most cases negligible, while only

  18. Temperature and hydrologic variability of Lake Victoria, East Africa since the Late Pleistocene (United States)

    Berke, M. A.; Johnson, T. C.; Werne, J. P.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.


    Recent organic geochemical advances have facilitated the comparison between continental temperature change and hydrologic variability. TEX86, a proxy based on the lipids of aquatic Crenarchaeota that show a positive correlation with growth temperature, was used to reconstruct surface water temperatures from Lake Victoria, East Africa during the latest Pleistocene-Holocene. Hydrologic conditions were interpreted using paleoecological implications of shifting pollen and diatom assemblages found in the lake (Kendall, 1969; Stager et al., 2003) and will be compared with future compound specific δ13C data from terrestrial biomarkers in order to determine the patterns of rainfall and aridity in this region. Initial comparisons of climatic changes seen in temperature and hydrologic records appear to show consistency between warm/wet intervals and cool/dry intervals that is often assumed, but more rarely shown, in tropical Africa. Lake Victoria temperatures show a steady warming beginning 16 cal ka, with a pause around the Younger Dryas, dominated by arid conditions and strong savannah grassland development during this interval. There is continued warming to a sustained thermal maximum for this portion of the record at ~10.5-8.5 ka, which generally coincides with the beginning of the Holocene Hypsithermal, an interval of elevated temperatures and precipitation throughout much of tropical Africa. This thermal maximum occurs during the most humid interval of this record (~9.5-8.3 ka), shown by an increase of humid forest pollen and high diatom abundance (due to increased water column mixing and nutrient runoff). Temperatures abruptly cool ~1.5°C in <800 years while precipitation becomes somewhat more seasonally restricted, coinciding with an abrupt drop in inferred P:E ratio and reduction in wind-driven mixing. The record then shows a general cooling, reaching a Holocene thermal minimum of ~18.4°C at ~4.5 ka, contrary to other East African continental and marine

  19. Stable isotope paleoecology of Late Pleistocene Middle Stone Age humans from the Lake Victoria basin, Kenya. (United States)

    Garrett, Nicole D; Fox, David L; McNulty, Kieran P; Faith, J Tyler; Peppe, Daniel J; Van Plantinga, Alex; Tryon, Christian A


    Paleoanthropologists have long argued that environmental pressures played a key role in human evolution. However, our understanding of how these pressures mediated the behavioral and biological diversity of early modern humans and their migration patterns within and out of Africa is limited by a lack of archaeological evidence associated with detailed paleoenvironmental data. Here, we present the first stable isotopic data from paleosols and fauna associated with Middle Stone Age (MSA) sites in East Africa. Late Pleistocene (∼100-45 ka, thousands of years ago) sediments on Rusinga and Mfangano Islands in eastern Lake Victoria (Kenya) preserve a taxonomically diverse, non-analog faunal community associated with MSA artifacts. We analyzed the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of paleosol carbonate and organic matter and fossil mammalian tooth enamel, including the first analyses for several extinct bovids such as Rusingoryx atopocranion, Damaliscus hypsodon, and an unnamed impala species. Both paleosol carbonate and organic matter data suggest that local habitats associated with human activities were primarily riverine woodland ecosystems. However, mammalian tooth enamel data indicate that most large-bodied mammals consumed a predominantly C4 diet, suggesting an extensive C4 grassland surrounding these riverine woodlands in the region at the time. These data are consistent with other lines of paleoenvironmental evidence that imply a substantially reduced Lake Victoria at this time, and demonstrate that C4 grasslands were significantly expanded into equatorial Africa compared with their present distribution, which could have facilitated dispersal of human populations and other biotic communities. Our results indicate that early populations of Homo sapiens from the Lake Victoria region exploited locally wooded and well-watered habitats within a larger grassland ecosystem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characteristics of potential gasifier fuels in selected regions of the Lake Victoria Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey O. Mosiori


    Full Text Available All countries in the Lake Victoria Basin depend mostly on hydroelectric power for the provision of energy. Gasification technology has a high potential for reducing biomass energy consumption whilst increasing access to modern energy services. The key aspect for the failure of gasification operations in the Lake Victoria Basin is inadequate adaptation of gasification equipment to fuel characteristics, lack of fuel specification and inappropriate material choice. We therefore investigated the thermo-chemical characterisation of six biomass fuels, namely Pinus caribaea, Calitris robusta, Cupressus lusitanica, Eucalyptus grandis, Pinus patula and sugarcane bagasse from selected regions of the Lake Victoria Basin. Ultimate analysis was done using a Flash 2000 elemental analyser. Moisture content, ash content and volatile matter were determined in oven and muffle furnaces while heating values were determined using a Gallenkamp calorimeter. The mean percentage levels obtained indicate that all six biomass fuels had a mean range for nitrogen of 0.07±0.2–0.25±0.07%, for carbon of 40.45±0.61–48.88±0.29%, for hydrogen of 4.32±0.13–5.59±0.18% and for oxygen of 43.41±1.58–51.1±0.64%. Moisture content ranged between 25.74±1.54% and 56.69±0.52%, ash content between 0.38±0.02% and 2.94±0.14%, volatile matter between 74.68±0.49% and 82.71±0.19% and fixed carbon between 14.35±0.33% and 24.74±0.27%. Heating values ranged between 16.95±0.10 MJ/kg and 19.48±0.42 MJ/kg. The results suggest that all six biomass fuels are potential biomass gasification materials.

  1. The population structure of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes in the Lake Victoria basin in Uganda: implications for vector control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyseni Chaz


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glossina fuscipes fuscipes is the primary vector of trypanosomiasis in humans and livestock in Uganda. The Lake Victoria basin has been targeted for tsetse eradication using a rolling carpet initiative, from west to east, with four operational blocks (3 in Uganda and 1 in Kenya, under a Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC. We screened tsetse flies from the three Ugandan PATTEC blocks for genetic diversity at 15 microsatellite loci from continental and offshore populations to provide empirical data to support this initiative. Methods We collected tsetse samples from 11 sites across the Lake Victoria basin in Uganda. We performed genetic analyses on 409 of the collected tsetse flies and added data collected for 278 individuals in a previous study. The flies were screened across 15 microsatellite loci and the resulting data were used to assess the temporal stability of populations, to analyze patterns of genetic exchange and structuring, to estimate dispersal rates and evaluate the sex bias in dispersal, as well as to estimate demographic parameters (NE and NC. Results We found that tsetse populations in this region were stable over 4-16 generations and belong to 4 genetic clusters. Two genetic clusters (1 and 2 corresponded approximately to PATTEC blocks 1 and 2, while the other two (3 and 4 fell within PATTEC block 3. Island populations grouped into the same genetic clusters as neighboring mainland sites, suggesting presence of gene flow between these sites. There was no evidence of the stretch of water separating islands from the mainland forming a significant barrier to dispersal. Dispersal rates ranged from 2.5 km per generation in cluster 1 to 14 km per generation in clusters 3 and 4. We found evidence of male-biased dispersal. Few breeders are successfully dispersing over large distances. Effective population size estimates were low (33–310 individuals, while census size estimates

  2. Tsetse fly (G. f. fuscipes distribution in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugenyi Albert


    Full Text Available Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes, the causative agent of human and animal African trypanosomiasis. The tsetse vector is extensively distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosomiasis maintenance is determined by the interrelationship of three elements: vertebrate host, parasite and the vector responsible for transmission. Mapping the distribution and abundance of tsetse flies assists in predicting trypanosomiasis distributions and developing rational strategies for disease and vector control. Given scarce resources to carry out regular full scale field tsetse surveys to up-date existing tsetse maps, there is a need to devise inexpensive means for regularly obtaining dependable area-wide tsetse data to guide control activities. In this study we used spatial epidemiological modelling techniques (logistic regression involving 5000 field-based tsetse-data (G. f. fuscipes points over an area of 40,000 km2, with satellite-derived environmental surrogates composed of precipitation, temperature, land cover, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI and elevation at the sub-national level. We used these extensive tsetse data to analyse the relationships between presence of tsetse (G. f. fuscipes and environmental variables. The strength of the results was enhanced through the application of a spatial autologistic regression model (SARM. Using the SARM we showed that the probability of tsetse presence increased with proportion of forest cover and riverine vegetation. The key outputs are a predictive tsetse distribution map for the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda and an improved understanding of the association between tsetse presence and environmental variables. The predicted spatial distribution of tsetse in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda will provide significant new information to assist with the spatial targeting of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control.

  3. Tsetse fly (G. f. fuscipes) distribution in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda. (United States)

    Albert, Mugenyi; Wardrop, Nicola A; Atkinson, Peter M; Torr, Steve J; Welburn, Susan C


    Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes, the causative agent of human and animal African trypanosomiasis. The tsetse vector is extensively distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosomiasis maintenance is determined by the interrelationship of three elements: vertebrate host, parasite and the vector responsible for transmission. Mapping the distribution and abundance of tsetse flies assists in predicting trypanosomiasis distributions and developing rational strategies for disease and vector control. Given scarce resources to carry out regular full scale field tsetse surveys to up-date existing tsetse maps, there is a need to devise inexpensive means for regularly obtaining dependable area-wide tsetse data to guide control activities. In this study we used spatial epidemiological modelling techniques (logistic regression) involving 5000 field-based tsetse-data (G. f. fuscipes) points over an area of 40,000 km2, with satellite-derived environmental surrogates composed of precipitation, temperature, land cover, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and elevation at the sub-national level. We used these extensive tsetse data to analyse the relationships between presence of tsetse (G. f. fuscipes) and environmental variables. The strength of the results was enhanced through the application of a spatial autologistic regression model (SARM). Using the SARM we showed that the probability of tsetse presence increased with proportion of forest cover and riverine vegetation. The key outputs are a predictive tsetse distribution map for the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda and an improved understanding of the association between tsetse presence and environmental variables. The predicted spatial distribution of tsetse in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda will provide significant new information to assist with the spatial targeting of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control.

  4. Hydrogeology of The East of Buyukcekmece Basin (United States)

    Altıok, Türkü; Güneş, Yaǧmur; Ayhan, Büşra; Karagüzel, Remzi


    Buyukcekmece is located in the West of Istanbul in Turkey and Buyukcekmece Lake is poured to Sea of Marmara. In this study, we have investigated hydrogeology of The East of Buyukcekmece Basin which is an important source to provide drinking water to Istanbul. Meteorological data and hydrologic measurements have been used to calculate water balance of the east part of the basin. Total flow has been calculated as 54.513 x 106 m3 and total infiltration has been shown as 16.5 x 106 m3. Dropdown measurements have been used to calculate transmissibility (T) and hydraulic conductivity (K) by using both Dupuit method and empirical calculations. In result, K values varied between 10-7m/s and 10-8 m/s degrees. Groundwater quality of the study area has been investigated with the help of groundwater samples' chemical analysis results. These results have been used to create Piper, Scholler, Wilcox and USA Salinity Diagram. According to Piper diagram, groundwater from the study area can be classified as type Ca-HCO3. Due to Schoeller, The anion cation trend of the samples exhibit as Ca>Mg>Na>K and HCO3 > Cl>SO4 and they can be classified as Normal Chlorine water and Normal Sulfate water. The KN-5 sample disrupts the 20.41% Cl meq/l value and it is included in the Oligochloride waters. According to USA Salinity Diagram, groundwater of the study area can be classified as C1S3. As a result of this study, according WHO (World Health Organization) groundwater samples from the east of the Buyukcekmece Basin is meeting the drinking water standards except its electric conductivity values where it has been measured for KN-7, KN-8 and KN-9 respectively 7710, 6780 and 6180 μS/cm. Those samples are predicted to be deep circulated water samples with sea water intrusion.

  5. Rock Glaciers in the Upper Basin of Bermejo River, Santa Victoria, Argentina (United States)

    Ahumada, A. L.; Íbáñez Palacios, G. P.; Toledo, M. A.; Páez, S. V.


    The Bermejo River is an international basin in the Tropical Andes, Santa Victoria range. The Santa Victoria range extend in N-S sense (22°08' and 23°00' South latitude between 65° and 65°30' West longitude). It maxim height is about 5.055 m s.n.m. and it average height is 3000 m s.n.m. There have been localize intact rock glaciers (active and inactive) and relict. The rock glaciers are frozen water reservoir and regulate the water regime in the high mountain over the world. The global warming effects have been express in this region with average annual air temperatures in increase: The series of temperatures of La Quiaca weather station, years 1911-2010, shows an increase about 1° C (from 9,14° C to 10,08° C) since 70' decade to actuality. This study aims to contribute to the survey of intact rock glaciers and the suite of accompanying landforms. The geographic identification and location of rock glaciers have made through the interpretation of aerial photographs and LandSat 7 and Aster Images in comparison with Google Earth using GIS and visual interpretation technics. This information has controlled with fieldwork in several campaigns. The rock glaciers are classified (in base of it activity) in actives, inactives and relict. The first and the second class were grouped in a category called intact rock glaciers for simplify it identification. The unified categories are water-storing. In the fieldwork have determinated the following aspects: 1- Active processes determination (needle ice, lenticular ice formation, etc.) and its sedimentary products: sucrose structure, inverted gradation, extrusion, open work gravels. 2- Location and geomorphologic measurement of rock glaciers and periglacial forms. There are identified 318 intact rock glaciers in high basin of Bermejo river, Sub-basins Condado river, Los Toldos-Lipeo river and Iruya river, Santa Victoria range. The actives rock glaciers, indicators of discontinuous permafrost, are installed from 4300 m s

  6. Monitoring basin-scale land cover changes in Kagera Basin of Lake Victoria using ancillary data and remote sensing (United States)

    Wasige, John E.; Groen, Thomas A.; Smaling, Eric; Jetten, Victor


    The Kagera Basin is a high value ecosystem in the Lake Victoria watershed because of the hydrological and food services it provides. The basin has faced large scale human induced land use and land cover changes (LUCC), but quantitative data is to date lacking. A combination of ancillary data and satellite imagery were interpreted to construct LUCC dynamics for the last century. This study is an initial step towards assessing the impact of LUCC on sustainable agriculture and water quality in the watershed. The results show that large trends of LUCC have rapidly occurred over the last 100 years. The most dominant LUCC processes were gains in farmland areas (not detectable in 1901 to 60% in 2010) and a net reduction in dense forest (7% to 2.6%), woodlands (51% to 6.9%) and savannas (35% to 19.6%) between 1901 and 2010. Forest degradation rapidly occurred during 1974 and 1995 but the forest re-grew between 1995 and 2010 due to forest conservation efforts. Afforestation efforts have resulted in plantation forest increases between 1995 and 2010. The rates of LUCC observed are higher than those reported in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) and other parts of the world. This is one of the few studies in SSA at a basin scale that combines multi-source spatio-temporal data on land cover to enable long-term quantification of land cover changes. In the discussion we address future research needs for the area based on the results of this study. These research needs include quantifying the impacts of land cover change on nutrient and sediment dynamics, soil organic carbon stocks, and changes in biodiversity.

  7. Eutrophication, Nile perch and food-web interactions in south-east Lake Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, I.J.M.


    The increasing eutrophication, the introduction of Nile perch (Lates niloticus) and the increasing fishing pressure has changed Lake Victoria tremendously the last century. Since the 1960s, eutrophication increased primary production, enabling an increase in fish production. However, eutrophication

  8. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Precipitation over Lake Victoria, East Africa, in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Akurut


    Full Text Available Precipitation over Lake Victoria in East Africa greatly influences its water balance. Over 30 million people rely on Lake Victoria for food, potable water, hydropower and transport. Projecting precipitation changes over the lake is vital in dealing with climate change impacts. The past and future precipitation over the lake were assessed using 42 model runs obtained from 26 General Circulation Models (GCMs of the newest generation in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5. Two CMIP5 scenarios defined by Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP, namely RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, were used to explore climate change impacts. The daily precipitation over Lake Victoria for the period 1962–2002 was compared with future projections for the 2040s and 2075s. The ability of GCMs to project daily, monthly and annual precipitation over the lake was evaluated based on the mean error, root mean square error and the frequency of occurrence of extreme precipitation. Higher resolution models (grid size <1.5° simulated monthly variations better than low resolution models (grid size >2.5°. The total annual precipitation is expected to increase by less than 10% for the RCP4.5 scenario and less than 20% for the RCP8.5 scenario over the 21st century, despite the higher (up to 40% increase in extreme daily intensities.

  9. Uncertainties in Flow-Duration-Frequency Relationships of High and Low Flow Extremes in Lake Victoria Basin


    Charles Onyutha; Patrick Willems


    This paper focuses on uncertainty analysis to aid decision making in applications of statistically modeled flow-duration-frequency (FDF) relationships of both daily high and low flows. The analysis is based on 24 selected catchments in the Lake Victoria basin in Eastern Africa. The FDF relationships were derived for aggregation levels in the range 1–90 days for high flows and 1–365 days for low flows. The validity of the projected FDF quantiles for high return periods T was checked using grow...

  10. Application of Satellite Observations to Manage Natural Disasters in the Lake Victoria Basin (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Policelli, F.; Irwin, D.; Korme, Tesfaye; Adler, Bob; Hong, Yang


    Lake Victoria, the second largest fresh water lake in the Eastern part of Africa is a vital natural resource for the economic well being and prosperity of over 30 million people located in riparian regions of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania. It covers a large area of about 68,870 km2 and produces a GDP of about US $30 billion per year. The region is also very much prone to natural disasters such as severe floods during heavy precipitation periods in the Eastern part of Africa. In addition to floods, the precipitation also produces large infestations of mosquito larvae due to the standing water in many areas. This further causes multiple vector borne diseases such as Malaria, Rift Valley Fever and more. These problems are of serious concern and require active and aggressive surveillance and management to minimize the loss of human and animal lives and property damage. Satellite imagery and observations along with the in situ measurements provide a great tool to analyze and study this area and inform the policy makers to make calculated policy decisions which are more beneficial to the environment. Recently, NASA and USAID have joined forces with the Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) located in Nairobi, Kenya to utilize multiple NASA sensors such as TRMM, SRTM and MODIS to develop flood potential maps for the Lake Victoria Basin. The idea is to generate a flood forecasts and "nowcasts" that can be sent to the disaster management organizations of Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania. Post flood event satellite imagery is becoming a common tool to assess the areas inundated by flooding. However, this work is unique undertaking by utilizing land imaging and atmospheric satellites to build credible flood potential maps. At same time, we are also studying the potential occurrence and spread of Rift Valley Fever disease based on the short term climate records and precipitation data. These activities require multi-nation coordination and agreements and

  11. A new species of Anabarhynchus (Diptera: Therevidae from an ocean beach in south east Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ferguson


    Full Text Available Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae (Diptera that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchus oceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic A. kampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001, but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Megathereva Lyneborg, 1992. This new species brings the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 113.

  12. Algal biomass and pigments along a latitudinal gradient in Victoria Land lakes, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Borghini


    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that Antarctic terrestrial diversity decreases as latitude increases, but latitudinal patterns of several organisms are not always as clear as expected. The Victoria Land region is rich in lakes and ponds and spans 8 degrees of latitude that encompasses gradients in factors such as solar radiation, temperature, ice cover and day length. An understanding of the links between latitudinally driven environmental and biodiversity changes is essential to the understanding of the ecology and evolution of Antarctic biota and the formulation of hypotheses about likely future changes in biodiversity. As several studies have demonstrated that photosynthetic pigments are an excellent, although underused, tool for the study of lacustrine algal communities, the aim of the present study was to investigate variations in algal biomass and biodiversity across the latitudinal gradient of Victoria Land using sedimentary pigments. We test the hypothesis that the biodiversity of freshwater environments decreases as latitude increases. On the basis of our results, we propose using the number of sedimentary pigments as a proxy for algal diversity and the sum of chlorophyll a and bacteriochlorophyll a with their degradation derivatives as an index of biomass. Overall, our data show that biomass and diversity decrease as latitude increases but local environmental conditions, in particular, natural levels of eutrophy, can affect both productivity and diversity.

  13. Arc Boudinage, Basin Inversion and Obduction in an Evolving Subduction System of East Antarctica (United States)

    Ferraccioli, F.; Balbi, P.; Armadillo, E.; Crispini, L.; Capponi, G.


    The paleo-Pacific margin of Gondwana experienced protracted subduction and accretionary tectonics starting in late Neoproterozic-early Cambrian times. Northern Victoria Land (NVL), in East Antarctica, preserves a cryptic record of these active margin processes. Most models indicate that NVL contains three main terranes, namely the Robertson Bay, Bowers and Wilson terranes. Significant debate centres, however, on whether these are far travelled terranes with respect to the East Antarctic Craton, and on the tectonic and magmatic processes that affected its active margin and were ultimately responsible for the formation of the Ross Orogen. Here we interpret new aeromagnetic, aerogravity and land-gravity compilations that enable us to trace the extent of major subglacial faults in the basement of NVL, examine crustal architecture, and propose a new evolutionary model for the active margin of the craton. Prominent aeromagnetic anomalies at the edge of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin delineate the extent of an early-stage magmatic arc (ca 530 Ma?). This arc may have accreted as an exotic element onto the former Neoproterozoic rifted margin of East Antarctica or (perhaps more likely) developed in situ upon a pre-existing suture. Remnants of magnetic arc basement are also identified ca 150 km further to the east within the Wilson Terrane (WT). We propose that these were originally adjacent arc segments and that transtension triggered significant arc boudinage separating these segments. Transtension may have created accommodation space for the development of thick Cambrian sedimentary basins, which are marked by regional magnetic lows with an en-echelon geometry. Basin inversion likely occurred in a later traspressional stage of the Ross-Delamerian Orogen (ca. 490-460 Ma) that triggered the development of a major pop-up structure within the WT. Several buried thrusts of the pop-up can be traced in the aeromagnetic images and a prominent residual gravity high delineates its high

  14. The evolution of the East Java Basin, Indonesia (United States)

    Shields, Martin L.

    The East Java Basin has a geological life span of more than 50 Ma, with a diverse structural and stratigraphic development history. The basin originated during the Eocene on continental crust and developed northeast to southwest trending linear paleo-highs at its inception. These antiformal uplifts are cored by contractional structures, but also exhibit minor crestal extension. The parallel and convex paleo-highs are separated at a spatial wavelength of 80--100 km. The well and sediment information is recorded and evaluated herein as subsidence histories. By coupling the convex profiles from geohistory information with low heat flows recorded in well bottomhole temperatures, the evidence points to an origin of lithospheric flexure and buckling of the continental crust. The stratigraphy documented in well and outcrop samples indicates a preponderance of shelfal carbonate deposits with an influx of quartz sandstone during the Miocene. The quartzite source is north of the basin in Borneo associated with an exposed granite massif. Only Pliocene-Recent sediments (<5 Ma) are sourced from adjacent volcanic eruptions to the south. In contrast to previous studies where rifting is proposed as the mechanism for basin initiation, the evidence uncovered in this research points to crustal buckling of continental crust as the correct mechanism. Well subsidence histories indicate folding or flexure of the continental crust caused by contraction of the lithosphere appears to be responsible for Eocene-Miocene basin subsidence. The research evidence suggests the basin developed in four stages identified in the structure and stratigraphy captured in the geohistory profiles. The first stage of East Java Basin development, crustal buckling originated with Middle Eocene with sediments deposited in geographic lows on folded continental crust. Stage two, the flexural deepening phase started in the Late Oligocene with gradual subsidence until the Lower Miocene. The third phase, foreland

  15. The Development of a Customization Framework for the WRF Model over the Lake Victoria Basin, Eastern Africa on Seasonal Timescales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Argent


    Full Text Available Lake Victoria, Africa, supports millions of people. To produce reliable climate projections, it is desirable to successfully model the rainfall over the lake accurately. An initial step is taken here with customization of the Weather, Research, and Forecast (WRF model. Of particular interest is an asymmetrical rainfall pattern across the lake basin, due to a diurnal land-lake breeze. The main aim is to present a customization framework for use over the lake. This framework is developed by conducting several series of model runs to investigate aspects of the customization. The runs are analyzed using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission rainfall data and Climatic Research Unit temperature data. The study shows that the choice of parameters and lake surface temperature initialization can significantly alter the results. Also, the optimal physics combinations for the climatology may not necessarily be suitable for all circumstances, such as extreme years. The study concludes that WRF is unable to reproduce the pattern across the lake. The temperature of the lake is too cold and this prevents the diurnal land-lake breeze reversal. Overall, this study highlights the importance of customizing a model to the region of research and presents a framework through which this may be achieved.

  16. Bulinus globosus (Planorbidae; Gastropoda) populations in the Lake Victoria basin and coastal Kenya show extreme nuclear genetic differentiation. (United States)

    Nyakaana, Silvester; Stothard, J Russell; Nalugwa, Allen; Webster, Bonnie L; Lange, Charles N; Jørgensen, Aslak; Rollinson, David; Kristensen, Thomas K


    Bulinus globosus, a key intermediate host for Schistosoma haematobium that causes urinary schistosomiasis, is a hermaphroditic freshwater Planorbid snail species that inhabits patchy and transient water bodies prone to large seasonal variations in water availability. Although capable of self-fertilizing, this species has been reported to be preferentially out crossing. In this study, we characterized the population genetic structure of 19 B. globosus populations sampled across the Lake Victoria basin and coastal Kenya using four polymorphic microsatellite loci. Population genetic structure was characterized and quantified using FST statistics and Bayesian clustering algorithms. The four loci used in this study contained sufficient statistical power to detect low levels of population genetic differentiation and were highly polymorphic with the number of alleles per locus across populations ranging from 16 to 22. Average observed and expected heterozygosities across loci in each population ranged from 0.13 to 0.69 and from 0.39 to 0.79, respectively. Twenty-five of the seventy-six possible population-locus comparisons significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium proportions after Bonferroni corrections, mostly due to the deficiency of heterozygotes. Significant genetic differentiation was observed between populations and Bayesian inferences identified 15 genetic clusters. The excess homozygosity, significant inbreeding and population genetic differentiation observed in B. globosus populations are likely to be due to the habitat patchiness, mating system and the proneness to cyclic extinction and recolonization in transient habitats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Schistosomes of small mammals from the Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya: new species, familiar species, and implications for schistosomiasis control. (United States)

    Hanelt, B; Mwangi, I N; Kinuthia, J M; Maina, G M; Agola, L E; Mutuku, M W; Steinauer, M L; Agwanda, B R; Kigo, L; Mungai, B N; Loker, E S; Mkoji, G M


    Recent schistosomiasis control efforts in sub-Saharan Africa have focused nearly exclusively on treatment of humans with praziquantel. However, the extent to which wild mammals act as reservoirs for Schistosoma mansoni and therefore as sources of renewed transmission following control efforts is poorly understood. With the objective to study the role of small mammals as reservoir hosts, 480 animals belonging to 9 rodent and 1 insectivore species were examined for infection with schistosomes in Kisumu, in the Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya. Animals were collected from 2 sites: near the lakeshore and from Nyabera Marsh draining into the lake. A total of 6.0% of the animals captured, including 5 murid rodent species and 1 species of shrew (Crocidura olivieri) were infected with schistosomes. Four schistosome species were recovered and identified using cox1 DNA barcoding: S. mansoni, S. bovis, S. rodhaini and S. kisumuensis, the latter of which was recently described from Nyabera Marsh. Schistosoma mansoni and S. rodhaini were found infecting the same host individual (Lophuromys flavopunctatus), suggesting that this host species could be responsible for the production of hybrid schistosomes found in the area. Although the prevalence of S. mansoni infection in these reservoir populations was low (1.5%), given their potentially vast population size, their impact on transmission needs further study. Reservoir hosts could perpetuate snail infections and favour renewed transmission to humans once control programmes have ceased.

  18. Uncertainties in Flow-Duration-Frequency Relationships of High and Low Flow Extremes in Lake Victoria Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Onyutha


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on uncertainty analysis to aid decision making in applications of statistically modeled flow-duration-frequency (FDF relationships of both daily high and low flows. The analysis is based on 24 selected catchments in the Lake Victoria basin in Eastern Africa. The FDF relationships were derived for aggregation levels in the range 1–90 days for high flows and 1–365 days for low flows. The validity of the projected FDF quantiles for high return periods T was checked using growth factor curves. Monte Carlo simulations were used to construct confidence intervals CI on both the estimated Ts for given flows and the estimated FDF quantiles for given T. The average bias of the modeled T of high and low flows are for all catchments and Ts up to 25 years lower than 8%. Despite this relatively small average bias in the modeled T, the limits of the CI on the modeled 25-year flows go up to more than 100% for high flows and more than 150% for low flows. The assessed FDF relationships and accompanied uncertainties are useful for various types of risk based water engineering and water management applications related to floods and droughts.

  19. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series II Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.


    This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor, pit and canister sludge. Mixed and unmixed and fractionated KE canister sludge were tested, along with floor and pit sludges from areas in the KE Basin not previously sampled. The first report in this series focused on gas generation from KE floor and canister sludge collected using a consolidated sampling technique. The third report will present results of gas generation testing of irradiated uranium fuel fragments with and without sludge addition. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge.

  20. The rise and fall of water hyacinth in Lake Victoria and the Kagera River basin, 1989-2001 (United States)

    Albright, Thomas P.; Moorhouse, T.G.; McNabb, T.J.


    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) is an invasive aquatic macrophyte associated with major negative economic and ecological impacts to the Lake Victoria region since the plant's establishment in Uganda in the 1980s. Reliable estimates of water hyacinth distribution and extent are required to gauge the severity of the problem through time, relate water hyacinth abundance to environmental factors, identify areas requiring management action, and assess the efficacy of management actions. To provide such estimates and demonstrate the utility of remote sensing for this application, we processed and analyzed remotely sensed imagery to determine the distribution and extent of water hyacinth. Maps were produced and coverage was quantified using a hybrid unsupervised image classification approach with manual editing for each of the riparian countries of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, as well as for numerous gulfs and bays. A similar procedure was carried out for selected lakes in the Rwanda-Tanzania borderlands lakes region in the Kagera River basin. Results confirm the severity of the water hyacinth infestation, especially in the northern parts of the lake. A maximum lake-wide extent of at least 17,374 ha was attained in 1998. Following this, a combination of factors, including conditions associated with the 1997 to 1998 El Nin??o and biocontrol with water hyacinth weevils, appear to have contributed to a major decline in water hyacinth in the most affected parts of the lake. Some lakes in the Kagera basin, such as Lake Mihindi, Rwanda, were severely infested in the late 1990s, but the level of infestation in most of these decreased markedly by the early 2000s.

  1. Assessment of Wetland Hydrological Dynamics in a Modified Catchment Basin: Case of Lake Buninjon, Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Yihdego, Yohannes; Webb, John A


      The common method to estimate lake levels is the water balance equation, where water input and output result in lake storage and water level changes. However, all water balance components cannot always be quickly assessed, such as due to significant modification of the catchment area. A method that assesses general changes in lake level can be a useful tool in examining why lakes have different lake level variation patterns. Assessment of wetlands using the dynamics of the historical hydrological and hydrogeological data set can provide important insights into variations in wetland levels in different parts of the world. A case study from a saline landscape, Lake Buninjon, Australia, is presented. The aim of the present study was to determine how climate, river regime, and lake hydrological properties independently influence lake water levels and salinity, leaving the discrepancy, for the effect of the non-climatic/catchment modification in the past and the model shows that surface inflow is most sensitive variable. The method, together with the analysis and interpretation, might be of interest to wider community to assess its response to natural/anthropogenic stress and decision choices for its ecological, social, scientific value, and mitigation measures to safe guard the wetland biodiversity in a catchment basin.

  2. Evolution of the east rim of the Hellas basin, Mars (United States)

    Crown, David A.; Price, Katherine H.; Greeley, Ronald


    The Hellas basin is a dominant feature in the ancient, southern cratered highlands of Mars. The east rim of Hellas is a complex geologic region affected by volcanism, tectonism, and channeling. A detailed study of the area between 27.5-42.4 degrees S and 260-275 degrees W was initiated to analyze the processes forming surface materials and to decipher the evolution of this geologically important highland area. Major units include Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae in the north and Hesperian and Amazonian channeled plains and outflow channels in the south. A brief discussion of the findings is presented.

  3. Seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies in the Enderby Basin, East Antarctic

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Ramprasad, T.; Desa, M.

    - netic anomalies along the few available regional pro¢les of di¡erent azimuths in the Bay of Ben- gal. The lack of a good data set in the Enderby Basin, o¡ East Antarctica, further prevented re- solving the opening time of the northeastern In- dian Ocean.... Consequently, there was no consen- sus on the precise timing of the separation of India from Antarctica. Two di¡erent opinions have prevailed. Curray et al. [22] and other work- ers [25,26] suggested a separation time around chron M0 time, though the presence...

  4. Cryogenic brines as diagenetic fluids: Reconstructing the diagenetic history of the Victoria Land Basin using clumped isotopes (United States)

    Staudigel, Philip T.; Murray, Sean; Dunham, Daniel P.; Frank, Tracy D.; Fielding, Christopher R.; Swart, Peter K.


    The isotopic analyses (δ13C, δ18O, and Δ47) of carbonate phases recovered from a core in McMurdo Sound by ANtarctic geologic DRILLing (ANDRILL-2A) indicate that the majority of secondary carbonate mineral formation occurred at cooler temperatures than the modern burial temperature, and in the presence of fluids with δ18Owater values ranging between -11 and -6‰ VSMOW. These fluids are interpreted as being derived from a cryogenic brine formed during the freezing of seawater. The Δ47 values were converted to temperature using an in-house calibration presented in this paper. Measurements of the Δ47 values in the cements indicate increasingly warmer crystallization temperatures with depth and, while roughly parallel to the observed geothermal gradient, consistently translate to temperatures that are cooler than the current burial temperature. The difference in temperature suggests that cements formed when they were ∼260 ± 100 m shallower than at the present day. This depth range corresponds to a period of minimal sediment accumulation from 3 to 11 Myr; it is therefore interpreted that the majority of cements formed during this time. This behavior is also predicted by time-integrated modeling of cementation at this site. If this cementation had occurred in the presence of these fluids, then the cryogenic brines have been a longstanding feature in the Victoria Land Basin. Brines such as those found at this site have been described in numerous modern high-latitude settings, and analogous fluids could have played a role in the diagenetic history of other ice-proximal sediments and basins during glacial intervals throughout geologic history. The agreement between the calculated δ18Owater value and the measured values in the pore fluids shows how the Δ47 proxy can be used to identify the origin of negative δ18O values in carbonate rocks and that extremely negative values do not necessarily need to be a result of the influence of meteoric fluids or reaction at

  5. Causes of Late Pleistocene water level change in Lake Victoria, Equatorial East Africa, derived from clumped isotopes of land snails and fresh water mollusks. (Invited) (United States)

    Zaarur, S.; Affek, H. P.; Tryon, C.; Peppe, D. J.; Faith, J.


    mean annual precipitation that is significantly greater than modern. However, this is inconsistent with regional climate reconstructions. This suggests that either lake level was controlled by non-climatic factors, or that local climate in the Lake Victoria basin was different than regional patterns of climate across eastern Africa. We use oxygen and clumped isotopes of modern and fossil shells (Corbicula sp., Melanoides sp. and Bellamya unicolor) from this 18 m beach outcrop on Mfangano Island to (1) compare with modern lake water δ18O values and (2) calculate paleo-water compositions. We combine these results with calculated snail body water δ18O composition (using oxygen and clumped isotopes) of land snails (Limicoloria cf. martensiana) from Rusinga and Mfangano Islands, to study hydrological changes of Lake Victoria. We use these data to evaluate the relative importance of climate change and tectonics as mechanisms for the Late Pleistocene expansion of Lake Victoria.

  6. Schistosoma kisumuensis n. sp. (Digenea: Schistosomatidae) from murid rodents in the Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya and its phylogenetic position within the S. haematobium species group. (United States)

    Hanelt, B; Brant, S V; Steinauer, M L; Maina, G M; Kinuthia, J M; Agola, L E; Mwangi, I N; Mungai, B N; Mutuku, M W; Mkoji, G M; Loker, E S


    Schistosoma kisumuensis n. sp. is described based on 6 adult males and 2 adult females collected from the circulatory system of 3 murid rodent species, Pelomys isseli, Mastomys natalensis, and Dasymys incomtus. Specimens were collected from a single location, Nyabera Swamp, in Kisumu, Kenya in the Lake Victoria Basin. This new species is morphologically similar to members of the S. haematobium group, currently represented by 8 species parasitizing artiodactyls and primates, including humans. Schistosoma kisumuensis differs from these species by producing relatively small Schistosoma intercalatum-like eggs (135.2 x 52.9 microm) with a relatively small length to width ratio (2.55). Comparison of approximately 3000-base-pair sequences of nuclear rDNA (partial 28S) and mtDNA (partial cox1, nad6, 12S) strongly supports the status of S. kisumuensis as a new species and as a sister species of S. intercalatum. The cox1 genetic distance between these two species (6.3%) is comparable to other pairwise comparisons within the S. haematobium group. Separation of the Congo River and Lake Victoria drainage basins is discussed as a possible factor favoring the origin of this species.

  7. SUGAR CANE GROWING AND CATTLE GRAZING AS DRIVERS TO WETLAND DEGRADATION IN UGANDA: A case of upper river Ruizi and Iguluibi catchments Lake Victoria basin (United States)

    Nakiyemba Were, Alice; Isabirye, Moses; Mathijs, Erik; Deckers, Jozef; Poesen, Jean


    Introduction: This study was conducted with in the framework of the VLIR-OI project with the aim of making contributions to the Diagnosis and Remediation of Land Degradation Processes in the Riparian Zone of Lake Victoria Uganda in view of reducing sediment pollution of the Lake Waters with a special focus on the upper river Ruiz and Iguluibi catchments. The study seeks to investigate Sugarcane growing and cattle grazing as drivers to wetland degradation in light of the current farming systems and practices and their contributions to land degradation and pollution of the Lake Victoria waters. Vegetation especially wetlands improves the resistance to erosion. The removal of riparian vegetation tends to accelerate surface erosion as a result of human activities. Increased erosion with in the catchments due to clearing of wetlands for sugarcane growing and cattle grazing has caused adverse increased sedimentation, degraded the water quality, and reduced the water productivity of the Lake Victoria Basin. Methods: We conducted a qualitative and quantitative study to investigate Sugarcane growing and cattle grazing as drivers to wetland degradation in Uganda in light of the current farming systems and practices and their socio-economic contributions to wetland degradation and pollution of the Lake Victoria waters. Focus group discussions, key informant interviews, semi structured interviews and observations were undertaken with the relevant stakeholders in the community. Results: Findings reveal that in Iguluibi catchment, sugarcane growing is now a major activity indicating land use change since the 1990s. Community members said when planting sugarcane all vegetations including all trees are cut leaving the land bare to allow the tractor to clear the land for cultivation. This has left the land bare without any natural vegetation with increased erosion hence eventually loss of soil fertility and increased sediment pollution to the Lake Victoria waters. As a result of

  8. Lake Victoria basin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    measured using a portable echo sounder prior to collecting samples. The net was lowered close to the bottom and then slowly hauled to allow the water to be ... counting chamber and examined under the microscope at x 40 magnification. Taxonomic identification was done using. identification keys as adopted by Ruttner-.

  9. Analysis of sludge from Hanford K East Basin canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makenas, B.J. [ed.] [comp.] [DE and S Hanford, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Welsh, T.L. [B and W Protec, Inc. (United States); Baker, R.B. [DE and S Hanford, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Hoppe, E.W.; Schmidt, A.J.; Abrefah, J.; Tingey, J.M.; Bredt, P.R.; Golcar, G.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    Sludge samples from the canisters in the Hanford K East Basin fuel storage pool have been retrieved and analyzed. Both chemical and physical properties have been determined. The results are to be used to determine the disposition of the bulk of the sludge and to assess the impact of residual sludge on dry storage of the associated intact metallic uranium fuel elements. This report is a summary and review of the data provided by various laboratories. Although raw chemistry data were originally reported on various bases (compositions for as-settled, centrifuged, or dry sludge) this report places all of the data on a common comparable basis. Data were evaluated for internal consistency and consistency with respect to the governing sample analysis plan. Conclusions applicable to sludge disposition and spent fuel storage are drawn where possible.

  10. Shelf-Basin interaction along the East Siberian Sea (United States)

    Anderson, Leif G.; Björk, Göran; Holby, Ola; Jutterström, Sara; Magnus Mörth, Carl; O'Regan, Matt; Pearce, Christof; Semiletov, Igor; Stranne, Christian; Stöven, Tim; Tanhua, Toste; Ulfsbo, Adam; Jakobsson, Martin


    Extensive biogeochemical transformation of organic matter takes place in the shallow continental shelf seas of Siberia. This, in combination with brine production from sea-ice formation, results in cold bottom waters with relatively high salinity and nutrient concentrations, as well as low oxygen and pH levels. Data from the SWERUS-C3 expedition with icebreaker Oden, from July to September 2014, show the distribution of such nutrient-rich, cold bottom waters along the continental margin from about 140 to 180° E. The water with maximum nutrient concentration, classically named the upper halocline, is absent over the Lomonosov Ridge at 140° E, while it appears in the Makarov Basin at 150° E and intensifies further eastwards. At the intercept between the Mendeleev Ridge and the East Siberian continental shelf slope, the nutrient maximum is still intense, but distributed across a larger depth interval. The nutrient-rich water is found here at salinities of up to ˜ 34.5, i.e. in the water classically named lower halocline. East of 170° E transient tracers show significantly less ventilated waters below about 150 m water depth. This likely results from a local isolation of waters over the Chukchi Abyssal Plain as the boundary current from the west is steered away from this area by the bathymetry of the Mendeleev Ridge. The water with salinities of ˜ 34.5 has high nutrients and low oxygen concentrations as well as low pH, typically indicating decay of organic matter. A deficit in nitrate relative to phosphate suggests that this process partly occurs under hypoxia. We conclude that the high nutrient water with salinity ˜ 34.5 are formed on the shelf slope in the Mendeleev Ridge region from interior basin water that is trapped for enough time to attain its signature through interaction with the sediment.

  11. Petroleum system of the Shelf Rift Basin, East China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, A.C.; Armentrout, J.M.; Prebish, M. [Mobil Oil Corp., Dallas, TX (United States)] [and others


    The Tertiary section of the Oujioang and Quiontang Depressions of the East China Sea Basin consists of at least eight rift-related depositional sequences identified seismically by regionally significant onlap and truncation surfaces. These sequences are calibrated by several wells including the Wenzhou 6-1-1 permitting extrapolation of petroleum system elements using seismic facies analysis. Gas and condensate correlated to non-marine source rocks and reservoired in sandstone at the Pinghu field to the north of the study area provides an known petroleum system analogue. In the Shelf Rift Basin, synrift high-amplitude parallel reflections within the graben axes correlate with coaly siltstone strata and are interpreted as coastal plain and possibly lacustrine facies with source rock potential. Synrift clinoform seismic facies prograding from the northwest footwall correlate with non-marine to marginal marine conglomerate, sandstone and siltstone, and are interpreted as possible delta or fan-delta facies with reservoir potential although porosity and permeability is low within the Wenzhou 6-1-1 well. Post-rift thermal sag sequences are characterized by parallel and relatively continuous seismic reflections and locally developed clinoform packages. These facies correlate with porous and permeable marine sandstone and siltstone. Shales of potential sealing capacity occur within marine flooding intervals of both the synrift and post-rift sequences. Traps consist of differentially rotated synrift fill, and post-rift inversion anticlines. Major exploration risk factors include migration from the synrift coaly source rocks to the post-rift porous and permeable sandstones, and seismic imaging and drilling problems associated with extensive Tertiary igneous intrusions.

  12. Petroleum system of the Shelf Rift Basin, East China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, A.C.; Armentrout, J.M.; Prebish, M. (Mobil Oil Corp., Dallas, TX (United States)) (and others)


    The Tertiary section of the Oujioang and Quiontang Depressions of the East China Sea Basin consists of at least eight rift-related depositional sequences identified seismically by regionally significant onlap and truncation surfaces. These sequences are calibrated by several wells including the Wenzhou 6-1-1 permitting extrapolation of petroleum system elements using seismic facies analysis. Gas and condensate correlated to non-marine source rocks and reservoired in sandstone at the Pinghu field to the north of the study area provides an known petroleum system analogue. In the Shelf Rift Basin, synrift high-amplitude parallel reflections within the graben axes correlate with coaly siltstone strata and are interpreted as coastal plain and possibly lacustrine facies with source rock potential. Synrift clinoform seismic facies prograding from the northwest footwall correlate with non-marine to marginal marine conglomerate, sandstone and siltstone, and are interpreted as possible delta or fan-delta facies with reservoir potential although porosity and permeability is low within the Wenzhou 6-1-1 well. Post-rift thermal sag sequences are characterized by parallel and relatively continuous seismic reflections and locally developed clinoform packages. These facies correlate with porous and permeable marine sandstone and siltstone. Shales of potential sealing capacity occur within marine flooding intervals of both the synrift and post-rift sequences. Traps consist of differentially rotated synrift fill, and post-rift inversion anticlines. Major exploration risk factors include migration from the synrift coaly source rocks to the post-rift porous and permeable sandstones, and seismic imaging and drilling problems associated with extensive Tertiary igneous intrusions.

  13. The Lake Albert Rift (uganda, East African Rift System): Deformation, Basin and Relief Evolution Since 17 Ma (United States)

    Brendan, Simon; François, Guillocheau; Cécile, Robin; Olivier, Dauteuil; Thierry, Nalpas; Martin, Pickford; Brigitte, Senut; Philippe, Lays; Philippe, Bourges; Martine, Bez


    .5 Ma: Rift stage 1 (subsidence rate: > 500m/Ma up to 600-800 m/Ma; sedimentation rate: 2.4 km3/Ma) - Rifting climax; - 2.5-0.4 Ma: uplift of the Ruwenzori Mountains and shifting from an alluvial system to a network of bedrock river incision - Rift Stage 2 (subsidence rate: 450 to 250 m/Ma; sedimentation rate: 1.5 km3/Ma); - 0.4-0 Ma: long wavelength downwarping of the Tanzanian Craton, initiation of the Lake Victoria trough, drainage network inversion and uplift of the present-day Ugandan escarpment (normal faulting motion of the border faults) with formation of perched valleys associated to the Lower Pleistocene (2.5-0.4 Ma) rivers network. At larger scale, comparison of the Lake Albert Rift evolution with the data available in the basins of both eastern and western branches of the East African Rift System shows that most of the sedimentary basins experienced the same geometrical evolution from large basins with limited fault controls during Late Miocene to narrow true rift in Late Pleistocene (e.g. Northern and Central Kenyan Basins), in agreement with the volcanism distribution, large (width >100 km) during the Miocene times, narrower (width x10 km) from Late Pliocene to Pleistocene times and today limited to narrow rifts.

  14. Chromium Distribution and Spatial Variations in the Finer Sediment Grain Size Fraction and Unfractioned Surficial Sediments on Nyanza Gulf, of Lake Victoria (East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job Mwamburi


    Full Text Available Surficial sediments collected from the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (East Africa were used to determine spatial concentrations of Cr and determine differences in contents of the unfractioned (whole sediment and the finer grain size sediments, establishing any changes in Cr enrichment and potential ecological risks using sediment quality guidelines. A single pollution index was also used to evaluate level of Cr contamination. The spatial mean Cr contents in the <63 µm (silt-clay fraction were found to be significantly lower than those in the unfractioned sediments, but with a strong linear positive correlation. The study results show decreasing spatial amounts of Cr in surficial sediments of the Nyanza Gulf, when compared to a study done 20 years earlier. However, the 95% confidence limits of the overall mean Cr in unfractioned sediments exceed the threshold effect concentration (TEC, indicating the potential for Cr remobilization from sediments. In general the sediment enrichment is evidence of possible dominance of lithogenous sources of Cr in the surface lake sediments, with potential anthropogenic sources from the drainage system and nearshore urban areas. The sediments are unpolluted with respect to geoaccumulation index, and sediment enrichment factors suggest a minor to moderate enrichment of Cr in surficial sediments of three sites around the Nyanza Gulf zones and around the river mouth in the main lake.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The objective is to provide water clarity to the K East Basin via filtration processes. Several activities are planned that will challenge not only the capacity of the existing ion exchange modules to perform as needed but also the current filtration system to maintain water clarity. Among the planned activities are containerization of sludge, removal of debris, and hydrolasing the basin walls to remove contamination.

  16. Wetland vegetation and nutrient retention in Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda (United States)

    Mugisha, P.; Kansiime, F.; Mucunguzi, P.; Kateyo, E.

    Wetlands form an important part of the catchment area of the African Great Lakes and protect water resources therein. One of the most important functions is the retention of nutrients from the inflowing water from the catchment, by wetland plants which store them in their phytomass. An assessment of the capacity in storing nutrients by dominant plants ( Cyeprus papyrus, Miscanthus violaceus, Phragmites mauritianus and Colocasia C. esculenta), of Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands at the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda, was studied through the determination of phytomass production and nutrient concentration in the plant parts at different stages of growth. The above ground phytomass production increased rapidly during the exponential growth for C. papyrus and P. mauritianus. In all the dominant plants, nitrogen concentration was highest in juvenile plants and decreased with increasing age. The most pronounced nitrogen level occurred in the young umbels of C. papyrus during the first month of growth with total nitrogen content of 1.95% DW which dropped to 0.62% DW after the fifth month in Nakivubo wetland. Corms (tubers) of yams had the highest nitrogen content in Kirinya and Nakivubo wetlands exhibiting respective values of 4.8% DW and 3.7% DW. There is a close relationship between nutrient content and increase in phytomass. In Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands, the rapid increase in phytomass during the third and fourth month corresponded with high nutrient levels. Since plants store significant amounts of nitrogen during their growth, periodic harvesting of above ground plant parts can remove significant amounts of nutrients (during the first five months of growth) from the wastewater flowing into the two wetlands. Wetland plant species with high phytomass productivity and well developed root systems and ability to withstand flooding are the best in nutrient removal.

  17. Estimation of design floods in ungauged catchments using a regional index flood method. A case study of Lake Victoria Basin in Kenya (United States)

    Nobert, Joel; Mugo, Margaret; Gadain, Hussein

    Reliable estimation of flood magnitudes corresponding to required return periods, vital for structural design purposes, is impacted by lack of hydrological data in the study area of Lake Victoria Basin in Kenya. Use of regional information, derived from data at gauged sites and regionalized for use at any location within a homogenous region, would improve the reliability of the design flood estimation. Therefore, the regional index flood method has been applied. Based on data from 14 gauged sites, a delineation of the basin into two homogenous regions was achieved using elevation variation (90-m DEM), spatial annual rainfall pattern and Principal Component Analysis of seasonal rainfall patterns (from 94 rainfall stations). At site annual maximum series were modelled using the Log normal (LN) (3P), Log Logistic Distribution (LLG), Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) and Log Pearson Type 3 (LP3) distributions. The parameters of the distributions were estimated using the method of probability weighted moments. Goodness of fit tests were applied and the GEV was identified as the most appropriate model for each site. Based on the GEV model, flood quantiles were estimated and regional frequency curves derived from the averaged at site growth curves. Using the least squares regression method, relationships were developed between the index flood, which is defined as the Mean Annual Flood (MAF) and catchment characteristics. The relationships indicated area, mean annual rainfall and altitude were the three significant variables that greatly influence the index flood. Thereafter, estimates of flood magnitudes in ungauged catchments within a homogenous region were estimated from the derived equations for index flood and quantiles from the regional curves. These estimates will improve flood risk estimation and to support water management and engineering decisions and actions.

  18. China's first intermediate resolution multi-channel seismic survey in the northern Victoria Land Basin and Terror Rift, Ross Sea, Antarctica (United States)

    Shen, Zhongyan; Gao, Jinyao; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Wei; Ding, Weifeng; Zhang, Sheng


    The West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) represents one of the largest active continental rift systems on Earth and is less well known than other rift systems because it is largely covered by thick ice. The Terror Rift (TR), superimposing on the Victoria Land Basin (VLB) in the western Ross Sea, is identified as the most recent deformational zone of the WARS, thus will provide knowledge of the active deformation process of the WARS. The structure and kinematics of the TR is under debate. Originally, the TR was thought to consist of two parts: the Discovery Graben and the magmatically-intruded Lee Arch. New denser seismic grid in the middle and southern segments of the TR revealed a different structure of the Lee Arch while the northern segment of the TR is not well studied. The glacial history of the VLB/TR region is another attractive issue to the geologists since this area records the behavior information of EAIS and WAIS. In the southern part of the VLB, especially in the McMurdo Sound, the framework of the glacial history is well established after several deep cores which recovery the whole stratigraphic sequences since the onset of the glaciation. However, the glacial history of the northern part of the VLB/TR is less well studied and here we emphasize its importance because the northern part of the VLB/TR is a link between the well-studied southern VLB and the sediment-well-preserved Northern Basin. During the 32nd Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition, on the board of the RV XueLong, we collected intermediate resolution multi-channel seismic reflection data in the northern VLB/TR. These data will establish new constraints on the timing of deformation, structure and kinematics of the TR, and the history of the EAIS and WAIS.

  19. Projecting the future levels of Lake Victoria (United States)

    Vanderkelen, Inne; van Lipzig, Nicole; Thiery, Wim


    Lake Victoria directly sustains 30 million people living in its basin and 200 000 fishermen operating from its shores. As the one of the two sources of the Nile River, it also supports natural resources that impact the livelihood of over 300 million people living in the Nile basin. The outlet to the Nile is controlled by two hydropower dams. The water balance of Lake Victoria is controlled both by climatic conditions (precipitation and evaporation) and human management (dam outflow). Future climate simulations with a high resolution coupled lake-land-atmosphere model project decreasing mean precipitation and increasing evaporation over Lake Victoria. As these two are important factors in the water balance of Lake Victoria, these projected changes may induce a drop in future levels of Lake Victoria. Moreover, as Lake Victoria is also a relatively shallow lake, lake surface area may decrease as well. Here we present a water balance model for Lake Victoria that provides lake level and extent as output. We first force our model with observational input (new satellite products providing high quality precipitation and evaporation data) and evaluate it using measured lake levels. The skill of the model is subsequently assessed by forcing it with present-day regional climate simulations (CORDEX evaluation simulations). In a third step the future lake levels and surface area changes of Lake Victoria are simulated by forcing the model with CORDEX projections under RCP4.5 and 8.5. Finally, the role of human decisions regarding future dam outflow are investigated.

  20. Geometry and kinematics of the Triassic rift basin in Jameson Land (East Greenland) (United States)

    Guarnieri, Pierpaolo; Brethes, Anaïs.; Rasmussen, Thorkild M.


    The Triassic rift basin along the east Greenland margin described in this paper is represented by NE-SW trending basins and highs segmented by NW-SE trending transfer zones. Coarse-grained sediments along the eastern side of Jameson Land are shown to be hosted in half-graben structures belonging to the Carlsberg Fjord Basin that is bounded by NW dipping normal faults mapped and described after fieldwork in the Klitdal area in Liverpool Land. New aeromagnetic and electromagnetic data together with new drill cores allow the reinterpretation of available seismic lines showing the continuation of the Triassic rift basin toward the SW where it is buried under the Upper Triassic postrift sediments and the Jurassic successions of the Jameson Land Basin. The N-S trending Liverpool Land, interpreted as the boundary block of the Triassic basin, is shown to represent a structural high inherited from the Late Carboniferous tectonics and faulted during the Triassic rifting. The Carlsberg Fjord Basin and the Klitdal Fault System described in this paper should be seen as analogues to the Helgeland Basin in the Norwegian offshore that is bounded by the Ylvingen Fault Zone and to the Papa and West of Shetlands Basins that are bounded by the Spine Fault. The Triassic rift zone and transfer faults on both conjugate margins show a straightforward correlation with the trends of the initial spreading line and fracture zones of the northeast Atlantic indicating a possible inheritance of the Triassic rifting.

  1. Packaging design criteria for the K east basin sludge transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaszewski, T.A., Westinghouse Hanford


    This packaging design criteria (PDC) establishes the onsite transportation safety criteria for a reusable packaging and transport system to transport K East Basin sludge and water.This PDC provides the basis for the development of a safety analysis report for packaging; establishes the packaging contents and safety class of the package; and provides design criteria for the package, packaging, and transport systems.

  2. Analysis of sludge from K East basin floor and weasel pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makenas, B.J., Westinghouse Hanford


    Sludge samples from the floor of the Hanford K East Basin fuel storage pool have been retrieved and analyzed. Both chemical and physical properties have been determined. The results are to be used to determine the disposition of the bulk of the sludge and possibly assess the impact of residual sludge on dry storage of the associated intact metallic uranium fuel elements.

  3. interpretation of reflection seismic data from the usangu basin, east

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Reflection seismic data collected by AMOCO Tanzania Oil. Company in the 80s, are herein used to correlate the main Usangu. Basin parameters to those estimated from outcrop, gravity and aerornagnetic data. The seismic data are further used to constrain the geometry of crustal extension in this south-western ...

  4. Organic Geochemistry and Rock-Eval Pyrolysis of Eocene fine Sediments, East Ketungau Basin, West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Hermiyanto Zajuli


    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i2.119Indonesia contains many Paleogene and Neogene basins which some of them have been proven to be a very prolific producer of oil and gas. A study on the result of Rock-Eval pyrolysis and biomarker undertaken on the Eocene Mandai Group was able to assess hydrocarbon potential of the Paleogene fine sediments in the frontier basin, especially West Kalimantan area. East Ketungau Basin is located in the western Kalimantan, bounded with Melawi Basin by the Semitau High in the south and West Ketungau Basin in the west. The Mandai Group was deposited in the East Ketungau Basin during Eocene, consisting of sandstone and mudstone facies. Mudstone facies comprises shale, claystone, and coal. Seven samples of Eocene fine sediments collected from East Ketungau Basin were analyzed by Rock-Eval pyrolisis and three samples for biomarker to evaluate their hydrocarbon potential. The Rock-Eval pyrolisis result of Mandai Group shows that TOC value of this facies ranges from 0.34 % to 5.16 %, Potential Yield (PY between 0.06 and 4.78 mg HC/g rock, and Hydrogen Index (HI from 12 to 89. Based on that result, the fine sediments of Mandai Group are included into a gas prone source rock potential with poor to fair categories. Moreover Tmax values vary from 426o C to 451o C. The Eocene fine sediments of Mandai Group fall under kerogen type III. Based on Tmax and biomarker analyses, the maturity of the sediments is situated within immature to mature level. The fine sediments of Mandai Group were deposited in a terrestrial to marine environment under anoxic to sub-oxic condition.

  5. Petroleum systems in rift basins – a collective approach in South-east Asian basins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doust, H.; Sumner, D.


    This paper synthesizes some of the main conclusions reached in a recent regional review of the Tertiary basins of Southeast Asia, carried out by Shell. Four distinctive types of petroleum systems, correlating with the four main stages of basin evolution (early to late syn-rift and early to late

  6. Structural imaging of the East Beni Sueif Basin, north eastern Desert, Egypt (United States)

    Salem, E.; Sehim, A.


    The East Beni Sueif Basin is the only tested hydrocarbon-bearing basin on the eastern side of the Nile in Egypt. The basin is located around 150 km to the south of Cairo. This work introduces the first attempt of seismic interpretation and structural patterns of this basin, for which subsurface published works are lacking. Structural imaging of the area is achieved through interpretation of pre-stack time migration (PSTM) seismic cube and data sets of seven wells. The penetrated sedimentary section is represented by Albian-Middle Eocene sediments. The East Beni Sueif Basin is a type of the whole graben-system and is bounded by two NW-SE bounding faults. These faults had continued activity in an extensional regime associated with fault-propagating folds. The basin is traversed by a N75°E-trending fault system at basement level. This fault system separates the basin into two structural provinces. The Northwestern Province is deeper and shows more subsidence with a predominance of NW-trending longitudinal faults and N60·W oblique faults to the basin trend. The Southeastern Province is shallow and crossed by N14·W-trending faults which are slightly oblique to the basin axis. Albian time had witnessed the main extensional tectonic phase and resulted in major subsidence along basin-bounding faults associated with growth thickening of basal deposits. During Senonian time, the basin experienced a mild phase of transtensional tectonics, which formed negative-flower structures entrapping different folds along the N75°E and N60·W faults. The timing and style of these structures are similar to the Syrian-Arc structures in several Western Desert oil fields. The basin emerged during the Paleocene with scoured and eroded top Cretaceous sediments. Subsidence was resumed during the Early Eocene and resulted in 1500 m-thick carbonate sediments. Lastly, a mild extensional activity possibly occurred during the Oligocene-Miocene time. Despite the possible restricted potentiality

  7. Nature and evolution of the Ionian basin: integration into the East Mediterranean Realm (United States)

    Tugend, Julie; Arsenikos, Stavros; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Mohn, Geoffroy; Blanpied, Christian


    The East Mediterranean preserves a complex spatial and temporal succession of rift events from the Late Palaeozoic to Mesozoic times, eventually leading to extreme lithosphere thinning during the Triassic to Middle Jurassic and potentially associated with oceanic crust formation. The onset of convergence between Africa and Europe by the Late Cretaceous is accommodated by discontinuous reactivation and inversion episodes. In this tectonic context, many fundamental questions remain, related to (1) the nature (oceanic or not) of the East Mediterranean basement (including the Levant, Herodotus and Ionian basins) and (2) the age of formation of these deep basins. In this contribution, we focus on the Ionian basin that is remarkably well-preserved, considering that it is delimited to the north and north-west by the Hellenic and Calabrian subduction complexes. To the south, it is separated from the Sirt basin by a relative topographic high, the Cyrenaica ridge. However, the relation between these two basins remains poorly constrained. We use a set of academic seismic reflection data (mainly the IMERSE and ARCHIMEDE surveys) combined with the existing Expending Spread Profiles (from the PASIPHAE cruse) to propose a homogeneous seismic stratigraphy across the Ionian basin and characterize its velocity structure. The mapping of sedimentary sequences across the basin further confirmed the major role of NE-SW oriented structures that have been interpreted to be Late Miocene as they are almost directly sealed by Messinian evaporites. These NE-SW inverted structures control the deposition of Messinian evaporites, which, in turn, control the morphology of the Mediterranean deformation front. Sedimentary sequences have been identified deeper than previously assumed, confirming the occurrence of an extremely thinned basement (about 5 km thick). Furthermore, the interpretations of reflection seismic sections unravel the occurrence of deeply buried rift basins that are characterized

  8. Seismic refraction investigations on the crustal structure of the western Jameson Land Basin, East Greenland (United States)

    Fechner, Notker; Jokat, Wilfried


    In 1990, a combined land-sea experiment in the Hall Bredning, Scoresby Sund (East Greenland) revealed new information about the crustal structure of the Jameson Land Basin. The sediments and the upper and lower crust have been imaged by a 710-km-long network of seismic refraction lines. Our data indicate that the crust-mantle boundary is at a depth of 24 km close to the western coast of Jameson Land and deepens to 31 km toward the western termination of Hall Bredning. The sediments thin from 8-km thickness in the east to almost 0 km close to Milne Land. Our cross sections indicate that Jameson Land is an asymmetrical, half-graben shaped sedimentary basin with a N-S striking axis.

  9. Geology and geohydrology of the east Texas Basin. Report on the progress of nuclear waste isolation feasibility studies (1979)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreitler, C.W.; Agagu, O.K.; Basciano, J.M.


    The program to investigate the suitability of salt domes in the east Texas Basin for long-term nuclear waste repositories addresses the stability of specific domes for potential repositories and evaluates generically the geologic and hydrogeologic stability of all the domes in the region. Analysis during the second year was highlighted by a historical characterization of East Texas Basin infilling, the development of a model to explain the growth history of the domes, the continued studies of the Quaternary in East Texas, and a better understanding of the near-dome and regional hydrology of the basin. Each advancement represents a part of the larger integrated program addressing the critical problems of geologic and hydrologic stabilities of salt domes in the East Texas Basin.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOCHEN, R.M.


    The 105-K East (KE) Basin Ion Exchange Column (IXC) cells, lead caves, and the surrounding vault are to be removed as necessary components in implementing ''Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consert Order'' (Ecology et al. 2003) milestone M-034-32 (Complete Removal of the K East Basin Structure). The IXCs consist of six units located in the KE Basin, three in operating positions in cells and three stored in a lead cave. Methods to remove the IXCs from the KE Basin were evaluated in KBC-28343, ''Disposal of K East Basin Ion Exchange Column Evaluation''. The method selected for removal was grouting of the six IXCs into a single monolith for disposal at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). Grout will be added to the IXC cells, IXC lead caves containing spent IXCs, and in the spaces between to immobilize the contaminants, provide self-shielding, minimize void space, and provide a structurally stable waste form. The waste to be offered for disposal is the encapsulated monolith defined by the exterior surfaces of the vault and the lower surface of the underlying slab. This document presents a summary of the data quality objective (DQO) process establishing the decisions and data required to support decision-making activities for disposition of the IXC monolith. The DQO process is completed in accordance with the seven-step planning process described in EPA QA/G-4, ''Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process'', which is used to clarify and study objectives; define the appropriate type, quantity, and quality of data; and support defensible decision-making. The DQO process involves the following steps: (1) state the problem; (2) identify the decision; (3) identify the inputs to the decision; (4) define the boundaries of the study; (5) develop a decision rule (DR); (6) specify tolerable limits on decision errors; and (7) optimize the design for obtaining data.

  11. The Victoria Project, Sri Lanka. Hydrological analysis for Victoria Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, B.S. [GU Projects (United Kingdom); Sutcliffe, J.V. [Gibb (Sir Alexander) and Partners (United Kingdom); Parks, Y.P. [Institute of Hydrology (United Kingdom)


    The hydrological analyses described in this paper formed an important part of the studies for the Victoria Project of which the Victoria Dam is the major component. The purpose of the hydrological studies was to provide consistent sets of river flow and climate data at the sites of the major components of the project, and to provide flood estimates for sizing the spillway and river diversion works. This paper outlines the approach used in the overall study, and then concentrates on aspects of specific relevance to the Victoria Dam. The main hydrological characteristics of the upper Mahaweli basin are presented as an introduction to the overall water balance; the humid climate made the appraisal of flow records relatively simple. Time series modelling was used to fill gaps in the observed flow records used for reservoir operation studies. The spillway design flood was based on the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) derived by maximizing a historic storm in which rainfall approaching the PMP covered most of the basin. Construction floods of moderate return period were estimated from a dimensionless analysis of regional flood records. The main lessons to be drawn are that water balance methods are of particular value in these humid monsoon conditions, while the ratio of the PMP to the maximum recorded storm is lower than would be the case in more arid regions. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study was carried out to classify great soil groups in the East Black Sea basin according to international soil classifi cation systems. 13 profi les of 3 great soil groups in this basin have been investigated and classifi ed according to system of FAO/UNESCO (1990, FitzPatrick (1988 and USDA Soil Taxonomy (1998 in this study.

  13. East and central farming and forest region and Atlantic basin diversified farming region: LRRs N and S (United States)

    Brad D. Lee; John M. Kabrick


    The central, unglaciated US east of the Great Plains to the Atlantic coast corresponds to the area covered by LRR N (East and Central Farming and Forest Region) and S (Atlantic Basin Diversified Farming Region). These regions roughly correspond to the Interior Highlands, Interior Plains, Appalachian Highlands, and the Northern Coastal Plains.

  14. New Orleans and Hurricane Katrina. IV: Orleans East Bank (Metro) protected basin (United States)

    Seed, R.B.; Bea, R.G.; Athanasopoulos-Zekkos, A.; Boutwell, G.P.; Bray, J.D.; Cheung, C.; Cobos-Roa, D.; Cohen-Waeber, J.; Collins, B.D.; Harder, L.F.; Kayen, R.E.; Pestana, J.M.; Riemer, M.F.; Rogers, J.D.; Storesund, R.; Vera-Grunauer, X.; Wartman, Joseph


    This paper addresses damage caused by Hurricane Katrina to the main Orleans East Bank protected basin. This basin represented the heart of New Orleans, and contained the main downtown area, the historic French Quarter, the Garden District, and the sprawling Lakefront and Canal Districts. Nearly half of the loss of life during this hurricane, and a similar fraction of the overall damages, occurred in this heavily populated basin. There are a number of important geotechnical lessons, as well as geo-forensic lessons, associated with the flooding of this basin. These include the difficulties associated with the creation and operation of regional-scale flood protection systems requiring federal and local cooperation and funding over prolonged periods of time. There are also a number of engineering and policy lessons regarding (1) the accuracy and reliability of current analytical methods; (2) the shortcomings and potential dangers involved in decisions that reduced short-term capital outlays in exchange for increased risk of potential system failures; (3) the difficulties associated with integrating local issues with a flood risk reduction project; and (4) the need to design and maintain levees as systems; with each of the many individual project elements being required to mesh seamlessly. These lessons are of interest and importance for similar flood protection systems throughout numerous other regions of the United States and the world. ?? 2008 ACSE.

  15. Geology and Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the East Barents Basins Province and the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province, 2008 (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered petroleum resources of the East Barents Basins Province and the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province as part of its Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal. These two provinces are situated northeast of Scandinavia and the northwestern Russian Federation, on the Barents Sea Shelf between Novaya Zemlya to the east and the Barents Platform to the west. Three assessment units (AUs) were defined in the East Barents Basins Province for this study: the Kolguyev Terrace AU, the South Barents and Ludlov Saddle AU, and the North Barents Basin AU. A fourth AU, defined as the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch AU, coincides with the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province. These four AUs, all lying north of the Arctic Circle, were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources, resulting in total estimated mean volumes of ~7.4 billion barrels of crude oil, 318 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of natural gas, and 1.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  16. Lake Victoria water resources management challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... more sustainable and equitable framework governing management measures capable of meeting the needs of riparian states and ensuring sustainability within the basin is highlighted. Keywords: biodiversity loss; East Africa; eutrophication; heavy metal pollution; international treaties; Nile Basin; shared water resources

  17. Deltaic System in the Southern Shelf of the Ulleung Back-Arc Basin, East Sea, Korea (United States)

    Ko, Jaehong; Yoon, Junil


    The Ulleung basin is one of back-arc basins in the East Sea of Korea with the Japan and Yamato basins, formed as a result of extension behind the Japanese island-arc in Miocene. Its shelf basin was constructed by stacked prograding deltaic sequences over 10 km in thickness. The basin is platformal in the northwest, and folded and faulted by thrusts in the southeast. Deformation occurred around 12.5 Ma, the timing of which is related to collision of the Izu-Bonin arc against the Japan Island. The deformed and uplifted blocks were peneplained in 6.3 Ma. N-S trending broad folding occurred recently in the platformal shelf area. Three depositional sequences, separated by unconformities of 12.5 and 6.3 Ma, represent the major transgressive-regressive-transgressive cycles of the Ulleung back-arc shelf. Each cycle corresponds to opening and continuous subsidence, destruction of back-arc due to compression, and post-closure regional subsidence, respectively. The deltaic system consisting the depositional sequences includes coastal, delta plain, delta front, prodelta and deep water facies, each being distinctive in log and seismic characteristics. The coastal facies are characterized by serrated gamma log responses and discontinuous seismic reflectors suggesting fluvial formation: delta plain by association of fining-upward cycles and shale-filled distributary channels: delta front by blocky or coarsening upward log responses: prodelta by shale dominance and low seismic impedance: and deep water by thick sandstone-shale combinations interpreted as submarine fan complexes.

  18. Water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach dynamics and succession in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (east Africa): implications for water quality and biodiversity conservation. (United States)

    Gichuki, John; Omondi, Reuben; Boera, Priscillar; Okorut, Tom; Matano, Ally Said; Jembe, Tsuma; Ofulla, Ayub


    This study, conducted in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, assessed ecological succession and dynamic status of water hyacinth. Results show that water hyacinth is the genesis of macrophyte succession. On establishment, water hyacinth mats are first invaded by native emergent macrophytes, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Enydra fluctuans Lour., during early stages of succession. This is followed by hippo grass Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff. in mid- and late stages whose population peaks during climax stages of succession with concomitant decrease in water hyacinth biomass. Hippo grass depends on water hyacinth for buoyancy, anchorage, and nutrients. The study concludes that macrophyte succession alters aquatic biodiversity and that, since water hyacinth infestation and attendant succession are a symptom of broader watershed management and pollution problems, aquatic macrophyte control should include reduction of nutrient loads and implementing multifaceted approach that incorporates biological agents, mechanical/manual control with utilization of harvested weed for cottage industry by local communities.

  19. Water Hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms-Laubach Dynamics and Succession in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (East Africa: Implications for Water Quality and Biodiversity Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gichuki


    Full Text Available This study, conducted in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, assessed ecological succession and dynamic status of water hyacinth. Results show that water hyacinth is the genesis of macrophyte succession. On establishment, water hyacinth mats are first invaded by native emergent macrophytes, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Enydra fluctuans Lour., during early stages of succession. This is followed by hippo grass Vossia cuspidata (Roxb. Griff. in mid- and late stages whose population peaks during climax stages of succession with concomitant decrease in water hyacinth biomass. Hippo grass depends on water hyacinth for buoyancy, anchorage, and nutrients. The study concludes that macrophyte succession alters aquatic biodiversity and that, since water hyacinth infestation and attendant succession are a symptom of broader watershed management and pollution problems, aquatic macrophyte control should include reduction of nutrient loads and implementing multifaceted approach that incorporates biological agents, mechanical/manual control with utilization of harvested weed for cottage industry by local communities.

  20. Modeling of soil erosion and sediment transport in the East River Basin in southern China (United States)

    Wu, Yping; Chen, Ji


    Soil erosion is a major global environmental problem that has caused many issues involving land degradation, sedimentation of waterways, ecological degradation, and nonpoint source pollution. Therefore, it is significant to understand the processes of soil erosion and sediment transport along rivers, and this can help identify the erosion prone areas and find potential measures to alleviate the environmental effects. In this study, we investigated soil erosion and identified the most seriously eroded areas in the East River Basin in southern China using a physically-based model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We also introduced a classical sediment transport method (Zhang) into SWAT and compared it with the built-in Bagnold method in simulating sediment transport process along the river. The derived spatial soil erosion map and land use based erosion levels can explicitly illustrate the identification and prioritization of the critical soil erosion areas in this basin. Our results also indicate that erosion is quite sensitive to soil properties and slope. Comparison of Bagnold and Zhang methods shows that the latter can give an overall better performance especially in tracking the peak and low sediment concentrations along the river. We also found that the East River is mainly characterized by sediment deposition in most of the segments and at most times of a year. Overall, the results presented in this paper can provide decision support for watershed managers about where the best management practices (conservation measures) can be implemented effectively and at low cost. The methods we used in this study can also be of interest in sediment modeling for other basins worldwide.

  1. Syn-Rift Systems of East Godavari Sub Basin: Its Evolution and Hydrocarbon Prospectivity (United States)

    Dash, J., Jr.; Zaman, B.


    Krishna Godavari (K.G.) basin is a passive margin basin developed along the Eastern coast of India. This basin has a polyhistoric evolution with multiple rift systems. Rift basin exploration has provided the oil and gas industry with almost one third of discovered global hydrocarbon resources. Understanding synrift sequences, their evolution, depositional styles and hydrocarbon prospectivity has become important with recent discovery of the wells, G-4-6,YS-AF and KG-8 in the K.G. offshore basin. The East Godavari subbasin is a hydrocarbon producing basin from synrift and pre-rift sediments, and hence this was selected as the study area for this research. The study has been carried out by utilizing data of around 58 wells (w1-w58) drilled in the study area 25 of which are hydrocarbon bearing with organic thickness varying from 200 m to 600 m. Age data generated by palaentology and palynology studies have been utilized for calibration of key well logs to differentiate between formations within prerift and synrift sediments. The electrologs of wells like resistivity, gamma ray, neutron, density and sonic logs have been utilized for correlation of different formations in all the drilled wells. The individual thicknesses of sand, shale and coal in the formations have been calculated and tabulated. For Golapalli formation, the isopach and isolith maps were generated which revealed that there were four depocentres with input from the north direction. Schematic geological cross sections were prepared using the well data and seismic data to understand the facies variation across the basin. The sedimentological and petrophysical analysis reports and electro log suites were referred to decipher the environment of deposition, the reservoir characteristics, and play types. The geochemical reports [w4 (Tmax)= 455-468 °C; w1 (Tmax) = 467-514 °C; w4(VRO)= 0.65-0.85; w1(VRO)= 0.83-1.13] revealed the source facies, its maturation and migration timings i.e. the petroleum systems

  2. Regional modeling of the Shirase drainage basin, East Antarctica: full Stokes vs. shallow ice dynamics (United States)

    Seddik, Hakime; Greve, Ralf; Zwinger, Thomas; Sugiyama, Shin


    A hierarchy of approximations of the force balance for the flow of grounded ice exists, ranging from the most sophisticated full Stokes (FS) formulation to the most simplified shallow ice approximation (SIA). Both are implemented in the ice flow model Elmer/Ice, and we compare them by applying the model to the East Antarctic Shirase drainage basin. First, we apply the control inverse method to infer the distribution of basal friction with FS. We then compare FS and SIA by simulating the flow of the drainage basin under present-day conditions and for three scenarios 100 years into the future defined by the SeaRISE (Sea-level Response to Ice Sheet Evolution) project. FS reproduces the observed flow pattern of the drainage basin well, in particular the zone of fast flow near the grounding line, while SIA generally overpredicts the surface velocities. As for the transient scenarios, the ice volume change (relative to the constant-climate control run) of the surface climate experiment is nearly the same for FS and SIA, while for the basal sliding experiment (halved basal friction), the ice volume change is ˜ 30 % larger for SIA than for FS. This confirms findings of earlier studies that, in order to model ice sheet areas containing ice streams and outlet glaciers with high resolution and precision, careful consideration must be given to the choice of a suitable force balance.

  3. Geochemical Composition of Surface Water in the Mineralized Lom Basin, East Cameroon: Natural and Anthropogenic Sources. (United States)

    Mimba, M. E.; Ohba, T.; Nguemhe Fils, S. C.; Wirmvem, M. J.


    Thousands of people in East Cameroon depend on surface water for consumption and domestic purposes. The Lom basin, north of the region, is heavily mineralized especially in gold owing to its regional geological setting. Although research has been done regarding the rock type, age, formation history and reconnaissance gold surveys, surface water investigation in the area has received limited attention. Thus, this study appraises the first regional hydrogeochemical program for environmental assessment of the mineralized Lom basin. Fifty-two representative stream water samples were collected under base flow conditions and analysed for major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ ), major anions (HCO3-, F-, Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, Br-, PO43-, SO42- ) and stable isotopes (δD and δ18O). Calcium and HCO3- were the dominant ions. The chemical facies were CaHCO3 and NaHCO3 indicating surface water draining igneous/metamorphic rocks in hot and humid equatorial climate, resulting in the discordant dissolution of primary silicate minerals. From the isotopic evaluation, the stream water is of meteoric origin, shows negligible evaporation effect and has a common recharge source. The major ion geochemistry demonstrated the potential to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic origins. Distribution trends of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3- and SO42- showed a correlation with the lithology and the occurrence of sulphide minerals associated with hydrothermal gold mineralization in the area. The distribution patterns of NO3- and Cl- reflect pollution from settlement. Overall, the chemistry of stream water in the Lom basin is mainly controlled by rock weathering compared to anthropogenic influence. Surface water quality is easily influenced by anthropogenic activities, and stream sediment collects effectively trace metals resulting from such activities. Hence, geochemical mapping incorporating stream water and stream sediment is of considerable value in future investigations within the Lom basin.

  4. Hydrocarbon prospectivity of the east China Sea Basin, offshore China: A small independant`s view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, M.L.; Wang, G.M. [Primeline Petroleum Corp. Ltd., London (United Kingdom); Soulsby, A. [and others


    The East China Sea Basin located offshore China, consists of a series of rift-related northeast-southwest trending fault blocks, tilt blocks, and half-graben structures characterized by en echelon type faulting which are key features for enhancing prospectivity in the area. A series of recent discoveries by China`s Ministry of Geology (MOG) in the eastern portion of the basin (the Xihu Trough), have confirmed that significant potential does exist within the basin proper. However, exploration success within the western portion of the basin (the {open_quotes}Inner graben system{close_quotes}), has so far eluded foreign companies who were awarded eighteen lease blocks by the China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) in 1993. Key risks are perceived to be source rock related. Five of the eighteen leases totalling 23,500 square kilometers, are currently held and operated by Primeline Petroleum Corporation (PPC), a small independent based in London. Recent studies indicate the southern-most lease (Block 32/32) has significant potential for a future commercial discovery. Two wells, Lingfeng-1 and Shimentan-1, were drilled within the block by MOG in 1985 and 1987. The Lingfeng-1 well, encountered and recovered high quality crude (API = 48 degrees) but was never properly tested for commerciality. Both wells encountered good quality source and reservoir rocks. A total of eleven structural prospects have been defined within the block with potential recoverable reserves ranging from 114 to 276 MMBO per prospect. A test well is planned for the fall of 1996.

  5. Mesozoic carbonate-siliciclastic platform to basin systems of a South Tethyan margin (Egypt, East Mediterranean) (United States)

    Tassy, Aurélie; Crouzy, Emmanuel; Gorini, Christian; Rubino, Jean-Loup


    The Mesozoïc Egyptian margin is the south margin of a remnant of the Neo-Tethys Ocean, at the African northern plate boundary. East Mediterranean basin developed during the late Triassic-Early Jurassic rifting with a NW-SE opening direction (Frizon de Lamotte et al., 2011). During Mesozoïc, Egypt margin was a transform margin with a NW-SE orientation of transform faults. In the Eastern Mediterranean basin, Mesozoïc margins are characterized by mixed carbonate-siliciclastics platforms where subsidence and eustacy are the main parameters controlling the facies distribution and geometries of the platform-to-basin transition. Geometries and facies on the platform-slope-basin system, today well constrained on the Levant area, where still poorly known on the Egyptian margin. Geometries and stratigraphic architecture of the Egyptian margin are revealed, thanks to a regional seismic and well data-base provided by an industrial-academic group (GRI, Total). The objective is to understand the sismostratigraphic architecture of the platform-slope-basin system in a key area from Western Desert to Nile delta and Levant margin. Mapping of the top Jurassic and top Cretaceous show seismic geomorphology of the margin, with the cartography of the hinge line from Western Desert to Sinaï. During the Jurassic, carbonate platform show a prograding profile and a distally thickening of the external platform, non-abrupt slope profiles, and palaeovalleys incisions. Since the Cretaceous, the aggrading and retrograding mixed carbonate-siliciclastic platform show an alternation of steep NW-SE oblique segments and distally steepened segments. These structures of the platform edge are strongly controlled by the inherited tethyan transform directions. Along the hinge line, embayments are interpreted as megaslides. The basin infilling is characterised by an alternation of chaotic seismic facies and high amplitude reflectors onlaping the paleoslopes. MTC deposits can mobilize thick sedimentary


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Ochieng OGELLO


    Full Text Available Lake Victoria is the largest among the African Great Lakes in East African region that are believed to have both dynamic and fragile aquatic ecosystems. Within two decades, the lake has experienced extensive resource exploitation leading to constrained productivity and drastic decline of native biodiversity. Intensive non-selective fishing, catchment vegetation degradation, industrial and agricultural pollution, the introduction of exotic species and uneven patchwork of governmental laws are some of the reasons for the current ecological woes facing Lake Victoria. This paper intends to stimulate recognition of Lake Victoria and its catchment as a lived Com­mons, to be shared, protected, managed and enjoyed by all who live around it. The paper compares the original biodiversity status of the lake with the current status and discusses the role of unlimited access as a function of the loss of the Lake’s biological wealth. The Lake’s water resource base, fishery, wetlands and other aquatic resources have been exhaustively discussed. In this review, we uphold the Hardin’s school of thought that freedom of the commoners causes resource overuse leading to poverty. Therefore, limiting freedom could be essential. However, there is need for provision of alternative means of survival since people with no choices would continue over-exploiting ecosystems even under limited access. The Lake Victoria basin commons should be protected by strict legal and clear political frame­work based on public trust doctrine, reinforced in law that the Lake is vital for the survival of people, plants and animals living on or near it and therefore must be protected for the common good. The political jurisdictions should consider governing the Lake basin as one integrated watershed. It is our fervent hope that bordering communities will secure grass root movements to protect and nurture Lake Victoria and its environs for the benefit of the present and future

  7. Assessment of the Grouted IXC Monolith in Support of K East Basin Hazard Categorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, Steven M.; Dodson, Michael G.; Alzheimer, James M.; Meyer, Perry A.


    Addendum to original report updating the structural analysis of the I-beam accident to reflect a smaller I-beam than originally assumed (addendum is 2 pages). The K East Basin currently contains six ion exchange columns (IXCs) that were removed from service over 10 years ago. Fluor Hanford plans to immobilize the six ion exchange columns (IXCs) in place in a concrete monolith. PNNL performed a structural assessment of the concrete monolith to determine its capability to absorb the forces imposed by postulated accidents and protect the IXCs from damage and thus prevent a release of radioactive material. From this assessment, design specifications for the concrete monolith were identified that would prevent a release of radioactive material for any of the postulated hazardous conditions.

  8. Warm spells on the East African plateau and impacts in the White Nile basin (United States)

    Jury, Mark R.


    This study analyzes warm spells in the dry season over the East African plateau. Lake levels were observed to decline in the period July 2004 to January 2007. The warmest spell was identified using maximum temperature and satellite outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) observations averaged over Uganda: 20-22 Feb 2005. Meteorological conditions in that case were dominated by a surge of the NE monsoon from the Arabian Sea toward East Africa. Subsiding air induced daytime land surface temperatures >55 °C. Dry easterly winds swept across Uganda, and the vegetation fraction dropped >10% in 1 month. At the seasonal scale, the NE monsoon intensity over the Arabian Sea correlated with indices of desiccation over the White Nile basin. In the annual cycle, sensible heat flux follows potential evaporation, reaching -4.5 mm/day in February. Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) model projections favor a long-term weakening of the NE monsoon and a northward migration of the equatorial trough over the west Indian Ocean in Dec-Mar season. Although maximum temperatures are projected to rise +2 °C by the end of the 21st century, the length of the dry season could shrink, thus maintaining the water balance near current levels.

  9. Stratigraphic, regional unconformity analysis and potential petroleum plays of East Siberian Sea Basin (United States)

    Karpov, Yury; Stoupakova, Antonina; Suslova, Anna; Agasheva, Mariia


    The East Siberian Sea basin (ESSB) one of the most unexplored part of the Russian Arctic shelf, extending for over 1000 km from New Siberian Islands archipelago to Wrangel Island. This region is considered as a region with probable high petroleum potential. Within the ESSB several phases of orogeny are recognized [1]: Elsmerian orogeny in Early Devonian, Early Brooks orogeny in Early Cretaceous, Late Brooks orogeny in Late Cretaceous. Two generations of the basins could be outlined. Both of these generations are controlled by the basement domains [1]: Paleozoic (post-Devonian) to Mesozoic basins preserved north of the Late Mesozoic frontal thrusts; Aptian-Albian to Quaternary basins, postdating the Verkhoyansk-Brookian orogeny, and evolving mainly over the New-Siberian-Chukchi Fold Belt. Basin is filled with siliclastic sediments and in the deepest depocentres sediments thickness exceeds 8-10 km in average. Seismic data was interpreted using methods of seismic stratigraphy. Finally, main seismic horizons were indicated and each horizon follows regional stratigraphic unconformities: mBU - in base of Cenozoic, BU - in base of Upper Cretaceous, LCU - in base of Cretaceous, JU - in middle of Jurassic, F - in top of Basement. In ESSB, we can identify Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleogene and Neogene seismic stratigraphy complexes. Perspective structures, investigated in ESSB were founded out by comparing seismogeological cross-sections with explored analogs in other onshore and offshore basins [2, 3, 4]. The majority of structures could be connected with stratigraphic and fault traps. The most perspective prospects are probably connected with grabens and depressions, where thickness of sediments exceed 10 km. Reservoirs in ESSB are proposed by regional geological explorations on New Siberian Islands Archipelago and Wrangel Island. Potential seals are predominantly assigned to Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. Thick clinoform units of various geometry and

  10. The 36C1 ages of the brines in the Magadi-Natron basin, East Africa (United States)

    Kaufman, Aaron; Margaritz, Mordeckai; Paul, Michael; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Hollos, George; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Taieb, Maurice


    The depression in the East African Rift which includes both Lake Magadi and Lake Natron forms a closed basin within which almost all the dissolved chloride originates in precipitation, since there is no important source of very ancient sedimentary chloride. This provides an ideal setting for the evaluation of the 36Cl methodology as a geochemical and hydrological tracer. The main source of recent water, as represented by the most dilute samples measured, is characterized by a 36C1/C1 ratio of 2.5 × 10 -14, in agreement with the calculated value expected in precipitation. Surface evaporation increases the chlorinity of the local freshwater inflow by about a factor of 110 without changing the isotopic ratio, indicating that little chloride enters the system in the form of sediment leachate. A second type of brine found in the basin occurs in a hot deep groundwater reservoir and is characterized by lower 36C1/C1 ratios (salt accumulation age of 760 Ka which is consistent with the time of the first appearance of the lake. These older brines also have lower 18O and 2H values which indicate that they were recharged during a climatically different era. The 36C1/C1 ratios in the inflowing waters and in the accumulated brine, together with the known age of the Lake Magadi basin, may be used to estimate the importance of the hypogene and epigene, as opposed to the meteoric, mode of 36C1 production. Such a calculation shows that the hypogene and epigene processes together contribute less than 6% of the total 36C1 present in the lake.

  11. Small phytoplankton contribution to the total primary production in the highly productive Ulleung Basin in the East/Japan Sea (United States)

    Joo, HuiTae; Son, SeungHyun; Park, Jung-Woo; Kang, Jae Joong; Jeong, Jin-Yong; Kwon, Jae-Il; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Sang Heon


    The Ulleung Basin in the southwestern East/Japan Sea (hereafter East Sea) is known as a biologically productive ;hot spot; but climate-associated changes in the physicochemical oceanographic conditions and some biological changes have been reported. In this study, our main objective was to determine the contribution of small phytoplankton to the total primary production, which is valuable information for detecting marine ecosystem changes in the Ulleung Basin. The small phytoplankton productivity contributions determined by Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived monthly productivities using a phytoplankton community-based productivity algorithm was significantly consistent with the field-measured productivity contributions of small phytoplankton in this study. The daily primary productivity of small phytoplankton ranged from 42.7 to 418.7 mg C m-2 d-1 with an average of 172.9 mg C m-2 d-1 (S.D. = ±61.4 mg C m-2 d-1, n = 120), and the annual contribution of small phytoplankton ranged from 19.6% to 28.4% with an average of 23.6% (S.D. = ±8.1%) in the Ulleung Basin from 2003 to 2012. Overall, large phytoplankton were a major contributor to the total primary production in the Ulleung Basin (76.4 ± 8.2%) from 2003 to 2012, which indicates that the Ulleung Basin is a highly productive region. A significantly negative relationship (p annual primary production in this study. This finding revealed that the recent decreasing annual primary production in the Ulleung Basin could be a consequence of the increasing contribution of small phytoplankton. The response of phytoplankton to ongoing climate change depending on different-size phytoplankton compositions should be a subject for further investigation in the Ulleung Basin as a biologically highly productive region in the East Sea.

  12. Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Quanchao


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Tarim Basin, located on the ancient Silk Road, played a very important role in the history of human migration and cultural communications between the West and the East. However, both the exact period at which the relevant events occurred and the origins of the people in the area remain very obscure. In this paper, we present data from the analyses of both Y chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA derived from human remains excavated from the Xiaohe cemetery, the oldest archeological site with human remains discovered in the Tarim Basin thus far. Results Mitochondrial DNA analysis showed that the Xiaohe people carried both the East Eurasian haplogroup (C and the West Eurasian haplogroups (H and K, whereas Y chromosomal DNA analysis revealed only the West Eurasian haplogroup R1a1a in the male individuals. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that the Xiaohe people were an admixture from populations originating from both the West and the East, implying that the Tarim Basin had been occupied by an admixed population since the early Bronze Age. To our knowledge, this is the earliest genetic evidence of an admixed population settled in the Tarim Basin.

  13. Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age. (United States)

    Li, Chunxiang; Li, Hongjie; Cui, Yinqiu; Xie, Chengzhi; Cai, Dawei; Li, Wenying; Mair, Victor H; Xu, Zhi; Zhang, Quanchao; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Jin, Li; Zhu, Hong; Zhou, Hui


    The Tarim Basin, located on the ancient Silk Road, played a very important role in the history of human migration and cultural communications between the West and the East. However, both the exact period at which the relevant events occurred and the origins of the people in the area remain very obscure. In this paper, we present data from the analyses of both Y chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) derived from human remains excavated from the Xiaohe cemetery, the oldest archeological site with human remains discovered in the Tarim Basin thus far. Mitochondrial DNA analysis showed that the Xiaohe people carried both the East Eurasian haplogroup (C) and the West Eurasian haplogroups (H and K), whereas Y chromosomal DNA analysis revealed only the West Eurasian haplogroup R1a1a in the male individuals. Our results demonstrated that the Xiaohe people were an admixture from populations originating from both the West and the East, implying that the Tarim Basin had been occupied by an admixed population since the early Bronze Age. To our knowledge, this is the earliest genetic evidence of an admixed population settled in the Tarim Basin.

  14. The nature of colored dissolved organic matter in the southern Canada Basin and East Siberian Sea (United States)

    Guéguen, C.; McLaughlin, F. A.; Carmack, E. C.; Itoh, M.; Narita, H.; Nishino, S.


    Distributions of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the upper 400 m of the southern Canada Basin and East Siberian Sea were determined using an in situ WETStar fluorometer and fluorescence spectroscopy during cruises in 2008 as part of the Canada/US Joint Ocean Ice Study and Japan's International Polar Year program. Despite the low CDOM range (0.009-0.069 r.u.) observed in the upper 400 m of the study area, our results show that CDOM can be quantified from in situ DOM fluorescence sensor measurements. Unlike DOC concentrations, which are known to decrease with increasing depth, a pronounced mid-depth CDOM maximum was associated with the Pacific-derived winter water throughout our study area. Using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) to resolve dominant fluorophore components in fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEM), we identified three humic-like and two proteinaceous components. The nature and origin of these five fluorophores were investigated based on their fluorescent characteristics as well as their vertical and geographical distributions. The lowest terrestrial humic-like signals in the surface waters were mostly due to photochemical processes, whereas the highest microbial/marine humic-like signal revealed interactions with sediment during the formation of Pacific-origin haloclines over the Arctic shelves. The humic-like fluorophores dominated DOM fluorescence in the Westernmost region in the East Siberian Sea whereas the contribution of protein-like fluorophores was predominant elsewhere. The significant difference in CDOM composition between East and West of the 180° meridian suggests the presence of a front that divides our study area into the Eastern Chukchi—Beaufort and East Siberian sides. This indicates a change in water circulation, and that more than one DOM source affects our study area. Unlike proteinaceous material, the humic-like compounds varied significantly in the halocline. Ten to 20 percent enrichment was observed in

  15. Carboniferous age for the East Greenland “Devonian” basin: Paleomagnetic and isotopic constraints on age, stratigraphy, and plate reconstructions (United States)

    Hartz, E. H.; Torsvik, T. H.; Andresen, A.


    New paleomagnetic and isotopic data from East Greenland indicate that this classical “Devonian” basin was partly formed in Carboniferous. The basin preserves a stratigraphically linked magnetic reversal pattern of primary character. Paleomagnetic data indicate that the two stratigraphically lowermost intrabasinal angular unconformities, identified on each side of the basin, in fact correlate as one unconformity. This implies a 2 km reduction of the estimated basin thickness, and thus that the unconformity represents a major depositional hiatus. Successions below the unconformity are taken to be Devonian (Givetian) in age, on the basis of correlation with paleomagnetic reference poles. However, we argue that the overlying strata are Carboniferous, rather than Devonian, in age, on the basis of a ca. 336 Ma 40Ar/39Ar extrusive age for a basalt flow and paleomagnetic data. A Carboniferous age for the strata has significant implications for vertebrate evolution; fossils of a terrestial tetrapod, Ichthyostega, are found above the unconformity. Ichthyostega is regarded as the earliest fossil of an animal known to walk on land; however, our data suggest that these dry footsteps are much younger than previously believed. Our results are also significant for plate reconstructions. Paleomagnetic data indicate that the lower part of the basin was deposited at low southerly latitudes. Sediments above our Early Carboniferous unconformity were deposited approximately at lat 4°N, indicating that the continent had drifted northward. A minor pole-longitude misfit between Devonian and Carboniferous poles from East Greenland and North America implies (1) a closer pre Labrador Sea Greenland North America fit; (2) counterclockwise block rotations (10° 15°) of the study area; or (3) a combination of both. The East Greenland “Devonian” basin formed along the Caledonian spine of Euramerica, and counterclockwise block rotation may have occurred between sinistral faults resulting

  16. Dobreflection: An Exceptional Example of Basin Inversion In The East-european Craton (United States)

    Bayer, U.; Stovba, S.; Maystrenko, Y.; Stephenson, R.; Tolkunov, A.; Dobreflection Working Group

    DOBREflection is a joint project of Ukrainian organisations (Ukrgeofisika and the Institute of Geophysics of the National Academy of Sciences) and an international European consortium that included acquisition of some 250 km of deep seismic re- flection data in 2000 and 2001. The aim was to study the south-eastern continuation of the Dnieper-Donets Basin (DDB) into the coal mining areas of the Donbas Foldbelt (DF), including the sedimentary fill and its deformation as well as the structure of the deeper crust. The DF is the strongly inverted and compressionally deformed part of the DDB, which is a Late Devonian rift basin located on the south-western part of the East-European Craton (EEC) between the Ukrainian Shield (UkS) to the south-west and the Voronezh Massif (VM) to the north-east. DOBREflection reveals that the base of the predominantly Devonian and Carboniferous sedimentary succession in the DF reaches a maximum of about 20-km in its axial part. However, the Donbas area has been much more seriously affected by secondary tectonic events than those parts of the DDB further north. In particular, significant shortening in response to Late Cretaceous Eo-Alpine compression is in evidence. While syn- and post-rift faults with offsets up to more than 3-km disrupt the basement horizon, the shortening (basin inversion) is displayed mainly as folding within the sedimentary succession. The fold patterns sug- gest a detachment surface most likely located within the Upper Devonian sequence, perhaps indicating the presence of salt rich layers. Shortening is also accommodated on two important crustal-scale structures. The first of these is a slightly inclined listric shear zone, or thrust, cutting the entire crust - including the UkS Moho - south of the DF, upwards through the complete sedimentary package ending in the northern part of the DF within an area of reverse faults exposed at the surface. The latter have vertical offsets up to a few kilometres whereas the

  17. Origin of middle Silurian Keefer sandstone, east-central Appalachian basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, S.C.; Textoris, D.A.; Dennison, J.M.


    The Keefer Sandstone of northeastern West Virginia and western Maryland was deposited in back-barrier, barrier-island, and marine shelf environments along a prograding, storm-dominated, mesotidal coastline of probable low wave energy. Back-barrier sediments were deposited in tidal-flat and lagoonal environments. Barrier-island sediments are dominated by cross-bedded sandstones deposited in deep, laterally migrating tidal inlets. Erosion accompanying the passage of a migrating tidal inlet usually resulted in the removal of underyling shoreface and shelf sands, so that tidal-inlet sandstones commonly lie with a markedly erosive contact on subtidal shales of the underlying Rose Hill Formation. Sand was transported to the shelf from the coastline by downwelling, storm-generated currents. Chamosite ooids formed in gently agitated waters immediately below fair-weather wave base. Outcrops to the east, which preserve back-barrier and barrier-island lithofacies, record a single basinward progradation of the shoreline. However, outcrops farther west, which preserve finer grained sandstone, shale, and limestone shelf lithofacies, document four progradational events in stacked coarsening-upward sequences. Each is typically capped by transgressive sandstones, commonly hematite ooid-bearing, which mark episodes of coastal retreat. Retreat occurred through shoreface and nearshore erosion. Chamosite ooids were transported basinward during coastal retreat and altered to hematite prior to burial. Transgressive shelf sands contain abundant coarse sand eroded from tidal-inlet deposits. Deposition of the Keefer was a response to a decrease in rate of eustatic sea level rise, or a decrease in basin subsidence rate. This was followed by deposition of the transgressive basin facies of the Rochester Shale.

  18. Regional implications of new chronostratigraphic and paleogeographic data from the Early Permian Darwin Basin, east-central California (United States)

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Stone, Paul; Magginetti, Robert T.


    The Darwin Basin developed in response to episodic subsidence of the western margin of the Cordilleran continental shelf from Late Pennsylvanian (Gzhelian) to Early Permian (late Artinskian) time. Subsidence of the basin was initiated in response to continental truncation farther to the west and was later augmented by thrust emplacement of the Last Chance allochthon. This deep-water basin was filled by voluminous fine-grained siliciclastic turbidites and coarse-grained limestone-gravity-flow deposits. Most of this sediment was derived from the Bird Spring carbonate shelf and cratonal platform to the northeast or east, but some came from an offshore tectonic ridge (Conglomerate Mesa Uplift) to the west that formed at the toe of the Last Chance allochthon. At one point in the late Artinskian the influx of extrabasinal sediment was temporarily cut off, resulting in deposition of a unique black limestone that allows precise correlation throughout the basin. Deep-water sedimentation in the Darwin Basin ended by Kungurian time when complex shallow-water to continental sedimentary facies spread across the region. Major expansion of the Darwin Basin occurred soon after the middle Sakmarian emplacement of the Last Chance allochthon. This tectonic event was approximately coeval with deformation in northeastern Nevada that formed the deep-water Dry Mountain Trough. We herein interpret the two basins to have been structurally continuous. Deposition of the unique black limestone is interpreted to mark a eustatic sea level rise that also can be recognized in Lower Permian sections in east-central Nevada and central Arizona.

  19. Studies of the suitability of salt domes in east Texas basin for geologic isolation of nuclear wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreitler, C.W.


    The suitability of salt domes in the east Texas basin (Tyler basin), Texas, for long-term isolation of nulear wastes is being evaluated. The major issues concern hydrogeologic and tectonic stability of the domes and potential natural resources in the basin. These issues are being approached by integration of dome-specific and regional hydrogeolgic, geologic, geomorphic, and remote-sensing investigations. Hydrogeologic studies are evaluating basinal hydrogeology and ground-water flow around the domes in order to determine the degree to which salt domes may be dissolving, their rates of solution, and the orientation of saline plumes in the fresh-water aquifers. Subsurface geologic studies are being conducted: (1) to determine the size and shape of specific salt domes, the geology of the strata immediately surrounding the domes, and the regional geology of the east Texas basin; (2) to understand the geologic history of dome growth and basin infilling; and (3) to evaluate potential natural resources. Geomorphic and surficial geology studies are determining whether there has been any dome growth or tectonic movement in the basin during the Quaternary. Remote-sensing studies are being conducted to determine: (1) if dome uplift has altered regional lineation patterns in Quaternary sediments; and (2) whether drainage density indicates Quaternary structural movement. On the basis of the screening criteria of Brunton et al (1978), Oakwood and Keechi domes have been chosen as possible candidate domes. Twenty-three domes have been eliminated because of insufficient size, too great a depth to salt, major hydrocarbon production, or previous use (such as liquid propane storage or salt mining or brining). Detailed geologic, hydrogeologic, and geomorphic investigations are now being conducted around Oakwood and Keechi salt domes. (JMT)

  20. of East Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 15, 1991 ... flooding and sedimentation in the Lake Victoria Basin .... income is estimated to be less than US$270, which is .... sustain the biological life support system. .... actions, for monitoring and regular review of policies, plans, and.

  1. Geologic evolution and aspects of the petroleum geology of the northern East China Sea shelf basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, G.H.; Kim, B.Y.; Shin, K.S.; Sunwoo, D. [Pukyong National University, Pusan (Republic of Korea). Dept. of Environmental Exploration Engineering


    Analysis of multichannel seismic reflection profiles reveals that the northern East China Sea shelf basin experienced two phases of rifting, followed by regional subsidence. The initial rifting in the Late Cretaceous created a series of grabens and half grabens, filled by alluvial and fluviolacustrine deposits. Regional uplift and folding (Yuquan movement) in the late Eocene-early Oligocene terminated the initial rifting. Rifting resumed in the early Oligocene, while alluvial and fluviolacustrine deposition continued to prevail. A second phase of uplift in the early Miocene terminated the rifting, marking the transition to the postrift phase. The early postrift phase (early Miocene-late Miocene) is characterized by regional subsidence and westward and northwestward marine transgression. Inversion (Longjing movement) in the late Miocene interrupted the postrift subsidence, resulting in an extensive thrust-fold belt in the eastern part of the area. The entire area entered a stage of regional subsidence again and has become a broad continental shelf. Source rocks include synrift lacustrine facies, fluvial shales, and coal beds. Synrift fluvial, lacustrine, and deltaic deposits, postrift littoral and/or shallow-marine sandstones, and fractured basement have the potential to provide reservoirs. Various types of hydrocarbon traps (e.g., faulted anticlines, overthrusts, rollover anticlines, faults, unconformity traps, combination structural-stratigraphic traps, weathered basement, and stratigraphic traps) are recognized, but many of these traps have not been tested.

  2. Potential groundwater and heterogeneous heat source contributions to ice sheet dynamics in critical submarine basins of East Antarctica (United States)

    Gooch, Brad T.; Young, Duncan A.; Blankenship, Donald D.


    We present the results of two numerical models describing contributions of groundwater and heterogeneous heat sources to ice dynamics directly relevant to basal processes in East Antarctica. A two-phase, one-dimensional hydrothermal model demonstrates the importance of groundwater flow in vertical heat flux advection near the ice-bed interface. Typical, conservative vertical components of groundwater volume fluxes (from either topographical gradients or vertically channeled flow) on the order of ±1-10 mm/yr can alter vertical heat flux by ±50-500 mW/m2 given parameters typical for the interior of East Antarctica. This heat flux has the potential to produce considerable volumes of meltwater depending on basin geometry and geothermal heat production. A one-dimensional hydromechanical model demonstrates that groundwater is mainly recharged into saturated, partially poroelastic (i.e., vertical stress only; not coupled to a deformation equation) sedimentary aquifers during ice advance. During ice retreat, groundwater discharges into the ice-bed interface, which may contribute to water budgets on the order of 0.1-1 mm/yr. We also present an estimated map of potentially heterogeneous heat flow provinces using radiogenic heat production data from East Antarctica and southern Australia, calculated sedimentary basin depths, and radar-derived bed roughness. These are overlaid together to delineate the areas of greatest potential effect from these modeled processes on the ice sheet dynamics of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet.

  3. Orbital forcing of glacial/interglacial variations in chemical weathering within the White Nile basin: stable-isotope and biomarker evidence from Lakes Victoria and Edward (United States)

    Cockerton, Helen E.; Alayne Street-Perrott, F.; Barker, Philip A.; Leng, Melanie J.; Sloane, Hilary J.; Horstwood, Matthew S. A.; Snelling, Andrea


    The continental Si cycle on Quaternary time scales has been largely neglected. Emphasis has been placed on long-term geochemical processes of silicate-rock weathering and the resulting drawdown of atmospheric CO2, rather than on shorter-term biogenic processes occurring along the land-ocean continuum. Si-accumulating plants (notably tropical rainforest hardwoods, savanna and wetland grasses, and Papyrus) and aquatic organisms (such as diatoms and sponges in lakes, rivers and swamps) have the potential to take up, store and recycle significant amounts of Si, thereby modifying the riverine flux of Si to the oceans, the productivity of siliceous marine organisms and the rate of atmospheric CO2 drawdown on an orbital time scale. The main aim of this study was to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of Si cycling along the Nile system during the last 20ka BP. Utilising sediment cores from Lakes Victoria and Edward, coupled measurements of stable Si and O isotopes on cleaned diatom separates were employed to reconstruct millennial-scale variations in biotic Si cycling and palaeohydrology, respectively. Abundance ratios of lipid biomarkers (n-alkanes) were used to track major changes in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The results have been interpreted in the light of multi-isotope analyses (2H,18O,30Si) of modern water samples collected along the courses of the modern White and Blue Niles during both wet- and dry-season conditions. During drier intervals (the Last Glacial Maximum and the late Holocene: high 18Odiatom), Si cycling was greatly reduced. Diminished vegetation cover, reduced biotic rock weathering, a declining soil stock of amorphous silica (ASi) and decreased runoff resulted in reduced dissolved silica (DSi) supply to the lakes in relation to aquatic demand (high 30Sidiatom). In contrast, enhanced monsoon rainfall (low 18Odiatom) during the early to mid-Holocene promoted a substantial increase in terrestrial biomass within the White Nile headwaters

  4. Analysis of Marine Gravity Anomalies in the Ulleung Basin (East Sea/Sea of Japan) and Its Implications for the Architecture of Rift-Dominated Backarc Basin (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Mook; Kim, Yoon-Mi


    Marginal basins locate between the continent and arc islands often exhibit diverse style of opening, from regions that appear to have formed by well-defined and localized spreading center (manifested by the presence of distinct seafloor magnetic anomaly patterns) to those with less obvious zones of extension and a broad magmatic emplacement most likely in the lower crust. Such difference in the style of back-arc basin formation may lead to marked difference in crustal structure in terms of its overall thickness and spatial variations. The Ulleung Basin, one of three major basins in the East Sea/Sea of Japan, is considered to represent a continental rifting end-member of back-arc opening. Although a great deal of work has been conducted on the sedimentary sections in the last several decades, the deep crustal sections have not been systematically investigated for long time, and thus the structure and characteristics of the crust remain poorly understood. This study examines the marine gravity anomalies of the Ulleung Basin in order to understand the crustal structure using crucial sediment-thickness information. Our analysis shows that the Moho depth in general varies from 16 km at the basin center to 22 km at the margins. However, within the basin center, the inferred thickness of the crust is more or less the same (10-12 km), thus by varying only about 10-20% of the total thickness, contrary to the previous impression. The almost-uniformly-thick crust that is thicker than a normal oceanic crust (~ 7 km) is consistent with previous observations using ocean bottom seismometers and recent deep seismic results from the nearby Yamato Basin. Another important finding is that small residual mantle gravity anomaly highs exist in the northern part of the basin. These highs are aligned in the NNE-SSW direction which correspond to the orientation of the major tectonic structures on the Korean Peninsula, raising the possibility that, though by a small degree, they are a

  5. The impact of structural deformation in a 2D basin and petroleum system model of the East Coast Basin, New Zealand (United States)

    Burgreen, B.; Graham, S. A.; Meisling, K. E.


    The East Coast Basin of New Zealand is a petroliferous forearc basin that has eluded commercial development largely because of challenges related to its complex structural and tectonic history. Basin formation is associated with three tectonic phases: 1) a Cretaceous convergent margin phase, 2) a Late Cretaceous to Paleogene rifting to passive margin phase, and 3) a Neogene to present convergent margin phase. Beginning in Neogene time, the basin underwent multiple stages of structural deformation including low angle thrust faulting, listric normal faulting, and inversion. This complex basin history provides an ideal situation to test the influence of tectonics on petroleum system development. This study focuses on offshore Hawke Bay where a regional 2D seismic line has been interpreted, palinspastically reconstructed, and incorporated into a basin and petroleum system model. In the model, several paleo-heat flow scenarios are developed to represent the tectonic evolution of the basin. Higher heat flow is modeled during the rifting to passive margin phase, and a reduction in heat flow is modeled during the Neogene phase to account for cold slab subduction. Heat flow scenarios are calibrated to temperature, apatite-fission track data, and vitrinite-intertinite reflectance and fluorescence data from the Hawke Bay-1 and Opoutama-1 wells. The palinspastic reconstructions are integrated into the basin and petroleum system model to assess the impact of different styles of deformation. Faults play a key role in the burial history/rate of burial, fluid migration, and pressure compartmentalization. The relative timing of paleo-heat flow and structural events are tested in the model to understand how they enhance and/or negate effects on petroleum generation. For example, models with early Miocene low angle thrusts (i.e. structural thickening) contemporaneous with remnant high heat flow from the passive margin phase create a scenario for mid-Miocene petroleum generation

  6. Seismically Derived Gondwana and Proterozoic Sediments East of Cuddapah Basin, South Indian Shield and Its Possible Geotectonic Implications (United States)

    Chandrakala, K.; Pandey, O. P.; Sai, V. V. Sesha; Vasanthi, A.; Kumar, K. Satish


    The study area situated east of the intracratonic Proterozoic Cuddapah basin, that covers Nellore Schist belt, Ongole domain of the Eastern Ghats Belt and adjacent East Coast Terrain, forms a geodynamically important segment of the Dharwar craton. This region came into focus due to proposition that during Paleoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic era, it underwent persistent oceanic subduction, continent-continent collision and multi-stage accretional growth. In view of this, we have reprocessed in detail the deep seismic sounding data over this region and integrated the obtained results with other geophysical studies to decipher the deep subsurface crustal structure underneath. The derived shallow seismic section across this region showed the presence of a thin layer ( 250 m) of Gondwana sediments with a distinct velocity of 4.20 km/s and a lateral dimension of about 40 km around Vinjamuru region of the Nellore Schist Belt. Another important finding has been the depiction of 5.3 and 5.5 km/s velocity sediments (comparable to upper and lower Cuddapah sediments) between Nellore Schist Belt and the east coast, indicating the possible presence of an additional Proterozoic sedimentary terrain (named here as East Coast Sedimentary Basin), overlying the concealed Archean crystalline basement. The presence of this sedimentary terrain, which is separated from the Cuddapah basin by an exhumed horst-like feature, situated below Nellore Schist Belt, would indicate Proterozoic sedimentation in a much larger area during Columbia and Rodinia supercontinental assembly periods than hitherto known. Importantly, no seismic trace of the Eastern Ghats Belt has been found between Nellore Schist Belt and the east coast. It appears that during the Gondwana period, entire eastern segment of the east Dharwar craton has been persistently rifting, uplifting and eroding together with other Gondwana grabens in India, thereby leaving behind only a thin veneer of Gondwana sediments at many places. In

  7. Heat Flow Distribution At A Mud Volcano In Kumano Basin, East Of Kii Peninsula, Central Japan (United States)

    Goto, S.; Yamano, M.; Kinoshita, M.; Matsubayashi, O.


    Mud volcano is a surface expression of mud diapir, where over-pressured unconsolidated sediment has been intruded into the overlying sediment column, and provides information on the process of material transport and physical and chemical conditions in a deeper part without a deep drilling. Kumano Knoll No.4 (KK4) is one of the mud volcanoes in the Kumano Basin, east of Kii Peninsula, central Japan. The diameter and height above the basin floor are 800 m and 100 m, respectively. The summit area has bumpy surface with pits whose diameter are several meters. There are living and dead clam colonies in the area. In order to survey thermal and hydrological characteristics of KK4, we deployed a long-term temperature monitoring system (LTMS), which has two probes including six thermistors, at the top of the mud volcano and monitored bottom-water and sub-bottom temperatures from August 2002 to May 2003. One probe (Probe-2) was penetrated into sediment within a pit with a dead clam colony that suggests the existence of cold seepage in the past. The other (Probe-1) was installed in the outside of the pit where there was no expression of cold seepage. Measured bottom-water temperature variation (BTV) shows large amplitude variation with various periods. Measured sub-bottom temperatures show similar variation to the bottom-water temperature variation but its amplitudes decay and the phases delay with increasing sub-bottom depth. By comparing amplitude and phase of BTV and sub-bottom temperature variation, we can identify whether there is vertical fluid migration in sediment. For sub-bottom temperatures measured outside of the pit, we could explain that the effects of BTV propagated into sediment by conduction only. By correcting the effects of BTV from the sub-bottom temperatures, we estimated heat flow value as 14 mW/m2. On the other hand, sub-bottom temperatures measured within the pit could be better explained by a model with upward water flow at a rate of 10-7 m/s order

  8. Chemostratigraphic Constraints on Late Jurassic Paleoceanography of the East Texas Basin, Southern Margin of North America (United States)

    Mainali, P.; Rowe, H. D.


    Late Jurassic deposition of organic-rich muds occurred in the East Texas Basin of modern-day Texas and Louisiana in a ramp-style marine setting during the early formation of the Gulf of Mexico. These mudrocks are regional known as the Haynesville and Bossier Formations. The goals of the current project are to 1) develop a better understanding of the paleoceanographic conditions and the depositional environment, and 2) develop linkages between the record from the southern margin of North America and other well-documented paleoceanographic records of Kimmeridgian age. Ten drill cores from the study area have been studied for their geochemistry. Each core was scanned at a 1-foot interval using a handheld x-ray fluorescence instrument, providing rapid, quantitative analysis of the following elemental concentrations: Mg, Al, S, Si, P, K, Ti, Ca, Mn, Fe, Mo, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Th, Rb, U, Sr, Zr, and V. In addition, preliminary interpretations for total inorganic carbon (TIC), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (%N), and bulk rock TOC and N isotopic composition of core samples reveal distinct differences between the Bossier and Haynesville formations. Results from previous geochemical studies suggest that the siliciclastic-dominated Bossier formation has less TOC than the underlying Haynesville formation. Furthermore, the Haynesville is much more carbonate-rich (calcite) than the overlying Bossier. An upwardly increasing trend in Si/Al in some cores suggests increasing detrital quartz influx. A linear relationship between Fe and Al suggest that iron is primarily in clay mineral phases in the Haynesville. Enrichments in Mo concentrations and Cr/V ratios reveal periods of anoxic conditions.

  9. Spatiotemporal Variability and Trends of Extreme Precipitation in the Huaihe River Basin, a Climatic Transitional Zone in East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwe Ye


    Full Text Available Precipitation data from 30 stations in the Huaihe River basin (HRB, a climatic transitional zone in east China, were used to investigate the spatiotemporal variability and trends of extreme precipitation on multitimescales for the period 1961–2010. Results indicated that (1 the spatial pattern of the annual precipitation, rainy days, extreme precipitation, and maximum daily precipitations shows a clear transitional change from the south (high to the north (low in the HR; it confirmed the conclusion that the HRB is located in the transitional zone of the 800 mm precipitation contour in China, where the 800 mm precipitation contour is considered as the geographical boundary of the south and the north. (2 Higher value of the extreme precipitation intensity mainly occurs in the middle of the east and the central part of the basin; it reveals a relatively distinct west-east spatial disparity, and this is not in line with the spatial pattern of the extreme precipitation total, the sum of the precipitation in 95th precipitation days. (3 Annual precipitation of 22 stations exhibits increasing trend, and these 22 stations are located from the central to the northern part. There is no significant trend detected for the seasonal precipitation. The summer precipitation exhibits a larger change range; this might cause the variation of the flood and drought in the HBR. However, the increasing trend in winter precipitation may be beneficial to the relief of winter agricultural drought. Rainy days in 12 stations, mostly located in and around the central northeastern part, experienced significant decreasing trend. Extreme precipitation days and precipitation intensity have increasing trends, but no station with significant change trend is detected for the maximum precipitation of the basin. (4 The spatiotemporal variability in the HRB is mainly caused by the geographic differences and is largely influenced by the interdecadal variations of East Asian

  10. Analysis of gravity anomalies in the Ulleung Basin (East Sea/Sea of Japan) and its implications for the architecture of rift-dominated back-arc basin (United States)

    Kim, Y. M.; Lee, S. M.


    Marginal basins located between the continent and arc islands often exhibit diverse style of opening, from regions that appear to have formed by well-defined and localized spreading center to those with less obvious zones of extension and a broad magmatic emplacement in the lower crust. The difference in the mode of back-arc opening may lead to a marked difference in crustal structure including its overall thickness and mechanical strength. The Ulleung Basin (UB) in the East Sea/Sea of Japan is considered to represent a continental rifting end-member of back-arc opening. However, compared to nearby Yamato Basin (YB) and Japan Basin (JB) in the NE corner of the sea, its structure and crustal characteristics are less well understood. This study examines the marine gravity anomalies of the UB in order to delineate the variations in crustal structure. Our analysis shows that the Moho depth from the sea surface varies from 16 km at the basin center to 22 km at the margins. However, within the basin center, the inferred thickness of the crust not including sediment is more or less the same (10-12 km), by varying only about 10-20% of the total thickness, contrary to the previous suggestions. The revelation that the UB has a thick but uniform thickness crust is consistent with previous observations using ocean bottom seismometers and is similar recent findings from the nearby YB. Another important feature is that small residual mantle gravity anomaly highs (40 mGal) exist in the northern part of the basin. These small highs trend in the NNE-SSW direction and thus corresponding to the orientation of the major tectonic structures on the Korean Peninsula, raising the possibility that they are the result of localized extension and extra crustal thinning at the time of basin formation. Alternatively, the presence of small magmatic underplating at the base of the crust, perhaps similar to high velocity region in the lower crust of YB, was also considered. According to our study

  11. Early warnings of hazardous thunderstorms over Lake Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiery, Wim; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Bedka, Kristopher; Semazzi, Fredrick H.M.; Lhermitte, S.L.M.; Willems, Patrick; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.


    Weather extremes have harmful impacts on communities around Lake Victoria in East Africa. Every year, intense nighttime thunderstorms cause numerous boating accidents on the lake, resulting in thousands of deaths among fishermen. Operational storm warning systems are therefore crucial. Here we

  12. Denudation and uplift history of the Jameson Land basin, East Greenland—constrained from maturity and apatite fission track data (United States)

    Mathiesen, Anders; Bidstrup, Torben; Christiansen, Flemming G.


    The Jameson Land basin in East Greenland comprises a well exposed succession of Upper Paleozoic-Mesozoic sediments. During Middle Devonian-Early Permian rifting, ˜13 km of continental clastics were deposited. In latest Paleozoic to Mesozoic times, ˜4 km of sediments accumulated during regional subsidence. In the Early Paleocene, during North Atlantic break-up, the basin was covered by a thick volcanic pile. Subsequently, uplift and erosion took place over the whole region. The volcanic cover was completely removed from Jameson Land and erosion cut deeply into the underlying sediments. To assess the exploration potential of Jameson Land, a basin modelling study with 21 1D pseudo-wells was carried out based on all seismic and surface data available. In addition to the calculation of hydrocarbon generation in space and time, the basin modelling provided an opportunity to study the magnitude and timing of uplift and erosion. Basin modelling constrained by apatite fission track data has made it possible to determine a consistent uplift and erosion history of the area. Tectonic backstripping based on a simple Airy type isostatic model has been used to separate the tectonic uplift from the actual uplift. The combined basin modelling and backstripping study has led to the following conclusions: (1) the thickness of the Cretaceous succession varied from 1.3 km in the south to 0.3 km in the north; (2) the volcanic rocks formed a wedge with a thickness of >2 km in the south thinning to <0.1 km in the north; (3) the subsequent erosion of 2-3 km is in response to tectonic uplift with a magnitude of ˜1 km, and the calculated tectonic uplift shows increasing values to the north. The erosion rate generally accelerated from Late Paleocene up to the present time.

  13. Interpretation of aeromagnetic data in the Jameson Land Basin, central East Greenland: Structures and related mineralized systems (United States)

    Brethes, Anaïs; Guarnieri, Pierpaolo; Rasmussen, Thorkild Maack; Bauer, Tobias Erich


    This paper provides a detailed interpretation of several aeromagnetic datasets over the Jameson Land Basin in central East Greenland. The interpretation is based on texture and lineament analysis of magnetic data and derivatives of these, in combination with geological field observations. Numerous faults and Cenozoic intrusions were identified and a chronological interpretation of the events responsible for the magnetic features is proposed built on crosscutting relationships and correlated with absolute ages. Lineaments identified in enhanced magnetic data are compared with structures controlling the mineralized systems occurring in the area and form the basis for the interpretations presented in this paper. Several structures associated with base metal mineralization systems that were known at a local scale are here delineated at a larger scale; allowing the identification of areas displaying favorable geological settings for mineralization. This study demonstrates the usefulness of high-resolution airborne magnetic data for detailed structural interpretation and mineral exploration in geological contexts such as the Jameson Land Basin.

  14. Acoustic wipeouts over the continental margins off Krishna, Godavari and Mahanadi river basins, East coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, T.C.S.

    GEOLOGICAL SOClEn' OF iNDIA Vol. 35, June 1990, pp. 559 10 568 Acoustic wipeouts over the Continental Margins off Krishna, Godavari and Mahanadi River Basins, East Coast of India K. S. R. MURTHY AND T. C. S. RAO National Institute of Oceanography, Regional... Centre, Plot No. 52, Kirlampudi LayouI, Vishakapatnam 530023, India Abstract. Loss of seismic reflections, termed as acoustic wipeouts, are observed in lhe high resolution sparker seismic records over the continental shelf and slope of Krishna, Godavari...

  15. Coalbed methane potential and coal characteristics in the Lati region, Berau basin, East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Suwarna


    Full Text Available geological research was performed in the Berau Basin, to provide a better understanding on the potential and resources of coalbed methane (CBM in Berau Regency, East Kalimantan Province, particularly in the Lati Coalfield. Field observation conducted in the coalfield, shows that the banded to bright banded Lati coal is dominated by the bright banded one. Petrographically, the coal consists of vitrinite comprising typical telocollinite and desmocollinite; with rare to sparse exinite, and minor inertinite, and mineral matter. Geochemical analysis shows the range of volatile matter content is from 32.65–39.60%, total sulfur from 0.35–3.04%, ash varies between 2.78–14.50%, and moisture from 12.23–19.98%. Vitrinite reflectance values (Rv, varying from 0.42–0.57%, tend to indicate that the Lati coal rank ranges from sub-bituminous B to high volatile bituminous C category, with low ash content in general. Moreover, the coal maturity level, thermally immature to early mature, leads to the assumption that the expected gas present is suggested to be of biogenic origin. The fairly well cleated Lati coal shows cleat orientations trending north - northeastward, perpendicular to nearly oblique to the syncline axis. Furthermore, coal microcleat occurs as open tensional, sub-curved to curved lines microcracks, diagonally to perpendicular to bedding plane, but some are parallel to the bedding plane. An in-situ coal gas calculation tends to indicate a low to moderate methane content level, with a value of 44.20–47.08 scf/t. However, the Q1 plus Q2 calculation exhibits the gas content ranging from 41.69 to 78.71 scf/t. Moreover, total calculated gas in-place of the P, Q, and R Seams =  5.33 m3/t = 191.56 scf/t.    

  16. victoria cross awards warrants concerning the victoria cross (1920)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. In the military history of both the British Empire and of the Western World, the highest British military decoration, namely the Victoria Cross, has attained con- siderable renown. The Victoria Cross was introduced in terms of the Royal Warrant of 29 January,. 1856 and by 1957 a total of 1346 had been ...

  17. Conodont and fusulinid biostratigraphy and history of the Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian Keeler Basin, east-central California (United States)

    Stevens, C.H.; Stone, P.; Ritter, S.M.


    The Pennsylvanian-Lower Permian Keeler Canyon Formation and lower part of the Lower Permian Lone Pine Formation in east-central California were deposited in a deep-water basin that originated in the Morrowan (Early Pennsylvanian), was fully established by the Desmoinesian (Middle Pennsylvanian), and lasted into the Sakmarian (Early Permian). Stratigraphic studies indicate that the Keeler Canyon Formation can be divided into members recognizable throughout the area of our detailed mapping. From older to younger they are the Tinemaha Reservoir, Tihvipah Limestone, Cerro Gordo Spring, and Salt Tram Members. Rocks in this basin, here referred to as the Keeler basin, contain numerous fusulinid and conodont faunas most of which were deposited by sediment-gravity flows probably originating at the margin of the Bird Spring carbonate platform to the northeast. Sixty-one species of Atokan to Sakmarian fusulinids and 38 species of Desmoinesian to Sakmarian conodonts are recognized. These, in addition to four species of Morrowan conodonts previously reported, show that every stage from the Morrowan to Sakmarian is represented in the basin. The fusulinid faunas are composed largely of taxa of the North American craton, especially the south-central USA, with important endemic constituents and some McCloud Limestone forms, representing the Eastern Klamath terrane. Conodonts are closely similar to species in the Ural Mountains region of Russia and Kazakhstan, as well as the American midcontinent. The co-occurrence of fusulinids and conodonts in the Keeler basin results in a better correlation of zones based on these two groups of fossils than generally is possible.

  18. Paleofacies of Eocene Lower Ngimbang Source Rocks in Cepu Area, East Java Basin based on Biomarkers and Carbon-13 Isotopes (United States)

    Devi, Elok A.; Rachman, Faisal; Satyana, Awang H.; Fahrudin; Setyawan, Reddy


    The Eocene Lower Ngimbang carbonaceous shales are geochemically proven hydrocarbon source rocks in the East Java Basin. Sedimentary facies of source rock is important for the source evaluation that can be examined by using biomarkers and carbon-13 isotopes data. Furthermore, paleogeography of the source sedimentation can be reconstructed. The case study was conducted on rock samples of Lower Ngimbang from two exploration wells drilled in Cepu area, East Java Basin, Kujung-1 and Ngimbang-1 wells. The biomarker data include GC and GC-MS data of normal alkanes, isoprenoids, triterpanes, and steranes. Carbon-13 isotope data include saturate and aromatic fractions. Various crossplots of biomarker and carbon-13 isotope data of the Lower Ngimbang source samples from the two wells show that the source facies of Lower Ngimbang shales changed from transitional/deltaic setting at Kujung-1 well location to marginal marine setting at Ngimbang-1 well location. This reveals that the Eocene paleogeography of the Cepu area was composed of land area in the north and marine setting to the south. Biomarkers and carbon-13 isotopes are powerful data for reconstructing paleogeography and paleofacies. In the absence of fossils in some sedimentary facies, these geochemical data are good alternatives.

  19. Combining detrital geochronology and sedimentology to assess basin development in the Rukwa Rift of the East African Rift System (United States)

    Hilbert-Wolf, Hannah; Roberts, Eric; Mtelela, Cassy; Downie, Bob


    We have employed a multifaceted approach to sedimentary provenance analysis in order to assess the timing and magnitude of tectonic events, sedimentation, and landscape development in the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. Our approach, termed 'Sedimentary Triple Dating', integrates: (1) U-Pb dating via LA-ICPMS; (2) fission track; and (3) (U-Th)/He thermochronology of detrital zircon and apatite. We integrate geochronology, thermochronology, and provenance analysis to relate the initiation of rifting events to regional dynamic uplift, sedimentation patterns, and interpret the far-reaching climatic and evolutionary effects of fluctuating rift flank topography in the Rukwa Rift, a segment of the Western Branch. This work provides additional data to support the recent concept of synchronous development of the Western and Eastern branches of the East African Rift System ~25 Ma, and better constrains the age, location and provenance of subsequent rifting and sedimentation events in the Rukwa Rift Basin. Investigation of well cuttings and outcrop samples from the Neogene-Recent Lake Beds Succession in the Rukwa Rift Basin revealed a suite of previously unrecognized tuffaceous deposits at the base of the succession. A population of euhedral, magmatic zircons from a basal Lake Beds tuff and Miocene-Pliocene detrital zircons from well cuttings suggest that Neogene rift reactivation and volcanism began ~9-10 Ma. This timing is consistent with demonstrated rifting in Uganda and Malawi, as well as with the initiation of volcanism in the Rungwe Volcanic Province at the southern end of the Rukwa Rift, and the estimated development of Lake Tanganyika to the north. Moreover, there appear to be a suite of unconformity bounded stratigraphic units that make up the Lower Lake Beds succession, and detrital zircon maximum depositional ages from these units suggests episodic sedimentation in the rift, punctuated by long hiatuses or uplift, rather than steady subsidence and

  20. Geological controls on bedrock topography and ice sheet dynamics in the Wilkes Subglacial Basin sector of East Antarctica (United States)

    Ferraccioli, Fausto; Armadillo, Egidio; Young, Duncan; Blankenship, Donald; Jordan, Tom; Siegert, Martin


    The Wilkes Subglacial Basin extends for 1,400 km into the interior of East Antarctica and hosts several major glaciers that drain a large sector of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. The deep northern Wilkes Subglacial Basin underlies the catchments of the Matusevich, Cook, Ninnis and Mertz Glaciers, which are largely marine-based and hence potentially particularly sensitive to past and also predicted future ocean and climate warming. Sediment provenance studies suggest that the glaciers flowing in this region may have retreated significantly compared to their modern configuration, as recently as the warm mid-Pliocene interval, potentially contributing several m to global sea level rise (Cook et al.,Nature Geosci., 2013). Here we combine airborne radar, aeromagnetic and airborne gravity observations collected during the international WISE-ISODYN and ICECAP aerogeophysical campaigns with vintage datasets to help unveil subglacial geology and deeper crustal architecture and to assess its influence on bedrock topography and ice sheet dynamics in the northern Wilkes Subglacial Basin. Aeromagnetic images reveal that the Matusevich Glacier is underlain by a ca 480 Ma thrust fault system (the Exiles Thrust), which has also been inferred to have been reactivated in response to intraplate Cenozoic strike-slip faulting. Further to the west, the linear Eastern Basins are controlled by the Prince Albert Fault System. The fault system continues to the south, where it provides structural controls for both the Priestley and Reeves Glaciers. The inland Central Basins continue in the coastal area underlying the fast flowing Cook ice streams, implying that potential ocean-induced changes could propagate further into the interior of the ice sheet. We propose based on an analogy with the Rennick Graben that these deep subglacial basins are controlled by the underlying horst and graben crustal architecture. Given the interpreted subglacial distribution of Beacon sediments and Ferrar

  1. Hydrocarbon prospectivity of the east China Sea Basin, offshore China: A small independant's view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, M.L.; Wang, G.M. (Primeline Petroleum Corp. Ltd., London (United Kingdom)); Soulsby, A. (and others)


    The East China Sea Basin located offshore China, consists of a series of rift-related northeast-southwest trending fault blocks, tilt blocks, and half-graben structures characterized by en echelon type faulting which are key features for enhancing prospectivity in the area. A series of recent discoveries by China's Ministry of Geology (MOG) in the eastern portion of the basin (the Xihu Trough), have confirmed that significant potential does exist within the basin proper. However, exploration success within the western portion of the basin (the [open quotes]Inner graben system[close quotes]), has so far eluded foreign companies who were awarded eighteen lease blocks by the China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) in 1993. Key risks are perceived to be source rock related. Five of the eighteen leases totalling 23,500 square kilometers, are currently held and operated by Primeline Petroleum Corporation (PPC), a small independent based in London. Recent studies indicate the southern-most lease (Block 32/32) has significant potential for a future commercial discovery. Two wells, Lingfeng-1 and Shimentan-1, were drilled within the block by MOG in 1985 and 1987. The Lingfeng-1 well, encountered and recovered high quality crude (API = 48 degrees) but was never properly tested for commerciality. Both wells encountered good quality source and reservoir rocks. A total of eleven structural prospects have been defined within the block with potential recoverable reserves ranging from 114 to 276 MMBO per prospect. A test well is planned for the fall of 1996.

  2. Sedimentary provenance in response to Carboniferous arc-basin evolution of East Junggar and North Tianshan belts in the southwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Fu, Dong; Kusky, Timothy; Ruan, Kunpeng; Zhou, Wenxiao; Zhang, Xionghua


    The North Tianshan and East Junggar belts in north Xinjiang, China, are two key terranes for the Paleozoic tectonic reconstruction of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). However, their Carboniferous paleogeographic setting and arc-basin relationships remain disputed. To better-constrain these problems, we carried out an investigation on the provenance of Carboniferous sandstones from the Yaomoliang Formation in East Junggar and the Qijiaojing Formation in North Tianshan. Modal and geochemical analyses reveal that the sediments are mainly derived from arc-related terranes. Detrital zircon U-Pb age spectra show distinct differences between the East Junggar and North Tianshan belts. The upper Yaomoliang Formation has a Late Carboniferous depositional age (ca. 315 Ma) with a single peak spectrum of detrital zircon ages, which is similar with zircon ages from the igneous rocks and associated accretionary complexes in East Junggar belt, suggesting that it was probably derived from the East Junggar arc. The samples from the Qijiaojing Formation have Early Carboniferous depositional ages (ca. 330 Ma to 354 Ma). Their complicated detrital zircon age peaks resemble the detrital and igneous zircon ages from the Harlik-Dananhu arc, implying that their source terrane could be the Harlik-Dananhu arc, as revealed by the near-source petrographic and arc-derived geochemical features. In combination with our results and the published data, we suggest two distinctive Carboniferous arc-basin systems, the Kelamaili Ocean-related arc-basin which is characterized by the northward subduction beneath the East Junggar arc, and the Bogda intra-arc basin which evolved from splitting the previous Harlik-Dananhu arc by the rollback of the subducting North Tianshan oceanic plate. The sedimentary provenance evidence reveals that the Kelamaili Ocean has not closed until ca. 315 Ma. The multiple arc-basin systems in North Xinjiang indicate an archipelago-type subduction and accretionary

  3. within the lake victoria basin, tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriate pollution control measures should be taken though levels encountered are still within those recommended in the Tanzania Water Utilization (Control and Regulation). Amendment Act of1981 for receiving waters. ..... these vulnerable water bodies. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. The author would like to thank the ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufan Wiguna


    Full Text Available Two dimension (2D seismic profile of Baruna and Jaya lines at North-East Java Basin show seismic reflector characteristics that can be used to interpret sediment thickness and continuity. Those reflector characteristics that can be applied for seismic facies analysis that represent depositional environment. This study starts from seismic data processing that using Kirchhoff Post Stack Time Migration method which is 2D seismic profile as result. Seismic reflector characterization has been done to both 2D profiles. Seismic reflector characterization was grouped as (i individual reflection, (ii reflection  configuration, (iii reflection termination, (iv external form. Individual reflection characteristics show high and medium amplitude, medium and low frequency, and continuous. Configuration reflection is continuous with parallel and subparallel type. Reflection termination shows onlap, and external form shows sheet drape. Local mound appearance can be interpreted as paleo-reef. Facies seismic anlysis result for this study area is shelf.

  5. Composition and age of tertiary sills and dykes, Jameson Land Basin, East Greenland: relation to regional flood volcanism (United States)

    Hald, N.; Tegner, C.


    The Paleozoic-Mesozoic Jameson Land Basin (East Greenland) is intruded by a sill complex and by a swarm of ESE trending dykes. Together with dykes of the inner Scoresby Sund fjord, they form a regional Early Tertiary intrusive complex located ˜ 200-400 km inland of the East Greenland rifted continental margin. Most of the intrusive rocks in the Jameson Land Basin are geochemically coherent and consist of evolved plagioclase-augite-olivine saturated, uncontaminated high-Ti basalt with 48.5-50.2 wt.% SiO 2, 2.2-3.2 wt.% TiO 2, 5.1-7.4 wt.% MgO, 9-17 ppm Nb and La/Yb N = 2.8-3.6. Minor tholeiitic rock types are: (a) low-Ti basalt (˜ 49.7 wt.% SiO 2, ˜ 1.7 wt.% TiO 2, ˜ 6.8 wt.% MgO, ˜ 2.6 ppm Nb and La/Yb N = ˜0.5) akin to oceanic basalts; (b) very-high-Ti basalt (˜ 48.6 wt.% SiO 2, ˜ 4.1 wt.% TiO 2, ˜ 5.1 wt.% MgO and ˜ 21 ppm Nb); and (c) plagioclase ultraphyric basalt. The tholeiitic dolerites are cut by alkali basalt (43.7-47.3 wt.% SiO 2, 4.1-5.1 wt.% TiO 2, 4.9-6.2 wt.% MgO, 29-46 ppm Nb and La/Yb N = 16-17) sills and dykes. Modelling of high-field-strength and rare-earth elements indicate that the high-Ti basalts formed from ˜ 6-10% melting of approximately equal proportions of garnet-and spinel-bearing mantle of slightly depleted composition beneath thick continental lithosphere. Conversely, dolerite intrusions and flood basalts of similar compositional kindred from adjacent but more rift-proximal occurrences in Northeast Greenland formed from shallower melting of dominantly spinel-bearing mantle beneath extended and thinned continental lithosphere. These variations in lithospheric thickness suggest the continent-ocean transition of the East Greenland rifted volcanic margin is sharp and narrow. 40Ar- 39Ar dating and paleomagnetism show that the high-Ti dolerites were emplaced at ˜53-52 Ma (most likely during C23r) and hence surprisingly postdate the main flood volcanism by ˜ 2-5 Ma and the inception of seafloor spreading between Greenland and

  6. A note on geochemistry of surface sediments from Krishna-Godavari basin, East Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Parthiban, G.; PrakashBabu, C.; Khadge, N.H.; Paropkari, A.L.; Kodagali, V.N.

    A closely spaced 75 surface sediments drawn from ‘Gas Hydrate` Project taken up by National Institute of Oceanography on a regional scale from the Krishna-Godavari Basin (Latitude I5 degrees 35 minutes to 16 degrees 20 minutes N; Longitude 81...

  7. The effect of hydrothermal circulation on subsidence on ocean basins : evidence from the South East Indian Ocean (United States)

    Géli, L.; Francheteau, J.


    While it is generally accepted that off-axis hydrothermal circulation is responsible for the majority of the observed oceanic heat flow anomalies (e. g. for the "missing" conductive heatflow through oceanic lithosphere), the effect of water circulation on the subsidence of ocean basins at the scale of tens of millions years has not been thoroughly recognized. We present a very simple model (based on the half-space model) showing that, that in some particular circumstances, hydrothermal circulation may be held responsible for unexplained subsidence rate anomalies at the scale of ocean basins. An example is given for the poorly sedimented South-East Indian Ridge flanks of age Ma1/2 ) can be more readily explained by the observed sedimentation pattern and the subsequent pattern in hydrothermal circulation than by ad hoc variations in the mantle thermal parameters. Our model assumes that in absence of sedimentation, hydrothermal circulation convectively maintains low temperatures within the upper crust at ages as old as 20 to 30 Ma. Agreement with re-assesed subsidence estimates supports the model hypothesis.

  8. [The epilepsy of Guadalupe Victoria]. (United States)

    Soto-Pérez-de-Celis, Enrique


    Guadalupe Victoria, the first President of Mexico, passed away in 1843 uictim of an ailment that, at the time, was diagnosed as epilepsy. The clinical data and the pathologic findings, however, suggest the possibility that Victoria had an underlying disease that was responsible for the seizures that affected him. In this article I propose that Guadalupe Victoria had in fact Chagas Disease, and that he was infected with this parasitic malady while he lived in the tropical jungles of Veracruz, in eastern Mexico. Even though there aren't many published works regarding seizures secondary to chronic Chagas Disease, there are good descriptions of epileptic syndromes in patients with this infection. At the same time, the cardiac findings in Victoria's autopsy support the idea that he had some kind of cardiac pathology; in this case Chagasic dilated cardiomyopathy, which ultimately led to his death.

  9. VICTORIA'S SECRET Prepares for Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jordan K Speer


      After the upcoming holiday season, Victoria's Secret will take the first steps toward launching its e-commerce business on a cross-channel on-demand platform from partner n2N Commerce, a company...

  10. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the East Coast Mesozoic basins of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge Thrust Belt, Atlantic Coastal Plain, and New England Provinces, 2011 (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Coleman, James L.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.


    During the early opening of the Atlantic Ocean in the Mesozoic Era, numerous extensional basins formed along the eastern margin of the North American continent from Florida northward to New England and parts of adjacent Canada. The basins extend generally from the offshore Atlantic continental margin westward beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the Appalachian Mountains. Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean undiscovered natural gas resource of 3,860 billion cubic feet and a mean undiscovered natural gas liquids resource of 135 million barrels in continuous accumulations within five of the East Coast Mesozoic basins: the Deep River, Dan River-Danville, and Richmond basins, which are within the Piedmont Province of North Carolina and Virginia; the Taylorsville basin, which is almost entirely within the Atlantic Coastal Plain Province of Virginia and Maryland; and the southern part of the Newark basin (herein referred to as the South Newark basin), which is within the Blue Ridge Thrust Belt Province of New Jersey. The provinces, which contain these extensional basins, extend across parts of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts.

  11. Seismic anisotropy of oceanic islands in East Sea of Korea from P-receiver functions: Implication for tectonic origin of the backarc basin (United States)

    Kim, HyeJeong; Kim, YoungHee


    The volcanic islands (Dok, Ulleung, and Jeju islands) in East Sea of Korea sit on a backarc basin behind the Japan island arc. East Sea of Korea consists of three ocean basins (Ulleung, Japan, and Sato basins) formed since pre-Oligocene. Of the three basins, Ulleung Basin is least studied and only previously considered to include remnant continental block in the northern end of the basin, where Dok Island and Ulleung Island are located. We investigate seismic evidence of an ancient rifting in a lithospheric structure beneath the islands and eastern margin of Korean Peninsula using teleseismic P-to-S converted phases. Seismic anisotropy in particular can be a signature of the mantle flow during the subduction and extension process. By computing and modeling receiver functions, we retrieve detailed crustal and uppermost mantle structure and anisotropy, and use these geophysical results to understand the origin of the islands and the tectonic evolution of the back-arc basin. Our analysis shows three main results: (1) thicker than normal oceanic crust (˜20 km) beneath the islands; (2) a dipping Moho under Jeju and Ulleung islands; (3) a presence of lithospheric seismic anisotropy under Jeju Island. In particular, a strike of dipping Moho varies within Ulleung Island (extending 50 km laterally), which can be explained by isostacy. This evidence supports the existence of ancient continental block within northern part of Ulleung Basin. Strength of anisotropy under Jeju Island is approximately 10 % in both P- and S-wave velocities with fast symmetric axis in about N20˚ E within the crust. Three islands all show dissimilar seismological properties despite of their temporal proximity to the formation and opening of the backarc. This heterogeneous character of the region can be explained by the injection of mantle volatiles in response to the dynamics of the subduction system.

  12. An insight into asymmetric back-arc extension: Tecto-magmatic evidences from the Ulleung Basin, the East Sea (Sea of Japan) (United States)

    Kim, Gi Bom; Yoon, Seok-Hoon


    This paper presents an ancient example of asymmetric back-arc extension found in the Ulleung Basin, the southwestern East Sea (Sea of Japan). The paper focuses on the formative processes of variable asymmetric features of the basin and on their relationship to the style of lithospheric stretching. In the Ulleung Basin, features resulting from asymmetric back-arc extension include: 1) the syn-extensional volcanism concentrated to the northern flank of the basin, 2) the overwhelming number of north-dipping syn-extensional normal faults, 3) the style of boundary faults different between the northern and southern conjugate margins, and 4) the thickness of the crust and the depth to the Moho discontinuity that together decrease toward north. We argue that the fundamental control of such asymmetric features was the simple-shear-style lithospheric extension, which presumably involved a crustal detachment, the mid-crustal extension of north-dipping syn-extensional listric normal faults. By the simple-shear-style extension, syn-extensional faults evolved to dip toward north, and at the same time volcanic activities that had been initially widespread throughout the basin became to concentrate to the north of the basin. The northward deviantion of volcanic centers and the zone underlain by maximally attenuated crust (possibly the extinct spreading center) might be the result of separation between the loci of basin subsidence and asthenospheric upwelling that is common in simple-shear cases.

  13. [Contamination Assessment and Sources Analysis of Soil Heavy Metals in Opencast Mine of East Junggar Basin in Xinjiang]. (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Yang, Jian-jun; Wang, Jun; Wang, Guo; Cao, Yue-e


    The opencast mine of East Junggar Basin in Xinjiang is the largest self-contained coalfield in China, and the ecological environment of the opencast is very fragile because of its arid climate and poor soil. In this study, 50 soil samples (from 0 to 30 cm depth soil at intervals of 10 cm) in opencast Mine of East Junggar Basin in Xinjiang were collected in order to explore the heavy metals contamination of the coal mining. The contents of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) were measured and the degree of pollution was assessed by Nemerow index, geo-accumulation (Igeo) index and potential ecological risk index. In addition, the layered comparison, dust fall and the distance between coal mine and samples location were used to analyze the source of heavy metals contamination. The results showed that value of As surpassed the Chinese soil quality standard class I (GB 15618-1995) mostly severely, followed by Cr, a relatively lower surpass was obtained by Hg and Cu, while Zn and Pb did not surpass the standard. According to the standard, the soil heavy metals content of research region was in light pollution status and the pollution index for each heavy metal followed the order of As (2.07) > Cr (0.95) > Cu (0.55) > Zn (0.48) > Hg (0.45) > Pb (0.38), which demonstrated a heavy pollution of As and clean status of others. Additionally, an Igeo value of 1.14 for Hg reflected a moderated pollution. The major contribution factor was Hg with a risk index of 251.40. The source analysis showed that the content of Pb in the surface soil (10-20 cm) was different from that in the deep layer (20-30 cm), which may be caused by coal combustion and other human activities. The sources of Hg and As were similar and may come from coal combustion. The distance to the mining area was not the major factor affecting the diffusion of heavy metals, other candidate factors included terrain, aspect and wind direction, etc.

  14. Distribution of sulfur and pyrite in coal seams from Kutai Basin (East Kalimantan, Indonesia): Implications for paleoenvironmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widodo, Sri [Department of Mining Engineering, Moslem University of Indonesia, Jln. Urip Sumoharjo, Makassar (Indonesia); Oschmann, Wolfgang [Institute of Geosciece, J.W. Goethe-University, Altenhoeferallee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany); Bechtel, Achim; Sachsenhofer, Reinhard F. [Department of Applied Geoscience and Geophysics, University of Leoben, Peter-Tunner-Str.5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Anggayana, Komang [Department of Mining Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jln. Ganesa 10, I-40132 Bandung (Indonesia); Puettmann, Wilhelm [Institute of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Dapartment of Analytical Enviromental Chemistry, J.W. Goethe-University, Altenhoeferallee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany)


    Thirteen Miocene coal samples from three active open pit and underground coal mines in the Kutai Basin (East Kalimantan, Indonesia) were collected. According to our microscopical and geochemical investigations, coal samples from Sebulu and Centra Busang coal mines yield high sulfur and pyrite contents as compared to the Embalut coal mine. The latter being characterized by very low sulfur (< 1%) and pyrite contents. The ash, mineral, total sulfur, iron (Fe) and pyrite contents of most of the coal samples from the Sebulu and Centra Busang coal mines are high and positively related in these samples. Low contents of ash, mineral, total sulfur, iron (Fe) and pyrite have been found only in sample TNT-32 from Centra Busang coal mine. Pyrite was the only sulfur form that we could recognize under reflected light microscope (oil immersion). Pyrite occurred in the coal as framboidal, euhedral, massive, anhedral and epigenetic pyrite in cleats/fractures. High concentration of pyrite argues for the availability of iron (Fe) in the coal samples. Most coal samples from the Embalut coal mine show lower sulfur (< 1 wt.%) and pyrite contents as found within Centra Busang and Sebulu coals. One exception is the coal sample KTD-38 from Embalut mine with total sulfur content of 1.41 wt.%. The rich ash, mineral, sulfur and pyrite contents of coals in the Kutai Basin (especially Centra Busang and Sebulu coals) can be related to the volcanic activity (Nyaan volcanic) during Tertiary whereby aeolian material was transported to the mire during or after the peatification process. Moreover, the adjacent early Tertiary deep marine sediment, mafic igneous rocks and melange in the center of Kalimantan Island might have provided mineral to the coal by uplift and erosion. The inorganic matter in the mire might also originate from the ground and surface water from the highland of central Kalimantan. (author)

  15. Soils and late-Quaternary landscape evolution in the Cottonwood River basin, east-central Kansas: Implications for archaeological research (United States)

    Beeton, J.M.; Mandel, R.D.


    Temporal and spatial patterns of landscape evolution strongly influence the temporal and spatial patterns of the archaeological record in drainage systems. In this geoarchaeological investigation we took a basin-wide approach in assessing the soil stratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, and geochronology of alluvial deposits and associated buried soils in the Cottonwood River basin of east-central Kansas. Patterns of landscape evolution emerge when stratigraphic sequences and radiocarbon chronologies are compared by stream size and landform type. In the valleys of high-order streams (???4th order) the Younger Dryas Chronozone (ca. 11,000-10,000 14C yr B.P.) was characterized by slow aggradation accompanied by pedogenesis, resulting in the development of organic-rich cumulic soils. Between ca. 10,000 and 4900 14C yr B.P., aggradation punctuated by soil formation was the dominant process in those valleys. Alluvial fans formed on the margins of high-order stream valleys during the early and middle Holocene (ca. 9000-5000 14C yr B.P.) and continued to develop slowly until ca. 3000-2000 14C yr B.P. The late-Holocene record of high-order streams is characterized by episodes of entrenchment, rapid aggradation, and slow aggradation punctuated by soil development. By contrast, the early and middle Holocene (ca. 10,000-5000 14C yr B.P.) was a period of net erosion in the valleys of low-order streams. However, during the late Holocene small valleys became zones of net sediment storage. Consideration of the effects of these patterns of landscape evolution on the archaeological record is crucial for accurately interpreting that record and searching for buried archaeological deposits dating to specific cultural periods. ?? 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ?? 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc..

  16. Particle Size (Sieving) and Enthalpy (Acid Calorimetry) Analysis of Single-Pull K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PR Bredt; CH Delegard; AJ Schmidt; KL Silvers; BM Thornton; S Gano


    This report presents the results of particle size analyses and calorimetry testing performed on selected single-pull sludge samples collected from the Hanford K East Basin between December 1998 and June 1999. The samples were collected as isolated cores predominantly from areas that had not been previously sampled (e.g., North Loadout Pit, Dummy Elevator Pit, Tech View Pit), or from areas in which the sludge composition had been altered since the last sampling (e.g., Weasel Pit). Particle size analyses were performed by washing wet sludge samples through a series of four sieves with openings of 250, 500, 1410, and 4000 {micro}m. The loaded sieves were weighed before and after drying to obtain wet and dry particle size distributions. Knowledge of the particle size distribution is needed to design and predict the performance of the systems that will be used to retrieve, transport, and recover sludge. Also, sieving provides an opportunity to observe the components in the sludge. For example, during sieving of the sludge sample from the North Loadout Pit, significant quantities of organic ion exchange beads were observed. The uranium metal content and the particle size of the uranium metal in the K Basin sludge will largely determine the chemical reactivity of the sludge. In turn, the designs for the sludge handling and storage systems must be compatible with the reactivity of the sludge. Therefore, acid calorimetry was performed to estimate the uranium metal content of the sludge. For this testing, sludge samples were dissolved in nitric acid within a calibrated adiabatic calorimeter. The resulting dissolution enthalpy data were then used to discriminate between metallic uranium ({minus}3750 J/g in nitric acid) and uranium oxide ({minus}394 J/g in nitric acid). Results from this testing showed that the single-pull sludge samples contained little or no uranium metal.

  17. Geophysical evidence and inferred triggering factors of submarine landslides on the western continental margin of the Ulleung Basin, East Sea (United States)

    Cukur, Deniz; Kim, Seong-Pil; Kong, Gee-Soo; Bahk, Jang-Jun; Horozal, Senay; Um, In-Kwon; Lee, Gwang-Soo; Chang, Tae-Soo; Ha, Hun-Jun; Völker, David; Kim, Jung-Ki


    Submarine landslides form very complex depositional and erosional features on the seafloor, and their dynamics and triggering processes are yet to be understood completely. Numerous studies are being undertaken both because of the scientific significance but also for their potential harm to seafloor infrastructure and coastal areas. This study investigates the styles and causes of landsliding along the western margin of the Ulleung Basin in the East Sea, based on multiple sparker, subbottom profiler, multibeam echosounder and sediment core datasets collected in 2015. The bathymetric analyses indicate that the southern slope of the Ulleung Basin has experienced at least seven submarine failures. These failures left clear arcuate-shaped scarps that initiated at water depths of 600 m. The observed headwall scarps have heights that exceed 60 m and appear to be the result of retrogressive-type failures. Seismic reflection data clearly image the basal sliding surface that is characterized by a prominent high-amplitude reflector. Chaotic-to-transparent seismic facies occur immediately downslope of the headwall scarps; these represent 20 m thick landslide deposits. Gravity cores taken from areas adjacent to the scars suggest that these slides are older than ca. 97 ka. Interpretation of the present data shows that faults appear to cut recent sediments upslope of scarps, and that the slope may still be in an active phase of failure. Seismic data also image various overpressurized gases and/or gas fluids, as evidenced by the occurrence of pockmarks and seismic chimneys in upslope or adjacent areas of the scarps. Hence, earthquakes associated with tectonic activity and development of fluid overpressure may have acted as the main conditioning factor for destabilizing the slope sediments. Geotechnical stability analyses indicate that the sampled slope sediments are exceptionally stable under present-day conditions, even under seismic loading. This finding points to additional

  18. Evaluation of the Gas Production Potential of Marine HydrateDeposits in the Ulleung Basin of the Korean East Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, George J.; Reagan, Matthew T.; Kim, Se-Joon; Seol,Yongkoo; Zhang, Keni


    Although significant hydrate deposits are known to exist in the Ulleung Basin of the Korean East Sea, their survey and evaluation as a possible energy resource has not yet been completed. However, it is possible to develop preliminary estimates of their production potential based on the limited data that are currently available. These include the elevation and thickness of the Hydrate-Bearing Layer (HBL), the water depth, and the water temperature at the sea floor. Based on this information, we developed estimates of the local geothermal gradient that bracket its true value. Reasonable estimates of the initial pressure distribution in the HBL can be obtained because it follows closely the hydrostatic. Other critical information needs include the hydrate saturation, and the intrinsic permeabilities of the system formations. These are treated as variables, and sensitivity analysis provides an estimate of their effect on production. Based on the geology of similar deposits, it is unlikely that Ulleung Basin accumulations belong to Class 1 (involving a HBL underlain by a mobile gas zone). If Class 4 (disperse, low saturation accumulations) deposits are involved, they are not likely to have production potential. The most likely scenarios include Class 2 (HBL underlain by a zone of mobile water) or Class 3 (involving only an HBL) accumulations. Assuming nearly impermeable confining boundaries, this numerical study indicates that large production rates (several MMSCFD) are attainable from both Class 2 and Class 3 deposits using conventional technology. The sensitivity analysis demonstrates the dependence of production on the well design, the production rate, the intrinsic permeability of the HBL, the initial pressure, temperature and hydrate saturation, as well as on the thickness of the water zone (Class 2). The study also demonstrates that the presence of confining boundaries is indispensable for the commercially viable production of gas from these deposits.

  19. A Floristic Study of Hamun Lake Basin, South East of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Keshavarzi


    Full Text Available Lake Hamun is the largest freshwater resource in Iran with area of about 3820 km2. The present study aims to evaluate the floristic elements of the studied site. Plant samples were gathered from nature, from March to July at the growing season. Life form and chorotype of plants in Lake Hamun basin were investigated. Totally 128 plant species belonging to 80 genera and 30 families were identified. Families as Poaceae, Amaranthaceae and Fabaceae were the most dominant and frequent families. Considering biological types revealed that the most frequent forms were therophytes (61% and hemicryptophytes (17%. Floristic elements of the area were mainly Iranotouranian mixed with Saharo-Arabian and Sindu-Sudanian types, although multi- and bi- regional elements were also frequent. As the lake has recently become an international conserved area, the complete biological and ecological study of the site is a necessity.

  20. Lower Tertiary Sedimentary Turbidite Facies at the Chicontepec Basin, East-Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santillán-Piña N.


    Full Text Available The study area comprises the northwestern portion of the Chicontepec Basin at southeastern San Luis Potosí and northeastern Hidalgo States. At the stratigraphy sequences of the Chicontepec Formation from Lower Paleocene in isolated outocrops, were herein interpreted two major sedimentary sub-environments into the fan model: the middle and the external sedimentary settings; the applied criteria for their identification were: (a lithostratigraphic (thickness, geometry and distribution; (b internal and external primary sedimentary structures, and (c intra-formational deformation structures. The sedimentary facies are composed of siliciclastic and calcareous particles sourced from the Sierra Madre Oriental, western; the Tuxpan paleo-island, eastern; and from the Teziutlan Massif, southern; the sediments were massively transported by slideing, slumping, flow debris and turbidity currents, then deposited as massive, tabular, lenticular and lobely in shape at the slope foot and on the sea marine floor.

  1. The Lake Victoria Intense Storm Early Warning System (VIEWS) (United States)

    Thiery, Wim; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Bedka, Kristopher; Semazzi, Fredrick; Lhermitte, Stef; Willems, Patrick; van Lipzig, Nicole; Seneviratne, Sonia I.


    Weather extremes have harmful impacts on communities around Lake Victoria in East Africa. Every year, intense nighttime thunderstorms cause numerous boating accidents on the lake, resulting in thousands of deaths among fishermen. Operational storm warning systems are therefore crucial. Here we complement ongoing early warning efforts based on NWP, by presenting a new satellite data-driven storm prediction system, the prototype Lake Victoria Intense storm Early Warning System (VIEWS). VIEWS derives predictability from the correlation between afternoon land storm activity and nighttime storm intensity on Lake Victoria, and relies on logistic regression techniques to forecast extreme thunderstorms from satellite observations. Evaluation of the statistical model reveals that predictive power is high and independent of the input dataset. We then optimise the configuration and show that also false alarms contain valuable information. Our results suggest that regression-based models that are motivated through process understanding have the potential to reduce the vulnerability of local fishing communities around Lake Victoria. The experimental prediction system is publicly available under the MIT licence at

  2. Early warnings of hazardous thunderstorms over Lake Victoria (United States)

    Thiery, Wim; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Bedka, Kristopher; Semazzi, Fredrick H. M.; Lhermitte, Stef; Willems, Patrick; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.


    Weather extremes have harmful impacts on communities around Lake Victoria in East Africa. Every year, intense nighttime thunderstorms cause numerous boating accidents on the lake, resulting in thousands of deaths among fishermen. Operational storm warning systems are therefore crucial. Here we complement ongoing early warning efforts based on numerical weather prediction, by presenting a new satellite data-driven storm prediction system, the prototype Lake Victoria Intense storm Early Warning System (VIEWS). VIEWS derives predictability from the correlation between afternoon land storm activity and nighttime storm intensity on Lake Victoria, and relies on logistic regression techniques to forecast extreme thunderstorms from satellite observations. Evaluation of the statistical model reveals that predictive power is high and independent of the type of input dataset. We then optimise the configuration and show that false alarms also contain valuable information. Our results suggest that regression-based models that are motivated through process understanding have the potential to reduce the vulnerability of local fishing communities around Lake Victoria. The experimental prediction system is publicly available under the MIT licence at

  3. Correlation of Pliocene and Pleistocene tephra layers between the Turkana Basin of East Africa and the Gulf of Aden (United States)

    Brown, F.H.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Meyer, C.E.; Haileab, B.


    Electron-microprobe analyses of glass shards from volcanic ash in Pliocene and Pleistocene deep-sea sediments in the Gulf of Aden and the Somali Basin demonstrate that most of the tephra layers correlate with tephra layers known on land in the Turkana Basin of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia. Previous correlations are reviewed, and new correlations proposed. Together these data provide correlations between the deep-sea cores, and to the land-based sections at eight levels ranging in age from about 4 to 0.7 Ma. Specifically, we correlate the Moiti Tuff (???4.1 Ma) with a tephra layer at 188.6 m depth in DSDP hole 231 and with a tephra layer at 150 m depth in DSDP hole 241, the Wargolo Tuff with a tephra layer at 179.7 m in DSDP Hole 231 and with a tephra layer at 155.3 m depth in DSDP Hole 232, the Lomogol Tuff (defined here) with a tephra layer at 165 m in DSDP Hole 232A, the Lokochot Tuff with a tephra layer at 140.1 m depth in DSDP Hole 232, the Tulu Bor Tuff with a tephra layer at 160.8 m depth in DSDP Hole 231, the Kokiselei Tuff with a tephra layer at 120 m depth in DSDP Hole 231 and with a tephra layer at 90.3 m depth in DSDP Hole 232, the Silbo Tuff (0.74 Ma) with a tephra layer at 35.5 m depth in DSDP Hole 231 and possibly with a tephra layer at 10.9 m depth in DSDP Hole 241. We also present analyses of other tephra from the deep sea cores for which correlative units on land are not yet known. The correlated tephra layers provide eight chronostratigraphic horizons that make it possible to temporally correlate paleoecological and paleoclimatic data between the terrestrial and deep-sea sites. Such correlations may make it possible to interpret faunal evolution in the Lake Turkana basin and other sites in East Africa within a broader regional or global paleoclimatic context. ?? 1992.

  4. Evaporation mapping at two scales using optical imagery in the White Volta Basin, Upper East Ghana (United States)

    Compaoré, Halidou; Hendrickx, Jan M. H.; Hong, Sung-ho; Friesen, Jan; van de Giesen, Nick C.; Rodgers, Charles; Szarzynski, Joerg; Vlek, Paul L. G.

    Maps of regional distributions of evaporation provide critical information on the interactions between land surface and the atmosphere since they allow (i) to follow where, when, and how much water has moved into the atmosphere by evaporation; (ii) to monitor crop performance and the effects of droughts for famine prediction; (iii) to better evaluate the performance of irrigation systems; and (iv) to improve weather predictions. Since evaporation is subject to rapid changes in time and space, it is nearly impossible to determine its spatial and temporal distributions over large areas from ground measurements alone. Therefore, estimation from remote sensing images is very attractive as it enables extensive area coverage and a high repetition rate. In this study, the surface energy balance algorithm for land (SEBAL) is used to map evaporation in the White Volta Basin of Ghana, West Africa, at the start and at the end of the dry season using Landsat and MODIS images. The study objective is to use an independently developed land use/land cover (LULC) map for the evaluation and qualitative validation of SEBAL for evaporation mapping at spatial scales of 30 m (Landsat) and 1000 m (MODIS). The results of this study demonstrate that SEBAL is an accurate algorithm for mapping evaporation over tropical areas where few or no ground measurements are available using common satellite products such as Landsat and MODIS.

  5. The Lower Triassic Sorkh Shale Formation of the Tabas Block, east central Iran: Succesion of a failed-rift basin at the Paleotethys margin (United States)

    Lasemi, Y.; Ghomashi, M.; Amin-Rasouli, H.; Kheradmand, A.


    The Lower Triassic Sorkh Shale Formation is a dominantly red colored marginal marine succession deposited in the north-south trending Tabas Basin of east central Iran. It is correlated with the unconformity-bounded lower limestone member of the Elika Formation of the Alborz Mountains of northern Iran. The Sorkh Shale is bounded by the pre-Triassic and post-Lower Triassic interregional unconformities and consists mainly of carbonates, sandstones, and evaporites with shale being a minor constituent. Detailed facies analysis of the Sorkh Shale Formation resulted in recognition of several genetically linked peritidal facies that are grouped into restricted subtidal, carbonate tidal flat, siliciclastic tidal flat, coastal plain and continental evaporite facies associations. These were deposited in a low energy, storm-dominated inner-ramp setting with a very gentle slope that fringed the Tabas Block of east central Iran and passed northward (present-day coordinates) into deeper water facies of the Paleotethys passive margin of northern Cimmerian Continent. Numerous carbonate storm beds containing well-rounded intraclasts, ooids and bioclasts of mixed fauna are present in the Sorkh Shale Formation of the northern Tabas Basin. The constituents of the storm beds are absent in the fair weather peritidal facies of the Sorkh Shale Formation, but are present throughout the lower limestone member of the Elika Formation. The Tabas Block, a part of the Cimmerian continent in east central Iran, is a rift basin that developed during Early Ordovician-Silurian Paleotethys rifting. Facies and sequence stratigraphic analyses of the Sorkh Shale Formation has revealed additional evidence supporting the Tabas Block as a failed rift basin related to the Paleotethys passive margin. Absence of constituents of the storm beds in the fair weather peritidal facies of the Sorkh Shale Formation, presence of the constituents of the storm beds in the fair weather facies of the Elika Formation (the

  6. Special Issue on Lake Victoria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diversity of benthic mollusks of Lake Victoria and Lake Burigi · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JA Mwambungu, 21-32. ...

  7. Environmental impact studies for gas hydrate production test in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea of Korea (United States)

    Ryu, Byong-Jae


    To develop potential future energy resources, the Korean National Gas Hydrate Program has been carried out since 2005. The program has been supported by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE), and carried out by the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), the Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) and the Korea National Oil Corporation (KNOC) under the management of Gas Hydrate R&D Organization (GHDO). As a part of this national program, geophysical surveys, geological studies on gas hydrates and two deep drilling expeditions were performed. Gas hydrate-bearing sand layers suitable for production using current technologies were found during the Second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate Drilling Expedition (UBGH2) in 2010. Environmental impact studies (EIS) also have been carried out since 2012 by KIGAM in cooperation with domestic and foreign universities and research organizations to ensure safe production test that will be performed in near future. The schedule of production test is being planned. The EIS includes assessment of environmental risks, examination on domestic environmental laws related with production test, collection of basic oceanographic information, and baseline and monitoring surveys. Oceanographic information and domestic environmental laws are already collected and analyzed. Baseline survey has been performed using the in-house developed system, KIGAM Seafloor Observation System (KISOS) since 2013. It will also be performed. R/V TAMHAE II of KIGAM used for KISOS operation. As a part of this EIS, pseudo-3D Chirp survey also was carried out in 2014 to determine the development of fault near the potential testing site. Using KIGAM Seafloor Monitoring System (KIMOS), monitoring survey is planned to be performed from three month before production test to three months after production test. The geophysical survey for determining the change of gas hydrate reservoirs and production-efficiency around the production well would also be

  8. Variability of mineral dust deposition in the western Mediterranean basin and south-east of France (United States)

    Vincent, Julie; Laurent, Benoit; Losno, Rémi; Bon Nguyen, Elisabeth; Roullet, Pierre; Sauvage, Stéphane; Chevaillier, Servanne; Coddeville, Patrice; Ouboulmane, Noura; di Sarra, Alcide Giorgio; Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio; Sferlazzo, Damiano; Massanet, Ana; Triquet, Sylvain; Morales Baquero, Rafael; Fornier, Michel; Coursier, Cyril; Desboeufs, Karine; Dulac, François; Bergametti, Gilles


    provenance, transport and deposition processes (i.e. wet vs. dry) of dust are different and specific for the different deposition sites in the Mediterranean studied area. The results tend to indicate that wet deposition is the main form of deposition for mineral dust in the western Mediterranean basin, but the contribution of dry deposition (in the sense that no precipitation was detected at the surface) is far from being negligible, and contributes 10 to 46 % to the major dust deposition events, depending on the sampling site.

  9. SeamountFlux: Investigation of the hydrothermal pit hypothesis (Guatemala Basin, East Pacific) (United States)

    Schmidt-Schierhorn, F.; Kaul, N. E.; Pichler, T.; Schwab, A.; Stephan, S.; Villinger, H. W.


    The scientific goal of the project "SeamountFlux" is to study a process which can possibly contribute significantly to large scale cooling of the oceanic crust. The focus of the study is to investigate the exchange of matter and energy between the ocean and the upper young oceanic crust in the vicinity of unexplained circular depressions in the sedimentary cover which are widely spread in the equatorial Pacific. A possible model for the formation of these so-called "hydrothermal pits" is the dissolution of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals by upward flowing warm fluids, which are under-saturated in CaCO3. Seamounts are suspected to act as an entrance point for cold seawater, which then equilibrates with the basaltic oceanic crust prior to exiting through the pits. Such a process must affect the thermal structure in and around the pits as well as the geochemistry of the pore water. During cruise SO207 (June/July 2010 on the German RV Sonne) in the vicinity of ODP/IODP Site 1256 and ODP site 844 (Guatemala Basin, eastern equatorial Pacific) we mapped the pits with acoustic methods (bathymetry, sediment echo sounding and single channel seismic). Profiles of heat flow measurements covered the pits and their vicinities. Pore water and sediment samples were additionally recovered through gravity coring on these profiles. The acoustic mapping showed that most hydrothermal pits are about 100 to 150 m deep with a diameter of about 1 km. Heat flow measurements (140 in total on nine profiles) around seamounts confirm that they act as pathways for cold seawater which leads to a large cooling effect in the vicinity of the seamount with heat flow values even below 10 mW/m2. All heat flow values inside the pits show values up to five times higher than background values around the pits. A first geochemical analysis of pore waters from cores, recovered from within and outside of the pits does not support the hypothesis of dissolution processes. Further analysis is underway. With

  10. Variability of mineral dust deposition in the western Mediterranean basin and south-east of France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent


    than 80 % of the major dust deposition events are recorded at only one station, suggesting that the dust provenance, transport and deposition processes (i.e. wet vs. dry of dust are different and specific for the different deposition sites in the Mediterranean studied area. The results tend to indicate that wet deposition is the main form of deposition for mineral dust in the western Mediterranean basin, but the contribution of dry deposition (in the sense that no precipitation was detected at the surface is far from being negligible, and contributes 10 to 46 % to the major dust deposition events, depending on the sampling site.

  11. SeamountFlux: Pore water geochemistry and sediment characteristics (Guatemala Basin, East Pacific) (United States)

    Pichler, T.; Poonchai, W.; Schmidt-Schierhorn, F.; Villinger, H. W.


    The scientific goal of the project "SeamountFlux" is to study a process, which can possibly contribute significantly to large scale cooling of the oceanic crust. The focus of the study is to investigate the exchange of matter and energy between the ocean and the upper young oceanic crust in the vicinity of unexplained circular depressions in the sedimentary cover, which are widely spread in the equatorial Pacific. A possible model for the formation of these so-called "hydrothermal pits" is the dissolution of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals by upward flowing warm fluids, which are under-saturated in CaCO3. Seamounts are suspected to act as an entrance point for cold seawater, which then equilibrates with the basaltic oceanic crust prior to exiting through the pits. Such a process should affect the thermal structure in and around the pits as well as the geochemistry of the pore water. During cruise SO207 (June/July 2010 on the German RV Sonne) in the vicinity of ODP/IODP Site 1256 and ODP site 844 (Guatemala Basin, eastern equatorial Pacific) we collected 24 gravity cores varying in length between 3.3 m and 10.6 m from 3 distinct working areas. The cores were generally taken along a transect, starting in the center of a pit, across the pit slope to the surrounding seafloor. From these cores a total of 451 pore water samples were collected and analyzed onboard (pH, Eh, Fe, NH4 and alkalinity), as well as in the laboratory (Cl, SO4, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Sr and Mn). First results do not show any obvious evidence for the "hydrothermal" hypotheses. Pore water profiles were more or less identical, whether collected from within or from outside a pit. Chloride, SO4, Na, Mg, K, Ca, and Sr concentrations were identical to those in seawater. Particularly higher Ca and Sr concentrations were to be expected if calcium carbonate dissolution took place within the sediments. With respect to sediment composition and physico-chemical conditions in the pore waters, we observed larger

  12. Sedimentary architecture of a sub-lacustrine debris fan: Eocene Dongying Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, east China (United States)

    Liu, Jianping; Xian, Benzhong; Wang, Junhui; Ji, Youliang; Lu, Zhiyong; Liu, Saijun


    The sedimentary architectures of submarine/sublacustrine fans are controlled by sedimentary processes, geomorphology and sediment composition in sediment gravity flows. To advance understanding of sedimentary architecture of debris fans formed predominantly by debris flows in deep-water environments, a sub-lacustrine fan (Y11 fan) within a lacustrine succession has been identified and studied through the integration of core data, well logging data and 3D seismic data in the Eocene Dongying Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, east China. Six types of resedimented lithofacies can be recognized, which are further grouped into five broad lithofacies associations. Quantification of gravity flow processes on the Y11 fan is suggested by quantitative lithofacies analysis, which demonstrates that the fan is dominated by debris flows, while turbidity currents and sandy slumps are less important. The distribution, geometry and sedimentary architecture are documented using well data and 3D seismic data. A well-developed depositional lobe with a high aspect ratio is identified based on a sandstone isopach map. Canyons and/or channels are absent, which is probably due to the unsteady sediment supply from delta-front collapse. Distributary tongue-shaped debris flow deposits can be observed at different stages of fan growth, suggesting a lobe constructed by debrite tongue complexes. Within each stage of the tongue complexes, architectural elements are interpreted by wireline log motifs showing amalgamated debrite tongues, which constitute the primary fan elements. Based on lateral lithofacies distribution and vertical sequence analysis, it is proposed that lakefloor erosion, entrainment and dilution in the flow direction lead to an organized distribution of sandy debrites, muddy debrites and turbidites on individual debrite tongues. Plastic rheology of debris flows combined with fault-related topography are considered the major factors that control sediment distribution and fan

  13. Heterotrophic bacterial production, respiration, and growth efficiency associated with upwelling intensity in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea (United States)

    Kim, Bomina; Kim, Sung-Han; Kwak, Jung Hyun; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Sang Heon; Hyun, Jung-Ho


    We investigated bacterial production (BP) and respiration (BR), as well as the physico-chemical properties of the water column, to elucidate the effect of upwelling on heterotrophic bacterial metabolic activities and growth efficiency (BGE) in July 2012 and May 2013 in the Ulleung Basin (UB), East/Japan Sea. The upwelled conditions were characterized by higher chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations resulting from the upward shift of the nitracline compared to that of the non-upwelled condition. Analyses of the size fractions of Chl-a and pigment composition revealed that large size phytoplankton (> 20 μm), mainly consisting of diatoms, appeared to be the major phytoplankton component. BP and BR were significantly correlated with Chl-a (P 0.05). These results suggest that bacterial metabolic activities are stimulated by the availability of organic resources enhanced by upwelling in the UB. Further statistical analysis showed that the difference in BP and BGE with variations in upwelling intensity were significant (P = 0.018 for BP, P = 0.035 for BGE), but the difference in BR was not significant (P = 0.321). These results suggest that metabolic energy is partitioned more for BP under a strong upwelling condition, i.e. high nutrient and Chl-a conditions. In contrast, the energy generated via respiration was partitioned more for maintaining metabolism rather than for biomass production under weakly or non-upwelled conditions, i.e. stratified and low Chl-a conditions. Overall, our results suggest that any changes in upwelling intensity would significantly affect the carbon cycle associated with the fate of primary production, and the role of the microbial loop in the UB where changes in the intensity and frequency of upwelling associated with climatic changes are in progress.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Fisher; Eugene M. Kim


    A detailed natural gas ultimate recovery growth (URG) analysis of the Texas Gulf Coast Basin and East Texas has been undertaken. The key to such analysis was determined to be the disaggregation of the resource base to the play level. A play is defined as a conceptual geologic unit having one or more reservoirs that can be genetically related on the basis of depositional origin of the reservoir, structural or trap style, source rocks and hydrocarbon generation, migration mechanism, seals for entrapment, and type of hydrocarbon produced. Plays are the geologically homogeneous subdivision of the universe of petroleum pools within a basin. Therefore, individual plays have unique geological features that can be used as a conceptual model that incorporates geologic processes and depositional environments to explain the distribution of petroleum. Play disaggregation revealed important URG trends for the major natural gas fields in the Texas Gulf Coast Basin and East Texas. Although significant growth and future potential were observed for the major fields, important URG trends were masked by total, aggregated analysis based on a broad geological province. When disaggregated by plays, significant growth and future potential were displayed for plays that were associated with relatively recently discovered fields, deeper reservoir depths, high structural complexities due to fault compartmentalization, reservoirs designated as tight gas/low-permeability, and high initial reservoir pressures. Continued technology applications and advancements are crucial in achieving URG potential in these plays.

  15. Mid-Cretaceous aeolian desert systems in the Yunlong area of the Lanping Basin, China: Implications for palaeoatmosphere dynamics and paleoclimatic change in East Asia (United States)

    Li, Gaojie; Wu, Chihua; Rodríguez-López, Juan Pedro; Yi, Haisheng; Xia, Guoqing; Wagreich, Michael


    The mid-Cretaceous constitutes a period of worldwide atmospheric and oceanic change associated with slower thermohaline circulation and ocean anoxic events, possible polar glaciations and by a changing climate pattern becoming controlled by a zonal planetary wind system and an equatorial humid belt. During the mid-Cretaceous, the subtropical high-pressure arid climate belt of the planetary wind system controlled the palaeolatitude distribution of humid belts in Asia as well as the spatial distribution of rain belts over the massive continental blocks at mid-low latitudes in the southern and northern hemispheres. Additionally, the orographic effect of the Andean-type active continental margin in East Asia hindered the transportation of ocean moisture to inland regions. With rising temperatures and palaeoatmospheric conditions dominated by high pressure systems, desert climate environments expanded at the inland areas of East Asia including those accumulated in the mid-Cretaceous of the Simao Basin, the Sichuan Basin, and the Thailand's Khorat Basin, and leading the Late Cretaceous erg systems in the Xinjiang Basin and Jianghan Basin. This manuscript presents evidences that allow to reinterpret previously considered water-laid sediments to be accumulated as windblown deposits forming part of extensive erg (sandy desert) systems. Using a multidisciplinary approach including petrological, sedimentological and architectural observations, the mid-Cretaceous (Albian-Turonian) Nanxin Formation from the Yunlong region of Lanping Basin, formerly considered to aqueous deposits is here interpreted as representing aeolian deposits, showing local aeolian-fluvial interaction deposits. The palaeowind directions obtained from the analysis of aeolian dune cross-beddings indicates that inland deserts were compatible with a high-pressure cell (HPC) existing in the mid-low latitudes of East Asia during the mid-Cretaceous. Compared with the Early Cretaceous, the mid-Cretaceous had

  16. Coupled human and natural system dynamics as key to the sustainability of Lake Victoria's ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Downing, Andrea S.; van Nes, Egbert H.; Balirwa, John S.; Beuving, Joost; Bwathondi, P. O. J.; Chapman, Lauren J.; Cornelissen, Ilse J. M.; Cowx, Iain G.; Goudswaard, Kees P. C.; Hecky, Robert E.; Janse, Jan H.; Janssen, Annette B. G.; Kaufman, Les; Kishe-Machumu, Mary A.; Kolding, Jeppe; Ligtvoet, Willem; Mbabazi, Dismas; Medard, Modesta; Mkumbo, Oliva C.; Mlaponi, Enock; Munyaho, Antony T.; Nagelkerke, Leopold A. J.; Ogutu-Ohwayo, Richard; Ojwang, William O.; Peter, Happy K.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Seehausen, Ole; Sharpe, Diana; Silsbe, Greg M.; Sitoki, Lewis; Tumwebaze, Rhoda; Tweddle, Denis; van de Wolfshaar, Karen E.; van Dijk, Han; van Donk, Ellen; van Rijssel, Jacco C.; van Zwieten, Paul A. M.; Wanink, Jan; Witte, F.; Mooij, Wolf M.


    East Africa's Lake Victoria provides resources and services to millions of people on the lake's shores and abroad. In particular, the lake's fisheries are an important source of protein, employment, and international economic connections for the whole region. Nonetheless, stock dynamics are poorly

  17. Lake Victoria wetlands and the ecology of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Linne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balirwa, J.S.


    An ecological study of wetlands was undertaken in northern Lake Victoria (East Africa) between 1993 and 1996 with a major aim of characterising shallow vegetation-dominated interface habitats, and evaluating their importance for fish, in particular, for the stocked and socio-economically

  18. New or little-known species of Chaetocladius s. str. Kieffer, 1911 (Diptera: Chironomidae: Orthocladiinae) from the Amur River basin (Russian Far East). (United States)

    Makarchenko, Eugenyi A; Makarchenko, Marina A; Semenchenko, Alexander A


    Chironomids of the subgenus Chaetocladius s. str. from the Amur River basin are revised using both morphological characters and molecular data. Three new species, C. egorych sp. nov., C. lopatinskiy sp. nov. and C. yavorskayae sp. nov., are described and figured. The pupa of C. fedotkin is described for the first time. Adult males of C. ligni and C. piger, little-known in the Far East, are redescribed and annotated, and key to males of the Chaetocladius s. str. from the Amur River basin is provided. A reference 658 bp barcode sequence from a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI) was used as a tool for species delimitation. Comparisons with corresponding regions of COI between 5 species in the subgenus produced K2P genetic distances of 8.3-12.6%, values well associated with interspecific variation. Molecular data were also used for the reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships within the subgenus Chaetocladius s. str.

  19. Analysis of gravity anomalies in the Ulleung Basin (East Sea/Sea of Japan) and its implications for the crustal structure of rift-dominated back-arc basin (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Mi; Lee, Sang-Mook


    The Ulleung Basin (UB), one of three major basins in the East Sea/Sea of Japan, is considered to represent a continental-rifting end-member of back-arc basin system, but is much less understood compared to the nearby Yamato Basin (YB) and Japan Basin (JB). This study examines the gravity anomalies of the UB since the variation in crustal thickness can provide important insights on the mode of extension during basin opening. Our analysis shows that the Moho depth (from the sea surface) varies from 16 km at the basin center to 22 km at the edges. However, within the central part of the basin, the crustal thickness (not including sediment) is more or less the same (10-12 km), by varying only about 10-20% of the total thickness, contrary to the previous suggestions. Our finding of anomalous but uniformly thick crust is consistent with the recent seismic results from the YB (14 km on average). A mantle residual gravity anomaly high (∼20 mGal) exists in the northeastern part of the UB. This feature is interpreted as the location of maximum extension (slightly thinner crust by ∼1 km). Together with another moderate gravity high to the southwest, the two anomalies form a NNE-SSW line, which corresponds to the direction of the major tectonic structures of the Korean Peninsula. We argue that the a massive magmatic emplacement took place extensively in the lower crust of the UB during the opening, significantly increasing its overall thickness to almost twice as that of the JB where a mid-ocean-ridge style seafloor spreading occurred. Two important post-opening processes took place after the formation of uniformly thick crust: post-rift volcanic intrusions in the north, especially in its northeast sections but had little effect on the residual gravity anomaly itself, and the deflection of crust in response to differential sediment loading towards the south, producing the median high in the basement in response to the flexural bending. We also conducted a simple test to

  20. Analysing aeromagnetic, airborne gravity and radar data to unveil variable basal boundary conditions for the East Antarctic Ice Sheet in the Wilkes Subglacial Basin (United States)

    Armadillo, Egidio; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Young, Duncan; Balbi, Pietro; Blankenship, Don; Jordan, Tom; Bozzo, Emanuele; Siegert, Martin


    The Wilkes Subglacial Basin (WSB) extends for ca 1,400 km from George V Land into the interior of East Antarctica and hosts several major glaciers that drain a large sector of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). The region is of major significance for assessing the long-term stability of the EAIS, as it lies well below sea level and its bedrock deepens inland. This makes it potentially more prone to marine ice sheet instability, much like areas of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) that are presently experiencing significant mass loss. This sector of the EAIS has also become a focus of current research within IODP Leg 318 that aims to better comprehend the initial stages of glaciation and the history and stability of the EAIS since the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. Understanding geological boundary conditions onshore is important to assess their influence on ice sheet dynamics and long-term stability and interpret the paleo-ice sheet record. Early geophysical models inferred the existence of a major extensional sedimentary basin beneath the WSB. This could in principle be similar to some areas of the WAIS, where subglacial sediments deposited within rift basins or forming thin marine sedimentary drapes have been inferred to exert a key influence on both the onset and maintenance of fast-glacial flow. However, later geophysical models indicated that the WSB contains little or no sediment, is not rift-related, and formed in response to Cenozoic flexural uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM). A major joint Italian-UK aerogeophysical exploration campaign over parts of the WSB is super-seeding all these earlier geophysical views of the basin (Ferraccioli et al., 2009, Tectonophysics). Precambrian and Paleozoic basement faults can now be recognised as exerting fundamental controls on the location of both the topographic margins of the basin and it sub-basins; ii) the crust underlying the basin is thinner compared to the TAM (Jordan et al., 2013, Tectonophysics

  1. Sensitivity of the East African rift lakes to climate variability (United States)

    Olaka, L.; Trauth, M. H.


    Lakes in the East African Rift have provided excellent proxies to reconstruct past climate changes in the low latitudes. The lakes occupy volcano-tectonic depressions with highly variable climate and hydrological setting, that present a good opportunity to study the climatic and hydrogeological influences on the lake water budget. Previous studies have used lake floor sediments to establish the sensitivity of the East African rift lakes. This study focuses on geomorphology and climate to offer additional or alternative record of lake history that are key to quantifying sensitivity of these lakes as archives to external and internal climatic forcings. By using the published Holocene lake areas and levels, we analyze twelve lakes on the eastern arm of the East African rift; Ziway, Awassa, Turkana, Suguta, Baringo, Nakuru, Elmenteita, Naivasha, Natron, Manyara and compare with Lake Victoria, that occupies the plateau between the east and the western arms of the rift. Using the SRTM data, Hypsometric (area-altitude) analysis has been used to compare the lake basins between latitude 80 North and 30 South. The mean elevation for the lakes, is between 524 and 2262 meters above sea level, the lakes' hypsometric integrals (HI), a measure of landmass volume above the reference plane, vary from 0.31 to 0.76. The aridity index (Ai), defined as Precipitation/ Evapotranspiration, quantifies the water available to a lake, it encompasses land cover and climatic effects. It is lowest (arid) in the basin between the Ethiopian rift and the Kenyan rift and at the southern termination of the Kenyan Rift in the catchments of lake Turkana, Suguta, Baringo and Manyara with values of 0.55, 0.43, 0.43 and 0.5 respectively. And it is highest (wet) in the catchments of, Ziway, Awassa, Nakuru and Naivasha as 1.33,1.03 and 1.2 respectively, which occupy the highest points of the rift. Lake Victoria has an index of 1.42 the highest of these lakes and receives a high precipitation. We use a

  2. Water Storage Changes in the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin and the Middle East from GRACE with Implications for Transboundary Water Management (United States)

    Voss, K.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Lo, M.; De Linage, C.


    In this work, we use observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission to evaluate freshwater storage trends in the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin from January 2003 to December 2009. GRACE data show an alarming rate of decrease in total water storage of approximately -27.2 ± 0.6 mm/year equivalent water height, equal to a volume of 143.6 km3 during the course of the study period. We use additional remote-sensing information and output from land-surface models to identify that groundwater losses are the major source of this trend. The approach followed here provides an example of 'best current capabilities' in regions like the Middle East, where data access can be severely limited. Results indicate that the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin region lost 15.6 ± 2.9 mm/year of groundwater during the study period, or 82.3 ± 15.4 km3 in volume. Furthermore, results raise important issues regarding water use in transboundary river basins and aquifers, including the necessity of international water use treaties and resolving discrepancies in international water law, while amplifying the need for increased monitoring for core components of the water budget.

  3. Rapid Variability in the Japan/East Sea. Basin Oscillations, Internal Tides, and Near-Inertial Oscillations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, Jae-Hun; Watts, D. R; Wimbush, Mark; Book, Jeffrey W; Tracey, Karen L; Xu, Youngsheng


    ... (pressure- guage-equipped inverted echo sounder) experiment in the Ulleung Basin of the southwestern JES was originally designed to investigate the dynamics of meandering currents and eddies in the upper and deep ocean...

  4. Modeling the Sedimentary Infill of Lakes in the East African Rift: A Case Study of Multiple versus Single Rift Basin Segments (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Scholz, C. A.


    The sedimentary basins in the East African Rift are considered excellent modern examples for investigating sedimentary infilling and evolution of extensional systems. Some lakes in the western branch of the rift have formed within single-segment systems, and include Lake Albert and Lake Edward. The largest and oldest lakes developed within multi-segment systems, and these include Lake Tanganyika and Lake Malawi. This research aims to explore processes of erosion and sedimentary infilling of the catchment area in single-segment rift (SSR) and multi-segment rift (MSR) systems. We consider different conditions of regional precipitation and evaporation, and assess the resulting facies architecture through forward modeling, using state-of-the-art commercial basin modeling software. Dionisos is a three-dimensional numerical stratigraphic forward modeling software program, which simulates basin-scale sediment transport based on empirical water- and gravity-driven diffusion equations. It was classically used to quantify the sedimentary architecture and basin infilling of both marine siliciclastic and carbonate environments. However, we apply this approach to continental rift basin environments. In this research, two scenarios are developed, one for a MSR and the other for a SSR. The modeled systems simulate the ratio of drainage area and lake surface area observed in modern Lake Tanganyika and Lake Albert, which are examples of MSRs and SSRs, respectively. The main parameters, such as maximum subsidence rate, water- and gravity-driven diffusion coefficients, rainfall, and evaporation, are approximated using these real-world examples. The results of 5 million year model runs with 50,000 year time steps show that MSRs are characterized by a deep water lake with relatively modest sediment accumulation, while the SSRs are characterized by a nearly overfilled lake with shallow water depths and thick sediment accumulation. The preliminary modeling results conform to the features

  5. Refined broad-scale sub-glacial morphology of Aurora Subglacial Basin, East Antarctica derived by an ice-dynamics-based interpolation scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Roberts


    Full Text Available Ice thickness data over much of East Antarctica are sparse and irregularly distributed. This poses difficulties for reconstructing the homogeneous coverage needed to properly assess underlying sub-glacial morphology and fundamental geometric constraints on sea level rise. Here we introduce a new physically-based ice thickness interpolation scheme and apply this to existing ice thickness data in the Aurora Subglacial Basin region. The skill and robustness of the new reconstruction is demonstrated by comparison with new data from the ICECAP project. The interpolated morphology shows an extensive marine-based ice sheet, with considerably more area below sea-level than shown by prior studies. It also shows deep features connecting the coastal grounding zone with the deepest regions in the interior. This has implications for ice sheet response to a warming ocean and underscores the importance of obtaining additional high resolution data in these marginal zones for modelling ice sheet evolution.

  6. Geology and geohydrology of the East Texas Basin. A report on the progress of nuclear waste isolation feasibility studies (1980)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreitler, C.W.; Collins, E.W.; Davidson, E.D. Jr.


    The third year of research was highlighted by the integration of regional basinal studies with growth histories for specific domes, studies of cap-rock diagenesis and salt deformation, preliminary studies of ground-water flow and geochemistry around Oakwood Dome, and preliminary studies of microseismicity in the Mount Enterprise fault zone. 119 figures, 15 tables.

  7. Comparison between a reanalyzed product by 3-dimensional variational assimilation technique and observations in the Ulleung Basin of the East/Japan Sea (United States)

    Kim, Young Ho; Chang, Kyung-Il; Park, Jong Jin; Park, Seon Ki; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Young-Gyu; Jung, Kyung Tae; Kim, Kuh


    Reanalyzed products from a MOM3-based East Sea Regional Ocean Model with a 3-dimentional variational data assimilation module (DA-ESROM), have been compared with the observed hydrographic and current datasets in the Ulleung Basin (UB) of the East/Japan Sea (EJS). Satellite-borne sea surface temperature and sea surface height data, and in-situ temperature profiles have been assimilated into the DA-ESROM. The performance of the DA-ESROM appears to be efficient enough to be used in an operational ocean forecast system. Comparing with the results from Mitchell et al. [Mitchell, D. A., Watts, D. R., Wimbush, M., Teague, W.J., Tracey, K. L., Book, J. W., Chang, K.-I., Suk, M.-S., Yoon, J.-H., 2005a. Upper circulation patterns in the Ulleung Basin. Deep-Sea Res. II, 52, 1617-1638.], the DA-ESROM fairly well simulates the high variability of the Ulleung Warm Eddy and Dok Cold Eddy as well as the branching of the Tsushima Warm Current in the UB. The overall root-mean-square error between 100 m temperature field reproduced by the DA-ESROM and the observed 100-dbar temperature field is 2.1 °C, and the spatially averaged grid-to-grid correlation between the two temperature fields is high with a mean value of 0.79 for the inter-comparison period. The DA-ESROM reproduces the development of strong southward North Korean Cold Current (NKCC) in summer consistent with the observational results, which is thought to be an improvement of the previous numerical models in the EJS. The reanalyzed products show that the NKCC is about 35 km wide, and flows southward along the Korean coast from spring to summer with maximum monthly mean volume transport of about 0.8 Sv in August-September.

  8. Spiraal : uus Victoria & Alberti muuseum Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Daniel Libeskindi projekt Victoria & Alberti Muuseumi laiendamiseks on põhjustanud konservatiivsete londonlaste pahameele, kuid kutsunud esile ka hulgaliselt toetusavaldusi. Muuseumi uus osa (kokkuvarisemise piiril näiva ehitisena) peaks külastajaile avatama 2004. a.

  9. Fossil diatom assemblages as paleoecological indicators of paleo-water environmental change in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea, Republic of Korea (United States)

    Yun, Suk Min; Lee, Taehee; Jung, Seung Won; Park, Joon Sang; Lee, Jin Hwan


    The fossil diatom assemblage record from two sediment cores obtained from the Ulleung Basin, East Sea, Republic of Korea, revealed changes in the diatom assemblage zones in PG1 and PD3 core samples. The two sediment cores were δC14 dated and approximately represented the late Pleistocene-Holocene. The analysis of age zones in the PG1 core and PD3 core was assessed based on the frequency of variations, and occurrences of biostratigraphical fossil diatom species. During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the sea level was lower than that at present and the Ulleung Basin became isolated from the Pacific Ocean. As a result, there would have been a limited Tsushima Warm Current (TWC) influence, and salinity would have decreased resulting in increased freshwater and coastal diatoms. The distribution pattern of diatoms presented in the cores was associated with changes in water temperature and salinity and the adding of terrigenous material brought about by the input of freshwater. Changes in the abundance of a tychopelagic diatom, Paralia sulcata, reflected the effect of the water currents. Diatom temperature (Td) values and the ratio of centric/pennate diatoms provided evidence of limited influences of the TWC and freshwater inflow. It is thought that all assemblage zones were influenced by the TWC, which had an important effect on the distribution and composition of fossil diatoms.

  10. Performance of the WRF model to simulate the seasonal and interannual variability of hydrometeorological variables in East Africa: a case study for the Tana River basin in Kenya (United States)

    Kerandi, Noah Misati; Laux, Patrick; Arnault, Joel; Kunstmann, Harald


    This study investigates the ability of the regional climate model Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) in simulating the seasonal and interannual variability of hydrometeorological variables in the Tana River basin (TRB) in Kenya, East Africa. The impact of two different land use classifications, i.e., the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the US Geological Survey (USGS) at two horizontal resolutions (50 and 25 km) is investigated. Simulated precipitation and temperature for the period 2011-2014 are compared with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Climate Research Unit (CRU), and station data. The ability of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Climate Research Unit (CRU) data in reproducing in situ observation in the TRB is analyzed. All considered WRF simulations capture well the annual as well as the interannual and spatial distribution of precipitation in the TRB according to station data and the TRMM estimates. Our results demonstrate that the increase of horizontal resolution from 50 to 25 km, together with the use of the MODIS land use classification, significantly improves the precipitation results. In the case of temperature, spatial patterns and seasonal cycle are well reproduced, although there is a systematic cold bias with respect to both station and CRU data. Our results contribute to the identification of suitable and regionally adapted regional climate models (RCMs) for East Africa.

  11. Chapter 7. The GIS project for the geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas in the Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak and Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces. (United States)

    Biewick, Laura


    A geographic information system (GIS) focusing on the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group and the Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the northern Gulf Coast region was developed as a visual-analysis tool for the U.S. Geological Survey's 2002 assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and natural gas resources in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces. The Central Energy Resources Team of the U.S. Geological Survey has also developed an Internet Map Service to deliver the GIS data to the public. This mapping tool utilizes information from a database about the oil and natural gas endowment of the United States-including physical locations of geologic and geographic data-and converts the data into visual layers. Portrayal and analysis of geologic features on an interactive map provide an excellent tool for understanding domestic oil and gas resources for strategic planning, formulating economic and energy policies, evaluating lands under the purview of the Federal Government, and developing sound environmental policies. Assessment results can be viewed and analyzed or downloaded from the internet web site, .

  12. Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas, Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak-Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces of the northern Gulf Coast region. Chapters 1-7. (United States)



    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces in the Gulf Coast Region (USGS Provinces 5048 and 5049). The Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are important because of their potential for natural gas resources. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and eight assessment units. Seven assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  13. Formation of Si-Al-Mg-Ca-rich zoned magnetite in an end-Permian phreatomagmatic pipe in the Tunguska Basin, East Siberia (United States)

    Neumann, Else-Ragnhild; Svensen, Henrik H.; Polozov, Alexander G.; Hammer, Øyvind


    Magma-sediment interactions in the evaporite-rich Tunguska Basin resulted in the formation of numerous phreatomagmatic pipes during emplacement of the Siberian Traps. The pipes contain magnetite-apatite deposits with copper and celestine mineralization. We have performed a detailed petrographic and geochemical study of magnetite from long cores drilled through three pipe breccia structures near Bratsk, East Siberia. The magnetite samples are zoned and rich in Si (≤5.3 wt% SiO2), Ca, Al, and Mg. They exhibit four textural types: (1) massive ore in veins, (2) coating on breccia clasts, (3) replacement ore, and (4) reworked ore at the crater base. The textural types have different chemical characteristics. "Breccia coating" magnetite has relatively low Mg content relative to Si, as compared to the other groups, and appears to have formed at lower oxygen fugacity. Time series analyses of MgO variations in microprobe transects across Si-bearing magnetite in massive ore indicate that oscillatory zoning in the massive ore was controlled by an internal self-organized process. We suggest that hydrothermal Fe-rich brines were supplied from basalt-sediment interaction zones in the evaporite-rich sedimentary basin, leading to magnetite ore deposition in the pipes. Hydrothermal fluid composition appears to be controlled by proximity to dolerite fragments, temperature, and oxygen fugacity. Magnetite from the pipes has attributes of iron oxide-apatite deposits (e.g., textures, oscillatory zoning, association with apatite, and high Si content) but has higher Mg and Ca content and different mineral assemblages. These features are similar to magnetite found in skarn deposits. We conclude that the Siberian Traps-related pipe magnetite deposit gives insight into the metamorphic and hydrothermal effects following magma emplacement in a sedimentary basin.

  14. Petrogenetic Evolution of Basaltic Volcanism within the Tertiary Basins of Southeastern Korea and the Opening of the East Sea (Sea of Japan) (United States)

    Choi, S. H.; Choi, H. O.; Lee, D. C.; Hee Cheol, K.


    We determined the geochemical compositions of volcanic rocks within the Tertiary basins of SE Korea to better understand the petrogenetic evolution of local volcanism. The volcanic rocks are divided into two major groups: Eoil from the Yangnam Basin, and Daljeon from the Pohang Basin. The Eoil rocks (16-22 Ma K-Ar ages) are primarily subalkaline basalt to basaltic andesite, whereas the Daljeon samples (13-15 Ma K-Ar ages) are sodic alkaline phonotephrites. The Eoil rocks exhibit light rare earth element (LREE)-enrichment patterns with chondrite-normalized (La/Yb)N ratios of 3.6-5.0. Daljeon samples are typified by significant LREE-enrichment [(La/Yb)N = 32.0-33.2] and slight negative Sm and Eu anomalies on the REE patterns. The Eoil samples show an arc signature on the primitive mantle-normalized multi-element variation diagrams, with high large-ion lithophile element (LILE) enrichment and the depletion of high field strength elements (HFSE). In contrast, the Daljeon samples are dominated by high ratios of Nb and Ta to LILE and HREE, resembling typical oceanic island basalt but distinguished by a significant trough in K, Rb, Sm, and Ti, and a positive anomaly in P. In Sr-Nd isotope space, all samples fall in the depleted quadrant, but the Eoil rocks are characterized by lower 143Nd/144Nd ratios at a given 87Sr/86Sr ratio than those of the Daljeon phonotephrites. The Eoil rocks have elevated 176Hf/177Hf ratios compared with the Daljeon samples, exhibiting a decoupling of Nd and Hf isotopes in Hf-Nd space. These observations, together with the Eoil rocks showing more radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions than the Daljeon samples, indicate two distinct mantle sources for the volcanism. The source of Eoil magmatism might be mantle wedge metasomatizatized by the addition of subducted pelagic sediment melt, whereas hydrous mineral-bearing sub-continental lithospheric mantle could be the dominant source for the Daljeon volcanism. The difference may be related to changes in

  15. Impacts of changing water price and availability on irrigated dairy farms in northern Victoria


    Ho, Christie K.M.; Armstrong, Dan P.; Doyle, Peter T.; Malcolm, Bill


    Farming systems throughout the Murray-Darling Basin are under increasing scrutiny from the perspective of ecological sustainability of farm and catchment systems. In northern Victoria, the dairy industry is a major user of water, and contributes to the environmental issues. Changes in irrigation water price, availability and policy will invariably impact on the viability of dairy farming in this region, but the diversity of dairy farm systems suggests that the impact will vary between farms. ...

  16. Lake Victoria wetlands and the ecology of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Linne


    Balirwa, J.S.


    An ecological study of wetlands was undertaken in northern Lake Victoria (East Africa) between 1993 and 1996 with a major aim of characterising shallow vegetation-dominated interface habitats, and evaluating their importance for fish, in particular, for the stocked and socio-economically important Oreochromis niloticus LINNÉ (the Nile tilapia). From field and laboratory experiments, five major habitat types could be defined by the type of the dominant emergent ma...

  17. The Victoria Project, Sri Lanka: Victoria Power-Station. [Hydroelectric power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creber, B. (Sir Alexander Gibb and Partners (GB))


    The Victoria Hydroelectric Power-Station forms part of the Victoria Project on the Mahaweli Ganga in Sri Lanka and it provides the country's largest single power source. The Paper describes the planning, design and construction of the civil engineering works, including problems encountered, and also describes, in outline, the electrical and mechanical works. (Author).

  18. Climate Change Impact on Smallholder Farmers in the White Volta Basin of the Upper East Region of Ghana


    Amikuzuno, Joseph


    In this paper we use the TOA-MD model to test climate change impacts and adaptation strategies with socioeconomic, survey data from the upper White Volta Basin of Ghana. Combining simu-lated and expected crop and livestock yields under three different climate scenarios, the econom-ic impact of climate change to 2050 is analysed. We find that livelihood outcome variables like income and poverty levels as well as adoption rates are sensitive to the different climate scenari-os. Most particularl...

  19. Integrated geophysical studies on the area east of Abu Gharadig basin, southern Cairo, Egypt, using potential field data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mohamed El-Awady


    Euler deconvolution of magnetic and gravity data reveals clustering of solution along fault trends or causative bodies centers. The Euler depth estimate to the basement surface shows a good correlation with the depth determined by the power spectrum method where its value ranges around 4 km. The interpreted basement tectonic map of the study area is dominated by ENE–WSW Syrian Arc, NW–SE Gulf of Suez and Red Sea, NE–SW Aqaba, E–W Mediterranean and N–S East Africa tectonic trends. The older tectonic trends were reactivated then intersected by younger ones.

  20. Organochlorine pesticide residues in surface water from Sichuan Basin to Aba Prefecture profile, east of the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Liu, Hongxia; Hu, Ying; Qi, Shihua; Xing, Xinli; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Dan; Qu, Chengkai


    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) found in rivers from the Sichuan Basin to Aba Prefecture profile were analyzed to assess possible health risks to adults and children who use the river as a source of drinking water. OCP concentrations in surface water ranged between 22.29-274.28 ng·L-1. Compared with other published data around the world, OCP levels in this study were moderate. Among all OCPs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the predominant compounds. Higher concentrations of OCPs were attributed close to the agricultural fields of the Sichuan Basin, current OCPs inputs, and long-range atmospheric transport from abroad. Various spatial patterns of OCPs in the profile might be affected by the usage and physicochemical properties of the pesticides, in addition to the adjacent geographical environment. The health risk assessment indicated that most OCPs had little impact on human health according to the acceptable risk level for carcinogens (10-6) recommended by the US EPA. However, carcinogenic effects caused by heptachlor, Aldrin, HCB, and α-HCH might occur in drinking water. The risk of negative impacts caused by OCPs is much higher for children than for adults.

  1. The 1980 Polallie Creek debris flow and subsequent dam-break flood, East Fork Hood River basin, Oregon (United States)

    Gallino, Gary L.; Pierson, Thomas C.


    At approximately 9 p.m. on December 25, 1980, intense rainfall and extremely wet antecedent conditions combined to trigger a landslide of approximately 5,000 cubic yards at the head of Polallie Creek Canyon on the northeast flank of Mount Hood. The landslide was transformed rapidly into a debris flow, which surged down the channel at velocities between about 40 and 50 ft/s, eroding and incorporating large volumes of channel fill and uprooted vegetation. When it reached the debris fan at the confluence with the East Fork Hood River, the debris flow deposited approximately 100,000 cubic yards of saturated, poorly sorted debris to a maximum thickness of 35 ft, forming a 750-ft-long temporary dam across the channel. Within approximately 12 minutes, a lake of 85 acre-feet formed behind the blockage, breached the dam, and sent a flood wave down the East Fork Hood River. The combined debris flow and flood resulted in one fatality and over $13 million in damage to a highway, bridges, parks, and a water-supply pipeline. Application of simple momentum- and energy-balance equations, and uniform flow equations resulted in debris flow peak discharges ranging from 50,000 ft3/s to 300,000 ft3/s at different locations in the Polallie Creek Canyon. This wide range is attributed to temporary damming at the boulder- and log-rich flow front in narrow, curving reaches of the channel. When the volume of the solid debris was subtracted out, assuming a minimum peak debris-flow discharge of 100,000 ft3/s at the canyon mouth, a minimum peak-water discharge of 40,000 ft3/s was obtained. A computer dam-break model simulated peak flow for the outbreak flood on the East Fork Hood River in the range of 20,000 to 30,000 ft3/s using various breach shapes and durations of breach between 5 and 15 minutes. A slope conveyance computation 0.25 mi downstream from the dam gave a peak water discharge (solids subtracted out) for the debris-laden flood of 12,000 to 20,000 ft3/s, depending on the channel

  2. No Abrupt Changes in redox conditions associated with the end-Permian marine ecosystem collapse in the east Greenland basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper K.; Shen, Y; Piasecki, Stefan


    Multiple observations have revealed that environmental disturbances may have been linked to the end-Permian mass extinction and delayed biotic recovery. Biogeochemical constraints on the temporal and spatial changes of oceanic redox chemistry during the Permian–Triassic interval are essential...... to evaluate global significance of previous hypotheses and to improve our understanding of extinction and recovery processes. To investigate redox ocean chemistry change associated with the end-Permian extinction and subsequent delayed biotic recovery, we examine framboidal pyrites as well as sulfur isotopic...... is not indicative of an abrupt change of redox chemistry in water columns, in contrast to previous claims. The integration of isotope and framboidal pyrite data provides a nearly continuous record of ocean chemistry evolution and new insights into the end-Permian extinction and delayed biotic recovery in the East...

  3. 2-D modeling of generation, migration, oil mixture and biodegradation in Ceuta, south-east of the Maracaibo Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcano, F.; Leonard, C. [Platte River Associates, Denver, CO (United States); Dominguez, C.; Cassani, F. [Maraven, S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)


    Oil in the Ceuta area have been found in Cretaceous and Tertiary reservoirs. A recent 300 sq km 3-D survey has confirmed the existence of strong faulting that determined important thickness variations of deltaic Eocene prograding sediments between the eastern and western areas. A major sequence boundary is associated to uplifting and erosion from the upper Eocene to the lower Miocene, inversion playing an important role in hydrocarbon entrapment, at the same time that a progressive tilting towards the southeast developed, controlling most of the migration directions. Added to the differences in burial histories, a variable heat flow field is estimated through the area, considering that changes in thicknesses and lithologies convey a significant part in the bulk thermal conductivities of the rock column. Oil-source rock correlation based on biomarker fingerprints relates the existing crude to the Cretaceous La Luna source rock. Rock maturity measurements constrain the thermal evolution model and we conclude that expulsion of oil in the east occurred during the Eocene, while in the east is during the upper Miocene. The identification by biological markers of crudes of different maturities validate the hypothesis of drainage areas of different geological and thermal evolution together with complex migration paths. As a result of exposure of crudes to biodegradation during Eocene times, a loss of an extensive volume of hydrocarbons is believed to have occurred. The former existence of this oil is recorded by the presence of demetilated hopanes, indicative of a high level of biodegradation, mixed with unaltered oils. All these processes have been examined by computerized 2-D modeling.

  4. total mercury concentration in common fish species of lake victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total mercury (THg) concentration was analysed in muscles of common fish species of Lake. Victoria in the eastern and southern parts of the lake using cold vapour Atomic Absorption. Spectrophotometric ... INTRODUCTION. The Lake Victoria ...

  5. Flux and stable C and N isotope composition of sinking particles in the Ulleung Basin of the East/Japan Sea (United States)

    Hyun Kwak, Jung; Han, Eunah; Hwang, Jeomshik; Kim, Young, II; Lee, Chung Il; Kang, Chang-Keun


    Seasonal variability of sinking fluxes of total mass (TMF), particulate organic carbon and nitrogen (POC and PON) was examined using sinking particles collected from sediment traps during July 2011 to December 2011, and December 2012 to June 2013 at an offshore channel site; and from November 2013 to August 2014 at a nearshore slope site of the Ulleung Basin in the East/Japan Sea. δ13C and δ15N values of sinking particles were measured to elucidate the major export processes of POC and PON. Annual TMF (112-638 g m-2 yr-1) and fluxes of POC and PON (9.6-32.1 g C m-2 yr-1 and 1.2-4.5 g N m-2 yr-1, respectively) in the Ulleung Basin corresponded to the upper limit of values reported for other open seas and oceans in the world. No great seasonal variability in both quantitative (TMF, and fluxes and contents of POC and PON) and qualitative (C/N ratios, and δ13C and δ15N values) estimates of vertical fluxes was observed, reflecting a steady standing stock of chlorophyll a in the upper part of water column. Furthermore, high contents of POC and PON and nearly constant δ13C and δ15N values in sinking particles collected in the sediment traps, indicate that primary production in the euphotic zone may be a good predictor of TMF and export flux of organic matter. In this regard, our pilot study points out the importance of high annual primary production and low water temperature (annual flux of sinking particles in the Ulleung Basin (UB). A simple stable isotope mixing model of sinking particles indicates that despite a slight seasonal variation, the contribution of intact phytoplankton to sinking organic flux is significant to the POC and PON flux in the UB. Further continuous time series sediment trap experiments are proposed to estimate the contribution of allochthonus sources such as lateral advection through resuspended clay mineral, and aeolian and terrestrial inputs to the sedimentary flux.

  6. Kinematic evolution of a regional-scale gravity-driven deepwater fold-and-thrust belt: The Lamu Basin case-history (East Africa) (United States)

    Cruciani, F.; Barchi, M. R.; Koyi, H. A.; Porreca, M.


    The deepwater fold-and-thrust belts (DWFTBs) are geological structures recently explored thanks to advances in offshore seismic imaging by oil industry. In this study we present a kinematic analysis based on three balanced cross-sections of depth-converted, 2-D seismic profiles along the offshore Lamu Basin (East African passive margin). This margin is characterized by a regional-scale DWFTB (> 450 km long), which is the product of gravity-driven contraction on the shelf that exhibits complex structural styles and differing amount of shortening along strike. Net shortening is up to 48 km in the northern wider part of the fold-and-thrust belt (≈ 180 km), diminishing to 95% of net shortening was produced in < 10 Myr (during Paleocene). During this acme phase, which followed a period of high sedimentation rate, thrusts were largely synchronous and the shortening rate reached a maximum value of 5 mm/yr. The kinematic evolution reconstructed in this study suggests that the structural evolution of gravity-driven fold-and-thrust belts differs from the accretionary wedges and the collisional fold-and-thrust belts, where thrusts propagate in-sequence and shortening is uniformly accommodated along dip.

  7. A Backarc Basin Origin for the Eocene Volcanic Rocks North of Abbas Abad, East of Shahrud, Northeast Iran (United States)

    Khalatbari Jafari, M.; Mobasher, K.; Davarpanah, A.; Babaie, H.; La Tour, T.


    of the volcanic rocks in E6 also indicate an enrichment of the phyric lavas in the upper parts of this unit than those in the aphyric lavas. The primitive mantle-normalized multi-element plots, in addition to indicating enrichment in the LILE, show clear anomalies for Nb and Ti, indicating a backarc basin-related volcanism. The Eocene Abbas Abad basaltic lavas show a variable La/Nb=2.15-4.63 ratio, which is comparable with that in the in-arc basalt. The E1-E4 basic volcanic rocks have a Th/La ratio of 0.14-0.2, which is comparable with that of oceanic basalt or bulk continent. However, the Th/La ratio in the E6 lavas ranges from a 0.18 minimum, in the lower olivine basalt, to 0.4 in the upper, phyric trachy-andesite, which may indicate the elemental contributions of sediments to these lavas and enrichment of the LILE. Our data suggest that the Eocene volcanism in the Abbas Abad area occurred in a backarc basin, a conclusion which is consistent with the model that assumes continued subduction of the Arabian plate under the Iranian plate, and partial melting of the Paleotethys ocean and supra-ophiolite sedimentary rocks in northeastern Iran. It seems that the partial melting of the ultramafic parts of the Paleotethys has led to the formation of the E1 to E4 volcanic rocks, and the partial melting of these rocks and the supra-ophiolitic sedimentary rocks formed the volcanic rocks in the E6 unit.

  8. Along-dip variations of structural style in the Somali Basin deep-water fold and thrust belt (East Africa) (United States)

    Cruciani, Francesco; Rinaldo Barchi, Massimiliano


    Continental passive margins are place of extended slope-failure phenomena, which can lead to the formation of gravity-driven deep-water fold and thrust belts (DW-FTBs), in regions where no far-field compressional stress is active. These giant geological features, which are confined to the sedimentary section, consist of extensional-compressional linked systems detached over a common décollement, generally salt or shales. The continental passive margin of northern Kenya and southern Somalia is an excellent and relatively unexplored site for recognizing and understanding the DW-FTBs originated over a regional shale décollement. In this study we have interpreted a 2D seismic data-set of the 1980s, hosted by Marine Geoscience Data System at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (, and recently reprocessed by ENI, in order to investigate the structural style of a DW-FTB developed offshore of northern Kenya and southern Somalia (Somali Basin). This region records the oldest sedimentary section of the Indian Ocean since the breakup of Gondwana began in the Middle-Lower Jurassic separating Madagascar from Africa. From the Upper Cretaceous to at least the Lower Miocene, the margin has been characterized by gravitational collapse leading to the formation of a DW-FTB extending more than 400 km along-strike. The northern portion of the DW-FTB is about 150 km wide, whilst in the southern portion is few tens of km wide. We analysed the northern portion along a regional seismic section. Our study represents the first detailed structural interpretation of this DW-FTB since its discovery in the 1980s. The good quality of the available reprocessed seismic data has allowed us to identify remarkable along-dip variations in the structural style. The basal detachment constantly deepens landward, in agreement with a prevailing gravity-spreading deformation process (as in the case of the Niger Delta). On the seismic data are not visible, as

  9. Characterization of gas hydrate reservoirs by integration of core and log data in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea (United States)

    Bahk, J.-J.; Kim, G.-Y.; Chun, J.-H.; Kim, J.-H.; Lee, J.Y.; Ryu, B.-J.; Lee, J.-H.; Son, B.-K.; Collett, Timothy S.


    Examinations of core and well-log data from the Second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate Drilling Expedition (UBGH2) drill sites suggest that Sites UBGH2-2_2 and UBGH2-6 have relatively good gas hydrate reservoir quality in terms of individual and total cumulative thicknesses of gas-hydrate-bearing sand (HYBS) beds. In both of the sites, core sediments are generally dominated by hemipelagic muds which are intercalated with turbidite sands. The turbidite sands are usually thin-to-medium bedded and mainly consist of well sorted coarse silt to fine sand. Anomalies in infrared core temperatures and porewater chlorinity data and pressure core measurements indicate that “gas hydrate occurrence zones” (GHOZ) are present about 68–155 mbsf at Site UBGH2-2_2 and 110–155 mbsf at Site UBGH2-6. In both the GHOZ, gas hydrates are preferentially associated with many of the turbidite sands as “pore-filling” type hydrates. The HYBS identified in the cores from Site UBGH2-6 are medium-to-thick bedded particularly in the lower part of the GHOZ and well coincident with significant high excursions in all of the resistivity, density, and velocity logs. Gas-hydrate saturations in the HYBS range from 12% to 79% with an average of 52% based on pore-water chlorinity. In contrast, the HYBS from Site UBGH2-2_2 are usually thin-bedded and show poor correlations with both of the resistivity and velocity logs owing to volume averaging effects of the logging tools on the thin HYBS beds. Gas-hydrate saturations in the HYBS range from 15% to 65% with an average of 37% based on pore-water chlorinity. In both of the sites, large fluctuations in biogenic opal contents have significant effects on the sediment physical properties, resulting in limited usage of gamma ray and density logs in discriminating sand reservoirs.

  10. Seabed surveys of Victoria harbour, Mahe, Seychelles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Wagle, B.G.

    The seabed surveys in the Victoria Harbour, Mahe, Seychelles shows that the prominent feature is the navigational channel aligned in the northeast-southwest direction with a width varying from 300 to 450m. The depth in the channel ranges from 14...

  11. Geography and Geographical Education in Victoria (United States)

    Kriewaldt, Jeana


    Victoria has just emerged from 10 years where Geography has been one of three strands in the key learning area of Studies of Society and Environment (SOSE). The overarching framework emerged from an attempt to develop a national curriculum. Whilst the national curriculum was rejected by Australian state and territories who each hold legislative…

  12. D Digital Cadastre Journey in Victoria, Australia (United States)

    Shojaei, D.; Olfat, H.; Briffa, M.; Rajabifard, A.


    Land development processes today have an increasing demand to access three-dimensional (3D) spatial information. Complex land development may need to have a 3D model and require some functions which are only possible using 3D data. Accordingly, the Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM), as a national body in Australia provides leadership, coordination and standards for surveying, mapping and national datasets has developed the Cadastre 2034 strategy in 2014. This strategy has a vision to develop a cadastral system that enables people to readily and confidently identify the location and extent of all rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to land and real property. In 2014, the land authority in the state of Victoria, Australia, namely Land Use Victoria (LUV), has entered the challenging area of designing and implementing a 3D digital cadastre focused on providing more efficient and effective services to the land and property industry. LUV has been following the ICSM 2034 strategy which requires developing various policies, standards, infrastructures, and tools. Over the past three years, LUV has mainly focused on investigating the technical aspect of a 3D digital cadastre. This paper provides an overview of the 3D digital cadastre investigation progress in Victoria and discusses the challenges that the team faced during this journey. It also addresses the future path to develop an integrated 3D digital cadastre in Victoria.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Seventeen species of parasites were recovered from 107 I Clarias gariepinus examined flom the. Mwanza Gulf of Lake Victoria. The parasite fauna comprised of four ectoparasites, a. Monogenea, Hirudinea, crustacean and a Digenea,' and fourteen endoparasites, five nematodes,. five trematodes and three ...

  14. Strain and displacement measurements for the June 9, 1980 Victoria, Mexico Earthquake (United States)

    Darby, D.; Nyland, E.; Suarez, F.; Chavez, D.; Gonzalez, J.

    A microgeodetic network 22 km south east of Est. Guadalupe Victoria, Baja California Norte, installed in late May 1980, has been resurveyed in an experiment that started 12 hours after the June 9, 1980 Victoria earthquake, which had an epicenter at 10 km depth about 12 km from the network. The resurvey was complete by June 13. Both the initial observations and the resurvey were done with HP3800 distance meter equipment. Some angular control was provided with a Wild T3 theodolite. The network underwent a compressive strain of 7 ± 3 micro strain essentially parallel the Cerro Prieto fault about the time of the earthquake. Strains of this size are associated with simple dislocation models of earthquakes of this magnitude. Its direction appears to be anomalous however. This may indicate compression related to soil liquefaction processes or strain near the end of the slip plane.

  15. Hot and Saline Spring Behaviour in the Taupo Volcanic Zone and the North-East German Basin (United States)

    Cacace, M.; Kissling, W.


    Hot springs occur in geothermal regions worldwide, and often have important economic or cultural values which can be threatened by geothermal developments. In this paper we describe models of hot springs in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in New Zealand, and of saline springs in the Northeast German Basin (NEGB). In New Zealand, the operation of the Wairakei geothermal power station in the 1950's and early 1960's lead to the collapse of the thermal area known as 'Geyser Valley', and more recently, the spring and Geyser activity in Rotorua was threatened by the widespread and uncontrolled drawoff of geothermal water for domestic use. Similarly, in the NEGB, discharge of saline springs poses serious challenges for groundwater management for agricultural and domestic use, having additional implications for future geothermal energy projects. Despite their obviously very different nature the springs in NEGB and TVZ do have some common characteristics: they both feed fluid to the surface from deeper (geothermal) aquifers through embedded hydrogeological heterogeneities (e.g. fracture systems, erosional gaps and unconformities in the internal stratigraphic sequence), and data shows that they both exhibit irregular flowrates, temperatures and chemistries. Currently used models of hot/saline springs do not show these types of behaviour and offer no understanding of the mechanisms of variability in either setting, or indeed the nature of the connections to deeper aquifers. In this paper we present early results from a study aimed at identifying the most important physical mechanisms governing the dynamics of these systems. We use the simulation code NaCl-Tough2 (Kissling, 2005a,b) to accurately represent the thermodynamics of fluids in both systems. Though relatively simplistic in terms of the modelled geometry these models provide new important insights into the variability of the observed flow dynamics as well as in their causative processes at depths. The results obtained

  16. Depositional History and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Middle Ordovician Yeongheung Formation (Yeongweol Group), Taebaeksan Basin, mid-east Korea (United States)

    Kwon, Yoo Jin; Kwon, Yi Kyun


    composition ratio of siliciclastic materials dominated facies in the upper part of the Yeongheung Formation. The Middle1 subunit is pervasively recognized by subaerial exposures facies (carbonate breccia, paleosol), whereas the Middle2 subunit is similar to the Middle1 subunit except for the absence of subaerial exposure features. The Western subunit lost some of its primary sedimentary structure and texture in comparison to other subunits, because of the active recrystallization, metamorphism, structural deformation and carbonate diagenesis. This study reveals depositional history and refines sequence stratigraphy of the Yeongheung Formation, promoting understanding of the basin evolution of the Yeongweol Group.

  17. The Impact of the Geologic History and Paleoclimate on the Diversification of East African Cichlids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. Danley


    Full Text Available The cichlid fishes of the East African Great Lakes are the largest extant vertebrate radiation identified to date. These lakes and their surrounding waters support over 2,000 species of cichlid fish, many of which are descended from a single common ancestor within the past 10 Ma. The extraordinary East African cichlid diversity is intricately linked to the highly variable geologic and paleoclimatic history of this region. Greater than 10 Ma, the western arm of the East African rift system began to separate, thereby creating a series of rift basins that would come to contain several water bodies, including the extremely deep Lakes Tanganyika and Malawi. Uplifting associated with this rifting backponded many rivers and created the extremely large, but shallow Lake Victoria. Since their creation, the size, shape, and existence of these lakes have changed dramatically which has, in turn, significantly influenced the evolutionary history of the lakes' cichlids. This paper reviews the geologic history and paleoclimate of the East African Great Lakes and the impact of these forces on the region's endemic cichlid flocks.

  18. Global change impact on oxidative potential and toxicity of atmospheric particles from the East Mediterranean basin: the ARCHIMEDES initiative (United States)

    Alleman, Laurent; Anthérieu, Sébastien; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Garçon, Guillaume; Lo Guidice, Jean-Marc; Hamonou, Eric; Öztürk, Fatma; Perdrix, Esperanza; Rudich, Yinon; Sciare, Jean; Sauvage, Stéphane


    Climate change (CC) has important social, economical and health implications, notably in accordance with variation in air pollution or microbiome modification and its related toxicity mechanisms. CC will have a strong influence on meteorology, inducing dryer and warmer conditions in some regions. The Mediterranean basin is foreseen as a hotspot for regional climate warming, favoring larger dust episodes, wild fire events, vegetation emissions and changes in air pollution physic-chemical characteristics due to enhanced photochemical reactivity. Increasing concentrations of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone, and radicals will be associated with rising concentrations of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and other oxidized aerosols. These expected changes in aerosol composition are currently studied within the international ChArMEx (Chemistry-aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) program, part of the interdisciplinary MISTRALS metaprogramme (Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales). According to the LIFE/MED-PARTICLES (LIFE) project, this might result in more adverse effects on health. However, toxicologists are far from having a detailed mechanistic knowledge of the quantitative causal relations between particles (PM) and health effects suggested by epidemiological evidences. Detailed toxicological studies looking at contrasted PM origins and chemical compositions are highly needed, particularly on strongly aged SOA suspected to increase the oxidative potential (OP) and to enhance the toxicity of airborne particles. Intensive researches onto the underlying mechanisms of inflammation started to describe the outlines of the intricate relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation. It is therefore, of great importance to better determine the OP of PM from contrasted surroundings, its relationship with CC through PM's physical, chemical and microbial characteristics, and its toxicological consequences within the lungs. Recently

  19. Seismic data interpretation for hydrocarbon potential, for Safwa/Sabbar field, East Ghazalat onshore area, Abu Gharadig basin, Western Desert, Egypt (United States)

    Hameed El Redini, Naser A.; Ali Bakr, Ali M.; Dahroug, Said M.


    Safwa/Sabbar oil field located in the East Ghazalat Concession in the proven and prolific Abu Gharadig basin, Western Desert, Egypt, and about 250 km to the southwest of Cairo, it's located in the vicinity of several producing oil fields ranging from small to large size hydrocarbon accumulation, adjacent to the NW-SE trending major Abu Gharadig fault which is throwing to the Southwest. All the geological, "structure and stratigraphic" elements, have been identified after interpreting the recent high quality 3D seismic survey for prospect generation, evaluation and their relation to the hydrocarbon exploration. Synthetic seismograms have been carried out for all available wells to tie horizons to seismic data and to define the lateral variation characters of the beds. The analysis has been done using the suitable seismic attributes to understand the characteristics of different types of the reservoir formations, type of trap system, identify channels and faults, and delineating the stratigraphic plays of good reservoirs such as Eocene Apollonia Limestone, AR "F", AR "G" members, Upper Bahariya, Jurassic Khatatba Sandstone, upper Safa and Lower Safa Sandstone. The top Cenomanian Bahariya level is the main oil reservoir in the Study area, which consist of Sandstone, Siltstone and Shale, the thickness is varying from 1 to 50 ft along the study area. In addition to Upper-Bahariya there are a good accessibility of hydrocarbon potential within the Jurassic Khatatba Sandstone and the Eocene Apollonia Limestone. More exploring of these reservoirs are important to increase productivity of Oil and/or Gas in the study area.

  20. Geophysical Features and Inferred Triggering Factors of Submarine Landslides in the Western Continental Margin of the Ulleung Basin, East Sea of Korea (United States)

    Cukur, D.; Kim, S. P.; Kong, G. S.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, J. K.; Choi, J. G.


    Submarine landslides form very complex features on the seafloor and the associated geological processes are yet to be known completely. Various researches are still undergoing not only for their profound academic significance but also for their hazardous impact potential to seafloor infrastructures and coastal areas. In order to investigate the morphology and cause of landslides along the western margin of the Ulleung Basin in the East Sea, we collected multiple geophysical datasets in the summer of 2015, including sparker, subbottom profiler, and multibeam echosounder. The preliminary analysis of the bathymetric data shows a number of U-shaped scarps that occur on a rather steep slope (up to 10°) in water depths of ~600 m. The scarps cover an area of ~100 km2 and have reliefs of up to 50 m. Seismic data clearly image erosional headwalls and the basal gliding plane which is characterized by a prominent high-amplitude reflector. Chaotic- to transparent-seismic facies, located immediately downslope of the headwall scarps, represent landslide deposits of about 20 m in thickness. At the base of slope, the slides form lens-shaped transparent bodies, resting on well-stratified turbidite deposits. Several V-shaped seafloor depressions near the head of these scarps are seen on the subbottom profiles. These depressions, which are ~5 m deep and ~150 m wide, are interpreted to be representing pockmarks, resulted from upward migration of gas in the sediment layers beneath. The presence of these pockmarks directly above the scars may suggest that the gases and/or gas fluids might be playing an important role for destabilizing slope sediments. Furthermore, subbottom profiles suggest the presence of numerous faults in close vicinity of headwall scarps; some are extending to the seafloor suggesting their recent activity. Earthquakes associated with tectonic activity are indicated to be the cause of these faults. Thus the fault-related earthquakes might be the final triggering

  1. Mathematical Problems in Biology : Victoria Conference

    CERN Document Server


    A conference on "Some Mathematical Problems in Biology" was held at the University of Victoria, Victoria, B. C. , Canada, from May 7 - 10, 1973. The participants and invited speakers were mathematicians interested in problems of a biological nature, and scientists actively engaged in developing mathematical models in biological fields. One aim of the conference was to attempt to assess what the recent rapid growth of mathematical interaction with the biosciences has accomplished and may accomplish in the near future. The conference also aimed to expose the problems of communication bet~",een mathematicians and biological scientists, and in doing so to stimulate the interchange of ideas. It was recognised that the topic spans an enormous breadth, and little attempt was made to balance the very diverse areas. Widespread active interest was shown in the conference, and just over one hundred people registered. The varied departments and institutions across North America from which the participants came made it bo...

  2. Pancam Peek into 'Victoria Crater' (Stereo) (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08776 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08776 A drive of about 60 meters (about 200 feet) on the 943rd Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's exploration of Mars' Meridiani Planum region (Sept. 18, 2006) brought the NASA rover to within about 50 meters (about 160 feet) of the rim of 'Victoria Crater.' This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months. Opportunity reached a location from which the cameras on top of the rover's mast could begin to see into the interior of Victoria. This stereo anaglyph was made from frames taken on sol 943 by the panoramic camera (Pancam) to offer a three-dimensional view when seen through red-blue glasses. It shows the upper portion of interior crater walls facing toward Opportunity from up to about 850 meters (half a mile) away. The amount of vertical relief visible at the top of the interior walls from this angle is about 15 meters (about 50 feet). The exposures were taken through a Pancam filter selecting wavelengths centered on 750 nanometers. Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is the expectation that a thick stack of geological layers will be exposed in the crater walls, potentially several times the thickness that was previously studied at Endurance and therefore, potentially preserving several times the historical record.

  3. Implementation of the victoria bowel performance scale. (United States)

    Hawley, Philippa; Barwich, Doris; Kirk, Lisa


    There is a lack of evidence to guide constipation management in patients receiving palliative care. Data collection requires the systematic use of validated assessment tools. The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of the Victoria Bowel Performance Scale (BPS) as an audit tool. Charts were reviewed before and after the implementation of a program to monitor constipation through repeated use of the Victoria Bowel Scale. The program was initiated at three oncology pain and symptom management clinics, four palliative care units, and four residential hospices. An additional "control" palliative care unit introduced new nursing assessment tools without the new scale. The Victoria BPS was recorded at 86% of 192 postimplementation outpatient clinic visits and was easy to use in this setting. Documentation of bowel performance at comparable visits improved from 44% to 66% (Passessment tool, uniquely incorporating the patient's usual bowel function. Modifications to the scale have been made to improve clarity and allow for the expected drop in bowel activity seen in end-of-life care. Considerable educational effort and appropriate organization of the charts are required for optimal implementation. The proportion of revised BPS scores ranging from -1 to +1 is proposed as an indicator of satisfactory bowel management for clinical, audit, and research purposes. Copyright © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Elevated temperature and acclimation time affect metabolic performance in the heavily exploited Nile perch of Lake Victoria. (United States)

    Nyboer, Elizabeth A; Chapman, Lauren J


    Increasing water temperatures owing to anthropogenic climate change are predicted to negatively impact the aerobic metabolic performance of aquatic ectotherms. Specifically, it has been hypothesized that thermal increases result in reductions in aerobic scope (AS), which lead to decreases in energy available for essential fitness and performance functions. Consequences of warming are anticipated to be especially severe for warm-adapted tropical species as they are thought to have narrow thermal windows and limited plasticity for coping with elevated temperatures. In this study we test how predicted warming may affect the aerobic performance of Nile perch (Lates niloticus), a commercially harvested fish species in the Lake Victoria basin of East Africa. We measured critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and key metabolic variables such as AS and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) across a range of temperatures, and compared responses between acute (3-day) exposures and 3-week acclimations. CTmax increased with acclimation temperature; however, 3-week-acclimated fish had higher overall CTmax than acutely exposed individuals. Nile perch also showed the capacity to increase or maintain high AS even at temperatures well beyond their current range; however, acclimated Nile perch had lower AS compared with acutely exposed fish. These changes were accompanied by lower EPOC, suggesting that drops in AS may reflect improved energy utilization after acclimation, a finding that is supported by improvements in growth at high temperatures over the acclimation period. Overall, the results challenge predictions that tropical species have limited thermal plasticity, and that high temperatures will be detrimental because of limitations in AS. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Recent reduction in the water level of Lake Victoria has created more habitats for Anopheles funestus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futami Kyoko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The water level of Lake Victoria has fallen more than 1.5 m since 1998, revealing a narrow strip of land along the shore. This study determined whether the recent drop in the water level has created additional breeding grounds for malaria vectors. Methods The recent and past shorelines were estimated using landmarks and a satellite image. The locations of breeding habitats were recorded using a GPS unit during the high and low lake water periods. GIS was used to determine whether the breeding habitats were located on newly emerged land between the new and old shorelines. Results Over half of the breeding habitats existed on newly emerged land. Fewer habitats for the Anopheles gambiae complex were found during the low water level period compared to the high water period. However, more habitats for Anopheles funestus were found during the high water level period, and they were all located on the newly emerged land. Conclusion The recent reduction in water level of Lake Victoria has increased the amount of available habitat for A. funestus. The results suggest that the water drop has substantially affected the population of this malaria vector in the Lake Victoria basin, particularly because the lake has a long shoreline that may harbour many new breeding habitats.

  6. Urban eutrophication and its spurring conditions in the Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria. (United States)

    Kabenge, Martin; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Fengting


    The efficiency of Lake Victoria in providing its ecosystem services to riparian states, both immediate and along the Nile river basin, is strongly related to its water quality. Over the past few decades, eutrophication has increased in the lake arising from increased inflow of nutrients. This study was carried out in the Murchison Bay area of Lake Victoria with the aims of assessing the progress of eutrophication nutrient enrichment into the lake between 1990 and 2014. Using Landsat satellite floating algae index (FAI) products and data from laboratory analysis of water samples, the study revealed that floating algae reoccurred periodically with coverage varying between 1 and 18 km(2). The findings also indicated that the range of nitrate-nitrogen concentrations increased greatly with maximum concentrations recorded at 31.2 mg l(-1) in 2007 from 0.084 mg l(-1) in 1990. The soluble reactive phosphorus concentration range showed a maximum of 1.45 mg l(-1) in 2007 from 0.043 mg l(-1) in 1990. The chlorophyll levels increased from an average of 17 μg l(-1) in 1992 by threefold in 1996 but had however declined and halved in intensity by 2011. The eutrophication that has occurred in Lake Victoria over the past decades has been due to pollution from industrial, residential, and agricultural areas within the catchment.

  7. Genetic structure of pelagic and littoral cichlid fishes from Lake Victoria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyuki Takeda

    Full Text Available The approximately 700 species of cichlids found in Lake Victoria in East Africa are thought to have evolved over a short period of time, and they represent one of the largest known examples of adaptive radiation. To understand the processes that are driving this spectacular radiation, we must determine the present genetic structure of these species and elucidate how this structure relates to the ecological conditions that caused their adaptation. We analyzed the genetic structure of two pelagic and seven littoral species sampled from the southeast area of Lake Victoria using sequences from the mtDNA control region and 12 microsatellite loci as markers. Using a Bayesian model-based clustering method to analyze the microsatellite data, we separated these nine species into four groups: one group composed of pelagic species and another three groups composed mainly of rocky-shore species. Furthermore, we found significant levels of genetic variation between species within each group at both marker loci using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA, although the nine species often shared mtDNA haplotypes. We also found significant levels of genetic variation between populations within species. These results suggest that initial groupings, some of which appear to have been related to habitat differences, as well as divergence between species within groups took place among the cichlid species of Lake Victoria.

  8. Non-arboreal pollen (NAP) and terrestrial non-pollen palynomorph (NPP) indicating fluctuation of East China Sea Coastal Water (ECSCW): piston core (St-21) from Ulleung Basin, Korea (United States)

    Jun, Chang-Pyo; Kim, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Seong-Joo


    Piston core samples (St-21) collected from the northern part of Ulleung Basin, Korea yielded a great amount of palynomorph including arboreal pollen (AP), non-arboreal pollen (NAP) and non-pollen palynormorphs (NPP). Abundance of NAP changes significantly throughout the core, showing high percentages (ca. 10 %) during 18ka, 33ka, and 65ka. Such a fluctuation of NAP would have been controlled by freshwater run-off into the East Sea during the period of last glaciation, most probably by influx of East China Sea Coastal Water (ECSCW) because there has not been a large river along the coast surrounding the East Sea. Other palynomorph (freshwater algae and fungal spore) originated from terrestrial environments also shows similar trend. Because influx of ECSCW, in general, tends to increase during the period of warm climate while decrease at the time of cold seasons, horizons with high percentages of NAP and terrestrial NPP indicate warm climates, introducing more NAP and terrestrial NPP into the East Sea. Such interpretation is also supported by principle component analysis (PCA).

  9. The application of Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence for assessing groundwater vulnerability at Galal Badra basin, Wasit governorate, east of Iraq (United States)

    Al-Abadi, Alaa M.


    The process of delineating areas that are more susceptible to pollution from anthropogenic sources has become an important issue for groundwater resources management and land-use planning. In this study, an attempt was made to delineate aquifer vulnerability zones for nitrate contamination at Galal Badra basin, east of Iraq using Dempster-Shafer method of evidence in GIS platform. First, an inventory map of the wells with elevated nitrate concentration (>3 mg/L) was prepared. The map showed that there are 63 wells with elevated nitrate concentrations in the study area. These data were partitioned randomly into two sets, for training and testing. The partition criterion was 70/30, 44 wells for training and 19 wells for testing. Then, the most influencing evidential thematic factors in determining aquifer vulnerability were selected depending on the availability of data. These factors were groundwater depth, hydraulic conductivity, slope, soil, and land use land cover (LULC). The spatial association between well locations and evidential thematic layers was investigated by means of mass functions (belief, disbelief, uncertainty, and plausibility) of Dempster-Shafer method. The integrated belief function was used to produce groundwater aquifer vulnerability index (GVI) for the study area. The pixel values of GVI were reclassified into five categories: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high using Jenks classification scheme. The very low-low zones cover 32 % (209 km2). These classes mainly concentrate on the eastern parts of the study area and occupy small zone in the central part. The moderate zone extends over an area of 42 % (279 km2) and mainly encompasses the western part of the study area. The high-very high zones cover 26 % (170 km2) and these zones concentrate on the central part of the study area. The results indicate that the aquifer system in the study area is moderately vulnerable to contamination by nitrate. The model was validated by using relative

  10. Modeling Stratigraphic Architecture of Deep-water Deposits Using a Small Unmanned Aircraft: Neogene Thin-bedded Turbidites, East Coast Basin, New Zealand (United States)

    Nieminski, N.; Graham, S. A.


    One of the outstanding challenges of field geology is inaccessibility of exposure. The ability to view and characterize outcrops that are difficult to study from the ground is greatly improved by aerial investigation. Detailed stratigraphic architecture of such exposures is best addressed by using advances and availability of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) that can safely navigate from high-altitude overviews of study areas to within a meter of the exposure of interest. High-resolution photographs acquired at various elevations and azimuths by sUAS are then used to convert field measurements to digital representations in three-dimensions at a fine scale. Photogrammetric software is used to capture complex, detailed topography by creating digital surface models with a range imaging technique that estimates three-dimensional structures from two-dimensional image sequences. The digital surface model is overlain by detailed, high-resolution photography. Pairing sUAS technology with readily available photogrammetry software that requires little processing time and resources offers a revolutionary and cost-effective methodology for geoscientists to investigate and quantify stratigraphic and structural complexity of field studies from the convenience of the office. These methods of imaging and modeling remote outcrops are demonstrated in the East Coast Basin, New Zealand, where wave-cut platform exposures of Miocene deep-water deposits offer a unique opportunity to investigate the flow processes and resulting characteristics of thin-bedded turbidite deposits. Stratigraphic architecture of wavecut platform and vertically-dipping exposures of these thin-bedded turbidites is investigated with sUAS coupled with Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry software. This approach allows the geometric and spatial variation of deep-water architecture to be characterized continuously along 2,000 meters of lateral exposure, as well as to measure and quantify cyclic

  11. Modelling density-dependent flow and solute transport at the Lake Tutchewop saline disposal complex, Victoria (United States)

    Simmons, Craig T.; Narayan, Kumar A.


    Intercepted saline groundwaters and drainage effluent from irrigation are commonly stored in both natural and artificial saline disposal basins throughout the Murray-Darling Basin of Australia. Their continued use as wastewater evaporation sites requires an understanding of existing groundwater dynamics. The useful of individual basins, their sustainability and possible environmental impacts remain largely unknown. In this work, the movement of salt to the underlying groundwater system from Lake Tutchewop, a saline disposal complex in north-central Victoria, was modelled in cross-section. Due to the salinity contrast between the hypersaline basin waters and the regional groundwater, it was necessary to simulate density-dependent flow behaviour. Under certain conditions, these density-stratified systems may become unstable leading to the onset of convective behaviour, which greatly increases the movement of salt from the basin to the groundwater system. Modelled concentration profiles in the aquifer system and calculated seepage rates from the basin show that Lake Tutchewop is stable under its present operating regime. The downward movement of salt is mainly controlled by diffusion and dispersion. The calibrated model was used to assess the impact of several management scenarios using time-dependent boundary conditions for lake salinity and water levels. The influence of heterogeneous basin linings on ensuing salt flux rates is examined, and results show that increased solute transport will occur under such conditions. A sensitivity analysis performed on governing variables showed that salt fluxes were most sensitive to lake salinity levels. A solute Rayleigh number defined in terms of basin salinity and hydrogeologic parameters is seen to be an effective tool for predicting the long term behaviour of such saline disposal basins. The models and concepts developed in this work may find application in the design and management of saline disposal complexes.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Victoria. Netherlands Journal of. Zoology 42'. 214 -232. Witte F, Goldschmidt PC and Wanink JH. 1995. Dynamics of the haplochromine cichlid fauna and other ecological changes in the. Mwanza gmlf of Lake Victoria. In: Pitcher TH and Hart PJB (eds):. Impact of species change in fiican lakes. Chapman & Hall, London, pp.

  13. Adaptive responses to environmental changes in Lake Victoria cichlids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijssel, Jacobus Cornelis van (Jacco)


    Lake Victoria cichlids show the fastest vertebrate adaptive radiation known which is why they function as a model organism to study evolution. In the past 40 years, Lake Victoria experienced severe environmental changes including the boom of the introduced, predatory Nile perch and eutrophication.

  14. Gender Integration in the Management of the Lake Victoria Fisheries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The riparian governments of Lake Victoria have adopted co-management approach in fisheries management. This paper discusses gender mainstreaming in fisheries management of Lake Victoria, user rights, successes and challenges of the process. This paper has used gender-disaggregated data from several studies ...

  15. Degradation of Victoria Crater, Meridiani Planum, Mars (United States)

    Grant, J. A.; Wilson, S. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Golombek, M. P.; Geissler, P. E.; Sullivan, R. J.


    Victoria crater (2.05N, 354.51E) is ~750 m in diameter and the largest crater on Mars observed in situ. The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity traversed NW to SE across a broad annulus dominated by dark sand that at least partially surrounds the crater before navigating the northern crater rim. Rover observations of the crater and ejecta deposits are complemented by images with 26-52 cm/pixel scales from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and enable assessment of degradation state. The present depth/diameter ratio for Victoria is 0.1, less than the 0.2 expected for a pristine primary impact structure. Together with the eroded, serrated rim, this implies an originally smaller crater diameter and/or considerable infilling consistent with occurrence of a large dune field and few exposed rocks on the crater floor. The height and width of the raised rim is generally 4-5 m and 150-225 m, respectively, less than the 30 m and 500-600 m, respectively, expected for a pristine 750 m diameter crater. Ejecta thicknesses around the rim were derived using rover-based and HiRISE images and yield consistent estimates averaging ~3 m. The serrated rim plan creates a series of promontories extending up to 50 m into the crater and generally fronted by 30-60 degree slopes that are locally vertical and are separated by bays whose floors typically slope 15-25 degrees. A crater originally on order of 600-650 m in diameter and subsequently enlarged by mass wasting and aeolian erosion may yield a structure resembling Victoria today. The steep expression of the promontories and local outcroppings of rocks in the ejecta blanket points to some ongoing mass wasting, but the relative paucity of associated flanking talus indicates derived blocks of sulfate sandstone are not resistant to saltating sand and are rapidly broken down by the wind or are completely covered/filled in by aeolian drift. At Cape St. Vincent, the promontory appears undercut

  16. Dublin Basin


    Somerville, I.D.; C. N. Waters


    The Carboniferous rocks of the Dublin Basin extend from the east coast of north Co. Dublin westwards to the River Shannon at Athlone and northwards to the Lower Palaeozoic rocks of the Longford-Down Massif (see Strogen et al. 1996, fig. 5; Sevastopulo & Wyse Jackson 2001, fig. 10.12; Fig. 21.1). They occur in counties Longford, Westmeath, Meath, north Co. Dublin, north Co. Offaly, north Co. Kildare and south Co. Dublin. Most of the rocks in the region belong to the Mississippia...

  17. An Observational Study of the Kuroshio in the East China Sea: Local, Regional, and Basin-Wide Perspectives on a Western Boundary Current

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andres, Magdalena


    .... An observational study of the Kuroshio was conducted using data collected in the East China Sea (ECS) north of Okinawa from December 2002 through November 2004 with an array of inverted echo sounders and acoustic Doppler current profilers...

  18. Geographical imagination and technological connectivity in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Mark; Andersen, Casper; Mann, Laura


    The paper analyses and compares two transformative moments of technologically-mediated change in East Africa, the construction of the Uganda railway between Mombasa and Lake Victoria (1896-1903) and the introduction of fibre-optic cables that landed into the ports of Dar Es Salaam and Mombasa in ...

  19. The Bands Culture in Victoria, Australia: Live Music Benefits Career Paths, Employment and Community (United States)

    Watson, Amanda; Forrest, David


    This study explores the career paths, employment, business opportunities and community contributions made available through the provision and development of the contemporary performance bands' culture in the State of Victoria. It is framed with the support given to live music performers by Arts Victoria, Small Business Victoria and Music Victoria.…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferid Skopljak


    Full Text Available The phenomena of thermal waters in the northeastern periphery of the Zenica-Sarajevo basin is caused by the geological structure, structural-tectonic and hydrogeological characteristics of the terrain. The genesis had not been fully addressed before. This paper presents the study of the genesis of thermal waters based on the geological structure, structural-tectonic and hydrogeological characteristics of the terrain, and physiochemical and isotopic composition of water. The results provide a new contribution to the structure of this part of the Zenica-Sarajevo basin and create a more realistic foundation for the future research of thermal water in this area.

  1. Dynamics of the east India coastal current. 2. Numerical solutions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    McCreary, J.P.; Han, W.; Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    A linear, continuously stratified model is used to investigate the dynamics of the East India Coastal Current (EICC). Solutions are found numerically in a basin that resembles the Indian Ocean basin north of 29 degrees S, and they are forced...

  2. Stratigraphy and paleogeographic significance of a Late Pennsylvanian to Early Permian channeled slope sequence in the Darwin Basin, southern Darwin Hills, east-central California (United States)

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Stone, Paul; Magginetti, Robert T.; Ritter, Scott M.


    The complex stratigraphy of late Paleozoic rocks in the southern Darwin Hills consists of regionally extensive Mississippian and Early to Middle Pennsylvanian rocks overlain by latest Pennsylvanian to Early Permian rocks, herein called the Darwin Hills sequence. Deposition of this latter sequence marked the beginning of the Darwin Basin. In Mississippian time, a carbonate platform prograded westward over slightly older slope deposits. In the Late Mississippian this platform was exposed to erosion and siliciclastic sediments were deposited. In Early to Middle Pennsylvanian time the area subsided, forming a west-facing ramp that was subjected to deformation and erosion in Middle or early Late Pennsylvanian time. Later this area was tilted westward and deep-water sediments were deposited on this slope. In latest Pennsylvanian to earliest Permian time, a major channel was cut through the older Pennsylvanian rocks and into the Upper Mississippian strata. This channel was gradually filled with increasingly finer grained, deep-water sediment as the area evolved into a basin floor by Early Permian (Sakmarian) time. Expansion of the Darwin Basin in Artinskian time led to a second phase of deposition represented by strata of the regionally extensive Darwin Canyon Formation. The geology in this small area thus documents tectonic events occurring during the early development of the Darwin Basin.

  3. Metamorphic grade and gradient from white K-mica bearing sedimentary rocks in the Mosquito Creek Basin, east Pilbara Craton, western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kisch, H.J.; Nijman, W.


    Shales and phyllites from the turbidite sequences of the 2.9 Ga Mosquito Creek Formation of the East Pilbara, Western Australia contain varying amounts of paragonite and mixed Na–K micas (MNKMs), the 0 0 l X-ray diffraction reflections of which are unresolved from the 10-Å reflections, and only

  4. Accounting for Violence at the Victoria Industrial School

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bryan Hogeveen


    Boys who were inmates at the Victoria Industrial School (VIS) from its opening in 1887 to its closure in 1934 often suffered extreme, violent, and capricious penalties and encountered calculated psychological manipulation...

  5. Ecological Biogeography of the Terrestrial Nematodes of Victoria Land, Antarctica (United States)

    Adams, Byron J.; Wall, Diana H.; Virginia, Ross A.; Broos, Emma; Knox, Matthew A.


    Abstract The terrestrial ecosystems of Victoria Land, Antarctica are characteristically simple in terms of biological diversity and ecological functioning. Nematodes are the most commonly encountered and abundant metazoans of Victoria Land soils, yet little is known of their diversity and distribution. Herein we present a summary of the geographic distribution, habitats and ecology of the terrestrial nematodes of Victoria Land from published and unpublished sources. All Victoria Land nematodes are endemic to Antarctica, and many are common and widely distributed at landscape scales. However, at smaller spatial scales, populations can have patchy distributions, with the presence or absence of each species strongly influenced by specific habitat requirements. As the frequency of nematode introductions to Antarctica increases, and soil habitats are altered in response to climate change, our current understanding of the environmental parameters associated with the biogeography of Antarctic nematofauna will be crucial to monitoring and possibly mitigating changes to these unique soil ecosystems. PMID:25061360

  6. An assessment to prioritise the critical erosion-prone sub-watersheds for soil conservation in the Gumti basin of Tripura, North-East India. (United States)

    Ahmed, Istak; Das Pan, Nibedita; Debnath, Jatan; Bhowmik, Moujuri


    Erosion-induced land degradation problem has emerged as a serious environmental issue across the world. Assessment of this problem through modelling can generate valuable quantitative information for the planners to identify priority areas for proper soil conservation measures. The Gumti River basin of Tripura falls under humid tropical climate and experiences soil erosion for a prolonged period which has turned into a major environmental issue. Increased sediment supply through top soil erosion is one of the major reasons for reduced navigability of this river. Thus, the present study is an attempt to prioritize the sub-watersheds of the Gumti basin by estimating soil loss through the USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) model. For that purpose, five parameters of the USLE model were processed, computed and overlaid in a GIS environment. The result shows that potential mean annual soil loss of the Gumti basin ranges between 0.03 and 114.08 t ha -1  year -1 . The resultant values of soil loss were classified into five categories considering the minimum and maximum values. It has been identified that low, moderate, high, very high and severe soil loss categories occupy 68.71, 8.94, 5.86, 5.02 and 11.47% of the basin respectively. Moreover, it has been recognised that sub-watersheds like SW7, SW8, SW12, SW21, SW24 and SW29 fall under very high priority class for which mitigation measures are essential. Therefore, the present study recommends mitigation measures through terrace cultivation, as an alternative of shifting cultivation in the hilly areas and through construction of check dams at the appropriate sites of the erosion prone sub-watersheds. Moreover, proper afforestation programmes that have been implemented successfully in other parts of Tripura through the Japan International Cooperation Agency, Joint Forest Management, and National Afforestation Programme should be initiated in the highly erosion-prone areas of the Gumti River basin.

  7. Victoria Land, Ross Sea, and Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica (United States)


    On December 19, 2001, MODIS acquired data that produced this image of Antarctica's Victoria Land, Ross Ice Shelf, and the Ross Sea. The coastline that runs up and down along the left side of the image denotes where Victoria Land (left) meets the Ross Ice Shelf (right). The Ross Ice Shelf is the world's largest floating body of ice, approximately the same size as France. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  8. The Jameson Land basin (east Greenland): a fission track study of the tectonic and thermal evolution in the Cenozoic North Atlantic spreading regime (United States)

    Hansen, Kirsten; Bergman, Steven C.; Henk, Bo


    The Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic thermal history of the Jameson Land basin is constrained by new apatite and zircon fission track (FT) data of surface Permian to Jurassic sedimentary rocks. The results show a general regional thermal evolution related to burial to temperatures close to and in excess of the maximum temperatures of the apatite annealing interval (∼125°C) followed by cooling mainly due to Cenozoic uplift and erosion. Faulting and differential movements in the basin generally occurred after cooling below the apatite partial annealing zone (PAZ: ∼75-125°C). However, in the northern part of the basin the data suggest a thicker sediment cover or localized heating related to an earlier fracture zone. Both apatite FT analysis and vitrinite reflectance values reveal a postmature signature for the studied rocks in the northeastern Jameson Land and premature to mature for the western, central and southern Jameson Land rocks with respect to generation of hydrocarbons. The chemical variations of apatite enhance the possibility of recognizing sample positions near maximum temperatures in the PAZ. Furthermore, the Pb-Zn mineralization pattern closely follows the Tertiary maturity trend given by the FT data. The type and distribution of mineralization suggest that it was influenced by the regional thermal evolution of the basin. In the northeast domain, circulating fluids may have overprinted the regional thermal record before ca. 20 Ma. Basaltic dyke and sill intrusions (55-45 Ma) locally caused resetting of apatite FT ages, but generally the direct influence from upper crustal magmatic activity played only a minor role. The thermal evolution in northeast Jameson Land is related to the late tectonic evolution of the Northeast Atlantic involving a change in ridge position at ca. 25 Ma which followed the passage of the proto-Icelandic mantle plume at 63-40 Ma.

  9. Climatic variability in combination with eutrophication drives adaptive responses in the gills of Lake Victoria cichlids. (United States)

    van Rijssel, Jacco C; Hecky, Robert E; Kishe-Machumu, Mary A; Meijer, Saskia E; Pols, Johan; van Tienderen, Kaj M; Ververs, Jan D; Wanink, Jan H; Witte, Frans


    Textbook examples of adaptive radiation often show rapid morphological changes in response to environmental perturbations. East Africa's Lake Victoria, famous for its stunning adaptive radiation of cichlids, has suffered from human-induced eutrophication over the past decades. This cultural eutrophication is thought to be partly responsible for the dramatically reduced cichlid biodiversity, but climatic variability in itself might also have contributed to the eutrophication which resulted in low oxygen levels and decreased water transparency. To determine how recent environmental changes have influenced the lake and its cichlids over the past 50 years, we gathered environmental and meteorological variables and compared these with gill surface area of four cichlid species. We found that during the period of severe eutrophication and temperature increase (1980s), reduced wind speeds coincided with a reduction in oxygen levels and a decrease in both water temperature and transparency. The gill surface area in three out of the four cichlid species increased during this period which is consistent with adaptive change in response to increased hypoxia. During the 2000s, wind speeds, oxygen levels, water transparency and water temperature increased again, while cichlid gill surface area decreased. Our results imply that climatic changes and especially wind speed and direction might play a crucial role in tropical lake dynamics. The changes in Lake Victoria's water quality coincide with fluctuations in cichlid gill surface area, suggesting that these fish can respond rapidly to environmental perturbations, but also that climatic variability, together with continued eutrophication, might be detrimental to the lake's cichlid biodiversity.

  10. The Early (Feminist Essays of Victoria Ocampo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Meyer


    Full Text Available This study examines the essays written by Ocampo between 1920 and 1934, prior to the time when she publicly voiced her adhesion to feminism and the rights of women in Argentine society. In these works from her Testimonios in which Ocampo struggles to find her voice as a female writer, the maleable essay serves her need to engage in discursive dialogues from the margins of the literary culture of her time. Both as a woman and a member of the oligarchy, she questions cultural assumptions and gender-based binary structures common among the male writers of her time, many of whom she knew personally. Using rhetorical strategies that show the self-reflexive and subversive nature of her writing, Ocampo reads and reinterprets these works from a parenthetical feminist perspective, contesting their intellectual and aesthetic biases. The active agency of the reader as writer in these early essays shows Ocampo's awareness of her own unorthodox subject position—alienated from the conventions of her class, her gender, her national culture and language. Her autobiographical musings and her engagement with literary modernity in the 1920s and 1930s reveal a woman who accepted the liabilities of articulating an autonomous self, both in a European and a Latin American context. The influence of family bonds and patriarchal morality decisively shaped, but did not ultimately control, the way Victoria Ocampo eventually defined herself as a feminist author.

  11. Special forest products: An east-side perspective. Interior Columbia Basin ecosystem management project: Scientific assessment. Forest Service general technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlosser, W.E.; Blatner, K.


    The special forest products industry has gained increasing attention, as timber harvest levels in the Pacific Northwest have declined, and has been heralded, at least by some, as a partial solution to the employment problems common throughout the rural areas of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana. To date, relatively little work has been published on those portions of the industry located east of the Cascade Range. Yet the east side produced about 48 percent of the total wild edible mushroom harvest (about 1.9 million pounds worth $11.8 million) during 1992. The region also accounts for all of the baby`s breath harvested in the Pacific Northwest and has the potential to produce large quantities of other foral products. It also seems to have the potential to become an important producer of other edibles and medicinal products; however, relatively little is known about this segment of the industry. The following report provides overview of the special forest products industry east of the Cascade Range and evaluates its potential for expansion.

  12. A study of heavy metal pollution in Lake Victoria sediments by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence. (United States)

    Makundi, I N


    Sources of heavy metal pollution of Lake Victoria is of interest due to its economic and domestic implication in East Africa. Sediments from the shore of Lake Victoria and from some streams flowing into the lake have been analyzed for their heavy metal content using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis. The samples were collected from seventeen different locations around the Municipality of Mwanza divided into three zones according to their activities. The results show that sediments from Mwanza North, which is least in anthropogenic activities, contains Cr and Co in addition to metals of terrestrial origin (K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Rb, Sr, Y, and Zr), samples from Mwanza Central, which is the town center, contains high concentrations of V, Cu, Zn and Pb, and samples collected from Mwanza South, which is the industrial area, contains the highest concentrations of V, Cu, Zn, As and Pb. It is concluded that the industrial and sewage wastes discharged into the lake are the main sources of the heavy metal contamination of Lake Victoria. Further studies will be required to assess detriments of these pollutants to human and aquatic life before policy for the factories responsible is put in place.

  13. Preliminary analysis of the role of lake basin morphology on the modern diatom flora in the Ruby Mountains and East Humboldt Range, Nevada, USA (United States)

    Starratt, Scott W.


    As paleolimnologists, we often look at the world through a 5-cm-diameter hole in the bottom of a lake, and although a number of studies have shown that a single core in the deepest part of a lake does not necessarily reflect the entire diatom flora, time and money often limit our ability to collect more than one core from a given site. This preliminary study is part of a multidisciplinary research project to understand Holocene climate variability in alpine regions of the Great Basin, and ultimately, to compare these high elevation records to the better studied pluvial records from adjacent valleys, in this case, the Ruby Valley.

  14. Morphological redescription and DNA barcoding of Linevitshia prima Makarchenko, 1987 (Diptera: Chironomidae: Diamesinae) from Amur River basin (Russian Far East), with notes on systematics of the genus. (United States)

    Makarchenko, Eugenyi A; Semenchenko, Alexander A


    Additions and corrections to the diagnosis of the genus Linevitshia for male adult, pupa and larva are given, and systematic position of the genus is discussed. Illustrated redescription of adult male and first description of 4th instar larva of L. prima Makarchenko from Amur River basin are provided. Comparison of data based on a new material with those of L. yezoensis Endo showed that the latter name is a junior synonym of L. prima. The species-specificity of L. prima COI sequences is analyzed and the sequences are presented as diagnostic characters-molecular markers of L. prima.

  15. New Eurycorypha species (Orthoptera: Tettigonoidea: Phaneropteridae; Phaneropterinae from East Africa. (United States)

    Hemp, Claudia


    Eight Eurycorypha species are newly described for Tanzania. These are E. binasuta n. sp. from the Nguru and Udzungwa Mountains, E. curviflava n. sp. from the eastern slopes of Mt Kilimanjaro, E. divertata n. sp., E. elongata n. sp. and E. flexata n. sp. from the East Usambara Mountains, E. pseudomeruensis n. sp. from Central-west Tanzania and western Kenya, E. pseudovaria n. sp. from the West and East Usambara Mountains and E. victoriae n. sp. from the shores of Lake Victoria. Further the hitherto unknown females of two Eurycorypha, E. combretoides Hemp and E. ligata Hemp are described. A key to the males of Tanzania and Kenya is provided.

  16. Extent and drainage status of organic soils in the Lake Victoria catchment (United States)

    Barthelmes, Reni; Barthelmes, Alexandra; Joosten, Hans


    When considering peatlands and organic soils in the tropics, the huge areas in SE Asia prevail in public and scientific perception, whereas Africa has largely been out of focus. However, East Africa contains large areas of organic soils as well. They basically occur in the high altitudes of the uplifted flanks of the East African Rift System, isolated volcanoes and the Ethiopian highlands, in the Zambezian floodplains (e.g. Zambia), and in coastal environments (e.g. Mozambique and Madagascar). We used a mapping approach that integrates old field data and maps, specialized landscape and peatland-related knowledge, and modern RS and GIS techniques to elaborate a comprehensive and rather reliable overview of organic soils (incl. peatlands) in the Lake Victoria catchment. Maps at a scale of 1:25,000 have been prepared for Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. The land use intensity has been estimated for all organic soil areas based on satellite and aerial imagery. Feeding the Nile River, sustaining a fast growing and widely poor population and already facing climatic changes, organic soils of the Lake Victoria neighbouring countries are partially under heavy threat. We mapped 10,645 km2 of organic soils for the entire area of which 8,860 km2 (83.2%) seem to be in near natural condition. We assume slightly drainage and low degradation for 564 km2 (5.3%) and intensive drainage and heavy degradation for 1,222 km2 (11.5%). Degradation hotspot is Burundi with 522 km2 (79.5%) of heavily drained and degrading organic soils. This area assessment has been quite conservative to not overestimate the extent of organic soils. A reserve of 5-7,000 km2 of wetlands in the Lake Victoria catchment may include peatlands too, which needs to be confirmed in field surveys. Considering the key role of peatlands and organic soils for water provision and regulation and their rapid degradation due to drainage and inappropriate use, this inventory might be a step towards organic soil

  17. Chemodenitrification in the cryoecosystem of Lake Vida, Victoria Valley, Antarctica. (United States)

    Ostrom, N E; Gandhi, H; Trubl, G; Murray, A E


    Lake Vida, in the Victoria Valley of East Antarctica, is frozen, yet harbors liquid brine (~20% salt, >6 times seawater) intercalated in the ice below 16 m. The brine has been isolated from the surface for several thousand years. The brine conditions (permanently dark, -13.4 °C, lack of O2 , and pH of 6.2) and geochemistry are highly unusual. For example, nitrous oxide (N2 O) is present at a concentration among the highest reported for an aquatic environment. Only a minor 17 O anomaly was observed in N2 O, indicating that this gas was predominantly formed in the lake. In contrast, the 17 O anomaly in nitrate (NO3-) in Lake Vida brine indicates that approximately half or more of the NO3- present is derived from atmospheric deposition. Lake Vida brine was incubated in the presence of 15 N-enriched substrates for 40 days. We did not detect microbial nitrification, dissimilatory reduction of NO3- to ammonium (NH4+), anaerobic ammonium oxidation, or denitrification of N2 O under the conditions tested. In the presence of 15 N-enriched nitrite (NO2-), both N2 and N2 O exhibited substantial 15 N enrichments; however, isotopic enrichment declined with time, which is unexpected. Additions of 15 N-NO2- alone and in the presence of HgCl2 and ZnCl2 to aged brine at -13 °C resulted in linear increases in the δ15 N of N2 O with time. As HgCl2 and ZnCl2 are effective biocides, we interpret N2 O production in the aged brine to be the result of chemodenitrification. With this understanding, we interpret our results from the field incubations as the result of chemodenitrification stimulated by the addition of 15 N-enriched NO2- and ZnCl2 and determined rates of N2 O and N2 production of 4.11-41.18 and 0.55-1.75 nmol L-1  day-1 , respectively. If these rates are representative of natural production, the current concentration of N2 O in Lake Vida could have been reached between 6 and 465 years. Thus, chemodenitrification alone is sufficient to explain the high levels of N2 O

  18. Using multi-source satellite data for lake level modelling in ungauged basins: a case study for Lake Turkana, East Africa (United States)

    Velpuri, N. M.; Senay, G. B.; Asante, K. O.


    Managing limited surface water resources is a great challenge in areas where ground-based data are either limited or unavailable. Direct or indirect measurements of surface water resources through remote sensing offer several advantages of monitoring in ungauged basins. A physical based hydrologic technique to monitor lake water levels in ungauged basins using multi-source satellite data such as satellite-based rainfall estimates, modelled runoff, evapotranspiration, a digital elevation model, and other data is presented. This approach is applied to model Lake Turkana water levels from 1998 to 2009. Modelling results showed that the model can reasonably capture all the patterns and seasonal variations of the lake water level fluctuations. A composite lake level product of TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and ENVISAT satellite altimetry data is used for model calibration (1998-2000) and model validation (2001-2009). Validation results showed that model-based lake levels are in good agreement with observed satellite altimetry data. Compared to satellite altimetry data, the Pearson's correlation coefficient was found to be 0.81 during the validation period. The model efficiency estimated using NSCE is found to be 0.93, 0.55 and 0.66 for calibration, validation and combined periods, respectively. Further, the model-based estimates showed a root mean square error of 0.62 m and mean absolute error of 0.46 m with a positive mean bias error of 0.36 m for the validation period (2001-2009). These error estimates were found to be less than 15 % of the natural variability of the lake, thus giving high confidence on the modelled lake level estimates. The approach presented in this paper can be used to (a) simulate patterns of lake water level variations in data scarce regions, (b) operationally monitor lake water levels in ungauged basins, (c) derive historical lake level information using satellite rainfall and evapotranspiration data, and (d) augment the information provided by the

  19. Using multi-source satellite data for lake level modelling in ungauged basins: A case study for Lake Turkana, East Africa (United States)

    Velpuri, N.M.; Senay, G.B.; Asante, K.O.


    Managing limited surface water resources is a great challenge in areas where ground-based data are either limited or unavailable. Direct or indirect measurements of surface water resources through remote sensing offer several advantages of monitoring in ungauged basins. A physical based hydrologic technique to monitor lake water levels in ungauged basins using multi-source satellite data such as satellite-based rainfall estimates, modelled runoff, evapotranspiration, a digital elevation model, and other data is presented. This approach is applied to model Lake Turkana water levels from 1998 to 2009. Modelling results showed that the model can reasonably capture all the patterns and seasonal variations of the lake water level fluctuations. A composite lake level product of TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and ENVISAT satellite altimetry data is used for model calibration (1998-2000) and model validation (2001-2009). Validation results showed that model-based lake levels are in good agreement with observed satellite altimetry data. Compared to satellite altimetry data, the Pearson's correlation coefficient was found to be 0.81 during the validation period. The model efficiency estimated using NSCE is found to be 0.93, 0.55 and 0.66 for calibration, validation and combined periods, respectively. Further, the model-based estimates showed a root mean square error of 0.62 m and mean absolute error of 0.46 m with a positive mean bias error of 0.36 m for the validation period (2001-2009). These error estimates were found to be less than 15 % of the natural variability of the lake, thus giving high confidence on the modelled lake level estimates. The approach presented in this paper can be used to (a) simulate patterns of lake water level variations in data scarce regions, (b) operationally monitor lake water levels in ungauged basins, (c) derive historical lake level information using satellite rainfall and evapotranspiration data, and (d) augment the information provided by the

  20. A Two-Dimensional Post-Stack Seismic Inversion for Acoustic Impedance of Gas and Hydrate Bearing Deep-Water Sediments Within the Continental Slope of the Ulleung Basin, East Sea, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keumsuk Lee


    Full Text Available A post-stack inversion of 2D seismic data was conducted to estimate the spatial distribution of acoustic impedance associated with gas and hydrates in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea, Korea constrained by logs from three boreholes drilled on its continental margin. A model-based inversion was applied to a Plio-Quaternary succession composed of alternations of unconsolidated mass-flow deposits/turbidites. A comparison of seismic reflections and synthetic data computed from impedance logs is shown for two zones. An upper (steep slope zone contains a moderately continuous, possibly bottom-simulating reflector feature along the corresponding section. This feature may be associated with a lithology boundary near a drill site in addition to, or instead of, a stability boundary of gas hydrates (i.e., gas below and hydrates above. The lower (gentle slope zone has locally cross-cutting reflection patterns that are more likely to be attributed to gas- and hydrate-related physical phenomena than to spatiotemporal changes in lithology. This seismic inversion is informative and useful, making a contribution to enhance the interpretability of the seismic profiles for a potential hydrate recovery.

  1. Formation of hydrothermal pits and the role of seamounts in the Guatemala Basin (Equatorial East Pacific) from heat flow, seismic, and core studies (United States)

    Villinger, H. W.; Pichler, T.; Kaul, N.; Stephan, S.; Pälike, H.; Stephan, F.


    We acquired seismic and heat flow data and collected sediment cores in three areas in the Guatemala Basin (Cocos Plate, Eastern Pacific) to investigate the process by which depressions (pits) in the sedimentary cover on young oceanic crust were formed. Median heat flow of 55 mW/m2 for the three areas is about half of the expected conductive cooling value. The heat deficit is caused by massive recharge of cold seawater into the upper crust through seamounts which is inferred from depressed heat flow in the vicinity of seamounts. Heat flow inside of pits is always elevated, in some cases up to three times (max. 300 mW/m2) relative to background. None of the geochemical pore water profiles from cores inside and outside of the pits show any evidence of active fluid flow inside the pits. All three areas originated within the high productivity equatorial zone and moved northwest over the past 15 to 18 Ma. Pits found in the working areas are likely relict dissolution structures formed by diffuse hydrothermal venting in a zone of high biogenic carbonate production which were sealed when they moved north. It is likely that these pits were discharge sites of "hydrothermal siphons" where recharging seamounts could feed cold seawater via the upper crust to several discharging pits. Probably pit density on the whole Cocos Plate is similar to the three working areas and which may explain the huge heat deficit of the Cocos Plate.

  2. Contravention of town planning regulations in Ikoyi and Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated possible relationships between educational attainment, awareness of town planning regulations and contravening these regulations in Ikoyi and Victoria Island, Lagos. Both primary and secondary data were used for the study. Secondary data were obtained from both published and unpublished ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shojaei


    Full Text Available Land development processes today have an increasing demand to access three-dimensional (3D spatial information. Complex land development may need to have a 3D model and require some functions which are only possible using 3D data. Accordingly, the Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM, as a national body in Australia provides leadership, coordination and standards for surveying, mapping and national datasets has developed the Cadastre 2034 strategy in 2014. This strategy has a vision to develop a cadastral system that enables people to readily and confidently identify the location and extent of all rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to land and real property. In 2014, the land authority in the state of Victoria, Australia, namely Land Use Victoria (LUV, has entered the challenging area of designing and implementing a 3D digital cadastre focused on providing more efficient and effective services to the land and property industry. LUV has been following the ICSM 2034 strategy which requires developing various policies, standards, infrastructures, and tools. Over the past three years, LUV has mainly focused on investigating the technical aspect of a 3D digital cadastre. This paper provides an overview of the 3D digital cadastre investigation progress in Victoria and discusses the challenges that the team faced during this journey. It also addresses the future path to develop an integrated 3D digital cadastre in Victoria.

  4. Research on School-Based Management in Victoria. (United States)

    Gamage, David T.; And Others


    Describes a 1992-93 research project involving 66 state schools that attempted to ascertain the overall effectiveness of school-based management in Victoria, Australia. Findings of the Likert-style survey revealed substantial participant satisfaction with school councils' current composition, information provision, and overall functioning. (20…

  5. Fishing Business Arrangements and Sustainability in Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article an attempt is made to analyse the existing production relations between the owners of the vessels and the crewmembers and the concern for sustainability. Our results found that the existing sharing system in Lake Victoria poses a big challenge in as far as sustainability is concerned. Some of the system such ...

  6. Implementing Co-management of Lake Victoria's Fisheries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are still many challenges facing the sustainable management of Lake Victoria fisheries, including; lack of compliance with regulations and rapid increase in fishing effort, environmental degradation, inadequate service provision and the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS amongst the fishing communities. Key words: Lake ...

  7. Study of genetic variation in population of Bipolaris victoriae , the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolates of Bipolaris victoriae were analysed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) techniques to determine the amount of intraspecific genetic variability. Seven primers were applied and DNA bands of 200-5000 bp were produced. Cluster analysis using UPGMA method gave five groups. Levels of polymorphism ...

  8. Governance and Welfare of Fishing Communities of Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... have potable water or electricity. Educational standards remain low and many communities lack proper sanitation, and are therefore at risk of disease, while most basic facilities such as hospitals, schools and clinics are not within their reach. Key Words; Co-management, Beach Management Units, Lake Victoria, Health, ...

  9. Total mercury concentration in common fish species of Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total mercury (THg) concentration was analysed in muscles of common fish species of Lake Victoria in the eastern and southern parts of the lake using cold vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric technique. Mercury concentration in all fish species was generally lower than the WHO maximum allowable ...

  10. Transactional sex in the fishing communities along Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study describes the nature, context and implications of a unique form of transactional sexual relationships in the fishing communities along Lake Victoria in Kisumu County, Kenya. We conducted 12 focus group discussions and 17 key informant interviews among fishermen, fishmongers and fish transporters in Kisumu.

  11. Domestication of medicinal tree species in the Victoria lakeshore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Therefore, there is high potential of marketing forest products by the subsistence farmers. Growing medicinal plants is one great opportunity for raising household incomes in this area. A survey was conducted among herbalists living around the Victoria lakeshore region. Questionnaires were administered through formal ...

  12. Catalogue Use at the State Library of Victoria (United States)

    Hider, Philip


    A questionnaire survey conducted at the State Library of Victoria indicates that users in general, and not just scholars, value the standard elements of bibliographic data found in the Library's catalogues, and consider all these elements useful for finding, identifying and selecting items. Rather than making do with less, users wanted more…

  13. Vocabulary Size Research at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand (United States)

    Nation, Paul; Coxhead, Averil


    The English Language Institute (now the School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies) at Victoria University of Wellington has a long history of corpus-based vocabulary research, especially after the arrival of the second director of the institute, H. V. George, and the appointment of Helen Barnard, whom George knew in India. George's…

  14. Lake Victoria's Water Budget and the Potential Effects of Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the Lake Victoria water budget for the period 1950-2004 and findings of a study on potential climate change impact on the lake's Hydrology through the 21st Century. The mass balance components are computed from measured and simulated data. A2 and B2 emission scenarios of the Special Report ...

  15. Climate Change and Fishery Sustainability in Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fisheries of Lake Victoria have recently undergone rapid ecological and social change. Loss of diversity in terms of species richness and economic opportunity has increased the system's vulnerability to additional economic, ecological, and social stressors predicted with future climate change. This paper discusses the ...

  16. Upper Paleozoic glacigenic deposits of Gondwana: Stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental significance of a tillite succession in Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica) (United States)

    Cornamusini, Gianluca; Talarico, Franco M.; Cirilli, Simonetta; Spina, Amalia; Olivetti, Valerio; Woo, Jusun


    deposits of Northern Victoria Land record the evolution from a setting characterized by a terrestrial small ice cap that underwent repeated advances and retreats due to climate cycles in a lacustrine setting, into a postglacial paleoenvironmental scenario with a wide fluvial system draining northwards from Victoria Land towards the Tasmanian Basin. The results contribute to increasing knowledge of the timing and modalities of the Late Paleozoic Ice Age in Gondwana, particularly for polar regions such as Antarctica.

  17. DNA barcoding of schistosome cercariae reveals a novel sub-lineage within Schistosoma rodhaini from Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary, Lake Victoria. (United States)

    Standley, C J; Stothard, J R


    While Schistosoma rodhaini is typically considered a parasite of small mammals and is very scantly distributed in the Lake Victoria basin, it is known to hybridize with the more widespread Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of intestinal schistosomiasis. As part of broader parasitological and malacological surveys for S. mansoni across Lake Victoria, schistosome cercariae were harvested from a field-caught Biomphalaria choanomphala taken on Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary, Uganda. Upon DNA barcoding, these cercariae were found to be a mixture of both S. rodhaini and S. mansoni, with further phylogenetic analysis revealing a hitherto unknown sub-lineage within S. rodhaini. Despite repeated sampling for eggs and miracidia from both chimpanzees and staff on Ngamba Island Sanctuary, detection of S. rodhaini within local definitive hosts awaits additional efforts, which should be mindful of a potential host role of spotted-necked otters.

  18. Coupled human and natural system dynamics as key to the sustainability of Lake Victoria's ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S. Downing


    Full Text Available East Africa's Lake Victoria provides resources and services to millions of people on the lake's shores and abroad. In particular, the lake's fisheries are an important source of protein, employment, and international economic connections for the whole region. Nonetheless, stock dynamics are poorly understood and currently unpredictable. Furthermore, fishery dynamics are intricately connected to other supporting services of the lake as well as to lakeshore societies and economies. Much research has been carried out piecemeal on different aspects of Lake Victoria's system; e.g., societies, biodiversity, fisheries, and eutrophication. However, to disentangle drivers and dynamics of change in this complex system, we need to put these pieces together and analyze the system as a whole. We did so by first building a qualitative model of the lake's social-ecological system. We then investigated the model system through a qualitative loop analysis, and finally examined effects of changes on the system state and structure. The model and its contextual analysis allowed us to investigate system-wide chain reactions resulting from disturbances. Importantly, we built a tool that can be used to analyze the cascading effects of management options and establish the requirements for their success. We found that high connectedness of the system at the exploitation level, through fisheries having multiple target stocks, can increase the stocks' vulnerability to exploitation but reduce society's vulnerability to variability in individual stocks. We describe how there are multiple pathways to any change in the system, which makes it difficult to identify the root cause of changes but also broadens the management toolkit. Also, we illustrate how nutrient enrichment is not a self-regulating process, and that explicit management is necessary to halt or reverse eutrophication. This model is simple and usable to assess system-wide effects of management policies, and can

  19. Simulation of Lake Victoria Circulation Patterns Using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). (United States)

    Nyamweya, Chrispine; Desjardins, Christopher; Sigurdsson, Sven; Tomasson, Tumi; Taabu-Munyaho, Anthony; Sitoki, Lewis; Stefansson, Gunnar


    Lake Victoria provides important ecosystem services including transport, water for domestic and industrial uses and fisheries to about 33 million inhabitants in three East African countries. The lake plays an important role in modulating regional climate. Its thermodynamics and hydrodynamics are also influenced by prevailing climatic and weather conditions on diel, seasonal and annual scales. However, information on water temperature and circulation in the lake is limited in space and time. We use a Regional Oceanographic Model System (ROMS) to simulate these processes from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2014. The model is based on real bathymetry, river runoff and atmospheric forcing data using the bulk flux algorithm. Simulations show that the water column exhibits annual cycles of thermo-stratification (September-May) and mixing (June-August). Surface water currents take different patterns ranging from a lake-wide northward flow to gyres that vary in size and number. An under flow exists that leads to the formation of upwelling and downwelling regions. Current velocities are highest at the center of the lake and on the western inshore waters indicating enhanced water circulation in those areas. However, there is little exchange of water between the major gulfs (especially Nyanza) and the open lake, a factor that could be responsible for the different water quality reported in those regions. Findings of the present study enhance understanding of the physical processes (temperature and currents) that have an effect on diel, seasonal, and annual variations in stratification, vertical mixing, inshore-offshore exchanges and fluxes of nutrients that ultimately influence the biotic distribution and trophic structure. For instance information on areas/timing of upwelling and vertical mixing obtained from this study will help predict locations/seasons of high primary production and ultimately fisheries productivity in Lake Victoria.

  20. Sedimentary characteristics of thick layer lacustrine beach-bars in the Cenozoic Banqiao Sag of the Bohai Bay Basin, East China (United States)

    Song, Fan; Su, Nina; Yang, Shaochun; Yao, Ruixiang; Chu, Shumin


    Lacustrine beach-bar reservoirs have become important exploration targets in the Bohai Bay Basin in China, especially in the Banqiao Sag within the Huanghua Depression, where some typical thick layer beach-bar reservoirs have been discovered recently. The average single-layer thickness of the beach-bar sand bodies in the second member of the Paleogene Shahejie Formation within the sag is greater than 10 m and the cumulative thickness of these sands reach up to 100 m. The second member of the Shahejie Formation in the Banqiao Sag consists of a third-order sequence of three systems tracts-a lowstand systems tract, a transgressive systems tract, and a highstand systems tract. Beach-bar sand bodies were deposited widely in the sag in the lowstand systems tract, but were less deposited in the other systems tracts. The sedimentary characteristics, distribution patterns, and formation mechanisms of the beach-bar sand bodies in the lowstand systems tract of the second member of the Shahejie Formation were systemically studied using cores, wireline logs and 3D seismic data. The beach-bar was divided into five sedimentary microfacies, namely, sandy bar centre, sandy bar flank, interbar deposit, coastal beach, and infralittoral beach. Based on the integrated analysis of the paleostructure and sedimentary environment, it was inferred that the thick layer beach-bars in this area resulted from the combination and joint control of the sediment source system, hydrodynamic environment, lake level variations, and contemporaneous fault activity. Firstly, the sands in the braided river delta of the Beidagang buried hill structural belt served as the provenance that provided the material basis for the beach-bars in the Banqiao Sag. Secondly, the wave effects in the gentle-slope belt controlled the scale and distribution of the beach bars. Under the control of waves, various sedimentary microfacies were regularly distributed. In particular, the continuous activity of the contemporaneous

  1. Geographies of connectivity in East Africa : trains, telecommunications, and technological teleologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graham, M.; Andersen, C.; Mann, L.E.


    This paper analyses and compares two transformative moments of technologically mediated change in East Africa, the construction of the Uganda railway between Mombasa and Lake Victoria (1896-1903) and the introduction of fibre-optic cables that landed into the ports of Dar Es Salaam and Mombasa in

  2. Groundwater model of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system version 3.0: Incorporating revisions in southwestern Utah and east central Nevada (United States)

    Brooks, Lynette E.


    The groundwater model described in this report is a new version of previously published steady-state numerical groundwater flow models of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system, and was developed in conjunction with U.S. Geological Survey studies in Parowan, Pine, and Wah Wah Valleys, Utah. This version of the model is GBCAAS v. 3.0 and supersedes previous versions. The objectives of the model for Parowan Valley were to simulate revised conceptual estimates of recharge and discharge, to estimate simulated aquifer storage properties and the amount of reduction in storage as a result of historical groundwater withdrawals, and to assess reduction in groundwater withdrawals necessary to mitigate groundwater-level declines in the basin. The objectives of the model for the area near Pine and Wah Wah Valleys were to recalibrate the model using new observations of groundwater levels and evapotranspiration of groundwater; to provide new estimates of simulated recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and interbasin flow; and to simulate the effects of proposed groundwater withdrawals on the regional flow system. Meeting these objectives required the addition of 15 transient calibration stress periods and 14 projection stress periods, aquifer storage properties, historical withdrawals in Parowan Valley, and observations of water-level changes in Parowan Valley. Recharge in Parowan Valley and withdrawal from wells in Parowan Valley and two nearby wells in Cedar City Valley vary for each calibration stress period representing conditions from March 1940 to November 2013. Stresses, including recharge, are the same in each stress period as in the steady-state stress period for all areas outside of Parowan Valley. The model was calibrated to transient conditions only in Parowan Valley. Simulated storage properties outside of Parowan Valley were set the same as the Parowan Valley properties and are not considered calibrated. Model observations in GBCAAS v. 3.0 are

  3. Rapid formation of a sea ice barrier east of Svalbard (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; van Woert, M. L.; Neumann, G.


    Daily SeaWinds scatterometer images acquired by the QuikSCAT satellite show an elongated sea ice feature that formed very rapidly (˜1-2 days) in November 2001 east of Svalbard over the Barents Sea. This sea ice structure, called "the Svalbard sea ice barrier," spanning approximately 10° in longitude and 2° in latitude, restricts the sea route and poses a significant navigation hazard. The secret of its formation appears to lie in the bottom of the sea: A comparison between bathymetry from the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean data and the pattern of sea ice formation from scatterometer data reveals that the sea ice barrier conforms well with and stretches above a deep elongated channel connecting the Franz Josef-Victoria Trough to the Hinlopen Basin between Svalbard and Franz Josef Land. Historic hydrographic data from this area indicate that this sea channel contains cold Arctic water less than 50 m below the surface. Strong and persistent cold northerly winds force strong heat loss from this shallow surface layer, leading to the rapid formation of the sea ice barrier. Heat transfer rates estimated from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts temperature and wind data over this region suggest that the surface water along the deep channel can be rapidly cooled to the freezing point. Scatterometer results in 1999-2003 show that sea ice forms in this area between October and December. Understanding the ice formation mechanisms helps to select appropriate locations for deployment of buoys measuring wind and air-sea temperature profile and to facilitate ice monitoring, modeling, and forecasting.

  4. Faunal migration into the Late Permian Zechstein Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Mehlin; Håkansson, Eckart; Stemmerik, Lars


    Late Permian bryozoans from the Wegener Halvø, Ravnefjeld and Schuchert Formations in East Greenland have been investigated. 14 genera are recognised.      Integration of the new bryozoan data from the Upper Permian of East Greenland with data on the distribution of Permian bryozoans along...... to be the only marine connection to the Zechstein Basin and therefore the only possible migration route for bryozoans to enter the basin. The distribution of Permian bryozoans is largely in keeping with such a connection from the cool Barents Shelf past the East Greenland Basin to the warm Zechstein Basin...

  5. Sedimentology, depositional environments and basin evolution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Inter-Trappean coal and oil shale-bearing sedimentation in the Delbi-Moye Basin took place in tectonically controlled grabens and half-grabens formed by extensional fault systems and accompanied by passive subsidence. The sedimentation history of the basin is related to the tectonic events that affected East Africa.

  6. Measles outbreak in young adults in Victoria, 1999. (United States)

    Lambert, S B; Morgan, M L; Riddell, M A; Andrews, R M; Kelly, H A; Leydon, J A; Catton, M C; Lynch, P A; Gercovich, D K; Lester, R A; Carnie, J A; Rouch, G J


    To describe an outbreak of measles in Victoria. Case series with cases identified through enhanced passive surveillance and outbreak-related active surveillance. State of Victoria, 1999. Number of cases; epidemiological links and patterns of transmission; patient demographic features and vaccination status; complications. 75 cases were identified (74 laboratory-confirmed; and one epidemiologically linked to a laboratory-confirmed case), with onset between 11 February and 2 May 1999. The first case was in a 21-year-old woman who had recently holidayed in Bali and worked at a large cinema complex in Melbourne. Sixteen cases occurred in people who had contact with the index case at the cinema on one evening. The outbreak spread to regional Victoria and South Australia. Median age of patients was 22 years; 64 (85%) were born between 1968 and 1981, with only one patient in the age group targeted by the primary school component of the 1998 Australian Measles Control Campaign; this child had not been vaccinated. More than a third of patients (28) were hospitalised (total, 97 inpatient days), and five were healthcare workers. This outbreak was caused by international importation of measles virus. It highlights the change in epidemiology of measles in Australia, from a disease of childhood to one predominantly affecting young adults. A strong two-dose childhood vaccination program, vigilant surveillance, and rapid response to outbreaks will continue to be the basis of measles control, but better protection for young adults should be considered.

  7. Integrated Worker Radiation Dose Assessment for the K Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NELSON, J.V.


    This report documents an assessment of the radiation dose workers at the K Basins are expected to receive in the process of removing spent nuclear fuel from the storage basins. The K Basins (K East and K West) are located in the Hanford 100K Area.

  8. Stratigraphic modeling of sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, T. (Shell Research B. V., Rijswijk (Netherlands)); Lawrence, D.T. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (USA))


    A two-dimensional stratigraphic forward model has been successfully applied and calibrated in clastic, carbonate, and mixed clastic/carbonate regimes. Primary input parameters are subsidence, sea level, volume of clastics, and carbonate growth potential. Program output includes sequence geometries, facies distribution lithology distribution, chronostratigraphic plots, burial history plots, thermal and maturity histories, and crossplots. The program may be used to predict reservoir distribution, to constrain interpretations of well and seismic data, to rapidly test exploration scenarios in frontier basins, and to evaluate the fundamental controls on observed basin stratigraphy. Applications to data sets from Main Pass (US Gulf Coast), Offshore Sarawak (Malaysia), Rub'al Khali basin (Oman), Paris basin (France), and Baltimore Canyon (US East Coast) demonstrate that the program can be used to simulate stratigraphy on a basin-wide scale as well as on the scale of individual prospects.

  9. Verification of an alternative sludge treatment process for pathogen reduction at two wastewater treatment plants in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Irwin, R; Surapaneni, A; Smith, D; Schmidt, J; Rigby, H; Smith, S R


    At South East Water wastewater treatment plants (WwTPs) in Victoria, Australia, biosolids are stockpiled for three years in compliance with the State guidelines to achieve the highest pathogen reduction grade (T1), suitable for unrestricted use in agriculture and landscaping. However, extended stockpiling is costly, may increase odour nuisance and greenhouse gas emissions, and reduces the fertiliser value of the biosolids. A verification programme of sampling and analysis for enteric pathogens was conducted at two WwTPs where sludge is treated by aerobic and anaerobic digestion, air drying (in drying pans or solar drying sheds) and stockpiling, to enumerate and, if present, monitor the decay of a range of enteric pathogens and parasites. The sludge treatment processes at both WwTPs achieved T1 grade biosolids with respect to prescribed pathogenic bacterial numbers (3 log 10 enteric virus reduction after a storage period of one year. No Ascaris eggs were detected in the influent to the WwTPs, confirming previous studies that the presence of helminth infections in Victoria is extremely low and that Ascaris is not applicable as a control criterion for the microbiological quality of biosolids in the region.

  10. Geologic map and structural analysis of the Victoria quadrangle (H2) of Mercury based on NASA MESSENGER images (United States)

    Galluzzi, V.; Di Achille, G.; Ferranti, L.; Rothery, D. A.; Palumbo, P.

    The first stratigraphic and geologic study of Mercury was released by Trask & Guest (1975) followed by Spudis & Guest (1988, and references therein), whose work was based on the images taken by Mariner 10 covering 42% of the total surface of Mercury. The planet has been officially divided into fifteen quadrangles: 2 polar, 5 equatorial and 8 at midlatitudes. Quadrangle H2 (= Hermes sheet n.2), named ``Victoria'' (20oN - 65oN Lon.; 270oE - 0o Lat.), was partially mapped by McGill & King (1983), though a wide area (˜64%) remained unmapped due to the lack of imagery. Following the terrain units recognized and described by the above authors, we have produced a geologic map of the entire quadrangle using MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging) images. The images taken by the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) allowed us to map geologic and tectonic features in much greater detail than the previously published map (mapping scale range between 1:300k and 1:600k). We classified craters larger than 20 km using three relative age classes, which are a simplification of the past five degradation classes defined by McCauley et al. (1981). Victoria quadrangle is characterized by a localized N-S thrust array constituted by Victoria Rupes, Endeavour Rupes and Antoniadi Dorsum to the East and by a more diffuse system of NE-SW oriented fault arrays to the West: the two systems seem to be separated by a tectonic bulge. The Victoria-Endeavour-Antoniadi system has been interpreted as a fold-and-thrust belt by Byrne et al. (2014) and a previous study made on craters cross-cut by its thrusts reveals fault dips of 15-20o and a near dip slip motion (Galluzzi et al., 2015). This geologic map has the aim to build a regional model of its structural framework. Deciphering the geological setting of this quadrangle will bring important insights for understanding the tectonic evolution of the whole planet

  11. An examination of injection drug use trends in Victoria and Vancouver, BC after the closure of Victoria's only fixed-site needle and syringe programme. (United States)

    Ivsins, Andrew; Chow, Clifton; Macdonald, Scott; Stockwell, Tim; Vallance, Kate; Marsh, David C; Michelow, Warren; Duff, Cameron


    Needle and syringe programmes (NSPs) have been established as effective harm reduction initiatives to reduce injection drug use (IDU)-related risk behaviours, including sharing needles. On May 31, 2008, Victoria, BC's only fixed site NSP was shut down due to community and political pressure. This study examines and compares IDU trends in Victoria with those in Vancouver, BC, a city which has not experienced any similar disruption of IDU-related public health measures. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by interviewer-administered questionnaires conducted with injection drug users (n=579) in Victoria and Vancouver between late 2007 and late 2010. Needle sharing increased in Victoria from under 10% in early 2008 to 20% in late 2010, whilst rates remained relatively low in Vancouver. Participants in Victoria were significantly more likely to share needles than participants in Vancouver. Qualitative data collected in Victoria highlight the difficulty participants have experienced obtaining clean needles since the NSP closed. Recent injection of crack cocaine was independently associated with needle sharing. The closure of Victoria's fixed site NSP has likely resulted in increased engagement in high-risk behaviours, specifically needle sharing. Our findings highlight the contribution of NSPs as an essential public health measure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Maternal region of birth and stillbirth in Victoria, Australia 2000-2011: A retrospective cohort study of Victorian perinatal data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda L Davies-Tuck

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence from high-income countries that maternal country of birth is a risk factor for stillbirth. We aimed to examine the association between maternal region of birth and stillbirth between 2000 and 2011 inclusive in Victoria, Australia.Retrospective population based cohort study of all singleton births at 24 or more weeks gestational age from 2000-2011 in Victoria, Australia. Stillbirths due to termination of pregnancy, babies with congenital anomalies and Indigenous mothers were excluded. Main Outcome Measure: Stillbirth.Over the 12-year period there were 685,869 singleton births and 2299 stillbirths, giving an overall stillbirth rate of 3·4 per 1000 births. After adjustment for risk factors, compared to women born in Australia/New Zealand, women born in South Asia (aOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.53, p = 0.01, were more likely to have a stillbirth whereas women born in South East and East Asia were (aOR 0.60, (95% CI 0.49-0.72, p<0.001 less likely to have a stillbirth. Additionally, the increasing rate of stillbirth as gestation length progressed began to rise earlier and more steeply in the South Asian compared to Australian/New Zealand born women. The following risk factors were also significantly associated with an increased odds of stillbirth in multivariate analyses: maternal age <20 and 35 years and more, nulliparity, low socio-economic status, previous stillbirth, no ultrasound reported in 1st trimester, pre-existing hypertension, antepartum haemorrhage and failure to detect growth restriction antenatally.Maternal region of birth is an independent risk factor for stillbirth. Improvements in the rate of stillbirth, particularly late pregnancy stillbirth, are likely to be gained in high-income settings where clinical care is informed by maternal region of birth.

  13. Finding Space for Participation: Fisherfolk Mobility and Co-Management of Lake Victoria Fisheries (United States)

    Nunan, Fiona; Luomba, Joseph; Lwenya, Caroline; Yongo, Ernest; Odongkara, Konstantine; Ntambi, Baker


    The literature on fisheries co-management is almost silent on the issue of the movement of fisherfolk within fisheries, although such movement must have implications for the effectiveness of co-management. The introduction of co-management often involves the formation of new structures that should enable the participation of key stakeholder groups in decision-making and management, but such participation is challenging for migrating fishers. The article reports on a study on Lake Victoria, East Africa, which investigated the extent of movement around the lake and the implications of movement for how fishers participate and are represented in co-management, and the implications of the extent and nature of movement for co-management structures and processes. The analysis draws on the concept of space from the literature on participation in development and on a framework of representation in fisheries co-management in addressing these questions. The created space is on an `invited' rather than open basis, reflecting the top-down nature of implementation and the desire to secure participation of different occupational groups, as well as women in a male-dominated sector. The more powerful boat owners dominate positions of power within the co-management system, particularly as the levels of co-management, from sub-district to national, are traversed. The limited power and resources of boat crew are exacerbated by the degree and nature of movement around the lake, making effective participation in co-management decision-making a challenge.

  14. Nile perch fish processing waste along Lake Victoria in East Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 20, 2009 ... assessment of fish wastes. Analysis of the ... Hence, fish waste audit is the first step in planning for the reduction of .... e. (T o n n e s. /Y r. ) M. W. ANZA. BUKO. BA. KISUM. U. KAM. PALA. JIN. JA. ENTEBBE. Region. (b). Figure 2. Fish processing waste generation per urban centre; (a) solid waste generation.

  15. Increasing deaths involving oxycodone, Victoria, Australia, 2000-09. (United States)

    Rintoul, Angela C; Dobbin, Malcolm D H; Drummer, Olaf H; Ozanne-Smith, Joan


    In light of an emerging epidemic identified in the United States and Canada, to identify trends in fatal drug toxicity involving oxycodone and the demographic characteristics and indicators of socioeconomic disadvantage of the deceased. Population-based observational study in Victoria, Australia. Decedents whose death was reported to the Victorian Coroner between 2000 and 2009 and where oxycodone was detected. Association between supply of oxycodone and deaths. Demographic characteristics of decedents. Rate ratios of the rural or metropolitan location and socioeconomic indicators of disadvantage of the deceased. Supply to Victoria has increased nine-fold from 7.5 mg per capita in 2000 to 67.5 mg per capita in 2009. Detection of oxycodone in deaths reported to the Victorian Coroner has increased from 4 (0.08/100,000 population) in 2000 to 97 (1.78/100,000 population) in 2009-a 21-fold increase in deaths. Of the 320 cases described, 53.8% (172) were the result of drug toxicity. Of these, 52.3% were unintentional and 19.8% intentional self-harm; the remaining 27.9% are either still under investigation by the coroner or intent is unknown. Drug toxicity deaths were overrepresented in both rural areas and areas indexed with high levels of disadvantage. The substantial increase in the number of deaths involving oxycodone is strongly and significantly associated with the increase in supply. Most drug toxicity deaths involving oxycodone were unintentional. This newly identified trend in fatalities in Victoria supports concerns that a pattern of increasing deaths involving oxycodone is emerging globally.

  16. Reforming Victoria's primary health and community service sector: rural implications. (United States)

    Alford, K


    In 1999 the Victorian primary care and community support system began a process of substantial reform, involving purchasing reforms and a contested selection process between providers in large catchment areas across the State. The Liberal Government's electoral defeat in September 1999 led to a review of these reforms. This paper questions the reforms from a rural perspective. They were based on a generic template that did not consider rural-urban differences in health needs or other differences including socio-economic status, and may have reinforced if not aggravated rural-urban differences in the quality of and access to primary health care in Victoria.

  17. Exploration of Victoria crater by the mars rover opportunity (United States)

    Squyres, S. W.; Knoll, A.H.; Arvidson, R. E.; Ashley, James W.; Bell, J.F.; Calvin, W.M.; Christensen, P.R.; Clark, B. C.; Cohen, B. A.; De Souza, P.A.; Edgar, L.; Farrand, W. H.; Fleischer, I.; Gellert, Ralf; Golombek, M.P.; Grant, J.; Grotzinger, J.; Hayes, A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Jolliff, B.; Klingelhofer, G.; Knudson, A.; Li, R.; McCoy, T.J.; McLennan, S.M.; Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Rice, J. W.; Schroder, C.; Sullivan, R.J.; Yen, A.; Yingst, R.A.


    The Mars rover Opportunity has explored Victoria crater, a ???750-meter eroded impact crater formed in sulfate-rich sedimentary rocks. Impact-related stratigraphy is preserved in the crater walls, and meteoritic debris is present near the crater rim. The size of hematite-rich concretions decreases up-section, documenting variation in the intensity of groundwater processes. Layering in the crater walls preserves evidence of ancient wind-blown dunes. Compositional variations with depth mimic those ???6 kilometers to the north and demonstrate that water-induced alteration at Meridiani Planum was regional in scope.

  18. A high-resolution aeromagnetic survey over the Lanterman Range, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica (United States)

    Ruppel, Antonia; Läufer, Andreas; Crispini, Laura; Capponi, Giovanni; Lisker, Frank


    During the GANOVEX XI (German North Victoria Land Expedition) in 2015-16, a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was carried out over the Lanterman Range in northern Victoria Land (NVL). The helicopter-based survey aimed to resolve the fine structure over the so-called Lanterman Suture Zone, which represents one of the main key areas regarding geodynamic evolution of NVL during the Early Palaeozoic Ross Orogeny. This was achieved by reducing the flight line spacing to 1-2 km with 10 km tie lines and flying in a terrain-following mode. The survey was completed by ground truth magnetic susceptibility readings by using a Kappameter KM-7. The Ross-aged basement of NVL is subdivided into three tectonometamorphic so-called "terranes", comprising from W to E the Wilson-, the Bowers- and the Robertson Bay Terrane. They are generally interpreted to have formed by accretion processes at the Palaeo-Pacific active continental margin of East Gondwana in the Cambrian and Ordovician. The survey over the Lanterman Range covered parts of the two western terranes, namely the Wilson and Bowers terranes, which are separated by the Lanterman Fault Zone. This polyphase tectonic discontinuity is characterized by a belt of mafic and ultramafic rocks comprising metabasites with eclogite-facies relicts. Preliminary results show two distinct and nearly parallel magnetic lineaments in the survey area that will be further interpreted by combined magnetic susceptibility measurements and geological field data. One magnetic lineament correlates well with the known boundary between the Wilson and Bowers terranes, which comprises also a metaconglomerate belt with mafic to ultramafic clasts. The second, further easterly magnetic lineament is so far not supported by outcrops of associated highly magnetic rocks in the field. Similar parallel structures have been observed further to the southeast and seem to be offset by a major sinistral strike-slip fault zone of possibly post-Jurassic age. One

  19. Eesti NATO Ühing juurutab demokraatlikke väärtusi / Victoria Punga ; interv. Aive Antsov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Punga, Victoria, 1977-


    Eesti NATO Ühingu tegevjuht organisatsiooni eesmärkidest, projektidest, koostööst teiste riikidega ning kaitsepoliitika ja majanduse seostest. Lisa: Väljavõte Victoria CVst; Eesti kaitsepoliitika viis plussi Victoria meelest

  20. A Snapshot: Multicultural Music Teaching in Schools in Victoria, Australia, Portrayed by School Teachers (United States)

    Nethsinghe, Rohan Nishantha


    Due to the changing demographic factors and as demanded by the governmental policies and regulations, schools in Victoria, Australia, are expected to foster multicultural educational programs that address the diverse needs of students. Research has found that school teachers in Victoria struggle to provide the aspired to multicultural education…

  1. Victoria suudlus teeb maapoisist printsi, kuid mitte tulevase kuninga / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo


    Printsess Victoria tulevasest abikaasast Daniel Westlingist, printsess Madelaine'i kihluse lõpetamisest, Bernadotte'ide dünastia asutajast Jean Bernadotte'ist. Monarhia toetajate vähenemisest Rootsis. Printsess Victoria ja Daniel Westlingi pulmatseremooniast 19. juunil

  2. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity (United States)

    Smit, Jeroen; Van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd


    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend sedimentary and volcanic units and not by a common tectonic origin or development. Instead, the sub-basins that together form the Permian Basins are each controlled by different structural and/or rheological controls that are inherited from Early Paleozoïc and older geodynamic processes, they are even located in different crustal/lithospheric domains. The North Permian basin is located on Baltic crust that was thinned during Late Proterozoïc - Early Paleozoïc times. South of the Thor suture, the South Permian basin and its sub-basins are located on Avalonian crust (Southern North Sea and North German Basins) and on the transition of East European cratonic and Avalonian crust (Polish Through). The size of crustal domains and of the faults that govern basin formation requires a regional-scale to assess their impact on basins and sub-basins. In the case of the Permian Basins this encompasses East Avalonia and surroundings, roughly speaking the area north of the Variscan Rheïc suture, east of the Atlantic and southwest of the Teisseyre-Tornquist line. This approach sheds light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric which are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The focus on understanding the geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints and geometrical and compositional input for local models of stress and strain. Considering their fundamentally different structural and rheological controls, the Permian (sub)basins have a remarkably common history of subsidence and inversion, suggesting a more or less continuous

  3. An examination of the selenium nutrition of sheep in Victoria. (United States)

    Caple, I W; Andrewartha, K A; Edwards, S J; Halpin, C G


    The selenium nutrition of sheep throughout Victoria was assessed by a survey of the blood glutathione peroxidase activity in 708 flocks. It was shown that the blood glutathione peroxidase activity in sheep had a seasonal variation with lowest levels in the spring. The enzyme activity was correlated with the blood selenium concentration. Areas where blood selenium was less than 0.03 micrograms/ml in spring were defined. Sheep with low selenium nutrition were grazing pastures in the high rainfall areas on acid soils, particularly those derived from granite. Selenium concentrations in pasture samples examined were greater than 0.02 mg/kg, and it was found that superphosphate application had no significant effect on the selenium content of pasture. However, management practices such as high stocking rates and rates of application of superphosphate to pasture were associated with low blood glutathione peroxidase activities in sheep. It was concluded that the selenium nutrition of most of the sheep flocks in Victoria is adequate, and that the deficient areas are localised. There seems little requirement for supplementation of adult sheep. As the delayed type of white muscle disease in spring lambs appears to be the main selenium-responsive disorder, direct supplementation of lambs in the low selenium areas would be the most effective method of ensuring adequate selenium nutrition.

  4. Epidemiology of the 2012 influenza season in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Fielding


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the magnitude and severity of the 2012 influenza season in Victoria, Australia using surveillance data from five sources. Methods: Data from influenza notifications, sentinel general practices, a sentinel hospital network, a sentinel locum service and strain typing databases for 2012 were descriptively analysed. Results: Influenza and influenza-like illness activity was moderate compared to previous years, although a considerable increase in notified laboratory-confirmed influenza was observed. Type A influenza comprised between 83% and 87% of cases from the general practitioners, hospitals and notifiable surveillance data. Influenza A/H3 was dominant in July and August, and most tested isolates were antigenically similar to the A/Perth/16/2009 virus used in the vaccine. There was a smaller peak of influenza type B in September. No tested viruses were resistant to any neuraminidase inhibitor antivirals. Higher proportions of type A/H3, hospitalized cases and those with a comorbid condition indicated for influenza vaccination were aged 65 years or older. Influenza vaccination coverage among influenza-like illness patients was 24% in sentinel general practices and 50% in hospitals. Discussion: The 2012 influenza season in Victoria was average compared to previous years, with an increased dominance of A/H3 accompanied by increases in older and hospitalized cases. Differences in magnitude and the epidemiological profile of cases detected by the different data sources demonstrate the importance of using a range of surveillance data to assess the relative severity of influenza seasons.

  5. Comprehensive nursing education in Victoria: rhetoric or reality? (United States)

    Happell, B


    Significant and widespread changes to the education of the psychiatric nursing workforce in Victoria, Australia are resulting in serious problems in the recruitment of new nursing staff. In reviewing the available literature, it is evident that undergraduate nursing students do not commence their educational program with a strong interest in pursuing a career in psychiatric nursing. In light of this knowledge, the role of education in providing a comprehensive view of the nursing profession becomes paramount. Research investigating the impact of education on the attitudes of students to psychiatric nursing as a career option has produced mixed and often inconclusive results. A longitudinal study was undertaken in Victoria, Australia. Students of the majority of universities in which undergraduate nursing programs were operating participated in this study. The participants were asked to rank nine areas of nursing specialty in order of preference at the commencement and immediately prior to the completion of the nursing program. Despite a significant improvement in the popularity of psychiatric nursing as a career choice, this area was ranked at number 8 at both pre- and post-program test. The analysis of open-ended questions demonstrated a marked change in the overall attitudes towards the mentally ill and psychiatric nursing.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmonangan Manurung


    Full Text Available Victoria Park is the largest city park in Hong Kong. This city park is not only known in Hong Kong, but also very well known in Indonesia as a gathering place for Indonesia domestic helpers (TKW in Hong Kong. This research tried to find out some determinant factors that have been affected the public open spac of Victoria Park to be a gathering place for thousands of TKW in Sunday and holidays as their day off. In order to get the results of research, some methodological research had been conducted such as: observation (survey, mapping, interviews and literature studies. The results showed that Victoria Park has a number of factors capable of meeting the needs of domestic help-ers in Hong Kong, these factors consist of internal factors and external factors. Internally, the character and functions held Victoria Park became a very influential factor, while externally, the accessibility and support functions around Victoria Park also has a considerable influence.

  7. Lunnyu soils in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda: Link to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    1Department of Forest Biology and Ecosystems Management, Faculty of Forestry and Nature Conservation, ... average annual temperature is 21.5°C (Komutunga and Musiitwa, ...... storage prediction in temperate hydromorphic soils using a.

  8. Integrated Climate Change Impact Assessment and Extreme Event Forecasting in the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB)


    Mutua, Felix Nzive


    Extreme weather events have been the leading cause of disasters and damage all over the world. Recent events have led to mass displacement, loss of income, and hampered access to clean water and health to many. The primary ingredient to these disasters especially floods is rainfall which over the years, despite advances in modeling, computing power and use of new data and technologies, has proven to be difficult to predict. Numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate models using global fo...

  9. K Basins isolation barriers summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, G.C., Westinghouse Hanford


    The 105-K East and 105-K West fuel storage basins (105-K Basins) were designed and constructed in the early 1950`s for interim storage of irradiated fuel following its discharge from the reactors. The 105-K- East and 105-K West reactor buildings were constructed first, and the associated storage basins were added about a year later. The construction joint between each reactor building structure and the basin structure included a flexible membrane waterstop to prevent leakage. Water in the storage basins provided both radiation shielding and cooling to remove decay heat from stored fuel until its transfer to the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility for chemical processing. The 105-K West Reactor was permanently shut down in February 1970; the 105-K East Reactor was permanently shut down in February 1971. Except for a few loose pieces, fuel stored in the basins at that time was shipped to the PUREX Facility for processing. The basins were then left idle but were kept filled with water. The PUREX Facility was shut down and placed on wet standby in 1972 while N Reactor continued to operate. When the N Reactor fuel storage basin began to approach storage capacity, the decision was made to modify the fuel storage basins at 105-K East and 105-K West to provide additional storage capacity. Both basins were subsequently modified (105-K East in 1975 and 105-K West in 1981) to provide for the interim handling and storage of irradiated N Reactor fuel. The PUREX Facility was restarted in November 1983 to provide 1698 additional weapons-grade plutonium for the United States defense mission. The facility was shut down and deactivated in December 1992 when the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) determined that the plant was no longer needed to support weapons-grade plutonium production. When the PUREX Facility was shut down, approximately 2.1 x 1 06 kg (2,100 metric tons) of irradiated fuel aged 7 to 23 years was left in storage in the 105-K Basins pending a decision on

  10. VENUS - The Victoria Experimental Network Under the Sea: First Light (United States)

    Dewey, R. K.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Round, A.


    The Victoria Experimental Network Under the Sea (VENUS) is a recently installed cabled ocean observatory representing the next generation of infrastructure technology. VENUS is scheduled to consist of two major segments, one in Saanich Inlet (installed in February 2006), and a second in the Strait of Georgia (planned for October 2006). The technologies associated with both the hardware and software that will deliver data from instruments to scientists is being developed in collaboration with both the NEPTUNE Canada and MARS observatories. The presentation will provide an overview of the science projects planned for stage one of the installed instruments, the engineering design of the infrastructure, the preliminary design of the Data Management and Archive System (DMAS), lessons learned so far, and preliminary results from the first few months of data from Saanich Inlet.

  11. Myxomatosis in the Mallee region of Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Shepherd, R C; Edmonds, J W; Nolan, I F; Gocs, A


    Sharp reductions in the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.)) population in the Mallee are associated with annual myxomatosis epizootics. The extent to which the population reductions are the direct result of the epizootics varies with time of epizootic occurrence. All grazing animals in the Mallee are under nutritional stress each summer and autumn. When the epizootic occurs during the early summer heavy losses occur in a previously healthy population. Similar losses which occur in the late summer and autumn are the result of a nutritional stress - epizootic complex. The end result in each case is a population reduction of about 80%. This reduction occurs in a population which is the most resistant to myxomatosis known in Victoria and in association with epizootics caused by field strains of myxoma virus of moderate virulence only. The earlier summer epizootics are of considerable economic importance because they sharply reduce the pressure on the limited food available for other grazing animals.

  12. Literatura y vida. Una lectura de Victoria Ocampo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Celia Vázquez


    Full Text Available The relation of literature, writer and life, particularly, the way life is understood within this relation constitutes a key element to define the peculiar way of reading literature that Victoria Ocampo had. This can be seen in her essay on Emily Brontë; though she gives priority to biography over aesthetics, Ocampo does not adopt a biographical approach nor identifies the meaning of life with that of the writer's biography since she searches the key for interpretation in natural forces such as "character" and "fate" (instead of the positivistic interaction of social and historical environment. Thus, she identifies the vital experience of nature (the moors as the key for the writer's personality as well as her novel's, Wuthering Heights.

  13. East Africa (United States)


    This image shows the East African nations of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia, as well as portions of Kenya, Sudan, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. Dominating the scene are the green Ethiopian Highlands. With altitudes as high as 4,620 meters (15,157 feet), the highlands pull moisture from the arid air, resulting in relatively lush vegetation. In fact, coffee-one of the world's most prized crops-originated here. To the north (above) the highlands is Eritrea, which became independent in 1993. East (right) of Ethiopia is Somalia, jutting out into the Indian Ocean. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) captured this true-color image on November 29, 2000. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  14. Color variations on Victoria quadrangle: support for the geological mapping (United States)

    Zambon, F.; Galluzzi, V.; Carli, C.; Giacomini, L.; Massironi, M.; Palumbo, P.; Guzzetta, L.; Mancinelli, P.; Vivaldi, V.; Ferranti, L.; Pauselli, C.; Frigeri, A.; Zusi, M.; Pozzobon, R.; Cremonese, G.; Ferrari, S.; Capaccioni, F.


    Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun. Its extreme thermal environment makes it difficult to explore onsite. In 1974, Mariner 10, the first mission dedicated to Mercury, covered 45% of the surface during of the three Hermean flybys [1]. For about 30 years after Mariner 10, no other mission has flownto Mercury. Many unresolved issues need an answer, and in recent years the interest about Mercury has increased. MESSENGER mission contributed to understand Mercury's origin, its surface structure, and the nature of its magnetic field, exosphere, and magnetosphere [1]. The Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) provided a global coverage of Mercury surface with variable spatial resolution. MDIS is equipped with a narrow angle camera (NAC), dedicated to the study of the geology and a wide angle camera (WAC) with 12 filters useful to investigate the surface composition[2]. Mercury has been divided into 15 quadrangles for mapping purposes [3]. The mapping process permits integration of different geological surface information to better understand the planet crust formation and evolution. Merging spectroscopically data is a poorly followed approach in planetary mapping, but it gives additional information about lithological composition, contributing to the construction of a more complete geological map [e.g. 4]. Recently, [5] proposed a first detailed map of all the Victoria quadrangle (H2). Victoria quadrangle is located in a longitude range between 270°E and 360°E and a latitude range of 22.5°N and 65°N,and itwas only partially mapped by Mariner 10 data[3]. Here we investigate the lithological variation by using the MDIS-WAC data to produce a set of color map products which could be asupport to the geological mapping [5]. The future ESA-JAXA mission to Mercury, BepiColombo, will soon contribute to improve the knowledge of Mercury surface composition and geology thanks to the Spectrometer and Imagers for MPO BepiColombo-Integrated Observatory SYStem (SIMBIO-SYS)[6].

  15. Linking land use changes to surface water quality variability in Lake Victoria: some insights from remote sensing (United States)

    Mugo, R. M.; Limaye, A. S.; Nyaga, J. W.; Farah, H.; Wahome, A.; Flores, A.


    The water quality of inland lakes is largely influenced by land use and land cover changes within the lake's catchment. In Africa, some of the major land use changes are driven by a number of factors, which include urbanization, intensification of agricultural practices, unsustainable farm management practices, deforestation, land fragmentation and degradation. Often, the impacts of these factors are observable on changes in the land cover, and eventually in the hydrological systems. When the natural vegetation cover is reduced or changed, the surface water flow patterns, water and nutrient retention capacities are also changed. This can lead to high nutrient inputs into lakes, leading to eutrophication, siltation and infestation of floating aquatic vegetation. To assess the relationship between land use and land cover changes in part of the Lake Victoria Basin, a series of land cover maps were derived from Landsat imagery. Changes in land cover were identified through change maps and statistics. Further, the surface water chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity were derived from MODIS-Aqua data for Lake Victoria. Chlrophyll-a and turbidity are good proxy indicators of nutrient inputs and siltation respectively. The trends in chlorophyll-a and turbidity concentrations were analyzed and compared to the land cover changes over time. Certain land cover changes related to agriculture and urban development were clearly identifiable. While these changes might not be solely responsible for variability in chlrophyll-a and turbidity concentrations in the lake, they are potentially contributing factors to this problem. This work illustrates the importance of addressing watershed degradation while seeking to solve water quality related problems.

  16. Critical Comments on Brian Victoria's "Engaged Buddhism: Skeleton in the Closet?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Miyata


    Full Text Available In "Engaged Buddhism: A Skeleton in the Closet?" (Vol. 2 Brian Daizen Victoria claims, among other things, that Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871-1944, founder of the Soka Kyoiku Gakkai (forebear of the Soka Gakkai and Soka Gakkai International, was an active supporter of the Japanese wars of aggression. In this response, Koichi Miyata argues that Victoria's claims rest on the highly selective use of quotes, and ignore key interpretative issues associated with Japanese imperial fascism and its underlying belief structures. Miyata discusses the significance of Makiguchi's arrest and imprisonment under a law specifically aimed at opponents of the war efforts, in his analysis of critical lapses in Victoria's article.

  17. Subglacial Calcites from Northern Victoria Land: archive of Antarctic volcanism in the Last Glacial Maximum (United States)

    Frisia, Silvia; Weirich, Laura; Hellstrom, John; Borsato, Andrea; Golledge, Nicholas R.; Anesio, Alexandre M.; Bajo, Petra; Drysdale, Russell N.; Augustinus, Paul C.; Barbante, Carlo; Cooper, Alan


    Subglacial carbonates bear similarities to stalagmites in their fabrics and the potential to obtain precise chronologies using U-series methods. Their chemical properties also reflect those of their parent waters, which, in contrast to stalagmites, are those of subglacial meltwaters. In analogy to speleothems, stable Carbon isotope ratios and trace elements such as Uranium, Iron and Manganese provide the opportunity to investigate ancient extreme environments without the need to drill through thousands of metres of ice. Sedimentological, geochemical and microbial evidence preserved in LGM subglacial calcites from Northern Victoria Land, close to the East Antarctic Ice Sheet margin, allow us to infer that subglacial volcanism was active in the Trans Antarctic Mountain region and induced basal ice melting. We hypothesize that a meltwater reservoir was drained and injected into interconnected basal pore systems where microbial processes enhanced bedrock weathering and, thus, released micronutrients. Volcanic influence is supported by the presence of fluorine (F) and sulphur in sediment-laden calcite layers containing termophilic species. Notably, calcite δ13C points to dissolved inorganic carbon evolved from subglacial metabolic processes. Once transported to the sea, soluble iron likely contributed to fertilizing the Southern Ocean and CO2 drawdown. This is the first well-dated evidence for LGM volcanism in Antarctica, which complements the record of volcanic eruptions retrieved from Talos Dome ice core, and supports the hypothesis of large-scale volcanism as an important driver of climate change. We conclude that subglacial carbonates are equivalent to speleothems in their palaeoclimate potential and may become a most useful source of information of ecosystems and processes at peak glacials in high altitude/high latitude settings.

  18. Chemical Weathering in the Zambesi Basin: Assesment of the Carbon Dioxyde Comsumption by the Karu Basalt Province (United States)

    Seyler, P. T.; Viers, J.; Aries, S.; Fournier, P.


    The quantification of the role of weathering in the carbon cycle and its interaction with climate and tectonics at the geological time scale is one of the key questions of the geoscientists. The consumption of atmospheric CO2 by silicate weathering indisputably plays the central role in the long term carbon budget and consequently on mean global climate. Through the composition of major elements in river waters, CO2 consumption by the alteration of continental rocks can be estimated. The aim of this study is to estimate of the chemical weathering rate of the Zambesi basin and the impact of Karoo basalt province on chemical atmospheric consumption, evaluated from a database of major elements. The Karroo basalts outcrop erupted around 183 +/2 2 106 take place in the Upper and the Middle Zambezi, covering a surface of 9600 km2. The Zambesi Basin, located between 8° and 20° south latitude and between 16.5 and 36 east longitude, is the fourth largest in Africa. The catchment has a total area of some 1,281,000 km2, the mean annual temperature is 19,3°C and the annual rainfall varies from nearly 2 000 mm to 600 mm. During the sampling period, the annual runoff at Victoria Fall gauging Station ranged between 50 to 2000 m3/s ie 6.9 to 0.6 l/s/km2. The consumption rate of atmospheric CO2 associated with the chemical weathering was calculated from riverine HCO3- concentrations. During the weathering of volcanic rocks, all dissolved carbonates originate from atmospheric/sil CO2. Values of CO2 consumption rates are relatively high, about 0.024 1012 mol/yr, and are comparable to Deccan Traps consumption rates.

  19. Sand, salt and water in the Stampriet Basin, Namibia: Calculating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimating groundwater recharge rates in the Stampriet Basin is important for assessing the sustainability of the groundwater resource both within south-east Namibia, and across the borders of this transboundary resource into Botswana and South Africa. The 65 000 km2 basin contains a multi-layered aquifer system, of up ...

  20. sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the chilga basin sediments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    “F1” separates the Chilga west exposures from basalt-II (horst structure); while fault “F2” separates Chilga east- central exposures from the .... Subsequent large -scale regional subsidence, just before the deposition of ash IV, joined the different areas into a single basin. .... boundaries in the Chilga basin sequence strati-.

  1. End‐of‐life decisions in medical practice: a survey of doctors in Victoria (Australia) (United States)

    Neil, D A; Coady, C A J; Thompson, J; Kuhse, H


    Objectives To discover the current state of opinion and practice among doctors in Victoria, Australia, regarding end‐of‐life decisions and the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia. Longitudinal comparison with similar 1987 and 1993 studies. Design and participants Cross‐sectional postal survey of doctors in Victoria. Results 53% of doctors in Victoria support the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia. Of doctors who have experienced requests from patients to hasten death, 35% have administered drugs with the intention of hastening death. There is substantial disagreement among doctors concerning the definition of euthanasia. Conclusions Disagreement among doctors concerning the meaning of the term euthanasia may contribute to misunderstanding in the debate over voluntary euthanasia. Among doctors in Victoria, support for the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia appears to have weakened slightly over the past 17 years. Opinion on this issue is sharply polarised. PMID:18055904

  2. Ecological Biogeography of the Terrestrial Nematodes of Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Adams


    Full Text Available The terrestrial ecosystems of Victoria Land, Antarctica are characteristically simple in terms of biological diversity and ecological functioning. Nematodes are the most commonly encountered and abundant metazoans of Victoria Land soils, yet little is known of their diversity and distribution. Herein we present a summary of the geographic distribution, habitats and ecology of the terrestrial nematodes of Victoria Land from published and unpublished sources. All Victoria Land nematodes are endemic to Antarctica, and many are common and widely distributed at landscape scales. However, at smaller spatial scales, populations can have patchy distributions, with the presence or absence of each species strongly influenced by specific habitat requirements. As the frequency of nematode introductions to Antarctica increases, and soil habitats are altered in response to climate change, our current understanding of the environmental parameters associated with the biogeography of Antarctic nematofauna will be crucial to monitoring and possibly mitigating changes to these unique soil ecosystems.

  3. Tectonic inheritance in the development of the Kivu - north Tanganyika rift segment of the East African Rift System: role of pre-existing structures of Precambrian to early Palaeozoic origin. (United States)

    Delvaux, Damien; Fiama Bondo, Silvanos; Ganza Bamulezi, Gloire


    The present architecture of the junction between the Kivu rift basin and the north Tanganyika rift basin is that of a typical accommodation zone trough the Ruzizi depression. However, this structure appeared only late in the development of the Western branch of the East African Rift System and is the result of a strong control by pre-existing structures of Precambrian to early Palaeozoic origin. In the frame of a seismic hazard assessment of the Kivu rift region, we (Delvaux et al., 2016) constructed homogeneous geological, structural and neotectonic maps cross the five countries of this region, mapped the pre-rift, early rift and Late Quaternary faults and compiled the existing knowledge on thermal springs (assumed to be diagnostic of current tectonic activity along faults). We also produced also a new catalogue of historical and instrumental seismicity and defined the seismotectonic characteristics (stress field, depth of faulting) using published focal mechanism data. Rifting in this region started at about 11 Ma by initial doming and extensive fissural basaltic volcanism along normal faults sub-parallel to the axis of the future rift valley, as a consequence of the divergence between the Nubia and the Victoria plate. In a later stage, starting around 8-7 Ma, extension localized along a series of major border faults individualizing the subsiding tectonic basins from the uplifting rift shoulders, while lava evolved towards alkali basaltic composition until 2.6 Ma. During this stage, initial Kivu rift valley was extending linearly in a SSW direction, much further than its the actual termination at Bukavu, into the Mwenga-Kamituga graben, up to Namoya. The SW extremity of this graben was linked via a long oblique transfer zone to the central part of Lake Tanganyika, itself reactivating an older ductile-brittle shear zone. In the late Quaternary-early Holocene, volcanism migrated towards the center of the basin, with the development of the Virunga volcanic massif

  4. Analysis of an Organisation: A University of the Third Age (U3A), Mornington, Victoria (United States)

    Small, Michael


    The purpose of this paper is two fold: to look at Mornington U3A in organisational terms and then look at U3AM as a loosely coupled system. One outcome of the study would be to undertake further analyses of U3As in Victoria to determine the levels of bureaucracy under which each operates. Questions to be asked: are U3As in Victoria operating as…

  5. Sensitivity analysis of the GNSS derived Victoria plate motion (United States)

    Apolinário, João; Fernandes, Rui; Bos, Machiel


    Fernandes et al. (2013) estimated the angular velocity of the Victoria tectonic block from geodetic data (GNSS derived velocities) only.. GNSS observations are sparse in this region and it is therefore of the utmost importance to use the available data (5 sites) in the most optimal way. Unfortunately, the existing time-series were/are affected by missing data and offsets. In addition, some time-series were close to the considered minimal threshold value to compute one reliable velocity solution: 2.5-3.0 years. In this research, we focus on the sensitivity of the derived angular velocity to changes in the data (longer data-span for some stations) by extending the used data-span: Fernandes et al. (2013) used data until September 2011. We also investigate the effect of adding other stations to the solution, which is now possible since more stations became available in the region. In addition, we study if the conventional power-law plus white noise model is indeed the best stochastic model. In this respect, we apply different noise models using HECTOR (Bos et al. (2013), which can use different noise models and estimate offsets and seasonal signals simultaneously. The seasonal signal estimation is also other important parameter, since the time-series are rather short or have large data spans at some stations, which implies that the seasonal signals still can have some effect on the estimated trends as shown by Blewitt and Lavellee (2002) and Bos et al. (2010). We also quantify the magnitude of such differences in the estimation of the secular velocity and their effect in the derived angular velocity. Concerning the offsets, we investigate how they can, detected and undetected, influence the estimated plate motion. The time of offsets has been determined by visual inspection of the time-series. The influence of undetected offsets has been done by adding small synthetic random walk signals that are too small to be detected visually but might have an effect on the

  6. Compositional variations on Mercury: Results from the Victoria quadrangle (United States)

    Zambon, Francesca; Carli, Cristian; Galluzzi, Valentina; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Giacomini, Lorenza; Massironi, Matteo; Palumbo, Pasquale; Cremonese, Gabriele


    Mercury was recently explored by the MESSENGER mission that orbited around the planet from March 2011 until April 2015 allowing a complete coverage of its surface. The Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS), mapped the Hermean surface at different spatial resolutions, due to variable altitude of the spacecraft from the surface. MDIS consists of two instruments: a Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) centered at 747nm, which acquired high-resolution images for the geological analysis, and the Wide Angle Camera (WAC), provided with 11 filters dedicated to the compositional analysis, operating in a range of wavelengths between 395 and 1040 nm. Mercury's surface has been divided into 15 quadrangles for mapping purposes. Here, we analyze the results obtained by the color composite mosaic of the quadrangle Victoria (H02) located at longitudes 270 ° - 360 ° E, and latitudes 22.5 ° N - 65 ° N. We produced a color mosaic, by using the images relative to the filters with the best spatial coverage. To obtain the 8-color mosaic of the Victoria quadrangle, we calibrated and georefenced the WAC raw images. Afterwards, we applied the Hapke photometric correction by using the parameters derived by Domingue et al. (2015). We projected and coregistered the data, and finally, we produced the mosaic. To analyze the compositional variations of the Victoria quadrangle, we consider different techniques of analysis, such as specific RGB color combinations and band ratios, which emphasize the different compositional characteristics of the surface. Furthermore, the use of clustering and classification methods allows for recognizing various terrain units, in terms of reflectance and spectral characteristics. In the H02 quadrangle, we observed a dichotomy in the RGB mosaic (R: second principal component (PC2), G: first principal component (PC1), B: 430/1000 nm; see Denevi et al. 2009) between the northern region of the quadrangle, dominated by smooth plains, and the southern part, characterized by

  7. K basins interim remedial action health and safety plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAY, P.T.


    The K Basins Interim Remedial Action Health and Safety Plan addresses the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as they apply to the CERCLA work that will take place at the K East and K West Basins. The provisions of this plan become effective on the date the US Environmental Protection Agency issues the Record of Decision for the K Basins Interim Remedial Action, currently planned in late August 1999.

  8. Petroleum habitat of East Siberia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, J.W. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)


    East Siberia comprises three petroleum provinces - Lena-Tunguska, Lena-Vilyuy, and Yenisey-Anabar - that occupy the area of the Siberian craton. Petroleum has been generated and has accumulated in Precambrian rifts beneath the sedimentary basins and, more importantly, within the section of the basin itself. The platformal deposits of the basins extend beneath overthrusts on the east and south and are covered by sedimentary rocks of the West Siberian province on the west. Permafrost and gas hydrate deposits are present throughout most of East Siberia. In the Lena-Tunguska province, rifts that developed during Riphean time are filled by thick sedimentary rocks, in which petroleum deposits have formed. In Early Cambrian time a barrier reef extended across the East Siberian craton from southeast to northwest. A lagoon to the west of this reef was the site of thick rhythmic salt deposits, which are the main seals for petroleum in the province. The sedimentary sections of the platform cover ranges in age from Late Proterozoic to Permian. More than 25 oil and gas fields have been discovered in the province, all in Riphean through Lower Cambrian rocks. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Hydro-climatic trends and water resource management implications based on multi-scale data for the Lake Victoria region, Kenya (United States)

    Koutsouris, A. J.; Destouni, G.; Jarsjö, J.; Lyon, S. W.


    Unreliable rainfall may be a main cause of poverty in rural areas, such as the Kisumu district by Lake Victoria in Kenya. Climate change may further increase the negative effects of rainfall uncertainty. These effects could be mitigated to some extent through improved and adaptive water resource management and planning, which relies on our interpretations and projections of the coupled hydro-climatic system behaviour and its development trends. In order to identify and quantify the main differences and consistencies among such hydro-climatic assessments, this study investigates trends and exemplifies their use for important water management decisions for the Lake Victoria drainage basin (LVDB), based on local scale data for the Orongo village in the Kisumu district, and regional scale data for the whole LVDB. Results show low correlation between locally and regionally observed hydro-climatic trends, and large differences, which in turn affects assessments of important water resource management parameters. However, both data scales converge in indicating that observed local and regional hydrological discharge trends are primarily driven by local and regional water use and land use changes.

  10. Stratigraphic relations of australites in the Port Campbell embayment, Victoria (United States)

    Shoemaker, Eugene M.; Uhlherr, H. Ralph


    In the Port Campbell Embayment of Victoria, australites have been found in situ in channel deposits of the Hanson Plain Sand of Pliocene and Pleistocene age. The large majority of the australites, however, occur as a lag deposit at the basal contact of the Sturgess Sand of late Pleistocene and Holocene age and are spatially correlated with ferruginous sandstone clasts that are derived from the Hanson Plain Sand. Some of the tektites are imbedded in or bonded to the ferruginous sandstone clasts, but most are found as individual tektite fragments. A few percent of the tektites have nearly perfectly preserved, complete aerodynamically shaped forms. The sandstone clasts and associated tektites have been reworked from the much older underlying Hanson Plain and have been locally concentrated in the lag deposit. Some tektites also occur at higher levels in the Sturgess Sand, almost invariably in association with stone flakes, exotic stones transported by the aborigines, and, locally, with middens of mollusc shells. Circumstantial evidence indicates that the aborigines transported the tektites found in the upper part of the Sturgess, particularly at Stanhope Bay. As Port Campbell australites unequivocally occur in strata much older than the late Pleistocene and Holocene Sturgess, there is no longer any conflict between the apparent stratigraphic age of the tektites and the middle Pleistocene ages obtained by various chronometric methods.

  11. The bone microstructure of polar "hypsilophodontid" dinosaurs from Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Woodward, Holly N; Rich, Thomas H; Vickers-Rich, Patricia


    High-latitude (i.e., "polar") Mesozoic fauna endured months of twilight and relatively low mean annual temperatures. Yet non-avian dinosaurs flourished in this taxing environment. Fossils of basal ornithopod dinosaurs ("hypsilophodontids") are common in the Early Cretaceous high-latitude sediments of Victoria, Australia, and four taxa have been described; although their ontogenetic histories are largely unexplored. In the present study, eighteen tibiae and femora were utilized in the first multi-specimen ontogenetic histological analysis of Australian polar hypsilophodontids. The sample consists of eleven individuals from the Flat Rocks locality (Late Valanginian or Barremian), and five from the Dinosaur Cove locality (Albian). In both groups, growth was most rapid during the first three years, and skeletal maturity occurred between five and seven years. There is a weak asymptotic trend in a plot of growth mark count versus femur length, with considerable individual variation. Histology suggests two genera are present within the Dinosaur Cove sample, but bone microstructure alone could not distinguish genera within the Flat Rocks sample, or across the two geologically separate (~ 26 Ma) localities. Additional histologic sampling, combined with morphological analyses, may facilitate further differentiation between ontogenetic, individual, and species variation.

  12. Diversity of soil yeasts isolated from South Victoria Land, Antarctica (United States)

    Connell, L.; Redman, R.; Craig, S.; Scorzetti, G.; Iszard, M.; Rodriguez, R.


    Unicellular fungi, commonly referred to as yeasts, were found to be components of the culturable soil fungal population in Taylor Valley, Mt. Discovery, Wright Valley, and two mountain peaks of South Victoria Land, Antarctica. Samples were taken from sites spanning a diversity of soil habitats that were not directly associated with vertebrate activity. A large proportion of yeasts isolated in this study were basidiomycetous species (89%), of which 43% may represent undescribed species, demonstrating that culturable yeasts remain incompletely described in these polar desert soils. Cryptococcus species represented the most often isolated genus (33%) followed by Leucosporidium (22%). Principle component analysis and multiple linear regression using stepwise selection was used to model the relation between abiotic variables (principle component 1 and principle component 2 scores) and yeast biodiversity (the number of species present at a given site). These analyses identified soil pH and electrical conductivity as significant predictors of yeast biodiversity. Species-specific PCR primers were designed to rapidly discriminate among the Dioszegia and Leucosporidium species collected in this study. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  13. Flow structures and fluid transport for the hydromedusae Sarsia tubulosa and Aequorea victoria. (United States)

    Lipinski, Doug; Mohseni, Kamran


    The flow structures produced by the hydromedusae Sarsia tubulosa and Aequorea victoria are examined using direct numerical simulation and Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS). Body motion of each hydromedusa is digitized and input to a CFD program. Sarsia tubulosa uses a jetting type of propulsion, emitting a single, strong, fast-moving vortex ring during each swimming cycle while a secondary vortex of opposite rotation remains trapped within the subumbrellar region. The ejected vortex is highly energetic and moves away from the hydromedusa very rapidly. Conversely, A. victoria, a paddling type hydromedusa, is found to draw fluid from the upper bell surface and eject this fluid in pairs of counter-rotating, slow-moving vortices near the bell margins. Unlike S. tubulosa, both vortices are ejected during the swimming cycle of A. victoria and linger in the tentacle region. In fact, we find that A. victoria and S. tubulosa swim with Strouhal numbers of 1.1 and 0.1, respectively. This means that vortices produced by A. victoria remain in the tentacle region roughly 10 times as long as those produced by S. tubulosa, which presents an excellent feeding opportunity during swimming for A. victoria. Finally, we examine the pressure on the interior bell surface of both hydromedusae and the velocity profile in the wake. We find that S. tubulosa produces very uniform pressure on the interior of the bell as well as a very uniform jet velocity across the velar opening. This type of swimming can be well approximated by a slug model, but A. victoria creates more complicated pressure and velocity profiles. We are also able to estimate the power output of S. tubulosa and find good agreement with other hydromedusan power outputs. All results are based on numerical simulations of the swimming jellyfish.

  14. Characterising groundwater dynamics in Western Victoria, Australia using Menyanthes software (United States)

    Woldeyohannes, Yohannes; Webb, John


    Water table across much of the western Victoria, Australia have been declining for at least the last 10-15 years, and this is attributed to the consistently low rainfall for these years, but over the same period of time there has been substantial change in land use, with grazing land replaced by cropping and tree plantations appearing in some areas. Hence, it is important to determine the relative effect the climate and land use factors on the water table changes. Monitoring changes in groundwater levels to climate variables and/or land use change is helpful in indicating the degree of threat faced to agricultural and public assets. The dynamics of the groundwater system in the western Victoria, mainly on the basalt plain, have been modelled to determine the climatic influence in water table fluctuations. In this study, a standardized computer package Menyanthes was used for quantifying the influence of climatic variables on the groundwater level, statistically estimating trends in groundwater levels and identify the properties that determine the dynamics of groundwater system. This method is optimized for use on hydrological problems and is based on the use of continuous time transfer function noise model, which estimates the Impulse response function of the system from the temporal correlation between time series of groundwater level and precipitation surplus. In this approach, the spatial differences in the groundwater system are determined by the system properties, while temporal variation is driven by the dynamics of the input into the system. 80 time series models are analysed and the model output parameter values characterized by their moments. The zero-order moment Mo of a distribution function is its area and M1 is related to the mean of the impulse response function. The relation is M1/Mo. It is a measure of the system's memory. It takes approximately 3 times the mean time (M1/Mo) for the effect of a shower to disappear completely from the system. Overall

  15. A mafic-ultramafic cumulate sequence derived from boninite-type melts (Niagara Icefalls, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica) (United States)

    Tribuzio, Riccardo; Tiepolo, Massimo; Fiameni, Stefania


    The layered sequence from Niagara Icefalls (northern Victoria Land, Antarctica) is related to the Cambrian-Early Ordovician Ross Orogeny. The sequence consists of dunites, harzburgites, orthopyroxenites, melagabbronorites and gabbronorites of cumulus origin. The Mg# of olivine, spinel, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene from these rocks yields positive correlations, thus indicating formation from melts that mainly evolved through fractional crystallisation. The following fractionation sequence was identified: olivine (up to 94 mol% forsterite) + Cr-rich spinel → olivine + orthopyroxene ± spinel → orthopyroxene → orthopyroxene + anorthite-rich plagioclase ± clinopyroxene. Clinopyroxenes retain the peculiar trace element signature of boninite melts, such as extremely low concentrations of HREE and HFSE, and LILE enrichment over REE and HFSE. U-Pb isotope data on zircons separated from a gabbronorite have allowed us to constrain the age of emplacement of the Niagara Icefalls sequence at ˜514 Ma. The occurrence of inherited zircons dated at ˜538 Ma indicates that the boninitic melts experienced, at least locally, crustal contamination. The Niagara Icefalls sequence can be related to a regional scale magmatic event that affected the eastern margin of the Gondwana supercontinent in the Middle Cambrian. We propose that the formation of the sequence was associated with the development of an embryonic back-arc basin in an active continental margin.

  16. Evaluation of vehicle side airbag effectiveness in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    D'Elia, Angelo; Newstead, Stuart; Scully, Jim


    Side airbag systems were first introduced into vehicles around 1995 to help protect occupants from injury in side impact crashes. International studies have shown that side airbags are effective in reducing the risk of death and injury, however, serious injuries can still occur even when side airbags deploy. The objective of this study was to use detailed injury information from insurance injury compensation claims data linked to Police reported crash data to determine the effectiveness of side airbags in reducing the risk of death or injury for occupants involved in side impact crashes in Victoria, Australia based on the specific body regions that side airbag systems are designed to protect. It was found that head and torso-protecting dual airbag systems designed to protect the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen are highly effective in reducing driver death or injury due to near side crashes. They were associated with a statistically significant reduction of 41.1% (25.9%, 53.2%) in the odds of death or injury across all body regions; and a 48.0% (28.0%, 62.4%) reduction in the odds of death or injury to the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen. The study did not find any evidence that torso-protecting airbags alone are effective in reducing death or injury. Analysis results indicate that head and torso-protecting side airbag systems in vehicles are a highly effective technology for reducing the risk of death or injury to vehicle occupants in near side crashes. The magnitude of the injury reduction benefits estimated indicate that fitment of this technology to all vehicles should be a high priority and will yield significant savings in overall road trauma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of Ignition Testing on K-West Basin Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Abrefah; F.H. Huang; W.M. Gerry; W.J. Gray; S.C. Marschman; T.A. Thornton


    Approximately 2100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) discharged from the N-Reactor have been stored underwater at the K-Basins in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The spent fuel has been stored in the K-East Basin since 1975 and in the K-West Basin since 1981. Some of the SNF elements in these basins have corroded because of various breaches in the Zircaloy cladding that occurred during fuel discharge operations and/or subsequent handling and storage in the basins. Consequently, radioactive material in the fuel has been released into the basin water, and water has leaked from the K-East Basin into the soil below. To protect the Columbia River, which is only 380 m from the basins, the SNF is scheduled to be removed and transported for interim dry storage in the 200 East Area, in the central portion of the Site. However, before being shipped, the corroded fuel elements will be loaded into Multi-Canister OverPacks and conditioned. The conditioning process will be selected based on the Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) (WHC 1995), which was prepared on the basis of the dry storage concept developed by the Independent Technical Assessment (ITA) team (ITA 1994).

  18. Tectonic types of oil and gas basins of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    An examination is made of the main stages of geological history of the continental part of China and the adjoining shelf regions. In tectonic structure and evolution three main groups of oil and gas basin are isolated: 1) basins associated with stretching tectonics, in East China; 2) basins of the transitional type in central China; 3) basins associated with compression tectonics in West China. Basins of the first group were formed during the underthrust of the Pacific Ocean plate under the Euroasian; in this case under the influence of stretching stresses, splitting and submersion of the foundation occurred accompanied by spreading. As a result of these events, polycyclic groove basins were formed of the Bokhayvansskiy Gulf, Tszyankhan, North Tszyanu, monocyclic groove, Sunlyao, Nanyan-Miyan, Tonkinskiy Gulf, marginal-continental (rear arcs) of the basins of Taiwan and East China Seas, etc. Basins of the second group are arranged in the transitional zone between the Pacific Ocean plate and the Tetis-Himalaya tectonic zone and experience the influence of both of these geotectonic elements. Such oil and gas basins as Shangannin and Syguan belong to the type of intraplate polycyclic, and Chusyun to the type monocyclic depressions. Basins of the third type are associated with the four zones of collisioncompression formed as a result of collision with the Indian plate (from Altay to the Himalayas) which after formation experienced general submersion. These zones have such major heterogeneous oil and gas basins as the Dzhungarskiy, Tarimskiy, Tsaydamskiy, and North Tibet. In addition, oil and gas basins were formed here associated with the premontane (Usu, Kuge, Yeuen, Tszyutsyuan, etc.) and intermontane (Turfanskiy) basins. Main characteristics are presented for tectonic structure and plan of evolution of the main basins.

  19. Morfologia da flor, fruto e plântula de Victoria amazonica (Poepp. J.C. Sowerby (Nymphaeaceae Morphology of flower, fruit and seedling of Victoria amazonica (Poepp. J.C. Sowerby (Nymphaeaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maciel da Rosa-Osman


    Full Text Available Victoria amazonica (Poepp. J.C. Sowerby é uma hidrófita que ocorre nas várzeas de águas brancas e igapós da Bacia Amazônica e na Bacia do rio Paraguai. A morfologia da flor, fruto e plântula/"tirodendro" é objeto do presente trabalho. O material botânico foi coletado em Parintins e Manaus, estado do Amazonas, Brasil. A análise morfológica foi feita em material fresco e fixado em FAA 50. O desenvolvimento das plântulas foi realizado no escuro em frascos com água com teor reduzido de oxigênio. As flores possuem pedicelo longo e são hemicíclicas, diclamídeas, monoclinas e com antese vespertina. Os frutos são carnosos, indeiscentes, com pseudossincarpia. As sementes apresentam arilo que atua na dispersão pela água. As plântulas se desenvolvem em condições de hipoxia e apresentam um cotilédone exposto acicular. O "tirodendro" apresenta eofilos com heterofilia. As flores apresentam caracteres morfológicos básicos da família, a definição do tipo de fruto exige estudo ontogenético e a heterofilia é um caráter típico de plântulas/"tirodendros"de Nymphaeaceae.Victoria amazonica (Poepp. J.C. Sowerby is a hydrophyte that occurs in the white water leas and igapos of the Amazonian and Paraguay Basin. The flower, fruit and seedling/"tirodendro" morphology is the object of the present work. The botanical material was collected at Parintins and Manaus, Amazonian state, Brazil. The morphological analysis was made in both fresh and fixed material. The seedling development was accomplished in flasks with water containing little oxygen and maintained in the darkness. Flowers present long pedicel and they are hemicyclic, dichlamydeous, bisexual with vespertine anthesis. Fruits are fleshy, indehiscent with pseudo-syncarpy. Seeds present aril that acts in the water dispersion. Seedlings grow in hypoxy conditions and they present an acicular and exposed cotyledon. The "tirodendro" stage presents eophylls with heterophylly. Flowers

  20. Marine research in the Latitudinal Gradient Project along Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Arthur Berkman


    Full Text Available This paper describes the conceptual framework of the Latitudinal Gradient Project that is being implemented by the New Zealand, Italian and United States Antarctic programmes along Victoria Land, Antarctica, from 72°S to 86°S. The purpose of this interdisciplinary research project is to assess the dynamics and coupling of marine and terrestrial ecosystems in relation to global climate variability. Preliminary data about the research cruises from the R/V “Italica” and R/V “Tangaroa” along the Victoria Land Coast in 2004 are presented. As a global climate barometer, this research along Victoria Land provides a unique framework for assessing latitudinal shifts in ‘sentinel’ environmental transition zones, where climate changes have an amplified impact on the phases of water.

  1. Deep Flow Transport Through the Ulleung Interplain Gap in the Southwestern East/Japan Sea (United States)


    of five current meter moorings U1-U5 were deployed from November 2002 to April 2004. JB, UB. and YB denote the Japan Basin, Ulleung Basin, and Yamato ...Through the Ulleung Interplain Gap in the Southwestern East/ Japan Sea 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 0601153N...circulation in the southwestern East/ Japan Sea through the Ulleung Interplain Gap (UIG), a possible pathway for deep-water exchange, was directly measured

  2. Estimation of geological storage capacity of CO{sub 2}: Methodology and implementation to the Duero basin (Central East Area); Estimacion de la Capacidad de Almacenamiento Geologico de CO{sub 2}: Metodologia y Aplicacion a la Cuenca del Duero (Zona Centro-Oriental)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, A.; Eguilior, S.


    This paper presents the methodology for assessment of the storage capacity into a saline aquifer depth and the results of the studies carried out in the central east area of the Duero Basin. The extension of the study area represents about 40% of the basin. This methodology has been conducted under the need of estimate of uncertainty in everything related to behavior of long-term stored CO{sub 2} in geological formations because one of the major challenges associated with this activity is ensuring the retention of stored CO{sub 2} along the period of the required time. The method is based on the implementation of a Geographic Information System as a tool for capture, storage, management and presentation of data in maps, as well as a tool for analysis and modelling through its link to both geostatistical methods and description of CO{sub 2} thermodynamic behaviour in deep geological storage conditions, by using real gases Equations of States, specially the Sterner-Pitzer Cubic Equation of State. All these analyses are accompanied by the error propagation due to the calculations required for the determination of the volume of rock, the vertical accuracy of the topographic layers, as well as other uncertainties associated with the variables required for the characterization of the CO{sub 2} in the storage conditions. The conclusion is that the deep geologic CO{sub 2} storage capacity in the study area is between 1,667 and 11,976 Mt, i.e. between 11 and 81 years of storage capacity with a current spanish CO{sub 2} production of 148 Mt/year. (Author) 40 refs.

  3. Stroke Incidence in Victoria, Australia—Emerging Improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin B. Clissold


    Full Text Available BackgroundEvidence of a decline in the incidence of stroke has emerged from population-based studies. These have included retrospective and prospective cohorts. However, in Australia and other countries, government bodies and stroke foundations predict a rise in the prevalence of stroke that is anticipated to increase the burden of stroke across the entire domain of care. This increase in prevalence must be viewed as different from the decline in incidence being observed, a measure of new stroke cases. In Victoria, all public emergency department visits and public and private hospital admissions are reported to the Department of Health and Human Services and include demographic, diagnostic, and procedural/treatment information.MethodsWe obtained data from financial years 1997/1998 to 2007/2008 inclusive, for all cases with a primary stroke diagnosis (ICD-10-AM categories with associated data fields. Incident cases were established by using a 5-year clearance period.ResultsFrom 2003/2004 to 2007/2008 inclusive, there were 53,425 patients with a primary stroke or TIA diagnosis. The crude incident stroke rate for first ever stroke was 211 per 100,000 per year (95% CI 205–217 [females—205 per 100,000 per year (95% CI 196–214 and males—217 per 100,000 per year (95% CI 210–224]. The overall stroke rates were seen to significantly decline over the period [males (per 100,000 per year 227 in 2003/2004 to 202 in 2007/2008 (p = 0.0157 and females (per 100,000 per year 214 in 2003/2004 to 188 in 2007/2008 (p = 0.0482]. Ischemic stroke rates also appeared to decline; however, this change was not significant.ConclusionThese results demonstrate a significant decline in stroke incidence during the study period and may suggest evidence for effectiveness of primary and secondary prevention strategies in cerebrovascular risk factor management.

  4. Stratigraphic architecture of bedrock reference section, Victoria Crater, Meridiani Planum, Mars (United States)

    Edgar, Lauren A.; Grotzinger, John P.; Hayes, Alex G.; Rubin, David M.; Squyres, Steve W.; Bell, James F.; Herkenhoff, Ken E.


    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has investigated bedrock outcrops exposed in several craters at Meridiani Planum, Mars, in an effort to better understand the role of surface processes in its geologic history. Opportunity has recently completed its observations of Victoria crater, which is 750 m in diameter and exposes cliffs up to ~15 m high. The plains surrounding Victoria crater are ~10 m higher in elevation than those surrounding the previously explored Endurance crater, indicating that the Victoria crater exposes a stratigraphically higher section than does the Endurance crater; however, Victoria strata overlap in elevation with the rocks exposed at the Erebus crater. Victoria crater has a well-developed geomorphic pattern of promontories and embayments that define the crater wall and that reveal thick bedsets (3–7m) of large-scale cross-bedding, interpreted as fossil eolian dunes. Opportunity was able to drive into the crater at Duck Bay, located on the western margin of Victoria crater. Data from the Microscopic Imager and Panoramic Camera reveal details about the structures, textures, and depositional and diagenetic events that influenced the Victoria bedrock. A lithostratigraphic subdivision of bedrock units was enabled by the presence of a light-toned band that lines much of the upper rim of the crater. In ascending order, three stratigraphic units are named Lyell, Smith, and Steno; Smith is the light-toned band. In the Reference Section exposed along the ingress path at Duck Bay, Smith is interpreted to represent a zone of diagenetic recrystallization; however, its upper contact also coincides with a primary erosional surface. Elsewhere in the crater the diagenetic band crosscuts the physical stratigraphy. Correlation with strata present at nearby promontory Cape Verde indicates that there is an erosional surface at the base of the cliff face that corresponds to the erosional contact below Steno. The erosional contact at the base of Cape Verde

  5. Archiving the Web: A Case Study from the University of Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Davis


    Full Text Available The University of Victoria Libraries started archiving websites in 2013, and it quickly became apparent that many scholarly websites being produced by faculty, especially in the digital humanities, were going to prove very challenging to effectively capture and play back. This article will provide an overview of web archiving and explore the considerable legal and technical challenges of implementing a web archiving initiative at a research library, using the University of Victoria's implementation of Archive-it, a web archiving service from the Internet Archive, as a case study, with a special focus on capturing complex, interactive websites that scholars are creating to disseminate their research in new ways.

  6. Crustal and upper mantle structure beneath the Donets Basin and Donbas Foldbelt from 3-D gravity modelling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yegorova, T.P.; Stephenson, R.A.; Kozlenko, V.G.; Starostenko, V.I.; Legostaeva, O.V.


    The Dniepr-Donets Basin (DDB) is a linear, NW-SE trending, late Palaeozoic and younger sedimentary basin on the East European Platform separating the Ukrainian Shield from the Voronezh Massif. Its northwestern (Dniepr) segment has the characteristics of a typical rift basin. To the southeast,

  7. An Integrated Hydrological and Water Management Study of the Entire Nile River System - Lake Victoria to Nile Delta (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Alo, Clement; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Anderson, Martha; Policelli, Fritz


    The Nile basin River system spans 3 million km(exp 2) distributed over ten nations. The eight upstream riparian nations, Ethiopia, Eretria, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Congo, Tanzania and Kenya are the source of approximately 86% of the water inputs to the Nile, while the two downstream riparian countries Sudan and Egypt, presently rely on the river's flow for most of the their needs. Both climate and agriculture contribute to the complicated nature of Nile River management: precipitation in the headwaters regions of Ethiopia and Lake Victoria is variable on a seasonal and inter-annual basis, while demand for irrigation water in the arid downstream region is consistently high. The Nile is, perhaps, one of the most difficult trans-boundary water issue in the world, and this study would be the first initiative to combine NASA satellite observations with the hydrologic models study the overall water balance in a to comprehensive manner. The cornerstone application of NASA's Earth Science Research Results under this project are the NASA Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) and the USDA Atmosphere-land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model. These two complementary research results are methodologically independent methods for using NASA observations to support water resource analysis in data poor regions. Where an LDAS uses multiple sources of satellite data to inform prognostic simulations of hydrological process, ALEXI diagnoses evapotranspiration and water stress on the basis of thermal infrared satellite imagery. Specifically, this work integrates NASA Land Data Assimilation systems into the water management decision support systems that member countries of the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) and Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD, located in Nairobi, Kenya) use in water resource analysis, agricultural planning, and acute drought response to support sustainable development of Nile Basin water resources. The project is motivated by the recognition that

  8. Current (2004-07) Conditions and Changes in Ground-Water Levels from Predevelopment to 2007, Southern High Plains Aquifer, East-Central New Mexico-Curry County, Portales, and Causey Lingo Underground Water Basins (United States)

    Tillery, Anne


    The Southern High Plains aquifer is the principal aquifer in Curry and Roosevelt Counties, N. Mex., and primary source of water in southeastern New Mexico. Successful water-supply planning for New Mexico's Southern High Plains requires knowledge of the current aquifer conditions and a context to estimate future trends given current aquifer-management policy. This report provides a summary of the current (2007) water-level status of the Southern High Plains aquifer in New Mexico, including a basis for estimating future trends by comparison with historical conditions. This report includes estimates of the extent of ground-water level declines in the Curry County, Portales, and Causey-Lingo Ground-water Management Area parts of the High Plains Aquifer in eastern New Mexico since predevelopment. Maps representing 2007 water levels, water-level declines, aquifer saturated thickness, and depth to water accompanied by hydrographs from representative wells for the Southern High Plains aquifer in the Curry County, Portales, and Causey Lingo Underground Water Basins were prepared in cooperation with the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer. The results of this mapping show the water level declined as much as 175 feet in the study area at rates as high as 1.76 feet per year.

  9. The diversity of benthic mollusks of Lake Victoria and Lake Burigi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molluscan diversity, abundance and distribution in sediments of Lake Victoria and its satellite lake, Lake Burigi, were investigated. The survey was carried out ... Melanoides tuberculata and Biomphalaria chaonomphala were the only two gastropods represented and widely distributed in the two lakes. Bivalvia constituting of ...

  10. Connections '98. Proceedings of a Faculty Conference (4th, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, May 1998). (United States)

    Gibbons, Sandra L., Ed.; Anderson, John O., Ed.

    This proceedings contains 13 papers from the 1998 annual Faculty of Education conference at the University of Victoria, British Columbia (Canada). The papers are: (1) "Struggling with Re-Presentation, Voice, and Self in Narrative Research" (Marla Arvay); (2) "Women's Soccer in Canada: A Slow Road to Equity" (Meredith Bogle,…

  11. Water hyacinth hotspots in the Ugandan waters of Lake Victoria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water hyacinth invaded Lake Victoria in the 1980s and, by 1998, had attained peak coverage of approximately 2 000 ha in the Ugandan waters of the lake. Control interventions, especially via biological means, significantly reduced the weed's coverage to non-nuisance levels (<10 ha) by 1999. Although resurgence was ...

  12. Perception of Aquaculture Education to Support Further Growth of Aquaculture Industry in Victoria, Australia (United States)

    Awal, Sadiqul; Christie, Andrew; Watson, Matthew; Hannadige, Asanka G. T.


    Purpose: The central aim of this study was to determine the perception of aquaculture educational provisions in the state of Victoria, and whether they are sufficient to ultimately support further growth of the industry. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires were formulated and distributed to participants in a variety of ways, including via…

  13. People Management Practices in the Public Health Sector: Developments from Victoria, Australia (United States)

    Stanton, Pauline; Bartram, Timothy; Harbridge, Raymond


    This study investigates the impact on human resource management (HRM) practices in the public health sector in Victoria, Australia of two different government policy environments. First, it explores the Liberal Coalition Government's decentralisation of public health sector management, from 1992-1999 and second, the Labor Government's…

  14. From Aspiration to Destination: Understanding the Decisions of University Applicants in Regional Victoria (United States)

    Harvey, Andrew; Burnheim, Catherine; Joschko, Lucie; Luckman, Michael


    This paper examines the choices and destinations of prospective university students from three regional areas in Victoria. The study is based on information collected for tertiary applicants in the Gippsland, Bendigo and Mildura areas, all of which host a local university campus. Using application and enrollment data, we examine the choices that…

  15. What Do the Public Search for on the Catalogue of the State Library of Victoria? (United States)

    Waller, Vivienne


    This study examines what the public search for in the catalogue of the State Library of Victoria (SLV). As well as indicating the type of content being accessed, this gives an indication of what catalogue users expect of the State Library collection. A content analysis was undertaken of a random, stratified sample of 4,000 search queries typed in…

  16. Do invasive bullfrogs in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, show evidence of parasite release? (United States)

    Dare, O K; Forbes, M R


    Few studies have examined vertebrate models of invasive species to explore parasite release as a proposed mechanism through which host species might become invasive. In this study, we examined evidence for parasite release in invasive American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana/Lithobates catesbeianus) from five sites in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. We examined helminth species richness, as well as the prevalence, intensity and abundance of lung and kidney fluke infections. These flukes are expected to impose costs on host survival, growth and reproductive output. We compared measures of these parasite taxa with bullfrogs from Ontario and New Brunswick where they are endemic. Helminth species richness in bullfrogs from the Victoria sites was lower than in Ontario bullfrogs, but comparable to reported indices for other endemic populations. The prevalence of lung flukes (Haematoloechus spp.) in bullfrogs from Victoria was twice as high as was observed in the Ontario bullfrogs, and higher than has been reported from other endemic locations. In four of the five study sites in Victoria, numbers of Echinostoma spp. kidney cysts were lower than observed in endemic populations; however, the fifth site had uncharacteristically high numbers of cysts. In this study, there did not appear to be clear evidence to support parasite release using either parasite species numbers, or infection by specific parasite taxa. Instead, the invasive bullfrogs demonstrated high parasite species richness and high levels of infection for parasites known to be harmful to their hosts.

  17. Parasite-mediated sexual selection and species divergence in Lake Victoria cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, Martine E.; Van Rooijen, Anne M. C.; Van Alphen, Jacques J. M.; Seehausen, Ole

    We investigate the role of parasite-mediated sexual selection in the divergence of two species of Lake Victoria cichlids. Pundamilia pundamilia and Pundamilia nyererei represent a common pattern of male nuptial colour divergence between haplochromine sister species: metallic grey-blue in P.

  18. Lake Victoria wetlands and the ecology of the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis Niloticus Linné

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balirwa, J.S.


    The importance of LalVictoria wetlands for the Nile tilap'a was studied. Five wetland types were defined: papyrus, reed, bulrush, hippo grass, water hyacinth. Hydrology, vegetation and distance towards open water explained the variation in abiotic and biotic factors. Over 30 fish species were

  19. Distribution of Nile perch Lates niloticus in southern Lake Victoria is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although Nile perch Lates niloticus is assumed to be sensitive to low oxygen concentrations, it was found in deep water in Lake Victoria, where oxygen depletion is common during the rainy season. Since factors determining Nile perch distribution are not well understood its spatial distribution in the Mwanza Gulf of Lake ...

  20. Monitoring exposure to heavy metals among children in Lake Victoria, Kenya: Environmental and fish matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okoth, E.O.; Admiraal, W.; Osano, O.; Ngure, V.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Omutange, E.S.


    This study used hair and nails to biomonitor heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr and Cu) from geological source and exposure through regular fish consumption among children in Lake Victoria, Kenya. Concentration of Pb and Cu in water reflected anthropogenic pathways, while Cd and Cr reflected accumulation from

  1. Metal concentrations in sediment and fish of Lake Victoria near and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentrations of metals in sediment and fish as well as organic matter contents of sediment from Lake Victoria were investigated. The objective of the study was to compare levels of metals in sediment and fish from areas of the lake that are within and outside catchments with gold mining activities. The results showed that ...

  2. San Mateo Creek Basin (United States)

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  3. Water resource conflicts in the Middle East. (United States)

    Drake, C


    This article discusses the causes and sources of water resource conflict in the 3 major international river basins of the Middle East: the Tigris-Euphrates, the Nile, and the Jordan-Yarmuk. The physical geography of the Middle East is arid due to descending air, northeast trade winds, the southerly location, and high evaporation rates. Only Turkey, Iran, and Lebanon have adequate rainfall for population needs. Their mountainous geography and more northerly locations intercept rain and snow bearing westerly winds in winter. Parts of every other country are vulnerable to water shortages. Rainfall is irregular. Water resource conflicts are due to growing populations, economic development, rising standards of living, technological developments, political fragmentation, and poor water management. Immigration to the Jordan-Yarmuk watershed has added to population growth in this location. Over 50% of the population in the Middle East lives in urban areas where populations consume 10-12 times more water than those in rural areas. Water is wasted in irrigation schemes and huge dams with reservoirs where increased evaporation occurs. Technology results in greater water extraction of shallow groundwater and pollution of rivers and aquifers. British colonial government control led to reduced friction in most of the Nile basin. Now all ethnic groups have become more competitive and nationalistic. The Cold War restrained some of the conflict. Israel obtains 40% of its water from aquifers beneath the West Bank and Gaza. Geopolitical factors determine the mutual goodwill in managing international water. The 3 major water basins in the Middle East pose the greatest risk of water disputes. Possible solutions include conservation, better management, prioritizing uses, technological solutions, increased cooperation among co-riparians, developing better and enforceable international water laws, and reducing population growth rates.

  4. Evolution and depocentre migration in thrust-top basins: inferences from the Messinian Velona Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy) (United States)

    Bonini, Marco; Moratti, Giovanna; Sani, Federico


    A structural study of the thrust-related Messinian Velona Basin is presented. This basin developed in the hinterland area of the Northern Apennines between two N-trending and E-verging thrust anticlines, the Montalcino-Castelnuovo dell'Abate anticline to the west and the Ripa d'Orcia anticline to the east. The architecture of the basin and the deformation affecting the syntectonic sedimentary deposits show that the Velona Basin was affected by two strong compressive phases during the Messinian. The results of this study fit well into the structural evolution of the nearby hinterland basins, indicating a Neogene tectonic scenario dominated by compression. The evolution of the Velona Basin is compared with simple models of thrust-top basins whose development is controlled by the kinematics of two competing thrust anticlines. The westward-directed depocentre migration recognized in the Velona Basin is related to a higher displacement rate along the eastern thrust fault (Ripa d'Orcia thrust anticline), whereas the deformations at the opposite basin margin are related to the Montalcino-Castelnuovo dell'Abate thrust anticline. The general models of thrust-top basin evolution presented here were successfully applied to the Velona Basin case, and may be compared with other natural examples as well.

  5. Testing the Marine Hypothesis for The Opportunity Landing Site at Victoria Crater (United States)

    Parker, T. J.


    Hypothesis Summary: 1. Meridiani Planum is a marine sulfate platform deposit, analogous to terrestrial carbonate platforms but with sulfate mineralogy, laid down during one or multiple marine transgressions over the landing site region. 2. Outcrop laminations, ripples, and larger, dune-scale bedforms are subaqueous in origin, produced by tidal currents. Aqueous deposits may be interbedded with crossbedded aeolian deposits of same composition derived from subjacent water-lain deposits during lowstands. At the scale of observations made by Opportunity, the marine hypothesis differs from the consensus, sabkha model, in two relatively minor ways (but with important differences in the inferred paleoenvironments). 3. Blueberry and cobble "lag" on top of outcrop is a lag, but indicates erosion of perhaps many meters, even tens of meters or more of outcrop material from the region by water. Wind erosion has been very limited over geologic time (perhaps less than a meter locally). 4. Remarkably-flat, horizontal geomorphic surface of outcrop was produced by shallow standing water locally, controlling both deposition and erosion of the sulfate outcrop material to within a few meters of sea level. 5. Craters in the landing site exhibit a continuum of degradation states, with Endurance and Victoria typifying the best preserved craters visited (or to be visited) by Opportunity, and Erebus and Terra Nova representing the most degraded craters visited that are larger than 100 meters across. Terra Nova is similar to numerous kilometer-scale "rock ring" craters in the Meridiani Planum landing site. 6. "Serrated" rim at Victoria is similar to, but fresher in expression, rim morphology at Erebus Crater, and may indicate water pouring over crater rim during tidal or storm surges in water level across the region. Predictions to be tested at Victoria Crater: 1. The crater's ejecta and raised rim have been destroyed by tidal currents in shallow standing water. There is no Endurance


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Mohamed


    Full Text Available The Topographic maps and Aerial Photographs are used for morphometric analysis of drainage basins and mapping contours with drainage. The stereo pairs of 2.5 m resolution Cartosat 1, Indian satellite 2 and merged data with 5.5 m resolution P6 Resourcesat 1 LISS 4 Indian satellite of 2001 is used to map, rills, gullies, and streams of first order to evaluate part of drainage basin of Cooum and Poondi Reservoir in Thiruvallur taluk of Tamil Nadu state. The Geo Eye latest 2011data is also used with Catrosat 1Stereo data to study present morphology of tiny micro watersheds to study the use of High resolution data for delineation and codification of watersheds. This study area is in an inter fluvial drainage basin of Cooum and Kusasthalai rivers. Kusasthalai river drains in Poondi reservoir which is about 50 km from Chennai. The excess water from Kosasthalai is also diverted through Kesawaram weir to Cooum river which passes through Thiruvallur and Chennai city before it's confluence with Bay of Benegal in the east. As Cooum basin is at higher elevation, water for irrigation is again diverted through chain of tanks to Kusasthalai river basin to drain in Poondi reservoir. Delineation of water sheds in this fluvial basin is difficult by manual survey as man made irrigation channels, natural drainage streams etc., have to be clearly identified. The streams of various orders are identified based on Strahler stream order hierarchy of tributaries, slops and contours using large scale satellite data. The micro water sheds are delinated identifying the ridges from Catrosat data for this interfluves basin which has mild slop. To illustrate this research, parts of two micro watersheds which were delineated using 1:50000 data for Tamil Nadu watershed Atlas up to 7th order streams are taken up for a detailed study using high resolution data. 19 Micro watersheds with streams up to 10th order are mapped. The capability of high resolution satellite data for digital

  7. JPRS Report, East Europe (United States)


    German Journalists Association (West), "of the conquests by the Spanish Conquista - [Text] Berliner Verlag in East Berlin, once upon a time the dors." This...subscribers should Union, East Asia, Near East & South Asia, Sub- expect a 30-day delay in receipt of the first issue. Saharan Africa, Latin America , and

  8. Rainfall variability in East Africa: implications for natural resources management and livelihoods. (United States)

    Conway, Declan; Allison, Edward; Felstead, Richard; Goulden, Marisa


    This note examines the effects of climate variability on natural-resources management in East Africa. The bimodal rainfall regime in much of East Africa brings rainy seasons from March to May and October to December with greater interannual variability from October to December. We discuss the impacts of rainfall extremes in 1961 and 1997 and explore three examples of natural-resources management in the context of rainfall variability: inland fisheries in East and southern Africa; fluctuations in the level of Lake Victoria; and lake-shore communities around Lake Kyoga in Uganda. The discussion reflects the complexity of linkages between climate, environment and society in the region and highlights implications for natural-resources management. These range from benefits due to improved seasonal rainfall forecasting to reduce the damage of extremes, to improved understanding of existing climate-society interactions to provide insights into the region's vulnerability and adaptive capacity in relation to future climate change.

  9. δ13C and δ15N values of sediment-trap particles in the Japan and Yamato Basins and comparison with the core-top values in the East/Japan Sea (United States)

    Khim, Boo-Keun; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Park, Kyung-Ae; Noriki, Shinichiro


    Investigation of sediment-trap deployments in the East/Japan Sea (EJS) showed that distinct seasonal variations in particulate organic carbon (POC) fluxes of intermediate-water sediment-traps clearly corresponded to changes in chlorophyll a concentrations estimated from SeaWiFS data. The prominent high POC flux periods (e.g., March) were strongly correlated with the enhanced surface-water phytoplankton blooms. Deep-water sedimenttraps exhibited similar variation patterns to intermediate-water sediment-traps. However, their total flux and POC flux were higher than those of intermediate-water sediment-traps during some months (e.g., April and May), indicating the lateral delivery of some particles to the deep-water sediment-traps. Distinct seasonal δ13C and δ15N variations in settling particles of the intermediate-water sediment-traps were observed, strongly supporting the notion of seasonal primary production. Seasonal variations in δ13C and δ15N values from the deep-water sediment-traps were similar to those of the intermediate-water sediment-traps. However, the difference in δ13C and δ15N values between the intermediate-water and the deepwater sediment-traps may be attributed to degradation of organic matter as it sank through the water column. Comparison of fluxweighted δ13C and δ15N mean values between the deep-water sediment-traps and the core-top sediments showed that strong selective loss of organic matter components (lipids) depleted in 13C and 15N occurred during sediment burial. Nonetheless, the results of our study indicate that particles in the deep-water sediment-trap deposited as surface sediments on the seafloor preserve the record of surface-water conditions, highlighting the usefulness of sedimentary δ13C and δ15N values as a paleoceanographic application in the EJS.

  10. Impacts of population growth and economic development on water quality of a lake: case study of Lake Victoria Kenya water. (United States)

    Juma, Dauglas Wafula; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Fengting


    Anthropogenic-induced water quality pollution is a major environmental problem in freshwater ecosystems today. As a result of this, eutrophication of lakes occurs. Population and economic development are key drivers of water resource pollution. To evaluate how growth in the riparian population and in the gross domestic product (GDP) with unplanned development affects the water quality of the lake, this paper evaluates Lake Victoria Kenyan waters basin. Waters quality data between 1990 and 2012 were analyzed along with reviews of published literature, papers, and reports. The nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), soluble phosphorus (PO4-P), chlorophyll a, and Secchi transparencies were evaluated as they are key water quality indicators. The NO3-N increased from 10 μg l(-1) in 1990 to 98 μg 1(-1) in 2008, while PO4-P increased from 4 μg l(-1) in 1990 to 57 μg l(-1) in 2008. The population and economic growth of Kenya are increasing with both having minimums in 1990 of 24.143 million people and 12.18 billion US dollars, to maximums in 2010 of 39.742 million people and 32.163 billion US dollars, respectively. A Secchi transparency is reducing with time, indicating an increasing pollution. This was confirmed by an increase in aquatic vegetation using an analysis of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) images of 2000 and 2012 of Kenyan waters. This study found that increasing population and GDP increases pollution discharge thus polluting lakes. One of major factors causing lake water pollution is the unplanned or poor waste management policy and service.

  11. A new Eemian record of Antarctic tephra layers retrieved from the Talos Dome ice core (Northern Victoria Land) (United States)

    Narcisi, Biancamaria; Petit, Jean Robert; Langone, Antonio; Stenni, Barbara


    Polar ice sheets are remarkable repositories of tephra layers. The Talos Dome ice core (72°49‧S, 159°11‧E), drilled at the edge of the East Antarctic Plateau, close to Late Quaternary volcanoes, offers considerable potential to extend the current tephra time-stratigraphic framework. A tephrochronological study was undertaken of the ice core sections related to the Last Interglacial and the transition to the subsequent glacial period. Thirteen macroscopically visible layers, interpreted to be related to primary deposition of fallout tephra, have been analysed for quantitative grain size and glass shard geochemistry. The layers, precisely framed within the climate (δ18O) record for the core, span in age from 111.6 ± 1.9 to 123.3 ± 2.2 ka. Coarse particle size suggests origin from regional sources. Indeed, the vast majority of the samples display an alkaline affinity and trachytic composition that are both typical geochemical features of rifting Antarctic volcanism. Using subtle differences in the geochemical signatures and the comparison with data from previous studies, a few layers are attributed to known coeval Mt. Melbourne eruptions. Another sample subset is consistent with derivation from The Pleiades and Mt. Rittmann volcanoes. One peculiar trachytic glass population appears to be related to activity of the more distant Marie Byrd Land volcanoes. The newly detected tephras provide stratigraphic markers that could facilitate future synchronisation and dating of palaeoclimatic records. The Talos Dome tephra inventory also contributes significantly to the reconstruction of the Northern Victoria Land explosive volcanism, for which chronostratigraphic data for the Last Interglacial temporal segment are poor.

  12. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.


    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  13. K basins sludge removal sludge pretreatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H.L.


    The Spent Nuclear Fuels Program is in the process of planning activities to remove spent nuclear fuel and other materials from the 100-K Basins as a remediation effort for clean closure. The 105 K- East and K-West Basins store spent fuel, sludge, and debris. Sludge has accumulated in the 1 00 K Basins as a result of fuel oxidation and a slight amount of general debris being deposited, by settling, in the basin water. The ultimate intent in removing the sludge and fuel is to eliminate the environmental risk posed by storing fuel at the K Basins. The task for this project is to disposition specific constituents of sludge (metallic fuel) to produce a product stream through a pretreatment process that will meet the requirements, including a final particle size acceptable to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The purpose of this task is to develop a preconceptual design package for the K Basin sludge pretreatment system. The process equipment/system is at a preconceptual stage, as shown in sketch ES-SNF-01 , while a more refined process system and material/energy balances are ongoing (all sketches are shown in Appendix C). Thus, the overall process and 0535 associated equipment have been conservatively selected and sized, respectively, to establish the cost basis and equipment layout as shown in sketches ES- SNF-02 through 08.

  14. Basement Configuration of the Tomini Basin deduced from Marine Magnetic Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dida Kusnida


    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v4i4.86This paper presents the result of marine magnetic survey in Tomini Basin, Central Indonesia. On the basis of marine magnetic modeling, the main structural and geological elements of the basement of Tomini Basin are identified. At the centre of the basin, the up-doming feature points to an elevated magnetic susceptibility value. A geological model indicates that the entire basement of Tomini Basin is characterized by an oceanic-like crust with a basin axis at the centre nearly an east-west direction and suggests a rift-related graben.

  15. Characteristics, physical - geographical and climate of the basin Lumbardhi in Peja, Republic of Kosovo (United States)

    Osmanaj, Lavdim; Zeneli, Vildane; Komoraku, Alket


    Territory of the Republic of Kosovo has four river basins; basin "White Drini", "Ibar", "Morava e Binces" and "Lepenci". This paper deals: Orografic, hydro geological, geological and climatic characteristics. River basin of Peja "Lumbardhi" is branch of River basin " White Drini', all surface of the basin until shedding to the " White Drini" is 483.00km2 and extends toward east and west. Lumbardhi source of Peja is branch of Mount Çakorr. As right main branches are: River Bjeluha and lake Milishevci, whereas in the left side of river Boga and Alga. Key works: rainfall, air temperature, snow, air humidity, wind, evaporation.

  16. Soil surface lowering due to soil erosion in villages near Lake Victoria, Uganda (United States)

    de Meyer, A.; Deckers, J.; Poesen, J.; Isabirye, M.


    In the effort to pinpoint the sources of sediment pollution in Lake Victoria, the contribution of sedi-ment from compounds, landing sites, main roads and footpaths is determined in the catchment of Na-bera Bay and Kafunda Bay at the northern shore of Lake Victoria in southern Uganda. The amount of soil loss in compounds and landing sites is determined by the reconstruction of the original and current soil surface according to botanical and man-made datable objects. The soil erosion rate is then deter-mined by dividing the eroded soil volume (corrected for compaction) by the age of the oldest datable object. In the study area, the average soil erosion rate in compounds amounts to 107 Mg ha-1 year-1 (per unit compound) and in landing sites to 207 Mg ha-1 year-1 (per unit landing site). Although com-pounds and landing sites occupy a small area of the study area (1.1 %), they are a major source of sediment to Lake Victoria (63 %). The soil loss on footpaths and main roads is calculated by multip-lying the total length of footpaths and main roads with the average width and depth (measured towards a reference surface). After the correction for compaction is carried out, the soil erosion rate on foot-paths amounts to 34 Mg ha-1 year-1 and on main roads to 35 Mg ha-1 year-1. Also footpaths and main roads occupy a small area of the study area (1.1 %), but contribute disproportionately to the total soil loss in the catchment (22 %). In this research, the information about the village/compound given by the villager/owner is indispensable. In accordance to an adaptation of the model of McHugh et al. (2002), 32 % of the sediment that is generated in the catchment, is deposited in Lake Victoria (i.e. 2 209 Mg year-1 or 0.7 Mg ha-1 year-1). The main buffer in the study area is papyrus at the shore of Lake Victoria. Also sugarcane can be a major buffer. However, the sugarcane-area is intersected by com-pounds, landing sites, footpaths and main roads that generate large amounts of

  17. Crustal structure and rift tectonics across the Cauvery–Palar basin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Cauvery–Palar basin is a major peri-cratonic rift basin located along the Eastern Continental Margin of India (ECMI) that had formed during the rift-drift events associated with the breakup of eastern Gondwanaland (mainly India–Sri Lanka–East Antarctica). In the present study, we carry out an integrated analysis of the ...

  18. Extended stratigraphy, palynology and depositional environments record the initiation of the Himalayan Gyirong Basin (Neogene China)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Y.; Zhang, K.; Wang, G.; Jiang, S.; Chen, F.; Xiang, S.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Hoorn, C.


    Here we report new sedimentological and paleontological data from a 603.5 m thick Neogene sequence (Woma section) in the Gyirong Basin, a basin induced by east-west extension in the Himalayas of southern Tibet. We document the conglomeratic Danzengzhukang Formation, at the base of the section, and

  19. Geohydrologic study of the West Lake Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gephart, R.E.; Eddy, P.A.; Arnett, R.C.; Robinson, G.A.


    The purpose of this investigation was to (1) collect and interpret geochemical data on the surface, unconfined, and confined waters of the West Lake Basin, and (2) evaluate the potential for radiochemical contamination of the uppermost confined aquifers. The report assesses the suitability of Gable Mountain Pond for receiving waste water from 200 East Area operations and applies a predictive digital computer model to assess the impacts to the groundwater regime of maintaining, increasing, or decreasing water discharge into Gable Mountain Pond. East of the 200 East Area lies a natural depression which has been dammed and used as a liquid waste disposal site (B Pond). B Pond waste waters directly recharge the underlying unconfined aquifer. This report will examine the suitability of using B Pond for receiving additional waste waters which would otherwise be discharged to Gable Mountain Pond. A predictive digital computer model will be used for assessments involving various discharges into B Pond.

  20. Species-specific relationships between water transparency and male coloration within and between two closely related Lake Victoria cichlid species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castillo Cajas, Ruth F; Selz, Oliver M; Ripmeester, Erwin A P; Seehausen, Ole; Maan, Martine E


    Environmental variation in signalling conditions affects animal communication traits, with possible consequences for sexual selection and reproductive isolation. Using spectrophotometry, we studied how male coloration within and between populations of two closely related Lake Victoria cichlid

  1. Indian Ocean Climate event brings floods to East Africa's lakes and the Sudd Marsh (United States)

    Birkett, Charon; Murtugudde, Ragu; Allan, Tony

    During an El Niño, the expected rainfall increase over most of the Lake Victoria catchment area is ˜15-25%. However, due to anomalous warming of the western equatorial Indian Ocean during 1997, strong convection developed over parts of the Horn and eastern Africa. This resulted in a much larger 20-160% precipitation excess during the “short rainy” season. Satellite radar altimetry data reveals that not only did Lake Victoria rise by ˜1.7 m, but that the rainfall event similarly affected lakes Tanganyika, Malawi and Turkana. In addition, the seasonal level minima of the Sudd marshes and Lakes T'ana and Nasser continue to increase. Such a rainfall event will have severe, long-term consequences for the natural surface flows and storages along the White Nile. Based on the hydrological impacts of the historic 1961 East Africa event, we can expect the current high levels of Lake Victoria to be maintained for the remainder of this decade. In addition, we anticipate a major expansion of the permanent swamp regions of the Sudd marshes over the forthcoming seasons. Blue Nile flows, further enhanced by the above-average 1998 rainfall season, can also be expected to remain high, at least until early 1999.

  2. Organic geochemistry of the Callovo-Oxfordian argillo-carbonated sedimentary series of the East of the Paris basin and of England. Variabilities and paleo-environmental implications; Geochimie organique des series argilo-carbonatees du Callovo-Oxfordien de l'Est du bassin de Paris et d'Angleterre: Variabilites et implications paleoenvironnementales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautevelle, Y


    The Callovo-Oxfordian clay-stones from the East of the Paris basin are studied by ANDRA in order to test the feasibility of a possible storage of radioactive waste. The molecular analysis of their organic matter indicates that they can be considered as homogenous from their organic content point of view because they are characterized by only one molecular facies. However, the transition to the surrounding limestones is underlined by a major evolution of the molecular facies indicating a change and an increase of the variability of the deposition and diagenesis conditions. The evolution of the distribution of the plant bio-markers indicates, at the end of the Lower Oxfordian, a paleo-floristic change characterized by the increase of the proportion of Pinaceae (a conifer family) or their forerunners on the London-Brabant massif. This paleo-floristic evolution reflects a paleo-climatic change characterized by the increase of aridity at the global scale. Other complementary results get on other sedimentary series of similar ages highlight the occurrence of a period of water anoxia during the Middle Callovian which certainly happened on the major part of the Western Europe. This event could be at the origin of the crisis of the carbonate production at the Dogger/Malm transition. On the other hand, an experimental technique based on artificial maturation of extant plants has been developed and will allow the acquisition of new palaeo-chemo-taxonomic data. These data will contribute to a better interpretation of plant bio-marker assemblages in terms of palaeo-floristic composition. (author)

  3. Hydrogeology of sedimentary basins (United States)

    Kreitler, Charles W.


    Hydrogeologic environments in sedimentary basins are as variable as are the different types of basins. Important hydrologic characteristics can be used to distinguish the different types of basin: (1) the topographic setting as determined by the geologic and structural history of the basin; (2) permeability distribution within the basin; and (3) potential energy distributions and flow mechanisms. These parameters control residence times of waters, rates and directions of saline groundwater flow and the origin and chemical composition of the saline waters. The Gulf Coast and Palo Duro Basins, Texas, exemplify two end member types of sedimentary basins. The Gulf Coast Basin is a relatively young, Tertiary-age basin which is presently compacting; fluid movement is from the overpressured, undercompacted sediments up the structural dip or up fault zones into the hydrostatic section, natural fluid pressures are either hydrostatic or overpressured. The Palo Duro is an older, Paleozoic-age basin that has been tectonically uplifted. Fluid flow is gravity driven from topographically high recharge areas to discharge in topographically low areas. Fluid pressures are subhydrostatic. Fluids discharge more easily than they are recharged. Not all flow is derived by a simple recharge discharge model. Brines may flow from other basins into the Palo Duro Basin and waters may discharge from the Palo Duro Basin into other basins. Areal differences in the chemical composition of the basin brines may be the result of different origins.

  4. Towards understanding hydroclimatic change in Victoria, Australia – preliminary insights into the "Big Dry"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kiem


    Full Text Available Since the mid-1990s the majority of Victoria, Australia, has experienced severe drought conditions (i.e. the "Big Dry" characterized by streamflow that is the lowest in approximately 80 years of record. While decreases in annual and seasonal rainfall totals have also been observed, this alone does not seem to explain the observed reduction in flow. In this study, we investigate the large-scale climate drivers for Victoria and demonstrate how these modulate the regional scale synoptic patterns, which in turn alter the way seasonal rainfall totals are compiled and the amount of runoff per unit rainfall that is produced. The hydrological implications are significant and illustrate the need for robust hydrological modelling, that takes into account insights into physical mechanisms that drive regional hydroclimatology, in order to properly understand and quantify the impacts of climate change (natural and/or anthropogenic on water resources.

  5. Use of regionalisation approach to develop fire frequency curves for Victoria, Australia (United States)

    Khastagir, Anirban; Jayasuriya, Niranjali; Bhuyian, Muhammed A.


    It is important to perform fire frequency analysis to obtain fire frequency curves (FFC) based on fire intensity at different parts of Victoria. In this paper fire frequency curves (FFCs) were derived based on forest fire danger index (FFDI). FFDI is a measure related to fire initiation, spreading speed and containment difficulty. The mean temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and areal extent of open water (LC2) during summer months (Dec-Feb) were identified as the most important parameters for assessing the risk of occurrence of bushfire. Based on these parameters, Andrews' curve equation was applied to 40 selected meteorological stations to identify homogenous stations to form unique clusters. A methodology using peak FFDI from cluster averaged FFDIs was developed by applying Log Pearson Type III (LPIII) distribution to generate FFCs. A total of nine homogeneous clusters across Victoria were identified, and subsequently their FFC's were developed in order to estimate the regionalised fire occurrence characteristics.

  6. Art at Second Hand: Prints after European Pictures in Victoria before 1870

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Inglis


    Full Text Available This article examines the significance of the large number of European reproductive prints present in the public and private art collections of early colonial Victoria. Several factors are identified as contributing to this popularity; ranging from the suitability of the print medium for the export market to the existence of informed print connoisseurs amongst colonial collectors and artists. This article also demonstrates some of the typical features of Australian art history; in that it is concerned with the evaluation of the Australian art world through reference to European culture (the centre-periphery debate and also that it limits its discussion to the art of a particular Australian state (Victoria. The nineteenth-century division of Australia into different colonies had ramifications for Australian art history that continue to the present day – namely; the tendency to interpret colonial artistic activities from a regional perspective.

  7. ZnO-Fe2O3 heterojunction for photocatalytic degradation of victoria blue dye (United States)

    Kumar, Pushpendra; Khatri, Taslimahemad; Bawa, Harpreet; Kaur, Jashandeep


    In the present study, ZnO-Fe2O3 heterojunction has been successfully synthesized by co-precipitation method for photocatalytic degradation of Victoria blue dye. The synthesized samples were subjected to XRD for microstructural characterization and scanning electron microscopy for morphological investigation. The typical X-ray diffraction pattern shows exhaustive evolution of hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO and α-Fe2O3 having crystalline in the range of 34-54 nm. The synthesized samples were applied for degradation of victoria blue dye under UV illumination. ZnO-Fe2O3 heterojunction showed higher photocatalytic activity for dye degradation compared to bare ZnO. This rise in photocatalytic activity can be attributed to enhanced charge separation derived from coupling of ZnO and Fe2O3. In this manuscript, the effect of photocatalyst dose, irradiation time and initial dye concentration on photodegradation of dye is reported in detail.

  8. Imperialist women in Edwardian Britain : the Victoria League, 1899-1914


    Riedi, Elizabeth L.


    This thesis, based on private papers, society records, autobiographies and memoirs, newspapers and periodicals, examines one mainly female imperialist organisation - the Victoria League - and the women who ran it. It considers two related questions - what made Edwardian women imperialist, and how, within the limits of Edwardian society, could they express their imperialism? The thesis shows that several of the League's founders and executive had visited South Africa during or s...

  9. Intestinal schistosomiasis among preschool children along the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalugwa, A.; Olsen, Annette; Tukahebwa, M. E.


    prevalence and intensity of infection were examined in 3058 children from 5 districts along Lake Victoria shoreline, eastern Uganda. For each child one stool sample was collected on three consecutive days. The Kato-Katz technique was used to prepare stool smears on slides for microscopic examination. Short...... for schistosomiasis takes preschool children into consideration and that health education on transmission of schistosomiasis is delivered to the endemic communities regularly....

  10. A Bottom-Up Understanding of Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated Fishing in Lake Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Luomba


    Full Text Available Illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU fishing is a major concern in fisheries management around the world. Several measures have been taken to address the problem. In Lake Victoria, the alleviation of IUU fishing is implemented through the Regional Plan of Action (RPOA-IUU, which restricts use of certain fishing gear, as well as prohibits fishing in closed areas and during closed seasons. Despite the long-term efforts to monitor and control what goes on in the fisheries, IUU fishing has persisted in Lake Victoria. Inspired by interactive governance theory, this paper argues that the persistence of IUU fishing could be due to different images that stakeholders have about the situation, rather than the lack of management competency. Through structured interviews with 150 fisheries stakeholders on Ijinga Island in the southeastern part of Lake Victoria, Tanzania, using paired comparison questionnaires, the study elicits stakeholders’ perspective about the severity of different locally-pertinent fishing-related activities. The results show that while fisheries stakeholder groups agree on their judgments about certain fishing gears, some differences are also apparent. For instance, fisheries managers and scientists do not always agree with fishing people about what activities cause the most damage to fisheries resources and ecosystem. Further, they tend to consider some IUU fishing-related activities less damaging than some non-IUU fishing. Such disparity creates governability challenges, pointing to the need to revisit relevant regulatory measures and to make them consistent with the knowledge and judgments of all stakeholders. Based on these findings, we discuss governing interventions that may contribute to addressing IUU fishing in Lake Victoria and elsewhere.

  11. A Comparison of digestive Tract Morphology in muskoxen and caribou from Victoria Island, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Staaland


    Full Text Available Although caribou and muskoxen coexist in close proximity on southeastern Victoria Island, they appear primarily adapted to different diets and foraging strategies. Visual inspection and analysis of rumen contents for fiber and lignin from the study (unpubl. also indicate a predominantly graminoid diet in the muskoxen and a more varied diet with a substantial browse component in the caribou.This should reduce the likelihood of competition for limited food resources in winter.

  12. B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination in Lake Victoria cichlid fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohta Yoshida


    Full Text Available The endemic cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria are a model system for speciation through adaptive radiation. Although the evolution of the sex-determination system may also play a role in speciation, little is known about the sex-determination system of Lake Victoria cichlids. To understand the evolution of the sex-determination system in these fish, we performed cytogenetic analysis in 11 cichlid species from Lake Victoria. B chromosomes, which are present in addition to standard chromosomes, were found at a high prevalence rate (85% in these cichlids. In one species, B chromosomes were female-specific. Cross-breeding using females with and without the B chromosomes demonstrated that the presence of the B chromosomes leads to a female-biased sex ratio in this species. Although B chromosomes were believed to be selfish genetic elements with little effect on phenotype and to lack protein-coding genes, the present study provides evidence that B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination. FISH analysis using a BAC clone containing B chromosome DNA suggested that the B chromosomes are derived from sex chromosomes. Determination of the nucleotide sequences of this clone (104.5 kb revealed the presence of several protein-coding genes in the B chromosome, suggesting that B chromosomes have the potential to contain functional genes. Because some sex chromosomes in amphibians and arthropods are thought to be derived from B chromosomes, the B chromosomes in Lake Victoria cichlids may represent an evolutionary transition toward the generation of sex chromosomes.

  13. Salinity in Water Markets : An ExperimentalInvestigation of the Sunraysia Salinity Levy, Victoria


    C. Duke; L. Gangadharan


    Irrigation can have a significant negative impact on the environment. Irrigation impacts contribute a significant portion to the estimated forty six million dollar cost per annum of salinity in the Murray River, Australia. Policies available to regulators include externality taxes and levies. In 2002 the Victorian Government introduced a system of salinity levies in the irrigation regions of Sunraysia, northern Victoria. These levies differ from typical taxes because they also introduce trade...

  14. Satellite-Based Assessment of the spatial extent of Aquatic Vegetation in Lake Victoria (United States)

    Clark, W.; Aligeti, N.; Jeyaprakash, T.; Martins, M.; Stodghill, J.; Winstanley, H.


    Lake Victoria in Africa is the second largest freshwater lake in the world and is known for its abundance of aquatic wildlife. In particular over 200 different fish species are caught and sold by local fisherman. The lake is a major contributor to the local economy as a corridor of transportation, source of drinking water, and source of hydropower. However, the invasion of aquatic vegetation such as water hyacinth in the lake has disrupted each of these markets. Aquatic vegetation now covers a substantial area of the coastline blocking waterways, disrupting hydropower, hindering the collection of drinking water and decreasing the profitability of fishing. The vegetation serves as a habitat for disease carrying mosquitoes as well as snakes and snails that spread the parasitic disease bilharzia. The current control measures of invasive aquatic vegetation rely on biological, chemical and mechanical control. The objective of this study was to utilize remote sensing to map aquatic vegetation within Lake Victoria from 2000 to 2011. MODIS, Landsat 4-5TM, and Landsat 7-ETM imagery was employed to perform change detections in vegetation and identify the extent of aquatic vegetation throughout the years. The efficiency of containment efforts were evaluated and ideal time for application of such efforts were suggested. A methodology for aquatic vegetation surveillance was created. The results of this project were presented as a workshop to the Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization, SERVIR, and other partner organizations. The workshop provided instruction into the use of NASA and other satellite derived products. Time series animations of the spatial extent of aquatic vegetation within the lake were created. By identifying seasons of decreased aquatic vegetation, ideal times to employ control efforts were identified. SERVIR will subsequently utilize the methodologies and mapping results of this study to develop operational aquatic vegetation surveillance for Lake Victoria.

  15. B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination in Lake Victoria cichlid fishes. (United States)

    Yoshida, Kohta; Terai, Yohey; Mizoiri, Shinji; Aibara, Mitsuto; Nishihara, Hidenori; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Kuroiwa, Asato; Hirai, Hirohisa; Hirai, Yuriko; Matsuda, Yoichi; Okada, Norihiro


    The endemic cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria are a model system for speciation through adaptive radiation. Although the evolution of the sex-determination system may also play a role in speciation, little is known about the sex-determination system of Lake Victoria cichlids. To understand the evolution of the sex-determination system in these fish, we performed cytogenetic analysis in 11 cichlid species from Lake Victoria. B chromosomes, which are present in addition to standard chromosomes, were found at a high prevalence rate (85%) in these cichlids. In one species, B chromosomes were female-specific. Cross-breeding using females with and without the B chromosomes demonstrated that the presence of the B chromosomes leads to a female-biased sex ratio in this species. Although B chromosomes were believed to be selfish genetic elements with little effect on phenotype and to lack protein-coding genes, the present study provides evidence that B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination. FISH analysis using a BAC clone containing B chromosome DNA suggested that the B chromosomes are derived from sex chromosomes. Determination of the nucleotide sequences of this clone (104.5 kb) revealed the presence of several protein-coding genes in the B chromosome, suggesting that B chromosomes have the potential to contain functional genes. Because some sex chromosomes in amphibians and arthropods are thought to be derived from B chromosomes, the B chromosomes in Lake Victoria cichlids may represent an evolutionary transition toward the generation of sex chromosomes.

  16. Leuconidae (Crustacea: Cumacea) from the collections of the Museum Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Gerken, Sarah


    The collections of the Museum Victoria have yielded six new leuconid species in five genera from Australian waters: Austroleucon adiazetos n. sp., A. dolosolevis n. sp., Eudorellopsis mykteros n. sp., Kontiloleucon australiensis n. gen., n. sp., Leucon (Alytoleucon) dolichorhinos n. sp., Ommatoleucon megalopos n. sp. as well as the new genus Kontiloleucon. Leucon (Leucon) echinolophotos n. sp. is a new species from off Enderby Land, Antarctica. Keys to the Australian leuconid genera and species are included.

  17. Women's experience of domiciliary postnatal care in Victoria and South Australia: a population-based survey. (United States)

    Biro, Mary Anne; Yelland, Jane S; Sutherland, Georgina A; Brown, Stephanie J


    Despite the expansion of postnatal domiciliary services, we know little about the women receiving visits and how they regard their care. The aim of this study is to examine the provision of postnatal domiciliary care from a consumer perspective. All women who gave birth in September-October 2007 in South Australia and Victoria were mailed questionnaires 6 months after the birth. Women were asked if they had received a midwifery home visit, and to rate the care they received. More women in South Australia reported receiving a domiciliary visit than in Victoria (88.0% v. 76.0%) and they were more likely to rate their care as 'very good' (69.1% v. 63.4%). Younger women, women on a lower income, who were holding a healthcare concession card or who had not completed secondary education were less likely to receive a visit. Although the majority of women in public maternity care in Victoria and South Australia receive domiciliary care and rate it positively, there are significant state-based differences. Those more likely to benefit from domiciliary care are less likely to receive a visit. There is a need to further explore the purpose, aims and content of domiciliary care at individual and state-wide levels.

  18. Sediment Production from Settlements and Farmlands within Lake Victoria Shoreline Zone in Uganda and Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabirye, M.


    Full Text Available In spite of the general acceptance that the current land use changes are unlikely to yield a sustainable environment, the source of sediment that causes eutrophication in Lake Victoria is not clearly understood. It is hypothesized that roads, footpaths, and compounds (settlement are a major source of sediments. This study was conducted on the northern Lake Victoria shoreline to determine the rate of sediment generated by agricultural and settlement land use types. Results show that settlements generate significantly higher sediment yields i.e. between 17- 87 ton.ha-1. yr -1 whereas agricultural land use types produced between 0-27 ton ha-1.yr-1. The high sediment yield from settlements is attributed to high runoff coefficients and the occurrence of gully erosion. The high sediment yield from settlements justifies the need to conduct further investigations on the contribution of settlements to sediment production in catchments with different soil - landscape and climatic setting in the Lake Victoria catchment.

  19. Modeling anomalous surface - wave propagation across the Southern Caspian basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priestly, K.F.; Patton, H.J.; Schultz, C.A.


    The crust of the south Caspian basin consists of 15-25 km of low velocity, highly attenuating sediment overlying high velocity crystalline crust. The Moho depth beneath the basin is about 30 km as compared to about 50 km in the surrounding region. Preliminary modeling of the phase velocity curves shows that this thick sediments of the south Caspian basin are also under-lain by a 30-35 km thick crystalline crust and not by typical oceanic crust. This analysis also suggest that if the effect of the over-pressuring of the sediments is to reduce Poissons` ratio, the over-pressured sediments observed to approximately 5 km do not persist to great depths. It has been shown since 1960`s that the south Caspian basin blocks the regional phase Lg. Intermediate frequency (0.02-0.04 Hz) fundamental mode Raleigh waves propagating across the basin are also severely attenuated, but the low frequency surface waves are largely unaffected. This attenuation is observed along the both east-to-west and west-to-east great circle paths across the basin, and therefore it cannot be related to a seismograph site effect. We have modeled the response of surface waves in an idealized rendition of the south Caspian basin model using a hybrid normal mode / 2-D finite difference approach. To gain insight into the features of the basin which cause the anomalous surface wave propagation, we have varied parameters of the basin model and computed synthetic record sections to compare with the observed seismograms. We varied the amount of mantel up-warp, the shape of the boundaries, the thickness and shear wave Q of the sediments and mantle, and the depth of the water layer. Of these parameters, the intermediate frequency surface waves are most severely affected by the sediments thickness and shear wave attenuation. fundamental mode Raleigh wave phase velocities measure for paths crossing the basin are extremely low.

  20. Stable isotope characteristics of precipitation of Pamba River basin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Isotope Hydrology Division, Centre for Water Resources Development and Management, .... 5.9% by fallow lands. 2.1 Climate. The Pamba River basin experiences ∼3000 mm of rainfall per year. The south-west and north- east monsoons have great influence over the cli- ..... precipitation per 100 m of elevation change.

  1. Great Basin cold desert shrublands and the Desert Experimental Range (United States)

    Stanley G. Kitchen; Stephanie L. Carlson


    The Great Basin is a vast, internally drained region of the Western United States, bounded by the Sierra Nevada and southern Cascade Mountain ranges to the west and the Wasatch Mountains and western rim of the Colorado Plateau to the east. Although less discrete, northern and southern boundaries are generally defined by the drainages of the Columbia and Colorado Rivers...

  2. The sero-epidemiology of Rift Valley fever in people in the Lake Victoria Basin of western Kenya (United States)

    Grossi-Soyster, Elysse Noel; de Glanville, William Anson; Thomas, Lian Francesca; Kariuki, Samuel; Bronsvoort, Barend Mark de Clare; Wamae, Claire Njeri; LaBeaud, Angelle Desiree; Fèvre, Eric Maurice


    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic arbovirus affecting livestock and people. This study was conducted in western Kenya where RVFV outbreaks have not previously been reported. The aims were to document the seroprevalence and risk factors for RVFV antibodies in a community-based sample from western Kenya and compare this with slaughterhouse workers in the same region who are considered a high-risk group for RVFV exposure. The study was conducted in western Kenya between July 2010 and November 2012. Individuals were recruited from randomly selected homesteads and a census of slaughterhouses. Structured questionnaire tools were used to collect information on demographic data, health, and risk factors for zoonotic disease exposure. Indirect ELISA on serum samples determined seropositivity to RVFV. Risk factor analysis for RVFV seropositivity was conducted using multi-level logistic regression. A total of 1861 individuals were sampled in 384 homesteads. The seroprevalence of RVFV in the community was 0.8% (95% CI 0.5–1.3). The variables significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity in the community were increasing age (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.1–1.4, pslaughterhouse workers were sampled in 84 ruminant slaughterhouses. The seroprevalence of RVFV in slaughterhouse workers was 2.5% (95% CI 1.5–4.2). Being the slaughterman, the person who cuts the animal’s throat (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.0–12.1, p = 0.047), was significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity. This study investigated and compared the epidemiology of RVFV between community members and slaughterhouse workers in western Kenya. The data demonstrate that slaughtering animals is a risk factor for RVFV seropositivity and that slaughterhouse workers are a high-risk group for RVFV seropositivity in this environment. These risk factors have been previously reported in other studies providing further evidence for RVFV circulation in western Kenya. PMID:28686589

  3. The sero-epidemiology of Rift Valley fever in people in the Lake Victoria Basin of western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Anne Jessie Cook


    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a zoonotic arbovirus affecting livestock and people. This study was conducted in western Kenya where RVFV outbreaks have not previously been reported. The aims were to document the seroprevalence and risk factors for RVFV antibodies in a community-based sample from western Kenya and compare this with slaughterhouse workers in the same region who are considered a high-risk group for RVFV exposure. The study was conducted in western Kenya between July 2010 and November 2012. Individuals were recruited from randomly selected homesteads and a census of slaughterhouses. Structured questionnaire tools were used to collect information on demographic data, health, and risk factors for zoonotic disease exposure. Indirect ELISA on serum samples determined seropositivity to RVFV. Risk factor analysis for RVFV seropositivity was conducted using multi-level logistic regression. A total of 1861 individuals were sampled in 384 homesteads. The seroprevalence of RVFV in the community was 0.8% (95% CI 0.5-1.3. The variables significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity in the community were increasing age (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.4, p<0.001, and slaughtering cattle at the homestead (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.0-10.5, p = 0.047. A total of 553 slaughterhouse workers were sampled in 84 ruminant slaughterhouses. The seroprevalence of RVFV in slaughterhouse workers was 2.5% (95% CI 1.5-4.2. Being the slaughterman, the person who cuts the animal's throat (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.0-12.1, p = 0.047, was significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity. This study investigated and compared the epidemiology of RVFV between community members and slaughterhouse workers in western Kenya. The data demonstrate that slaughtering animals is a risk factor for RVFV seropositivity and that slaughterhouse workers are a high-risk group for RVFV seropositivity in this environment. These risk factors have been previously reported in other studies providing further evidence for RVFV circulation in western Kenya.

  4. HIV infection in fishing communities of Lake Victoria Basin of Uganda--a cross-sectional sero-behavioral survey. (United States)

    Opio, Alex; Muyonga, Michael; Mulumba, Noordin


    Uganda's first AIDS case was reported in a fishing village. Thereafter, due to varying risk factors, the epidemic spread heterogeneously to all regions, with some populations more affected. Given the recent rising trends in HIV infection in Uganda, it is crucial to know the risk factors in different populations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of HIV infection among fishing communities. A cross-sectional survey of 46 fishing communities was conducted in 2010. Following written consent, 911 randomly selected respondents age 15-59 years were interviewed and gave blood for HIV testing. HIV testing was conducted in the field and central laboratory according to national algorithm. Survey protocol was approved by the Science and Ethics Committee of Uganda Virus Research Institute, and cleared by Uganda National Council for Science and Technology. Data was captured by EPIINFO and statistical analysis done in SPSS. Overall HIV prevalence was 22%; there was no difference by sex (x (2) test, p>0.05). Association with HIV infection was determined by x (2) test, p<0.5. Never married respondents had lower HIV prevalence (6.2%) than the ever married (24.1%). HIV prevalence was lower in younger respondents, age 15-24 years (10.8%) than in age group 25 years and above (26.1%). Muslims had lower HIV prevalence (14.4%) than Christians (25.2%). HIV prevalence was higher among respondents reporting 3 or more lifetime sexual partners (25.3%) than in those reporting less numbers (10.8%). HIV prevalence was higher among uncircumcised men (27%) than in circumcised men (11%). Multivariate analysis identified 4 risk factors for HIV infection; age, religion, ever condom use and number of lifetime sexual partners. HIV prevalence in the surveyed communities was three times higher than of general population. This underscores the need for tailor made HIV combination prevention interventions targeting fishing communities.

  5. HIV infection in fishing communities of Lake Victoria Basin of Uganda--a cross-sectional sero-behavioral survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Opio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uganda's first AIDS case was reported in a fishing village. Thereafter, due to varying risk factors, the epidemic spread heterogeneously to all regions, with some populations more affected. Given the recent rising trends in HIV infection in Uganda, it is crucial to know the risk factors in different populations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of HIV infection among fishing communities. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional survey of 46 fishing communities was conducted in 2010. Following written consent, 911 randomly selected respondents age 15-59 years were interviewed and gave blood for HIV testing. HIV testing was conducted in the field and central laboratory according to national algorithm. Survey protocol was approved by the Science and Ethics Committee of Uganda Virus Research Institute, and cleared by Uganda National Council for Science and Technology. Data was captured by EPIINFO and statistical analysis done in SPSS. FINDINGS: Overall HIV prevalence was 22%; there was no difference by sex (x (2 test, p>0.05. Association with HIV infection was determined by x (2 test, p<0.5. Never married respondents had lower HIV prevalence (6.2% than the ever married (24.1%. HIV prevalence was lower in younger respondents, age 15-24 years (10.8% than in age group 25 years and above (26.1%. Muslims had lower HIV prevalence (14.4% than Christians (25.2%. HIV prevalence was higher among respondents reporting 3 or more lifetime sexual partners (25.3% than in those reporting less numbers (10.8%. HIV prevalence was higher among uncircumcised men (27% than in circumcised men (11%. Multivariate analysis identified 4 risk factors for HIV infection; age, religion, ever condom use and number of lifetime sexual partners. CONCLUSIONS: HIV prevalence in the surveyed communities was three times higher than of general population. This underscores the need for tailor made HIV combination prevention interventions targeting fishing communities.

  6. HIV Infection in Fishing Communities of Lake Victoria Basin of Uganda – A Cross-Sectional Sero-Behavioral Survey (United States)

    Opio, Alex; Muyonga, Michael; Mulumba, Noordin


    Background Uganda's first AIDS case was reported in a fishing village. Thereafter, due to varying risk factors, the epidemic spread heterogeneously to all regions, with some populations more affected. Given the recent rising trends in HIV infection in Uganda, it is crucial to know the risk factors in different populations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of HIV infection among fishing communities. Methodology A cross-sectional survey of 46 fishing communities was conducted in 2010. Following written consent, 911 randomly selected respondents age 15–59 years were interviewed and gave blood for HIV testing. HIV testing was conducted in the field and central laboratory according to national algorithm. Survey protocol was approved by the Science and Ethics Committee of Uganda Virus Research Institute, and cleared by Uganda National Council for Science and Technology. Data was captured by EPIINFO and statistical analysis done in SPSS. Findings Overall HIV prevalence was 22%; there was no difference by sex (x2 test, p>0.05). Association with HIV infection was determined by x2 test, p<0.5. Never married respondents had lower HIV prevalence (6.2%) than the ever married (24.1%). HIV prevalence was lower in younger respondents, age 15–24 years (10.8%) than in age group 25 years and above (26.1%). Muslims had lower HIV prevalence (14.4%) than Christians (25.2%). HIV prevalence was higher among respondents reporting 3 or more lifetime sexual partners (25.3%) than in those reporting less numbers (10.8%). HIV prevalence was higher among uncircumcised men (27%) than in circumcised men (11%). Multivariate analysis identified 4 risk factors for HIV infection; age, religion, ever condom use and number of lifetime sexual partners. Conclusions HIV prevalence in the surveyed communities was three times higher than of general population. This underscores the need for tailor made HIV combination prevention interventions targeting fishing communities. PMID:23940638

  7. Comparison of mortality following hospitalisation for isolated head injury in England and Wales, and Victoria, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda J Gabbe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI remains a leading cause of death and disability. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines recommend transfer of severe TBI cases to neurosurgical centres, irrespective of the need for neurosurgery. This observational study investigated the risk-adjusted mortality of isolated TBI admissions in England/Wales, and Victoria, Australia, and the impact of neurosurgical centre management on outcomes. METHODS: Isolated TBI admissions (>15 years, July 2005-June 2006 were extracted from the hospital discharge datasets for both jurisdictions. Severe isolated TBI (AIS severity >3 admissions were provided by the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN and Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR for England/Wales, and Victoria, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare risk-adjusted mortality between jurisdictions. FINDINGS: Mortality was 12% (749/6256 in England/Wales and 9% (91/1048 in Victoria for isolated TBI admissions. Adjusted odds of death in England/Wales were higher compared to Victoria overall (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.6, 2.5, and for cases <65 years (OR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.51, 3.69. For severe TBI, mortality was 23% (133/575 for TARN and 20% (68/346 for VSTR, with 72% of TARN and 86% of VSTR cases managed at a neurosurgical centre. The adjusted mortality odds for severe TBI cases in TARN were higher compared to the VSTR (OR 1.45, 95% CI: 0.96, 2.19, but particularly for cases <65 years (OR 2.04, 95% CI: 1.07, 3.90. Neurosurgical centre management modified the effect overall (OR 1.12, 95% CI: 0.73, 1.74 and for cases <65 years (OR 1.53, 95% CI: 0.77, 3.03. CONCLUSION: The risk-adjusted odds of mortality for all isolated TBI admissions, and severe TBI cases, were higher in England/Wales when compared to Victoria. The lower percentage of cases managed at neurosurgical centres in England and Wales was an explanatory factor, supporting the changes made to the NICE

  8. Impact of aerosol direct effect on East Asian air quality during the EAST-AIRE campaign (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Allen, Dale J.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Li, Zhanqing; He, Hao


    WRF-Chem simulations were performed for the March 2005 East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE) Intensive Observation Campaign (IOC) to investigate the direct effects of aerosols on surface radiation and air quality. Domain-wide, WRF-Chem showed a decrease of 20 W/m2 in surface shortwave (SW) radiation due to the aerosol direct effect (ADE), consistent with observational studies. The ADE caused 24 h surface PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 µm) concentrations to increase in eastern China (4.4%), southern China (10%), western China (2.3%), and the Sichuan Basin (9.6%), due to different aerosol compositions in these four regions. Conversely, surface 1 h maximum ozone was reduced by 2.3% domain-wide and up to 12% in eastern China because less radiation reached the surface. We also investigated the impact of reducing SO2 and black carbon (BC) emissions by 80% on aerosol amounts via two sensitivity simulations. Reducing SO2 decreased surface PM2.5 concentrations in the Sichuan Basin and southern China by 5.4% and decreased ozone by up to 6 ppbv in the Sichuan Basin and Southern China. Reducing BC emissions decreased PM2.5 by 3% in eastern China and the Sichuan Basin but increased surface ozone by up to 3.6 ppbv in eastern China and the Sichuan Basin. This study indicates that the benefits of reducing PM2.5 associated with reducing absorbing aerosols may be partially offset by increases in ozone at least for a scenario when NOx and VOC emissions are unchanged.

  9. East African Medical journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    312 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL JulyZOO7. East African Medical journal Vol. 84 N0. 7 Iuly 2007. MANAGEMENT PATHWAY FOR CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL,. NAIROBI. M.N. Awori, MBChB, MMed (Surg), Tutorial Fellow, S.W.O. Ogendo, MBChB, MMed (Surg), Associate.

  10. The Middle East. (United States)

    Blouin, Virginia; And Others

    This sixth grade resource unit focuses on Middle East culture as seen through five areas of the social sciences: anthropology-sociology, geography, history, economics, and political science. Among objectives that the student is expected to achieve are the following: 1) given general information on the Middle East through the use of film, visuals,…

  11. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  12. Tectonic-depositional environment and proto-type basins evolution of the Late Ordovician in the Tarim Basin (United States)

    Gao, Huahua; He, Dengfa; Tong, Xiaoguang; Wen, Zhixin; Wang, Zhaoming


    The tectonic-depositional environment of the Tarim Basin underwent a rapid and dramatic change in the Late Ordovician. The restoration of the proto-type basins has a great significance for the reveal of the basin-mountain coupling and basin fill process. Based on the newest data of drillings, seismic profiles and outcrops, with the analysis of sedimentary facies and the combination of basins and orogenic belts, this paper reconstructed the Late Ordovician tectonic-depositional environment of the Tarim Basin and established the models of basin-mountain couplings and basin fill processes, by employing the method of "point → line → face". In the Tumuxiuke Formation stage, the inundated platform-deep water basin sedimentary system was developed in the western part of the Tarim Basin and the Bachu-Tazhong area was denudated ; In the Lianglitage Formation stage, the open platform-deep water basin sedimentary system was developed and the Yudong-Tanggubasi area underwent the transition from the carbonate basin to the turbidite basin; in the Sangtamu Formation stage, the mixed shelf deposit- turbidite basin sedimentary system was developed and the under-filling deposit was only developed in the Kalpin; In the Tierekeawati Formation stage, the shore-shelf sedimentary system was developed. In the Tumuxiuke Formation- Sangtamu Formation stages, the turbidite basin sedimentary system was continually developed in the eastern part of the Tarim Basin; In the Tierekeawati Formation stage, the clastic shelf sedimentary system was developed in this area. The tectonic-depositional pattern of Tarim Basin in the Late Ordovician had the feature as the following: the platform-basin pattern differentiated from east to west was overlaid with the uplift-depression pattern differentiated from north to south. In the Tumuxiuke Formation stage, the unified platform in the west of the basin had broken down leading to the development of uplift-depression pattern differentiated from north to

  13. A study on the evolution of Indian Ocean triple junction and the process of deformation in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, T.C.S.

    It is generally presumed that the intraplate deformation in the Central Indian Basin (CIB) is a direct consequence of spreading across the South East Indian Ridge and the resistance to shortening at the continental collision between India...

  14. Aquatic and fisheries survey of the upper Victoria Nile: a report prepared for AES Nile Power Bujagali hydropower project, final report



    The aquatic ecosystem of the Upper Victoria Nile is part of a wider complex of water bodies (lakes and rivers) in Uganda that is of immense socioeconomic importance, especially the fisheries. A source of food, income, energy, irrigation and drinking water, the protection, sustainable use and management of the Upper Victoria Nile water resources are vital to Uganda's economy. The Upper Victoria Nile,due to its abundance of socio-economic benefits,provides a significant contribution to Ugand...

  15. Origin of marginal basins of the NW Pacific and their plate tectonic reconstructions (United States)

    Xu, Junyuan; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Kelty, Tom; Yu, Ho-Shing


    Geometry of basins can indicate their tectonic origin whether they are small or large. The basins of Bohai Gulf, South China Sea, East China Sea, Japan Sea, Andaman Sea, Okhotsk Sea and Bering Sea have typical geometry of dextral pull-apart. The Java, Makassar, Celebes and Sulu Seas basins together with grabens in Borneo also comprise a local dextral, transform-margin type basin system similar to the central and southern parts of the Shanxi Basin in geometry. The overall configuration of the Philippine Sea resembles a typical sinistral transpressional "pop-up" structure. These marginal basins except the Philippine Sea basin generally have similar (or compatible) rift history in the Cenozoic, but there do be some differences in the rifting history between major basins or their sub-basins due to local differences in tectonic settings. Rifting kinematics of each of these marginal basins can be explained by dextral pull-apart or transtension. These marginal basins except the Philippine Sea basin constitute a gigantic linked, dextral pull-apart basin system.

  16. British History is Their History: Britain and the British Empire in the History Curriculum of Ontario, Canada and Victoria, Australia 1930-1975

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephen J Jackson


    This article investigates the evolving conceptions of national identity in Canada and Australia through an analysis of officially sanctioned history textbooks in Ontario, Canada and Victoria, Australia...

  17. East Greenland Ridge in the North Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Arne Døssing; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Thybo, Hans


    The combined Greenland-Senja Fracture Zones (GSFZ) represent a first-order plate tectonic feature in the North Atlantic Ocean. The GSFZ defines an abrupt change in the character of magnetic anomalies with well-defined seafloor spreading anomalies in the Greenland and Norwegian basins to the south...... but ambiguous and weak magnetic anomalies in the Boreas Basin to the north. Substantial uncertainty exists concerning the plate tectonic evolution of the latter area, including the role of the East Greenland Ridge, which is situated along the Greenland Fracture Zone. In 2002, a combined ocean-bottom seismometer...

  18. A Sr-Nd-Hf isotope characterization of dust source areas in Victoria Land and the McMurdo Sound sector of Antarctica (United States)

    Blakowski, Molly A.; Aciego, Sarah M.; Delmonte, Barbara; Baroni, Carlo; Salvatore, Maria Cristina; Sims, Kenneth W. W.


    Determining the geographical provenance of dust provides crucial insight into the global dust cycle. For the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS), the importance of Southern hemisphere potential dust sources has been thoroughly investigated using radiogenic isotopes, whereas proximal dust source areas located on the periphery of the ice sheet remain poorly documented from a geochemical standpoint. In this work, we expand the existing isotopic (Srsbnd Nd) catalogue of dust and sand-sized sediments from Victoria Land and the McMurdo Sound sector, and incorporate Hf isotopic data to place additional constraints on dust source identification. The isotopic field for materials considered in this study is characterized by 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.703 to 0.783, εNd between -12.01 and 6.36, and εHf from -16.77 to 6.89. As reported in previous works, the data reveal close relationships between Antarctic sediments and distinct parent lithologies; in addition, our findings emphasize the background presence of very fine dusts originating from dominant global sources and regional volcanic activity as barriers to direct source-to-sink comparison of isotopic signatures. Thus, geochemical characterizations of dust sources to the Antarctic ice sheet involving multiple size fractions, including coarser-grained particles more susceptible to short-range transport, can help us to rule out global sources of dust when examining local sediment cores and ice cores.

  19. The water hyacinth problem and the biological control option in the highland lake region of the upper Nile basin: Uganda's experience


    Twongo, T.; Balirwa, J.S.


    The rapid proliferation and extensive spread of water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms in the highland lakes of the Nile Basin within less than 15 years of introduction into the basin in the 1980s pauses potential environmental and social economic menace if the noxious weed is not controlled soon. The water weed has spread all round Lake Victoria and, in Uganda where infes tation is mos t severe, water hyacinth estimated at 1,330,000 ton smothers over 2,000 ha of the lakeshore...

  20. Holocene TEX86 temperature reconstructions from Lake Turkana, East Africa (United States)

    Berke, M. A.; Johnson, T. C.; Werne, J. P.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.


    We present new high resolution Holocene lake surface temperature records from Lake Turkana, East Africa. These two TEX86 reconstructions, from the northern and southern basins of the lake, capture ~90 year resolution of climate patterns seen in this closed-basin system, as well as the thermal water dynamics between the two basins. The modern lake experiences surface temperatures in the northern basin ~1-3 °C warmer than the southern basin, due to upwelling in the southern basin induced by the predominant southerly winds. The paleotemperature records show parallel trends to this modern basinal temperature gradient, averaging ~1.5 °C warmer in the northern basin than the southern during the ~2000 years of record overlap (~450-2500 ybp). Some temperature intervals with coverage in both basins show strong agreement (i.e. ~2600-2000 Cal ybp), whereas increased wind-generated upwelling events may be responsible for periods that appear strongly antiphased (i.e. 2000-1600 Cal ybp) between basins. There does not appear to be any evidence of warming into the Medieval Warm Period (MWP, ~800-1200AD) or cooling at the start of the Little Ice Age (LIA, ~600 ybp). The southern basin temperature record indicates a substantial ~5 °C warming culminating in a thermal maximum ~5ka, immediately followed by ~3 °C cooling. This supports previous observations of an anomalously warm interval ~5ka documented in lake surface temperature records from Lakes Malawi and Tanganyika. A similar Holocene thermal maximum ~5ka has also been described from the Indian Ocean off the coast of Somalia (3°11’N, 50°26’E) (Bard et al., 1997). The abundance of these records now point to this being the warmest or one of the warmest intervals in the Holocene in tropical East Africa and indicates this may be a widespread regional climate response. Although these temperature trends appear reasonable, overall TEX86 temperatures for Lake Turkana are considerably lower than modern surface water temperatures

  1. Interpretation of refelction seismic data from the Usangu Basin, East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These “sub-basement” velocities are attributed to the slightly metamorphosed sediments of Upper Proterozoic, Buanji Group that crop out extensively on top of the Chimala scarp. Previous estimate of the thicknesses of Buanji sediments from outcrop data has been up to 1.086 km. The present study, however, suggests a ...

  2. interpretation of reflection seismic data from the usangu basin, east

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    metamorphosed sediments of Upper Proterozoic, Buanji Group that crop out extensively on top of the Chimala scarp. Previous estimate of the thicknesses of Buanji sediments from outcrop data has been up to 1.086 km, The present study, however, suggest a thickness of more than 2 km for the Buanji sediments beneath the.

  3. Depositional Cycles of Muara Wahau Coals, Kutai Basin, East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Anggayana


    Full Text Available samples were taken ply by ply from a 33 m thick drill core of Muara Wahau coal seams for interpretation of depositional environments. Generally, lithotype variation in the bottom part of the coal seams has a lower frequency than in the upper part. Petrographical analysis was performed to determine the maceral composition, groundwater index (GWI, and gelification index (GI. The samples from lower sections show much higher GWI-GI values and lower variation frequency than from the upper section. This characteristic is interpreted as the result of development of mesotrophic to ombrotrophic peats during the deposition of lower to upper parts of the section, respectively. During the development of the mesotrophic peat, water was more abundant and relatively stable in budget. However, during the development of ombrotrophic peat, water was less abundant and relatively not stable in budget. The latter is related to the water supply depending only on rain, resulted in the more sensitive water table in the om- brotrophic peat. The unstable water table is thought as the reason of higher variation frequency of lithotype, GWI, GI, as well as maceral composition in the upper part of the core. Unstable water table would lead to moist condition in the uppermost layer of the ombrotrophic peat, favoring fungi to grow. This is confirmed by the higher abundance of sclerotinite maceral in samples from the upper part of the coal core.

  4. Monitoring Lake Victoria Water Quality from Space: Opportunities for Strengthening Trans-boundary Information Sharing for Effective Resource Management (United States)

    Mugo, R. M.; Korme, T.; Farah, H.; Nyaga, J. W.; Irwin, D.; Flores, A.; Limaye, A. S.; Artis, G.


    Lake Victoria (LV) is an important freshwater resource in East Africa, covering 68,800 km2, and a catchment that spans 193,000km2. It is an important source of food, energy, drinking and irrigation water, transport and a repository for agricultural, human and industrial wastes generated from its catchment. For such a lake, and a catchment transcending 5 international boundaries, collecting data to guide informed decision making is a hard task. Remote sensing is currently the only tool capable of providing information on environmental changes at high spatio-temporal scales. To address the problem of information availability for LV, we tackled two objectives; (1) we analyzed water quality parameters retrieved from MODIS data, and (2) assessed land cover changes in the catchment area using Landsat data. We used L1A MODIS-Aqua data to retrieve lake surface temperature (LST), total suspended matter (TSM), chlorophyll-a (CHLa) and diffuse attenuation coefficient (KD490) in four temporal periods i.e. daily, weekly, monthly and seasonal scales. An Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis was done on monthly data. An analysis of land cover change was done using Landsat data for 3 epochs in order to assess if land degradation contributes to water quality changes. Our results indicate that MODIS-Aqua data provides synoptic views of water quality changes in LV at different temporal scales. The Winam Gulf in Kenya, the shores of Jinja town in Uganda, as well as the Mwanza region in Tanzania represent water quality hotspots due to their relatively high TSM and CHLa concentrations. High levels of KD490 in these areas would also indicate high turbidity and thus low light penetration due to the presence of suspended matter, algal blooms, and/or submerged vegetation. The EOF analysis underscores the areas where LST and water color variability are more significant. The changes can be associated with corresponding land use changes in the catchment, where for instance wetlands are

  5. Reassortants in recent human influenza A and B isolates from South East Asia and Oceania. (United States)

    Barr, I G; Komadina, N; Hurt, A; Shaw, R; Durrant, C; Iannello, P; Tomasov, C; Sjogren, H; Hampson, A W


    From 2000 to 2002, human influenza A and B viruses that were genetic reassortants of contemporary circulating human strains, were isolated in South East Asia and Oceania. Similar to reports from other regions, A(H1N2) isolates were found to be reassortants of circulating A(H3N2) viruses that had acquired only the haemagglutinin gene of an A(H1N1) virus. Some of these reassortants from Thailand and Singapore predate those previously recorded during the winter of 2001-2002 in Europe and the Middle East and may be precursors of these viruses. The B reassortants had a haemagglutinin similar to an earlier B strain, B/Shangdong/7/97 (B/Victoria/2/87-lineage) and a neuraminidase similar to the recently circulating B/Sichuan/379/99 virus (B/Yamagata/16/88-lineage). Despite the early occurrences of A(H1N2) reassortants and the extensive circulation of A(H1) viruses in South East Asia and Oceania during 2000-2001, these reassortant influenza A viruses have to date not been prominent unlike Europe and the Middle East where they were common in the 2001-2002 winter. In contrast the reassortant B viruses, which first emerged in this region in early 2002, rapidly became the predominant strains isolated from patients with influenza B in South East Asia and Oceania.

  6. The molecular epidemiology of norovirus outbreaks in Victoria, 2014 to 2015
. (United States)

    Bruggink, Leesa D; Moselen, Jean M; Marshall, John A


    Noroviruses are a leading cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis. This study examined the incidence and molecular characteristics of norovirus outbreaks in healthcare and non-healthcare settings in Victoria, Australia, over 2 years (2014-2015). Norovirus was detected in 65.7% and 60.4% of gastroenteritis outbreaks investigated for the years 2014 and 2015 respectively. There was a significant decline in the number of norovirus outbreaks in the period 2014 to 2015 although in both years norovirus outbreaks peaked in the latter part of the year. Norovirus Open Reading Frame (ORF) 2 (capsid) genotypes identified included GI.2, GI.3, GI.4, GI.5, GI.6, GI.9, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.6, GII.7, GII.8, GII.13 and GII.17. GII.4 was the most common genotype detected. In addition, the following ORF 1/ORF 2 recombinant forms were confirmed: GII.P4_NewOrleans_2009/GII.4_Sydney_2012, GII.P12/GII.3, GII.Pb (GII.21)/GII.3, GII.Pe/GII.2 and GII.Pe/GII.4_Sydney_2012. A significant decline was noted in the chief norovirus strain GII.Pe/GII.4_Sydney_2012 between 2014 and 2015 but there was a re-emergence of a GII.P4_ NewOrleans _2009 norovirus strain. Outbreaks involving the GII.P17/GII.17 genotype were also detected for the first time in Victoria. GI genotypes circulating in Victoria for the 2 years 2014 and 2015 underwent a dramatic change between the 2 years of the survey. Many genotypes could occur in both healthcare and non-healthcare settings although GI.3, GII.6, and GII.4 were significantly more common in healthcare settings. The study emphasises the complex way in which norovirus circulates throughout the community.

  7. Sex and sport: sexual risk behaviour in young people in rural and regional Victoria. (United States)

    Kong, Fabian Y S; Hocking, Jane S; Link, Chris Kyle; Chen, Marcus Y; Hellard, Margaret E


    To determine the prevalence of chlamydia and understand sexual risk behaviour in 16-29 year olds in rural Victoria through a chlamydia testing program undertaken at local sporting clubs. Young people were recruited from the Loddon Mallee region of Victoria, Australia between May and September 2007. After a night of sporting practice, participants provided a first pass urine sample and completed a brief questionnaire about sexual risk behaviour. Those positive for chlamydia were managed by telephone consultation with a practitioner from Melbourne Sexual Health Centre. A total of 709 young people participated (77% male, 23% female) in the study; 77% were sexually active. Overall chlamydia prevalence in sexually active participants was 5.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.4-7.3); 7.4% in females (95% CI: 3.5-13.6) and 4.5% in males (95% CI: 2.7-6.9). Approximately 60% of males and 20% of females consumed alcohol at high 'Risky Single Occasion Drinking' levels at least weekly and 60% had used an illicit drug in their lifetime. Nearly 45% reported having sex in the past year when they usually would not have because they were too drunk or high. Sexually transmissible infection (STI) knowledge was generally poor and only 25% used a condom the last time they had sex. Chlamydia prevalence was high in our study population. Many participants had poor knowledge about STIs and low condom use. These findings combined with high levels of risky alcohol use and having sex while intoxicated highlights the need for programs in rural and regional Victoria that combine both STI testing and prevention and education programs.

  8. The Most Effective Methods for Delivering Severe Weather Early Warnings to Fishermen on Lake Victoria. (United States)

    Tushemereirwe, Richard; Tuhebwe, Doreen; Cooper, Mary Ann; D'ujanga, Florence Mutonyi


    Introduction : It is estimated that five thousand people die on Lake Victoria every year by drowning which is triggered by severe weather hazards like lightning. Objectives :  In order to improve predictability of severe weather conditions on Lake Victoria, there is need to deliver timely and effective Severe Weather Early Warning Systems (SWEWS) to those at risk. On Lake Victoria, previous SWEW service trials ceased with the end of the funding grants. This study therefore assessed the possibility of sustaining the SWEW service by assessing willingness to pay.   Methods : An assessment was conducted between March and May 2015 to determine the SWEW service improvements desired by the population. A convenience sample of respondents was gathered and interviewed during impromptu visits to landing sites on Lake Victoria. The respondents were also among community members that had earlier participated in a pilot assessing the feasibility of mobile phones is delivering SWEW alerts.  Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to fishermen and fisher folks at the landing site to gather suggestions/strategies for (i) better design and implementation of SWEW service, (ii) use of smart phones, and (iii) their ability and willingness to pay for a SWEW service. Results were presented as frequencies. Results : Two hundred fifteen respondents from fourteen landing sites (communities) were interviewed. Over 50% of the respondents (113/215) were aware about at least one community member who had been injured due to lightening on the lake in the past year. Ninety two percent (198/215) of the respondents reported using mobile phones as their main tool of communication but only 4% had smart phones that could receive early warning weather alerts through internet connectivity. Seventy five percent of respondents said they would welcome a system that could deliver commercial weather alerts and 65% were willing to pay for such a service.   Conclusions : A SWEW service is feasible

  9. Gambling revenues as a public administration issue: electronic gaming machines in Victoria. (United States)

    Pickernell, David; Keast, Robyn; Brown, Kerry; Yousefpour, Nina; Miller, Chris


    Gambling activities and the revenues derived have been seen as a way to increase economic development in deprived areas. There are also, however, concerns about the effects of gambling in general and electronic gaming machines (EGMs) in particular, on the resources available to the localities in which they are situated. This paper focuses on the factors that determine the extent and spending of community benefit-related EGM-generated resources within Victoria, Australia, focusing in particular on the relationships between EGM activity and socio-economic and social capital indicators, and how this relates to the community benefit resources generated by gaming.

  10. A Baseline Air Quality Assessment Onboard a Victoria Class Submarine: HMCS Windsor (United States)


    défense Canada – Toronto; May 2006. Pour faciliter l’élaboration de futurs plans de gestion de la qualité de l’air à bord des nouveaux sous-marins de...visant à améliorer la gestion de la qualité de l’air à bord de sous-marins de classe Victoria. Ces recommandations comprennent : l’examen de tous les... ambient air from the WSC (centre of the torpedo racks, used as bunk space); Senior Rates Mess Accommodation Space (aft compartment); Junior Rates

  11. Gastropod diversity, distribution and abundance in habitats with and without anthropogenic disturbances in Lake Victoria, Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, C. N.; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Madsen, Henry


    We investigated freshwater gastropod diversity, abundance and distribution in habitats with and without anthropogenic disturbance in two localities, Ndere in the Winam Gulf and Mbita Point, Lake Victoria, Kenya, from May 2002 to January 2004. A total of 133 984 gastropod specimens belonging to 15...... and other wastes so as to reduce local eutrophication, thereby reducing risks associated with transmission of potential snail-borne diseases. © 2013...... species were recorded, 14 from Mbita and 12 from Ndere. Two species, Ferrissia kavirondica and Cleopatra cridlandi, which were recorded only from undisturbed habitats, could be indicators of least disturbed habitats. Water chemistry did differ between fish landing sites and undisturbed habitats at some...

  12. Microbial quality and safety of fresh and dried Rastrineobola argentea from Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baniga, Zebedayo; Dalsgaard, Anders; Mhongole, Ofred J


    Rastrineobola argentea (silver cyprinid/sardines) is an important commercial fish species found in Lake Victoria. It is an important protein source for consumers in several African countries including Tanzania. A cross-sectional study was conducted using standard methods to assess the bacteriolog...... sites contained 30% (n = 20) and those from the markets contained 15% (n = 20) Salmonella spp. Salmonella spp. were not detected in sardines dried on racks. To conclude, sun drying of sardines on racks is an effective drying method providing a safe product for human consumption....

  13. Palinspastic reconstruction and geological evolution of Permian residual marine basins bordering China and Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen-Yao Wu


    Full Text Available One main feature of the tectono-paleogeographic evolution of the southern branch of the Paleo-Asian Ocean was that there developed residual marine basins in former backarc/forearc regions after the disappearance of oceanic crust. The paper illustrates the viewpoint taking the evolution of Dalandzadgad and Solonker oceanic basins as examples. The Dalandzadgad ocean subducted southwards during the Silurian-Devonian, created an intra-oceanic arc and a backarc basin in southern Mongolia. In addition, a continent marginal arc formed along the national boundary between China and Mongolia, the south of which was a backarc basin. The oceanic basin closed and arc–arc (continent collision occurred during the early Early Permian, followed by two residual marine basins developing in the former backarc regions, named the South Gobi Basin in southern Mongolia and the Guaizihu Basin in western Inner Mongolia. The Solonker ocean subducted southwards and finally disappeared during the early Middle Permian. Afterwards, two residual marine basins occurred in northern China, the Zhesi Basin being situated in the former backarc region and the Wujiatun Basin in the former forearc region. The late Middle Permian was the most optimum period for the developing residual marine basins, when they covered a vast area. The basin evolution differentiated during the early Late Permian, with a general trend of uplift in the east and of subsidence in the west. The Upper Permian in the South Gobi Basin was characterized by coal-bearing strata hosting economically valuable coal fields. A transgression invaded westwards and the Chandmani-Bayanleg Basin was created in southwest Mongolia during the middle-late stage of the Late Permian. Correspondingly, the coal formation entered a flourishing time, with thick coal beds and sedimentary interbeds. All of these basins, namely, both the marine and nonmarine residual basins, reversed and closed by the end of Permian.

  14. VICTORIA: A mechanistic model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system under severe accident conditions. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heams, T J [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, D A; Johns, N A; Mason, A [UKAEA, Winfrith, (England); Bixler, N E; Grimley, A J [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wheatley, C J [UKAEA, Culcheth (England); Dickson, L W [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada); Osborn-Lee, I [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Domagala, P; Zawadzki, S; Rest, J [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Alexander, C A [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Lee, R Y [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)


    The VICTORIA model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a light water reactor during a severe accident is described. It has been developed by the USNRC to define the radionuclide phenomena and processes that must be considered in systems-level models used for integrated analyses of severe accident source terms. The VICTORIA code, based upon this model, predicts fission product release from the fuel, chemical reactions involving fission products, vapor and aerosol behavior, and fission product decay heating. Also included is a detailed description of how the model is implemented in VICTORIA, the numerical algorithms used, and the correlations and thermochemical data necessary for determining a solution. A description of the code structure, input and output, and a sample problem are provided.

  15. Petrology, geochronology and emplacement model of the giant 1.37 Ga arcuate Lake Victoria Dyke Swarm on the margin of a large igneous province in eastern Africa (United States)

    Mäkitie, Hannu; Data, Gabriel; Isabirye, Edward; Mänttäri, Irmeli; Huhma, Hannu; Klausen, Martin B.; Pakkanen, Lassi; Virransalo, Petri


    A comprehensive description of the petrography, geochemical composition, Sm-Nd data and intrinsic field relationships of a giant arcuate Mesoproterozoic mafic dyke swarm in SW Uganda is presented for the first time. The swarm is ∼100 km wide and mainly hosted in the Palaeoproterozoic Rwenzori Belt between the Mesoproterozoic Karagwe-Ankole Belt and the Archaean Uganda Block. The dykes trend NW-SE across Uganda, but can be correlated across Lake Victoria to another set of arcuate aeromagnetic anomalies that continue southwards into Tanzania, resulting in a remarkably large semi-circular swarm with an outer diameter of ∼500 km. We propose that this unique giant dyke structure be named the Lake Victoria Dyke Swarm (LVDS). The dykes are tholeiites with Mg numbers between 0.69 and 0.44, and with inherited marked negative Nb and P anomalies in spider diagrams. Two dykes provide Sm-Nd mineral ages of 1368 ± 41 Ma and 1374 ± 42 Ma, with initial εNd values of -2.3 and -3.2, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of ∼0.706-0.709. Geotectonic discrimination diagrams for the swarm exhibit more arc type than within-plate tectonic signatures, but this is in accordance with systematic enrichments in LREE, U and Th in the dolerites, more likely due to the involvement of the continental lithosphere during their petrogenesis. The LVDS is coeval with a regional ∼1375 Ma bimodal magmatic event across nearby Burundi, Rwanda and NW Tanzania, which can collectively be viewed as a large igneous province (LIP). It also indicates that the nearby Karagwe-Ankole Belt sequences - bracketed between 1.78 and 1.37 Ga and assumed by some to have been deposited within intracratonic basins - were capped by flood basalts that have subsequently been removed by erosion. Different geochemical signatures (e.g. LaN/SmN) suggest that most of the arcuate swarm was derived from an enriched SCLM, whereas related intrusions in the centre of this semi-circular segment have more or less enriched asthenospheric mantle

  16. La construcción de legitimidad del Frente para la Victoria (1988-1991 Frente para la Victoria's construction of legitimacy (1988-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Sosa


    Full Text Available El trabajo aborda la construcción de legitimidad del Frente para la Victoria (FV en el escenario político de Santa Cruz desde su nacimiento en 1988 hasta llegar a la gobernación en 1991. Se identifican tres fuentes de legitimidad construidas de manera alternativa al debilitamiento de la credibilidad de los partidos políticos tradicionales: la UCR, el PJ, el PI y el MID, entre otros. En este contexto, el Frente para la Victoria desplegó sus estrategias de legitimación apelando a la unidad de lo diverso y sumando referentes individuales de todo el arco político. Por otro lado, apeló a través de sus discursos y la conformación de los elencos y organizaciones a representar la fragmentación social propia de una sociedad compuesta por capas migratorias y, por último, construyó una novedosa oferta política a-partidaria acorde a las representaciones de la crisis estatal a mediados del '80 a partir de la reivindicación de los valores de la gestión, la eficiencia, el orden, el trabajo y la gobernabilidad. Sus estrategias de legitimación muestran cómo la primera etapa de construcción de poder político del FV fue efecto de su trayectoria en la frontera de los débiles grupos sociales y políticos.O trabalho aborda a construção de legitimidade do Frente para la Victoria (FV no cenário político de Santa Cruz desde seu nascimento em 1988 até chegar ao governo em 1991. Identificam-se três fontes de legitimidade construídas de maneira alternativa ao enfraquecimento da credibilidade dos partidos políticos tradicionais: a UCR, o PJ, o PI e o MID, entre outros. Neste contexto, o Frente para la Victoria desdobrou suas estratégias de legitimação apelando à unidade do que for diverso e somando referências individuais de todo o arco político. Por outro lado, apelou, através de seus discursos e a conformação dos elencos e organizações, a representar a fragmentação social própria de uma sociedade composta por camadas migrat

  17. Molecular Detection of Tick-Borne Pathogen Diversities in Ticks from Livestock and Reptiles along the Shores and Adjacent Islands of Lake Victoria and Lake Baringo, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Omondi


    Full Text Available Although diverse tick-borne pathogens (TBPs are endemic to East Africa, with recognized impact on human and livestock health, their diversity and specific interactions with tick and vertebrate host species remain poorly understood in the region. In particular, the role of reptiles in TBP epidemiology remains unknown, despite having been implicated with TBPs of livestock among exported tortoises and lizards. Understanding TBP ecologies, and the potential role of common reptiles, is critical for the development of targeted transmission control strategies for these neglected tropical disease agents. During the wet months (April–May; October–December of 2012–2013, we surveyed TBP diversity among 4,126 ticks parasitizing livestock and reptiles at homesteads along the shores and islands of Lake Baringo and Lake Victoria in Kenya, regions endemic to diverse neglected tick-borne diseases. After morphological identification of 13 distinct Rhipicephalus, Amblyomma, and Hyalomma tick species, ticks were pooled (≤8 individuals by species, host, sampling site, and collection date into 585 tick pools. By supplementing previously established molecular assays for TBP detection with high-resolution melting analysis of PCR products before sequencing, we identified high frequencies of potential disease agents of ehrlichiosis (12.48% Ehrlichia ruminantium, 9.06% Ehrlichia canis, anaplasmosis (6.32% Anaplasma ovis, 14.36% Anaplasma platys, and 3.08% Anaplasma bovis,, and rickettsiosis (6.15% Rickettsia africae, 2.22% Rickettsia aeschlimannii, 4.27% Rickettsia rhipicephali, and 4.95% Rickettsia spp., as well as Paracoccus sp. and apicomplexan hemoparasites (0.51% Theileria sp., 2.56% Hepatozoon fitzsimonsi, and 1.37% Babesia caballi among tick pools. Notably, we identified E. ruminantium in both Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus pools of ticks sampled from livestock in both study areas as well as in Amblyomma falsomarmoreum (66.7% and Amblyomma nuttalli (100

  18. Molecular Detection of Tick-Borne Pathogen Diversities in Ticks from Livestock and Reptiles along the Shores and Adjacent Islands of Lake Victoria and Lake Baringo, Kenya. (United States)

    Omondi, David; Masiga, Daniel K; Fielding, Burtram C; Kariuki, Edward; Ajamma, Yvonne Ukamaka; Mwamuye, Micky M; Ouso, Daniel O; Villinger, Jandouwe


    Although diverse tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) are endemic to East Africa, with recognized impact on human and livestock health, their diversity and specific interactions with tick and vertebrate host species remain poorly understood in the region. In particular, the role of reptiles in TBP epidemiology remains unknown, despite having been implicated with TBPs of livestock among exported tortoises and lizards. Understanding TBP ecologies, and the potential role of common reptiles, is critical for the development of targeted transmission control strategies for these neglected tropical disease agents. During the wet months (April-May; October-December) of 2012-2013, we surveyed TBP diversity among 4,126 ticks parasitizing livestock and reptiles at homesteads along the shores and islands of Lake Baringo and Lake Victoria in Kenya, regions endemic to diverse neglected tick-borne diseases. After morphological identification of 13 distinct Rhipicephalus, Amblyomma, and Hyalomma tick species, ticks were pooled (≤8 individuals) by species, host, sampling site, and collection date into 585 tick pools. By supplementing previously established molecular assays for TBP detection with high-resolution melting analysis of PCR products before sequencing, we identified high frequencies of potential disease agents of ehrlichiosis (12.48% Ehrlichia ruminantium, 9.06% Ehrlichia canis), anaplasmosis (6.32% Anaplasma ovis, 14.36% Anaplasma platys, and 3.08% Anaplasma bovis,), and rickettsiosis (6.15% Rickettsia africae, 2.22% Rickettsia aeschlimannii, 4.27% Rickettsia rhipicephali, and 4.95% Rickettsia spp.), as well as Paracoccus sp. and apicomplexan hemoparasites (0.51% Theileria sp., 2.56% Hepatozoon fitzsimonsi, and 1.37% Babesia caballi) among tick pools. Notably, we identified E. ruminantium in both Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus pools of ticks sampled from livestock in both study areas as well as in Amblyomma falsomarmoreum (66.7%) and Amblyomma nuttalli (100%) sampled from tortoises

  19. Avian cholera in Nebraska's Rainwater Basin (United States)

    Windingstad, R.M.; Hurt, J.J.; Trout, A.K.; Cary, J.


    The first report of avian cholera in North America occurred in northwestern Texas in winter 1944 (Quortrup et al. 1946). In 1975, mortality from avian cholera occurred for the first time in waterfowl in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska when an estimated 25,000 birds died (Zinkl et al. 1977). Avian cholera has continued to cause mortality in wild birds in specific areas of the Basin each spring since. Losses of waterfowl from avian cholera continue to be much greater in some of the wetlands in the western part of the Basin than in the east. Several wetlands in the west have consistently higher mortality and are most often the wetlands where initial mortality is noticed each spring (Figure 1). The establishment of this disease in Nebraska is of considerable concern because of the importance of the Rainwater Basin as a spring staging area for waterfowl migrating to their breeding grounds. The wetlands in this area are on a major migration route used by an estimated 5 to 9 million ducks and several hundred thousand geese. A large portion of the western mid-continental greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) population stage in the Basin each spring. Occasionally, whooping cranes (Grus americana) use these wetlands during migration, and lesser sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) staging on the nearby Platte River sometimes use wetlands where avian cholera occurs (Anonymous 1981). Our objectives were to determine whether certain water quality variables in the Rainwater Basin differed between areas of high and low avian cholera incidence. These results would then be used for laboratory studies involving the survivability of Pasteurella multocida, the causative bacterium of avian cholera. Those studies will be reported elsewhere.

  20. Influence of the Pearl River estuary and vertical mixing in Victoria Harbor on water quality in relation to eutrophication impacts in Hong Kong waters. (United States)

    Yin, Kedong; Harrison, Paul J


    This study presents water quality parameters such as nutrients, phytoplankton biomass and dissolved oxygen based on 11 years of water quality data in Victoria Harbor and examined how the Pearl River estuary discharge in summer and year round sewage discharge influenced these parameters. Nutrients in Victoria Harbor were strongly influenced by both the Pearl River and sewage effluent, as indicated by the high NO(3) inputs from the Pearl River in summer and higher NH(4) and PO(4) in Victoria Harbor than both its sides. N:P ratios were low in the dry season, but increased to >16:1 in the wet season, suggesting that P is potentially the most limiting nutrient in this area during the critical period in the summer. Although there were generally high nutrients, the phytoplankton biomass was not as high as one would expect in Victoria Harbor. In fact, there were high concentrations of chl near the bottom well below the photic zone. Salinity near the bottom was lower in Victoria Harbor than at the two entrances to Victoria Harbor, suggesting strong vertical mixing within Victoria Harbor. Therefore, strong vertical mixing and horizontal advection appear to play an important role in significantly reducing eutrophication impacts in Victoria Harbor. Consequently, dissolved oxygen near the bottom was low in summer, but only occasionally dipped to 2 mgL(-1) despite the high organic loading from sewage effluent.

  1. Alboran Basin, southern Spain - Part I: Geomorphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A. [Secretaria General de Pesca Maritima, Corazon de Maria, 8, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Ballesteros, M.; Rivera, J.; Acosta, J. [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Corazon de Maria, 8, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Montoya, I. [Universidad Juan Carlos I, Campus de Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Uchupi, E. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)


    Bathymetric, 3D relief and shaded relief maps created from multibeam echo-sounding data image the morphology of the Alboran Basin, a structural low along the east-west-trending Eurasian-African plates boundary. Topographic features in the basin are the consequence of volcanism associated with Miocene rifting, rift and post-rift sedimentation, and recent faulting resulting from the convergence of the African-Eurasian plates. Pleistiocene glacially induced regressions/transgressions when the sea level dropped to about 150 m below its present level gas seeps and bottom currents. Recent faulting and the Pleistocene transgressions/regressions led to mass-wasting, formation of turbidity currents and canyon erosion on the basin's slopes. Recent fault traces at the base of the northern basin slope have also served as passageways for thermogenic methane, the oxidation of which by bacteria led to the formation of carbonate mounds along the fault intercepts on the sea floor. Expulsion of thermogenic or biogenic gas has led to the formation of pockmarks; erosion by bottom currents has resulted in the formation of moats around seamounts and erosion of the seafloor of the Alboran Ridge and kept the southern edge of the 36 10'N high sediment free. (author)

  2. Round the bend: a brief history of mental health nursing in Victoria, Australia 1848 to 1950's. (United States)

    Sands, Natisha Marina


    This paper presents a history of mental health nursing in Victoria, Australia from 1848 to the 1950's, or the asylum years to the era of the mental hospital. The research for this historical overview was conducted as part of a literature review for a mental health nursing doctoral thesis, which included an account of the evolution of the profession from asylum attendant to the present time. The literature reviewed for this project revealed a distinct lack of a coherent, chronological account of the historical development of mental health nursing in Victoria, and this paper seeks to address that knowledge gap.

  3. Ferrobasalts from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Mukhopadhyay, R.; Popko, D.C.

    al. 1980), the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR; Spiess Ridge) (le Roex et al. 1982) and the Australian}Antarctic Discordance (AAD) (Klein et al. 1991). In this new report we describe and discuss the ferrobasalts of the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB... et al. 1976); DSDP"Deep Sea Drilling Project (Thompson et al. 1978); EPR"East Paci"c Rise (Hekinian 1982), Iceland (Thy 1989); Spiess and Chain ridges (le Roex et al. 1982) crest (’50 Ma ago) and the second in an intraplate environment. Petrochemistry...

  4. Aprendiendo a entender. Victoria Ocampo y su descubrimiento de los Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plotkin, Mariano


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the evolving relationship that Argentine intellectual and cultural entrepreneur Victoria Ocampo established with the United States. Through her trajectory the article analyzes broader topics such as the evolution of the Argentine social and intellectual élite’s project of modernization. Ocampo was at the same time a typical and a unique representative of the Argentine social élite. She was typical in the way she was educated in a cosmopolitan environment. She was unique because she occupied a central figure in the Argentine field of cultural production since the 1920 until her death in the late 1970s.

    El artículo analiza la evolución de la compleja relación que la intelectual y empresaria cultural argentina Victoria Ocampo estableció con los Estados Unidos. A través de esta trayectoria, el artículo analiza también temas mas amplios como la evolución de los proyectos modernizadores de la élite social e intelectual argentina. Ocampo era a la vez una representante típica y única de su clase social. Era típica por la manera en que fue educada en un ambiente cosmopolita. Era única por el lugar central que ocupó en el campo intelectual argentino desde la década de 1920 hasta su muerte a finales de los años 70.

  5. Reasons women give for contemplating or undergoing abortion: a qualitative investigation in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Kirkman, Maggie; Rosenthal, Doreen; Mallett, Shelley; Rowe, Heather; Hardiman, Annarella


    To increase understanding of women's perspectives on considering or undergoing elective abortion. Qualitative study. A large public women's hospital in the state of Victoria, Australia. Sixty women who had contacted a public pregnancy advisory service in Victoria, Australia, seeking information, advice, or appointments in relation to an unplanned or unwanted pregnancy. Qualitative telephone interviews. The iterative qualitative analysis employed the five stages of a thematic framework approach. Themes in women's accounts of considering or undergoing elective abortion. Women's accounts emphasized their reasons for considering or seeking abortion. Decisions were made in the context of their lives as a whole; influences were usually contingent and multiple. Reasons related to the woman herself, the potential child, existing children, her partner and other significant relationships, and financial matters. This research used qualitative methods to produce the only recent study of its kind in Australia. Women's accounts reveal the complex personal and social contexts within which reproductive events must be comprehended and the thoughtfulness with which they make decisions. Results of this research will assist health-care professionals to increase their insights into women's reproductive experiences. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Individual and community correlates of young people's high-risk drinking in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Livingston, Michael; Laslett, Anne-Marie; Dietze, Paul


    To examine key individual- and community-level correlates of regular very high-risk drinking (more than 20 drinks at least 12 times a year for males and more than 11 drinks at least 12 times a year for females) among young (16-24) drinkers in Victoria. CATI survey of 10,879 young Victorian drinkers. Multi-level modelling of correlates of proportion drinking at very high-risk levels at both individual (e.g. age, gender) and community levels (e.g. alcohol outlet density, remoteness). One-fifth of the sample reported regular (at least monthly) very high-risk drinking. Significant individual-level correlates of very high-risk drinking included age, gender, cultural background, recreational spending money, life stage, living situation, family conflict and age at first drink. Significant community-level correlates included remoteness (living in a rural area) and packaged liquor outlet density. The study highlights a range of important factors relating to regular drinking of dangerous amounts of alcohol by youth. Interventions aimed at preventing early initiation or managing recreational spending should be explored. Further, regulatory management of packaged liquor outlets and or remote rural communities in Victoria with high levels of dangerous drinking should be a priority.

  7. A longitudinal study of the cost of food in Victoria influenced by geography and nutritional quality. (United States)

    Palermo, Claire; McCartan, Julia; Kleve, Sue; Sinha, Kompal; Shiell, Alan


    To monitor the cost and affordability of a nutritious diet and to assess the influence of distance from the capital city and socioeconomic status on the cost of nutritious food in Victoria. Twenty-six of Victoria's 79 local government areas (33%) were randomly chosen for inclusion in the study. A random sample of stores was selected for inclusion from each local government area. The cost of the 44 'healthy' and 10 'discretionary' food and drinks in the healthy food basket for a family of four for a fortnight was collected during the winter and summer of 2012, 2013 and 2014. The mean cost of the basket increased from $424.06 ± 38.22 in winter 2012 to $451.19 ± 33.83 in summer 2014 (pcost. These findings show that a healthy diet may be unaffordable for some Victorians. The cost of food is a key factor influencing intake. Public health strategies may need to consider strategies to make healthy food more affordable for some. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  8. Prescription opioid dispensing and prescription opioid poisoning: Population data from Victoria, Australia 2006 to 2013. (United States)

    Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Hassani-Mahmooei, Behrooz; Clapperton, Angela; McClure, Roderick


    To describe recent trends in opioid prescribing and prescription opioid poisoning resulting in hospitalisation or death in Victoria, Australia. This is a population-based ecological study of residents of Victoria, 2006 - 14. Australian Bureau of Statistics residential population data were combined with Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) opioid prescription data, Victorian Admitted Episodes Data (VAED) and cause of death data. Annual opioid dispensings increased by 78% in 2006 - 13, from 0.33 to 0.58 per population. Opioid use increased with age: in 2013, 14% of Victorian residents aged ≥65 years filled at least one oxycodone prescription. In 2006 - 14, prescription opioid related hospital admissions increased by 6.8% per year, from 107 to 187 /1,000,000 person-years; 56% were due to intentional self-poisoning. Annual deaths increased from 21 to 28 /1,000,000 persons, in 2007 - 11. Admissions and deaths peaked at 25-44 years. Although both opioid prescribing and poisoning have increased, there is discrepancy between the exposed group (dispensings increased with age) and those with adverse consequences (rates peaked at ages 25-44 years). A better understanding is needed of drivers of prescribing and adverse consequences. Together with monitoring of prescribing and poisoning, this will facilitate early detection and prevention of a public health problem. © 2016 The Authors.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Salomone


    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan una serie de textos ensayísticos de la escritora argentina Victoria Ocampo (1890-1979, en los que ella aborda la relación que la ligó a Virginia Woolf, su principal referente en términos literarios y feministas. Desde perspectivas teóricas postcoloniales y feministas, se hace una interpretación de los textos de Ocampo, observando los límites que la cosmovisión colonialista impone no solo a sus diálogos con Woolf, sino al despliegue de su propia escrituraThis article reviews a series of essays by the Argentine writer Victoria Ocampo (1890-1979 in which she deals with the relationship that bound her to Virginia Woolf, her main referent in literary and feminist terms. From postcolonial theoretical perspectives, an interpretation of Ocampo's texts is made, while noticing the limits that the colonialist cosmic vision imposed not only on her dialogues with Woolf but on the development of her own writing

  10. Acute stress ulceration prophylaxis: point prevalence surveys in intensive care units in Victoria, 1997 and 2005. (United States)

    Robertson, Megan S; Wilson, Stuart J; Cade, John F


    To assess current practice in acute stress ulceration (ASU) prophylaxis in adult intensive care units in Victoria, Australia, in 1997 and 2005. Point prevalence surveys using a structured telephone questionnaire of ASU prophylaxis practices were performed in adult ICUs in Victoria on 11 November 1997 and 13 April 2005. All Victorian ICUs identified on each study day participated, comprising 30 ICUs in 1997 and 35 ICUs in 2005. Presence of a clinical protocol or guideline for ASU prophylaxis increased significantly from 23% in 1997 to 54% in 2005 (P = 0.01). Overall provision of ASU prophylaxis to ICU patients also increased significantly from 67% in 1997 to 86% in 2005 (P 1997 to 45% in 2005 (P 1997 and 2005. Use of ASU prophylaxis for patients admitted to Victorian ICUs increased significantly from 1997 to 2005, with an associated increase in the presence of protocols or guidelines for ASU prophylaxis. Although agents currently used for ASU prophylaxis in Victorian ICUs are consistent with available evidence, we are concerned that ASU prophylaxis is given to all patients admitted to the ICU rather than targeted to patients in high-risk categories.

  11. Re-visitando a Federica Montseny. Una lectura de La Victoria y sus lecturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano de la Pola, Ana


    Full Text Available This article wants to be a close reading of La Victoria, Federica Montseny’s novel published in 1925, in order to achieve two objectives: on the one hand, to break down the clichés that normally appear in Montseny’s work –her “revolutionary melodrama”- as a perfect example of the eternal “ethic-aesthetic” paradox and, on the other hand, to point out the capability of this kind of study to dynamize the so-called “women’s literature” in the context of the XX Century Spanish literature.Este artículo pretende hacer una lectura atenta de La Victoria, novela de Federica Montseny publicada en 1925, con dos objetivos: en primer lugar, deshacer los clichés que suelen tratar la obra de esta autora como representante de la eterna “paradoja ético-estética” que suponen sus “folletines revolucionarios” y, en segundo, señalar la capacidad que tiene el estudio de este tipo de obras para dinamizar la categoría de “literatura de mujeres” con el fin de evitar su estancamiento en el ámbito de la literatura española del s. XX.

  12. Comparison of Sterol Biomarkers for Sewage with other Measures in Victoria Harbour, B.C., Canada (United States)

    Mudge, S. M.; Lintern, D. Gwyn


    A lipid biomarker survey was conducted in Victoria Harbour, Canada, to compare the distribution of sewage-derived organic matter with existing results from bacterial studies. Previous surveys [Miller (1993) Report prepared by Capital Regional District Engineering Department, Victoria, B.C. Canada and Miller et al. (1995) Report prepared by CRD Environmental Services Group and Aquatic Science Consultants Ltd., B.C., Canada] of sewage contamination in the harbour were based principally on infrequent faecal coliform counts. The use of lipid biomarkers to determine time-averaged concentrations of sewage components in sediments may be a more appropriate method for defining areas where sewage is causing environmental or human health risks. 5β-Coprostanol was measured together with other sterols, fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Generally, sewage contamination shown by these lipid biomarkers was coincident with high faecal coliform counts from previous studies. However, this survey suggests, contrary to faecal coliform counts, that Portage Inlet was a region where sewage had accumulated in the sediments, possibly due to nearby overflow facilities or tidal pumping. Although the bacterial counts were low, sewage-derived organic matter was accumulating in the slack areas. In sediments of the Gorge and West Bay there were low faecal biomarker concentrations; this was probably due to the strong tidal currents which do not allow faecal matter to settle in sediments. Faecal coliform counts, however, indicated poor water quality in these same regions but this probably reflects fresh discharges passing through this area without leading to settlement.

  13. Rural Health and Spiritual Care Development: A Review of Programs across Rural Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Carey, Lindsay B; Hennequin, Christine; Krikheli, Lillian; O'Brien, Annette; Sanchez, Erin; Marsden, Candace R


    Given declining populations in rural areas and diminishing traditional religious support, this research explores whether spiritual care education programs would be beneficial for and appreciated by those working in rural health and/or community organizations. An overview of literature identified three dominant rural health issues affecting the provision of spiritual care in rural areas, namely the disparity between rural and urban areas in terms of resources, the lack of access to services, plus the need for education and training within rural areas. Spiritual Health Victoria Incorporated (Victoria, Australia) sought to address these issues with the implementation of a variety of spiritual education programs within rural areas. Results of an evaluation of these programs are presented specifying participant demographics, reasons why participants attended, their evaluation of the program and any recommendations for future programs. In overall terms, the results indicated that at least 90% of participants favorably rated their attended program as either 'very good' or 'good' and indicated that the main reason for their attendance was to develop their own education and/or practice of spiritual care within their rural context for the benefit of local constituents. Several recommendations are made for future programs.

  14. Performance of 119 Brazilian children on Stroop paradigm: Victoria version Desempenho de 119 crianças brasileiras no paradigma Stroop: versão Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenice Charchat-Fichman


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Stroop paradigm evaluates susceptibility to interference and is sensitive to dysfunction in frontal lobes. Performance in the Stroop changes along the development. Despite its usefulness in research and clinical settings, there are few studies with Brazilian samples. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the performance and age effect on Stroop paradigm of Brazilian children. METHOD: A sample of 119 children, aged from 7 to 10 years, was submitted to the Victoria version of Stroop. RESULTS: The pattern of results observed was similar to that observed in foreign studies with adults and children. Younger children were overall slower than older ones (positive correlation between age and naming time. Also, younger children showed more susceptible to interference than older ones (negative correlation between age and number of errors for the maximal interference condition. CONCLUSION: There was an age effect explained in terms of developmental changes in information processing velocity and attention selectivity.INTRODUÇÃO: O paradigma Stroop avalia a susceptibilidade à interferência e é sensível a disfunção nos lobos frontais. O desempenho no Stroop muda durante o desenvolvimento. Apesar de sua utilidade na pesquisa e na clínica, existem poucos estudos brasileiros. OBJETIVO: Investigar o desempenho e efeito de idade de crianças brasileiras no Stroop. MÉTODO: A versão Victoria do Stroop foi aplicada em 119 crianças (7 a 10 anos. RESULTADOS: O padrão de resultados observado é comparável a estudos estrangeiros com adultos e crianças. Crianças mais jovens foram mais lentas do que as mais velhas (correlação positiva entre idade e tempo de nomeação. Os mais jovens apresentaram maior susceptibilidade à interferência, comparados aos mais velhos (correlação negativa entre idade e número de erros para a condição de interferência máxima. CONCLUSÃO: O efeito de idade foi observado e discutido em termos de mudanças na

  15. Upper Cisuralian palynology and palaeoclimate of Manuguru area ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The correlation of this assemblage with some of the biostratigraphic palynozones proposed previously for the Cisuralian sequences of the Paraná Basin of South America, Kalahari Karoo Basin of South Africa, Ruhuhu Basin of Tanzania, East Africa as well as palynoassemblages from South Victoria Land and Dronning ...

  16. Electricity in east Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breeze, Paul


    Electricity in east Asia highlights all the current regulations and policies and brings you up to data with the latest developments in the power markets in east Asia. In particular, the report assesses utility privatisation and the role and opportunities for independent power producers. It includes: the background to east Asia and its political and economic environment; an overview of the power markets in the region; the natural resources available locally within the region; the power generation technologies being used in the region and the potential for advanced technologies and renewable energy sources; the financial situation, including what opportunities and restraints affect each country; the regulatory structures and political problems associated with private power generation; detailed case studies of the Three Gorges hydropower project in China and the development of nuclear power in east Asia. Electricity in east Asia contains detailed country profiles of China, Hong Kong, Japan, Macao, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea and Taiwan. It is an indispensable tool for anyone wishing to do business in this highly diverse and exciting region. (Author)

  17. Understanding trans-basin floods (United States)

    Uhlemann, S.; Zimmer, J.; Thieken, A. H.; Merz, B.


    Trans-basin floods are extreme events occurring on a regional scale and across catchment boundaries. They are the consequence of highly complex and inextricably linked processes involving atmospheric conditions, runoff generation and concentration in the catchment, and in-channel wave propagation. To understand trans-basin floods the dynamics of these processes have to be analysed over a range of temporal scales including preconditioning factors, like monthly anomalies of climatic conditions; initial factors, such as the immediate flood producing weather system or the catchment state on a daily scale and maintaining factors, such as persistent regimes determining the progression of a flood event. These mechanisms can be understood by analysing past events. Therefore a set of trans-basin events was developed for a period of 51 years (1952-2002) analysing time series of daily mean discharge at 170 gauges of rivers in the central European basins Elbe, Danube, Rhine, Weser and Ems. A novel indicator including both the spatial extent of the event as well as the magnitude of the discharges in the rivers allows comparing events with respect to their severity. Reanalysis data (i.e. ECMWF ERA-40 and NCEP Reanalysis I) were used to examine the general circulation patterns during the events. Further, a high-quality dataset of daily precipitation for over 2300 stations in Germany was used to trace the water supply of the events on all the three temporal scales. Several atmospheric parameters, such as water vapour content or temperature anomalies, were derived for the affected flooding area to serve as possible indicators common to a majority of the events. The causative general circulation patterns could be grouped into three types with 1) more or less zonally progressing baroclinic disturbances within the planetary frontal zone, 2) zonal flow retarded by a quasi-stationary air mass boundary (blocking situation to the East) and 3) slowly moving cut-off lows with abundant meso

  18. Assessing and managing water scarcity within the Nile River Transboundary Basin (United States)

    Butts, M. B.; Wendi, D.; Jessen, O. Z.; Riegels, N. D.


    The Nile Basin is the main source of water in the North Eastern Region of Africa and is perhaps one of the most critical river basins in Africa as the riparian countries constitute 40% of the population on the continent but only 10% of the area. This resource is under considerable stress with rising levels of water scarcity, high population growth, watershed degradation, and loss of environmental services. The potential impacts of climate change may significantly exacerbate this situation as the water resources in the Nile Basin are critically sensitive to climate change (Conway, Hanson, Doherty, & Persechino, 2007). The motivation for this study is an assessment of climate change impacts and adaptation potential for floods and droughts within the UNEP project "Adapting to climate change induced water stress in the Nile River Basin", supported by SIDA. This project is being carried out as collaboration between DHI, the UK Met Office, and the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI). The Nile Basin exhibits highly diverse climatological and hydrological characteristics. Thus climate change impacts and adaptive capacity must be addressed at both regional and sub-basin scales. While the main focus of the project is the regional scale, sub-basin scale modelling is required to reflect variability within the basin. One of the major challenges in addressing this variability is the scarcity of data. This paper presents an initial screening modelling study of the water balance of the Nile Basin along with estimates of expected future impacts of climate change on the water balance. This initial study is focussed on the Ethiopian Highlands and the Lake Victoria regions, where the impact of climate change on rainfall is important. A robust sub-basin based monthly water balance model is developed and applied to selected sub-basins. The models were developed and calibrated using publicly available data. One of the major challenges in addressing this variability within the basin is the

  19. Late movement of basin-edge lobate scarps on Mercury (United States)

    Fegan, E. R.; Rothery, D. A.; Marchi, S.; Massironi, M.; Conway, S. J.; Anand, M.


    Basin-edge lobate scarps are a sub-type of tectonic shortening structure on the surface of Mercury that have formed at the edge of volcanic units that fill or partly fill impact basins. We have performed a global survey of these features and find that they are widespread in basins across the planet. We obtained model ages from crater size-frequency distribution analysis for a subset of our surveyed basins, for both the smooth plains infill and for the last resolvable tectonic activity on the associated basin-edge scarps. Our results indicate that some of these lobate scarps were still accumulating strain in the late Mansurian (approximately 1 Ga). From a photogeological assessment, we find that the orientations of these basin-edge lobate scarps are similar to those reported for the global population of lobate scarps in earlier studies, appearing to align ∼north-south at low latitudes and ∼east-west at higher latitudes. However, reassessing these landforms' orientation with artificially illuminated topographic data does not allow us to rule out the effect of illumination bias. We propose that these landforms, the result of crustal shortening in response to global contraction, formed along the interface between the basin floor and the smooth plains unit, which acted as a mechanical discontinuity along which shortening strains were concentrated.

  20. The Rockall Trough, NE Atlantic: An Extinct Young Ocean Basin or a Failed Breakup Basin? (United States)

    Roberts, Alan; Kusznir, Nick; Alvey, Andy


    We investigate the crustal structure and composition of the Rockall Trough which is located in the NE Atlantic to the west of Ireland and the UK. The Rockall Trough is a large extensional basin formed in the Early Cretaceous and has dimensions of approximately 250 km in width and 1000 km in length. It is one of several basins formed during the complex Mesozoic northward propagation of rifting, continental breakup and sea-floor spreading initiation of the North Atlantic; other adjacent basins formed at this time include the Porcupine Trough to its east and the East and West Orphan Basins on the Canadian conjugate margin. To investigate the crustal structure of the Rockall Trough we have used three independent analyses of available 2D and 3D data: 1. 3D gravity inversion, using public-domain gravity and sediment-thickness information, has produced maps of (i) depth to Moho, (ii) crustal thickness (figure 1) and (iii) stretching/thinning factor across both margins. 2. Gravity inversion as above, but using public-domain gravity data combined with new proprietary 2D sediment-thickness information, has produced a series of cross-sections which show (i) depth to Moho, (ii) crustal thickness and (iii) stretching/thinning factor across both margins 3. Geodynamic modelling, comprising 2D flexural backstripping and forward modelling, has been used to produce (i) estimates of stretching/thinning factor, (ii) whole-crustal cross-sections and (iii) predictions of palaeobathymetry through time along a series of project-specific transects. Our analysis of the Rockall Trough shows a rapid shallowing of crustal basement thicknesses on the flanks of the basin with central values of crustal thickness typically 8-10 km consistent with previously published seismic estimates. An important question is whether this thin crust is hyper-extended continental crust or proto-oceanic crust. Locally isolated patches of crustal thicknesses as low as 3km are observed which are consistent with the

  1. The agricultural water footprint of EU river basins (United States)

    Vanham, Davy


    This work analyses the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod,agr) and consumption (WFcons,agr) as well as the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi,agr) for 365 EU river basins with an area larger than 1000 km2. Apart from total amounts, also a differentiation between the green, blue and grey components is made. River basins where the WFcons,agr,tot exceeds WFprod,agr,tot values substantially (resulting in positive netVWi,agr,tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. River basins where the WFprod,agr,totexceeds WFcons,agr,totare found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. The effect of a healthy (HEALTHY) and vegetarian (VEG) diet on the WFcons,agr is assessed, as well as resulting changes in netVWi,agr. For HEALTHY, the WFcons,agr,tot of most river basins decreases (max 32%), although in the east some basins show an increase. For VEG, in all but one river basins a reduction (max 46%) in WFcons,agr,tot is observed. The effect of diets on the WFcons,agrof a river basin has not been carried out so far. River basins and not administrative borders are the key geographical entity for water management. Such a comprehensive analysis on the river basin scale is the first in its kind. Reduced river basin WFcons,agrcan contribute to sustainable water management both within the EU and outside its borders. They could help to reduce the dependency of EU consumption on domestic and foreign water resources.

  2. Recent changes in terrestrial water storage in the Upper Nile Basin: an evaluation of commonly used gridded GRACE products (United States)

    Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Taylor, Richard G.; Jones, Darren; Longuevergne, Laurent; Owor, Michael; Tindimugaya, Callist


    GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite data monitor large-scale changes in total terrestrial water storage (ΔTWS), providing an invaluable tool where in situ observations are limited. Substantial uncertainty remains, however, in the amplitude of GRACE gravity signals and the disaggregation of TWS into individual terrestrial water stores (e.g. groundwater storage). Here, we test the phase and amplitude of three GRACE ΔTWS signals from five commonly used gridded products (i.e. NASA's GRCTellus: CSR, JPL, GFZ; JPL-Mascons; GRGS GRACE) using in situ data and modelled soil moisture from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) in two sub-basins (LVB: Lake Victoria Basin; LKB: Lake Kyoga Basin) of the Upper Nile Basin. The analysis extends from January 2003 to December 2012, but focuses on a large and accurately observed reduction in ΔTWS of 83 km3 from 2003 to 2006 in the Lake Victoria Basin. We reveal substantial variability in current GRACE products to quantify the reduction of ΔTWS in Lake Victoria that ranges from 80 km3 (JPL-Mascons) to 69 and 31 km3 for GRGS and GRCTellus respectively. Representation of the phase in TWS in the Upper Nile Basin by GRACE products varies but is generally robust with GRGS, JPL-Mascons, and GRCTellus (ensemble mean of CSR, JPL, and GFZ time-series data), explaining 90, 84, and 75 % of the variance respectively in "in situ" or "bottom-up" ΔTWS in the LVB. Resolution of changes in groundwater storage (ΔGWS) from GRACE ΔTWS is greatly constrained by both uncertainty in changes in soil-moisture storage (ΔSMS) modelled by GLDAS LSMs (CLM, NOAH, VIC) and the low annual amplitudes in ΔGWS (e.g. 1.8-4.9 cm) observed in deeply weathered crystalline rocks underlying the Upper Nile Basin. Our study highlights the substantial uncertainty in the amplitude of ΔTWS that can result from different data-processing strategies in commonly used, gridded GRACE products; this uncertainty is disregarded in analyses of

  3. Plant biodiversity in the Mahanadi Basin, India, during the Gondwana period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, K.J. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)


    The Mahanadi Basin is one of five major sedimentary basins of Peninsular India. The sediments are exposed in two different regions: an extensive basin comprising Lower to Upper Gondwana with coal measures towards the west (Talchir and Ib-River Sub-basins); and the Athgarh Sub-basin in the east with rocks of only Upper Gondwana age. This study was mainly concerned with plant species diversification and the development of flora in the Mahanadi Basin from the Early Permian to the Early Cretaceous. A number of successive megafloras were recognised with gaps in the sequence. Leaves were the dominant part of the preserved flora, followed by fruits. Maximum plant diversification in gymnosperms was recorded in the Late Permian (Kamthi Formation), and in pteridophytes in the Early Cretaceous (Athgarh Formation).

  4. Basin fill evolution and paleotectonic patterns along the Samfrau geosyncline: the Sauce Grande basin-Ventana foldbelt (Argentina) and Karoo basin-Cape foldbelt (South Africa) revisited (United States)

    López-Gamundí, O. R.; Rossello, E. A.

    As integral parts of du Toit's (1927) ``Samfrau Geosyncline'', the Sauce Grande basin-Ventana foldbelt (Argentina) and Karoo basin-Cape foldbelt (South Africa) share similar paleoclimatic, paleogeographic, and paleotectonic aspects related to the Late Paleozoic tectono-magmatic activity along the Panthalassan continental margin of Gondwanaland. Late Carboniferou-earliest Permian glacial deposits were deposited in the Sauce Grande (Sauce Grande Formation) and Karoo (Dwyka Formation) basins and Falkland-Malvinas Islands (Lafonia Formation) during an initial (sag) phase of extension. The pre-breakup position of the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands on the easternmost part of the Karoo basin (immediately east of the coast of South Africa) is supported by recent paleomagnetic data, lithofacies associations, paleoice flow directions and age similarities between the Dwyka and the Lafonia glacial sequences. The desintegration of the Gondwanan Ice Sheet (GIS) triggered widespread transgressions, reflected in the stratigraphic record by the presence of inter-basinally correlatable, open marine, fine-grained deposits (Piedra Azul Formation in the Sauce Grande basin, Prince Albert Formation in the Karoo basin and Port Sussex Formation in the Falkland Islands) capping glacial marine sediments. These early postglacial transgressive deposits, characterised by fossils of the Eurydesma fauna and Glossopteris flora, represent the maximum flooding of the basins. Cratonward foreland subsidence was triggered by the San Rafael orogeny (ca. 270 Ma) in Argentina and propogated along the Gondwanan margin. This subsidence phase generated sufficient space to accommodate thick synorogenic sequences derived from the orogenic flanks of the Sauce Grande and Karoo basins. Compositionally, the initial extensional phase of these basins was characterized by quartz-rich, craton-derived detritus and was followed by a compressional (foreland) phase characterized by a paleocurrent reversal and dominance of

  5. Three Decades of Implementation of School-Based Management in the Australian Capital Territory and Victoria in Australia (United States)

    Gammage, David T.


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how the process of implementation of school-based management (SBM) has worked within the public school systems in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and Victoria in Australia. The period covered was 1976-2006. Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted was the mixed methodology which…

  6. Language in the Workplace Project and Workplace Communication for Skilled Migrants Course at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand (United States)

    de Bres, Julia; Holmes, Janet; Joe, Angela; Marra, Meredith; Newton, Jonathan; Riddiford Nicky; Vine, Bernadette


    The School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies (LALS) at Victoria University of Wellington conducts research and teaching in Linguistics, Applied Linguistics, Writing and Deaf Studies. It incorporates a Deaf Studies Research Unit, which undertakes research on topics relating to deaf people and their language in New Zealand, and the New…

  7. University of Victoria Genome British Columbia Proteomics Centre Partners with CPTAC | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (United States)

    University of Victoria Genome British Columbia Proteomics Centre, a leader in proteomic technology development, has partnered with the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) to make targeted proteomic assays accessible to the community through NCI’s CPTAC Assay Portal (

  8. Possible implications of Rabbit Calicivirus Disease for malleefowl Leipoa ocellata Gould in the north-west of Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandell, P.


    Parks Victoria and the Department of Natural Resources & Environment (NRE) are collaborating with agencies from the other States and the Commonwealth of Australia in a national program of detailed monitoring and surveillance of the effects of Rabbit Calicivirus Disease (RCD). A component of the

  9. Victoria Khiterer. Jewish City or Inferno of Russian Israel? A History of the Jews in Kiev Before February 1917.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly St. Julian-Varnon


    Full Text Available Book review of Victoria Khiterer. Jewish City or Inferno of Russian Israel? A History of the Jews in Kiev Before February 1917. Academic Studies Press, 2016. Jews of Russia and Eastern Europe and Their Legacy, series editor, Maxim D. Shrayer. xx, 474 pp. Illustrations. Tables. Maps. Appendix. Bibliography. Index. $89.00, cloth.

  10. The Development and Use of Individual Learning Plans for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in Victoria, Australia (United States)

    Brown, P. Margaret; Byrnes, Linda J.


    This study investigated the Individual Learning Plans of eighty-eight students who were deaf and hard of hearing attending facilities and schools for the deaf in Victoria Australia. The students' assessment and planning portfolios were scrutinised for evidence of formal and informal assessment used to generate goals for the Individual Learning…

  11. Chequered fortunes in global exports: The sociogenesis of African entrepreneurship in the Nile Perch Business at Lake Victoria, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuving, J.J.


    This article looks at African entrepreneurship in the Nile perch export business at Lake Victoria, Uganda. Often heralded as an economic success story, this business has perhaps another tale to tell. The fishermen, traders and other small-scale entrepreneurs at the lower end of the export chain face

  12. Inter-guild differences and possible causes of the recovery of cichlid species in Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kishe-Machumu, Mary Alphonce


    Until the 1970s, the fish fauna of Lake Victoria was dominated by 500+ endemic haplochromine cichlid species in which detritivores was the dominant group followed by zooplanktivores. With the upsurge of Nile perch in the 1980s, a strong decline of haplochromines occurred. During the1990s, a

  13. Use of Hydrochemistry, Stable Isotope, Radiocarbon, 222Rn and Terrigenic 4He to Study the Geochemical Processes and the Mode of Vertical Leakage to the Gambier Basin Tertiary Confined Sand Aquifer, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Somaratne


    Full Text Available The mode of vertical recharge to aquifers is important to the application of appropriate recharge estimation methods. This study identifies the origin, geochemical evolution and mode of vertical leakage to the Gambier Basin confined aquifer, south east of South Australia. The recharge zone spans areas of the Glencoe-Nangwarry-Nagwarry (GNN. The Hundreds of Glencoe and Nangwarry are in South Australia, and the Parish of Nagwarry adjoins Nangwarry in western Victoria. The plot of stable isotopes of water molecules, δ2H versus δ18O, indicates that local rainfall with minor surface evaporation is the source of recharge. The results of hydrochemical analysis indicate that the sources of ions in the recharge zone groundwater are derived from carbonate and silicate weathering with cation exchange. The majority of water types (66% of samples within the South Australian part of the recharge zone show Ca-Na-HCO3-Cl due to carbonate dissolution processes, and about 83% of samples within the Victorian part of the recharge zone show Na-Ca-HCO3-Cl water types, indicating cation exchange or mixing with other waters. The influence of faults on vertical leakage was studied at eight sites located in the Nangwarry and Nagwarry area using electrical conductivity logging, measuring the concentration of radiocarbon activity, δ18O, 222Rn and terrigenic 4He in the vertical profiles. Results show that regardless of land use in the study area, the interconnection of the unconfined Tertiary limestone aquifer with the Tertiary confined sand aquifer occurs, via both diffuse and preferential flows. Thus, the application of conventional vertical leakage estimation methods using Darcy’s equation or the application of tracer techniques may be inappropriate unless the duality of the flow system is considered.

  14. Poética de la autotraducción: María Victoria Atencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Martínez, María Isabel


    Full Text Available Self-translation is an ancient but poorly researched practice. This article analyses an exceptional case: the reflection on self-translation as exposed in poetry. A case in point is the poem «Voz traducida», from the poetry collection De la llama en que arde (1988. Indeed, the poem selected for examination was written by M.ª Victoria Atencia (Málaga, 1931, an expert both in writing poetry and in translating literature. Her book of poems also contains an original text, «Rosas», in Galician, and its corresponding Spanish translation. Both translation and reflection are complementary in her compositions. These poetic creations attest to the fact that artfulness works as a depiction of the next creation. Furthermore, this study will deeply explore the poet’s most important literary thoughts.La autotraducción es una práctica antigua, pero poco estudiada. El presente artículo analiza un caso excepcional: la reflexión sobre la autotraducción expuesta en la lírica. Para ello, se analiza el poema de M.ª Victoria Atencia «Voz traducida», perteneciente al libro titulado De la llama en que arde (1988. Es un ejemplo de que la tarea de traducir funciona como un motivo que origina una nueva creación. Además, permite que el lector conozca facetas importantes del pensamiento literario de la escritora. M.ª Victoria Atencia, además de poeta, es una experta traductora. El libro contiene también dos versiones del poema «Rosas», en gallego y en español, pruebas de la dimensión práctica de los planteamientos teóricos de la autora y de su coherencia estética. Ambas facetas, la traducción y la reflexión, son complementarias en la obra de la autora.

  15. The Meaning of ‘General Paralysis of the Insane’ in Victoria, Australia; 1886 to 1906

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts, Phillip


    Full Text Available This paper presents a conclusion to the meaning of the historical diagnosis “general paralysis of the insane” in nineteenth century Victorian Registrar General”s reports. Most studies suggest that in the past the diagnosis refers to neuro-syphilis, and while after 1906 this is not disputed, this paper will show that the diagnosis had a much broader meaning incorporating many forms of degenerative brain disease during the study period (Victoria 1886 to 1906. It is acknowledged, however, that the use of this diagnosis may have varied dramatically in the past based on a doctor’s education and/or background. This conclusion has been arrived at by analysing both government and general hospital records on the Australian, Victorian population. This paper also presents methods for determining the meaning of obsolete medical diagnoses where the definition is poorly understood.En este trabajo presenta una conclusión sobre el significado de la “parálisis general de los locos” como diagnóstico en los informes del Victorian Registrar General durante el siglo XIX. La mayoría de los estudios sugieren que en el pasado el diagnóstico se refiere a la neuro-sífilis, y aunque después de 1906 no se discute, este trabajo mostrará que el diagnóstico tiene un significado mucho más amplio e incorpora muchas formas de enfermedad degenerativa del cerebro durante el período de estudio (Victoria 1886 a 1906. Se reconoce, sin embargo, que el uso de este diagnóstico puede haber variado drásticamente en el pasado dependiendo de la formación y del ambiente médico. Se ha llegado a esta conclusión mediante el análisis de los registros hospitalarios de la población de Victoria, Australia. Este documento también presenta métodos para determinar el significado de los diagnósticos médicos obsoletos cuya definición es confusa.

  16. Structural characteristics of annual precipitation in Lake Urmia basin (United States)

    Vaheddoost, Babak; Aksoy, Hafzullah


    Precipitation as the main process that brings evaporated water from the oceans to the land's surface is a critical role player in Lake Urmia basin (Iran). As a hyper-saline lake declared as UNESCO's biosphere reserve in Ramsar Convention, it is dealing with gradual atrophy. In this study, characteristics of annual precipitation in the Lake Urmia basin are investigated by means of several statistical measures and tests. Data in 53 meteorological stations widespread across the basin for a period of 31 years from 1981 to 2011 are considered for analysis. Fundamental statistical characteristics of the data like mean, maximum, minimum, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, coefficient of skewness, coefficient of kurtosis, auto-correlation and cross-correlation coefficients of the annual precipitation are calculated. Entropy in each station is also calculated with respect to the long-run mean precipitation of the basin. Results of the analysis are plotted in contour maps. Several tests for consistency, randomness, trend and best-fit probability distribution function are applied to investigate characteristics of the annual precipitation. Heterogeneity and dependence on local conditions are the main results revealed by this study while consistency and dependency of precipitation on North West and West of the basin are considered as the most effective among other regions. Due to the North-South oriented mountains, a relatively sharp decline in the precipitation from West to East can be compared to the gradual decline in precipitation from North to South due to smooth change in the terrain. It is also seen that such characteristics as probability distribution, consistency, randomness, trend, and uncertainty of annual precipitation in the Lake Urmia basin become more complex as crossing from West to East than crossing from North to South on the basin.

  17. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) (United States)

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Novel coronavirus; nCoV ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): Frequently Asked Questions and Answers. Updated ...

  18. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 5, 2007 ... 242 EAST A FRICAN MEDICAL J O URNAL. This partially compromised blood supply and resulted in gangrene. After debridement, the patient lost the whole of the skin and subcutaneous layer' of the right forearm with the thumb, index and little fingers (Figure3). She had skin grafting subsequently and she ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banana (Musa spp.) cultivar diversity in the Great Lakes region of East Africa has been on the decline for the last several decades. A number of abiotic, biotic and socio-economic factors are thought to be responsible for this decline. In spite of low variation with respect to stress resistance, a number of farmers have ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 1, 2002 ... include hypothermia, reduced appetite, depressed overall sexual potency and clinical spermatorrhoea ..... EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. 25. Table 4. Drug consumption and semen volume. (GMH, BMS, 1992-1995). No. Drag consumed. 0-2. No. %. No. Semen volume (ml). 2-6. % No. >6. %. No.

  1. East Europe Report (United States)


    above total includes one to two events a month,79 upkeep of an old-age home, of the community library and a kosher 99 butcher shop. The old-age home...the kosher butcher shop, which is open Tuesday to Thursday from 1000 to 1800 hours, includes, in addition to the about 10 East Berlin regular


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 79 No. 2 February 2002. HAEMATOLÖGICAL ALTERATIONS IN LEPROSY PATIENTS TREATED WITH DAPSONE. N.K.D. Halim, MBChB, FMCPath, Senior Lecturer and Head, Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, College of Medical Sciences,. University of Benin, Benin ...

  3. JPRS Report, East Europe. (United States)


    10 Su-22/FITTER K and 15 L-29 " Delfin " (NATO desig- nation: MAYA) from CSSR production as photo-recon- naissance aircraft. The 2 transport aircraft...aircraft within the East Bloc as well: Its trainers, the older L-29 " Delfin " (NATO code name MAYA) and the modern L-39 "Albatros," are being used by the

  4. Great Basin insect outbreaks (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; Diane Alston; Ted Evans


    Outbreaks of native and exotic insects are important drivers of ecosystem dynamics in the Great Basin. The following provides an overview of range, forest, ornamental, and agricultural insect outbreaks occurring in the Great Basin and the associated management issues and research needs.

  5. Petroleum geology of Llanos basin of Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, J.A.; Pena, L.E.; Munoz, F.; Cristancho, J.H.


    The Llanos basin is located in eastern Colombia between the Guyana shield and the Cordillera Oriental, the most easterly branch of the Andes. Currently, the basin produces 224,000 bbl of oil/day from a mixed marine and continental section that ranges in age from Cenomanian to Holocene and reaches over 7500 m in thickness. It is important to realize that until the Pliocene the basin lacked an independent existence; rather, it formed the nearshore sector of a much larger depocenter that opened westward to the Pacific and northward to the Caribbean. The bulk of the oil accumulated in the Llanos was probably generated outside the present basin from a much more extensive marine Cretaceous section that crops out in the Cordillera. Subsurface pressure data indicate that these rocks are now isolated from the Llanos, implying generation and primary migration before the elevation of the Cordillera in the early Pliocene. Oil accumulations are mostly fault controlled and fall into three classes. The giant Cano Limon complex in the north is closed against a lateral fault that appears to be a rejuvenation of a regional pre-Cretaceous normal fault. The central Llanos fields of Casanare are controlled by north-south-trending up-to-the-basin normal faults. The Apiay-Castilla fields to the south, a short distance from the mountain front, are located on an anticlinal trend bounded to the east by a high-angle reverse fault that also appears to have had horizontal movement. Oil gravity varies widely, from below 10/degree/ to 40/degree/ API, with most of the reserves in the 30/degree/ API range. However, with very few exceptions and regardless of the gravity, the oil has an abnormally low dissolved-gas content. To date, with relatively low density of drilling, over 1.3 billion bbl of oil have been discovered and prospects for further major discoveries are excellent.

  6. Residual susceptibility to measles among young adults in Victoria, Australia following a national targeted measles-mumps-rubella vaccination campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leydon Jennie A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Past measles immunisation policies in Australia have resulted in a cohort of young adults who have been inadequately vaccinated, but who also have low levels of naturally acquired immunity because immunisation programs have decreased the circulation of wild virus. A measles-mumps-rubella (MMR immunisation campaign aimed at addressing this susceptibility to measles among young adults was conducted in Australia in 2001–2. By estimating age-specific immunity, we aimed to evaluate the success of this campaign in the state of Victoria. Methods We conducted serosurveys after the young adult MMR program at state and national levels to estimate immunity among young adults born between 1968–82. We compared results of the Victorian (state surveys with the Victorian component of the national surveys and compared both surveys with surveys conducted before the campaign. We also reviewed all laboratory confirmed measles cases in Victoria between 2000–4. Results The Victorian state serosurveys indicated no significant change in immunity of the cohort following the young adult MMR campaign (83.9% immune pre and 85.5% immune post campaign while the Victorian component of the national serosurvey indicated a significant decline in immunity (91.0% to 84.2%; p = 0.006. Both surveys indicated about 15% susceptibility to measles among young Victorian adults after the campaign. Measles outbreaks in Victoria between 2000–4 confirmed the susceptibility of young adults. Outbreaks involved a median of 2.5 cases with a median age of 24.5 years. Conclusion In Victoria, the young adult MMR program appears to have had no effect on residual susceptibility to measles among the 1968–82 birth cohort. Young adults in Victoria, as in other countries where past immunisation policies have left a residual susceptible cohort, represent a potential problem for the maintenance of measles elimination.

  7. Fossil mammals and paleoenvironments in the Omo-Turkana Basin. (United States)

    Bobe, René


    Although best known for its fossil hominins, the Omo-Turkana Basin of Kenya and Ethiopia is the source of one of the best records of vertebrate evolution from the Late Cenozoic of Africa. Located near the heart of the East African Rift Valley, the basin serves as an important frame of reference for the continent. The fossil record from this region plays a key role in our efforts to understand the environmental and ecological context of human evolution in Africa. The Omo-Turkana faunal data shed light on key questions of human evolution: What kinds of environments did early humans inhabit? How did these environments change over time? What is the relationship between faunal change in East Africa and broader patterns of climatic change? Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. K Basin safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.


    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall.

  9. Seismicity and arrival-time residuals from the Victoria Earthquake of June 9, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, V.; Frez, J.


    Hypocenter distribution in space and time of the aftershock activity from the Victoria Earthquake of June 9, 1980 was studied. It was concluded that the main event excited aftershocks in several pre-existing nests at the northwest end of the Cerro Prieto Fault, but no significant activity occurred at the immediate neighborhood of the main event. The depth of the aftershocks increases with the distance from the northwest end of the fault and this feature might be related with the higher temperatures and the spreading center located between the ends of the Imperial and Cerro Prieto Faults. The significance of the arrival-times residuals for local and regional stations is discussed both for P and S-waves and the importance of obtaining station corrections is emphasized. The non-uniqueness in determining a structure which minimizes the residuals is illustrated. Two different structures which satisfy the local data are presented.

  10. Journalist to the interview: professionals routines. The case of Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The newspaper interview is sort of use in printed newspapers in Ciudad Victoria Tamaulipas, Mexico. Journalists argue lack of time-space and is to develop this type of work. An analysis of the publications of the largest newspapers in this city dad throws the result that no literary interviews are published, the em-ployee's resource for structuring news and sporadically of reports. This paper develops conducting depth interviews with journalists pe-active, which reaffirm the limited use given the corresponding gender, as well as an analysis of the works published in newspapers printed cases in the capital of Tamaulipas, only on local information section. Lack of time for preparation, few spaces and I shift to electronic means are the most common causes.

  11. Compliance with regulations by "swim-with-dolphins" operations in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Scarpaci, Carol; Dayanthi, Nugegoda; Corkeron, Peter J


    Managing the activities of commercial wildlife viewing tends to involve either restricting the number of industry participants and/or regulating the activities or industry participants. We report on operator compliance with regulations regarding humans swimming with free-ranging bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops sp.) in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia. A total of 128 commercial dolphin-swim trips was studied between September 1998 and April 2000. Four permit conditions were investigated: approach type, swim time, time in proximity of dolphins, and presence of "fetal fold" calves. Results demonstrate noncompliance by operators to all of the four permit conditions studied. Compliance with temporal conditions was poorer than with other conditions. When conducting studies on the extent to which tourism affects cetaceans, investigators should consider whether tourist operations comply with existing regulations or guidelines.

  12. Suffering by comparison: Twitter users' reactions to the Victoria's Secret Fashion Show. (United States)

    Chrisler, Joan C; Fung, Kaitlin T; Lopez, Alexandra M; Gorman, Jennifer A


    Social comparison theory suggests that evaluating the self in comparison with others (e.g., peers, celebrities, models) can influence body image. Experimental studies that have tested effects of viewing idealized images in the media often show that women feel worse about themselves after seeing images that illustrate the beauty ideal. Twitter presents a naturally occurring opportunity to study viewers' reactions. An analysis was conducted of 977 tweets sent immediately before and during the 2011 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show that reference the show. Although the majority were idiosyncratic remarks, many tweets contain evidence of upward social comparisons to the fashion models. There were tweets about body image, eating disorders, weight, desires for food or alcohol, and thoughts about self-harm. The results support social comparison theory, and suggest that vulnerable viewers could experience negative affect, or even engage in harmful behaviors, during or after viewing the show or others like it. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental factors associated with the foliage cover of invasive fairy grass (Lachnagrostis filiformis) in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Gosney, Kate; Florentine, Singarayer K


    Fairy grass (Lachnagrostis filiformis) is an Australian native grass that has recently become a major concern for rural communities. Its dried inflorescences are blown by the wind and build up against fences and buildings, becoming a severe fire hazard. Understanding the ecology of fairy grass and its impacts on rural communities is relevant to its management. Four dry lake beds in Western Victoria were selected to determine if environmental factors, such as lake, location, direction, altitude and road type and the covariates of pH, soil salinity, soil moisture and distance to nearest road, are related to the presence of fairy grass. The 'lake' factor was the only environmental parameter that was significantly associated with the presence of this weed.

  14. Fine resolution AMS {sup 14}C chronology for Lunette-Lake sediment sequences, Lake Bolac, Victoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, E. [Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Centre for Palynology and Palaeoecology, Department of Geography and Environmental Science


    This study aims to provide a fine-resolution chronology for lake sediment records from Lakes Bolac and Turangmoroke, located within the drier part of the Western Plains, Victoria. These lakes are expected to be sensitive to subtle climate and vegetation variability and have long been recognised as archaeologically rich, bearing stone tools, hearth and other cultural materials dated to the late Pleistocene (Horton, 1984; former Victorian Aboriginal Survey, unpublished data). Fine-resolution chronological control has rarely been attempted in this sedimentary and (semi-arid) climatic context owing to the paucity of material available for conventional {sup 14}C dating. However, pollen and microscopic charcoal in the lake sediments at Bolac and Turangmoroke are suitable for AMS age determination with the most important sedimentary section well within the range of {sup 14}C making them ideal records for such a study. Recent dating results, which have substantially increased chronostratigraphic interpretation of concurrent palaeoecological and sedimentological work in progress, are presented


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nyamuhanga Mwita


    Full Text Available This paper considers the modeling and prediction of  households food security status using a sample of households in the  Lake Victoria region of Kenya. A priori expected food security  factors and their measurements are given. A binary logistic regression model  derived was fitted to thirteen priori expected factors. Analysis of the marginal effects revealed that effecting the use of the seven significant determinants: farmland size, per capita aggregate production, household size, gender of household head, use of fertilizer, use of pesticide/herbicide and education of household head,  increase the likelihood of a household being food secure. Finally, interpretations  of   predicted conditional probabilities, following improvement of significant determinants,  are given.

  16. Reality check of laboratory service effectiveness during pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Catton, Michael; Druce, Julian; Papadakis, Goergina; Tran, Thomas; Birch, Christopher


    In Australia, the outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 began in Melbourne, Victoria; in the first 17 days, the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory detected 977 cases. Although the laboratory had a pandemic plan in place, a retrospective evaluation found 3 major variations from plan assumptions: 1) higher peak demand not limited by a case definition, 2) prolonged peak demand because containment attempts continued despite widespread influenza, and 3) unexpected influence of negative test results on public health actions. Although implementation of the plan was generally successful, the greatest challenges were limited availability of skilled staff and test reagents. Despite peak demand of 1,401 tests per day, results were provided within the usual 24 hours of specimen receipt; however, turnaround time seemed slower because of slow transport times (>3 days for 45% of specimens). Hence, effective laboratory capability might be enhanced by speeding transport of specimens and improving transmission of clinical data.

  17. La legobiografía de Victoria Ocampo: evocaciones de una lectora (des)autorizada


    Vélez, Irma


    Pero no conseguiré hacer nada en el campo de la novela. Tengo que escribir à batons rompus, cuando se me antoje. Jamás podré crear un personaje. Lo llevaría a la rastra, y eso no sirve. Y todos mis personajes serían “yo” disfrazada. Perfectamente insoportable. ¿Cómo demonios puede uno deshacerse de su “yo” ?(Fragmento de Carta a Delfina Bunge, Autobiografía II, p. 85)En 1910, Victoria Ocampo cumple 20 años, apenas dos años después que en Santiago se auspiciara la sede del Primer Congreso Cien...

  18. La legobiografía de Victoria Ocampo: evocaciones de una lectora (desautorizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Vélez


    Full Text Available Pero no conseguiré hacer nada en el campo de la novela. Tengo que escribir à batons rompus, cuando se me antoje. Jamás podré crear un personaje. Lo llevaría a la rastra, y eso no sirve. Y todos mis personajes serían “yo” disfrazada. Perfectamente insoportable. ¿Cómo demonios puede uno deshacerse de su “yo” ?(Fragmento de Carta a Delfina Bunge, Autobiografía II, p. 85En 1910, Victoria Ocampo cumple 20 años, apenas dos años después que en Santiago se auspiciara la sede del Primer Congreso Cien...

  19. Criticality safety evaluation of disposing of K Basin sludge in double-shell tank AW-105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROGERS, C.A.


    A criticality safety evaluation is made of the disposal of K Basin sludge in double-shell tank (DST) AW-105 located in the 200 east area of Hanford Site. The technical basis is provided for limits and controls to be used in the development of a criticality prevention specification (CPS). A model of K Basin sludge is developed to account for fuel burnup. The iron/uranium mass ration required to ensure an acceptable magrin of subcriticality is determined.

  20. Maternal and Child Health Nurses work with refugee families: Perspectives from regional Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Willey, Suzanne M; Cant, Robyn P; Williams, Allison; McIntyre, Meredith


    This study aimed to explore service provision for Victorian regional refugee families from the perspective of Maternal and Child Health nurses. Increasingly, more families from a refugee background are resettling in regional Victoria. The refugee journey has significant effect on families. Refugee families with infants and young children can be provided with support by Maternal and Child Health services; however, many families experience barriers to ongoing engagement with this service. This descriptive study used focus group and questionnaire. A purposive sample of 26 Maternal and Child Health Nurses was drawn from six municipalities throughout regional Victoria, where higher numbers of people from a refugee background resettle. Six focus groups were held in 2014. Audio-recorded narratives were transcribed, prior to inductive thematic analysis. Participating nurses were experienced nurses, averaging 12 years in the service. Four major themes emerged: 'How to identify women from a refugee background'; 'The Maternal and Child Health nurse role when working with families from a refugee background'; 'Interpreting issues', and 'Access to other referral agencies'. Nurses worked to develop a relationship with families, attending to a complex mix of issues which were complicated by language barriers. Nurses found their role in supporting refugee families required additional time and more home visits. To provide best practice, Maternal and Child Health nurses need (i) ongoing professional development; (ii) time, flexibility, and creativity to build relationships with refugee families and (iii) better access to services that enhance communication, such as interpreting services and translated resources. Nurses require ongoing professional development to help them address the multifaceted needs of families of refugee background. With limited resources available in regional areas, accessing further education can be challenging. Distance education models and organisational

  1. Intended and unintended consequences of abortion law reform: perspectives of abortion experts in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Keogh, L A; Newton, D; Bayly, C; McNamee, K; Hardiman, A; Webster, A; Bismark, M


    In Victoria, Australia, abortion was decriminalised in October 2008, bringing the law in line with clinical practice and community attitudes. We describe how experts in abortion service provision perceived the intent and subsequent impact of the 2008 Victorian abortion law reform. Experts in abortion provision in Victoria were recruited for a qualitative semi-structured interview about the 2008 law reform and its perceived impact, until saturation was reached. Nineteen experts from a range of health care settings and geographic locations were interviewed in 2014/2015. Thematic analysis was conducted to summarise participants' views. Abortion law reform, while a positive event, was perceived to have changed little about the provision of abortion. The views of participants can be categorised into: (1) goals that law reform was intended to address and that have been achieved; (2) intent or hopes of law reform that have not been achieved; (3) unintended consequences; (4) coincidences; and (5) unfinished business. All agreed that law reform had repositioned abortion as a health rather than legal issue, had shifted the power in decision making from doctors to women, and had increased clarity and safety for doctors. However, all described outstanding concerns; limited public provision of surgical abortion; reduced access to abortion after 20 weeks; ongoing stigma; lack of a state-wide strategy for equitable abortion provision; and an unsustainable workforce. Law reform, while positive, has failed to address a number of significant issues in abortion service provision, and may have even resulted in a 'lull' in action. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  2. The Green Dialysis Survey: Establishing a Baseline for Environmental Sustainability across Dialysis Facilities in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Barraclough, Katherine A; Gleeson, Alice; Holt, Stephen G; Agar, John Wm


    The Green Dialysis Survey aimed to 1) establish a baseline for environmental sustainability (ES) across Victorian dialysis facilities, and 2) guide future initiatives to reduce the environmental impact of dialysis delivery. Nurse unit managers of all Victorian public dialysis facilities received an online link to the survey, which asked 107 questions relevant to the ES of dialysis services. Responses were received from 71/83 dialysis facilities in Victoria (86%), representing 628/660 dialysis chairs (95%). Low energy lighting was present in 13 facilities (18%), 18 (25%) recycled reverse osmosis water and 7 (10%) reported use of renewable energy. Fifty-six facilities (79%) performed comingled recycling but only 27 (38%) recycled polyvinyl chloride plastic. A minority educated staff in appropriate waste management (n=30;42%) or formally audited waste generation and segregation (n=19;27%). Forty-four (62%) provided secure bicycle parking but only 33 (46%) provided shower and changing facilities. There was limited use of tele- or video-conferencing to replace staff meetings (n=19;27%) or patient clinic visits (n=13;18%). A minority considered ES in procurement decisions (n=28;39%) and there was minimal preparedness to cope with climate change. Only 39 services (49%) confirmed an ES policy and few had ever formed a green group (n=14; 20%) or were currently undertaking a green project (n=8;11%). Only 15 facilities (21%) made formal efforts to raise awareness of ES. This survey provides a baseline for practices that potentially impact the environmental sustainability of dialysis units in Victoria, Australia. It also identifies achievable targets for attention. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Benthic macroinvertebrate community structure in Napoleon Gulf, Lake Victoria: effects of cage aquaculture in eutrophic lake. (United States)

    Egessa, Robert; Pabire, Gandhi Willy; Ocaya, Henry


    An investigation was conducted on the macro-benthic fauna of the Napoleon Gulf in the northern part of Lake Victoria from March 2011 to December 2016 at the cage fish farm. The aim was to examine the likely impact of cage aquaculture on macro-benthic invertebrates. Cage aquaculture is now a common practice on Lake Victoria yet little is known about its long-term effect on macro-benthic faunal assemblages. Temporal variation indicated a general decline in annual faunal density at the farm area with corresponding stability at upstream (control) and downstream sites. Arthropods remained numerically dominant at the control and downstream sites. The percentage abundance of EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera) and Malacostraca was highest at the upstream and lowest at the farm area. The farm area which initially was dominated by molluscs became dominated by arthropods after 3 years. The decrease in density of molluscs at the farm area was attributed to the general decrease in density of two species: Bellamya unicolor (Gastropoda) and Corbicula africana (Bivalvia). These two species were initially abundant but showed decline within the farm area with corresponding stability at the upstream and downstream areas. Oligochaete annelids were more abundant within the farm area than at the upstream and downstream sites. These findings suggested that molluscs offered better prediction of the impact of cages on the environment than arthropods. Besides that, in a community dominated by pollution-tolerant organisms, the impact of aquaculture may not be immediate especially when organic loading from aquaculture is moderate.

  4. Sex workers can be screened too often: a cost-effectiveness analysis in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Wilson, David P; Heymer, Kelly-Jean; Anderson, Jonathan; O'Connor, Jody; Harcourt, Christine; Donovan, Basil


    Commercial sex is licensed in Victoria, Australia such that sex workers are required to have regular tests for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, the incidence and prevalence of STIs in sex workers are very low, especially since there is almost universal condom use at work. We aimed to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of the financial cost of the testing policy versus the health benefits of averting the transmission of HIV, syphilis, chlamydia and gonorrhoea to clients. We developed a simple mathematical transmission model, informed by conservative parameter estimates from all available data, linked to a cost-effectiveness analysis. We estimated that under current testing rates, it costs over $A90,000 in screening costs for every chlamydia infection averted (and $A600,000 in screening costs for each quality-adjusted life year (QALY) saved) and over $A4,000,000 for every HIV infection averted ($A10,000,000 in screening costs for each QALY saved). At an assumed willingness to pay of $A50,000 per QALY gained, HIV testing should not be conducted less than approximately every 40 weeks and chlamydia testing approximately once per year; in comparison, current requirements are testing every 12 weeks for HIV and every 4 weeks for chlamydia. Mandatory screening of female sex workers at current testing frequencies is not cost-effective for the prevention of disease in their male clients. The current testing rate required of sex workers in Victoria is excessive. Screening intervals for sex workers should be based on local STI epidemiology and not locked by legislation.

  5. The job satisfaction of female sex workers working in licensed brothels in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Bilardi, Jade E; Miller, Amanda; Hocking, Jane S; Keogh, Louise; Cummings, Rosey; Chen, Marcus Y; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Fairley, Christopher K


    Previous studies have examined sex workers' attitudes to work but not their levels of job satisfaction compared with other occupations. The job satisfaction levels and standards of living of sex workers in licensed brothels in Victoria were compared with Australian women. Responses to a questionnaire that included questions about sex work and their "most likely alternative job." Survey data was compared with identical questions from the Households, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey. A structured survey was undertaken with sex workers in Victoria attending a a sexual health service. Of the 112 sex workers who agreed to participate in the study, 85 (76%) completed the survey. The median years women had been working as sex workers was three (range 0.1-18). The main reasons women started sex work was because "they needed the money" (69%), were attracted to the flexible hours (44%) or had a particular goal in mind (43%). The two biggest concerns women had about sex work were their safety (65%) and the risk of sexually transmitted infections (65%). When compared with the median job satisfaction scores of Australian women working in sex workers' "most likely alternative jobs," 50% of sex workers reported a higher median satisfaction score for sex work in relation to hours worked, 47% in relation to flexibility, 43% in relation to total pay, 26% in relation to job security, 19% in relation to the work itself, and 25% in relation to overall job satisfaction. Women reported that they primarily do sex work for financial gain although a significant minority prefer it to other work they would be likely to do. These results should be interpreted in the context that the presence of personality disorders that are common among sex workers were not measured in this study. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. El periodista ante la entrevista: rutinas profesionales. El caso de Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santamaría Ochoa, Carlos David


    Full Text Available En español: La entrevista periodística es un género en desuso en los diarios impresos de Ciudad Victoria Tamaulipas, México. Los periodistas argumentan falta de tiempo y espacio para desarrollar este tipo de trabajos.Un análisis de las publicaciones de los diarios de mayor circulación en esta ciudad arroja como resultado el que no se publican entrevistas literarias; el recurso es empleado para la estructuración de noticias y, esporádicamente, de reportajes.El presente trabajo se desarrolla realizando entrevistas a profundidad con periodistas en activo, los que reafirman el poco uso que se da al género correspondiente, así como un análisis de los trabajos publicados en los diarios impresos de la capital de Tamaulipas, únicamente en la sección de información local.Falta de tiempo para la preparación, pocos espacios y el cambio hacia los me-dios electrónicos son las causas más recurrentes. In english: The newspaper interview is sort of use in printed newspapers in Ciudad Victoria Tamaulipas, Mexico. Journalists argue lack of time-space and is to develop this type of work.An analysis of the publications of the largest newspapers in this city dad throws the result that no literary interviews are published, the em-ployee's resource for structuring news and sporadically of reports.This paper develops conducting depth interviews with journalists pe-active, which reaffirm the limited use given the corresponding gender, as well as an analysis of the works published in newspapers printed cases in the capital of Tamaulipas, only on local information section. Lack of time for preparation, few spaces and I shift to electronic means are the most common causes.

  7. Perceptions about interventions to control schistosomiasis among the Lake Victoria island communities of Koome, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E Sanya


    Full Text Available Praziquantel-based mass treatment is the main approach to controlling schistosomiasis mansoni in endemic areas. Interventions such as provision and use of safe water, minimising contact with infested water, disposal of stool in latrines and snail control provide key avenues to break the transmission cycle and can sustain the benefits of mass treatment in the long term. Efforts are also being made to develop a schistosomiasis vaccine which, if effective, might reduce the incidence of re-infection after treatment. However, any interventions deployed need to be acceptable to, and sustainable by, the target communities.In this qualitative study, we investigated the perceptions of six Lake Victoria island communities of Koome, Uganda, about interventions to control Schistosoma mansoni infection and their willingness to participate in Schistosoma vaccine trials. Thirty-two in-depth interviews, 12 key informant interviews and 10 focus group discussions were conducted. Data were analysed using a thematic content approach.Intestinal schistosomiasis was not regarded as a serious health problem because a mass treatment programme is in place. However, the communities lack safe water sources and latrines. Mass treatment with praziquantel, safe water supplies and use of toilets were deemed the most acceptable interventions by the participants. The communities are willing to participate in Schistosoma vaccine trials.Knowledge of a community's perception about interventions to control schistosomiasis can be valuable to policy makers and programme implementers intending to set up interventions co-managed by the community members. In this study, the views of the Lake Victoria island communities of Koome are presented. This study also provides data to guide further work on alternative interventions such as Schistosoma vaccine trials in these communities.

  8. The effect of an area-based intervention on breastfeeding rates in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Kelaher, Margaret; Dunt, David; Feldman, Peter; Nolan, Andrea; Raban, Bridie


    Best Start is an area-based early childhood intervention where projects are developed and implemented through a community partnership. A core tenet of the initiative is that implementing projects through a partnership generates greater value than would be expected if projects were undertaken independently by partner members. In this study we examine whether: (1) Best Start is effective in increasing the proportion of infants being fully breastfed at 3 months and 6 months. (2) The quality of community partnerships is a potential mechanism for change. Best Start was implemented in Victoria, Australia. The study examined breastfeeding rates before and after Best Start in sites with Best Start breastfeeding projects compared to the rest of state. The relationship between partnership quality scores and breastfeeding percentages was also examined. Both analyses controlled for socioeconomic and demographic differences and clustering by area. Best Start targeted some of the most socially disadvantaged communities in Victoria. In the 3 years of its operation, the rates of fully breastfeeding at 3 months (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.14-1.47) and 6 months (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.1-1.61) increased in Best Start sites compared to the rest of the state. Quality of partnership scores was positively associated with increased percentages of fully breastfeeding (3 months=OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.06; 6 months=OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.98-1.08). These results suggest that area-based interventions are effective in increasing percentages of fully breastfeeding. The study also supported the idea that developing quality community partnerships had a positive influence on their success.

  9. Impact of an outright ban on the availability of commercial tanning services in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Sinclair, C; Cleaves, N; Dunstone, K; Makin, J; Zouzounis, S


    Australian states have introduced an outright ban on commercial artificial tanning sunbeds. This was based on evidence from systematic reviews affirming a strong association between tanning bed use and increased risk of melanoma. The implementation of the ban provides an opportunity to assess the effectiveness of the legislation in preventing access to artificial UV radiation. Compliance with the ban has been enforced and monitored by government departments. We additionally monitored online tanning bed advertisements before and after the ban, showing a decline over time in the number of sunbeds advertised for sale on and, from a peak of 115 advertisements in May 2014 to 50 or fewer per month from February 2015. There was also an increase in advertised price, with the percentage of sunbeds offered in Victoria on at higher than $2 000 increasing from around 25% between January and June 2014 to 65% in the quarter following the introduction of the ban. Advertisements on from individuals wishing to access a sunbed in a private home in Victoria increased from only isolated instances in the months immediately prior to the ban, to between 25 and 77 advertisements per month in the quarter following the ban. In summary, the introduction of an outright ban of commercial sunbeds has achieved a dramatic reduction in the availability of harmful artificial UV radiation sources in Australia. Long-term benefits to the health of the population and a reduction in costs to the health system are expected to result. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  10. A tephra chronostratigraphic framework for the Frontier Mountain blue-ice field (northern Victoria Land, Antarctica) (United States)

    Curzio, Pietro; Folco, Luigi; Ada Laurenzi, Marinella; Mellini, Marcello; Zeoli, Antonio


    Englacial tephra provide chronostratigraphic markers in the Antarctic ice sheets. Structural, mineralogical, geochemical and geochronological data on selected samples allowed the reconstruction of a chronostratigraphic framework for the Frontier Mountain blue-ice field—an important meteorite trap on the southeastern flank of Talos Dome in northern Victoria Land. The stratigraphic thickness of the blue-ice succession is ˜1150 m. The 40Ar- 39Ar age of one layer close to the stratigraphic bottom of the ice succession is 100±5 ka and constrains the maximum age of the bulk of Frontier Mountain blue ice. The 49±11 ka age of a second layer at a depth of ˜950 m in the stratigraphic succession indicates that >90% of the ice is younger than this value. These ages agree well with the terrestrial ages of meteorites found on the blue ice (up to 140±30 ka), suggesting a mechanism of exhumation of meteorites by ablation after englacial transport. Particle size (up to several tens of microns) and the alkaline compositional character of 22 layers allow correlation with source volcanoes within the Cenozoic magmatism associated with the West Antarctic Rift System. The proximal Mount Melbourne, Mount Rittman and The Pleiades (within a radius of ˜250 km) are the best candidate source volcanoes. The reconstructed chronostratigraphic framework thus lays the foundations for a detailed investigation of ˜100 ka of explosive volcanism in northern Victoria Land. Furthermore, in light of the ongoing ice core drilling project at Talos Dome, the Frontier Mountain ice succession may become important for establishing regional correlations, for sampling and dating key tephra layers, and for selecting ice successions for high-resolution studies of past atmospheric chemistry and fallout.

  11. Biological Diversity and Resilience: Lessons from the Recovery of Cichlid Species in Lake Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex O. Awiti


    Full Text Available A fundamental feature of the Anthropocene is the inexorable erosion of the self-repairing capacity or adaptive renewal of natural systems because of natural perturbation, exploitation, or management failure. The concept of resilience offers a systematic framework for understanding the dynamics and variables that govern response dynamics of ecosystems. Resilience of haplochromine cichlids is assessed using limnological and biodiversity changes in Lake Victoria, the world's second largest freshwater lake, over the last five decades. The review explores the resurgence of the haplochromine cichlids using Holling's adaptive renewal cycle and attempts to illustrate how resilience-based management approaches might learn from an inadvertent management experiment. The introduction in the 1980s of the Nile perch (Lates niloticus, a fecund and voracious predator of the endemic phytoplankton feeding haplochromine cichlids, anthropogenic eutrophication, and deep water hypoxia have combined in a synergistic way to increase the vulnerability of the lake ecosystem to perturbations that were hitherto absorbed. However, the upsurge in commercial Nile perch fishing appears to be enabling the resurgence of the haplochromine cichlids. The resurgence of haplochromine cichlids is characterized by phenotypic plasticity, ecological and life history traits and demonstrates the critical role of response diversity in the maintenance of systems resilience. Resilience of the haplochromine cichlids resides in the requisite functional response diversity and habitat diversity that provide the resources for renewal and regeneration. This paper concludes that management of Nile perch fisheries and control of nutrient loading into Lake Victoria could halt or reverse eutrophication, hence offer the best promise for a diverse, productive, and resilient social-ecological system.

  12. Tradução para o Português de Queen Victoria in Her Letters and Journals de Christopher Hibbert


    Monteiro, Caroline Feital


    A presente dissertação de mestrado tem como um dos objetivos produzir a tradução para o português de quatro seções da obra Queen Victoria in her letters and journals/ A Rainha Victoria em suas cartas e diários de Christopher Hibbert, publicada pela editora Sutton Publishing Limited na Inglaterra em 2000. Nas seções Queen regnant, Family life, Monarchs and ministers e ‘Frequent difficulties’, as anotações e as cartas da Rainha Victoria (1819-1901) da Inglaterra apresentam um pouco de história ...

  13. Biogenic Silica and Carbon 14 Age Dates from Lake Victoria Cruise V95 Cores (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The LLO operates in conjunction with the Limnological Research Center (LRC) in working towards fulfilling the objectives of the International Decade for the East...

  14. Wada basin boundaries and basin cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nusse, H.E.; Yorke, J.A.


    In dynamical systems examples are common in which two or more attractors coexist, and in such cases the basin boundary is nonempty. We consider a two-dimensional diffeomorphism F (that is, F is an invertible map and both F and its inverse are differentiable with continuous derivatives), which has at

  15. Regional initiatives in support of surveillance in East Africa: The East Africa Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet) Experience. (United States)

    Ope, Maurice; Sonoiya, Stanley; Kariuki, James; Mboera, Leonard E G; Gandham, Ramana N V; Schneidman, Miriam; Kimura, Mwihaki


    The East African Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet) was formed in response to a growing frequency of cross-border malaria outbreaks in the 1990s and a growing recognition that fragmented disease interventions, coupled with weak laboratory capacity, were making it difficult to respond in a timely manner to the outbreaks of malaria and other infectious diseases. The East Africa Community (EAC) partner states, with financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation, established EAIDSNet in 2000 to develop and strengthen the communication channels necessary for integrated cross-border disease surveillance and control efforts. The objective of this paper is to review the regional EAIDSNet initiative and highlight achievements and challenges in its implementation. Major accomplishments of EAIDSNet include influencing the establishment of a Department of Health within the EAC Secretariat to support a regional health agenda; successfully completing a regional field simulation exercise in pandemic influenza preparedness; and piloting a web-based portal for linking animal and human health disease surveillance. The strategic direction of EAIDSNet was shaped, in part, by lessons learned following a visit to the more established Mekong Basin Disease Surveillance (MBDS) regional network. Looking to the future, EAIDSNet is collaborating with the East, Central and Southern Africa Health Community (ECSA-HC), EAC partner states, and the World Health Organization to implement the World Bank-funded East Africa Public Health Laboratory Networking Project (EAPHLNP). The network has also begun lobbying East African countries for funding to support EAIDSNet activities.

  16. Rainfall forecast in the Upper Mahaweli basin in Sri Lanka using RegCM model (United States)

    Muhammadh, K. M.; Mafas, M. M. M.; Weerakoon, S. B.


    The Upper Mahaweli basin is the upper most sub basin of 788 km2 in size above Polgolla barrage in the Mahaweli River, the longest river in Sri Lanka which starts from the central hills of the island and drains to the sea at the North-east coast. Rainfall forecast in the Upper Mahaweli basin is important for issuing flood warning in the river downstream of the reservoirs, landslide warning in the settlements in hilly areas. Anticipatory water management in the basin including reservoir operations, barrage gate operation for releasing water for irrigation and flood control also require reliable rainfall and runoff prediction in the sub basin. In this study, the Regional Climate Model (RegCM V4.4.5.11) is calibrated for the basin to dynamically downscale reanalysis weather data of Global Climate Model (GCM) to forecast the rainfall in the basin. Observed rainfalls at gauging stations within the basin were used for model calibration and validation. The observed rainfall data was analysed using ARC GIS and the output of RegCM was analysed using GrADS tool. The output of the model and the observed precipitation were obtained on grids of size 0.1 degrees and the accuracy of the predictions were analysed using RMSE and Mean Model Absolute Error percentage (MAME %). The predictions by the calibrated RegCM model for the basin is shown to be satisfactory. The model is a useful tool for rainfall forecast in the Upper Mahaweli River basin.

  17. Recycling an uplifted early foreland basin fill: An example from the Jaca basin (Southern Pyrenees, Spain) (United States)

    Roigé, M.; Gómez-Gras, D.; Remacha, E.; Boya, S.; Viaplana-Muzas, M.; Teixell, A.


    In the northern Jaca basin (Southern Pyrenees), the replacement of deep-marine by terrestrial environments during the Eocene records a main drainage reorganization in the active Pyrenean pro-wedge, which leads to recycling of earlier foreland basin sediments. The onset of late Eocene-Oligocene terrestrial sedimentation is represented by four main alluvial fans: Santa Orosia, Canciás, Peña Oroel and San Juan de la Peña, which appear diachronously from east to west. These alluvial fans are the youngest preserved sediments deposited in the basin. We provide new data on sediment composition and sources for the late Eocene-Oligocene alluvial fans and precursor deltas of the Jaca basin. Sandstone petrography allows identification of the interplay of axially-fed sediments from the east with transversely-fed sediments from the north. Compositional data for the alluvial fans reflects a dominating proportion of recycled rock fragments derived from the erosion of a lower to middle Eocene flysch depocentre (the Hecho Group), located immediately to the north. In addition, pebble composition allows identification of a source in the North Pyrenean Zone that provided lithologies from the Cretaceous carbonate flysch, Jurassic dolostones and Triassic dolerites. Thus we infer this zone as part of the source area, located in the headwaters, which would have been unroofed from turbidite deposits during the late Eocene-Oligocene. These conclusions provide new insights on the response of drainage networks to uplift and topographic growth of the Pyrenees, where the water divide migrated southwards to its present day location.

  18. South American sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urien, C.M.


    More than 64 sedimentary basins have been identified on the South American continent. According to their regional structural character and tectonic setting, they are classified in 4 super groups. About 20 interior or intracratonic basins occur on South American cratons (Guayanas, Brazilian, and Patagonian). In most cases, their sedimentary fill is Paleozoic or early Mesozoic. Rift or transverse grabens resulting from incipient sea floor spreading extend towards the continental margin. Seventeen basins are located along the Atlantic stable margin, and consist primarily of half grabens with downfaulted seaward blocks. These rifts (or pull-apart basins) were separated as results of the migration of the African and American continental blocks. Therefore the sedimentation is chiefly Cretaceous and Tertiary. On the western edge of South American cratons, almost 20 basins of downwarped blocks extend from Orinoco down to the Malvinas plateau in a relatively uninterrupted chain of retroarc basins, bordered by the Andean orogen. They lie on a flexured Precambrian and Paleozoic basement, and are highly deformed in the west (Subandean belt) due to the action of compressional forces caused by the tectonic influence of the Mesozoic Andean batholith. Westward, the Pacific margin is bordered by 27 foreland and forearc basins, which alternate from north to south on an unstable or quasistable margin, fringed by a trench and slope complex where the ocean crust is subducted beneath the continental plate.

  19. K Basin sludge dissolution engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westra, A.G.


    The purpose of this engineering study is to investigate the available technology related to dissolution of the K Basin sludge in nitric acid. The conclusion of this study along with laboratory and hot cell tests with actual sludge samples will provide the basis for beginning conceptual design of the sludge dissolver. The K Basin sludge contains uranium oxides, fragments of metallic U, and some U hydride as well as ferric oxyhydroxide, aluminum oxides and hydroxides, windblown sand that infiltrated the basin enclosure, ion exchange resin, and miscellaneous materials. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be conditioned so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System waste acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the underground storage tanks. Sludge conditioning will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and then reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. There will be five distinct feed streams to the sludge conditioning process two from the K East (KE) Basin and three from the K West (KW) Basin. The composition of the floor and pit sludges which contain more iron oxides and sand than uranium is much different than the canister sludges which are composed of mostly uranium oxides. The sludge conditioning equipment will be designed to process all of the sludge streams, but some of the operating parameters will be adjusted as necessary to handle the different sludge stream compositions. The volume of chemical additions and the amount of undissolved solids will be much different for floor and pit sludge than for canister sludge. Dissolution of uranium metal and uranium dioxide has been studied quite thoroughly and much information is available. Both uranium metal and uranium dioxide have been dissolved on a large scale in nuclear fuel

  20. The Tana River Basin and the opportunity for research on the land-ocean interaction in the Tana Delta


    Kitheka, Johnson U.; Ongwenyi, George S.


    The Tana River basin is one of the five main drainage basins in the Republic of Kenya. In terms of river discharge, it is one of the largest and also one of the most important drainage basins. It occupies about 23% of the total land area and contributes 32% of the total river runoff in Kenya. The basin is composed of the vast eastern plateau forelands, which sprawl between the Central Kenya Highlands to the west and the coastal strip on the east. The river flows down a gentle slope towards th...