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Sample records for victims

  1. Mean ages of homicide victims and victims of homicide-suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, F Stephen; Tankersley, William B

    2010-02-01

    Using Riedel and Zahn's 1994 reformatted version of an FBI database, the mean age of homicide victims in 2,175 homicide-suicides (4,350 deaths) was compared with that of all other victims of homicides reported for the USA from 1968 to 1975. The overall mean age of homicide victims in homicide-suicides was 1 yr. greater than for victims of homicides not followed by suicides, whereas the mean age for both male and female homicide-suicide victims was, respectively, 3 yr. less and greater than the other homicide victims. The mean age of Black homicide victims of homicide-suicides was 2.4 yr. less than that for Black victims of other homicides, whereas the means for Black and White male homicide victims in homicide-suicides were, respectively, about 4 and 5 yr. less than for victims of other homicides. Also, the mean age of White female homicide victims in homicide-suicides was more than two years greater than for female victims of homicides not followed by suicides. When both sex and race were considered, the mean age for those killed in homicide-suicides relative to those killed in homicides not followed by suicides may represent subpopulations with different mean ages of victims.

  2. Men as victims: "victim" identities, gay identities, and masculinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Peter

    2012-11-01

    The impact and meanings of homophobic violence on gay men's identities are explored with a particular focus on their identities as men and as gay men. Homosexuality can pose a challenge to conventional masculinities, and for some gay men, being victimized on account of sexual orientation reawakens conflicts about their masculinity that they thought they had resolved. Being victimized can reinvoke shame that is rooted in failure or unwillingness to uphold masculine norms. For some gay men, victimization therefore has connotations of nonmasculinity that make being a victim an undesirable status, yet that status must be claimed to obtain a response from criminal justice or victim services. Men who experience homophobic abuse are helped by accepting a victim identity, but only if they can quickly move on from it by reconstructing a masculine gay (nonvictim) identity. This process can be facilitated by agencies such as the police and victim services, provided they help men exercise agency in "fighting back," that is, resisting further victimization and recovering.

  3. Predicting Rape Victim Empathy Based on Rape Victimization and Acknowledgment Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Suzanne L

    2016-06-01

    Two studies examined rape victim empathy based on personal rape victimization and acknowledgment labeling. Female undergraduates (Study 1, n = 267; Study 2, n = 381) from a Northeast U.S. midsize public university completed the Rape-Victim Empathy Scale and Sexual Experiences Survey. As predicted, both studies found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than unacknowledged victims and nonvictims. Unexpectedly, these latter two groups did not differ. Study 1 also found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than victims who acknowledged being "sexually victimized." Findings suggest that being raped and acknowledging "rape" together may facilitate rape victim empathy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Immigrants as crime victims: Experiences of personal nonfatal victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Krista; Zhao, Weiyan; Kelleher, Kelly; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun

    2010-04-01

    Immigrants to the United States are disproportionately victims of homicide mortality in and outside the workplace. Examining their experiences with nonfatal victimization may be helpful in understanding immigrant vulnerability to violence. We compared the annual prevalence of nonfatal personal victimization experienced by immigrant and US-born adults by sociodemographics, employment, occupation, industry, smoking, alcohol and drug use using data from Wave 1 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The prevalence of victimization among immigrants was comparable to that among US-born adults [3.84% (95% CI: 3.18-4.63) vs. 4.10% (95% CI: 3.77-4.44)]. Lower percentages of victimization experienced by immigrants were seen among the unmarried, those age 30-44 years, and among residents of central city areas as compared to those groups among the US-born. For immigrants entering the US as youth, the victimization prevalence declines with greater years of residency in US. Multivariate logistic regression models suggest that, the odds of victimization was significantly associated with age, family income, marital status, central city residency, smoking, and drug use while employment status was not a significant factor. Immigrant workers with farming/forestry occupations might face a higher risk of being victims of violence than their US-born counterparts. The prevalence of victimization among immigrants was comparable to that among US-born adults. Employment status and industry/occupation overall were not significant risk factors for becoming victims of violence. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Childhood Victimization and Crime Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…

  6. Moral reasoning and emotion attributions of adolescent bullies, victims, and bully-victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perren, Sonja; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline; Malti, Tina; Hymel, Shelley

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated different facets of moral development in bullies, victims, and bully-victims among Swiss adolescents. Extending previous research, we focused on both bullying and victimization in relation to adolescents' morally disengaged and morally responsible reasoning as well as moral emotion attributions. A total of 516 adolescents aged 12-18 (57% females) reported the frequency of involvement in bullying and victimization. Participants were categorized as bullies (14.3%), bully-victims (3.9%), and victims (9.7%). Moral judgment, moral justifications, and emotion attributions to a hypothetical perpetrator of a moral transgression (relational aggression) were assessed. Bullies showed more morally disengaged reasoning than non-involved students. Bully-victims more frequently indicated that violating moral rules is right. Victims produced more victim-oriented justifications (i.e., more empathy) but fewer moral rules. Among victims, the frequency of morally responsible justifications decreased and the frequency of deviant rules increased with age. The findings are discussed from an integrative moral developmental perspective. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Victimization experiences and adolescent substance use: does the type and degree of victimization matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchevsky, Gillian M; Fagan, Abigail A; Wright, Emily M

    2014-01-01

    Evidence indicates an association between victimization and adolescent substance use, but the exact nature of this relationship remains unclear. Some research focuses solely on the consequences of experiencing indirect victimization (e.g., witnessing violence), others examine direct victimization (e.g., being personally victimized), and still others combine both forms of victimization without assessing the relative impact of each on substance use. Furthermore, many of these studies only assess these relationships in the short-term using cross-sectional data. This study uses data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to explore the impact of experiencing only indirect victimization, only direct victimization, both forms of victimization, and no victimization on substance use at two time points during adolescence. We find that of those adolescents who are victimized, the majority experience indirect victimization only, followed by experiencing both forms of victimization, and experiencing direct victimization only. Each of the victimization experiences were associated with increased contemporaneous substance use, with the strongest effects for those experiencing multiple forms of violence. For all victims, however, the impact on substance use declined over time.

  8. Victimization Experiences and the Stabilization of Victim Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eGollwitzer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available People reliably differ in the extent to which they are sensitive to being victimized by others. Importantly, victim sensitivity predicts how people behave in social dilemma situations: Victim-sensitive individuals are less likely to trust others and more likely to behave uncooperatively - especially in socially uncertain situations. This pattern can be explained with the Sensitivity to Mean Intentions (SeMI model, according to which victim sensitivity entails a specific and asymmetric sensitivity to contextual cues that are associated with untrustworthiness. Recent research is largely in line with the model’s prediction, but some issues have remained conceptually unresolved so far. For instance, it is unclear why and how victim sensitivity becomes a stable trait and which developmental and cognitive processes are involved in such stabilization. In the present article, we will discuss the psychological processes that contribute to a stabilization of victim sensitivity within persons, both across the life span (ontogenetic stabilization and across social situations (actual-genetic stabilization. Our theoretical framework starts from the assumption that experiences of being exploited threaten a basic need, the need to trust. This need is so fundamental that experiences that threaten it receive a considerable amount of attention and trigger strong affective reactions. Associative learning processes can then explain (a how certain contextual cues (e.g., facial expressions become conditioned stimuli that elicit equally strong responses, (b why these contextual untrustworthiness cues receive much more attention than, for instance, trustworthiness cues, and (c how these cues shape spontaneous social expectations (regarding other people’s intentions. Finally, avoidance learning can explain why these cognitive processes gradually stabilize and become a trait: the trait which is referred to as victim sensitivity.

  9. Bullies, Victims, and Bully/Victims: Distinct Groups of At-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Denise L.; Nasel, Tonja; Eitel, Patricia; Crump, Aria Davis; Saylor, Keith; Yu, Kai; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed middle school students on incidents of bullying and victimization. Found that psychosocial and behavioral predictors such as problem behaviors, attitudes toward deviance, peer influences, depressive symptoms, school-related functioning, and parenting linearly separated never bullied or victimized students from the victim group, from the…

  10. Psychosocial profile of bullies, victims, and bully-victims: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie eLeiner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While adverse conditions in a child’s life do not excuse inappropriate behavior, they may cause emotional and behavioral problems that require treatment as a preventive measure to reduce the likelihood of bullying. We aimed to identify differences in the psychosocial profiles of adolescents who classified themselves as bullies, victims, or bully-victims. We performed a cross-sectional study in which data were collected between January 2009 and January 2010 from seven university-based clinics in a large metropolitan area with a predominantly Mexican-American population. We collected data on physical aggression among adolescents who self-categorized into the following groups: uninvolved, bullies, victims, and bully-victims. We determined the psychosocial profiles of the adolescents based on responses to the Youth Self Report (YSR and parent’s responses to the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. A one-way analysis of variance and multivariate regression analyses were performed to compare the various components of the psychosocial profiles among the groups. Our analysis of the CBCL and the YSR assessments identified differences between the uninvolved group and one or more of the other groups. No significant differences were observed among the bully, victim, and bully-victim groups based on the CBCL. We did find significant differences among those groups based on the YSR, however. Our results suggest that emotional and behavioral problems exist among bullies, victims, and bully-victims. Therefore, treatment should not focus only on the victims of bullying; treatment is equally important for the other groups (bullies and bully-victims. Failure to adequately treat the underlying problems experienced by all three groups of individuals could allow the problems of bullying to continue.

  11. Child victims and poly-victims in China: are they more at-risk of family violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2014-11-01

    Multiple forms of violence may co-occur on a child. These may include various forms of child victimization and different types of family violence. However, evidence that child victims are more likely to witness other types of family violence has been lacking in China. Using data of a large and diverse sample of children recruited from 6 regions in China during 2009 and 2010 (N=18,341; 47% girls; mean age=15.9 years), the associations between child victimization and family violence witnessed were examined. Descriptive statistics and the associations between child victimization, demographic characteristics, and family violence witnessed were analyzed. Lifetime and preceding-year rates were 71.7% and 60.0% for any form of child victimization and 14.0% and 9.2% for poly-victimization (having four or more types of victimization), respectively. Family disadvantages (i.e., lower socio-economic status, single parents, and having more than one child in the family) were associated with child victimization and poly-victimization. Witnessing of parental intimate partner violence, elder abuse, and in-law conflict also increased the likelihood of child victimization and poly-victimization, even after the adjustment of demographic factors. Possible mechanisms for the links between family violence and child victimization are discussed. The current findings indicated the need for focusing on the whole family rather than the victim only. For example, screening for different types of family violence when child victims are identified may help early detection of other victims within the family. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Victimization Experiences and Adolescent Substance Use: Does the Type and Degree of Victimization Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; Fagan, Abigail A.; Wright, Emily M.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence indicates an association between victimization and adolescent substance use, but the exact nature of this relationship remains unclear. Some research focuses solely on the consequences of experiencing indirect victimization (e.g., witnessing violence), others examine direct victimization (e.g., being personally victimized), and still others combine both forms of victimization without assessing the relative impact of each on substance use. Furthermore, many of these studies only asses...

  13. Understanding victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show...... that the probability of being victimized is increasing in income, but at a diminishing rate. The effect of income is dependent on the type of crime, and poorer households are vulnerable. While less at risk of victimization, they suffer relatively greater losses when such shocks occur. Lower inequality and increased...... community level employment emerge as effective avenues to less crime...

  14. Reporting Crime Victimizations to the Police and the Incidence of Future Victimizations: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranapurwala, Shabbar I; Berg, Mark T; Casteel, Carri

    2016-01-01

    Law enforcement depends on cooperation from the public and crime victims to protect citizens and maintain public safety; however, many crimes are not reported to police because of fear of repercussions or because the crime is considered trivial. It is unclear how police reporting affects the incidence of future victimization. To evaluate the association between reporting victimization to police and incident future victimization. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using National Crime Victimization Survey 2008-2012 data. Participants were 12+ years old household members who may or may not be victimized, were followed biannually for 3 years, and who completed at least one follow-up survey after their first reported victimization between 2008 and 2012. Crude and adjusted generalized linear mixed regression for survey data with Poisson link were used to compare rates of future victimization. Out of 18,657 eligible participants, 41% participants reported to their initial victimization to police and had a future victimization rate of 42.8/100 person-years (PY) (95% CI: 40.7, 44.8). The future victimization rate of those who did not report to the police (59%) was 55.0/100 PY (95% CI: 53.0, 57.0). The adjusted rate ratio comparing police reporting to not reporting was 0.78 (95%CI: 0.72, 0.84) for all future victimizations, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.90) for interpersonal violence, 0.73 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.78) for thefts, and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.07) for burglaries. Reporting victimization to police is associated with fewer future victimization, underscoring the importance of police reporting in crime prevention. This association may be attributed to police action and victim services provisions resulting from reporting.

  15. Victim-induced criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooner, M

    1966-09-02

    In summary, there are certain issues that need to be dealt with if a coherent system of victim compensation is to be created. 1) Is the victim's entitlement to compensation qualified by his behavior in connection with the crime? If a Texas tycoon visits a clip joint, flashes a fat roll of bills, and gets hit on the head and rolled, is he entitled to compensation? If a man enters into a liaison with another's wife and gets shot by the husband, should his dependents be compensated? If a woman goes walking alone in a disreputable neighborhood and is assaulted, is she entitled to compensation? Unless the answer to such questions is a flat "yes," the adjudication of victim compensation as a "right" would be embarkation upon a vast sea of confusion. On the surface it may seem simpler to bypass the issue of "right" and declare for victim compensation as a matter of social policy-a logical extension of the welfare state approach. But the apparent simplicity may quickly prove illusory, in light of the second issue. 2) Is the victim's entitlement to compensation on the basis of indigency to be qualified by the requirement that an offender be apprehended and his guilt determined by a court? There are two levels to this problem. First, if a severely injured man reports to police that he has been mugged and robbed and if the police cannot apprehend a suspect, how is the administrator of compensation to know that the man is in fact the victim of a crime? The administrator of compensation must determine whether the episode was a criminal act or an argument-and who started it, and who precipitated the violence. What shall be the role of the witnesses, and of investigators? More important is the second level of the problem: How will law-enforcement of ficials and the courts evaluate the testimony of the victim if compensation of the victim may be at stake? In the evaluation of proposals for victim compensation, criminologists may need to think very hard about such questions and

  16. Moral Reasoning and Emotion Attributions of Adolescent Bullies, Victims, and Bully-Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perren, Sonja; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline; Malti, Tina; Hymel, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated different facets of moral development in bullies, victims, and bully-victims among Swiss adolescents. Extending previous research, we focused on both bullying and victimization in relation to adolescents' morally disengaged and morally responsible reasoning as well as moral emotion attributions. A total of 516 adolescents…

  17. Digital poly-victimization: The increasing importance of online crime and harassment to the burden of victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamby, Sherry; Blount, Zach; Smith, Alli; Jones, Lisa; Mitchell, Kimberly; Taylor, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Many forms of victimization, including bullying and property crime, are increasingly moving online, but most studies of poly-victimization still primarily focus on in-person crime and violence. Few studies have examined the importance of incorporating technology-based victimizations for assessing the true burden of violence. The purpose of this study is to explore whether digital poly-victimization contributes to post-traumatic stress and anxiety/dysphoria symptoms after controlling for in-person poly-victimization. Given that technology use and technology-based victimization are changing rapidly, a mixed methods approach was adopted. In the first two phases, focus groups and cognitive interviews (89 total participants) were used to identify the range of digital victimization and develop the Digital Poly-Victimization Scale. In the third phase, the new measure was included in a community survey (n = 478, 57.5% female; 62.6% earning under $50,000 per year) in a rural Southern region, along with measures of in-person poly-victimization, posttraumatic stress and anxiety/dysphoria symptoms, and other outcomes and personal characteristics. A comprehensive measure of digital poly-victimization indicated that almost 3 in 4 participants (72.3%) had experienced at least one form of digital victimization. The results indicated that digital poly-victimization contributed unique variance to post-traumatic stress and anxiety/dysphoria symptoms (p Digital victimization often presents fewer risks to perpetrators and can be expected to represent an increasing share of the societal burden of violence. Future research on poly-victimization should pay more attention to the role of digital victimization.

  18. A victim-centered approach to justice? Victim satisfaction effects on third-party punishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromet, Dena M; Okimoto, Tyler G; Wenzel, Michael; Darley, John M

    2012-10-01

    Three studies investigated whether victims' satisfaction with a restorative justice process influenced third-party assignments of punishment. Participants evaluated criminal offenses and victims' reactions to an initial restorative justice conference, and were later asked to indicate their support for additional punishment of the offender. Across the three studies, we found that victim satisfaction (relative to dissatisfaction) attenuates people's desire to seek offender punishment, regardless of offense severity (Study 2) or conflicting reports from a third-party observer (Study 3). This relationship was explained by the informational value of victim satisfaction: Participants inferred that victims felt closure and that offenders experienced value reform, both of which elevated participants' satisfaction with the restorative justice outcome. The informational value communicated by victim satisfaction, and its criminal justice implications, are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. When and Why We See Victims as Responsible: The Impact of Ideology on Attitudes Toward Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Laura; Young, Liane

    2016-09-01

    Why do victims sometimes receive sympathy for their suffering and at other times scorn and blame? Here we show a powerful role for moral values in attitudes toward victims. We measured moral values associated with unconditionally prohibiting harm ("individualizing values") versus moral values associated with prohibiting behavior that destabilizes groups and relationships ("binding values": loyalty, obedience to authority, and purity). Increased endorsement of binding values predicted increased ratings of victims as contaminated (Studies 1-4); increased blame and responsibility attributed to victims, increased perceptions of victims' (versus perpetrators') behaviors as contributing to the outcome, and decreased focus on perpetrators (Studies 2-3). Patterns persisted controlling for politics, just world beliefs, and right-wing authoritarianism. Experimentally manipulating linguistic focus off of victims and onto perpetrators reduced victim blame. Both binding values and focus modulated victim blame through victim responsibility attributions. Findings indicate the important role of ideology in attitudes toward victims via effects on responsibility attribution. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  20. Cyber-Victimized Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn N. Ryan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is a common topic in the media and academic settings. Teachers are regularly expected to provide curriculum and intervene regarding all forms of bullying, including cyber-bullying. Altering the behaviors of those who bully is often the focus of interventions, with less attention being placed on victim impact. The purpose of this article was to provide educators with a review of evidence regarding the occurrence, impact, and interventions for victims of cyber-bullying. Evidence reveals that cyber-bullying can have emotional, social, and academic impacts but that there are very few documented, and even fewer evidence-based, programs for victims of cyber-bullying. We conclude by proposing that school-wide programs and support be developed and provided to victims.

  1. La victime, acteur de la sécurité ? / The victim, a security actor ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieu François

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available What is the position of the victim in security policy? Only recently has the victim been the object, in France and elsewhere, of considerable attention by the social system, which has taken into account the different aspects of victimization. However, the victim is only partially associated to actions led in this domain, either as a source of data on the state of delinquency through public meetings and victimization surveys, or as an auxiliary to prevention with measure of community and situational prevention.Quelle est la place de la victime dans les politiques de sécurité ? Ce n’est que très récemment que la victime a fait l’objet, en France comma ailleurs, d’une attention plus soutenue de la part du système social, avec le développement d’une meilleure prise en charge des différents aspects de la victimisation. Pour autant, la victime n’est associée que très partiellement aux actions conduites en ce domaine, soit comme source de données sur l’état de la délinquance au moyen de réunions publiques et d’enquête de victimation, soit comme auxiliaire de la prévention avec les dispositifs de prévention communautaire et situationnelle.

  2. Victim derogation and victim enhancement as alternate routes to system justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Aaron C; Jost, John T; Young, Sean

    2005-03-01

    Abstract-Numerous studies have documented the potential for victim-blaming attributions to justify the status quo. Recent work suggests that complementary, victim-enhancing stereotypes may also increase support for existing social arrangements. We seek to reconcile these seemingly contradictory findings by proposing that victim derogation and victim enhancement are alternate routes to system justification, with the preferred route depending on the perception of a causal link between trait and outcome. Derogating "losers" (and lionizing "winners") on traits (e.g., intelligence) that are causally related to outcomes (e.g., wealth vs. poverty) serves to increase system justification, as does compensating "losers" (and downgrading "winners") on traits (e.g., physical attractiveness) that are causally unrelated to those outcomes. We provide converging evidence using system-threat and stereotype-activation paradigms.

  3. The dilemmas of victim positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorte Marie Søndergaard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article centres on some of the dilemmas contained within victim positioning. Such dilemmas are often overlooked by the authorities involved with people subjected to relational aggression. 2 For example, when teachers rule out cases of bullying because the victim has 'participated in' or 'laughed at' some of the bullies' initiatives, or when a rape victim's status as a victim is questioned because, in the lead up to the assault, she was supposedly friendly to the rapist. In these cases, it could be useful to explore the reason for the bullying victim's apparent collusion or to better understand the premises for the rape victim's positioning options in relation to the perpetrator. In other words, it could be fruitful to explore the dynamics and dilemmas of the victim position. In this article, I aim to reflect on the motivational conditions of the victim phenomenon. These reflections are based on an analysis of qualitative data produced through interviews with school children as well as on relevant secondary literature.

  4. Exploring the Characteristics of Personal Victims Using the National Crime Victimization Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jairam, Shashi

    1998-01-01

    .... Two statistical methods were used to investigate these hypotheses, logistical regression for victimization prevalence, and negative binomial regression for victimization incidence and concentration...

  5. Is sexual victimization gender specific?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundaram, Vanita; Laursen, Bjarne; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the prevalence of sexual victimization and correlations between sexual victimization and indicators of poor health in two representative samples of men and women in Denmark. Specifically, the authors explore the prevalence of self-reported victimization among...... adolescents (N = 5,829) and adults (N = 3,932) and analyze differences in self-reported health outcomes between male and female victims and corresponding controls. Gender differences are found in the reported prevalence of sexual victimization. Significantly more females than males reported forced sexual...... experiences in both samples. Associations between sexual victimization and poor health outcomes are found for both genders. Comparable patterns of association for men and women are found on a number of variables, particularly those pertaining to risk behavior....

  6. Sexual minority youth victimization and social support: the intersection of sexuality, gender, race, and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Deeanna M; O'Connell, Daniel J; Gealt, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    In comparison to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth are more likely to experience victimization. Multiple studies have connected anti-gay prejudice and anti-gay victimization to negative outcomes. Research shows that social support may protect sexual minorities from the harmful effects of anti-gay victimization. However, rates of victimization and the negative outcomes linked to sexual identity within the sexual minority community have been relatively unexplored. Using data from three years of statewide data from heterosexual and sexual minority adolescents in grades 9-12, this study examines victimization, substance use, suicidality, and access to social support by sexuality. Results indicate that sexual minority youth are at increased risk for victimization, substance use, suicidality, and social isolation compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Results also indicate that there is very little bivariate difference within the sexual minority community. Multivariate results indicate differences among sexual minorities' experiences with victimization and substance use.

  7. When a victim becomes violent perpetrator: Violent victimization in childhood, violent criminal behavior in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevković Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous international research has identified that direct or indirect exposure to violent victimization in a familial context during childhood is a risk factor for violent criminal behavior of victimized children in adulthood. Studies of violent victimization of children in Serbia are rare, and are mostly directed at determining the prevalence, the main characteristics of or the immediate physical, psychological and behavioral consequences of victimization. Empirical analysis of the criminological consequences of early violent victimization in adulthood are an exception in scientific studies in Serbia. The aim of the paper is to present the results of research into the influence of early violent victimization on violent crime of adult men and women. After the introduction a brief overview of the worldwide research confirming the correlation between the experience of violent victimization and subsequent violent behavior is given. The results of the research conducted by the author will then be discussed. The results illustrate the possibility of predicting violent criminal behavior in adulthood based on indicators of direct and indirect victimization in childhood. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179044: Razvoj metodologije evidentiranja kriminaliteta kao osnova kreiranja efikasnih mera za njegovo suzbijanje i prevenciju

  8. Parenting behavior and the risk of becoming a victim and a bully/victim: a meta-analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Samara, Muthanna; Wolke, Dieter

    2013-12-01

    Being bullied has adverse effects on children's health. Children's family experiences and parenting behavior before entering school help shape their capacity to adapt and cope at school and have an impact on children's peer relationship, hence it is important to identify how parenting styles and parent-child relationship are related to victimization in order to develop intervention programs to prevent or mitigate victimization in childhood and adolescence. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature on parenting behavior and peer victimization using MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Eric and EMBASE from 1970 through the end of December 2012. We included prospective cohort studies and cross-sectional studies that investigated the association between parenting behavior and peer victimization. Both victims and those who both bully and are victims (bully/victims) were more likely to be exposed to negative parenting behavior including abuse and neglect and maladaptive parenting. The effects were generally small to moderate for victims (Hedge's g range: 0.10-0.31) but moderate for bully/victims (0.13-0.68). Positive parenting behavior including good communication of parents with the child, warm and affectionate relationship, parental involvement and support, and parental supervision were protective against peer victimization. The protective effects were generally small to moderate for both victims (Hedge's g: range: -0.12 to -0.22) and bully/victims (-0.17 to -0.42). Negative parenting behavior is related to a moderate increase of risk for becoming a bully/victim and small to moderate effects on victim status at school. Intervention programs against bullying should extend their focus beyond schools to include families and start before children enter school. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sudden death victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceelen, Manon; van der Werf, Christian; Hendrix, Anneke; Naujocks, Tatjana; Woonink, Frits; de Vries, Philip; van der Wal, Allard; Das, Kees

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to ascertain accordance between cause of death established by the forensic physician and autopsy results in young sudden death victims in the Netherlands. Sudden death victims aged 1-45 years examined by forensic physicians operating in the participating regions which also

  10. A latent class analysis of bullies, victims and aggressive victims in Chinese adolescence: relations with social and school adjustments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihui Shao

    Full Text Available This study used the latent class analysis (LCA to identify and classify Chinese adolescent children's aggressive behaviors. It was found that (1 Adolescent children could be divided into four categories: general children, aggressive children, victimized children and aggressive victimized children. (2 There were significant gender differences among the aggressive victimized children, the aggressive children and the general children. Specifically, aggressive victimized children and aggressive children had greater probabilities of being boys; victimized children had equal probabilities of being boys or girls. (3 Significant differences in loneliness, depression, anxiety and academic achievement existed among the aggressive victims, the aggressor, the victims and the general children, in which the aggressive victims scored the worst in all questionnaires. (4 As protective factors, peer and teacher supports had important influences on children's aggressive and victimized behaviors. Relative to general children, aggressive victims, aggressive children and victimized children had lower probabilities of receiving peer supports. On the other hand, compared to general children, aggressive victims had lower probabilities of receiving teacher supports; while significant differences in the probability of receiving teacher supports did not exist between aggressive children and victimized children.

  11. [Minor Victims of Violent Acts in the Context of the Victim Reparation Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Katharina; Kröger, Christoph; Franke, Stefanie; Wehrmeyer, Matthias; Heinrichs, Nina

    2018-03-01

    A descriptive analysis of victim compensation applications for children and adolescents as well as sociodemographic and trauma-specific information concerning victims and perpetrators. We did analysis of 100 victim-compensation application files based on a self-developed category system. The files included solely interpersonal trauma, 59 % of which are type II trauma. The most frequent form is sexual violence. The perpetrators stem mostly from children’s homes or peripherals. 79 % of the victims received a diagnosis of a mental disorder, most often posttraumatic stress disorder. Sexually abused children and adolescents make up the majority of the target population in OEG-related trauma outpatient units. Such outpatient units should therefore offer a specific expertise in treating sexually abused children and adolescents.

  12. Victims of cyberstalking in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević-Lepojević Marina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present research findings on prevalence and characteristics of cyberstalking in Serbia. A web-based questionnaire was used to collect data from a group of respondents who were recruited by snowball sampling via e-mail. A total of 237 respondents completed the online questionnaire. The aim of the first part of this paper is to determine the notion of cyberstalking as well as, to review research about the prevalence and the nature of stalking. The main results are the following: 39,6 % of respondents reported stalking; every fourth stalking victim is a victims of cyberstalking; mostly, cyberstalking victims were female and perpetrators were male. Victims were stalked by: persistent sending of unwanted e-mails and telephone calls, spreading rumors, abusive and negative comments and threats, encouraged other users to harass, threaten or insult, manipulating with victim's personal data, sending malicious programs and files, etc. In Serbia, cyberstalking is not criminalized yet and there are no organizations to whom victims may appeal and ask for help. We are hoping that this research will raise the awareness on cyberstalking and serve as a base for further research and legal reforms regarding cyberstalking victimization in Serbia.

  13. Secondary victims of rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Bak, Rikke; Elklit, Ask

    2012-01-01

    secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels...... of social support for the respondent, and feeling let down by others. The respondents were generally interested in friend-, family-, and partner-focused interventions, particularly in receiving education about how best to support a rape victim...

  14. Support for victims of crime: Analysis of the VDS info and victim support service in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available VDS info and victim support service is a victim support service, which was established in 2003 within the Victimology Society of Serbia. The service provides emotional support, information and, if necessary, referral to other relevant services, as well as witness support. The target group of the service are direct and indirect victims of all forms of crime, of both sexes, regardless of any personal characteristics. In addition, support is provided to victims in court, as well as to women victims of violence who are in prison. In most cases victim support is provided by volunteers who are trained to work with victims of crime. This paper analyzes the work of the service in 2010. Special attention is paid to the problems of workplace violence and domestic violence, which are the most common reasons for contacting the service. The aim of the paper is to present the work of the service in the past year, as well as to highlight the trends observed in comparison to the previous period.

  15. Justice And Legal Certainty For Child Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Setiadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Focus of attention in the criminal justice system so far has always been to the perpetrator, whereas parties related to a process of criminal justice encompasses the perpetrator, the victim, and the community. A crime victim, in particular, would suffer more since he/she could experience secondary victimization in the criminal justice system. The law concerning victim and witness protection only states the limitation for the criminal victim to ask for compensation to criminal justice system, either as a victim of direct criminal or a victim of abuse power done by law enforcement officers. Child victims are treated the same way as to adult victims, whilst they have a greater dimension of the problem and effects to be dealt with Mechanism and procedures to be followed are ius constituendum (intended/desirable law, as they only share expectation of indemnity, compensation, and rehabilitation which have not been empirically tested in a real situation.

  16. Big Five Personality Traits of Cybercrime Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Weijer, Steve G A; Leukfeldt, E Rutger

    2017-07-01

    The prevalence of cybercrime has increased rapidly over the last decades and has become part of the everyday life of citizens. It is, therefore, of great importance to gain more knowledge on the factors related to an increased or decreased likelihood of becoming a cybercrime victim. The current study adds to the existing body of knowledge using a large representative sample of Dutch individuals (N = 3,648) to study the relationship between cybercrime victimization and the key traits from the Big Five model of personality (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience). First, multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between the personality traits and three victim groups, that is, cybercrime victims versus nonvictims, traditional crime victims versus nonvictims, and cybercrime victims versus traditional crime victims. Next, logistic regression analyses were performed to predict victimization of cyber-dependent crimes (i.e., hacking and virus infection) and cyber-enabled crimes (i.e., online intimidation, online consumer fraud, and theft from bank account). The analyses show that personality traits are not specifically associated with cybercrime victimization, but rather with victimization in general. Only those with higher scores on emotional stability were less likely to become a victim of cybercrime than traditional crime. Furthermore, the results indicate that there are little differences between personality traits related to victimization of cyber-enabled and cyber-dependent crimes. Only individuals with higher scores on openness to experience have higher odds of becoming a victim of cyber-enabled crimes.

  17. Do victims only cry? Victim-survivors and their grassroots organizations in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waardt, M.F.; Ouweneel, A.

    2012-01-01

    De Waardt discusses associations of victims of the 1980s violent conflict in Peru, which she relates to the Peruvian cultural tradition of grassroots organizations. She conveys the substantial existence of victim-survivor associations, the social support its members find amongst each other, and the

  18. Understanding Risk-taking Behavior in Bullies, Victims, and Bully Victims Using Cognitive- and Emotion-Focused Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kean

    2016-01-01

    Bullying and risky behavior are two common problems among adolescents and can strongly affect a youth's overall functioning when both coexist. Some studies suggest that bullying in adolescence may promote risky behavior as a coping strategy to deal with victimization related stress. Other studies consider bullying as an outcome of high-risk behavior. Despite the association between the two is well-established, no study has examined the risk-taking patterns among bullying groups (i.e., bully, victim, and bully victim). This study attempted to elucidate the potential relationships between bullying and risk-taking by addressing the two models: a cognitive-focused model and an emotion-focused model of risk taking, and to clarify how adolescents' characteristics in risk taking associate with bullying outcomes. Method: 136 Chinese adolescents (Mean Age = 14.5, M = 65, F = 71) were recruited and grouped according to bullying identity: Bully ( n = 27), Victim ( n = 20), Bully victim ( n = 37) and Control ( n = 52). Cognitive Appraisal of Risky Events (CARE) questionnaire was used to measure participants' expectancies about the risks, benefits and involvement associated with risky activities. Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT) was administered to capture the emotion-laden process in risk taking. Results: Cognitively, Bully was associated with an overestimation of risk while Victim was associated with an underestimation of risk and overrated benefit. Bully victim exhibited a unique pattern with an overestimation of benefit and risk. All study groups projected higher involvement in risky behavior. Behaviorally, both Bully and Bully victim were associated with high risk modulation whereas Victim was associated with impulsive decision-making. Interestingly, compared with bully, bully victim had significantly higher bullying scores, suggesting a wider range and more frequent bullying activities. In conclusion, Bully maybe a group of adolescents that is vigilant in situational

  19. Understanding risk-taking behavior in bullies, victims, and bully-victims using cognitive- and emotion-focused approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kean Poon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bullying and risky behavior are two common problems among adolescents and can strongly affect a youth’s overall functioning when both coexist. Some studies suggest that bullying in adolescence may promote risky behavior as a coping strategy to deal with victimization related stress. Other studies consider bullying as an outcome of high-risk behavior. Despite the association between the two is well-established, no study has examined the risk-taking patterns among bullying groups (i.e., bully, victim, and bully-victim. This study attempted to elucidate the potential relationships between bullying and risk-taking by addressing the two models: a cognitive-focused model and a emotion-focused model of risk taking, and to clarify how adolescents’ characteristics in risk taking associate with bullying outcomes. Method: 136 Chinese adolescents (Mean Age =14.5, M= 65, F =71 were recruited and grouped according to bullying identity: Bully (n =27, Victim (n =20, Bully-victim (n =37 and Control (n =52. Cognitive Appraisal of Risky Events (CARE questionnaire was used to measure participants’ expectancies about the risks, benefits and involvement associated with risky activities. Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT was administered to capture the emotion-laden process in risk taking. Results: Cognitively, Bully was associated with an overestimation of risk while Victim was associated with an underestimation of risk and overrated benefit. Bully-victim exhibited a unique pattern with an overestimation of benefit and risk. All study groups projected higher involvement in risky behavior. Behaviorally, both Bully and Bully-victim were associated with high risk modulation whereas Victim was associated with impulsive decision-making. Interestingly, compared with bully, bully-victim had significantly higher bullying scores, suggesting a wider range and more frequent bullying activities. In conclusion, Bully maybe a group of adolescents that is vigilant in situational

  20. Why the bully/victim relationship is so pernicious: a gendered perspective on power and animosity among bullies and their victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodkin, Philip C; Hanish, Laura D; Wang, Shuai; Logis, Handrea A

    2014-08-01

    The bully/victim relationship was studied in a sample of elementary school children (N = 1,289 in first, third, and fifth grades). Three questions were tested. Does bullying involve a power differential between bully and victim? Are bully/victim dyads participants in a relationship, whether mutual liking or disliking? Does the gender composition of the bully/victim dyad moderate power differential and relational context patterns? Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze predictors of the reputational strength of bully/victim ties. The findings revealed that the bully/victim dyads most frequently nominated by peers were characterized by asymmetries in social status, where bullies were increasingly more popular than their victims, and by asymmetries in aggression, where bullies were increasingly less aggressive than their victims. Bullies and victims were likely to select one another as among the children that they least like. Most effects with respect to aggression, popularity, and relationships were moderated by the gender composition of the bully/victim dyad. Implications for a developmental psychopathology perspective on peer bullying and victimization are highlighted.

  1. Peer Victimization and Dating Violence Victimization: The Mediating Role of Loneliness, Depressed Mood, and Life Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cava, María-Jesús; Buelga, Sofía; Tomás, Inés

    2018-03-01

    Peer victimization and dating violence victimization have serious negative effects on adolescents' health, and they seem to be related. However, the mediating processes in this relationship have not been sufficiently analyzed. The purpose of this study was to analyze the direct and indirect relationships between peer victimization and dating violence victimization, considering the possible mediator role of loneliness, depressed mood, and life satisfaction. These relationships are analyzed in boys and girls, and in early and middle adolescence. From an initial sample of 1,038 Spanish adolescents, those who had or had had in the past 12 months a dating relationship (647 adolescents; 49.1% boys, M = 14.38, SD = 1.43) were included in this study. Multigroup structural equation modeling was used to test a double mediation model simultaneously for boys and girls, testing the invariance of the relationships among variables across genders. The same technique was used to test the model simultaneously for early and middle adolescence, testing the invariance of the relationships among variables across age groups. Results revealed a positive direct relationship between peer victimization and dating violence victimization, as well as the partial mediating role of loneliness and life satisfaction in this relationship. The mediator role of depressed mood was not supported. The same mediational model was confirmed in boys and girls, and in early and middle adolescence. These results highlight the important role of loneliness and life satisfaction to explain the link between peer victimization and dating violence victimization in adolescence. These findings may be useful for developing intervention programs aimed at preventing situations of multiple victimization during adolescence.

  2. Adolescent sexual victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P

    2012-01-01

    at baseline and first time APSV during a 6-month period. Data analysis was a binary logistic regression analysis. Number of sexual partners and displaying sexual risk behaviors significantly predicted subsequent first time peer-on-peer sexual victimization, whereas a history of child sexual abuse, early......The present study set out to investigate predictors of first time adolescent peer-on-peer sexual victimization (APSV) among 238 female Grade 9 students from 30 schools in Denmark. A prospective research design was utilized to examine the relationship among five potential predictors as measured...... sexual onset and failing to signal sexual boundaries did not. The present study identifies specific risk factors for first time sexual victimization that are potentially changeable. Thus, the results may inform prevention initiatives targeting initial experiences of APSV....

  3. Victimization of Obese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…

  4. Cyberbullying victimization in adolescents’ population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of communication technology and its wide use by the adolescents, cyberspace became a new risky environment for bullying manifestation and victimization. The significance of the problem lies in the fact that, unlike the traditional bullying, the cyberbullying victimization occurs also out of the school surroundings, it’s characterized by the possible anonymity of the bully, it’s harder to discover it and it could have a much bigger audience. Results of numerous studies show that the prevalence of cyberbullying victimization is 10% to 40% during one school year and that it is related to different negative outcomes - from problems of lower self-esteem to severe psychological and behavioral problems. The aim of the paper is to present basic characteristics and negative outcomes of cyberbullying victimization and also to summarize possible factors which are associated with this form of bullying. Lastly, possible ways of preventive action and coping with cyberbullying victimization will be reviewed.

  5. Bystander Involvement in Peer Victimization: The Value of Looking beyond Aggressors and Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Brenda A.; Dempsey, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Peer victimization has been a focus of both research and prevention program development. This construct is typically measured from the victim and aggressor perspectives. However, prevention programming often includes an additional bystander perspective. The present study evaluated whether questions regarding witnessing peer victimization…

  6. Decreases in the proportion of bullying victims in the classroom: Effects on the adjustment of remaining victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garandeau, C.F.; Lee, Ihno A.; Salmivalli, Christina

    2018-01-01

    Sharing a classroom environment with other victimized peers has been shown to mitigate the adverse effects of peer victimization on children’s social and psychological adjustment. By extension, this study hypothesized that classroom reductions in the proportion of victims would be harmful for

  7. Latent classes of childhood poly-victimization and associations with suicidal behavior among adult trauma victims: Moderating role of anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charak, Ruby; Byllesby, Brianna M; Roley, Michelle E; Claycomb, Meredith A; Durham, Tory A; Ross, Jana; Armour, Cherie; Elhai, Jon D

    2016-12-01

    The aims of the present study were first to identify discrete patterns of childhood victimization experiences including crime, child maltreatment, peer/sibling victimization, sexual violence, and witnessing violence among adult trauma victims using latent class analysis; second, to examine the association between class-membership and suicidal behavior, and third to investigate the differential role of dispositional anger on the association between class-membership and suicidal behavior. We hypothesized that those classes with accumulating exposure to different types of childhood victimization (e.g., poly-victimization) would endorse higher suicidal behavior, than the other less severe classes, and those in the most severe class with higher anger trait would have stronger association with suicidal behavior. Respondents were 346 adults (N=346; M age =35.0years; 55.9% female) who had experienced a lifetime traumatic event. Sixty four percent had experienced poly-victimization (four or more victimization experiences) and 38.8% met the cut-off score for suicidal behavior. Three distinct classes emerged namely, the Least victimization (Class 1), the Predominantly crime and sibling/peer victimization (Class 2), and the Poly-victimization (Class 3) classes. Regression analysis controlling for age and gender indicated that only the main effect of anger was significantly associated with suicidal behavior. The interaction term suggested that those in the Poly-victimization class were higher on suicidal behavior as a result of a stronger association between anger and suicidal behavior in contrast to the association found in Class 2. Clinical implications of findings entail imparting anger management skills to facilitate wellbeing among adult with childhood poly-victimization experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Victimization, polyvictimization , and health in Swedish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aho N

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nikolas Aho, Marie Proczkowska Björklund, Carl Göran Svedin Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden Abstract: The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16–20 years, standard deviation =0.652, of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV] proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization. Keywords: victimization, childhood trauma, psychological symptoms, JVQ, TSCC

  9. Victim's Rights - Comparative Approach within EU Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pocora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Usually is talking about offender rights and rarely about victim's rights. This study aims to analyse victim's rights especially in Romanian legislation from all points of view. Having involuntary fallen victim to crime, the person is often unaware of what information is available. It is therefore important that the onus is not put on the victim to request a certain piece of information. Victims of crimes need to have their important role in the criminal proceedings and he or she has to know about the extension of them rights. Not least, the study is focus on the right of the victim to receive information, not to be made responsible for the practicalities surrounding its delivery.

  10. Punishment goals of crime victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Uli

    2003-04-01

    Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals.

  11. The victim of the nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, A.B. de.

    1990-01-01

    This paper shows the effects of the nuclear accident in the victims, in their lives, changes in the behaviour, neurosis including all the psychological aspects. The author compare the victims with nuclear accident like AIDS patients, in terms of people's discrimination. There is another kind of victims. They are the people who gave helpness, for example physicians, firemen and everybody involved with the first aids that suffer together with the victims trying to safe them and to diminish their suffering, combating the danger, the discrimination and the no information. (L.M.J.)

  12. Victims of crime, with special emphasis on victims of work abuse and domestic violence: Analysis of the service VDS info and victim support for 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radaković Danica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the work of the VDS info and victim support service for the period January 1st 2009 - December 31st 2009. It contains the data about victims, type and quality of assistance and support provided by the Service, and also about institutions and organizations the victims contacted before or after contacting the Service and their satisfaction with the help they received.

  13. Bullying and Victimization Among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetgiri, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Bullying among children is a significant public health problem world-wide. Bullying is most commonly defined as repeated, intentional aggression, perpetrated by a more powerful individual or group against a less powerful victim. Trends in victimization and moderate to frequent bullying may be decreasing slightly in the United States, but over 20% of children continue to be involved in bullying. Direct bullying consists of physical and verbal aggression, whereas indirect bullying involves relational aggression. Cyber bullying is an emerging problem which may be more difficult to identify and intervene with than traditional bullying. Bullies, victims, and bully-victims are at risk for negative short and long-term consequences such as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and delinquency. Various individual, parental, and peer factors increase the risk for involvement in bullying. Anti-bullying interventions are predominantly school-based and demonstrate variable results. Healthcare providers can intervene in bullying by identifying potential bullies or victims, screening them for co-morbidities, providing counseling and resources, and advocating for bullying prevention. PMID:24007839

  14. Maladaptive schemas as mediators of the relationship between previous victimizations in the family and dating violence victimization in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Fernández-Gonzalez, Liria; Orue, Izaskun; Borrajo, Erika

    2018-07-01

    This study examined whether exposure to family violence, both in the form of direct victimization and witnessing violence, predicted dating violence victimization in adolescents through maladaptive schemas. A sample of 933 adolescents (445 boys and 488 girls), aged between 13 and 18 (M = 15.10), participated in a three-year longitudinal study. They completed measures of exposure to family violence, maladaptive schemas of disconnection/rejection, and dating violence victimization. The findings indicate that witnessing family violence predicts the increase of dating violence victimization over time, through the mediation of maladaptive schemas in girls, but not in boys. Direct victimization in the family predicts dating violence victimization directly, without the mediation of schemas. In addition, maladaptive schemas contribute to the perpetuation of dating violence victimization over time. These findings provide new opportunities for preventive interventions, as maladaptive schemas can be modified. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sexual Victimization of Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Kevonne; Zweig, Janine M.

    2007-01-01

    An estimated 7.0% to 8.1% of American youth report being sexually victimized at some point in their life time. This article presents a background to youth sexual victimization, focusing on prevalence data, challenging issues when studying this problem, risk factors, and common characteristics of perpetrators. Additionally, a type of sexual…

  16. Attracting Assault: Victims' Nonverbal Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Betty; Stein, Morris I.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a study in which prison inmates convicted of assault identified potential victims from videotapes. A lab analysis code was used to determine which nonverbal body movement categories differentiated victims and nonvictims. (JMF)

  17. [From acute victimization at chronic victimization: socio-cognitive approach of differential tolerance threshold].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, M; Przygodzki-Lionet, N; Masclet, G

    2006-01-01

    Work, for many years reduced to a purely instrumental dimension, proves to be a true microcosm of society, with its informal modes, its emotional networks and its series of evils and dilemmas. This human apprehension of the professional sphere tends to reveal a pole with multiple facets, some of which have long been concealed, but whose individual, social and economic extent can't let people ignore them. This social perception, which contributes to regard work as sacred and makes it impervious to any aggression, should be abandoned. Bearing this in mind, our study endeavours to show that "work" and "victim" are far more overlapping than antagonistic realities; it aims at determining the impact of two aggressive methods via the professional pole, namely: moral harassment at work and armed attacks within bank premises. Such an approach tends to unify health psychology, occupational psychology and victimology, thus opening a breach in the stereotyped view which crystallizes the professional sphere into a kind of representative noose devoid of the most human bases. We then suggest, as a first hypothesis, that the nature of the victimization process, resulting from specific aggressive scenarios, would determine different psychological, physiological and relational consequences, apprehended under the generic expression of tolerance threshold. In other words, "mobbing", through its proactive, intentional and obsessional dimension would tend to lower the victims' threshold more than hold-ups, which are characterized by a reactive aspect, and obey unfavourable socio-economic contingencies. Our research also aims at apprehending this dynamic relationship binding victimization types to tolerance thresholds through two analysing factors. These psychological mediators are derived from Lazarus and Folkman's "transactional model of stress", which postulates that stress would rise from the perception people get of the transaction between the requirements of the situation and their

  18. Prevention of victimization following sexual assaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria; Sidenius, Katrine

    2004-01-01

    Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen is a centre for interdisciplinary research and practice. Goals of the centre are to contribute to the documentation of victimization and to prevent further victimization. Research at the centre aims at the examination of the diversity of conditions...... of women exposed to sexualized coercion and the diversity of perspectives on the events....

  19. Identifying bully victims: definitional versus behavioral approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer Greif; Felix, Erika D; Sharkey, Jill D; Furlong, Michael J; Kras, Jennifer E

    2013-06-01

    Schools frequently assess bullying and the Olweus Bully/Victimization Questionnaire (BVQ; Olweus, 1996) is the most widely adopted tool for this purpose. The BVQ is a self-report survey that uses a definitional measurement method--describing "bullying" as involving repeated, intentional aggression in a relationship where there is an imbalance of power and then asking respondents to indicate how frequently they experienced this type of victimization. Few studies have examined BVQ validity and whether this definitional method truly identifies the repetition and power differential that distinguish bullying from other forms of peer victimization. This study examined the concurrent validity of the BVQ definitional question among 435 students reporting peer victimization. BVQ definitional responses were compared with responses to a behavioral measure that did not use the term "bullying" but, instead, included items that asked about its defining characteristics (repetition, intentionality, power imbalance). Concordance between the two approaches was moderate, with an area under the receiver operating curve of .72. BVQ responses were more strongly associated with students indicating repeated victimization and multiple forms of victimization, than with power imbalance in their relationship with the bully. Findings indicate that the BVQ is a valid measure of repeated victimization and a broad range of victimization experiences but may not detect the more subtle and complex power imbalances that distinguish bullying from other forms of peer victimization. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Victimization and pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata K. Szerla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pain has several causes. It can be caused not only by operative trauma or cancer. Some patients suffer from pain as a result of being victims of violence. The aim of the study was to introduce diagnosis and treatment of pain problems in patients who are victims of violence, from a physician’s and a psychologist’s common perspective. Physical pain-related primary effects experienced by the victims of domestic violence go far beyond the results which are noticeable directly and confirmed visually in a forensic examination. In the present paper we introduce an ‘invisible’ group of secondary effects of violence. They appear in time, often after several years, in the form of a variety of psychosomatic disorders. The body is devastated insidiously and the secondary effects are visible as vegetative symptoms, a variety of psychosomatic disorders and pain, difficult to diagnose and treat.

  1. Attitudes toward victim and victimization in the light of the just world theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeunović-Patić Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses current empirical status of the Just world theory introduced several decades ago by Melvin Lerner, the content and functions of a just world belief as its central construct, and particularly, the relation between a just world belief and victim blaming and victim derogation phenomena. In the light of existing research evidence, a just world belief and a need to re-establish a “justice” when this belief is threatened, is considered to be an adaptive mechanism that protect a belief that a world is secure and the future is predictable, as well as a confidence in the purposefulness of selfdiscipline, long-term personal investments and social rules respecting. As proposed By the just world theory, when a person faces injustice, i.e. others’ (innocent victims’ suffering, his/her belief in a just world is threatened. Possible reactions to that threat comprise various rational victim helping activities, but also specific cognitive defensive strategies, including cognitive distortion, rationalization and reinterpretation of an event in order to minimize injustice or deny injustice happened at all. In the course of reinterpretation of injustice, victims are often blamed for their former actions, or derogated for their character, in order to indicate them responsible for their own fate and suffering. The findings of research studies suggest that the likelihood of employing cognitive defensive strategies rises if formal responses to crime and victimization lack or fail. This further suggests that an efficient and effective formal social response in terms of both sanctioning of offenders and reparation of victims should be considered highly important in reducing the risk of stigmatization and rejection of victims. Finally, the paper discusses the role of victim’s just world beliefs in post-trauma adaptation and coping processes. In virtue of findings from the existing research literature it may be concluded that victim

  2. Victims of Rape: Repeated Assessment of Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkeson, Beverly M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated depressive symptoms in rape victims (N=115) for one year following their assaults. Depressive symptoms were higher in victims than in controls. By four months postrape, depressive symptoms in the victim group had diminished, and the victims were no longer significantly different from the nonvictim control group. (Author)

  3. Predictors and protective factors for adolescent Internet victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Schütt, Nina; Larsen, Helmer Bøving

    2012-01-01

    To examine the rate of Internet victimization in a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 14-17 and to analyze predictors and protective factors for victimization.......To examine the rate of Internet victimization in a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 14-17 and to analyze predictors and protective factors for victimization....

  4. Crime victims in the criminal justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative social reaction and inadequate reaction of the agencies of the formal control on the primary victimization is leading to the so called secondary victimization that can be a source of trauma and frustration as much as the primary victimization. Due to that, relation of the police and the judiciary towards the crime victims is of a great importance regarding victims’ willingness to report the victimization, their confidence in these agencies, and cooperation during clearing up the crime. In order to realize the victim’s position in the criminal justice system, this paper contains an overview of how the police, prosecutor’s office and courts are functioning. The paper is based on the interviews made with the representatives of these state agencies, as well as on the previous knowledge and realized surveys concerning this topic. The aim of the paper is to emphasize the position and the role of the victim support service in the system of the state intervention, based upon the obtained data, as well as to give some basic information on how victims could report the crime, what are their rights and duties, what can they expect from the competent agencies.

  5. Perpetrator or victim?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    Paper 3: HAN091384 Victim, Perpetrator and Pupil - Teacher Perspectives on Peer Bullying Helle Rabøl Hansen, University of Aarhus This paper investigates the approaches and strategies taken up by two crucial actors in relation to bullying in schools: 1. documents indicating school policies...... and identifies a legally informed matrix, which points out unequivocal positions of perpetrators and victims. The policy document mixes the definition practices, which derive from the Olweus tradition on bullying research, into a law informed kind of discourse. Subsequently the policy document iterates...

  6. Sexual victimization, partner aggression and alcohol consumption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the relationship sexual victimization (both childhood sexual victimization and adult sexual victimization), aggression and alcohol consumption. The data for this research is from the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: an International Study (GENACIS). A random sample of 2070 adults (53.8% males and ...

  7. Cyberbullying perpetration and victimization among middle-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Eric; Petering, Robin; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Goldbach, Jeremy; Plant, Aaron; Montoya, Jorge; Kordic, Timothy

    2015-03-01

    We examined correlations between gender, race, sexual identity, and technology use, and patterns of cyberbullying experiences and behaviors among middle-school students. We collected a probability sample of 1285 students alongside the 2012 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Los Angeles Unified School District middle schools. We used logistic regressions to assess the correlates of being a cyberbully perpetrator, victim, and perpetrator-victim (i.e., bidirectional cyberbullying behavior). In this sample, 6.6% reported being a cyberbully victim, 5.0% reported being a perpetrator, and 4.3% reported being a perpetrator-victim. Cyberbullying behavior frequently occurred on Facebook or via text messaging. Cyberbully perpetrators, victims, and perpetrators-victims all were more likely to report using the Internet for at least 3 hours per day. Sexual-minority students and students who texted at least 50 times per day were more likely to report cyberbullying victimization. Girls were more likely to report being perpetrators-victims. Cyberbullying interventions should account for gender and sexual identity, as well as the possible benefits of educational interventions for intensive Internet users and frequent texters.

  8. Cyberbullying Perpetration and Victimization Among Middle-School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Goldbach, Jeremy; Plant, Aaron; Montoya, Jorge; Kordic, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined correlations between gender, race, sexual identity, and technology use, and patterns of cyberbullying experiences and behaviors among middle-school students. Methods. We collected a probability sample of 1285 students alongside the 2012 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Los Angeles Unified School District middle schools. We used logistic regressions to assess the correlates of being a cyberbully perpetrator, victim, and perpetrator–victim (i.e., bidirectional cyberbullying behavior). Results. In this sample, 6.6% reported being a cyberbully victim, 5.0% reported being a perpetrator, and 4.3% reported being a perpetrator–victim. Cyberbullying behavior frequently occurred on Facebook or via text messaging. Cyberbully perpetrators, victims, and perpetrators–victims all were more likely to report using the Internet for at least 3 hours per day. Sexual-minority students and students who texted at least 50 times per day were more likely to report cyberbullying victimization. Girls were more likely to report being perpetrators–victims. Conclusions. Cyberbullying interventions should account for gender and sexual identity, as well as the possible benefits of educational interventions for intensive Internet users and frequent texters. PMID:25602905

  9. Impact of sexual harassment victimization by peers on subsequent adolescent victimization and adjustment: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, Debbie; Wolfe, David A; Crooks, Claire; Hughes, Ray; Jaffe, Peter

    2009-09-01

    To examine gender differences in prevalence and types of sexual harassment victimization experienced in grade 9 and how it contributes to relationship victimization and psychological adjustment 2.5 years later. A total of 1734 students from 23 schools completed self-report surveys at entry to grade 9 and end of grade 11. Self-report data were collected on victimization experiences (sexual harassment, physical dating violence, peer violence, and relational victimization) and adjustment (emotional distress, problem substance use, self-harm, suicidal thoughts, maladaptive dieting, feeling unsafe at school, and perpetration of violent delinquency). Separate analyses by sex were prespecified. Sexual harassment victimization was common among boys (42.4%) and girls (44.1%) in grade 9, with girls reporting more sexual jokes, comments, and unwanted touch than among boys, and with boys reporting more homosexual slurs or receiving unwanted sexual content. For girls, sexual harassment victimization in grade 9 was associated with elevated risk of self-harm, suicidal thoughts, maladaptive dieting, early dating, substance use, and feeling unsafe at school. A similar pattern of risk was found for boys, with the exception of dieting and self-harm behaviors. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) indicated these students were significantly more likely than nonharassed students to report victimization by peers and dating partners 2.5 years later (AOR for boys and girls, respectively; all p harassment (AOR: 2.45; 2.9), physical dating violence (AOR: 2.02; 3.73), and physical peer violence (AOR: 2.75; 2.79). Gr 9 sexual harassment also contributed significantly to emotional distress (AOR: 2.09; 2.24), problem substance use (AOR: 1.79; 2.04), and violent delinquency perpetration (AOR: 2.1; 3.34) 2.5 years later (boys and girls, respectively; all p harassment at the beginning of high school is a strong predictor of future victimization by peers and dating partners for both girls and boys, and

  10. Responding to Children Victimized by Their Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Brock, Stephen E.; Chang, Yiping; O'Malley, Meagan D.

    2006-01-01

    Because victimization results from the dynamic interplay between the victim and his or her parents, peers, and teachers, responding to this problem should involve both direct and indirect interventions. This paper describes and reviews empirically supported direct interventions with victims, as well as indirect interventions with parents, peers,…

  11. Frequency of victimization experiences and well-being among online, offline and combined victims on social online network sites of German children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eGlüer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Victimization is associated with negative developmental outcomes in childhood and adolescence. However, previous studies have provided mixed results regarding the association between offline and online victimization and indicators of social, psychological, and somatic well-being. In this study, we investigated 1,906 German children and adolescents (grades 5 to 10, mean age = 13.9; SD = 2.1 with and without offline or online victimization experiences who participated in a social online network (SNS. Online questionnaires were used to assess previous victimization (offline, online, combined, and without, somatic and psychological symptoms, self-esteem, and social self-concept (social competence, resistance to peer influence, esteem by others. In total, 1,362 (71.4% children and adolescents reported being a member of at least one social online network, and 377 students (28.8% reported previous victimization. Most children and adolescents had offline victimization experiences (17.5%, whereas 2.7% reported online victimization, and 8.6% reported combined experiences. Girls reported more online and combined victimization, and boys reported more offline victimization. The type of victimization (offline, online, combined was associated with increased reports of psychological and somatic symptoms, lower self-esteem and esteem by others, and lower resistance to peer influences. The effects were comparable for the groups with offline and online victimization. They were, however, increased in the combined group in comparison to victims with offline experiences alone.

  12. Frequency of Victimization Experiences and Well-Being Among Online, Offline, and Combined Victims on Social Online Network Sites of German Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glüer, Michael; Lohaus, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Victimization is associated with negative developmental outcomes in childhood and adolescence. However, previous studies have provided mixed results regarding the association between offline and online victimization and indicators of social, psychological, and somatic well-being. In this study, we investigated 1,890 German children and adolescents (grades 5-10, mean age = 13.9; SD = 2.1) with and without offline or online victimization experiences who participated in a social online network (SNS). Online questionnaires were used to assess previous victimization (offline, online, combined, and without), somatic and psychological symptoms, self-esteem, and social self-concept (social competence, resistance to peer influence, esteem by others). In total, 1,362 (72.1%) children and adolescents reported being a member of at least one SNS, and 377 students (28.8%) reported previous victimization. Most children and adolescents had offline victimization experiences (17.5%), whereas 2.7% reported online victimization, and 8.6% reported combined experiences. Girls reported more online and combined victimization, and boys reported more offline victimization. The type of victimization (offline, online, combined) was associated with increased reports of psychological and somatic symptoms, lower self-esteem and esteem by others, and lower resistance to peer influences. The effects were comparable for the groups with offline and online victimization. They were, however, increased in the combined group in comparison to victims with offline experiences alone.

  13. Emotional Problems in Traditional and Cyber Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjursø, Ida Risanger; Fandrem, Hildegunn; Roland, Erling

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies show an association between traditional and cyber victimization. However, there seem to be differences in how these forms of being bullied relates to emotional problems in the victims. Few studies focus on symptoms of general anxiety and depression as separate variables when comparing traditional and cyber victimization.…

  14. Perceptions of teachers' support, safety, and absence from school because of fear among victims, bullies, and bully-victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Ruth; Benbenishty, Rami

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the distribution of the types of involvement in school violence (bullies, victims, bully-victims, and students not involved in violence) among the general population of Israeli school students. The prevalence of these different types of involvement was also examined according to gender, age or school level (junior high vs. high school), and ethnicity (Jewish vs. Arab). Further, the study examines the relationships between type of involvement in school violence and students' perceptions of teachers' support, safety, and absence from school because of fear. Data were obtained from a nationally representative, stratified sample of 13,262 students in grades 7-11 who responded to a self-report questionnaire on victimization by, and perpetration of, school violence and on perceptions of school climate. Data revealed that 3.6% of all students were victims of bullying (18.5% of those involved in violence). The proportion of bully-victims among male students was 6.4% (21.9% of all involved) compared with 1.1% (11.2% of all involved) among females. Bully-victims reported the lowest levels of teacher support and feelings of security and missed school because of fear significantly more often. The results point to the uniqueness of the bully-victim group. This group presents multiple challenges for school staff with these students needing special attention. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  15. Social Information Processing Mechanisms and Victimization: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Reemst, Lisa; Fischer, Tamar F C; Zwirs, Barbara W C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current literature review, which is based on 64 empirical studies, was to assess to what extent mechanisms of the Social Information Processing (SIP) model of Crick and Dodge (1994) are related to victimization. The reviewed studies have provided support for the relation between victimization and several social information processing mechanisms, especially the interpretation of cues and self-efficacy (as part of the response decision). The relationship between victimization and other mechanisms, such as the response generation, was only studied in a few articles. Until now research has often focused on just one step of the model, instead of attempting to measure the associations between multiple mechanisms and victimization in multivariate analyses. Such analyses would be interesting to gain more insight into the SIP model and its relationship with victimization. The few available longitudinal studies show that mechanisms both predict victimization (internal locus of control, negative self-evaluations and less assertive response selection) and are predicted by victimization (hostile attribution of intent and negative evaluations of others). Associations between victimization and SIP mechanisms vary across different types and severity of victimization (stronger in personal and severe victimization), and different populations (stronger among young victims). Practice could focus on these stronger associations and the interpretation of cues. More research is needed however, to investigate whether intervention programs that address SIP mechanisms are suitable for victimization and all relevant populations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Cyber socializing and victimization of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halder Debarati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Web 2.01 has redefined the virtual life of ordinary individuals and has given wide opportunities to internet users including women to exchange ideas, interact with like minded people and participate in the development of virtual societies as per one's own choices. Social networking websites (SNWs, a segment of Web 2.0 is very popular among the internet users. However, there is a dark side of these SNW's too. They have become havens for offenders to victimize women, the most vulnerable targets in the internet, after children. In this paper, we examine the victimization of women in the social networking websites in general, analyze the trends of such victimization from socio - legal - victimological angle and ascertain the reasons for the growth of such victimization.

  17. Victim support services in England, Wales and Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, authors tried to present activities of one of the oldest European Victim Support Services - Victim Support for England, Wales and Northern Ireland. During 1970s, through practice and research projects, the need for recognizing the physical and psychological status of victims after the crime was committed, as well as the need of providing them with the (informal assistance and support were noticed. That has resulted in establishing numerous of local victim support services (schemes, which united in the National Association of the Victim Support Services in 1979. Significant support was given to the Service in 1980s through the recommendations of the Council of Europe on the assistance for victims of crime and prevention of victimization through direct support given to the victim immediately after the incident, including protection and safety, medical, mental, social and financial support, as well as providing the victim with information on his/her rights, support during the criminal proceeding, assistance in getting compensation etc. Organization and structure of the service, referral system, code of practice and two main programs: Victim Service and Witness Service are reviewed in the paper.

  18. Self-esteem in adolescent aggression perpetrators, victims and perpetrator-victims, and the moderating effects of depression and family support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Wei Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (1 to examine differences in the level of self-esteem among adolescents with different roles in aggression involvement (aggression perpetrators, victims, perpetrator-victims and neutrals according to gender and (2 to examine the moderating effects of depression and family support on association between aggression involvement and self-esteem. A total of 8085 adolescents in Taiwan completed questionnaires. The relationships between self-esteem and aggression involvement were examined by multiple regression analysis. The moderating effects of depression and family support on the association between aggression involvement and self-esteem were examined. The results showed that in females, aggression victims had lower self-esteem than those in the other three groups (t=−2.940 to 2.173, p0.05. In males, self-esteem in victims and perpetrator-victims was lower than in neutrals and perpetrators (t=−3.339 to −2.704, p0.05 or between perpetrators and neutrals (t=−1.396, p>0.05. Family support had a moderating effect on the association between self-esteem and victimization in males. Depression had a moderating effect on the association between self-esteem and perpetration-victimization and victimization in males. The results indicate that self-esteem in adolescents with different patterns of involvement in aggression is not the same as in those without involvement. The moderating effects of depression and family support should be considered when developing intervention strategies to raise self-esteem in adolescents with aggression involvement.

  19. Self-esteem in adolescent aggression perpetrators, victims and perpetrator-victims, and the moderating effects of depression and family support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng-Wei; Yang, Pin-Chen; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Lin, Huang-Chi; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2013-04-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to examine differences in the level of self-esteem among adolescents with different roles in aggression involvement (aggression perpetrators, victims, perpetrator-victims and neutrals) according to gender and (2) to examine the moderating effects of depression and family support on association between aggression involvement and self-esteem. A total of 8085 adolescents in Taiwan completed questionnaires. The relationships between self-esteem and aggression involvement were examined by multiple regression analysis. The moderating effects of depression and family support on the association between aggression involvement and self-esteem were examined. The results showed that in females, aggression victims had lower self-esteem than those in the other three groups (t=-2.940 to 2.173, p0.05). In males, self-esteem in victims and perpetrator-victims was lower than in neutrals and perpetrators (t=-3.339 to -2.704, p0.05) or between perpetrators and neutrals (t=-1.396, p>0.05). Family support had a moderating effect on the association between self-esteem and victimization in males. Depression had a moderating effect on the association between self-esteem and perpetration-victimization and victimization in males. The results indicate that self-esteem in adolescents with different patterns of involvement in aggression is not the same as in those without involvement. The moderating effects of depression and family support should be considered when developing intervention strategies to raise self-esteem in adolescents with aggression involvement. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Identifying victims of violence using register-based data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Sørensen, Jan; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was twofold. Firstly we identified victims of violence in national registers and discussed strengths and weaknesses of this approach. Secondly we assessed the magnitude of violence and the characteristics of the victims using register-based data. METHODS: We used three...... nationwide registers to identify victims of violence: The National Patient Register, the Victim Statistics, and the Causes of Death Register. We merged these data and assessed the degree of overlap between data sources. We identified a reference population by selecting all individuals in Denmark over 15....... RESULTS: In 2006, 22,000 individuals were registered as having been exposed to violence. About 70% of these victims were men. Most victims were identified from emergency room contacts and police records, and few from the Causes of Death Register. There was some overlap between the two large data sources...

  1. The impact of perceived childhood victimization and patriarchal gender ideology on intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among Korean immigrant women in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chunrye

    2017-08-01

    Childhood victimization experiences are common among intimate partner violence (IPV) victims. This study examines the link between childhood physical and sexual victimization experiences and adulthood IPV among Korean immigrant women in the USA. As Korean immigrants often use physical punishment to discipline their children, and reporting sexual abuse is discouraged due to stigmatization in this community, cultural factors (e.g. patriarchal values) related to childhood victimization and IPV were also examined. Survey data from Korean immigrant women in the USA were collected. Using a case-control design, we compared 64 Korean immigrant women who have experienced IPV in the past year with 63 Korean immigrant women who have never experienced IPV in their lifetime. The findings of this study reveal that IPV victims, compared with non-victims, experienced higher childhood victimization rates. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that childhood victimization and patriarchal gender ideology strongly predict IPV victimization among Korean immigrants. However, patriarchal values did not moderate the relationship between childhood victimization and IPV. To prevent IPV among Korean immigrant population, we need to make special efforts to prevent childhood abuse and change ingrained cultural attitudes about child physical and sexual abuse among immigrant communities through culturally sensitive programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Victimisation and poverty: About victims and victimised in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubičić Milana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a theoretical analysis of the scientific and public discourse of victimization on the example of Serbia. The analysis has two objectives: to review the justification for the use of the concept of victim defined in the traditional way - within the legal framework; and in relation to this, to offer a different view on victimization. The process of becoming a victim is recognized as a social construct, created as a result of negotiations between the (non- formal social structure: institutions, the media, and the audience - those who stand aside, criminals and victims. In the process, some of the victims are assigned a status of justified, while others are sacrificed. There are rearely true parallels between them. Thus, unlike justified, whose suffering is perceived by public and political structures as a cause for the introduction of penal populism, the sacrificed rarely encounter any empathy. Even when they are victimized by conventional crime, the victims do not have the power to mobilize the public in a loud protest and call for change in legal practice. In the final score, it seems that the role victims are assigned largely depend of their social scale position.

  3. Interparental Conflict, Parenting Behavior, and Children's Friendship Quality as Correlates of Peer Aggression and Peer Victimization Among Aggressor/Victim Subgroups in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-Hee; Hong, Jun Sung; Yoon, Jina; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2014-07-01

    The focus of this study was to examine whether interparental conflict, maternal parenting behaviors, and children's friendship quality varied as a function of peer aggression/victim subgroups among a sample of 227 elementary school children and their mothers in South Korea. Both self-report and peer-report data indicated that the majority of the students were uninvolved in peer aggression situations, and the number of participants in the subgroups (aggressors, victims, and aggressor-victims) varied depending on the source of report. According to the self-report data, victims and aggressor-victims reported a higher level of maternal rejection than uninvolved youth. Aggressors, victims, and aggressor-victims reported higher maternal neglect than uninvolved youth. The highest level of interparental conflict was reported by victims, followed by aggressors. Interestingly, no significant differences were found in positive functioning of friendship quality among the subgroups, although results indicated a significant difference among groups in negative friendship quality. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Victims of Bullying in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current research on bullying (peer victimization, peer harassment) in school, with a focus on victims of such bullying. The 1st section provides a working definition of bullying and its many forms. The 2nd section describes some of the known consequences of being bullied for mental health, physical health, and…

  5. Victimization experiences of adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Wan-Yuen; Dunne, Michael P; Marret, Mary J; Fleming, Marylou; Wong, Yut-Lin

    2011-12-01

    There has been little community-based research regarding multiple-type victimization experiences of young people in Asia, and none in Malaysia. This study aimed to estimate prevalence, explore gender differences, as well as describe typical perpetrators and family and social risk factors among Malaysian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey of 1,870 students was conducted in 20 randomly selected secondary schools in Selangor state (mean age: 16 years; 58.8% female). The questionnaire included items on individual, family, and social background and different types of victimization experiences in childhood. Emotional and physical types of victimization were most common. A significant proportion of adolescents (22.1%) were exposed to more than one type, with 3% reporting all four types. Compared with females, males reported more physical, emotional, and sexual victimization. The excess of sexual victimization among boys was due to higher exposure to noncontact events, whereas prevalence of forced intercourse was equal for both genders (3.0%). Although adult male perpetrators predominate, female adults and peers of both genders also contribute substantially. Low quality of parent-child relationships and poor school and neighborhood environments had the strongest associations with victimization. Family structure (parental divorce, presence of step-parent or single parent, or household size), parental drug use, and rural/urban location were not influential in this sample. This study extends the analysis of multiple-type victimization to a Malaysian population. Although some personal, familial, and social factors correlate with those found in western nations, there are cross-cultural differences, especially with regard to the nature of sexual violence based on gender and the influence of family structure. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F; Wilczak, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about "precocious exits" from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization ("street" violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation-differentiating between marriage and cohabitation-in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance.

  7. Secrecy and persistent problems in sexual assault victims.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensink, B.J.; Winkel, F.W.; Berlo, van W.

    2001-01-01

    A substantial number of victims of sexual assault refrain from disclosing to others the victimizing episode and its emotional consequences. A prospective study (n = 36 rape victims reporting theirvictimization to the police) and a retrospective study (n = 33) were conducted to examine the

  8. Do targets of workplace bullying portray a general victim personality profile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasø, Lars; Matthiesen, Stig Berge; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Einarsen, Ståle

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine differences in personality between a group of bullied victims and a non-bullied group. The 144 participants, comprising of 72 victims and a matched contrast group of 72 respondents, completed Goldberg's (1999) International Personality Item Pool (IPIP). Significant differences emerged between victims and non-victims on four out of five personality dimensions. Victims tended to be more neurotic and less agreeable, conscientious and extravert than non-victims. However, a cluster analysis revealed that the victim sample can be divided into two personality groups. One cluster, which comprised 64% of the victim sample, do not differ from non-victims as far as personality is concerned. Hence, the results indicate that there is no such thing as a general victim personality profile. However, a small cluster of victims tended to be less extrovert, less agreeable, less conscientious, and less open to experience but more emotional unstable than victims in the major cluster and the control group. Further, both clusters of victims scored higher than non-victims on emotional instability, indicating that personality should not be neglected as being a factor in understanding the bullying phenomenon.

  9. Behavioral and Mental Health Correlates of Youth Stalking Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E.; Smith-Darden, Joanne P.; Kernsmith, Poco D.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Although recognized as a public health problem, little attention has been paid to the problem of stalking among youth. Latent profile analysis was used to identify latent groups of adolescent stalking victims and their behavioral and mental health correlates. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 1,236 youths were randomly selected from 13 schools stratified by community risk level (i.e., low, moderate, and high risk) and gender. Students completed surveys assessing behavioral indicators of stalking victimization, as well as substance use, sexual behavior, dating violence, and psychiatric symptoms. Data were collected in 2013 and data analyses were performed in 2015. Results Analysis indicated the presence of a non-victim class, a minimal exposure class, and a victim class for boys and girls alike. Approximately 14% of girls and 13% of boys were in the stalking victim class. Adolescents in the victim class reported more symptoms of post-traumatic stress, mood disorder, and hopelessness, as well as more instances of alcohol use, binge drinking, and physical dating violence victimization. Girls in the victim class also reported engaging in sexting behaviors and oral sex with significantly more partners than their non-victim peers. Conclusions These findings provide valuable knowledge of the prevalence and pertinent health correlates of stalking victimization in adolescence. The data suggest a substantial proportion of adolescents are victims of stalking and are likewise at risk for a number of deleterious health outcomes. As such, this population merits further attention by prevention researchers and practitioners. PMID:27743623

  10. Peer victimization and peer rejection during early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godleski, Stephanie A.; Kamper, Kimberly E.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Hart, Emily J.; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bi-directional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3- to 5- years-old) were investigated in an integrated model. Method The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the US. Using observations, research assistant report and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Results Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Conclusions Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress. PMID:25133659

  11. Debate of victims studies. 1. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosovski, E.; Piedade Junior, H.; Mayr, E.

    1990-01-01

    This book shows some aspects and the effects of several types of accidents in the victims, including the psychological considerations, changes in theirs behaviour, concepts, clinical diagnostic, etc. Victims of nuclear, transit terrorism and work accidents are studied. (C.G.C.)

  12. How to become a victim of crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Богдан Миколайович Головкін

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Victimization from crime – a higher degree of social vulnerability criminal, contributing to the commission of crimes against them in certain circumstances. Victimization takes place in space and time, and includes four stages: 1 the emergence of criminal threats; 2 increasing the degree of social vulnerability to criminal assault; 3 the harm to individuals who find themselves in a vulnerable state at appropriate conditions (situations; 4 increase the number of victims of crimes as registered and latent, which helps re-victimization of some of them. As a result of our Internet survey of more than 3002 people (2015 defined the proportion of citizens who every year are victims of crime. By 2015 it is 37 %. However, one in seven respondents already had experience of victimization before. In our view, there is a threshold of permissible viktymizovanosti population not exceeding 40 % and is independent of the level of crime in a calendar year or an. Typically, victims of crime every year are new faces. Re-victimization experiences 15 % of citizens. The risk of becoming a victim of crime depends on the accuracy and timeliness of recognition of sources and types of criminal threats. Showed a rather stereotypical ideas of the criminal threat and showed a disorientation in identifying their sources. The last mentioned some time. Traditionally people cautious attitude to strangers, suspicious issued and may bear criminal intent (62 %; alarming stay at poorly attended locations in the dark (67 % and likelihood of falling into unpredictable situations (44 %. Only 15% of respondents sees the source of victimization in their own dangerous behavior. While the public understanding of the sources of victimization are largely abstract and false character. So, to our knowledge, most people are afraid of violent crime (64 %, but actually experiencing mercenary crimes (60 %. In the context of what has been said quite expected the place called criminal

  13. Toward establishing basic rights of victims in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morosawa Hidemichi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The author talks about improving victim rights in Japan and his important role in it. A period of Victims’ Renaissance in Japan began in the 1990s when the Japanese Association of Victimology and Mito Victim Assistance Cener, first non-governmental community-based integrated victim support center in Japan were established. Since May 1999 to May 2004, four laws such as “Crime Victim Protection Law”, “Child Abuse Prevention Law”, “Law for Proscribing Stalking Behavior” and so on were enacted and six laws were reformed. The word “rights of victim”, did not appear in any laws. After 2000, the National Association of Crime Victims and Surviving Families (NAVS played an important role. This Association achieved a great success in securing victims a position as the subject of rights. In June 2007, Japan changed the Criminal Procedure Law. This new law will be effective on six months after the day of promulgation. Japanese Government will promulgate it till the end of 2007. Under this new law, crime victims will be allowed to take part in criminal trials, and also make statements during trials.

  14. Bullying among schoolchildren: differences between victims and aggressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Continente, Xavier; Pérez-Giménez, Anna; Espelt, Albert; Nebot Adell, Manel

    2013-01-01

    To identify the factors associated with bullying behaviors among adolescents by analyzing victims, aggressors and victims/aggressors separately. A cross-sectional study was performed in a representative sample of 3,089 secondary school students (13-18 years old) in Barcelona (Spain). To define bullying behaviors, we used three questions about different types of mistreatment (jeering, attacking, marginalizing). Compared with secondary school students not involved in bullying, victims, aggressors and victims/aggressors were more likely to be boys and to report negative mood states. Victims were younger, were more overweight or obese and were lighter cannabis users, while aggressors were also younger but reported more antisocial behaviors and more cannabis and alcohol use. Victims/aggressors reported more antisocial behaviors and were overweight. Being involved in bullying, independently of the role adopted, was associated with health-related problems, which can lead to psychological disorders in adulthood. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Sexual violence against children: authors, victims and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Vanessa Borges; Back, Isabela de Carlos; Hauschild, Daniela Barbieri; Guedert, Jucélia Maria

    2018-04-01

    The scope of this study was to identify the characteristics of sexual abuse against children including the profiles of the victims and the perpetrators, and associated factors notified in a health service of reference with the database of the Brazilian Case Registry Database, in a city in the south of Brazil. Categorical variables are presented in prevalence with 95% confidence intervals. There were 489 notifications from 2008 to 2014 of confirmed or suspected child sexual abuse. The majority was related to female victims, but the repeated abuse was reported mainly with male victims. In most cases, the abuse took place at the victims' or perpetrators' homes and the main perpetrators of abuse were male and acquainted with the victims. Twelve victims have contracted sexually transmitted infections; pregnancies were six, five of them legally terminated. This study highlights that the child sexual abuse profiles were similar in almost all of Brazilian regions, showing that it is possible to have a coordinated national action to prevent this offence.

  16. Alcohol Involvement in Homicide Victimization in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Timothy S.; Xuan, Ziming; Cooper, Susanna E.; Coleman, Sharon M.; Hadland, Scott E.; Swahn, Monica H.; Heeren, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the association between alcohol and homicide is well documented, there has been no recent study of alcohol involvement in homicide victimization in U.S. states. The objective of this paper was to determine the prevalence of alcohol involvement in homicide victimization and identify socio-demographic and other factors associated with alcohol involvement in homicide victimization. Methods Data from homicide victims with a reported blood alcohol content (BAC) level were analyzed from 17 states from 2010–12 using the National Violent Death Reporting System. Logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with the odds of homicide victims having a BAC ≥0.08%. Results Among all homicide victims, 39.9% had a positive BAC including 13.7% with a BAC between 0.01%–0.79% and 26.2% of victims with a BAC ≥0.08%. Males were twice as likely as females to have a BAC ≥0.08% (29.1% vs. 15.2%; p homicide victims having a BAC ≥0.08 included male sex, American Indian/Alaska Native race, Hispanic ethnicity, history of intimate partner violence, and non-firearm homicides. Conclusions Alcohol is present in a substantial proportion of homicide victims in the U.S., with substantial variation by state, demographic and circumstantial characteristics. Future studies should explore the relationships between state-level alcohol policies and alcohol-involvement among perpetrators and victims of homicide. PMID:27676334

  17. Emergency Care of the Snakebite Victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Carol N.

    1994-01-01

    Describes emergency care of snakebite victims, including noting signs and symptoms of venomous snakebites, keeping the victim calm, and seeking immediate medical attention. Provides information on variables that affect the amount of injected venom and how to distinguish nonpoisonous from poisonous snakes. (LP)

  18. Trafficking in persons : A victim's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, Conny; Rijken, Conny; Piotrowicz, Ryszard; Uhl, Baerbel Heide

    2017-01-01

    Historically, protection and assistance to victims of human trafficking in many countries is anchored in migration law and dependent on whether or not a residence permit is granted to the victim. Apart from some limited exceptions, cooperation with law enforcement authorities in criminal

  19. Victimization by Siblings in Children with Disability or Weight Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corinna J; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather

    Children with a physical disability, psychological disorder, or of nonnormative weight are often targets of peer victimization. Sibling victimization, however, is more common than peer victimization, but rarely explored. We investigated linkages between sibling victimization and whether children had a physical disability, psychological disorder (i.e., internalizing disorder, attention deficit disorder/attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder), and were perceived by parents as being thinner than average or overweight. Also, we explored how the extent and kinds of sibling victimization experiences were related to these characteristics in childhood. A US probability sample of adult caregivers of a child aged 0 to 9 (N = 780; 50% women; mean age 4.58) in 2-child households who completed a telephone interview. Controlling for other forms of maltreatment and individual and family characteristics, children with a physical disability and parent-perceived children who are thinner than average and children who are overweight experienced more sibling victimization. Children with an internalizing disorder experienced less sibling victimization. Sibling victimization did not differ for children with and without ADHD. Children perceived to be overweight by parents and children with a physical disability were at increased risk of experiencing more types of sibling victimization. Children with a physical disability had greater odds of being victims of property victimization by a sibling. Children with a physical disability or perceived as different from average weight are at risk for sibling victimization. Using a nationally representative sample, this is the first study to highlight the importance of screening for sibling victimization in families of children with a disability and/or nonnormative weight status.

  20. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F.; Wilczak, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about “precocious exits” from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization (“street” violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation—differentiating between marriage and cohabitation—in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance. PMID:24431471

  1. Rumination mediates the association between cyber-victimization and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Brian A; Bhatia, Vickie; Davila, Joanne

    2014-06-01

    The current study examined the 3-week prospective associations between cyber-victimization and both depressive symptoms and rumination. In addition, a mediation model was tested, wherein rumination mediated the association between cyber-victimization and depressive symptoms. Participants (N = 565 college-age young adults) completed online surveys at two time points 3 weeks apart. Results indicated that cyber-victimization was associated with increases in both depressive symptoms and rumination over time. Furthermore, results of the path analysis indicated that cyber-victimization was associated with increases in rumination over time, which were then associated with greater depressive symptoms, providing support for the proposed mediation effect for women, but not men. Findings extend previous correlational findings by demonstrating that cyber-victimization is associated with increases in symptomatology over time. Findings also suggest that the negative consequences of cyber-victimization extend beyond mental health problems to maladaptive emotion regulation. In fact, rumination may be a mechanism through which cyber-victimization influences mental health problems, at least for women. Mental health professionals are encouraged to assess cyber-victimization as part of standard victimization assessments and to consider targeting maladaptive emotion regulation in addition to mental health problems in clients who have experienced cyber-victimization.

  2. The Bidirectional Relationships Between Online Victimization and Psychosocial Problems in Adolescents: A Comparison with Real-Life Victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Vermulst, A.A.; Rooij, A.J. van; Scholte, R.H.J.; Mheen, H. van de

    2014-01-01

    Although peer victimization is of major concern and adolescents spend increasing amounts of time on the Internet, relatively little is known about the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online victimization. The main aim of this study was to compare the psychosocial antecedents and

  3. The Bidirectional Relationships Between Online Victimization and Psychosocial Problems in Adolescents : A Comparison with Real-Life Victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Eijnden, Regina; Vermulst, Ad; van Rooij, Antonius J.; Scholte, Ron; van de Mheen, Dike

    2014-01-01

    Although peer victimization is of major concern and adolescents spend increasing amounts of time on the Internet, relatively little is known about the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online victimization. The main aim of this study was to compare the psychosocial antecedents and

  4. How to become a victim of crime

    OpenAIRE

    Богдан Миколайович Головкін

    2017-01-01

    Victimization from crime – a higher degree of social vulnerability criminal, contributing to the commission of crimes against them in certain circumstances. Victimization takes place in space and time, and includes four stages: 1) the emergence of criminal threats; 2) increasing the degree of social vulnerability to criminal assault; 3) the harm to individuals who find themselves in a vulnerable state at appropriate conditions (situations); 4) increase the number of victims of crimes as regis...

  5. The Effects of Victim Age, Perceiver Gender, and Parental Status on Perceptions of Victim Culpability When Girls or Women Are Sexually Abused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klettke, Bianca; Mellor, David

    2018-05-01

    This study investigated perceptions of victim culpability in sexual assaults against girls and women according to victim age, perceiver gender, and perceiver parental status. Overall, 420 jury-eligible participants completed an online survey recording their attributions of guilt, responsibility, and blame toward 10-, 15-, and 20-year-old girls and women in relation to sexual assault. Attributions of culpability were affected by whether the victim physically or verbally resisted the abuse, wore sexually revealing clothes, or was described as having acted promiscuously. Fifteen-year-old victims were perceived as more culpable for the abuse than 10-year-old victims. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. The Association Between Familial Homelessness, Aggression, and Victimization Among Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetelina, Katelyn K; Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M; Cuccaro, Paula M; Peskin, Melissa F; Elliott, Marc N; Coker, Tumaini R; Mrug, Sylvie; Davies, Susan L; Schuster, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the number of periods children were exposed to familial homelessness and childhood aggression and victimization. Survey data were obtained from 4,297 fifth-grade children and their caregivers in three U.S. cities. Children and primary caregivers were surveyed longitudinally in 7th and 10th grades. Family homelessness, measured at each wave as unstable housing, was self-reported by the caregiver. Children were categorized into four mutually exclusive groups: victim only, aggressor only, victim-aggressor, and neither victim nor aggressor at each time point using validated measures. Multinomial, multilevel mixed models were used to evaluate the relationship among periods of homelessness and longitudinal victimization, aggression, and victim aggression compared to children who were nonvictims and nonaggressors. Results suggest that children who experienced family homelessness were more likely than domiciled children to report aggression and victim aggression but not victimization only. Multivariate analyses suggested that even brief periods of homelessness were positively associated with aggression and victim aggression (relative to neither) compared to children who were never homeless. Furthermore, childhood victimization and victim aggression significantly decreased from 5th grade to 10th grade while aggression significantly increased in 10th grade. Children who experienced family homelessness for brief periods of time were significantly more likely to be a victim-aggressor or aggressor compared to those who were never homeless. Prevention efforts should target housing security and other important factors that may reduce children's likelihood of aggression and associated victimization. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Commentary (Victim Participation in the International Criminal Court)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchuk, Iryna

    2014-01-01

    Victim participation is one of the most innovative aspects introduced in the legal framework of the International Criminal Court (hereinafter – ICC), which has not featured in the practices of other international criminal courts and tribunals. The approach of the ad hoc tribunals to victims...... was very ‘consumer like’ because victims were solely used as witnesses to testify about the crimes attributed to the accused, but they were not granted broad participatory rights in the proceedings. The drafters of the Rome Statute acknowledged wide-ranging interests of victims who, apart from seeking...

  8. Quality of life of victims, bullies, and bully/victims among school-aged children in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Velderman, M.; Dorst, A.G. van; Wiefferink, C.H.; Detmar, S.B.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the Quality of Life (QoL) of victims, bullies and bully/victims among Dutch school-aged children. Study 1 studied associations of QoL dimensions with self-reported victimisation in the Dutch sample from the KIDSCREEN Project (N = 1,669). Study 2 examined QoL of

  9. Modeling the mental health effects of victimization among homeless persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Brian Edward; Alexander-Eitzman, Ben; Gillespie, David F.; Pollio, David

    2014-01-01

    Homeless persons are victims of violent and non-violent crime at higher rates than housed populations. While studies have suggested that victimization can induce or exacerbate mental health problems, there is very little known about factors that may buffer the effects of victimization. This cross-sectional study examined the influence of victimization on depressive symptoms in over 9600 homeless and mentally ill adults participating in the Access to Community Care and Effective Services and Supports study (ACCESS) conducted in multiple cities across the USA relationships between victimization, depressive symptoms, and perceived safety were tested within a structural equation modeling framework using data collected at the baseline interview. The overall model exhibited a good fit with the data. Non-physical victimization was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, and physical victimization was associated with lower levels of perceived safety. As hypothesized, perceived safety was a significant partial mediator of depressive symptoms. These results underscore the complexity of the relationships between victimization and depression in homeless adults and the importance of addressing different types of victimization in homeless and mentally ill adults. PMID:18703266

  10. Modeling the mental health effects of victimization among homeless persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Brian Edward; Alexander-Eitzman, Ben; Gillespie, David F; Pollio, David

    2008-11-01

    Homeless persons are victims of violent and non-violent crime at higher rates than housed populations. While studies have suggested that victimization can induce or exacerbate mental health problems, there is very little known about factors that may buffer the effects of victimization. This cross-sectional study examined the influence of victimization on depressive symptoms in over 9600 homeless and mentally ill adults participating in the Access to Community Care and Effective Services and Supports study (ACCESS) conducted in multiple cities across the USA relationships between victimization, depressive symptoms, and perceived safety were tested within a structural equation modeling framework using data collected at the baseline interview. The overall model exhibited a good fit with the data. Non-physical victimization was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, and physical victimization was associated with lower levels of perceived safety. As hypothesized, perceived safety was a significant partial mediator of depressive symptoms. These results underscore the complexity of the relationships between victimization and depression in homeless adults and the importance of addressing different types of victimization in homeless and mentally ill adults.

  11. Between "Victims" and "Criminals"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plambech, Sine

    2014-01-01

    This article is about the lives of Nigerian sex workers after deportation from Europe, as well as the institutions that intervene in their migration trajectories. In Europe, some of these women's situations fit the legal definitions of trafficking, and they were categorized as “victims of human...... trafficking”; others were categorized as undocumented migrants—“criminals” guilty of violating immigration laws. Despite the growing political attention devoted to protecting victims of trafficking, I argue that in areas of Nigeria prone to economic insecurity and gender-based violence, the categories...

  12. The reciprocal relationship between sexual victimization and sexual assertiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Jennifer A; Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2007-03-01

    Low sexual assertiveness has been proposed as a possible mechanism through which sexual revictimization occurs, yet evidence for this has been mixed. In this study, prospective path analysis was used to examine the relationship between sexual refusal assertiveness and sexual victimization over time among a community sample of women. Results provide support for a reciprocal relationship, with historical victimization predicting low sexual assertiveness and low sexual assertiveness predicting subsequent victimization. The effect of recent sexual victimization on subsequent sexual assertiveness also was replicated prospectively. These findings suggest that strengthening sexual assertiveness may help reduce vulnerability to future victimization.

  13. There are no "innocent victims": the influence of just world beliefs and prior victimization on rape myth acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonderhaar, Rebecca L; Carmody, Dianne Cyr

    2015-06-01

    Utilizing data from an online survey of 979 university students, this study explores the relationship between prior sexual assault victimization experiences, belief in a just world, and acceptance of rape myths. Results indicated that men, younger respondents, and those with less education were more likely to support rape myths. Support for just world beliefs and rape myths were also positively associated, while rape victims exhibited less support for rape myths than non-victims. Implications for future studies are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Devenir victime des pesticides:Le recours au droit et ses effets sur la mobilisation des agriculteurs Phyto-victimes

    OpenAIRE

    Jouzel, Jean-Noël; Prete, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Cet article analyse les effets du recours au droit sur la mobilisation des travailleurs agricoles victimes des pesticides. Il repose sur une enquête qualitative auprès des membres de l’association Phyto-victimes, qui réunit ces agriculteurs, ainsi que de leurs proches et des professionnels du droit avec lesquels ils interagissent. À partir de ce matériau, nous retraçons les parcours suivis par les agriculteurs pour obtenir une reconnaissance de leur statut de victimes des pesticides. Nous ren...

  15. Childhood victimization experiences of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogolyubova, Olga; Skochilov, Roman; Smykalo, Lyubov

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of childhood victimization experiences in a sample of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia. The study sample included 743 students aged 19 to 25 from 15 universities in St. Petersburg, Russia. All of the study participants completed a reliable questionnaire assessing the following types of childhood victimization: conventional crime, child maltreatment, peer victimization, sexual victimization, and witnessing violence. Participation in the study was anonymous. High rates of victimization and exposure to violence were reported by the study participants. The majority of the sample experienced at least one type of victimization during childhood or adolescence, and poly-victimization was reported frequently. The most common type of victimization reported was peer or sibling assault (66.94%), followed by witnessing an assault without weapon (63.91%), personal theft (56.19%), vandalism (56.06%), and emotional bullying (49.99%). Sexual assault by a known adult was reported by 1.45% males and 5.16% of females. This study provides new information on the scope of childhood victimization experiences in Russia. Further research is warranted, including epidemiological research with representative data across the country and studies of the impact of trauma and victimization on mental health and well-being of Russian adults and children. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Symbolic Victimization and Real World Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Examines the relationship between victimization of characters in television drama and susceptibility to the viewers' cultivation of a sense of personal risk in the real world. Found that viewers whose fictional counterparts are more likely to be shown as victims show stronger associations between viewing and perceived vulnerability. (PD)

  17. Teacher Victimization in Authoritative School Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapa, Ryan R.; Luke, Jeremy; Moulthrop, Dorothy; Gimbert, Belinda

    2018-01-01

    Background: Victimization in schools is not limited to students. Teachers increasingly face threats and attacks from their students. An authoritative school environment, characterized by high structure and support, has been associated with lower rates of victimization. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between authoritative…

  18. Cyberbullying: who are the victims? A comparison of victimization in internet chatrooms and victimization in school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katzer, C.; Fetchenhauer, D.; Belschak, F.

    2009-01-01

    Bullying is not a phenomenon exclusive to the school environment. Pupils also become victims of verbal aggression (teasing, threats, insults, or harassment) in the context of internet chatrooms. The present study addresses the following questions: (1) How often does bullying occur in internet

  19. Family as a factor of risk prevention and victim behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur A. Rean

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines psychological factors victim behaviour. The definition of victim behaviour is given and it is emphasized that such conduct is not necessarily passivebehaviour of the victim. Victimization and behaviour can be active and aggressive. It is shown that antisocial, deviant behaviour of children and adolescents seriously increases the risk of victimization. Family as the most important institution of socialization is considered both as a preventing factor and risk factor of victim behaviour. The role of the family in shaping the victim behaviour is revealed in the following issues: aggressive, conflict behaviour is personal inclination or absence of the “proper” skills; interdependence of the severity of punishment and child aggression; punishment for child aggression (between siblings: what is the result?; ignoring aggression – is it the best solution?; victims of sexual violence and causes of victim behaviour; demonstrative accentuation as a risk factor in rape victim behaviour; happy family – can it be a risk factor for victim behaviour? For a long time, social deviant personality development has been believed to deal with structural deformation of the family, which is defined as a single-parent family, i.e. absence of one parent (usually the father. It is now proved that the major factor of family negative impact on personal development is not structural but psychosocial family deformation. A really happy family, psychologically happy family is the cornerstone of preventing victim behaviour. The victim behaviour being mainly determined by personal qualities does not negate this conclusion, but only strengthens it, as the qualities mentioned above are shaped in many respects within family socialization, are determined by family upbringing styles and features of interpersonal relationships inside the family.

  20. Sexual victimization and family violence among urban African American adolescent women: do violence cluster profiles predict partner violence victimization and sex trade exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah; Kulkarni, Shanti J; Archer, Gretchen

    2012-11-01

    Guided by an intersectional feminist perspective, we examined sexual victimization, witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) in the family, and familial physical abuse among a sample of 180 urban African American adolescent women. We used cluster analysis to better understand the profiles of cumulative victimization, and the relationships between profiles and IPV victimization and personal exposure to the sex trade. Just under one third of the sample reported sexual victimization, with cooccurrence with both forms of family violence common. The cluster profile with high levels of severe family violence was associated with the highest rate of IPV victimization and sex trade exposure.

  1. Cyber Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Sexual Minority College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…

  2. Observer reactions to emotional victims of serious crimes : Stereotypes and expectancy violations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, Alice; Mulder, Eva; Pemberton, Antony; Vingerhoets, Ad

    2018-01-01

    Negative observer reactions towards victims may be related to people’s expectations of the characteristics and demeanor of an ideal victim. We examined how expressed emotion, victim sex, and type of victimization influence observers’ perceptions of victim credibility, victim character, and harm. Our

  3. Devenir victime des pesticides : Le recours au droit et ses effets sur la mobilisation des agriculteurs Phyto-victimes

    OpenAIRE

    Jouzel , Jean-Noël; Prete , Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    International audience; A partir du cas de l’association Phyto-victimes, qui regroupe des agriculteurs souffrant de maladies chroniques qu’ils imputent aux pesticides, l’article met en évidence les effets ambigus du droit sur les mobilisations de victimes. L’article met en évidence les mécanismes par lesquels le droit amène des exploitants agricoles exposés à des pesticides et tombés malades à prendre conscience de leur statut de victimes, du préjudice qu’ils ont subi et des responsabilités e...

  4. Victims of educator-targeted bullying: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corene de Wet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I report on findings emanating from in-depth personal interviews with victims of educator-targeted bullying (ETB. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the narratives. The findings indicate that the victims of ETB were exposed repeatedly over time to verbal, non-verbal, psychological, and physical abuse during and after school hours. ETB had a negative influence on the victims' private lives, as well as on teaching and on learning. Lastly, I found that ETB may lead to a breakdown of relations between victims and the bullies' parents and the members of the community in which schools are situated.

  5. Temperamental Differences in Children’s Reactions to Peer Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Niwako; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This research examined the hypothesis that temperament and sex moderate the contribution of peer victimization to children’s subsequent adjustment (aggression and depressive symptoms). Method Children (125 boys, 158 girls; M age = 7.95 years, SD = 0.32; 77.7% White, 22.3% minority) and teachers reported on overt and relational victimization. Parents rated children’s temperament (inhibitory control and negative emotionality) and depressive symptoms, and teachers reported on children’s overt and relational aggression. Results Across a one-year time period, (a) overt victimization predicted overt aggression in girls with poor inhibitory control; (b) overt and relational victimization predicted depressive symptoms in girls with high negative emotionality; and (c) relational victimization predicted depressive symptoms in boys with low negative emotionality. Conclusions This research helps to explain individual variation in children’s reactions to peer victimization, and has implications for person-by-environment models of development. Moreover, this research informs the development of targeted intervention programs for victimized youth that bolster specific resources depending on their temperament. PMID:22420650

  6. Workplace Victimization and Discrimination in China: A Nationwide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiping

    2017-09-01

    Workplace victimization and discrimination have been intensively studied in the West, especially on the antecedents and consequences of this phenomenon. Surprisingly, little is known about the incidence and associated health problems of workplace victimization and discrimination in contemporary China. Using a representative nationwide sample of 1,138 Chinese employees conducted in 2015, this study attempted to estimate the prevalence, risk factors, and associated consequences of workplace victimization and discrimination in China. It is found that the prevalence rate of preceding 5-year workplace discrimination and victimization was 33% and 12.9%, respectively. Male employees who perceived higher work gains were less likely to experience workplace victimization and those who had higher career efficacy and unemployment anxiety were more likely to experience job discrimination or victimization. Female employees who received tertiary education were less likely to experience job discrimination and being married tended not to experience workplace victimization. Perceived job discrimination had negative impact on male employees' job satisfaction as well as on female employees' happiness. The implications of these findings are finally discussed in the Chinese context.

  7. Cyberstalking victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilić Vida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Global social networks contributed to the creation of new, inconspicuous, technically perfect shape of criminality which is hard to suppress because of its intangible characteristics. The most common forms of virtual communications’ abuse are: cyberstalking and harassment, identity theft, online fraud, manipulation and misuse of personal information and personal photos, monitoring e-mail accounts and spamming, interception and recording of chat rooms. Cyberstalking is defined as persistent and targeted harassment of an individual by using electronic communication. The victim becomes insecure, frightened, intimidated and does not figure out the best reaction which will terminate the harassment. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance and necessity of studying cyberstalking and to point out its forms in order to find the best ways to prevent this negative social phenomenon. Basic topics that will be analyzed in this paper are the various definitions of cyberstalking, forms of cyberstalking, and the most important characteristics of victims and perpetators.

  8. Bullying and victimization in elementary schools : A comparison of bullies, victims, bully/victims, and uninvolved preadolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, René; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Winter, Andrea F. de; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    Research on bullying and victimization largely rests on univariate analyses and on reports from a single informant. Researchers may thus know too little about the simultaneous effects of various independent and dependent variables, and their research may be biased by shared method variance. The

  9. Network Exposure and Homicide Victimization in an African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the association of an individual’s exposure to homicide in a social network and the risk of individual homicide victimization across a high-crime African American community. Methods. Combining 5 years of homicide and police records, we analyzed a network of 3718 high-risk individuals that was created by instances of co-offending. We used logistic regression to model the odds of being a gunshot homicide victim by individual characteristics, network position, and indirect exposure to homicide. Results. Forty-one percent of all gun homicides occurred within a network component containing less than 4% of the neighborhood’s population. Network-level indicators reduced the association between individual risk factors and homicide victimization and improved the overall prediction of individual victimization. Network exposure to homicide was strongly associated with victimization: the closer one is to a homicide victim, the greater the risk of victimization. Regression models show that exposure diminished with social distance: each social tie removed from a homicide victim decreased one’s odds of being a homicide victim by 57%. Conclusions. Risk of homicide in urban areas is even more highly concentrated than previously thought. We found that most of the risk of gun violence was concentrated in networks of identifiable individuals. Understanding these networks may improve prediction of individual homicide victimization within disadvantaged communities. PMID:24228655

  10. The Victim-Offender Overlap and Fear of In-School Victimization: A Longitudinal Examination of Risk Assessment Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melde, Chris; Esbensen, Finn-Aage

    2009-01-01

    Reports of serious violence in schools have raised general awareness and concern about safety in America's schools. In this article, the authors examine the extent to which in-school victimization is associated with students' perceived risk and fear of victimization. By expanding on Ferraro's risk assessment framework, the current study explores…

  11. GENDER-BASED RESTORATIVE JUSTICE FOR VICTIMS OF VIOELENCE AGAINST WOMEN

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    Cahya Wulandari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive law is less oriented towards the protection of victims, especially women. Restorative justice appears to protect and resolve problems with the interests of the victim-oriented. This article discuss the form of legal protection for victims of violence against women, gender-based and describe the form of restorative justice for victims of gender-based violence against women. Positive criminal law does not accommodate both the interests of the victim to determine the crime against him self and to restore his suffering. This is caused due to the dominance of retributive justice in the settlement mind set crime through the criminal law. The restorative justice allows for an active role in the completion of a crime victim who happens also allows the imposition of sanctions that are beneficial to the recovery of the suffering of the victims.

  12. Workplace mobbing: How the victim's coping behavior influences bystander responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Roelie; Bos, Arjan E R; Pouwelse, Mieneke; van Dam, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Victims of workplace mobbing show diverse coping behavior. We investigated the impact of this behavior on bystander cognitions, emotions, and helping toward the victim, integrating coping literature with attribution theory. Adult part-time university students (N = 161) working at various organizations participated in a study with a 3(Coping: approach/avoidance/neutral) × 2(Gender Victim: male/female) × 2(Gender Bystander: male/female) design. Victims showing approach (vs. avoidance) coping were considered to be more self-reliant and less responsible for the continuation of the mobbing, and they elicited less anger. Continuation responsibility and self-reliance mediated the relationship between the victim's coping behavior and bystanders' helping intentions. Female (vs. male) participants reported more sympathy for the victim and greater willingness to help, and female (vs. male) victims elicited less anger. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  13. Predictors of Latent Trajectory Classes of Dating Violence Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Foshee, Vangie; Ennett, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study identified classes of developmental trajectories of physical dating violence victimization from grades 8 to 12 and examined theoretically-based risk factors that distinguished among trajectory classes. Data were from a multi-wave longitudinal study spanning 8th through 12th grade (n = 2,566; 51.9% female). Growth mixture models were used to identify trajectory classes of physical dating violence victimization separately for girls and boys. Logistic and multinomial logistic regressions were used to identify situational and target vulnerability factors associated with the trajectory classes. For girls, three trajectory classes were identified: a low/non-involved class; a moderate class where victimization increased slightly until the 10th grade and then decreased through the 12th grade; and a high class where victimization started at a higher level in the 8th grade, increased substantially until the 10th grade, and then decreased until the 12th grade. For males, two classes were identified: a low/non-involved class, and a victimized class where victimization increased slightly until the 9th grade, decreased until the 11th grade, and then increased again through the 12th grade. In bivariate analyses, almost all of the situational and target vulnerability risk factors distinguished the victimization classes from the non-involved classes. However, when all risk factors and control variables were in the model, alcohol use (a situational vulnerability) was the only factor that distinguished membership in the moderate trajectory class from the non-involved class for girls; anxiety and being victimized by peers (target vulnerability factors) were the factors that distinguished the high from the non-involved classes for the girls; and victimization by peers was the only factor distinguishing the victimized from the non-involved class for boys. These findings contribute to our understanding of the heterogeneity in physical dating violence victimization during

  14. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  15. Protective Factors for Psychotic Symptoms Among Poly-victimized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crush, Eloise; Arseneault, Louise; Jaffee, Sara R; Danese, Andrea; Fisher, Helen L

    2018-04-06

    Experiencing victimization in early life has been repeatedly shown to be associated with the emergence of psychotic symptoms in childhood. However, most victimized children do not develop psychotic symptoms and why this occurs is not fully understood. This study investigated which individual, family-level, and wider community characteristics were associated with an absence of psychotic symptoms among children at risk for psychosis by virtue of their exposure to multiple victimization experiences (poly-victimization). Participants were from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative cohort of 2232 UK-born twins. Exposure to maltreatment, bullying and domestic violence prior to age 12 was determined from interviews with mothers, children, and observations by research workers at ages 5, 7, 10, and 12. Children were interviewed about psychotic symptoms at age 12. Protective factors were measured at ages 5, 7, 10, and 12. Childhood poly-victimization was associated with age-12 psychotic symptoms (OR = 4.61, 95% CI 2.82-7.52), but the majority of poly-victimized children did not report symptoms (80.7%). Having a relatively high IQ, more positive atmosphere at home, and higher levels of neighborhood social cohesion were found to be protective against childhood psychotic symptoms among poly-victimized children and also in the whole sample. However, "protected" poly-victimized children displayed elevated levels of other mental health problems compared to nonvictimized children. Children's characteristics, family context, and the wider community were all found to protect children from developing early psychotic symptoms, even when they were victimized multiple times. These findings indicate targets for multilevel preventive interventions.

  16. Internet piracy and consequences for victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Miljan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After the evolution of technology made it possible to perform actions via the Internet that constitute copyright violations, the analysis of the effects of internet piracy on social welfare became the subject of academic polemics. The main and the biggest victims of Internet piracy are the holders of copyright and related rights, however, the damage that piracy causes them comes from multiple sources, is difficult to quantify and is only a part of the total social cost of piracy. However, there are other categories of victims, such as those whose honor was besmirched as a result of piracy, and who suffer the consequences in the form of negative emotional reactions, loss of job as well as those who subsequently commit suicide. The object of this paper is to describe the effects of internet piracy on the victims of this phenomenon, and the goal is the analysis of the various direct and indirect effects of piracy on victims and their motivation for future creation, as well as analysis of prevention measures, with special emphasis on the Republic of Serbia.

  17. Race, Ethnicity, and Adolescent Violent Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Tillyer, Rob

    2016-07-01

    The risk of adolescent violent victimization in the United States varies considerably across racial and ethnic populations; it is unknown whether the sources of risk also vary by race and ethnicity. This study examined the correlates of violent victimization for White, Black, and Hispanic youth. Data collected from 11,070 adolescents (51 % female, mean age = 15.04 years) during the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were used to estimate group-specific multilevel logistic regression models. The results indicate that male, violent offending, peer deviance, gang membership, and low self-control were significantly associated with increased odds of violent victimization for all groups. Some activities-including getting drunk, sneaking out, and unstructured socializing with peers-were risk factors for Black adolescents only; skipping school was a risk factor only for Hispanic adolescents. Although there are many similarities across groups, the findings suggest that minority adolescents are particularly vulnerable to violent victimization when they engage in some activities and minor forms of delinquency.

  18. The impact of criminal justice involvement on victims' mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Jim; Bergin, Tiffany

    2010-04-01

    The aftermath of violent crime can leave victims with persistent emotional and mental health problems. Although research has shown the potential benefits of prosecuting cases through the courts, there is also a substantial literature that suggests that common features of the criminal justice system can exacerbate the impact of the initial crime, leading to a secondary victimization. The authors present a review of the research on the positive and negative impact of criminal justice involvement, and common points of failure in the efforts of justice institutions to meet the needs of victims. They conclude with recommendations for future work, including the need for research on restorative justice, victim impact statements, court notification systems, victim services, and victim advocates.

  19. Violent online games exposure and cyberbullying/victimization among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Lawrence T; Cheng, Zaohuo; Liu, Xinmin

    2013-03-01

    This population-based cross-sectional survey examined the association between exposure to violent online games and cyberbullying and victimization in adolescents recruited from two large cities utilizing a stratified two-stage random cluster sampling technique. Cyberbullying and victimization were assessed by the E-victimization and E-bullying scales validated in a previous study. Exposure to violent online games was measured by self-nomination of the degree of violent content in the games played. Results indicated that the majority (74.3 percent) of respondents did not experience any cyberbullying or victimization in the last 7 days before the survey, 14.4 percent reported to be victimized via cyberspace, 2.9 percent admitted that they had bullied others, and 8.4 percent reported to be both perpetrators- and- victims. One hundred and eighty seven (15.3 percent) considered games they were playing were of moderate to severe violence. Students who had been involved in cyberbullying as well as being victimized were two times as likely to have been exposed to violent online games, and nearly four times as likely for those involved in bullying others. Exposure to violent online games was associated with being a perpetrator as well as a perpetrator-and-victim of cyberbullying. Parents and clinicians need to be aware of the potential harm of these exposures. The policy implications of results were also discussed.

  20. The relevance of the social context for media coverage of victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavićević Olivera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Media coverage of human suffering caused by trauma, illness, poverty and disasters worldwide takes up a significant part of media coverage and affects the identity of all actors, both active and passive. Media presentation shapes our thinking and reasoning at the group level, and has far reached impact. The social context of media reporting on victims is shaped by the capacity of the social system to recognize, acknowledge, strengthen and protect the victim. As an aspect of this capacity, media coverage of victims is indicator of victimization visibility. This paper discusses nature of media reporting as a phenomenon appearing in various forms as per given sources of victimization, and the ethical aspects of media presentation of victims. The aim of the paper is to contribute to the critical analysis of the media coverage of victims, by reconsidering an increased visibility of victims and their suffering, which is generated by media reporting, and whose dominant characteristic is presenting victims in the interpretative and performing manner.

  1. Professionals' conduct as a condition for minimizing secondary victimization of the victims of spouse abuse

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    Ignjatović Tanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Through analysis of the 'administrative' aspects of experts' documentation kept by three services in one local community - the police station, the center for social welfare and the primary health care center, the possibility of reducing victimization of victims of partnership violence within the family is the subject of consideration. The results of the analysis point to the necessity of rationalization and standardization of recording and procedures by the professionals.

  2. Cyber Victimization in High School: Measurement, Overlap with Face-to-Face Victimization, and Associations with Social-Emotional Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christina Flynn; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Tennant, Jaclyn E.; Jenkins, Lyndsay N.

    2017-01-01

    Cyber victimization is a contemporary problem facing youth and adolescents (Diamanduros, Downs, & Jenkins, 2008; Kowalski & Limber, 2007). It is imperative for researchers and school personnel to understand the associations between cyber victimization and student social-emotional outcomes. This article explores (a) gender differences in…

  3. Victimizations of Mexican youth (12-17 years old): A 2014 national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías, Sonia M; Finkelhor, David

    2017-05-01

    Victimization of Mexican youth (aged 12-17) has received little attention compared to that of adults. Using the 2014 Social Survey on Social Cohesion for the Prevention of Violence and Delinquency, we examine prevalence and types of victimization; describe the characteristics of incidents in terms of relationship with perpetrator(s) and places where took place; and study significant correlates of forms of victimization and poly-victimization. During 2014 alone, more than 2.8 million minors were victims of bullying, cyberbullying, theft, sexual abuse, physical assault, threats, robbery, or extortion. About 10% of these were poly-victims-experienced at least four different types of victimization by at least four types of perpetrators. Youth tended to be victimized by people in their inner circle. The factors associated with victimization tended to vary by victimization type, but proximity to crime and peer delinquency increased the risk of experiencing all types of victimization. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Second Victim Experience and Support Tool: Validation of an Organizational Resource for Assessing Second Victim Effects and the Quality of Support Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlison, Jonathan D; Scott, Susan D; Browne, Emily K; Thompson, Sierra G; Hoffman, James M

    2017-06-01

    Medical errors and unanticipated negative patient outcomes can damage the well-being of health care providers. These affected individuals, referred to as "second victims," can experience various psychological and physical symptoms. Support resources provided by health care organizations to prevent and reduce second victim-related harm are often inadequate. In this study, we present the development and psychometric evaluation of the Second Victim Experience and Support Tool (SVEST), a survey instrument that can assist health care organizations to implement and track the performance of second victim support resources. The SVEST (29 items representing 7 dimensions and 2 outcome variables) was completed by 303 health care providers involved in direct patient care. The survey collected responses on second victim-related psychological and physical symptoms and the quality of support resources. Desirability of possible support resources was also measured. The SVEST was assessed for content validity, internal consistency, and construct validity with confirmatory factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis results suggested good model fit for the survey. Cronbach α reliability scores for the survey dimensions ranged from 0.61 to 0.89. The most desired second victim support option was "A respected peer to discuss the details of what happened." The SVEST can be used by health care organizations to evaluate second victim experiences of their staff and the quality of existing support resources. It can also provide health care organization leaders with information on second victim-related support resources most preferred by their staff. The SVEST can be administered before and after implementing new second victim resources to measure perceptions of effectiveness.

  5. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD…

  6. Psychological Adjustment in Bullies and Victims of School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, Estefania; Murgui, Sergio; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined psychosocial adjustment in the following four groups of students: victims, bullies, bully/victims and a control group of adolescents not involved in bullying or victimization problems. Psychosocial adjustment was measured considering as indicators: level of self-esteem, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress,…

  7. Weight perceptions, misperceptions, and dating violence victimization among U.S. adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Tilda; Haynie, Denise; Summersett-Ringgold, Faith; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Iannotti, Ronald J

    2015-05-01

    Dating violence is a major public health issue among youth. Overweight/obese adolescents experience peer victimization and discrimination and may be at increased risk of dating violence victimization. Furthermore, given the stigma associated with overweight/obesity, perceptions and misperceptions of overweight may be more important than actual weight status for dating violence victimization. This study examines the association of three weight indices (weight status, perceived weight, and weight perception accuracy) with psychological and physical dating violence victimization. The 2010 baseline survey of the 7-year NEXT Generation Health Study used a three-stage stratified clustered sampling design to select a nationally representative sample of U.S. 10th-grade students (n = 1,983). Participants who have had a boyfriend/girlfriend reported dating violence victimization and perceived weight. Weight status was computed from measured height/weight. Weight perception accuracy (accurate/underestimate/overestimate) was calculated by comparing weight status and perceived weight. Gender-stratified regressions examined the association of weight indices and dating violence victimization. Racial/ethnic differences were also examined. The association of weight indices with dating violence victimization significantly differed by gender. Overall, among boys, no associations were observed. Among girls, weight status was not associated with dating violence victimization, nor with number of dating violence victimization acts; however, perceived weight and weight perception accuracy were significantly associated with dating violence victimization, type of victimization, and number of victimization acts. Post hoc analyses revealed significant racial/ethnic differences. White girls who perceive themselves (accurately or not) to be overweight, and Hispanic girls who are overweight, may be at increased risk of dating violence victimization. These findings suggest a targeted approach to

  8. The Voiceless Victim: A critical analysis of the impact of enhanced victim participation in the criminal justice process

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    Sarah Moynihan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to many European jurisdictions, the victim of an alleged crime in England, Wales and Northern Ireland is denied any form of meaningful participation at the trial stage of the criminal justice process. This is by reason of the unyielding structure of the Anglo-American adversarial system, which facilitates a dispute between two parties only - the prosecution, acting on behalf of the collective public interest and the defence. In recent years, however, the victims’ movement has gained momentum as advocates of victims’ rights have been engaged in an impassioned campaign to enhance the participatory rights of victims in the criminal justice process. Fervent arguments have been articulated pertaining to the value of various forms of victim input. This paper cogitates some of these arguments and critically evaluates how enhanced victim participation in the criminal justice process has the potential to undercut the integrity of the Anglo- American adversarial system; a system with objective adjudication at its core.

  9. Emotional Profile of Women Victims of Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdibegovic, Esmina; Brkic, Maja; Sinanovic, Osman

    2017-06-01

    Research indicates that women victims of domestic violence show significant cognitive changes, emotional numbing, and avoidance of interpersonal relationships. The aim of this research was to analyze emotional profile of women victims of domestic violence, and to determine the relationship between dimensions of emotions and frequency of women exposure to domestic violence. The research was conducted on the sample of 169 women, 111 were victims of domestic violence and 58 were women who did not experience domestic violence. Plutchik's Emotions Profile Index (EPI) was used for measuring of the emotion profile, and the Modified Inventory of Domestic Violence for measuring experiences of different types of violence. Basic socio-demographic data were also collected. Significant differences between women victims of domestic violence and women who did not experience domestic violence were found in a few dimensions of emotional profile. Women victims of domestic violence had higher results in the dimensions of deprivation/depression and aggression/destruction, while women who did not experience domestic violence had higher results in dimensions of reproduction and incorporation. Aggression was in significant negative correlation with reproduction, incorporation and self protection, whereas it was significant positive correlation with deprivation and opposition. There were significant and positive correlation between the dimensions of aggression and deprivation and frequency of all three forms of domestic violence and age of women. According to results obtained in this research, it can be concluded that women victims of domestic violence have significantly more intensive negative emotional dimensions in comparison to women who were not abused. Women victims of domestic violence with higher frequency of abuse describe themselves as more sad, apathetic, lonely, angry, quarrelsome and less sociable. Prominence of negative emotions, deprivation and aggression, can be factor of

  10. [A sociography of elderly victims of family violence in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Ana Paula; Santos, Ana João; Kislaya, Irina; Santos, César; Mascoli, Luísa; Ferreira, Alexandra Inácio; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2015-06-01

    This article presents data on violence against persons aged 60 years or older and living in Portugal for at least 12 months. The cross-sectional descriptive study collected data with a face-to-face questionnaire applied to victims that had sought assistance at three government institutions and one non-governmental support service for victims. The non-probabilistic sample included 510 victims of violence in family settings. Physical and psychological violence were the most common (87.8% and 69.6%, respectively). Financial violence was reported by 47.5% of the victims, followed by sexual assault (7.5%) and neglect (6.5%). The majority of victims (74.1%) reported more than one type of violence. Victims were mostly women, and mean age was 70.7 years. Most of the perpetrators belonged to the nuclear family, namely spouses or partners, sons/sons-in-law, and daughters/daughters-in-law. However, differences were observed according to victim's gender. The results indicate that violence is not a uniform phenomenon, presenting different configurations.

  11. The incongruity of workplace bullying victimization and inclusive excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurec, Laura Cox; Kennison, Monica; Gillen, Patricia

    Bullying occurs frequently-and with significant negative outcomes-in workplace settings. Once established, bullying endures in the workplace, requiring the interaction of a bully perpetrator and an intended target who takes on the role of victim. Not every target becomes a victim, however. The purpose of this study is to investigate the processes by which targets, intended objects of bullies' affronts, become victims, those individuals who experience ongoing emotional injury in response to bullies' affronts, and to clarify how bullying victimization impedes inclusive excellence in the workplace. The design for this study was pragmatic utility, an inductive research approach grounded in assumptions of hermeneutics. The pragmatic utility process involved the investigators' synthesis of descriptions from a broad, interdisciplinary published literature. Integrating knowledge from their previous research and practice experiences with the pragmatic utility process, they derived qualitative features of victims' experiences, differentiating target from victim in bullying encounters. For those targets who ultimately are victimized, response to bullies' affronts extends far beyond the immediate present. Redolence of personal, lived experience revives bygone vulnerabilities, and naïve communication and relationship expectations reinforce a long-standing, impoverished sense. That sense couples with workplace dynamics to augment a context of exclusion. Findings suggest that, as Heidegger contended, we are our histories. Personal history demonstrates a significance influence on the manifestation of bullying victimization, acting to distance them from their workplace peers and to impede inclusive excellence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Extracorporeal Detoxification in Victims with Severe Concomitant Injury

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    S. Ye. Khoroshilov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to improve the results of victims with massive crushes of soft tissues in severe concomitant injury (SCI, by applying extracorporeal detoxification techniques as soon as possible. Subjects and methods. The results of examination and treatment were studied in 41 victims with SCI treated at the N. N. Burdenko Main Military Clinical Hospital in 2006 to 2008. In the early posttraumatic period (on days 1—3, all the victims (n=41 were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 victims (n=19 underwent hemodiafiltration (HDF with replacement at 35 ml/kg/hr; Group 2 (n=22 had plasmapheresis. Results. Early HDF applied to Group 1 victims could achieve 32, 44, and 37% reductions in the elevated levels creatine phosphokinase, myoglobin, and middle-sized molecules, respectively. In Group 2, plasmapheresis showed a lower effect (19, 25, and 26% reductions. Furthermore, there was a decrease in total protein in Group 1, which was absent in Group 2. Conclusion. The timely use of extracorporeal detoxification techniques in victims with massive crushes of soft tissues in the early posttraumatic period prevents the development of fatal complications of SCI, at the same time HDF is more effective and safe than plasmapheresis. Key words: severe concomitant injury, rhabdomyolysis, myoglobin, plasmapheresis, hemodiafiltration.

  13. Gendered violence and restorative justice: the views of victim advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis-Fawley, Sarah; Daly, Kathleen

    2005-05-01

    The use of restorative justice for gendered violence has been debated in the feminist literature for some time. Critics warn that it is inappropriate because the process and outcomes are not sufficiently formal or stringent, and victims may be revictimized. Proponents assert that a restorative justice process may be better for victims than court because it holds offenders accountable and gives victims greater voice. This article presents what victim advocates in two Australian states think about using restorative justice for gendered violence. We find that although victim advocates have concerns and reservations about restorative justice, most saw positive elements.

  14. Do Social Relationships Protect Victimized Children against Internalizing Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averdijk, Margit; Eisner, Manuel; Ribeaud, Denis

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether social relationships protect children against the effects of victimization on internalizing problems. We used data from the Zurich Project on the Social Development of Children and Youths. Victimization at age 8 years was associated with internalizing problems at age 9 years. Victims who had siblings, warm parents, and a…

  15. Disability in Relation to Different Peer-Victimization Groups and Psychosomatic Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Linda; Stenbeck, Magnus; Hagquist, Curt

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between disability, victims, perpetrators, and so-called "bully-victims" (someone reporting being both a victim and a perpetrator) of traditional, cyber, or combined victimization or perpetration and psychosomatic health among adolescents. Authors analyzed cross-sectional data…

  16. Global Human Trafficking and Child Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Jordan; Bodrick, Nia

    2017-12-01

    Trafficking of children for labor and sexual exploitation violates basic human rights and constitutes a major global public health problem. Pediatricians and other health care professionals may encounter victims who present with infections, injuries, posttraumatic stress disorder, suicidality, or a variety of other physical or behavioral health conditions. Preventing child trafficking, recognizing victimization, and intervening appropriately require a public health approach that incorporates rigorous research on the risk factors, health impact, and effective treatment options for child exploitation as well as implementation and evaluation of primary prevention programs. Health care professionals need training to recognize possible signs of exploitation and to intervene appropriately. They need to adopt a multidisciplinary, outward-focused approach to service provision, working with nonmedical professionals in the community to assist victims. Pediatricians also need to advocate for legislation and policies that promote child rights and victim services as well as those that address the social determinants of health, which influence the vulnerability to human trafficking. This policy statement outlines major issues regarding public policy, medical education, research, and collaboration in the area of child labor and sex trafficking and provides recommendations for future work. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Early risk factors for being a bully, victim, or bully/victim in late elementary and early secondary education. The longitudinal TRAILS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ormel Johan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data regarding the impact of early risk factors on later involvement in bullying are scarce. We investigated the impact of preschool behaviors, family characteristics (socio-economic status, family breakup and parental mental health on bullying and victimization at age 11 (T1 and age 13.5 (T2. Methods longitudinal data from a subsample of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS (T1: N = 982; T2: N = 977. TRAILS is a prospective study of adolescent mental health in a mixed urban and rural region of the Netherlands. At T1 parents reported on family characteristics, parental mental health and retrospectively on children's preschool behavior at age 4-5. Schoolmates reported involvement of adolescents in bullying or victimization at T1 and T2. Results Children with preschool anxiety were less likely to be bully/victim at T1. Children with preschool aggressiveness were more likely to be bully (T1, bully/victim (T1 and T2 and victim (T2 and children with good preschool motor functioning were more likely to be bully (T1 and less likely to be victim (T1 and T2. Children from low socioeconomic status families were more likely be to be bully, victim, or bully/victim and less likely to be uninvolved both at T1 and T2. Finally, children from intact two parent families were more likely to be uninvolved at T2. Conclusion Preschool behavioral, emotional and motor problems, socioeconomic status, and family breakup are related to involvement in bullying at a later age. Prevention of bullying and its consequences can be enhanced by focusing on risk groups in early life.

  18. Experience in working with volunteers as providers of support to victims and witnesses in victim and witness support departments at the courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamer-Vidmar Nikica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of a survey on the experience of engaging volunteers as providers of support for victims and witnesses in Victim and Witness Support Departments at the courts. The Independent Service for Victim and Witness Support in Ministry of Justice is responsible for the development of the victim and witness support system in Croatia. The Independent Service also coordinates the work of Victim and Witness Support Departments and develops and provides training programs and supervision for support officers and volunteers. A survey was conducted in order to determine volunteer motivation, assess the volunteers’ required qualities, their educational needs, the emotional impact arising from the work with victims and witnesses and the volunteers‘ assessment of the level of acceptance by court officials. In order to improve the level of safety of volunteers and the organization itself, the selection and educational processes for volunteers have been improved, according to both the experience achieved by working with volunteers and the results of the aforementioned survey. Engaging volunteers in the judicial system is a large step forward in the field of co-operation between the judiciary and the community.

  19. 78 FR 52877 - VOCA Victim Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... these requirements has merely been re-worked for clarity. Under the proposed rule SAAs must identify... victim populations will allow OVC and SAAs to better tailor their training and technical assistance and... SAAs may use for these purposes. Funding victim service programs located in adjacent States. Program...

  20. Relational Aggression and Victimization in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy

    2013-01-01

    For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…

  1. Coping and Sexual Harassment: How Victims Cope across Multiple Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Sheff, Sarah E; Smith, Mathew

    2018-02-01

    The ways sexual harassment occurs both online and in face-to-face settings has become more complicated. Sexual harassment that occurs in cyberspace or online sexual harassment adds complexity to the experiences of victims, current research understandings, and the legal dimensions of this phenomenon. Social networking sites (SNS) are a type of social media that offer unique opportunities to users and sometimes the communication that occurs on SNS can cross the line from flirtation into online sexual harassment. Victims of sexual harassment employ communicative strategies such as coping to make sense of their experiences of sexual harassment. The current study qualitatively examined problem-focused, active emotion-focused, and passive emotion-focused coping strategies employed by sexual harassment victims across multiple settings. We conducted 26 in-depth interviews with victims that had experienced sexual harassment across multiple settings (e.g., face-to-face and SNS). The findings present 16 types of coping strategies-five problem-focused, five active emotion-focused, and six passive emotion-focused. The victims used an average of three types of coping strategies during their experiences. Theoretical implications extend research on passive emotion-focused coping strategies by discussing powerlessness and how victims blame other victims. Furthermore, theoretically the findings reveal that coping is a complex, cyclical process and that victims shift among types of coping strategies over the course of their experience. Practical implications are offered for victims and for SNS sites.

  2. Comparing victim attributions and outcomes for workplace aggression and sexual harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovis, M Sandy; Barling, Julian

    2010-09-01

    In 2 studies, we investigated victim attributions (Study 1) and outcomes (Study 2) for workplace aggression and sexual harassment. Drawing on social categorization theory, we argue that victims of workplace aggression and sexual harassment may make different attributions about their mistreatment. In Study 1, we investigated victim attributions in an experimental study. We hypothesized that victims of sexual harassment are more likely than victims of workplace aggression to depersonalize their mistreatment and attribute blame to the perpetrator or the perpetrator's attitudes toward their gender. In contrast, victims of workplace aggression are more likely than victims of sexual harassment to personalize the mistreatment and make internal attributions. Results supported our hypotheses. On the basis of differential attributions for these 2 types of mistreatment, we argue that victims of workplace aggression may experience stronger adverse outcomes than victims of sexual harassment. In Study 2, we compared meta-analytically the attitudinal, behavioral, and health outcomes of workplace aggression and sexual harassment. Negative outcomes of workplace aggression were stronger in magnitude than those of sexual harassment for 6 of the 8 outcome variables. Implications and future directions are discussed. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  3. The interrelation between victimization and bullying inside young offender institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häufle, Jenny; Wolter, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bullying and victimization are serious problems within prisons. Young Offender Institutions (YOIs), in particular, suffer from high rates of inmate-on-inmate violence. More recent theories about the development of bullying in closed custody institutions imply a relationship between the experience of victimization and the usage of bullying. In our study, we test this linkage using longitudinal survey data taken at two time-points from 473 inmates (aged 15-24) inside three YOIs in Germany. We first analyze the extent of bullying and victimization, and then used a longitudinal structural equation model to predict inmate bullying behavior at time 2 based on victimization that occurred at time 1. Age is used as a predictor variable to account for differences in the amount of victimization and bullying. Results suggest that bullying and victimization are high in the YOIs, which were subject to research. Most inmates reported being a bully and a victim at the same time. Younger inmates use more direct physical bullying but not psychological bullying. An increase in psychological bullying over time can significantly be explained by victimization at an earlier measurement time point. Our study therefore supports recent theoretical assumptions about the development of bullying behavior. Possible implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Implicit Social Cognitive Processes Underlying Victim Self and Identity: Evidence With College-Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Nicole M; Veysey, Bonita M; Rivera, Luis M

    2017-11-01

    Past research on victimization has relied predominantly on individuals' awareness of and willingness to self-report a victimization experience and its effect on self and identity processes. The present research adopts theoretical and methodological innovations in implicit social cognition research to provide a new perspective on how a violent victimization experience might influence identity processes outside of conscious awareness. Our main goal was to test whether individuals who have victimization experience implicitly associate the self with victims (implicit victim identity) and their stereotypes (implicit victim self-stereotyping), and the relation of these associations to explicit victim identity and self-stereotyping. Two pretests with undergraduate student participants ( Ns = 122 and 72) identified victim-related word stimuli for two Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT) measures of implicit victim identity and self-stereotyping. In Pretest Study A, participants read crime vignettes and listed words that described a victim, then in Pretest Study B, participants rated these words on victim relatedness and valence. The Main Study recruited undergraduate student participants ( N = 101) who completed the SC-IATs, self-report measures of explicit victim identity and self-stereotyping, and victimization experiences. Three of our five hypotheses were supported. Individuals with past victimization experience exhibited strong explicit victim identity and self-stereotyping, but not implicit victim identity and self-stereotyping, relative to those with no victimization experience. Explicit and implicit victim identity and self-stereotyping were unrelated. Finally, among individuals with victimization experience, a strong implicit victim identity was associated with strong implicit victim self-stereotyping. This research has implications for understanding the processes underlying revictimization and for preventing further victimization.

  5. CRIMINAL LEGAL PROTECTION OF CHILD VICTIMS AND WITNESSES OF CRIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Mushevska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The term victim indicates a natural person that underwent some kind of crime, including psychological and mental disorder, and emotional suffering or monetary loss, that were caused by accomplishing or not accomplishing a certain kind of activity that violates the law in one state. The term Victim also includes the close members of the victim’s family that depend on the victim. “Kids, victims and witnesses of crimes” indicates kids and adolescents under 18 years of age, which are victims of different kinds of crime or witnesses of different kinds of crime, in spite of the role that they have in the crime act. In all proceedings that directly or indirectly child victims involved it is important to act in a way that is the best and most appropriate for the child.

  6. Effects of peer victimization on psychological and academic adjustment in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Jenkins, Lyndsay N

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effects of frequency of peer victimization experiences on psychological and academic adjustment during early adolescence, with a focus on testing psychological adjustment as a mediator, as well as differences based on gender and type of victimization. The sample in this short-term longitudinal design study consists of 7th and 8th graders (n = 670, 50% male) from an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse middle school. Victimization was measured using 10 items that assessed frequency of verbal, physical, and relational victimization experiences, and outcomes were assessed with the Behavior Assessment System for Children (2nd ed.) and school records. There was support for gender differences in frequency of peer victimization experiences based on type of victimization. More specifically, boys reported higher levels of physical and verbal victimization, and girls reported higher levels of relational victimization. In addition, there were statistically significant differences between boys and girls on the relation between victimization and anxiety, attendance, and grades, with girls experiencing more maladjustment than boys in response to peer victimization. Finally, results demonstrated no gender differences in indirect effects of psychological adjustment on the relation between peer victimization and academic outcomes, whether victimization was physical, verbal, and relational. These findings highlight the importance of addressing social-emotional functioning as well as peer victimization in the schools for both boys and girls, as both affect students' academic functioning. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Peer victimization: Intimidation and victmization in Chilean students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica López

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study about peer intimidation and victimization with 1167 school students from 6th, 7th, and 8th grade from the Valparaiso Region of Valparaíso, Chile. The instrument used was the Insebull Battery (Avilés & Elices, 2007. Results show that approximately 9% of students have been victim of peer victimization many times or almost every day during the school year. Psychological victimization was more frequent thanphysical aggression, particularly through virtual communication such as cell-phone messages and e-mails. Participants tend to be groups of male students. Although male students participate more in physical aggression, they also receive more physical and psychological aggression. The most frequent places were inside the classroom and the school yard, when the teacher is not present. Most students inform not knowing, or vaguely knowing, thereasons underlying these aggressions, and do not do anything to deal with them. These results coincide with international studies and allow a better understanding of the characteristics of peer victimization in specific educational contexts within the Chilean school system.

  8. Do Victimization Experiences Accentuate Reactions to Ostracism? An Experiment Using Cyberball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Sabrina; Bendixen, Mons; Gabriel, Ute; Alsaker, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    Based on the notion that the history of victimization has an impact on the sensitivity to current victimization situations this study investigated whether victims of bullying show more pronounced responses to single episodes of social exclusion. We examined whether victimization experiences in school are associated with responses to ostracism in a…

  9. Victims of cybercrime in Europe : a review of victim surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reep-van den Bergh, Carin M.M.; Junger, Marianne

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Review the evidence provided by victim surveys in order to provide a rough estimate of the personal crime prevalence of the main types of cybercrime. Methods: We performed a search in databases, searched online, and contacted several Offices for National Statistics in Europe and selected

  10. Preventing and Coping Strategies for Cyber Bullying and Cyber Victimization

    OpenAIRE

    Erdinc Ozturk; Gizem Akcan

    2016-01-01

    Although there are several advantages of information and communication technologies, they cause some problems like cyber bullying and cyber victimization. Cyber bullying and cyber victimization have lots of negative effects on people. There are lots of different strategies to prevent cyber bullying and victimization. This study was conducted to provide information about the strategies that are used to prevent cyber bullying and cyber victimization. 120 (60 women, 60 men) university students w...

  11. Victims and Heroes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg, Christian K.

    2010-01-01

    Victimization, autochthony and citizenship, power and nation-building constitute recurrent, interrelated themes in post-war Manding historical memory in the border area between Liberia and Guinea. While the perceived history of the Manding diverges from academic, historical knowledge as well...

  12. Developing the Cyber Victimization Experiences and Cyberbullying Behaviors Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Lucy R; Spenser, Karin A

    2017-01-01

    The reported prevalence rates of cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors vary. Part of this variation is likely due to the diverse definitions and operationalizations of the constructs adopted in previous research and the lack of psychometrically robust measures. Through 2 studies, the authors developed (Study 1) and evaluated (Study 2) the cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors scales. Participants in Study 1 were 393 (122 boys, 171 girls) and in Study 2 were 345 (153 boys, 192 girls) 11-15-year-olds who completed measures of cyber victimization experiences, cyberbullying behaviors, face-to-face victimization experiences, face-to-face bullying behaviors, and social desirability. The 3-factor cyber victimization experiences scale comprised threat, shared images, and personal attack. The 3-factor cyberbullying behaviors scale comprised sharing images, gossip, and personal attack. Both scales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and convergent validity.

  13. Measuring adolescents’ exposure to victimization: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Helen L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Wertz, Jasmin; Gray, Rebecca; Newbury, Joanne; Ambler, Antony; Zavos, Helena; Danese, Andrea; Mill, Jonathan; Odgers, Candice L.; Pariante, Carmine; Wong, Chloe C.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents mutlilevel findings on adolescents’ victimization exposure from a large longitudinal cohort of twins. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological study of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) followed to 18 years of age (with 93% retention). To assess adolescent victimization we combined best practices in survey research on victimization with optimal approaches to measuring life stress and traumatic experiences, and introduce a reliable system for coding severe victimization. One in three children experienced at least one type of severe victimization during adolescence (crime victimization, peer/sibling victimization, internet/mobile phone victimization, sexual victimization, family violence, maltreatment, or neglect), and most types of victimization were more prevalent amongst children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Exposure to multiple victimization types was common, as was re-victimization; over half of those physically maltreated in childhood were also exposed to severe physical violence in adolescence. Biometric twin analyses revealed that environmental factors had the greatest influence on most types of victimization, while severe physical maltreatment from caregivers during adolescence was predominantly influenced by heritable factors. The findings from this study showcase how distinct levels of victimization measurement can be harmonized in large-scale studies of health and development. PMID:26535933

  14. Nuclear tests: the late indemnification of victims; Essais nucleaire: l'indemnisation tardive des victimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charbonneau, S. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 (France)

    2010-04-15

    The author briefly recalls the historical context of the creation of the CEA and outlines the silence and denial about the radioactive contamination of military personnel during the nuclear tests performed in the Algerian Sahara and in Polynesia. He also outlines the continuous action of the association of veterans and victims of these nuclear tests which gathered proofs of health consequences. He comments the content and scope of application of laws which have been lately adopted (in 2010) to acknowledge these facts and indemnify the victims

  15. Domestic violence and the impact on its victims

    OpenAIRE

    Kirejevová, Iva

    2010-01-01

    Domestic violence is one of the essential problems of our society. Domestic violence is determined by high prevalence, enormous latency and great victimization impact. The aim of my thesis is to describe the psychological aspects of the victims of domestic violence. I presume that long-term psychological and physical violence has a crucial influence on the psycho-somatic health of the victim. I am aware of the fact that this problem does not concern only battered women. Nevertheless I want to...

  16. The linkage between secondary victimization by law enforcement and rape case outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that almost half of rape victims are treated by law enforcement in ways that they experience as upsetting (termed secondary victimization). However, it remains unknown why some victims have negative experiences with law enforcement and others do not. The purpose of this study is to explore victims' experiences with secondary victimization by detectives, comparing how these experiences vary in cases that were ultimately prosecuted by the criminal justice system to those that were not prosecuted. A total of 20 rape victims are interviewed within one county. The study uses grounded theory qualitative analysis, which showed that participants whose cases were eventually prosecuted described the detectives' treatment toward them considerably different than participants with nonprosecuted cases. The study findings further show that victims with cases that were not prosecuted primarily described their detectives as engaging in secondary victimization behaviors and that victims with cases that were ultimately prosecuted primarily described their detectives as responding compassionately toward them.

  17. Obese and Overweight Youth: Risk for Experiencing Bullying Victimization and Internalizing Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Mehari, Krista; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2018-01-22

    Obese and overweight youth are at an increased risk for poor peer relations and psychosocial adjustment. Of particular concern is the high rate of bullying victimization experienced by obese and overweight youth. While it is known that victimized youth are at an increased risk for internalizing symptoms, few studies have examined if weight status exacerbates the association between victimization and internalizing symptoms. The current study drew upon data from over 43,000 youth attending 107 middle and high schools. Multilevel results suggested that compared with normal weight youth, both overweight and obese youth were at an increased risk for experiencing relational, verbal, and cyber victimization, with only obese youth being at an increased risk for experiencing physical victimization. Notably, the odds for experiencing cyber victimization were higher than the odds for experiencing other forms of victimization. Frequently victimized obese youth, but not frequently victimized overweight youth, had significantly higher levels of internalizing symptoms compared to their frequently victimized, normal-weight peers. Together, these findings highlight the increased risk for psychosocial adjustment problems among frequently victimized overweight and obese youth, suggesting these youth may require preventive interventions tailored to meet their unique needs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. [The profile of female victims of conjugal violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, Philippe

    2004-12-18

    To define the profile of female victims of conjugal violence examined in the Legal Medicine emergency unit of the Hotel-Dieu hospital in Paris. A self-administered questionnaire with 15 questions was distributed to 100 victims. The 100 victims replied: 86 cases of violence took place usually in the home, 78 episodes of violence were multiple and complaints were rarely lodged after the first episodes. Mental and sexual violence were severe and unrecognized. Eighty women interviewed suffered from mental violence. In 43 cases, alcohol played a determining role in the onset of such violence. Female victims of conjugal violence do not have a specific profile. The law of silence persists, but the increase in the number of complaints from North African and African women is encouraging for the future.

  19. Familial Influences on Dating Violence Victimization Among Latino Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Klevens, Joanne; Tharp, Andra Teten; Chapman, Mimi V; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T

    2016-01-01

    Despite theoretical and empirical evidence suggesting that the family environment plays a central role in Latino youth development, relatively little is known about how family processes influence dating violence victimization among Latino adolescents. To address this gap in the literature, we used data from 210 Latino parents and their 13- to 15-year-old adolescents to examine associations between several different family processes, including both parenting practices (parent monitoring, parent-adolescent communication) and aspects of the family relational climate (family cohesion, family conflict, acculturation conflict) and psychological, physical, and sexual dating violence victimization. Consistent with expectations, lower levels of family cohesion and higher levels of family and acculturation conflict were associated with risk for dating violence victimization, although associations varied depending on victimization type. In contrast, neither parental monitoring nor parent-adolescent communication was significantly associated with any type of dating violence victimization. In addition, we found that parent, but not teen, Anglo-American acculturation was associated with higher dating violence victimization risk. Findings suggest that family-based dating abuse prevention programs for Latino youth should seek to increase family cohesion and decrease family conflict, including acculturation-based conflict.

  20. The Victim Handling Model of Human Trafficking Through Economic Independence

    OpenAIRE

    Nuraeny, Henny; Utami, Tanti Kirana

    2016-01-01

    Human Trafficking is a modern trading of human slavery. Human Trafficking is also one of the worst forms of violation of human dignity that results in trauma to the victims. To that end, there should be a comprehensive treatment for victims. The problems that can be studied is whether a model that can be applied in the treatment of victims of trafficking in Cianjur and disseminating technical how models Handling of Victims of Human Trafficking in Cianjur. This study used normative juridical a...

  1. Short-term Lost Productivity per Victim: Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Violence, or Stalking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Cora; Liu, Yang; Kresnow, Marcie-Jo; Florence, Curtis; Merrick, Melissa T; DeGue, Sarah; Lokey, Colby N

    2018-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to estimate victims' lifetime short-term lost productivity because of intimate partner violence, sexual violence, or stalking. U.S. nationally representative data from the 2012 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey were used to estimate a regression-adjusted average per victim (female and male) and total population number of cumulative short-term lost work and school days (or lost productivity) because of victimizations over victims' lifetimes. Victims' lost productivity was valued using a U.S. daily production estimate. Analysis was conducted in 2017. Non-institutionalized adults with some lifetime exposure to intimate partner violence, sexual violence, or stalking (n=6,718 respondents; survey-weighted n=130,795,789) reported nearly 741 million lost productive days because of victimizations by an average of 2.5 perpetrators per victim. The adjusted per victim average was 4.9 (95% CI=3.9, 5.9) days, controlling for victim, perpetrator, and violence type factors. The estimated societal cost of this short-term lost productivity was $730 per victim, or $110 billion across the lifetimes of all victims (2016 USD). Factors associated with victims having a higher number of lost days included a higher number of perpetrators and being female, as well as sexual violence, physical violence, or stalking victimization by an intimate partner perpetrator, stalking victimization by an acquaintance perpetrator, and sexual violence or stalking victimization by a family member perpetrator. Short-term lost productivity represents a minimum economic valuation of the immediate negative effects of intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and stalking. Victims' lost productivity affects family members, colleagues, and employers. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Sexually assaulted victims are getting younger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherer, Susanne; Hansen, Steen Holger; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: From the clinical forensic examination reports produced by the Department of Forensic Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in 2007 concerning rape, attempted rape and sexual assault (RAS), circumstances were...... extracted and analysed focussing on age, relationship, lesions, violence, location and alcohol intoxication. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 184 girls and women over the age of 12 years were included in this retrospective study. RESULTS: The median age of the victims was 20 years (range 12-89 years). 75.......5% were under 30 years of age. 53% knew the perpetrator. More than one perpetrator was reported in 11%. 46% of the assaulted victims had a total number of 1-5 observed lesions and these were observed in all types of perpetrator relationship. Eight victims with more than 20 lesions were assaulted...

  3. Children’s Attribution of Emotions in Victimization Situations: Examination of the Happy Victimizer Task and its Relation to Children’s Moral Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral Menéres, Maria Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Psicologia, apresentada a Departament of Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Simon Fraser University Children’s understanding of emotions in victimization situations has been investigated as a way to study children’s moral motivation. To assess this understanding, researchers have used a procedure known as the happy victimizer task in which children are asked to attribute emotions to victimizers who have performed an immoral action. In the present study...

  4. Defending victimized peers : Opposing the bully, supporting the victim, or both?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijntjes, Albert; Vermande, Marjolijn; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits A; Aleva, Liesbeth; van der Meulen, Matty

    2016-01-01

    To reduce bullying, more knowledge on children defending their victimized peers is critical. In previous work, predominantly cross-sectional in nature, defending has typically been operationalized as one single, broad construct. However, there are good reasons to assume that attacking the bully

  5. Victimization and its associations with peer rejection and fear of victimization: Moderating effects of individual-level and classroom-level characteristics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kollerová, Lenka; Smolík, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 4 (2016), s. 640-656 ISSN 0007-0998 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-00682S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : fear of victimization * peer rejection * victimization Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.403, year: 2016

  6. How older persons explain why they became victims of abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysyuk, Yuliya; Westendorp, Rudi Gerardus Johannes; Lindenberg, Jolanda

    2016-01-01

    independently, in residential care facilities and nursing homes. SUBJECTS: six males and 11 females aged 63-90 years. RESULTS: the main causes of abuse identified by older victims themselves were mutual dependency between victim and perpetrator, power and control imbalances, loneliness and a marginalised social...... with the perpetrator. Coping strategies mentioned by victims were seeking informal or professional help and using self-help strategies. CONCLUSION: older victims perceive abuse differently depending on the expected acceptability of the type(s) of abuse experienced and the anticipated stigma associated...

  7. Invisible victims. Analysis of a case of abuse from the perspective of the victim with intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén GUTIÉRREZ-BERMEJO

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the experience of abuse by a person with intellectual disability. For this purpose, a semi-structured interview was recorded, transcribed and analyzed according to the existing scientific literature. The results show the emotional impact of the abuse experience on the victim. It also identifies false myths in relation to the emotional experience of people with intellectual disabilities and provides psychological explanations for the actions of the different people involved in the aggressions. The plurality of abuse situations which the victim may face, as well as the permanence of abuse over the years, define a common characteristic in the maltreatment of individuals with intellectual disabilities. Understanding all the dynamics that can lead to abuse in people with intellectual disabilities provides a new perspective in the assessment and intervention with these victims.

  8. Bullying Victimization Type and Feeling Unsafe in Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowser, John; Larson, James D; Bellmore, Amy; Olson, Chelsea; Resnik, Felice

    2018-01-01

    Given their significance to school violence, this study quantifies the association between bullying victimization and perceptions of safety separately for victimization where the type is not specified versus victimization that is physical in nature. Generalized liner mixed modeling was employed with 5,138 sixth- to eighth-grade students in 24 schools who self-reported on their bullying victimization and perceptions of school safety on an anonymous survey in fall 2015. Results indicate a multiplicative interaction exists with regard to the odds of feeling unsafe at school among those who were bullied at all (odds ratio [ OR] = 3.1) compared to those who were bullied physically ( OR = 9.12). For school nurses who work with students with a variety of concerns and health issues, this research indicates that the use of bullying victimization as an outcome, proxy and/or predictor, requires inquiry into the type of bullying experienced to aid in the care and support received.

  9. Victim empathy, social self-esteem, and psychopathy in rapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Yolanda M; Marshall, W L

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the responses of 27 incarcerated rapists and 27 incarcerated nonsexual offenders using the Rapist Empathy Measure (targeting victim specific empathy deficits) and to examine the relationship between empathy with self-esteem and psychopathy for both groups. The Social Self-Esteem Inventory was used as a measure of perceived social competence and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991) was used as a measure of psychopathy. All participants completed the two self-report questionnaires on empathy and self-esteem; in addition, the rapists were required to complete an extra section of the empathy measure that assessed their empathic responses to their own victims. Demographic information and psychopathy scores were obtained by reviewing institutional files. When psychopathy scores were not available, subjects participated in a semi-structured interview and were scored on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised by the researcher. Rapists demonstrated more empathy than the nonsexual offenders toward women in general and the same degree of empathy as the nonsexual offenders toward a woman who had been a victim of a sexual assault by another male. Of particular importance were the within-group comparisons across victim type for the rapists which revealed significant empathy deficits toward their own victim(s). Interestingly, no differences were found between the rapists and nonsexual offenders in terms of self-esteem and psychopathy, and neither self-esteem nor psychopathy significantly predicted empathy for either group. It was concluded from the present study that rapists may suppress empathy primarily toward their own victim rather than suffer from a generalized empathy deficit. It is suggested that empathy deficits in rapists might better be construed as cognitive distortions specific to their victims and should be addressed in that manner in treatment.

  10. Physical examination of sexual assault victims in Belgrade area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alempijević Đorđe

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual crimes represent various forms of contact of perpetrator’s genitals, lips, tongue, and fingers with genitals, lips and/or anus of the victim, in order to achieve sexual satisfaction, without victim’s consent. Objective: The aim of this work was to analyze the type of medical institution in which victims of sexual assaults are being examined in Belgrade area, to assess the quality of these examinations and medical records, as well as to control whether standardized protocols are followed. Method: Data were obtained through analysis of 113 cases of sexual assaults prosecuted in the District Court of Belgrade. Results: All victims were females with mean age of 24.1 years. The majority of victims (85% were examined in one medical institution, most often in the Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Clinical Center of Serbia, and only by one medical doctor (81.4%. Gynecologists were most frequently included in examination, while specialists of forensic medicine were engaged in only 9 cases (7.9%. In 84% of victims, the examination was performed during the first three days after the assault, and in 52% of cases on the first day. Standard techniques of clinical and gynecological examinations were applied only, without following any protocols, so the reports were made exclusively on individual basis. In no case an informed consent by victim was obtained before examination. Anamnestic data were collected in only 15.9% of cases, and they were generally incomplete. Conclusion: The results of investigation show that the quality of examination of sexual assault victims in Belgrade area is not adequate. Therefore, such negative practice should be changed in future through introduction of standardized protocols for examination of victims, as well as development of clinical forensic medicine.

  11. Bully Victimization: Selection and Influence Within Adolescent Friendship Networks and Cliques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodder, Gerine M A; Scholte, Ron H J; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Giletta, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents tend to form friendships with similar peers and, in turn, their friends further influence adolescents' behaviors and attitudes. Emerging work has shown that these selection and influence processes also might extend to bully victimization. However, no prior work has examined selection and influence effects involved in bully victimization within cliques, despite theoretical account emphasizing the importance of cliques in this regard. This study examined selection and influence processes in adolescence regarding bully victimization both at the level of the entire friendship network and the level of cliques. We used a two-wave design (5-month interval). Participants were 543 adolescents (50.1% male, Mage = 15.8) in secondary education. Stochastic actor-based models indicated that at the level of the larger friendship network, adolescents tended to select friends with similar levels of bully victimization as they themselves. In addition, adolescent friends influenced each other in terms of bully victimization over time. Actor Parter Interdependence models showed that similarities in bully victimization between clique members were not due to selection of clique members. For boys, average clique bully victimization predicted individual bully victimization over time (influence), but not vice versa. No influence was found for girls, indicating that different mechanisms may underlie friend influence on bully victimization for girls and boys. The differences in results at the level of the larger friendship network versus the clique emphasize the importance of taking the type of friendship ties into account in research on selection and influence processes involved in bully victimization.

  12. Mediators and Moderators of the Association Between Stalking Victimization and Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Connor R; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J; Goodnight, Jackson A

    2017-03-01

    The current study aims to understand mediators and moderators of the relationship between stalking victimization and depression. Based on the reformulated learned helplessness theory, which emphasizes the role of internal, global, and stable attributions for negative events in the development of depression, we predicted that the association between stalking victimization and depression would be mediated by attributions for the stalking and characterological self-blame. We predicted that the association between stalking victimization and helplessness attributions or characterological self-blame, in turn, would be moderated by gender, sex-role identity, and length of stalking. Specifically, we hypothesized that female victims, victims possessing a feminine sex-role identity, and victims experiencing longer stalking episodes would be more likely to experience depression in comparison with male victims, victims possessing a masculine sex-role identity, and victims experiencing shorter stalking episodes. The results indicated that global attributions for the cause of stalking significantly mediated the relationship between stalking victimization and depression. The results for stable attributions, internal attributions, and characterological self-blame were nonsignificant. Furthermore, gender, sex-role identity, and length of stalking did not moderate the association between stalking and attributional style or characterological self-blame. The implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  13. Elderly victims of gender violence in Portugal: Invisible and not heard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Maria José; Rodríguez Castro, Yolanda; Ruido, Patricia Alonso; Braga Lopez, Rita DeOliveira

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we explore professionals' representations of elderly female victims of gender violence. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore seven professionals' work philosophies and intervention methodologies in their work with elderly female victims of violence, their main problems and difficulties, and their perspectives regarding shelters for elderly women. Results show that there are no specific philosophies and methodologies to intervene with these victims. There is a tendency to homogenize all the victims of gender violence, regardless of their age and specific needs. The professionals also tended to trivialize gender violence against elderly female victims, considering that these women tolerate violence.

  14. Investigating the Self-Protective Potential of Immobility in Victims of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Brooke A; Jones, Lynn C

    2017-04-01

    Using a nationwide sample of reported rape cases collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI; 389 victims; 89% stranger rapes), this study investigates assumptions about self-protective behaviors for rape victims. Past research on victim resistance strategies often specifies active resistance as self-protective, inadvertently underestimating the potential for biologically based reactions, such as tonic immobility, to be self-protective as well. Results confirm that rape victims who were verbally and physically immobile during the attack were less likely to be injured and have force used against them. In addition, victims who were verbally immobile suffered a less severe attack. The results indicate that immobility may protect the victim from increased injury, force, and severity of the attack. Implications for the legal and public definition of consent are discussed.

  15. When the Cop Is the Victim: A Test of Target Congruence Theory on Intimate Partner Violence Victimization Experienced by Police Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Egbert

    2017-05-01

    This study analyzed data from the Police Stress and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland, 1997-1999 ( N = 753) to examine propositions derived from target congruence theory in the context of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization experienced by police officers. Specifically, this study tested the influence of target vulnerability, target gratifiability, and target antagonism on IPV victimization. Results from logistic regression models showed that all three theoretical constructs positively and significantly predicted IPV victimization. Results, as well as the study's limitations and directions for future research, are discussed.

  16. Characteristic of psychological particularities of «victim» phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skitnevskaya L.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available the article is devoted to analysis of the main psychological characteristics of the phenomenon of victims in the schools. The researchers discuss the types of victims: passive and aggressive. Passive victims have a negative attitude towards violence and prevent the use of aggressive means. The aggressive behavior of the victims is an attack on the tortfeasor. The study was conducted in the framework of the project RHSF №15–06–10575 «The study of environmental and personal factors of adolescent bullying».

  17. Violence Victimization in Korean Adolescents: Risk Factors and Psychological Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Jang, Hyesue; Jo, Minkyung

    2017-05-19

    We examined the risk factors for and psychological problems associated with violence victimization in a nationwide representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2016 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey was used. Participants were asked about their experience of being a victim of violence that required medical treatment during the past 12 months, as well as their perceived health, happiness, sleep satisfaction, stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The 12-month prevalence of violence victimization requiring medical treatment was 2.4%. The results indicated that adolescents were at an increased risk for violence victimization if they were male, older, had parents of a foreign nationality, did not reside with their family, worked part time, resided in small cities or rural areas, were high or low in socioeconomic status (SES), exhibited high or low levels of academic performance, used alcohol or tobacco, and were sexually active. In addition, while violence victimization was negatively associated with perceived health and happiness, it was positively associated with perceived stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The results indicate that a social disadvantage, involvement in risky behavior, and psychological problems are associated with violence victimization. Effective violence prevention efforts should thus target high-risk groups, and clinical attention is needed to address the psychological costs associated with violence victimization.

  18. Relations among School Connectedness, Hope, Life Satisfaction, and Bully Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Sukkyung; Furlong, Michael J.; Felix, Erika; Sharkey, Jill D.; Tanigawa, Diane; Green, Jennifer Greif

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the role of school connectedness in mediating the relation between students' sense of hope and life satisfaction for three groups: Bullied Victims, Peer Victims, and Nonvictims. Students in grades 5 to 12 (N = 866) completed the California Bully/Victim Scale, School Connectedness Scale, Children's Hope Scale, and Students'…

  19. Pupils as Victims of Peer Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvek Mihaela

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The school is an educational institution that has to provide appropriate control of adults over pupils, which they do. Nevertheless, violence cannot be avoided. Pupils encounter peer violence in different roles, as observers, victims, perpetrators, or both. The objective of our research was to examine how often pupils are victims of peer violence, and to what extent the latter depends on pupils’ gender and age. The results of the research made among pupils in the fifth, seventh, and eighth grades of various primary schools across Slovenia showed that 24.1 per cent of pupils had already been victims of peer violence. The ones that they tend to tell about such episodes are their parents. The results have also shown that school is really a place where violence is very common, and that psychological and verbal abuse are the most common types of violence used.

  20. Development and validation of the multidimensional offline and online peer victimization scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumter, S.R.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Baumgartner, S.E.; Peter, J.; van der Hof, S.

    2015-01-01

    Peer victimization can seriously impair one’s well-being. As youth spend more time on the Internet, a new form of peer victimization has emerged, namely, online peer victimization. To fully comprehend peer victimization among today’s youth, there is a need for a psychometrically sound measure that

  1. Dating violence and interpersonal victimization among a national sample of Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Carlos A; Sabina, Chiara; Bell, Kristin A

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this analysis was (1) to provide the rates of dating violence victimization among a national sample of Latino adolescents, (2) to determine the degree to which different forms of dating violence victimization co-occurred for this sample, and (3) to determine how much dating violence victimization overlapped with other forms of non-partner-perpetrated victimization. This analysis used data from the Dating Violence Among Latinos Study, which surveyed 1,525 Latino adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years about past-year dating violence and non-partner-perpetrated victimization. We calculated victimization rates and relative risk ratios to evaluate the co-occurrence among different forms of dating violence victimization as well as the co-occurrence of dating violence and other forms of victimization. Results show elevated rates of dating violence victimization compared with previous studies, which is primarily accounted for by psychological dating violence. The rate of dating violence appears to precipitously increase starting around ages 13 and 14 years and is consistently higher for boys. Each type of dating violence was significantly associated with other forms of dating violence (e.g., physical and psychological). Dating violence was significantly associated with experiencing conventional crime, peer or sibling victimization, and nonpartner sexual victimization as well as being a polyvictim. The results support the importance of early prevention efforts with Latino youth and addressing dating violence with both sexes. Furthermore, dating violence should be seen as a potential risk marker for youth who are experiencing multiple forms of victimization. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Of virtual victims and victimized virtues: differential effects of experienced aggression in video games on social cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmund, Tobias; Gollwitzer, Mario; Klimmt, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Two experimental studies were used to investigate how interacting with aggressive virtual characters in video games affects trust and cooperation of players. Study 1 demonstrates that experiencing virtual aggression from a victim's perspective can impair players' investments in a subsequent common goods dilemma situation. This effect is mediated by reduced expectations of trust in the cooperativeness of interaction partners. In Study 2 the same effect was replicated by using a different cooperation task and by investigating the moderating role of justice sensitivity from a victim's perspective as a dispositional factor. Participants transferred less money to an unknown partner in a trust game after exposure to aggressive nonplayer characters in a video game. This effect was stronger for people high in victim sensitivity. Results of both studies can be interpreted in line with the sensitivity to mean intentions model and add to the body of research on violent media effects.

  3. Longitudinal Associations in Youth Involvement as Victimized, Bullying, or Witnessing Cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holfeld, Brett; Mishna, Faye

    2018-04-01

    Although cyberbullying has been linked to cyber victimization, it is unknown whether witnessing cyberbullying impacts and is impacted by experiences of cyberbullying and victimization. In the current study, we examine the frequency of youth involved as victimized, bullying, and witnessing cyberbullying and how these experiences are associated across three academic years. Participants comprised 670 Canadian students who began the longitudinal study in grades 4, 7, or 10 at Time 1 (T1). Cyber witnessing represented the largest role of youth involvement in cyberbullying. Cyber witnessing was positively associated with both cyberbullying and victimization. Cyber victimization at T1 was positively associated with cyber witnessing at T2, which was positively related to both cyberbullying and victimization at T3. Findings highlight the significance of addressing the role of cyber witnesses in cyberbullying prevention and intervention efforts.

  4. Domestic Violence and the Victim/Offender Overlap Across the Life Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iratzoqui, Amaia

    2018-07-01

    The current article examined the overlap of domestic violence across the life course, connecting childhood abuse and adolescent dating victimization to adult intimate partner victimization, and the connection between these behaviors and adult domestic violence perpetration against partners and children. Using three waves of Add Health data, the study found that childhood and adolescent domestic victimization were directly and indirectly linked to adult intimate partner victimization and that domestic violence perpetration also played a role. These findings indicate that offending must be accounted for in tracking patterns of victimization over the life course and that the overlap must more directly be reconciled in current criminal justice policy.

  5. “Stripped”: an analysis of revenge porn victims’ lives after victimization

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Samantha Lynn

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the experiences of female revenge porn victims. To date, no other academic studies have exclusively focused on experiences of victimization in revenge porn cases. Researchers have focused on legal and moral aspects of revenge porn rather than on victims’ experiences. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted between February 2014 and January 2015 with 18 revenge porn victims to understand how they experienced victimization and its effects on their lives. Inductive ana...

  6. Family victim advocates: the importance of critical job duties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa H. Young

    Full Text Available Child advocacy centers across the United States intervened in more than 250,000 child abuse cases in 2011(National Children's Alliance, 2012. Understanding the work of family victim advocates is imperative to helping children and families in child abuse cases. In this exploratory study, we surveyed advocates and program directors from child advocacy centers (CACs across the United States to compare their perceptions of the critical job duties of family victim advocates. Data analysis revealed that CAC directors rated the importance of these duties significantly higher than family victim advocates. Results suggest the need for additional training to ensure that family victim advocates understand the importance of critical job duties to meet the needs of children and families in child abuse cases.

  7. The management of victims of collective accidents. Methodological guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadel, Juliette; Marie, Eugenie; Badorc, Yves; Riviere, Anne; Chalaux, Marion; Heisserer, Julie; Tosello-Orsola, Romain; Gelli, Robert; Boura, Florent; Sookahet, Stephanie; Deparis, Benjamin; Tarabeux, Xavier; Besson, Jean-Paul; Porterie, Frederique; Paris-Muller, Gaelle; Marchelli, Sylvie; Gesret, Samuel; Guthleben, Sandra; Sauvee, Marie-Line; Percie Du Sert, Xavier; Bossuyt, Yves; Viteau, Thierry; Etienne-Diener, Annick; Le Caro, Sylvie; Taffin, Monique; Deluz, Damien; Cremniter, Didier; Philippe, Jean-Marc; Ouvrard, Anne-Emmanuelle; Andre, Jean-Marc; Lansman, Patrick; Jouty, Remi; Delbono, Martine; Cebe, Philippe; Le Divenah, Jean-Paul; Vandoorne, Pierre-Jean; Bertin, Jerome; Sadowski, Isabelle; Bovis, Marcel; Gicquel, Stephane; Seco, Sophia; Ieche, Clara; Bertrand, Paul; Tricot, Sandrine; Gomes, Thierry; Marissal, Jean-Luc; Voss, Beatrice; Mescam, Marie; Le Chevalier, Elisabeth; Bouchet, Loic; Lienhard, Claude; Dantchev, Nicolas; Delval, Christophe; Naudascher, Michel; Sublet, Xavier; Cutajar, Chantal; Trestard, Jean-Francois; Quentin, Cecile

    2017-11-01

    This publication proposes several sets of sheets. A first set concerns the crisis phase itself and sheets present or describe the coordination during an emergency phase, the role of the public prosecutor, the role of the prefect, the crisis and support Centre of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, the health management of victims, the mobilisation of association for the support to victims, the role of associations of victims, crisis information telephone numbers, the family welcome centre, information meetings for victims and families, relationships with media. The second set concerns the post-crisis phase: coordination during the follow-up phase, the intervention of insurance providers, and the intervention of lawyers. A last sheet concerns the legal phase with a presentation of the legal procedure

  8. Identification of human trafficking victims in health care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Susie B; Eisenman, David P; Sayles, Jennifer N; Ryan, Gery; Chuang, Kenneth S

    2011-07-14

    An estimated 18,000 individuals are trafficked into the United States each year from all over the world, and are forced into hard labor or commercial sex work. Despite their invisibility, some victims are known to have received medical care while under traffickers' control. Our project aimed to characterize trafficking victims' encounters in US health care settings. The study consisted of semi-structured interviews with six Key Informants who work closely with trafficking victims (Phase I) and 12 female trafficking survivors (Phase II). All survivors were recruited through the Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking, an NGO in Los Angeles, and all were trafficked into Los Angeles. Interviews were conducted in English and six other languages, with the assistance of professional interpreters. Using a framework analysis approach that focused on victims' encounters in health care settings, we assessed interview transcript content and coded for themes. We used an exploratory pile-sorting technique to aggregate similar ideas and identify overarching domains. The survivors came from 10 countries. Eight had experienced domestic servitude, three had survived sex trafficking, and one had experienced both. Half the survivors reported that they had visited a physician while in their traffickers' control, and another worked in a health care facility. All Key Informants described other victims who had received medical care. For domestic servants, medical visits were triggered by injury and respiratory or systemic illness, while sex trafficking victims were seen by health professionals for sexually transmitted infections and abortion. Trafficking victims were prevented from disclosing their status to health care providers by fear, shame, language barriers, and limited interaction with medical personnel, among other obstacles. This exploration of survivors' experiences in health care settings supports anecdotal reports that US health care providers may unwittingly encounter

  9. Family and school socioeconomic disadvantage: interactive influences on adolescent dating violence victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggs, Aubrey L; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Herring, Amy H; Schoenbach, Victor J

    2009-06-01

    Although low socioeconomic status has been positively associated with adult partner violence, its relationship to adolescent dating violence remains unclear. Further, few studies have examined the relationship between contextual disadvantage and adolescent dating violence, or the interactive influences of family and contextual disadvantage. Guided by social disorganization theory, relative deprivation theory, and gendered resource theory, we analyzed data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-1996) to explore how family and school disadvantage relate to dating violence victimization. Psychological and minor physical victimization were self-reported by adolescents in up to six heterosexual romantic or sexual relationships. Family and school disadvantage were based on a principal component analysis of socioeconomic indicators reported by adolescents and parents. In weighted multilevel random effects models, between-school variability in dating violence victimization was proportionately small but substantive: 10% for male victimization and 5% for female victimization. In bivariate analyses, family disadvantage was positively related to victimization for both males and females; however, school disadvantage was only related to males' physical victimization. In models adjusted for race/ethnicity, relative age within the school, and mean school age, neither family nor school disadvantage remained related to males' victimization. For females, family disadvantage remained significantly positively associated with victimization, but was modified by school disadvantage: family disadvantage was more strongly associated with dating violence victimization in more advantaged schools. Findings support gendered resource theory, and suggest that status differentials between females and their school context may increase their vulnerability to dating violence victimization.

  10. Victim countries of transnational terrorism: an empirical characteristics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbakidze, Levan; Jin, Yanhong

    2012-12-01

    This study empirically investigates the association between country-level socioeconomic characteristics and risk of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. We find that a country's annual financial contribution to the U.N. general operating budget has a positive association with the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. In addition, per capita GDP, political freedom, and openness to trade are nonlinearly related to the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Pathways From Bullying Perpetration, Victimization, and Bully Victimization to Suicidality Among School-Aged Youth: A Review of the Potential Mediators and a Call for Further Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Kral, Michael J; Sterzing, Paul R

    2015-10-01

    In the wake of several highly publicized adolescent suicides attributed to bullying victimization, national attention has been brought to bear on the profound public health problem of bullying. This article reviews the extant literature on the associations between bullying perpetration, victimization, and thoughts of or attempts at suicide and proposes five potential mediators, namely depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, loneliness, and hopelessness, that may explain this relationship. Numerous studies have found empirical support for the interrelations between internalizing behaviors and both bullying perpetration and victimization and suicide. We find that further longitudinal research needs to be conducted to more conclusively determine the role and causal ordering these various psychosocial factors may play in bullying perpetration, victimization, and suicide. Although the research literature implies causal directions among all these potential mediators, untangling the unique influence of bullying perpetration, victimization, and bully victimization on suicide and its mechanisms of action has major research and practice implications. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Victim Simulator for Victim Detection Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James P.; Haque, Salman

    2013-01-01

    Testing of victim detection radars has traditionally used human subjects who volunteer to be buried in, or climb into a space within, a rubble pile. This is not only uncomfortable, but can be hazardous or impractical when typical disaster scenarios are considered, including fire, mud, or liquid waste. Human subjects are also inconsistent from day to day (i.e., they do not have the same radar properties), so quantitative performance testing is difficult. Finally, testing a multiple-victim scenario is difficult and expensive because of the need for multiple human subjects who must all be coordinated. The solution is an anthropomorphic dummy with dielectric properties that replicate those of a human, and that has motions comparable to human motions for breathing and heartbeat. Two airfilled bladders filled and drained by solenoid valves provide the underlying motion for vinyl bags filled with a dielectric gel with realistic properties. The entire assembly is contained within a neoprene wetsuit serving as a "skin." The solenoids are controlled by a microcontroller, which can generate a variety of heart and breathing patterns, as well as being reprogrammable for more complex activities. Previous electromagnetic simulators or RF phantoms have been oriented towards assessing RF safety, e.g., the measurement of specific absorption rate (SAR) from a cell phone signal, or to provide a calibration target for diagnostic techniques (e.g., MRI). They are optimized for precise dielectric performance, and are typically rigid and immovable. This device is movable and "positionable," and has motion that replicates the small-scale motion of humans. It is soft (much as human tissue is) and has programmable motions.

  13. Child human trafficking victims: challenges for the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Rowena; Berger Cardoso, Jodi

    2010-08-01

    Since the passing of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act in 2000 and its reauthorization by President George Bush in 2008, federal, state and community efforts in identifying and providing services for victims of human trafficking have significantly improved. However, most of the research and resources for trafficking victims have been directed towards adults rather than children. Researchers agree that there is a growing number of sexually exploited and trafficked children in the United States yet few programs emphasize the unique experiences and special needs of this population. This article examines commercial sexual exploitation of children; differentiates the needs and problems between child prostitution and victims of human trafficking; reviews and critiques current treatment practices; and summarizes challenges and successes in working with child victims of human trafficking, offering practice and policy recommendations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Sexual Harassment Victims: Psycholegal and Family Therapy Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Robert Henley; Perry, Nancy Walker

    1993-01-01

    Examines legal proscriptions and practical definitions of sexual harassment, describes psychological effects of sexual harassment (Sexual Harassment Trauma Syndrome) for victim-client and impact on family system, and offers guidance for family therapy. Focuses on vulnerability of victim-client, reconstruction of self-concept as primary goal of…

  15. Perceptions and Correlates of Peer-Victimization and Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Simon C.; Boyle, James M. E.; Warden, David

    2007-01-01

    Background: The experiences of peer-victimization and bullying are often treated empirically as though they are conceptually indistinct. Both involve repeated aggression, but definitions of bullying additionally emphasize the importance of aggressor intent and imbalance of power between the aggressor and the victim (Olweus, 1978; Whitney &…

  16. Radiological emergency: road map for radiation accident victim transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, V.S.G.; Alcantara, Y.P.; Lima, C.M.A.; Silva, F. C. A. da

    2017-01-01

    During a radiological or nuclear emergency, a number of necessary actions are taken, both within the radiation protection of individuals and the environment, involving many institutions and highly specialized personnel. Among them it is possible to emphasize the air transportation of radiation accident victims.The procedures and measures for the safe transport of these radiation accident victims are generally the responsibility of the armed forces, specifically the Aeronautics, with the action denominated 'Aeromedical Military Evacuation of Radiation Accident Victims'. The experience with the Radiological Accident of Goiânia demonstrated the importance of adequate preparation and response during a radiological emergency and the need for procedures and measures with regard to the transport of radiation victims are clearly defined and clearly presented for the effectiveness of the actions. This work presents the necessary actions for the transport of radiation accident victim during a radiological emergency, through the road map technique, which has been widely used in scientific technical area to facilitate understanding and show the way to be followed to reach the proposed objectives

  17. Violent victimization of adult patients with severe mental illness: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Prasko, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to review data on the prevalence and correlates of violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness, to critically evaluate the literature, and to explore possible approaches for future research. PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched using several terms related to severe mental illness in successive combinations with terms describing victimization. The searches identified 34 studies. Nine epidemiological studies indicate that patients with severe mental illness are more likely to be violently victimized than other community members. Young age, comorbid substance use, and homelessness are risk factors for victimization. Victimized patients are more likely to engage in violent behavior than other members of the community. Violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness has long-term adverse consequences for the course of their illness, and further impairs the quality of lives of patients and their families. Victimization of persons with severe mental illness is a serious medical and social problem. Prevention and management of victimization should become a part of routine clinical care for patients with severe mental illness.

  18. Childhood victimization and inflammation in young adulthood: A genetically sensitive cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jessie R; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Fisher, Helen L; Moffitt, Terrie E; Odgers, Candice L; Pariante, Carmine; Ambler, Antony; Dove, Rosamund; Kepa, Agnieszka; Matthews, Timothy; Menard, Anne; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Danese, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Childhood victimization is an important risk factor for later immune-related disorders. Previous evidence has demonstrated that childhood victimization is associated with elevated levels of inflammation biomarkers measured decades after exposure. However, it is unclear whether this association is (1) already detectable in young people, (2) different in males and females, and (3) confounded by genetic liability to inflammation. Here we sought to address these questions. Participants were 2232 children followed from birth to age 18years as part of the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study. Childhood victimization was measured prospectively from birth to age 12years. Inflammation was measured through C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in dried blood spots at age 18years. Latent genetic liability for high inflammation levels was assessed through a twin-based method. Greater exposure to childhood victimization was associated with higher CRP levels at age 18 (serum-equivalent means were 0.65 in non-victimized Study members, 0.74 in those exposed to one victimization type, and 0.81 in those exposed to poly-victimization; p=0.018). However, this association was driven by a significant association in females (serum-equivalent means were 0.75 in non-victimized females, 0.87 in those exposed to one type of victimization, and 1.19 in those exposed to poly-victimization; p=0.010), while no significant association was observed in males (p=0.19). Victimized females showed elevated CRP levels independent of latent genetic influence, as well as childhood socioeconomic status, and waist-hip ratio and body temperature at the time of CRP assessment. Childhood victimization is associated with elevated CRP levels in young women, independent of latent genetic influences and other key risk factors. These results strengthen causal inference about the effects of childhood victimization on inflammation levels in females by accounting for potential genetic confounding. Copyright

  19. Violence Victimization in Korean Adolescents: Risk Factors and Psychological Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subin Park

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined the risk factors for and psychological problems associated with violence victimization in a nationwide representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2016 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey was used. Participants were asked about their experience of being a victim of violence that required medical treatment during the past 12 months, as well as their perceived health, happiness, sleep satisfaction, stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The 12-month prevalence of violence victimization requiring medical treatment was 2.4%. The results indicated that adolescents were at an increased risk for violence victimization if they were male, older, had parents of a foreign nationality, did not reside with their family, worked part time, resided in small cities or rural areas, were high or low in socioeconomic status (SES, exhibited high or low levels of academic performance, used alcohol or tobacco, and were sexually active. In addition, while violence victimization was negatively associated with perceived health and happiness, it was positively associated with perceived stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The results indicate that a social disadvantage, involvement in risky behavior, and psychological problems are associated with violence victimization. Effective violence prevention efforts should thus target high-risk groups, and clinical attention is needed to address the psychological costs associated with violence victimization.

  20. Characterizing Sexual Violence Victimization in Youth: 2012 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Melissa T; Basile, Kathleen C; Zhang, Xinjian; Smith, Sharon G; Kresnow, Marcie-Jo

    2018-04-01

    Youth sexual violence victimization is an urgent public health concern that can lead to a variety of health problems and increased risk for victimization during adulthood. Examining the characteristics of early victimization and their association with subsequent victimization during adulthood may help strengthen primary prevention efforts. Data are from the 2012 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey. Prevalence estimates were computed in 2017 for rape and made to sexually penetrate, their subtypes, as well as proportions among victims by type of perpetrator. Chi-square tests of association were conducted between youth sexual violence victimization and the same experiences in adulthood. Approximately 10 million U.S. females (8.4%) experienced completed or attempted rape and 1.9 million U.S. males (1.6%) were made to penetrate someone during youth. Most victims knew their perpetrators. Being raped or made to penetrate during youth was associated with increased likelihood of such victimization in adulthood. Females and males experience youth sexual violence victimization at alarming rates. Primary prevention efforts with youth are critical to prevent early victimization, subsequent victimization in adulthood, and the mental and physical health consequences associated with sexual violence victimization. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Cross-National Prevalence of Traditional Bullying, Traditional Victimization, Cyberbullying and Cyber-Victimization: Comparing Single-Item and Multiple-Item Approaches of Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Takuya; Gradinger, Petra; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Solomontos-Kountouri, Olga; Trip, Simona; Bora, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Many large-scale cross-national studies rely on a single-item measurement when comparing prevalence rates of traditional bullying, traditional victimization, cyberbullying, and cyber-victimization between countries. However, the reliability and validity of single-item measurement approaches are highly problematic and might be biased. Data from…

  2. Relationship between income and repeat criminal victimization in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Justus

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effect of income on repeat criminal victimization in Brazil using data from the 2009 National Household Sample Survey and its special supplement on victimization and access to justice. Two count-data models were estimated for four types of crime: theft, robbery, attempted theft/robbery, and physical assault. A positive nonlinear effect of income on repeat victimization for the three types of property crimes and a negative nonlinear effect of income on physical assault were observed.

  3. Peer Victimization and Academic Performance in Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Lisa K; Canterford, Louise; Kosola, Silja; Degenhardt, Louisa; Allen, Nicholas B; Patton, George C

    Peer victimization is a common antecedent of poor social and emotional adjustment. Its relationship with objectively measured academic performance is unclear. In this study we aimed to quantify the cross-sectional associations between peer victimization and academic performance in a large population sample of children. Eight- to 9-year-old children were recruited from a stratified random sample of primary schools in Australia. Academic performance was measured on a national achievement test (1 year of learning equals 40 points). Physical and verbal victimization were measured according to child self-report. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression analyses were conducted. For female children, verbal victimization was associated with poorer academic performance on writing (β = 17.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], -28.2 to -6.2) and grammar/punctuation (β = -20.8; 95% CI, -40.1 to -1.6). Physical victimization was associated with poorer performance on numeracy (male children: β = -29.0; 95% CI, -53.8 to -4.1; female children: β = -30.1; 95% CI, -56.6 to -3.5), and writing (female children: β = -21.5; 95% CI, -40.4 to -2.7). Verbal and physical victimization were associated with poorer performance on reading (male children: β = -31.5; 95% CI, -59.9 to -3.1; female children: β = -30.2; 95% CI, -58.6 to -1.8), writing (female children: β = -25.5; 95% CI, -42.8 to -8.2), spelling (female children: β = -32.3; 95% CI, -59.6 to -4.9), and grammar/punctuation (female children: β = -32.2; 95% CI, -62.4 to -2.0). Children who were physically victimized were 6 to 9 months behind their non-victimized peers on measures of academic performance. There are growing reasons for education systems to invest in the prevention of bullying and promotion of positive peer relationships from the earliest years of school. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Traditional and Cyber Aggressors and Victims: A Comparison of Psychosocial Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontag, Lisa M.; Clemans, Katherine H.; Graber, Julia A.; Lyndon, Sarah T.

    2011-01-01

    To date, relatively little is known about differences between perpetrators and victims of cyber and traditional forms of aggression. Hence, this study investigated differences among traditional and cyber aggressors and victims on psychosocial characteristics typically examined in research on traditional aggression and victimization, specifically…

  5. Teenage intimate partner violence: Factors associated with victimization among Norwegian youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellevik, Per; Øverlien, Carolina

    2016-07-06

    The aim of the present study was threefold: (1) learn more about factors associated with teenage intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization; (2) explore aspects of digital media use in connection with teenage IPV; (3) and compare the impact IPV victimization has on boys and girls. Survey data from 549 Norwegian students, mean age 15.2 years, who had experience(s) with being in intimate relationship(s), were examined. Experiences with psychological, physical, digital, and sexual violence were analyzed. In total, 42.9% of the participants had experienced some form of IPV: 29.1% had experienced digital violence; 25.9% had experienced psychological violence; 18.8% had experienced sexual violence; and 12.8% had experienced physical violence. Factors significantly associated with teenage IPV victimization were female gender, older partners, domestic violence, bullying victimization, low academic achievements, and sending sexual messages via digital media. Girls reported to be significantly more negatively impacted by the victimization than boys. CONCLUSIONS SOME TEENAGERS EXPERIENCE VICTIMIZATION IN THEIR INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS, AND FOR MANY DIGITAL MEDIA SEEMS TO PLAY A CENTRAL ROLE IN THIS VIOLENCE TEENAGERS WHO EXPERIENCE VICTIMIZATION OUTSIDE THEIR RELATIONSHIPS OR HAVE RISKY LIFESTYLES HAVE A HIGHER RISK OF EXPERIENCING IPV VICTIMIZATION A FOCUS ON TEENAGE IPV, AND ESPECIALLY DIGITAL MEDIA'S ROLE IN THIS VIOLENCE, IS NEEDED IF THIS PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUE IS TO BE COMBATED. © 2016 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  6. Childhood clumsiness and peer victimization: a case–control study of psychiatric patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor motor and social skills as well as peer victimization are commonly reported in both ADHD and autism spectrum disorder. Positive relationships between poor motor and poor social skills, and between poor social skills and peer victimization, are well documented, but the relationship between poor motor skills and peer victimization has not been studied in psychiatric populations. Method 277 patients (133 males, 144 females), mean age 31 years, investigated for ADHD or autism spectrum disorder in adulthood and with normal intelligence, were interviewed about childhood peer victimization and examined for gross motor skills. The parents completed a comprehensive questionnaire on childhood problems, the Five to Fifteen. The Five to Fifteen is a validated questionnaire with 181 statements that covers various symptoms in childhood across eight different domains, one of them targeting motor skills. Regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between motor skills and the risk and duration of peer victimization, adjusted for sex and diagnosis. Results Victims were described as more clumsy in childhood than their non-victimized counterparts. A significant independent association was found between reportedly poor childhood gross motor skills and peer victimization (adjusted odds ratio: 2.97 [95% confidence interval: 1.46-6.07], n = 235, p = 0.003). In adulthood, the victimized group performed worse on vertical jumps, a gross motor task, and were lonelier. Other factors that were expected to be associated with peer victimization were not found in this highly selected group. Conclusion Poor gross motor skills constitute a strong and independent risk factor for peer victimization in childhood, regardless of sex, childhood psychiatric care and diagnosis. PMID:23442984

  7. A Latent Class Analysis of Victimization among Middle and High School Students in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Ruth; De Pedro, Kris Tunac; Gilreath, Tamika D.

    2015-01-01

    School victimization is associated with negative social-emotional outcomes and risky behaviors. Most studies have provided definitions and measures of victimization, depicting a limited characterization of victimization in schools. More nuanced analyses of school victimization are needed to assess the heterogeneous pattern of victimization in…

  8. Multiple victimization experiences of urban elementary school students: associations with psychosocial functioning and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Melissa K; Finkelhor, David; Kantor, Glenda Kaufman

    2007-05-01

    This study explored the victimization experiences of urban elementary school students to determine whether subsets of youth emerged with similar victimization profiles (e.g., no victimization, multiple types of victimization). It also evaluated whether multiple victimization was associated with greater psychological distress and lower academic performance. Participants were 689 fifth grade students from an urban, ethnically diverse school district in the Northeast. Youth completed self-report measures in school about bullying victimization, victimization in the home and community, and psychosocial functioning. Cluster analysis suggested the existence of three distinct youth profiles: those with minimal victimization, those victimized primarily by their peers, and those with multiple types of victimizations. As hypothesized, youth with multiple victimizations experienced more psychological distress and earned lower grades than their peers. Findings highlight the heterogeneity of youth victimization experiences and their relations to functioning, and have implications for treatment planning among practitioners working with youth.

  9. Depression as a mediator between family factors and peer-bullying victimization in Latino adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabko, Brandon A; Hokoda, Audrey; Ulloa, Emilio C

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the mediating role of depression in three different relationships: (a) sibling bullying and peer victimization, (b) mothers' power-assertive parenting and peer victimization, and (c) fathers' power-assertive parenting and peer victimization. Results from 242 Latino middle school adolescents from a large southwestern city bordering Mexico revealed that both boys' and girls' peer victimization were related to familial factors and depression. Regression analyses for boys revealed that depression mediated three relationships: (a) sibling bullying and peer victimization, (b) mothers' power-assertive parenting and peer victimization, and (c) fathers' power-assertive parenting and peer victimization. Depression also mediated the relationship between fathers' power-assertive parenting and girls' victimization by peers. The findings support the development of family-based interventions for peer victimization that include curriculum addressing depression.

  10. Online frauds:learning from victims why they fall for these scams

    OpenAIRE

    Button, Mark; McNaughton Nicholls, Carol; Kerr, Jane; Owen, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    Online frauds have become a major problem in many countries with millions of victims from a wide diversity of scams committed in full or part online. This paper explores the extent and nature of this problem. Using data from depth interviews with 15 online fraud victims, 6 focus groups with a further 48 online fraud victims and interviews with 9 professional stakeholders involved in combating this problem. The paper explores why victims fall for online scams. It identifies a range of reasons ...

  11. "She deserved it": Effects of sexism norms, type of violence, and victim's pre-assault behavior on blame attributions toward female victims and approval of the aggressor's behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, Sabrina; Eyssel, Friederike; Bohner, Gerd

    2014-04-01

    Effects of ambivalent sexism, sexism norms, victim behavior, and type of violence on male students' reactions to male violence against women in intimate relationships were examined. Participants judged a scenario depicting an act of sexual or non-sexual violence against a female partner who had either shown overtly sexual or non-sexual behavior toward another man. Generally, high (vs. low) hostile sexism, high (vs. low) hostile sexism norm feedback, and victim's overtly sexual (vs. non-sexual) behavior led to stronger victim blame and perceived approval of the aggressor's behavior. The victim of non-sexual violence was blamed more than the rape victim, particularly if she had behaved in an overtly sexual manner.

  12. Effects of poly-victimization on self-esteem and post-traumatic stress symptoms in Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Laia; Paretilla, Clàudia; Kirchner, Teresa; Forns, Maria

    2012-11-01

    This study aims to provide evidence concerning the effects of experiencing multiple forms of victimization (poly-victimization) on self-esteem and post-traumatic stress symptoms in Spanish adolescents. A total of 722 adolescents were recruited from seven secondary schools in Catalonia, Spain. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Youth Self Report and the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire were employed to assess self-esteem, post-traumatic stress symptoms and victimization, respectively. Participants were divided into three groups (non-victim, victim and poly-victim groups) according to the total number of different kinds of victimization experienced. Results showed that 88.4 % of adolescents had been exposed to at least one kind of victimization. Poly-victimization was associated with a higher number of post-traumatic stress symptoms in both boys and girls. Also, self-liking was significantly lower in the poly-victim group, whereas self-competence was equivalent across the three victimization groups. Girls were approximately twice as likely to report child maltreatment (OR = 1.92) and sexual victimization (OR = 2.41) as boys. In conclusion, the present study adds evidence on the importance of taking account of the full burden of victimizations suffered when studying victimization correlates. Also, it highlights the importance of prevention policies to focus particularly on preserving adolescents' sense of social worth.

  13. Muslim women and foreign prostitutes: victim discourse, subjectivity, and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Christine M; Stenvoll, Dag

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we juxtapose the ways “Muslim women” and “foreign prostitutes” are commonly constituted as victims in media and politics. We analyze the functions of these two prototypical female victims in terms of the role they play in epitomizing “the problems of globalization” and in reinforcing the existing social and political structures. Victim discourse, when tied to the transnational proliferation of the sex industry and of (radical) Islam, has depoliticizing effects because it places nonindividual causes of victimization outside of “our” polity and society and casts the state as protector and neutral arbiter of national and global inequalities, marginalization, and social conflict.

  14. Attachment Styles among Bullies, Victims and Uninvolved Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koiv, Kristi

    2012-01-01

    Attachment theory provides a frame for understanding the role of attachment styles in the development of bullying behaviour in adolescence. The present study examined attachment styles (secure, avoidant and anxious/ambivalent) that differentiated bullies, victims, bully/victims and uninvolved adolescents. A total of 1,921 students (1,006 girls and…

  15. Relational caring: the use of the victim impact statement by sexually assaulted women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Karen-Lee

    2014-01-01

    The victim impact statement (VIS) is a written account of harms experienced as a result of crime. This study investigates VIS use by sexually assaulted women through interviews with Canadian victims, victim services workers, and feminist advocates (N = 35). Findings suggest that victims use the VIS to express relational caring. Relational caring is an ethic of care that prioritizes others through privileging the harms experienced by others because of witnessing the sexual assault or coping with the victim's postassault sequelae, protecting future or hypothetical victims, and promoting the interests of intimate partner offenders. Relational caring challenges traditional conceptions of victim agency and VIS use for instrumental purposes, as well as the targets and temporalities of sexual assault harms that are detailed in the statement. Relational caring has unique implications for victims who are mothers, especially those abused as minors, and for intimate partners. Legal, therapeutic, and social service consequences are discussed.

  16. Bullying in schools: the power of bullies and the plight of victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvonen, Jaana; Graham, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Bullying is a pervasive problem affecting school-age children. Reviewing the latest findings on bullying perpetration and victimization, we highlight the social dominance function of bullying, the inflated self-views of bullies, and the effects of their behaviors on victims. Illuminating the plight of the victim, we review evidence on the cyclical processes between the risk factors and consequences of victimization and the mechanisms that can account for elevated emotional distress and health problems. Placing bullying in context, we consider the unique features of electronic communication that give rise to cyberbullying and the specific characteristics of schools that affect the rates and consequences of victimization. We then offer a critique of the main intervention approaches designed to reduce school bullying and its harmful effects. Finally, we discuss future directions that underscore the need to consider victimization a social stigma, conduct longitudinal research on protective factors, identify school context factors that shape the experience of victimization, and take a more nuanced approach to school-based interventions.

  17. Victimization and psychopathic features in a population-based sample of Finnish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saukkonen, Suvi; Aronen, Eeva T; Laajasalo, Taina; Salmi, Venla; Kivivuori, Janne; Jokela, Markus

    2016-10-01

    We examined different forms of victimization experiences in relation to psychopathic features and whether these associations differed in boys and girls among 4855 Finnish school adolescents aged 15-16 years. Psychopathic features were measured with the Antisocial Process Screening Device- Self Report (APSD-SR). Victimization was assessed with questions about violent and abusive experiences across lifetime and within the last 12 months. Results from linear regression analysis showed that victimization was significantly associated with higher APSD-SR total scores, more strongly in girls than boys. Recent (12-month) victimization showed significance in the relationship between victimization and psychopathic features; especially recent sexual abuse and parental corporal punishment were strong determinants of higher APSD-SR total scores. The present study demonstrates novel findings on how severe victimization experiences relate to psychopathic features in community youth, especially in girls. The findings underscore the need for comprehensive evaluation of victimization experiences when psychopathic features are present in youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Developmental cascade models linking peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junsheng; Bullock, Amanda; Coplan, Robert J; Chen, Xinyin; Li, Dan; Zhou, Ying

    2018-03-01

    This study explored the longitudinal relations among peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement in Chinese primary school students. Participants were N = 945 fourth-grade students (485 boys, 460 girls; M age  = 10.16 years, SD = 2 months) attending elementary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Three waves of data on peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement were collected from peer nominations, self-reports, and school records, respectively. The results indicated that peer victimization had both direct and indirect effects on later depression and academic achievement. Depression also had both direct and indirect negative effects on later academic achievement, but demonstrated only an indirect effect on later peer victimization. Finally, academic achievement had both direct and indirect negative effects on later peer victimization and depression. The findings show that there are cross-cultural similarities and differences in the various transactions that exist among peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Peer victimization directly and indirectly relates to depression and academic achievement. Depression directly and indirectly relates to academic achievement. Academic achievement directly and indirectly relates to depression. What the present study adds? A developmental cascade approach was used to assess the interrelations among peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement. Academic achievement mediates the relation between peer victimization and depression. Depression is related to peer victimization through academic achievement. Academic achievement directly and indirectly relates to peer victimization. Academic achievement is related to depression through peer victimization. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Fear of Violent Victimization among the Foreign-Born

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana ANDREESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In general, most studies that examined the relationship immigrants – criminal behavior focused on the immigrants’ involvement in criminal activities as offenders and/or the effects of immigration on crime rates. Only limited research looked at the levels of victimization and perceived safety experienced by immigrants in their receiving countries. Using the most recent available data from the European Social Survey (Round 5/2010, the present quantitative analysis conducted on a representative sample of residents in United Kingdom (N=2422 tries to determine the levels of criminal victimization and fear of violent crime associated with foreign nationals living in a European country, where immigration is generally unpopular. Although foreign-born persons living in United Kingdom appear to have a higher degree of victimization (vicarious and direct than natives, the inter-group difference is not sufficiently large to be significant at p< .05.Nevertheless, compared to natives, first-generation immigrants manifest a significantly higher level of fear of violent victimization. Results also show that in addition to inter-group differences in the levels of perceived unsafety and experiences with victimization, the effects of fear-of-crime correlates vary in intensity among respondents differentiated by their country of birth. In addition, one’s level of acculturation contributes to differences in fear of crime among immigrants.

  20. Victims of Domestic Violence and Front-Line Workers: A Helping Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Scott W.; Trepal, Heather C.; de Vries, Sabina M.; Day, Sally W.; Leeth, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Victims of domestic violence present a challenge to law enforcement and emergency room personnel. The authors propose a helping approach to assist these professionals. This paradigm is composed of: active and empathetic listening, acceptance without judgment, identifying victims' strengths, honoring victims as experts, and the process of leaving…

  1. Comparing Victim Attributions and Outcomes for Workplace Aggression and Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovis, M. Sandy; Barling, Julian

    2010-01-01

    In 2 studies, we investigated victim attributions (Study 1) and outcomes (Study 2) for workplace aggression and sexual harassment. Drawing on social categorization theory, we argue that victims of workplace aggression and sexual harassment may make different attributions about their mistreatment. In Study 1, we investigated victim attributions in…

  2. Violent victimization of adult patients with severe mental illness: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latalova K

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Klara Latalova,1,2 Dana Kamaradova,1,2 Jan Prasko1,2 1Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 2Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic Abstract: The aims of this paper are to review data on the prevalence and correlates of violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness, to critically evaluate the literature, and to explore possible approaches for future research. PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched using several terms related to severe mental illness in successive combinations with terms describing victimization. The searches identified 34 studies. Nine epidemiological studies indicate that patients with severe mental illness are more likely to be violently victimized than other community members. Young age, comorbid substance use, and homelessness are risk factors for victimization. Victimized patients are more likely to engage in violent behavior than other members of the community. Violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness has long-term adverse consequences for the course of their illness, and further impairs the quality of lives of patients and their families. Victimization of persons with severe mental illness is a serious medical and social problem. Prevention and management of victimization should become a part of routine clinical care for patients with severe mental illness. Keywords: victimization, violence, severe mental illness, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder

  3. Attitudes of Future Human Service Professionals: The Effects of Victim and Helper Qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebkind, Karmela; Eranen, Liisa

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the attitudes of future members in human service professions toward victims, based on the qualities effected by trauma victims and their helpers. Reports that the high-trauma and poorly adapted victims elicited more negative attitudes than did the low-trauma and well-adapted victims. (CMK)

  4. Behavioral and Mental Health Correlates of Youth Stalking Victimization: A Latent Class Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E; Smith-Darden, Joanne P; Kernsmith, Poco D

    2016-12-01

    Although recognized as a public health problem, little attention has been paid to the problem of stalking among youth. Latent profile analysis was used to identify latent groups of adolescent stalking victims and their behavioral and mental health correlates. A cross-sectional sample of 1,236 youths were randomly selected from 13 schools stratified by community risk level (i.e., low, moderate, and high risk) and gender. Students completed surveys assessing behavioral indicators of stalking victimization, as well as substance use, sexual behavior, dating violence, and psychiatric symptoms. Data were collected in 2013 and data analyses were performed in 2015. Analysis indicated the presence of a non-victim class, a minimal exposure class, and a victim class for boys and girls alike. Approximately 14% of girls and 13% of boys were in the stalking victim class. Adolescents in the victim class reported more symptoms of post-traumatic stress, mood disorder, and hopelessness, as well as more instances of alcohol use, binge drinking, and physical dating violence victimization. Girls in the victim class also reported engaging in sexting behaviors and oral sex with significantly more partners than their non-victim peers. These findings provide valuable knowledge of the prevalence and pertinent health correlates of stalking victimization in adolescence. The data suggest a substantial proportion of adolescents are victims of stalking and are likewise at risk for a number of deleterious health outcomes. As such, this population merits further attention by prevention researchers and practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Police officers' collaboration with rape victim advocates: barriers and facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Secondary victimization may occur when rape victims make police reports. This can compromise the quality of official statements and jeopardize criminal cases. Rape reporters receive better treatment by police officers when advocates are involved and best practice police work includes such collaboration. Studies of advocates have described tension, role confusion, and poor communication with police officers. Many variables, including rape myth acceptance (RMA) and training on sexual assault dynamics, may affect officers' collaboration with advocates. There were 429 police officers who responded to a survey measuring their victim interviewing skill, formal training about rape, years on the job, number of victims known personally, number of recent rape cases, RMA, and collaboration with advocates. Results suggest that officers' interviewing skill, years on the job, and specific training are related to collaboration with victim advocates on rape cases. Professional, rather than personal, variables were most predictive of collaboration. Implications for officer selection and training are explored.

  6. Prosocial behavior as a protective factor for children's peer victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griese, Emily R; Buhs, Eric S

    2014-07-01

    A majority of peer victimization research focuses on its associations with negative outcomes, yet efforts to understand possible protective factors that may mitigate these negative outcomes also require attention. The present study was an investigation of the potential moderating effect of prosocial behaviors on loneliness for youth who are peer victimized. Participants were fourth and fifth grade students (511 total; 49 % boys) who were primarily European American (43.4 %) and Hispanic (48.2 %). Structural Equation Modeling was used to test the interaction of prosocial behavior and peer victimization (relational and overt forms) on loneliness 1 year later. The results indicated that prosocial behavior significantly moderated the relationship between peer victimization (for the relational form only) and loneliness while controlling for levels of perceived peer support. A multi-group comparison by gender further indicated the moderation was significant for boys only. Potential implications for intervention/prevention efforts focused on developing children's prosocial skills as a possible protective factor for relationally victimized youth are discussed.

  7. Psychological distress among adolescents victims of cyberbullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ortega-Barón

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The information and communication technologies have rapidly been incorporated and expanded in our society. The age in which children and adolescents get access to electronic devices is decreasing. These devices have big advantages, but they can also be inappropriately used to molest and intimidate other children and, as a result, to cause severe psychological problems to other children. Taking this into consideration, the main objective of this study has been to describe the psychological distress shown by adolescents suffering from cyberbullying. In order to do this, the following variables were registered: depressive symptomatology, perceived stressed, isolation and life satisfaction. The initial sample was formed by 1360 adolescents. From these, 194 from 11 to 18 years old (M = 14.22, SD = 1.81 were selected according to their scores in cybervictimization (43.8 % boys. Participants were divided into three groups according to how intense their cyberbullying victimization was. These were: mild, moderated and severe. Our findings show that there were statistically significant differences between mild and severe victims. Adolescents who were severe cyberbullying victims scored higher in depressive symptomatology and perceived stress, and lower in life satisfaction compared to mild cyberbullying victims. These results and their implications are discussed in order to propose future strategies to prevent cyberbullying.

  8. Personality characteristics of victims of illegal attacks on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safuanov F.S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the personality characteristics of victims of illegal attacks on the Internet. We used methods as follow: 16 factors Cattell personality questionnaire, subjective control level, life-style index, Buss-Perry questionnaire, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, a COPE inventory. 78 internet users were divided into two groups of 38 persons: the main group included people falling victim to illegal attacks on the Internet, the control group participants were not attacked on the internet. We identified specific aggregated symptoms of individual psychological characteristics of internet attack victims and show that victims of "non-forced" and "forced" offenses have different levels of situational and personal anxiety, aggression and locus of control.

  9. Recognizing victims of human trafficking in the pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Heather J; Bechtel, Kirsten

    2015-02-01

    Human trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery that is rapidly expanding in the United States and throughout the world. It is a crime under both the United States and international law. The child and adult victims of human trafficking are denied their basic human rights and subjected to unspeakable physical and emotional harm. Traffickers exert complete control over their victims and are proficient at hiding their condition from authorities. Healthcare practitioners may be the only professionals who come into contact with victims if they present for medical care. This article will describe human trafficking and its potential victims, as well as guide medical management and access to services that will ensure their safety and restore their freedom.

  10. Relational aggression, victimization, and adjustment during middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M; Godleski, Stephanie A

    2013-08-01

    A secondary analysis of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development was conducted to test the mechanisms by which relational aggression in third grade was associated both directly and indirectly with relational victimization in sixth grade. A large sample (N = 1,035; 522 girls; M = 8.3 years old; SD = 0.23) and multiple informants (teacher, child, and parent report) and methods were used to test several theoretically driven hypotheses. Our path analysis model suggested evidence for both direct and indirect pathways consistent with the sequential social process model of peer harassment. Relational aggression was significantly associated with future relational victimization even after controlling for physical aggression and gender. Loneliness mediated the direct association between relational aggression and peer victimization. A second model testing the reverse direction of effect revealed that relational victimization in third grade predicted relational aggression in sixth grade and was associated with loneliness and depressive symptoms in fifth grade, but there was no evidence for any of the indirect pathways.

  11. Rape Myth Consistency and Gender Differences in Perceiving Rape Victims: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, Jericho M; Smith, Sara J; Klausing, Cathleen D; Saucier, Donald A

    2016-02-01

    An overview discusses feminist analyses of oppression, attitudes toward rape victims, and previously studied predictors of individuals' attitudes toward rape victims. To better understand such attitudes, this meta-analysis examines the moderating influences of various rape victim, perpetrator, and crime characteristics' rape myth consistency on gender differences in individuals' perceptions of rape victims (i.e., victim responsibility and blame attributions and rape minimizing attitudes). Consistent with feminist theoretical predictions, results indicated that, overall, men perceived rape victims more negatively than women did. However, this sex difference was moderated by the rape myth consistency within the rape vignettes. Implications for research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Peer Rejection and Internalizing Behavior: The Mediating Role of Peer Victimization in Preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metin Aslan, Özge

    2018-05-23

    The author examined the relationship among peer rejection, peer victimization, and internalizing behaviors. The author hypothesized that physical and relational victimization would have a different indirect effect on the relationship between peer rejection and internalizing behaviors. Participants were 94 preschool children (37 girls; average age 49.97 months) from two university preschools located in the northern part of the United States. The results indicated that internalizing behaviors predicted the mediating variables only regarding relational victimization. Relational victimization indirectly affected the association between peer rejection and internalizing behaviors. The study provides evidence of the mediating effect of victimization behaviors on the relationship among peer rejection, victimization, and internalizing behaviors.

  13. Relational Aggression, Victimization, and Language Development: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Godleski, Stephanie A.

    2007-01-01

    This review explores the development of relational aggression and relational victimization among peers, with specific emphasis on clinical implications for speech-language pathologists. Developmental manifestations of relational aggression and victimization are reviewed from early childhood through emerging adulthood. The concurrent and…

  14. 76 FR 19909 - International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... 1121-AA78 International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program AGENCY: Office of Justice... promulgating this interim-final rule for its International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program... international terrorism. DATES: Effective date: This interim-final rule is effective April 11, 2011. Comment...

  15. The Code of the Street and Violent Versus Property Crime Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeeley, Susan; Wilcox, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that individuals who adopt values in line with the code of the street are more likely to experience violent victimization (e.g., Stewart, Schreck, & Simons, 2006). This study extends this literature by examining the relationship between the street code and multiple types of violent and property victimization. This research investigates the relationship between street code-related values and 4 types of victimization (assault, breaking and entering, theft, and vandalism) using Poisson-based multilevel regression models. Belief in the street code was associated with higher risk of experiencing assault, breaking and entering, and vandalism, whereas theft victimization was not related to the street code. The results suggest that the code of the street influences victimization broadly--beyond violence--by increasing behavior that provokes retaliation from others in various forms.

  16. Enhancing the safety of elderly victims after the close of an APS investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Shelly L; Hafemeister, Thomas L

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether particular actions on the part of adult protective services (APS), the elderly victim, and/or society's response to abusive individuals, are associated with the continuation of abuse after the close of an APS investigation and thereby compromise victim safety. Interviews were conducted with 71 APS caseworkers, 55 of the elderly victims of substantiated abuse, and 35 third-party persons. A small proportion of elderly victims continue to experience abuse after the close of an APS investigation. Elderly victims were more likely to experience continued abuse when they chose to have ongoing contact with their abusers, vis-à-vis cohabitation or otherwise, and when their abusers experienced no consequences. Although continuation of abuse did not differ by the type of maltreatment involved, reasons for the cessation of abuse, and other safety indicators, did. To enhance victim safety, greater monitoring may be warranted in cases wherein elderly victims continue to have contact with their abuser and when abusive individuals experience no consequences. To further enhance victim safety, abusive individuals must be incorporated into an overall strategic response to elder abuse. A potential avenue for facilitating victim safety while maintaining victim autonomy is to understand their motivations for desiring continued contact with their abuser and developing interventions based upon such knowledge.

  17. Family poly-victimization and cyberbullying among adolescents in a Chinese school sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, QiQi; Lo, Camilla K M; Zhu, Yuhong; Cheung, Anne; Chan, Ko Ling; Ip, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    The sustained increase in their use of social networking facilitates the development of adolescents but comes with the risk of cyberbullying, which creates new challenges in regard to adolescent protection. Past evidence shows that family victimization may play an essential role in the way adolescents learn cyberbullying behaviors. Yet, research on the co-occurrence of family victimization and cyberbullying is limited. This study aims to investigate the associations between cyberbullying and family victimization among adolescents, and to examine the health correlates of cyberbullying and family poly-victimization. A large sample of 18,341 students, aged 15-17, from six cities in China, collected between 2009 and 2010 is employed in the present study, which investigated the association between various kinds of family victimization and adolescent cyberbullying. Data analysis was conducted in 2017. In-law conflict, intimate partner violence, elder abuse and neglect, and child maltreatment were associated with a higher possibility of children becoming internet victims. Parents' divorce and separation, low family income, mother's low level of education, and father's unemployment were all associated with cyberbullying victimization. Cyber victimization was positively correlated to symptoms of PTSD and depression, self-harm, and other physical and mental health variables. Possible explanations for the relationships found in this study are discussed and implications for future research and services are provided. Proactive screening for family poly-victimization and cyberbullying is suggested. Schools are highly recommended to cooperate with parents to promote cyber safety. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Physiological correlates of peer victimization and aggression in African American urban adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLIEWER, WENDY; DIBBLE, ASHLEY E.; GOODMAN, KIMBERLY L.; SULLIVAN, TERRI N.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined physiological correlates (cortisol and α-amylase [AA]) of peer victimization and aggression in a sample of 228 adolescents (45% male, 55% female; 90% African American; M age = 14 years, SD = 1.6 years) who participated in a longitudinal study of stress, physiology, and adjustment. Adolescents were classified into victimization/aggression groups based on patterns with three waves of data. At Wave 3, youth completed the Social Competence Interview (SCI), and four saliva samples were collected prior to, during, and following the SCI. Repeated-measures analyses of variance with victimization/aggression group as the predictor, and physiological measures as outcomes, controlling for time of day, pubertal status, and medication use revealed significant Group×SCI Phase interactions for salivary AA (sAA), but not for cortisol. The results did not differ by sex. For analyses with physical victimization/aggression, aggressive and nonaggressive victims showed increases in sAA during the SCI, nonvictimized aggressors showed a decrease, and the normative contrast group did not show any change. For analyses with relational victimization/aggression, nonaggressive victims were the only group who demonstrated sAA reactivity. Incorporating physiological measures into peer victimization studies may give researchers and clinicians insight into youth’s behavior regulation, and help shape prevention or intervention efforts. PMID:22559136

  19. The insured victim effect: When and why compensating harm decreases punishment recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe P. F. M. van de Calseyde

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An insurance policy may not only affect the consequences for victims but also for perpetrators. In six experiments we find that people recommend milder punishments for perpetrators when the victim was insured, although people believe that a sentence should not depend on the victim's insurance status. The robustness of this effect is demonstrated by showing that recommendations can even be more lenient for crimes that are in fact more serious but in which the victim was insured. Moreover, even when harm was possible but did not materialize, people still prefer to punish crimes less severely when the (potential victim was insured. The final two experiments suggest that the effect is associated with a change in (1 compassion for the victim and (2 perceived severity of the transgression. Implications of this phenomenon are briefly discussed.

  20. Compensating Victims of Violent Crime: Potential Costs and Coverage of a National Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, James; Sutton, L. Paul

    Data generated from an ongoing national crime victimization survey and details about the circumstances and consequences of personal crimes form the basis for estimating the cost of a national program to compensate victims of violent crime. Victim compensation programs represent an attempt to rectify the neglect of the victim. Uncertainty about the…

  1. Initial medical management of criticality accident victim; Conduite a tenir aux victimes d'un accident de criticite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miele, A; Bebaron-Jacobs, L

    2005-07-01

    The extremely severe criticality accidents known to this day, and the subsequent deaths recorded (Sarov 1997 and Tokai Mura 1999), demonstrate the need for sustained surveillance and constant adapted training for the teams in charge of irradiated and/or contaminated victims. The aim of this work group, composed of occupational health services and associated medical biology laboratories, is to present, in leaflet format, the essential data on the documentation and the conduct to be held when facing the victims of a criticality accident. The studies of this work group confirm the difficulties involved in managing this type of accident, both from the dosimetric evaluation point of view and from the therapeutic management point of view. That is why several research themes and perspectives are developed. During the different phases of victim triage, the recommendations given on these leaflets describe the operational conducts to be held. This work will have to be updated according to the evolution in knowledge and means: short and long term effects of exposure to neutrons, multi-competence hospital cooperation, expertise networks related to dosimetric reconstitution. (authors)

  2. Self- and Peer-Identified Victims in Late Childhood: Differences in Perceptions of the School Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Molly; Chen, Chin-Chih; Farmer, Thomas W; Hamm, Jill V

    2017-11-01

    Patterns of adjustment for youth victimized by peers vary depending on whether youth are identified as victims through self-reports, peer-reports, or both. In order to provide more targeted strategies that may help mitigate negative consequences associated with specific victimization groups, more information is needed about how these youth perceive their school ecology (bullying and academic ecology), their feelings of school belonging, and their valuing of school. Based on the convergence of self- and peer-reports of victimization, we identified four victim groups from a sample of students in 5th grade classrooms (N = 1360; 52.8% girls, 53.1% White, 34.6% Black or Hispanic, 12.2% Native American, Asian, or other) using Latent Profile Analysis (LPA): convergent victims (high self- and peer-reports), self-identified victims (high self-, low peer-reports), peer-identified victims (low self-, high peer-reports), and nonvictims (low self- and peer-reports). Convergent victims' perceptions were similar to nonvictims with key differences being convergent victims' greater willingness to protect peers being bullied but lower feelings of school belonging compared to nonvictims. Peer-identified and self-identified victims perceived differences in the bullying and academic ecology including peer-identified victims' greater willingness to protect peers and expectations for more peers to encourage bulling against them compared to self-identified victims. However, both peer- and self-identified victims perceived greater emotional risk of participating in class and had lower feelings of school belonging compared to nonvictims. Implications for supporting youth with divergent self- and peer-reported victimization status as they transition to middle school are discussed.

  3. 78 FR 24319 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... we know: families trying to rebuild after financial fraud or identity theft, grandparents spending... victims of abuse. We have continued to crack down on financial crimes that leave too many families..., and by volunteering to serve victims in their time of need. [[Page 24320

  4. Victimization and Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Related Risk Among Transgender Women in India: A Latent Profile Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Tiara C; Chakrapani, Venkatesan; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Kershaw, Trace S

    2017-12-01

    Globally, transgender women (TGW) experience multiple forms of victimization such as violence and discrimination that can place them at risk for poor sexual health. To date, research overlooks the heterogeneity in experiences of victimization among TGW. Furthermore, few studies have examined the association between victimization and sexual risk among TGW in India, despite the high burden of HIV and victimization in this community. Latent profile analysis was performed to identify patterns of victimization in a convenience sample of 299 TGW recruited from nongovernmental organizations across four states in India. Analysis of covariance was performed to examine differences in sexual risk (i.e., alcohol use before sex; inconsistent condom use with a male regular partner, a male causal partner, and a male paying partner; and having multiple sexual partners) between latent profiles. Five distinct profiles of Indian TGW were identified based on the type and severity of victimization: (1) Low victimization, (2) High verbal police victimization, (3) High verbal and physical police victimization, (4) Moderate victimization, and (5) High victimization. While controlling for age, education, income, HIV status, and marital status, results revealed that TGW in the moderate victimization and high victimization profiles had higher sexual risk than TGW in the low victimization and high verbal police victimization profiles. In addition, TGW in high verbal and physical police victimization profile had higher sexual risk than TGW in low victimization profile. These findings underscore the importance of tailoring sexual risk reduction interventions to the specific needs of TGW based on patterns of victimization.

  5. College students' electronic victimization in friendships and dating relationships: anticipated distress and associations with risky behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Diana C; Guran, Elyse L; Ramos, Michelle C; Margolin, Gayla

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated college students' reports of electronic victimization in friendships and dating relationships. We examined 22 items representing four categories of electronic victimization: hostility, humiliation, exclusion, and intrusiveness. Nearly all participants (92%) reported some electronic victimization in the past year, with males reporting more victimization and females anticipating more distress. Both females and males anticipated more distress from electronic victimization in dating relationships than friendships. More actual experience with electronic victimization related to lower anticipated distress. Electronic victimization was associated with females' alcohol use, even after controlling for other victimization experiences. Discussion focuses on the contextualized nature of electronic victimization, and on the importance of understanding what makes electronic victimization highly distressing for some individuals.

  6. The voices of victims and witnesses of school bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. de Wet

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available There has never been a stronger demand from the South African public to reduce school violence than at present. The demand for safe schools cannot be achieved unless the issue of bullying is adequately addressed. However, it appears from newspaper reports that some of the role players are not willing to listen to the victims of bullying. The aim of this article is to give a voice to some of the victims, as well as those witnessing school bullying. This article reports on findings from an investigation of the experiences of a group of Free State learners who were witnesses and victims of bullying. The research instrument was the Delaware Bullying Questionnaire. The first important conclusion from this study was that bullying was a serious problem in some Free State schools. Secondly, it was found that the respondents were more often the victims of male than of female bullies. Thirdly, the quantitative data indicated that the majority of victims were bullied by learners who were in the same grade as they were. The qualitative data, however, revealed that the bullying of Grade 8 learners by Grade 12 learners seems to be a fairly common occurrence. Finally, some comments and recommendations are made.

  7. Risk and Protective Factors Associated to Peer School Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Inmaculada; Ruiz-Esteban, Cecilia; López-García, J J

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between peer school victimization and some risk and protection factors and to compare the differences by role in victimization with those of non-involved bystanders. Our participants were 1,264 secondary students ( M = 14.41, SD = 1.43) who participated voluntarily, although an informed consent was requested. A logistic regression model (LR) was used in order to identify the victim's potential risks and protective factors related to non-involved bystanders. A multiple LR and a forward stepwise LR (Wald) were used. The results showed the variables related to the victim profile were: individual features (to be male, to be at the first cycle of compulsory Secondary Education and a few challenging behaviors), school environments (i.e., school adjustment), family environment (parental styles like authoritarianism) and social environment (i.e., friends who occasionally show a positive attitude toward drug consumption and easy access to drugs, access to drugs perceived as easy, rejection by peers or lack of social acceptance and social maladjustment). The results of the study will allow tackling prevention and intervention actions in schools, families, and social environment in order to improve coexistence at school and to assist the victimized students in the classroom.

  8. Risk Factors for Social Networking Site Scam Victimization Among Malaysian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Gráinne H; Fullwood, Chris; Rooney, Brendan

    2018-02-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) can provide cybercriminals with various opportunities, including gathering of user data and login credentials to enable fraud, and directing of users toward online locations that may install malware onto their devices. The techniques employed by such cybercriminals can include clickbait (text or video), advertisement of nonexistent but potentially desirable products, and hoax competitions/giveaways. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with falling victim to these malicious techniques. An online survey was completed by 295 Malaysian undergraduate students, finding that more than one-third had fallen victim to SNS scams. Logistic regression analysis identified several victimization risk factors including having higher scores in impulsivity (specifically cognitive complexity), using fewer devices for SNSs, and having been on an SNS for a longer duration. No reliable model was found for vulnerability to hoax valuable gift giveaways and "friend view application" advertising specifically, but vulnerability to video clickbait was predicted by lower extraversion scores, higher levels of openness to experience, using fewer devices, and being on an SNS for a longer duration. Other personality traits were not associated with either overall victimization susceptibility or increased risk of falling victim to the specific techniques. However, age approached significance within both the video clickbait and overall victimization models. These findings suggest that routine activity theory may be particularly beneficial in understanding and preventing SNSs scam victimization.

  9. Nazi Medical Research in Neuroscience: Medical Procedures, Victims, and Perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenau, Aleksandra; Weindling, Paul J

    Issues relating to the euthanasia killings of the mentally ill, the medical research conducted on collected body parts, and the clinical investigations on living victims under National Socialism are among the best-known abuses in medical history. But to date, there have been no statistics compiled regarding the extent and number of the victims and perpetrators, or regarding their identities in terms of age, nationality, and gender. "Victims of Unethical Human Experiments and Coerced Research under National Socialism," a research project based at Oxford Brookes University, has established an evidence-based documentation of the overall numbers of victims and perpetrators through specific record linkages of the evidence from the period of National Socialism, as well as from post-WWII trials and other records. This article examines the level and extent of these unethical medical procedures as they relate to the field of neuroscience. It presents statistical information regarding the victims, as well as detailing the involvement of the perpetrators and Nazi physicians with respect to their post-war activities and subsequent court trials.

  10. Trauma and identification of victims of suicidal terrorism in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiss, J; Kahana, T

    2000-11-01

    The postmortem examination and identification procedures performed by medical and law enforcement personnel involved in mass disaster management in Israel are reported. The Israel National Police, the Israel Defense Forces, and the L. Greenberg Institute of Forensic Medicine's experts examined 171 victims who died in 21 incidents of suicidal terrorism. The trauma sustained by the victims and perpetrators of suicidal bombings included complete body disruption and explosive, flying missile, and blast injuries. The modus operandi of the perpetrators, reconstructed from the distribution and type of injury of the victims, is discussed. Fifty-five victims perished in open space bombings and 91 inside buses. All perpetrators of these bombings died at the time of the incident regardless of their location. Identification of the victims was achieved using fingerprints, dental records, medical intervention signs, anatomic variation, genetic profile, and personal recognition. Prompt identification of the perpetrators allowed speedy apprehension of the accomplices and prevention of similar attacks. Collaboration between the different forensic, military, and law enforcement teams increased the efficiency of disaster management efforts.

  11. Predicting Psychosocial Maladjustment in Emerging Adulthood From High School Experiences of Peer Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Carie M; McDougall, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare recollections of sexual, physical, verbal, social, and cyber peer victimization experienced in high school in terms of depressed affect, self-esteem, and loneliness experienced in university. In all, 247 university students (70 males and 177 females; M = 20.62, SD = 2.54) completed online measures assessing retrospective accounts of their experiences of different forms of peer victimization during high school (i.e., sexual, physical, verbal, social, and cyber) and their current psychosocial adjustment (i.e., self-esteem, depressed affect, and loneliness). Three separate hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted to determine whether different indices of negative psychosocial adjustment are more strongly predicted by experiencing sexual or nonsexual forms of peer victimization. Although many university students recalled experiencing sexual peer victimization in high school at least once at an even higher percentage than verbal and social forms of peer victimization, the results of the present study suggest that social peer victimization in high school predicts higher levels of depressed affect and loneliness in university students than sexual peer victimization experienced in high school. Surprisingly, the young adults reporting higher levels of cyber peer victimization in high school were less lonely in university. Although the hypothesized relationships between each form of peer victimization and specific indices of psychosocial functioning were not consistently supported, these findings suggest that the form of peer victimization matters and may be differentially associated with well-being in emerging adulthood. It is important that future research explores how individual characteristics may further predict varied experiences of peer victimization and the long-term impact of those experiences.

  12. The Legal Duty to Incorporate Mistakes of the Victim

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In many jurisdictions, potential injurers are under a legal duty to incorporate possible mistakes of the potential victim. I distinguish three types of mistakes. First, victims might make mistakes because it is too costly to avoid them (e.g. little children in traffic). Second,

  13. Stalking. Part II: Victims' problems with the legal system and therapeutic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, K M; Robinson, G E

    1998-06-01

    This paper is the second of 2 parts reviewing the topic of stalking. It focuses on victims difficulties with the legal system and the psychotherapeutic tasks for victims and therapists. Computerized literature searches were used to identify relevant papers from psychiatric and legal journals. Publications by victims' and women's organizations provided additional information. Victims suffer emotional consequences from being stalked. Additional stress is caused by the legal system's lack of understanding of the causes and consequences of stalking and inadequate and unenforced laws. The treatment of victims requires a comprehensive approach, including education, supportive psychotherapy, and discussion of practical measures. Therapists may overidentify with the patient's powerlessness or hesitate to take on a case out of fear of the stalker. Female therapists may protect themselves against the realization of their own vulnerability by blaming the victim, while male therapists may feel defensive or overprotective. Stalking is a crime with major mental health consequences which is often poorly understood by society. Therapists need to be aware of the victim's emotional reactions, the types of legal and practical supports available, and the possible biases of society. Further education and research should be encouraged.

  14. A latent transition analysis of bullying and victimization in Chinese primary school students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqin Pan

    Full Text Available Bullying is a social phenomenon that impacts a large number of children and young people, worldwide. This study aimed to longitudinally examine the development of bullying and victimization in Chinese students in grades 4, 5, and 6. We used latent class analysis to empirically identify groups of youth with different bullying and victimization patterns, and then used latent transition analysis to explore the movement of children between these latent classes over time. Results showed that: (1 across the three time points, students could be classified into four classes: bullies, victims, bully-victims, and non-involved children; and (2 students in the non-involved class tended to remain in that class when moving to higher grades, students in the bully and victims classes tended to transition to the non-involved class, while students in the bully-victims class tended to transition to the bullies class. Thus, future intervention should be implemented to prevent bully-victims from bullying behaviors.

  15. Do Emotional Components of Alexithymia Mediate the Interplay between Cyberbullying Victimization and Perpetration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, Sebastian; Bilz, Ludwig; Fischer, Saskia M; Wright, Michelle F

    2017-12-08

    A substantial amount of research has revealed that cyberbully-victims have more emotional and behavioral problems than either cyberbullying victims or perpetrators. However, until now, little research has been conducted into the factors that contribute to the interplay between cyberbullying victimization and perpetration. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between cyberbullying victimization, perpetration, and two emotional components of alexithymia, namely difficulties in identifying and describing one's own feelings. Self-report questions were administered to 1549 adolescents between 12 and 18 years old ( M = 14.51; SD = 1.68; 42.1% ( n = 652) male) from Germany and Thailand. Results showed that cyberbullying victimization and alexithymia are associated with cyberbullying perpetration. Moreover, alexithymia mediated the associations between cyberbullying victimization and adolescents' cyberbullying perpetration. Consequently, we suggest that the ability to describe and identify one's own feelings might be important for understanding the link between cyberbullying, victimization, and perpetration. The results may help develop prevention and intervention programs focused on reducing cyberbullying.

  16. Do Emotional Components of Alexithymia Mediate the Interplay between Cyberbullying Victimization and Perpetration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, Sebastian; Bilz, Ludwig; Fischer, Saskia M.; Wright, Michelle F.

    2017-01-01

    A substantial amount of research has revealed that cyberbully-victims have more emotional and behavioral problems than either cyberbullying victims or perpetrators. However, until now, little research has been conducted into the factors that contribute to the interplay between cyberbullying victimization and perpetration. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between cyberbullying victimization, perpetration, and two emotional components of alexithymia, namely difficulties in identifying and describing one’s own feelings. Self-report questions were administered to 1549 adolescents between 12 and 18 years old (M = 14.51; SD = 1.68; 42.1% (n = 652) male) from Germany and Thailand. Results showed that cyberbullying victimization and alexithymia are associated with cyberbullying perpetration. Moreover, alexithymia mediated the associations between cyberbullying victimization and adolescents’ cyberbullying perpetration. Consequently, we suggest that the ability to describe and identify one’s own feelings might be important for understanding the link between cyberbullying, victimization, and perpetration. The results may help develop prevention and intervention programs focused on reducing cyberbullying. PMID:29292720

  17. Stop Harassment!: men's reactions to victims' confrontation

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Herrera, M.; Herrera, Antonio; Expósito, Francisca

    2014-01-01

    Sexual harassment is one of the most widespread forms of gender violence. Perceptions of sexual harassment depend on gender, context, the perceivers' ideology, and a host of other factors. Research has underscored the importance of coping strategies in raising a victim's self-confidence by making her feel that she plays an active role in overcoming her own problems. The aim of this study was to assess the men's perceptions of sexual harassment in relation to different victim responses. The st...

  18. Black Female Homicide Offenders and Victims: Are They from the Same Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Paula D.

    1982-01-01

    Explores the social and environmental characteristics of Black female homicide victims and offenders. Assembled data on 661 Black female homicide victims and 119 Black female homicide offenders. Analyses indicated that Black female homicide victims and offenders exhibit low socioeconomic status and essentially similar behavior patterns. (Author)

  19. Future Orientation among Students Exposed to School Bullying and Cyberbullying Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Låftman, Sara B; Alm, Susanne; Sandahl, Julia; Modin, Bitte

    2018-03-27

    Future orientation can be defined as an individual's thoughts, beliefs, plans, and hopes for the future. Earlier research has shown adolescents' future orientation to predict outcomes later in life, which makes it relevant to analyze differences in future orientation among youth. The aim of the present study was to analyze if bullying victimization was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting a pessimistic future orientation among school youth. To be able to distinguish between victims and bully-victims (i.e., students who are both bullies and victims), we also took perpetration into account. The data were derived from the Stockholm School Survey performed in 2016 among ninth grade students (ages 15-16 years) ( n = 5144). Future orientation and involvement in school bullying and in cyberbullying were based on self-reports. The statistical method used was binary logistic regression. The results demonstrated that victims and bully-victims of school bullying and of cyberbullying were more likely to report a pessimistic future orientation compared with students not involved in bullying. These associations were shown also when involvement in school bullying and cyberbullying were mutually adjusted. The findings underline the importance of anti-bullying measures that target both school bullying and cyberbullying.

  20. Identifying domestic and international sex-trafficking victims during human service provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Rebecca J; Graham, Laurie M

    2012-04-01

    Children, youth, and adults of both genders are sex trafficked into and throughout the United States every day. Regrettably, little attention has been given to how human service providers might identify the sex-trafficking victims they are likely to encounter. To address this knowledge gap, the authors review 20 documents with the aim of detecting and synthesizing service identification recommendations in the scientific literature, government reports, and documents produced by organizations working with sex-trafficking victims. The review shows consensus regarding identification recommendations, including (a) trafficking indicators, (b) victim interaction strategies, (c) immediate response strategies, and (d) child-specific information. The review also shows consensus regarding screening questions that are important for service providers to use in identifying sex-trafficking victims. These questions relate to the victims' safety, employment, living environment, and travel and immigration status in addition to specific questions used with children and youth. The review results offer human service providers a preliminary set of screening strategies and questions that can be used to identify sex-trafficking victims in the context of human services. Building on the review findings, the authors offer policy and research recommendations.

  1. Patterns of Change in Adolescent Dating Victimization and Aggression During Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncy, Elizabeth A; Farrell, Albert D; Sullivan, Terri N

    2018-03-01

    Although mounting evidence suggests dating victimization and aggression begin in early adolescence, little work has examined the pattern of these behaviors across this age. This longitudinal study examined trajectories of dating victimization and aggression across middle school using 12 waves of data. A sample of early adolescents (N = 1369, 52.3% girls; 83% African American; 15% Hispanic or Latino) residing in an urban, economically disadvantaged area participated in this study. Youth completed measures of dating victimization and aggression quarterly across the 3 years of middle school. Although results indicated a general trend of increasing dating victimization and aggression across middle school, variation existed for boys and girls. Specifically, girls showed increasing patterns of both, whereas boys remained relatively stable across time. Dating victimization and aggression were also highly correlated across time. These findings support the implementation and refinement of prevention programming aimed at preventing and reducing dating aggression and victimization in middle school.

  2. Relational aggression and victimization in gay male relationships: the role of internalized homophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Thomas M; Robertson, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    This article presents two studies that are the first to examine relational aggression and relational victimization in gay male peer relationships. A qualitative pilot study provides a strong rationale for a subsequent empirical investigation of 100 young adult, self-identified gay males. Results of both studies demonstrate that relational aggression and relational victimization are common experiences in gay male relationships. They also reveal forms of relational aggression and victimization that appear to be unique to gay males (e.g., outing). Results of the empirical study found significant relations between engaging in relational aggression against gay males and experiencing relational victimization and between experiencing relational victimization and internalized homophobia. However, there was no significant correlation between internalized homophobia and engaging in relational aggression. A multiple regression analysis found that experiencing relational victimization was correlated more strongly with the combination of engaging in relational aggression and internalized homophobia together than with relational aggression alone. Results are discussed within the framework of Allport's "traits due to victimization" theory and Meyer's theory of "minority stress." Implications for the prevention of relational aggression/victimization in gay male relationships are offered. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Phishing for suitable targets in the Netherlands: routine activity theory and phishing victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukfeldt, E Rutger

    2014-08-01

    This article investigates phishing victims, especially the increased or decreased risk of victimization, using data from a cybercrime victim survey in the Netherlands (n=10,316). Routine activity theory provides the theoretical perspective. According to routine activity theory, several factors influence the risk of victimization. A multivariate analysis was conducted to assess which factors actually lead to increased risk of victimization. The model included background and financial data of victims, their Internet activities, and the degree to which they were "digitally accessible" to an offender. The analysis showed that personal background and financial characteristics play no role in phishing victimization. Among eight Internet activities, only "targeted browsing" led to increased risk. As for accessibility, using popular operating systems and web browsers does not lead to greater risk, while having up-to-date antivirus software as a technically capable guardian has no effect. The analysis showed no one, clearly defined group has an increased chance of becoming a victim. Target hardening may help, but opportunities for prevention campaigns aimed at a specific target group or dangerous online activities are limited. Therefore, situational crime prevention will have to come from a different angle. Banks could play the role of capable guardian.

  4. How victim sensitivity leads to uncooperative behavior via expectancies of injustice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona eMaltese

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the Sensitivity-to-mean-intentions (SeMI model, dispositional victim sensitivity involves a suspicious mindset that is activated by situational cues and guides subsequent information processing and behavior like a schema. Study 1 tested whether victim-sensitive persons are more prone to form expectancies of injustice in ambiguous situations and whether these expectancies mediate the relationship between victim sensitivity and cooperation behavior in a trust game. Results show an indirect effect of victim sensitivity on cooperation after unfair treatment (vs control condition, mediated by expectancies of injustice. In Study 2 we directly manipulated the tendency to form expectancies of injustice in ambiguous situations to test for causality. Results confirmed that the readiness to expect unjust outcomes led to lower cooperation, compared to a control condition. These findings provide direct evidence that expectancy tendencies are implicated in elevated victim sensitivity and are of theoretical and practical relevance.

  5. Stalking Victimization in LGBTQ Adults: A Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenderfer-Magruder, Lisa; Walls, N Eugene; Whitfield, Darren L; Kattari, Shanna K; Ramos, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Stalking is often considered to be a form of interpersonal violence; yet, despite an increase in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ)-specific research on other forms of interpersonal violence, such as intimate partner violence and sexual assault, there is a relative lack of literature on stalking victimization of LGBTQ individuals, particularly as it relates to gender identity. This is problematic given the results of numerous studies indicating LGBTQ individuals, and transgender individuals in particular, experience victimization in various forms and contexts at alarming rates. In the current study, we examined secondary data to determine the prevalence of lifetime stalking victimization and subsequent police reporting in a large community-based sample of LGBTQ individuals living in Colorado ( N = 1,116). In addition, using chi-square analyses, we examined independence of stalking experiences and police reporting by both gender identity ( transgender, cisgender male, cisgender female) and sexual orientation ( gay, lesbian, bisexual, heterosexual, queer, other). Approximately 15% of the total sample reported ever experiencing stalking; yet, only about one quarter of those who were stalked reported it to police. Although no statistically significant differences emerged by gender identity or sexual orientation, transgender, bisexual, and queer participants had the highest prevalence of lifetime stalking victimization. Moreover, these groups reported the lowest prevalence of reporting their victimization to the police. We provide suggestions to improve the development of research on this topic including a need for an inclusive definition of stalking and studies using larger, representative samples to better discern potential significant differences in stalking experiences of LGBTQ persons.

  6. A TODAY VICTIM OF SECOND WORLD WAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hăisan, Anca; Dumea, Mihaela; Ursaru, Manuela; Bulat, C; Cimpoeşu, Diana Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Emergency medicine as a medical specialty has to deal with all kind of emergency situations, from medical to post traumatic acute eyents and from new born to the elderly persons, but also with particular situations like explosions. In Romania nowadays these are accidental explosions and rare like frequency, but may be dramatic due to numbers of victims and multisystem injury that may occur. We present a case of a single victim of accidental detonated bomb, a projectile from the Second World War, which unfortunately still may be found in some areas. The management of the case from first call to 112 until the victim is discharge-involves high professional team work. We use these opportunity to make a brief review of the mechanism through the lesions may appear and also to renew the fact that the most impressive lesion may not be the most severe, and we have to examine carefully in order to find the real life threatening injury of the patient.

  7. The Relationship of Peer Victimization to Social Anxiety and Loneliness in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Brassard, Marla R.; Masia-Warner, Carrie L.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relations among overt and relational victimization, social anxiety, loneliness, and prosocial behaviors from peers in ninth- and tenth-graders. Found that boys reported higher overt victimization rates and fewer peer prosocial behaviors compared to girls. Found support for the hypothesis that overt and relational victimization were…

  8. Adolescent predictors of young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization among Australian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Heerde, Jessica A

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the current article was to examine the adolescent risk and protective factors (at the individual, peer group, and family level) for young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. Data from 2006 (Grade 9) to 2010 (young adulthood) were analyzed from a community sample of 927 Victorian students originally recruited as a statewide representative sample in Grade 5 (age, 10-11 years) in 2002 and followed-up to age 18-19 years in 2010 (N = 809). Participants completed a self-report survey on adolescent risk and protective factors and traditional and cyberbullying perpetration and victimization and young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. As young adults, 5.1% self-reported cyberbullying perpetration only, 5.0% reported cyberbullying victimization only, and 9.5% reported both cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. In fully adjusted logistic regression analyses, the adolescent predictors of cyberbullying perpetration only were traditional bullying perpetration, traditional bullying perpetration and victimization, and poor family management. For young adulthood cyberbullying victimization only, the adolescent predictor was emotion control. The adolescent predictors for young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization were traditional bullying perpetration and cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. Based on the results of this study, possible targets for prevention and early intervention are reducing adolescent involvement in (traditional or cyber) bullying through the development of social skills and conflict resolution skills. In addition, another important prevention target is to support families with adolescents to ensure that they set clear rules and monitor adolescents' behavior. Universal programs that assist adolescents to develop skills in emotion control are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Paranoid beliefs and realistic expectations of victimization: Data from the survey of police-public encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Boyoung; Fedina, Lisa; Smith, Melissa Edmondson; Schiffman, Jason; Link, Bruce; DeVylder, Jordan E

    2018-03-08

    The anticipation of threat or victimization is a core feature of paranoia. Cognitive theories of paranoia suggest that paranoid thoughts may arise as a psychological response to trauma exposure, which likewise may lead to greater anticipation of subsequent victimization. Little is known, however, about the relation between paranoid beliefs and anticipated victimization when accounting for past victimization experience. The present study aimed to address whether the experiences of past victimization contribute to the link between paranoid beliefs and the anticipation of threat or victimization, with a particular focus on exposure to police violence. Data were collected through the Survey of Police-Public Encounters (N=1615), a cross-sectional, general population survey study conducted in four Eastern U.S. cities. Associations between paranoia and anticipated victimization were assessed using linear regression models, with and without adjustment for past victimization exposure. Paranoid beliefs were positively associated with police victimization expectations (β=0.19, ptheories of paranoia in which paranoid beliefs may be a severe but normative reaction to past victimization exposures in some cases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Procedural protection of juvenile victims of negligence and abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Violence against children is often designated as the worst form of domestic violence, and violence in general. Such a conclusion is a result of multiple factors: children's age and vulnerability, the distinctive features in their physical and mental development which makes them inferior to adults, the kinship (blood relations] and emotional bonds between parents and children, etc. The positive trend in the evolution of the social response to violence against children is reflected in the effort to discover and prevent the abuse, to punish the offenders and to protect the child/victim from secondary victimization during the criminal proceedings. In the Republic of Serbia, the procedural measures governing the protection of juvenile victims/witnesses are set out in Part III of the Juvenile Justice Act (Act on the Juvenile Offenders and Criminal Law Protection of Minors]. However, it was soon evident that there was a need to provide a better legislative framework than the one envisaged in this Act, particularly in terms of ensuring a better protection of minors in the course of criminal proceedings involving children who are victims of abuse and neglect. For this purpose, in 2004, the legislator adopted the National Action Plan on Children in Adversity. This document envisaged the adoption of the General Protocol on the protection of children from abuse and negligence, as well as the adoption of subject-specific protocols which would further regulate the specific procedures for the protection of children-victims in particular social circumstances (health, education, justice] by different social institutions (police, social services]. In this paper, the author analyses the legal framework governing the procedural protection of juvenile victims in the course of criminal proceedings. In addition, the author also explores the statutory provisions (by-laws] adopted in order to establish specific standards and ensure a higher level of protection of

  11. Aid for the victims of the forest fires in Greece

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To support the victims of the fires which devastated the Peloponnese at the end of August, the Permanent Mission of Greece in Geneva has informed us that the Greek government has opened an account into which donations may be paid. The funds collected will be used to assist the many victims of these fires. Bank of Greece Account name: Logariasmos Arogis Pyropathon (Hellenic Republic) (account reserved for aid for the victims of the forest fires) SWIFT : BNGRGRAA IBAN : GR 98 0100 0230 0000 0234 1103 053

  12. Offending and Victimization in the Digital Age : Comparing Correlates of Cybercrime and Traditional Offending-Only, Victimization-Only and the Victimization-Offending Overlap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenbarg, Marleen Weulen; Holt, Thomas J.; van Gelder, Jean Louis

    2017-01-01

    Cybercrime research suggests that, analogous to traditional crime, victims are more likely to be offenders. This overlap could be caused by shared risk factors, but it is unclear if these are comparable to traditional risk factors. Utilizing a high risk sample of computer-dependent cyber-offenders

  13. Judgments toward male and transgendered victims in a depicted stranger rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Hudson, Jenefer

    2011-01-01

    There has been an increasing amount of research interest into perceptions of male rape in recent years. However, no research has assessed how people react when a transgendered person is raped. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of transgendered status and sexuality on victim blame and perceived severity in a depicted rape scenario. The sexuality of the victim was manipulated to include a heterosexual, homosexual, cross-dresser, female-to-male transsexual, and male-to-female transsexual. It was predicted that the heterosexual victims would be judged the most positively and that heterosexual male participants would make the most anti-victim judgments. One hundred thirty-three lesbian, gay male, and heterosexual members of the general population read a scenario depicting a rape and then completed a questionnaire measuring victim blame and perceived severity of the assault. Results conformed to the predictions. Results are discussed in relation to traditional gender roles and homophobia.

  14. Violent Victimization Among Disadvantaged Young Adults Exposed to Early Family Conflict and Abuse: A 24-Year Prospective Study of the Victimization Cycle Across Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voith, Laura A; Topitzes, James; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2016-01-01

    Significant associations between childhood victimization and later revictimization have materialized in previous literature; yet, the victimization cycle has been primarily explored with indicators of sexual assault, although insight into linkages between other forms of victimization remains limited. This study examined connections from family conflict exposure and physical abuse in childhood to violent crime victimization in adulthood, assessing also gender differences and neighborhood influences. Results from logistic regression and hierarchical linear modeling with data from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a panel of 1,539 low-income, ethnic/racial minority children, unearthed a significant relation between family conflict exposure and later revictimization. Moderated by gender, these analyses showed girls exposed to frequent family conflict are particularly vulnerable to revictimization in adulthood. Exploratory analyses unveiled a potential linkage between childhood physical abuse and later revictimization for men. Neighborhood effects marginally influenced results in one instance. Public health implications are discussed.

  15. Initial medical management of criticality accident victim; Conduite a tenir aux victimes d'un accident de criticite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miele, A.; Bebaron-Jacobs, L

    2005-07-01

    The extremely severe criticality accidents known to this day, and the subsequent deaths recorded (Sarov 1997 and Tokai Mura 1999), demonstrate the need for sustained surveillance and constant adapted training for the teams in charge of irradiated and/or contaminated victims. The aim of this work group, composed of occupational health services and associated medical biology laboratories, is to present, in leaflet format, the essential data on the documentation and the conduct to be held when facing the victims of a criticality accident. The studies of this work group confirm the difficulties involved in managing this type of accident, both from the dosimetric evaluation point of view and from the therapeutic management point of view. That is why several research themes and perspectives are developed. During the different phases of victim triage, the recommendations given on these leaflets describe the operational conducts to be held. This work will have to be updated according to the evolution in knowledge and means: short and long term effects of exposure to neutrons, multi-competence hospital cooperation, expertise networks related to dosimetric reconstitution. (authors)

  16. Pupil-class determinants of aggressive and victim behaviour in pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, T

    1998-09-01

    Aggressive behaviour in pupils is expressed in, e.g., bullying, sexual harassment, and violence. Different kinds of variables could be relevant in explaining a pupil's aggressive or victim behaviour. To develop a multilevel theoretical and empirical explanation for different kinds of aggressive and victim behaviour displayed by pupils in a classroom and school environment. A national survey was carried out to identify different kinds of aggressive and victim behaviour displayed by pupils and to assess other variables related to pupils, classes, and schools. A total of 1998 pupils from 100 third and fourth year classes attending 71 different secondary schools took part in the research. Data were analysed by a series of secondary multilevel analyses using the MLA-program. Being a boy, being more extravert, being more disagreeable, coming across fewer teachers with positive teaching behaviour, and attending a lower type of secondary school, help explain why someone is a perpetrator as such. Being a boy, being more disagreeable, being more emotionally unstable, being open to new ideas, and seeing more teachers as being strict, function as explanatory pupil variables for victim behaviour. Other pupil level variables determine more specific aggressive and victim behaviour aspects. Various other class level and school level variables are relevant, too. Personal and environmental pupil variables are more important than class variables but class variables are in turn more important than school variables in explaining a pupil's aggressive and victim behaviour.

  17. No safe haven: locations of harassment and bullying victimization in middle schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, H Wesley; Perkins, Jessica M; Craig, David W

    2014-12-01

    Given that adolescent bullying victimization is a significant concern for secondary education and adolescent development, identifying school contexts in which victimization is most likely to occur is salient. An anonymous online survey assessed the prevalence of being harassed or bullied in various locations within 20 middle schools (grades 5-9) in New Jersey and New York (N = 10,668). Seven types of bullying-related victimization (teased in an unfriendly way, called hurtful names, physically abused, excluded from a group to hurt feelings, belongings taken/damaged, threatened to be hurt, and negative rumors spread) were examined in 7 locations where each type of victimization could occur (classroom, lunchroom, hallways, gym, playground, bus, or bathroom). Prevalence of victimization types ranged from 4% to 38% depending on location. Prevalence of overall victimization was equal or greater in classrooms compared with other school locations (highest prevalence rates in hallways, classrooms, and lunchrooms), regardless of school demographic characteristics. Victimization in classrooms compared with other school settings was most highly associated with feelings of being unsafe. Vigilant attention to bullying is needed across all school environments and especially in the classroom context, which may mistakenly be perceived as a more protected area. Indeed, middle school classrooms are not safe havens. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  18. Prevalence and patterns of traditional bullying victimization and cyber-teasing among college population in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca Sánchez, Francisco; Falcón Romero, María; Navarro-Zaragoza, Javier; Luna Ruiz-Cabello, Aurelio; Rodriges Frantzisko, Oriali; Luna Maldonado, Aurelio

    2016-02-19

    Traditional bullying victimization and the growing number of cyber-teasing victims during the last decade is a major public health concern. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between students' experiences of traditional bullying victimization and cyber-teasing and the sociodemographic characteristics of a sample composed of college students in Spain. In the fall of 2014, 543 sixth-grade students from southeast Spain completed an anonymous survey on their experience of both kinds of to ascertain any relationship with sociodemographic characteristics, including gender, nationality, economic problems, family conflicts and alcohol and cannabis use. A total of 62.2% of the students reported to having suffered traditional bullying victimization and 52.7% reported that they had been subject to cyber-teasing. 40.7% of participants had been victims of traditional bullying victimization and cyber-teasing in the past 12 months. Most (65.7%) of the victims were at the same time cyber-teasing victims; 77.6% of cyber-teasing victims were also victimized in a different manner. Traditional bullying victimization was higher among boys than among girls, while female students were more likely to have been subjected to cyber-teasing than male students. The characteristics that most heavily influenced suffering traditional bullying victimization were economic problems, family conflicts and cannabis use. Our findings confirm overlapping results in the risk factors that influence suffering both traditional bullying victimization and cyber-teasing: there was a strong influence of certain sociodemographic and individual characteristics of the college population, suggesting that specific policies are necessary to improve college students' environment in Spain.

  19. Cultural Barriers to Help-Seeking among Taiwanese Female Victims of Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative analysis regarding the help-seeking behaviors of female dating-violence victims from a cultural perspective. A semistructured, in-depth interview was used to collect data from 10 female victims (aged 20-28). Findings indicate that Taiwanese dating-violence victims tend to seek informal help rather than formal…

  20. Romantic Attachment, Conflict Resolution Styles, and Teen Dating Violence Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonache, Helena; Gonzalez-Mendez, Rosaura; Krahé, Barbara

    2017-09-01

    Although research on dating violence has increased in the last decades, little is known about the role of romantic attachment and conflict resolution in understanding victimization by an intimate partner among adolescents. This study examined the relationships between insecure attachment styles, destructive conflict resolution strategies, self-reported and perceived in the partner, and psychological and physical victimization by a dating partner in 1298 adolescents (49% girls). Anxious attachment was related to both forms of victimization via self-reported conflict engagement and conflict engagement attributed to the partner among boys and girls. Moreover, both insecure attachment styles were also indirectly linked to victimization via self-reported withdrawal and conflict engagement perceived in the partner, but only among boys. The implications of the findings for promoting constructive communication patterns among adolescents for handling their relationship conflicts are discussed.

  1. Shaping the Victim: Borders, security, and human trafficking in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Campbell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Borders are productive sites where knowledge is gathered and migrant populations are formed. The knowledge gathered from victims of trafficking reinforces a victim narrative that represents a perceived threat to society by highlighting violence, criminality, coercion, and naivety. Using Albania as a case in point, the article looks at trafficked people and the narratives of victimhood that surround them. In the case of trafficked people, the border projected out towards other states produces a discursively defined victim of trafficking. When projected back within the national territory, the border essentially produces a criminalised sex worker. To argue this point, the article discusses the role victims of trafficking play in the EU and looks at how international norms espoused by the OSCE and IOM have prepped the Albanian border for EU ascension and created the means for governable populations within Albania.

  2. Psychoactive Substance Use and Problematic Internet Use as Predictors of Bullying and Cyberbullying Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsila, Ágnes; Orosz, Gábor; Király, Orsolya; Urbán, Róbert; Ujhelyi, Adrienn; Jármi, Éva; Griffiths, Mark D; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2018-01-01

    Research exploring the relationship between addictions and experiences of bullying suggests that problem behaviors may generally be associated with an increased risk of victimization. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of psychoactive substance use, excessive Internet use, and social support in both traditional offline bullying and online "cyberbullying" victimization in a nationally representative sample of adolescents ( N  = 6237; 51% male; M age  = 16.62 years, SD = 0.95). Results demonstrated that traditional bullying victimization was associated with cyberbullying victimization. Furthermore, psychoactive substance use and problematic Internet use predicted both traditional bullying and cyberbullying victimization. Finally, perceived social support was found to be an important protective factor against both traditional and cyberbullying victimization. However, psychoactive substance use and problematic Internet use accounted for only a small proportion of variance in victimization.

  3. THE ORIGINS OF COGNITIVE DEFICITS IN VICTIMIZED CHILDREN: IMPLICATIONS FOR NEUROSCIENTISTS AND CLINICIANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Andrea; Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise; Bleiberg, Ben A; Dinardo, Perry B; Gandelman, Stephanie B; Houts, Renate; Ambler, Antony; Fisher, Helen; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Individuals reporting a history of childhood violence victimization have impaired brain function. However, the clinical significance, reproducibility, and causality of these findings are disputed. We directly tested these research gaps. METHOD We tested the association between prospectively-collected measures of childhood violence victimization and cognitive functions in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood among 2,232 members of the UK E-Risk Study and 1,037 members of the New Zealand Dunedin Study, who were followed-up from birth until ages 18 and 38 years, respectively. We used multiple measures of victimization and cognition, and included comparisons of cognitive scores for twins discordant for victimization. RESULTS We found that individuals exposed to childhood victimization had pervasive impairments in clinically-relevant cognitive functions including general intelligence, executive function, processing speed, memory, perceptual reasoning, and verbal comprehension in adolescence and adulthood. However, the observed cognitive deficits in victimized individuals were largely explained by cognitive deficits that predated childhood victimization and by confounding genetic and environmental risks. CONCLUSIONS Findings from two population-representative birth cohorts totaling more than 3,000 individuals and born 20 years and 20,000 kilometers apart suggest that the association between childhood violence victimization and later cognition is largely non-causal, in contrast to conventional interpretations. These findings urge adopting a more circumspect approach to causal inference in the neuroscience of stress. Clinically, cognitive deficits should be conceptualized as individual risk factors for victimization as well as potential complicating features during treatment. PMID:27794691

  4. Do Emotional Components of Alexithymia Mediate the Interplay between Cyberbullying Victimization and Perpetration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wachs

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A substantial amount of research has revealed that cyberbully-victims have more emotional and behavioral problems than either cyberbullying victims or perpetrators. However, until now, little research has been conducted into the factors that contribute to the interplay between cyberbullying victimization and perpetration. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between cyberbullying victimization, perpetration, and two emotional components of alexithymia, namely difficulties in identifying and describing one’s own feelings. Self-report questions were administered to 1549 adolescents between 12 and 18 years old (M = 14.51; SD = 1.68; 42.1% (n = 652 male from Germany and Thailand. Results showed that cyberbullying victimization and alexithymia are associated with cyberbullying perpetration. Moreover, alexithymia mediated the associations between cyberbullying victimization and adolescents’ cyberbullying perpetration. Consequently, we suggest that the ability to describe and identify one’s own feelings might be important for understanding the link between cyberbullying, victimization, and perpetration. The results may help develop prevention and intervention programs focused on reducing cyberbullying.

  5. Longitudinal dating violence victimization among Latino teens: Rates, risk factors, and cultural influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A; Cotignola-Pickens, Heather M

    2016-02-01

    This study uses data from two waves of the Dating Violence Among Latino Adolescents (DAVILA) study and focuses on the 1) rates of dating violence victimization by gender, 2) risk of experiencing dating violence victimization over time, 3) association of dating violence victimization with other forms of victimization, and 4) association of immigrant status, acculturation, and familial support with dating violence victimization over time. A total of 547 Latino adolescents, from across the USA, aged 12-18 at Wave 1 participated in both waves of the study. Rates of dating violence were around 19% across waves. Dating violence at Wave 1 and non-dating violence victimization were associated with an elevated risk of dating violence during Wave 2. Cultural factors did not distinguish between dating violence trajectories, except for immigrant status and familial support being associated with no dating violence victimization. Overall, dating violence affects a large number of Latino teens and tends to continue over time. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Association between bullying victimization and substance use among college students in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca Sánchez, Francisco; Navarro Zaragoza, Javier; Luna Ruiz-Cabello, Aurelio; Falcón Romero, María; Luna Maldonado, Aurelio

    2016-06-14

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the prevalence and association between victimization and substance use among the university population in the southeast of Spain in a sample of 543 randomly selected college students (405 females and 138 males with an average age of 22.6 years). As a cross-sectional study, data was collected through an anonymous survey to assess victimization and drug use over the last 12 months. Results indicated that 62.2% of college students reported bullying victimization and 82.9% consumed some type of psychoactive substance, and found a statistically significant association between both variables measured. Additionally, logistic regression analysis confirmed the association between psychoactive substance use and different types of victimization. Our findings confirm the need for prevention to prevent this relation between victimization and substance use.

  7. College student engaging in cyberbullying victimization: cognitive appraisals, coping strategies, and psychological adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyunjoo; Dancy, Barbara L; Park, Chang

    2015-06-01

    The study's purpose was to explore whether frequency of cyberbullying victimization, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies were associated with psychological adjustments among college student cyberbullying victims. A convenience sample of 121 students completed questionnaires. Linear regression analyses found frequency of cyberbullying victimization, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies respectively explained 30%, 30%, and 27% of the variance in depression, anxiety, and self-esteem. Frequency of cyberbullying victimization and approach and avoidance coping strategies were associated with psychological adjustments, with avoidance coping strategies being associated with all three psychological adjustments. Interventions should focus on teaching cyberbullying victims to not use avoidance coping strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Situational Context of Adolescent Homicide Victimization in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Lu-Anne; Seedat, Mohamed; Nel, Juan

    2018-02-01

    Although studies have described the incidence and epidemiology of adolescent homicide victimization in South Africa, little is known about the situational contexts in which they occur. This study aimed to describe the victim, offender, and event characteristics of adolescent homicide and to generate a typology based on the particular types of situational contexts associated with adolescent homicide in South Africa. Data on homicides among adolescents (15-19 years) that occurred in Johannesburg (South Africa) during the period 2001-2007 were obtained from the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System (NIMSS) and police case records. Of the 195 cases available for analysis, 81% of the victims were male. Most of the offenders were male (90%), comprising of strangers (42%) and friends/acquaintances (37%). Arguments (33%) were the most common precipitating circumstances, followed by revenge (11%), robbery (11%), and acts of vigilantism/retribution for a crime (8%). Through the use of cluster analysis, the study identified three categories of adolescent homicide: (a) male victims killed by strangers during a crime-related event, (b) male victims killed by a friend/acquaintance during an argument, and (c) female victims killed by male offenders. The results can serve to inform the development of tailored and focused strategies for the prevention of adolescent homicide.

  9. Future Orientation among Students Exposed to School Bullying and Cyberbullying Victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara B. Låftman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Future orientation can be defined as an individual’s thoughts, beliefs, plans, and hopes for the future. Earlier research has shown adolescents’ future orientation to predict outcomes later in life, which makes it relevant to analyze differences in future orientation among youth. The aim of the present study was to analyze if bullying victimization was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting a pessimistic future orientation among school youth. To be able to distinguish between victims and bully-victims (i.e., students who are both bullies and victims, we also took perpetration into account. The data were derived from the Stockholm School Survey performed in 2016 among ninth grade students (ages 15–16 years (n = 5144. Future orientation and involvement in school bullying and in cyberbullying were based on self-reports. The statistical method used was binary logistic regression. The results demonstrated that victims and bully-victims of school bullying and of cyberbullying were more likely to report a pessimistic future orientation compared with students not involved in bullying. These associations were shown also when involvement in school bullying and cyberbullying were mutually adjusted. The findings underline the importance of anti-bullying measures that target both school bullying and cyberbullying.

  10. Poly-victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population: Prevalence, social and psychological profile, and detrimental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossige, Svein; Huang, Lihong

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on poly-victimization, with the aim of providing a realistic estimation of the prevalence of lifetime victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population (ages 18-19 years). Based upon the concept from previous research, we applied measures of child poly-victimization on Norwegian data obtained from a national youth survey in 2015 (N = 4,531) to arrive at an estimation of its prevalence. We used variables that measure individual characteristics such as gender and educational aspiration and socio-economic factors such as parents' education level and home economic situation to derive a social and psychological profile of victimization and poly-victimization among young people. Finally, we estimated the effects of poly-victimization on mental health such as symptoms of depression, anxiety and trauma. Our study identified a poly-victimization prevalence of 8.6% among young people, i.e. they were exposed to three of all four forms of violence investigated by our study: non-physical violence, witnessing violence against parents, physical violence and sexual abuse. Adolescents of poly-victimization are six times more likely to report depression and anxiety and trauma when compared with those without victimization. Poly-victimization is a phenomenon that heavily burdens many young people across many national contexts. Poly-victims clearly tend to develop depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms. The early detection of sexual abuse, physical violence, and bullying victimization is of critical importance and preventive measures could consider addressing family factors through parental educational programs.

  11. Poly-victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population: Prevalence, social and psychological profile, and detrimental effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein Mossige

    Full Text Available This study focuses on poly-victimization, with the aim of providing a realistic estimation of the prevalence of lifetime victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population (ages 18-19 years.Based upon the concept from previous research, we applied measures of child poly-victimization on Norwegian data obtained from a national youth survey in 2015 (N = 4,531 to arrive at an estimation of its prevalence. We used variables that measure individual characteristics such as gender and educational aspiration and socio-economic factors such as parents' education level and home economic situation to derive a social and psychological profile of victimization and poly-victimization among young people. Finally, we estimated the effects of poly-victimization on mental health such as symptoms of depression, anxiety and trauma.Our study identified a poly-victimization prevalence of 8.6% among young people, i.e. they were exposed to three of all four forms of violence investigated by our study: non-physical violence, witnessing violence against parents, physical violence and sexual abuse. Adolescents of poly-victimization are six times more likely to report depression and anxiety and trauma when compared with those without victimization.Poly-victimization is a phenomenon that heavily burdens many young people across many national contexts. Poly-victims clearly tend to develop depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms. The early detection of sexual abuse, physical violence, and bullying victimization is of critical importance and preventive measures could consider addressing family factors through parental educational programs.

  12. Standard of victims and injuries in trauma with motorcycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Soares Simoneti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Brazil, at least one in nine hospitalized patients was a traffic accident victim. The impact of these numbers implies economic, social and administrative repercussions. Objectives: To raise epidemiological data on victims of traumatic events with motorcycles forwarded to a tertiary level hospital (Conjunto Hospitalar de Sorocaba to describe the injuries and discuss the impact on quality of life of these victims. Method: Prospective study that included trauma victims from accidents with motorcycles, between April and September, 2013, referenced to a tertiary level hospital. For data collection, standardized form was drawn up with trauma scores, mechanism of trauma and description of injuries. Results: A total of 143 patients were analyzed: 83.2% men and 16.8% women, with the predominance of the age group between 20–29 years (49.6%. The use of helmets was reported in 98.5% of cases. The male gender accounted for about 86% in the category of the motorcycle driver. The main mechanisms of trauma were collisions (72.7%, followed by drop of motorcycle (15.4%. The most frequent injuries were bruises (72.9% and cut- blunt injuries (13.8%. The most affected anatomical segments were the arms and legs, representing 83% of the cases. All patients were assessed for Revised Trauma Score (RTS; victims with RTS=12 amounted to 97.9%, suggesting relatively light gravity of most patients. Conclusions: The findings of this study, as the standard majority of victims of accidents involving motorcycles are compatible with the literature. The dominance of the economically active population of the country in as costly and disabling events such as motorcycle accidents implies the need for new strategies in traffic management and public health.

  13. Influence of the Bullying Victim Position on Aggressive Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseynova E.A.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a study involving 150 adolescents aged 15 to 18 years the emphasis was placed on the connection of the bullying victim position and level of aggressiveness. The following methods were used: a questionnaire, a method of sociometry, Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Bass-Perry aggressive behavior diagnosis questionnaire. We tested the assumption that the people occupying the bullying victim position, have a high level of aggression. Analysis of the results showed that the greatest number of subjects play the role of the aggressor / victim, and most often, adolescents face verbal type of bullying. The study analyzed the gender aspect of bullying. It was concluded that the group of bullying aggressors / victims is the most difficult and dangerous for the development of the personality of a teenager. Also, we made conclusions about poor awareness about bullying in teachers and tolerance to bullying in the educational environment. Due to the above study, we identified and describe the mechanisms of formation and manifestation of aggressive behaviors in bullying

  14. Peer Victimization Experienced by Children and Adolescents Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouwenberg, Maartje; Rieffe, Carolien; Theunissen, Stephanie C. P. M.; de Rooij, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Victimization is a relatively common, yet serious problem, with potentially severe consequences for children's psychosocial and academic functioning. Children who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (DHH) may be at a higher risk for victimization than hearing children. The aims of the present study were to compare DHH and hearing children on i) self-reported experiences of victimization and ii) associations between victimization, parental- and child variables. In total 188 children (mean age 11;11 years) from the Netherlands and Dutch-speaking part of Belgium participated in the study. No difference between DHH and hearing children were found on general experiences of victimization. However, differences between the groups were found on specific forms of experienced victimization and on the associations between victimization and parental variables. For DHH children, parental sensitivity and parents who challenge their DHH children to become competent in the practical, emotional, cognitive and social domain is associated with them being less victimized. For hearing children at this age these relations were reversed, absent or more complex. Finally, DHH children in special schools were more victimized than DHH children in regular schools. It can be concluded that parents can play an important role in reducing social problems experienced by DHH children and young adolescents. PMID:23284923

  15. Violent Victimization in the Prison Context: An Examination of the Gendered Contexts of Prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, Brent; Daigle, Leah E; Hawk, Shila R; Daquin, Jane C

    2016-07-01

    Currently there are few published, multilevel studies of physical assault victimization of prisoners. This study builds on the extant research by utilizing a nationally representative sample of correctional facilities (n = 326) and inmates (n = 17,640) to examine the impacts of a large set of theoretically and empirically derived individual- and contextual-level variables on prison victimization, including how the gendered context of prison impacts victimization. Results support the lifestyles/routine activities approach. Inmates who were charged with a violent offense, were previously victimized, were smaller in size, were not married, were without a work assignment, misbehaved, did not participate in programs, used alcohol or drugs, and those who had a depression or personality disorder were more likely to be victimized. In addition, the data suggest that 8% of the variance in victimization is due to the prison context. Prisons with high proportions of violent offenders, males, inmates from multiracial backgrounds, and inmates with major infractions had increased odds of victimization. Moreover, the sex-composition of the prison has significant main and interactive effects predicting victimization. Specifically, we find that the effects of being convicted of a drug crime, drug use, military service, major infractions, and diagnosed personality disorders are all gendered in their impacts on victimization. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Peer victimization during adolescence: concurrent and prospective impact on symptoms of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapinski, Lexine A; Araya, Ricardo; Heron, Jon; Montgomery, Alan A; Stallard, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Peer victimization is ubiquitous across schools and cultures, and has the potential for long-lasting effects on the well-being of victims. To date, research has focused on the consequences of peer victimization during childhood but neglected adolescence. Peer relationships and approval become increasingly important during adolescence; thus, peer victimization at this age may have a damaging psychological impact. Participants were 5030 adolescents aged 11-16 recruited from secondary schools in the UK. Self-report measures of victimization and symptoms of anxiety and depression were administered on three occasions over a 12-month period. Latent growth models examined concurrent and prospective victimization-related elevations in anxiety and depression symptoms above individual-specific growth trajectories. Peer victimization was associated with a concurrent elevation of 0.64 and 0.56 standard deviations in depression and anxiety scores, respectively. There was an independent delayed effect, with additional elevations in depression and anxiety (0.28 and 0.25 standard deviations) six months later. These concurrent and prospective associations were independent of expected symptom trajectories informed by individual risk factors. Adolescent peer victimization was associated with immediate and delayed elevations in anxiety and depression. Early intervention aimed at identifying and supporting victimized adolescents may prevent the development of these disorders.

  17. Alcohol Policies and Alcohol-Involved Homicide Victimization in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Timothy S; Xuan, Ziming; Coleman, Sharon M; Lira, Marlene C; Hadland, Scott E; Cooper, Susanna E; Heeren, Timothy C; Swahn, Monica H

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between the alcohol policy environment and alcohol involvement in homicide victims in the United States, overall and by sociodemographic groups. To characterize the alcohol policy environment, the presence, efficacy, and degree of implementation of 29 alcohol policies were used to determine Alcohol Policy Scale (APS) scores by state and year. Data about homicide victims from 17 states from 2003 to 2012 were obtained from the National Violent Death Reporting System. APS scores were used as lagged exposure variables in generalized estimating equation logistic regression models to predict the individual-level odds of alcohol involvement (i.e., blood alcohol concentration [BAC] > 0.00% vs. = 0.00% and BAC ≥ 0.08% vs. ≤ 0.079%) among homicide victims. A 10 percentage point increase in APS score (representing a more restrictive policy environment) was associated with reduced odds of alcohol-involved homicide with BAC greater than 0.00% (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.89, 95% CI [0.82, 0.99]) and BAC of 0.08% or more (AOR = 0.91, 95% CI [0.82, 1.02]). In stratified analyses of homicide victims, more restrictive policy environments were significantly protective of alcohol involvement at both BAC levels among those who were female, ages 21-29 years, Hispanic, unmarried, victims of firearm homicides, and victims of homicides related to intimate partner violence. More restrictive alcohol policy environments were associated with reduced odds of alcohol-involved homicide victimization overall and among groups at high risk of homicide. Strengthening alcohol policies is a promising homicide prevention strategy.

  18. Examining the Coping Response to Peer Relational Aggression Victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Methods. Grounded theory techniques were used to gain an understanding of the victimization experience and the coping responses used. Findings. A theory of coping after experiencing peer relational aggression victimization was generated. Girls voiced feelings of hurt and anger after the experience and expressed the following ways of coping as a result: distancing from others, retaliation against the aggressor, discussing their feelings with friends and family, writing their feelings down, and/or confronting the aggressor. Clinical Implications. Nurses should be aware of the phenomenon and asses, for incidences of relational aggression victimization so that they may provide strategies to assist the adolescent and her family with positive coping mechanisms in order to prevent maladaptive responses.

  19. Resilience to bullying victimization: the role of individual, family and peer characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapouna, Maria; Wolke, Dieter

    2013-11-01

    Little research attention has been paid to bullied students who function better than expected and are therefore defined as "resilient". The present longitudinal study aimed to identify individual, family and peer factors that predict fewer than expected levels of depression and delinquency following experiences of bullying victimization. The sample consisted 3,136 adolescents. Self-report data were used to measure bullying victimization at age 13 and 14 and depression and delinquency at age 14. We examined the effects of gender, self-esteem, social alienation, parental conflict, sibling victimization and number of close friends on levels of emotional and behavioral resilience following bullying victimization. The resilience measures were derived by regressing depression and delinquency scores at age 14 on levels of bullying victimization at age 13 and 14, respectively. The adolescents who reported low depression despite frequently experiencing bullying tended to be male, had higher self-esteem, were feeling less socially alienated, were experiencing low levels of conflict with parents and were not victimized by siblings. On the other hand, the adolescents who reported low delinquency despite frequently experiencing bullying tended to be female, had higher self-esteem, were experiencing low levels of conflict with parents, were not victimized by siblings and had less close friends. Relationships with parents and siblings continue to play some role in promoting emotional and behavioral adjustment among victims of bullying and, therefore, interventions are more likely to be successful if they target both the psychosocial skills of adolescents and their relationships with their family. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence and patterns of traditional bullying victimization and cyber-teasing among college population in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Caravaca Sánchez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional bullying victimization and the growing number of cyber-teasing victims during the last decade is a major public health concern. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between students’ experiences of traditional bullying victimization and cyber-teasing and the sociodemographic characteristics of a sample composed of college students in Spain. Methods In the fall of 2014, 543 sixth-grade students from southeast Spain completed an anonymous survey on their experience of both kinds of to ascertain any relationship with sociodemographic characteristics, including gender, nationality, economic problems, family conflicts and alcohol and cannabis use. Results A total of 62.2 % of the students reported to having suffered traditional bullying victimization and 52.7 % reported that they had been subject to cyber-teasing. 40.7 % of participants had been victims of traditional bullying victimization and cyber-teasing in the past 12 months. Most (65.7 % of the victims were at the same time cyber-teasing victims; 77.6 % of cyber-teasing victims were also victimized in a different manner. Traditional bullying victimization was higher among boys than among girls, while female students were more likely to have been subjected to cyber-teasing than male students. The characteristics that most heavily influenced suffering traditional bullying victimization were economic problems, family conflicts and cannabis use. Conclusions Our findings confirm overlapping results in the risk factors that influence suffering both traditional bullying victimization and cyber-teasing: there was a strong influence of certain sociodemographic and individual characteristics of the college population, suggesting that specific policies are necessary to improve college students’ environment in Spain.

  1. Revictimization of Victims Sexually Abused by Women

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    Małgorzata H. Kowalczyk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Victims experiencing the sexual abuse are surviving not only physical injustice but above all deep traumas, which very often in different forms, are keeping them company through the entire life. Quite often at establishing different results a sex is underestimated for the perpetrator. Therefore knowing the problem of sexual abuses from a perspective of close as well as distant results is very important in the event that a woman was a perpetrator of these acts – mother, minder. In the present article based on analysis of literature, a problem of results of the sexual abuse was presented at victims which experienced these behaviours on the part of women. In order to draw up discussing the survived specificity by victims was both of sex of the trauma connected with the sexual application as well as close and distant consequences of these events in the form prime victimisation and revictimisation for figure being noticeable in the adult life of psychosexual disorders and social shortages. Amongst the consequence isolated traumatic factors are deserving the particular attention about dynamic character which are provoking the appearance of many symptoms characteristic of children which experienced the sexual violence. Recalled factors it: traumatic sexualisation of child, the betrayal, the stigmatization and the helplessness. The specificity of these factors results from the fact that they will leave distant “tracks” in the psyche and they can undergo the additional reinforcement if a woman is a perpetrator of the sexual violence. It results from frequent attitudes of “denying” towards the sexual violence applied by women. In the study they pointed also at one of possible consequences of the revictimisation process copying patterns of behaviour connected with the sexual exploitation of children in their more late life by victims is which. This process resulting from the alternating identification of the perpetrator and the victim is starting

  2. A 10-year follow-up study of violent victimization in first episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeveld, Johannes; Bjørkly, Stål; Evensen, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Violent victimization in persons with severe mental illness has long-term adverse consequences. Little is known about the long-term prevalence of victimization in first episode psychosis, or about factors affecting victimization throughout the course of illness. To assess the prevalence of violent...

  3. Constructing victims and perpetrators of rape in the advice column

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    The findings suggest that there has been a decrease in explicit victim blaming after 1994 .... functions: to accuse the woman and to excuse the man. ..... effort into getting this matter corrected,” attributing implicit blame to the victim for the assault ...

  4. Do Personality and Organizational Politics Predict Workplace Victimization? A Study among Ghanaian Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amponsah-Tawiah, Kwesi; Annor, Francis

    2017-03-01

    Workplace victimization is considered a major social stressor with significant implications for the wellbeing of employees and organizations. The aim of this study was to examine the influences of employees' personality traits and organizational politics on workplace victimization among Ghanaian employees. Using a cross-sectional design, data were collected from 631 employees selected from diverse occupations through convenience sampling. Data collection tools were standardized questionnaires that measured experiences of negative acts at work (victimization), the Big Five personality traits, and organizational politics. The results from hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that among the personality traits neuroticism and conscientiousness had significant, albeit weak relationships with victimization. Organizational politics had a significant positive relationship with workplace victimization beyond employees' personality. The study demonstrates that compared with personal characteristics such as personality traits, work environment factors such as organizational politics have a stronger influence on the occurrence of workplace victimization.

  5. The dilemmas of victim positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2015-01-01

    Based on a conceptualization of bullying and relational aggression in groups as an effect of social dynamics rather than individual deficits – this article reflects upon some of the intricate mechanisms and dilemmas involved in victim positioning. Victims of bullying and relational aggression often....... The hopes of (eventual) social belonging may in that sense work paradoxically as a strong agent in the denial of oppression and marginalization. The article is theoretically informed by poststructuralist conceptualizations and grounded in cases of bullying and marginalization (one of them involving rape......). One case is taken from the empirical data produced by the author and a research project on bullying among children (eXbus: Exploring Bullying in School). Two other cases are borrowed from publications of respectively B. Davies from Australia and A. Evaldsson from Shweden. The article opens insights...

  6. Observer perceptions of moral obligations in groups with a history of victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Ruth H; Branscombe, Nyla R

    2012-07-01

    The authors investigated when observers assign contemporary group members moral obligations based on their group's victimization history. In Experiment 1, Americans perceived Israelis as obligated to help Sudanese genocide victims and as guiltworthy for not helping if reminded of the Holocaust and its descendants were linked to this history. In Experiment 2, participants perceived Israelis as more obligated to help and guiltworthy for not helping when the Holocaust was presented as a unique victimization event compared with when genocide was presented as pervasive. Experiments 3 and 4 replicated the effects of Experiment 1 with Cambodians as the victimized group. Experiment 5 demonstrated that participants perceived Cambodians as having more obligations under high just world threat compared with low just world threat. Perceiving victimized groups as incurring obligations is one just world restoration method of providing meaning to collective injustice.

  7. Psychological characteristics of victim behavior of women in situations of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakulich T.M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with analysis of psychological factors and characteristics of victim behavior of women in situations of domestic violence. We considered prerequisites for the formation of victim behavior in women, motives and psychological implication of protective mechanisms of women in a dysfunctional family. It is noted that the victimized women are inclined to sacrifice their "I" in order to be accepted by family system and this characteristic belongs to the general features of victimization, which manifests itself in disadaptive behavior of subjects. We revealed and described the psychological characteristics of victim behavior of women in situations of domestic violence, including neuroticism, affective functions disorder, state of learned helplessness, cognitive disorders, deformed self-perception and low self-esteem, proneness to conflict and contradictions, post-traumatic stress disorder, boundary violations of “Ego”, traumatic childhood experiences and behaviors of parents.

  8. Rates of peer victimization in young adolescents with ADHD and associations with internalizing symptoms and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Mehari, Krista R; Langberg, Joshua M; Evans, Steven W

    2017-02-01

    The purposes of the present study were to: (1) describe rates of peer victimization in young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, (2) evaluate the association between types of peer victimization (i.e., physical, relational, and reputational) and internalizing problems (i.e., anxiety, depression, and self-esteem), and (3) examine whether associations between victimization and internalizing problems differ for males or females. Participants were 131 middle-school students (ages 11-15 years, 73 % male, 76 % White) diagnosed with ADHD who completed ratings of victimization, anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. Over half of the participants (57 %) reported experiencing at least one victimization behavior at a rate of once per week or more, with higher rates of relational victimization (51 %) than reputational victimization (17 %) or physical victimization (14 %). Males reported experiencing more physical victimization than females, but males and females did not differ in rates of relational or reputational victimization. Whereas relational and physical victimization were both uniquely associated with greater anxiety for both males and females, relational victimization was associated with greater depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem for males but not females. These findings indicate that young adolescents with ADHD frequently experience peer victimization and that the association between victimization and internalizing problems among young adolescents with ADHD differs as a result of victimization type, internalizing domain, and sex.

  9. Bullying Victimization and Suicide Ideation and Behavior Among Adolescents in Europe: A 10-Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, Shira; Brunstein Klomek, Anat; Apter, Alan; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Hoven, Christina W; Sarchiapone, Marco; Balazs, Judit; Kereszteny, Agnes; Brunner, Romuald; Kaess, Michael; Bobes, Julio; Saiz, Pilar; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Banzer, Raphaela; Corcoran, Paul; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Postuvan, Vita; Podlogar, Tina; Sisask, Merike; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2017-08-01

    To examine risk and protective factors moderating the associations between three types of bullying victimization (physical, verbal, and relational bullying) with suicide ideation/attempts in a large representative sample of European adolescents. We analyzed cross-sectional data on 11,110 students (mean age = 14.9, standard deviation = .89) recruited from 168 schools in 10 European Union countries involved in the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe study. A self-report questionnaire was used to measure victimization types, depression, anxiety, parental and peer support, and suicide ideation and attempts. For each outcome, we applied hierarchical nonlinear models controlling for sociodemographics. Prevalence of victimization was 9.4% physical, 36.1% verbal, and 33.0% relational. Boys were more likely to be physically and verbally victimized, whereas girls were more prone to relational victimization. Physical victimization was associated with suicide ideation, and relational victimization was associated with suicide attempts. Other associations between victimization and suicidality (ideation/attempts) were identified through analysis of interactions with additional risk and protective factors. Specifically, verbal victimization was associated with suicide ideation among adolescents with depression who perceived low parental support. Similarly, low peer support increased the associations between verbal victimization and suicide ideation. Verbal victimization was associated with suicide attempts among adolescents with anxiety who perceived low parental support. Findings support the development of prevention strategies for adolescent victims of bullying who may be at elevated risk for suicide ideation/behavior, by taking into account gender, the type of bullying, symptomatology, and availability of interpersonal support. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Continued Bullying Victimization from Childhood to Young Adulthood: a Longitudinal Study of Mediating and Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendgen, Mara; Poulin, François

    2018-01-01

    Bullying in schools has severe consequences for victims' adjustment. It is unclear, however, whether victims of school bullying continue to be victimized in other contexts during adulthood. Mediating processes through which peer victimization in school increases the risk of revictimization in adulthood, as well as protective factors, also need to be explored. This study examined 1) the longitudinal association between peer victimization in school and victimization at work during young adulthood, 2) the predictive link of reactive and proactive aggression and anxious-withdrawn behavior in childhood with victimization in school and at the workplace, 3) the potential mediating role of depression symptoms, and 4) the potential protective effect of friendship support. The study included 251 participants (61% females) followed from age 12 to age 22. Participants reported about their victimization in school from ages 12 to 17 and their workplace victimization at age 22. They also reported about their depression-related thoughts and feelings and about friendship support. Teachers rated reactive and proactive aggression and anxiety-withdrawal at age 12. Structural equation modeling revealed that anxiety-withdrawal at age 12 predicted peer victimization in school, which in turn predicted later victimization at work. The latter association was partially mediated by increased depression symptoms. However, friendship support counteracted (via a main effect) the link between school victimization and subsequent depression symptoms. Bullying victims may benefit from interventions aimed at reducing depression symptoms and fostering social skills to establish supportive friendships to help avoid the generation of new interpersonal stress such as workplace victimization in adulthood.

  11. A conceptual framework for understanding the association between school bullying victimization and substance misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Davis, Jordan P; Sterzing, Paul R; Yoon, Jina; Choi, Shinwoo; Smith, Douglas C

    2014-11-01

    This article reviews current research findings and presents a conceptual framework for better understanding the relationship between bullying victimization (hereafter referred to as victimization) and substance misuse (hereafter referred to as SM) among adolescents. Although victimization and SM may appear to be separate problems, research suggests an intriguing relationship between the 2. We present a brief, empirical overview of the direct association between victimization and adolescent SM, followed by a proposed conceptual framework that includes co-occurring risk factors for victimization and SM within family, peer, and school and community contexts. Next, we discuss potential mediators linking victimization and SM, such as internalizing problems, traumatic stress, low academic performance, and school truancy and absence. We then identify potential moderating influences of age, gender and sex, social supports, and school connectedness that could amplify or abate the association between victimization and SM. Finally, we discuss practice and policy implications. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Bullying Victimization Among School-Aged Immigrant Youth in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Brandy R; Vaughn, Michael G; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Sharon

    2016-03-01

    Bullying is a serious sociodevelopmental issue associated with a range of short- and long-term problems among youth who are bullied. Although race and ethnicity have been studied, less attention has been paid to examining prevalence and correlates of bullying victimization among immigrant youth. Using data from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (N = 12,098), we examined prevalence and correlates of bullying victimization among U.S. immigrant youth. After controlling for several demographic variables, findings indicate that immigrant youth are more likely to experience bullying victimization than native-born youth. Furthermore, immigrant youth who experience bullying victimization were more likely to report interpersonal, socioemotional, health, and substance use problems. Given the greater risk and unique challenges experienced by immigrant youth, prevention and intervention programs may need to be tailored to their specific needs and circumstances. Further research is needed to understand the specific factors and mechanisms involved in bullying victimization among immigrant youth. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Poly-victimization and trajectories of binge drinking from adolescence to young adulthood among serious juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jordan P; Dumas, Tara M; Berey, Benjamin; Merrin, Gabriel J; Tan, Kevin; Madden, Danielle R

    2018-05-01

    Justice involved youth exposed to multiple forms of victimization (i.e., poly-victimization) may be at risk for long term substance use problems and difficulty in self-regulation, placing them at higher risk of long-term problematic behaviors. This study empirically identifies victimization classifications in a sample of justice involved youth and how long-term binge drinking is related to victimization experiences. We further sought to understand how self-regulatory abilities such as impulse control and emotion regulation effect emergent profiles and binge drinking trajectories. Based on a sample of 1354 justice involved youth from 15 to 25 years old, classes of victimization were extracted. Emergent classes were examined in relationship to their binge drinking trajectories using latent growth models. Finally, self-regulation was examined as a predictor of binge drinking trajectories across emergent classes. The analyses indicated three classes of victimization: poly-victimized, indirectly victimized, and lowly victimized. Latent growth models revealed that the poly-victimized class had significantly steeper growth in binge drinking as compared to the indirect and low victimized patterns. Impulse and emotional regulation both significantly decelerated binge drinking only for the indirect victimization group. Findings highlight the need to focus on poly-victimization in understanding binge drinking trajectories as well as the role impulse control and emotional regulation play among justice involved youth. Findings are discussed through the lens of adolescent development, coping strategies, and early traumatic experiences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Peer Victimization among Classmates-Associations with Students' Internalizing Problems, Self-Esteem, and Life Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Låftman, Sara B; Modin, Bitte

    2017-10-13

    Bullying is a major problem in schools and a large number of studies have demonstrated that victims have a high excess risk of poor mental health. It may however also affect those who are not directly victimized by peers. The present study investigates whether peer victimization among classmates is linked to internalizing problems, self-esteem, and life satisfaction at the individual level, when the student's own victimization has been taken into account. The data were derived from the first wave of the Swedish part of Youth in Europe Study (YES!), including information on 4319 students in grade 8 (14-15 years of age) distributed across 242 classes. Results from multilevel analyses show a significant association between classes with a high proportion of students being victimized and higher levels of internalizing problems, lower self-esteem, and lower life satisfaction at the student level. This association holds when the student's own victimization has been taken into account. This suggests that peer victimization negatively affects those who are directly exposed, as well as their classmates. We conclude that efficient methods and interventions to reduce bullying in school are likely to benefit not only those who are victimized, but all students.

  15. Factors associated with bullying victimization among Korean adolescents

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    Seo HJ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hye-Jin Seo,1 Young-Eun Jung,2 Moon-Doo Kim,2 Won-Myong Bahk3 1Department of Psychiatry, Ansan Shinwoo Hospital, Ansan, 2Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, 3Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea Objectives: The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of bullying victimization among Korean adolescents by sex and age and to investigate the correlates of this phenomenon. Methods: Of 3,200 eligible subjects, 2,936 (91.8% adolescents were recruited from four elementary schools (6th grade, age range: 10–12 years, five middle schools (8th grade, age range: 13–14 years, and three high schools (10th grade, age range: 15–17 years located in the Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, Republic of Korea. This study used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics and experiences of bullying victimization and employed the Korean form of the Children’s Depression Inventory to evaluate depressive symptoms. Results: Of the total sample of 2,936 students, 1,689 were boys (57.5% and 1,247 were girls (42.5%. The prevalence of bullying victimization by age group was as follows: 10–12 years, 9.5%; 13–14 years, 8.3%; and 15–17 years, 6.4%. A significant difference in the prevalence of bullying victimization was observed by sex (boys: 45.0%, girls: 55.0%. Overall, the prevalence decreased with age. After adjusting for age and sex, bullying victimization was significantly associated with lower socioeconomic status (odds ratio [OR] =1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–2.67, lower than average academic achievement (OR =1.77; 95% CI 1.25–2.50, more depressive symptoms (OR =1.88; 95% CI 1.38–2.55, and poorer perceived relationship with parents (OR =1.46; 95% CI 1.00–2.14. Conclusion: Our findings will provide researchers and public health practitioners with data on the prevalence of

  16. Social relationship changes in victim families due to a social disaster: Experiences of student victims' families in the South Korean Sewol ferry disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun Mi; Jeong, Ansuk; Ha, Jung Hee; Kim, Eun Young

    2017-01-01

    The Sewol ferry incident on April 16, 2014 in South Korea claimed the lives of 304 individuals, including about 250 high school students on a school trip. The majority of South Korean citizens were watching live updates on the capsized Sewol ferry, anxiously watching on TV how the vessel fully sunk over time. They were desperately hoping for the rescue of the survivors inside. However, their anxiety had become shock, anger, and helplessness, and the disaster has become a daunting, collective trauma, not just to the victims and their families, but also to the citizens who were exposed only through the media. In this study, we interviewed victims' families two years after the incident. We explored how they have experienced changes in their social relationships. We conducted semi-structured interviews of 54 family members of the student victims. We qualitatively examined the data applying a thematic analysis. Changes in their social relationships were largely divided into the relationships in the proximal environment and the relationships in distal environments. The former included subcategories such as immediate family, coworkers, friends, relatives, survived students and their parents, and concepts corresponding to each subcategory. The latter involved subcategories such as neighbors, other citizens, the victims' family committee, government, and society, and concepts subject to each subcategory. Based on these findings, rehabilitation plans for trauma victims and their families should take into account the significant changes in their social relationships and the further consequences of those changes.

  17. Social relationship changes in victim families due to a social disaster: Experiences of student victims' families in the South Korean Sewol ferry disaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mi Cho

    Full Text Available The Sewol ferry incident on April 16, 2014 in South Korea claimed the lives of 304 individuals, including about 250 high school students on a school trip. The majority of South Korean citizens were watching live updates on the capsized Sewol ferry, anxiously watching on TV how the vessel fully sunk over time. They were desperately hoping for the rescue of the survivors inside. However, their anxiety had become shock, anger, and helplessness, and the disaster has become a daunting, collective trauma, not just to the victims and their families, but also to the citizens who were exposed only through the media. In this study, we interviewed victims' families two years after the incident. We explored how they have experienced changes in their social relationships. We conducted semi-structured interviews of 54 family members of the student victims. We qualitatively examined the data applying a thematic analysis. Changes in their social relationships were largely divided into the relationships in the proximal environment and the relationships in distal environments. The former included subcategories such as immediate family, coworkers, friends, relatives, survived students and their parents, and concepts corresponding to each subcategory. The latter involved subcategories such as neighbors, other citizens, the victims' family committee, government, and society, and concepts subject to each subcategory. Based on these findings, rehabilitation plans for trauma victims and their families should take into account the significant changes in their social relationships and the further consequences of those changes.

  18. Attitudes and Beliefs About the Acceptability and Justness of Peer Victimization of Lesbian and Gay University Students.

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    Bradbury, Stacey L; Davis, Alan K; Leith, Jaclyn; Hinman, Nova; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Burmeister, Jacob M; Dworsky, Dryw

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the acceptability and justness of anti-lesbian and gay victimization among 473 undergraduates. Participants were assigned to one of four vignette conditions that described an individual being verbally victimized in a typical college setting. Each vignette varied by victim gender (male; female) and sexual orientation (lesbian/gay; heterosexual). Participants completed background questionnaires and a measure that assessed the acceptability of the actions described in the vignettes. Overall, victimization was rated as unacceptable regardless of the sexual orientation and gender of the victim. However, participants rated the victimization of lesbian and gay students as more harmful and unjust than victimization of heterosexual students. Although the acceptability of anti-lesbian and gay victimization was low, 3%-12% of participants rated anti-lesbian and gay victimization as slightly or completely acceptable and just. Given that victimization is associated with long-term negative outcomes, college administrators should consider interventions aimed at decreasing the acceptability of victimization among students.

  19. Prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder among victims of violence applying for state compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Maarten; Winkel, Frans Willem; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2010-09-01

    Many studies have focused on the predictive value of victims' emotions experienced shortly after violence exposure to identify those vulnerable for development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, many victims remain unidentified during the initial recovery phase, yet may still be highly in need of psychological help after substantial time since victimization has passed. Professionals involved in the settlement of civil damage claims filed by victims of violence may play an important role in referring victims with current psychological problems to appropriate treatment services, as they are likely to maintain relations with victims until all compensation possibilities have been exhausted. As an exploratory examination of this topic, the current study investigates the potential utility of file characteristics as predictors of chronic PTSD among 686 victims of violence who had applied for state compensation with the Dutch Victim Compensation Fund (DVCF) in 2006. Identification of significant predictors is preceded by estimating prevalence rates of PTSD. Results indicate that approximately 1 of 2 victims applying for state compensation in the Netherlands still have PTSD many years after victimization and claim settlement. Age, female sex, time since victimization, acquaintance with the perpetrator, violence-related hospitalization, and compensation for immaterial damage prove to be predictive of PTSD, although female sex and immaterial damage compensation fail to reach significance after adjusting for recalled peritraumatic distress severity. Implications for policy practice as well as strengths and limitations of the study are discussed.

  20. The Effects of a Skill-Based Intervention for Victims of Bullying in Brazil

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    Jorge Luiz da Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study’s objective was to verify whether improved social and emotional skills would reduce victimization among Brazilian 6th grade student victims of bullying. The targets of this intervention were victimized students; a total of 78 victims participated. A cognitive-behavioral intervention based on social and emotional skills was held in eight weekly sessions. The sessions focused on civility, the ability to make friends, self-control, emotional expressiveness, empathy, assertiveness, and interpersonal problem-solving capacity. Data were analyzed through Poisson regression models with random effects. Pre- and post-analyses reveal that intervention and comparison groups presented significant reduced victimization by bullying. No significant improvement was found in regard to difficulties in practicing social skills. Victimization reduction cannot be attributed to the program. This study contributes to the incipient literature addressing anti-bullying interventions conducted in developing countries and highlights the need for approaches that do not exclusively focus on the students’ individual aspects.

  1. The Effects of a Skill-Based Intervention for Victims of Bullying in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jorge Luiz; de Oliveira, Wanderlei Abadio; Braga, Iara Falleiros; Farias, Marilurdes Silva; da Silva Lizzi, Elisangela Aparecida; Gonçalves, Marlene Fagundes Carvalho; Pereira, Beatriz Oliveira; Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi

    2016-10-26

    This study's objective was to verify whether improved social and emotional skills would reduce victimization among Brazilian 6th grade student victims of bullying. The targets of this intervention were victimized students; a total of 78 victims participated. A cognitive-behavioral intervention based on social and emotional skills was held in eight weekly sessions. The sessions focused on civility, the ability to make friends, self-control, emotional expressiveness, empathy, assertiveness, and interpersonal problem-solving capacity. Data were analyzed through Poisson regression models with random effects. Pre- and post-analyses reveal that intervention and comparison groups presented significant reduced victimization by bullying. No significant improvement was found in regard to difficulties in practicing social skills. Victimization reduction cannot be attributed to the program. This study contributes to the incipient literature addressing anti-bullying interventions conducted in developing countries and highlights the need for approaches that do not exclusively focus on the students' individual aspects.

  2. Bullies and Victims: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omizo, Michael M.; Omizo, Sharon A.; Baxa, Gari-Vic C. O.; Miyose, Ross J.

    2006-01-01

    This study presents the results of a phenomenological study with sixteen elementary school children identified as bullies or victims. Implications for school counselors and educators are also discussed.

  3. The rarity of "unusual" [corrected] dispositions of victim bodies: staging and posing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppel, Robert D; Weis, Joseph G

    2004-11-01

    The act of leaving a victim's body in an unusual position is a conscious criminal action by an offender to thwart an investigation, shock the finder and investigators of the crime scene, or give perverted pleasure to the killer. The unusual position concepts of posing and staging a murder victim have been documented thoroughly and have been accepted by the courts as a definable phenomenon. One staging case and one posing case are outlined and reveal characteristics of those homicides. From the Washington State Attorney General's Homicide Investigation and Tracking System's database on murder covering the years 1981-2000 (a total of 5,224 cases), the relative frequency of unusual body dispositions is revealed as a very rare occurrence. Only 1.3% of victims are left in an unusual position, with 0.3% being posed and 0.1% being staged. The characteristics of these types of murders also set them apart: compared to all other murders, in staged murders the victims and killers are, on average, older. All victims and offenders in the staged murders are white, with victims being disproportionately white in murders with any kind of unusual body disposition. Likewise, females stand out as victims when the body is posed, staged, or left in other unusual positions. Whereas posed bodies are more likely to include sexual assault, often in serial murders, there is no evidence of either in the staged cases. Lastly, when a body is left in an unusual position, binding is more likely, as well as the use of more "hands on" means of killing the victim, such as stabbing or cutting weapons, bludgeons, ligatures, or hands and feet.

  4. Maternal depression and bullying victimization among adolescents: Results from the 2004 Pelotas cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo, Catarina Machado; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Barros, Fernando C; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2017-10-01

    Maternal depression impacts on several detrimental outcomes during a child's life course, and could increase their risk of victimization. This longitudinal study examined the association between antenatal maternal depression, postnatal trajectories, and current maternal depression and offspring bullying victimization at 11 years. We included 3,441 11-year-old adolescents from the 2004 Pelotas Cohort Study. Antenatal maternal depression, postnatal trajectories, and current maternal depression data were assessed during the follow-up waves. Bullying victimization was self-reported by the adolescents. We used ordinal logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), for the association between maternal depression and offspring bullying victimization. The most prevalent type of bullying was verbal victimization (37.9%). We observed a positive association between antenatal maternal depression, postnatal trajectories, and current maternal depression and physical bullying victimization. Maternal mood symptoms during pregnancy were associated with physical (OR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.11-1.53), verbal (OR = 1.29, 95%CI = 1.12-1.49), and any victimization (OR = 1.22, 95%CI = 1.05-1.41). Severe current maternal depression was associated with physical (OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.10-1.62), social manipulation (OR = 1.29, 95%CI = 1.08-1.53), attacks on property (OR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.08-1.57) and any victimization (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 1.12-1.56). Regarding maternal depression trajectories, the "chronic-high" group was associated with higher risk of social manipulation, attacks on property and any victimization, than the "low" group. Our results strengthen the evidence of association between maternal depression and offspring bullying victimization, and physical victimization appears to be the main component. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and to elucidate the theoretical pathways for this longitudinal association. © 2017 Wiley

  5. Nurses respond to Hurricane Hugo victims' disaster stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, S; Hardin, S B; Johnson, M

    1990-06-01

    Hugo, a class IV hurricane, hit South Carolina September 22, 1989, and left behind a wake of terror and destruction. Sixty-one nursing students and five faculty were involved in disaster relief with families devastated by the hurricane. A review of the literature led these authors to propose a formulation of the concept of disaster stress, a synthesis of theories that explains response to disaster as a crisis response, a stress response, or as posttraumatic stress. With the concept of disaster stress serving as a theoretical foundation, the nurses observed, assessed, and intervened with one population of hurricane Hugo victims, noting their immediate psychosocial reactions and coping mechanisms. Victims' reactions to disaster stress included confusion, irritability, lethargy, withdrawal, and crying. The most frequently observed coping strategy of these hurricane Hugo victims was talking about their experiences; other coping tactics involved humor, religion, and altruism.

  6. Victims’ rights are human rights: The importance of recognizing victims as persons

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    Wemmers Jo-Anne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author argues that victims’ rights are human rights. Criminal law typically views victims as witnesses to a crime against the state, thus shutting them out of the criminal justice process and only allowing them in when they are needed to testify. This is a major source of dissatisfaction for victims who seek validation in the criminal justice system. Victims are persons with rights and privileges. Crimes constitute violations of their rights as well as acts against society or the state. While human rights instruments, such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, do not mention crime victims specifically, a number of rights are identified, which can be viewed from the victim’s perspective. As individuals with dignity, victims have the right to recognition as persons before the law. However, such rights are only meaningful if they can be enforced.

  7. The criminal victimization of children and women in international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Jan; Kury, Helmut; Redo, Slawomir; Shea, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this article we will present an overview of the results of the national and international crime victims surveys regarding the distribution of victimization according to age and gender with a focus on violent crime. The results show a consistent inversed relationship between age and

  8. Same- and Other-Sex Victimization : Are the Risk Factors Similar?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sainio, Miia; Veenstra, René; Huitsing, Gijs; Salmivalli, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Risk factors for same- and other-sex victimization were examined in a longitudinal data set involving 9- to 14-year-old students. The findings regarding same-sex victimization supported the view that bullies select personally and interpersonally vulnerable targets in order to maximize their gains in

  9. Old Wine, New Bottle? Comparing Interpersonal Bullying and Cyberbullying Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Allison Ann; Hutzell, Kirsten L.

    2017-01-01

    This study uses a large nationally representative sample to compare and contrast interpersonal bullying and cyberbullying by asking the following questions: (a) How does the prevalence of cyberbullying victimization compare with the prevalence of interpersonal bullying victimization? (b) How does the relationship between demographic predictors and…

  10. Stalking Victimization among College Women and Subsequent Help-Seeking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhi, Eric R.; Clayton, Heather; Surrency, Heather Hepler

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the incidence of stalking victimization and subsequent help-seeking behaviors among college women. Participants and Methods: A stratified random sample of college women (N = 391) completed an anonymous Internet-based questionnaire in spring 2006. Results: One-fifth of women reported stalking victimization while…

  11. Men's Perceptions of an Acquaintance Rape: The Role of Relationship Length, Victim Resistance, and Gender Role Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, D J; Mitchell, Damon; Grossi, Laura

    2015-08-01

    Sexual aggression is a persistent and prevalent issue in the United States, which often results in a number of psychological, emotional, and physical consequences for victims. The current study examined whether the length of relationship between the victim and perpetrator, level of victim resistance, and observers' gender role attitudes play a role in observers' perceptions of an alleged sexual assault. Participants included 297 male college students from a public university in the Northeastern United States. Contrary to hypotheses, there were no significant effects for length of relationship on participants' attributions. Relative to no resistance, verbal and physical strategies by the victim predicted higher levels of victim credibility, perpetrator culpability, and perpetrator guilt, as well as lower levels of victim culpability and perceived victim pleasure. Endorsement of traditional adversarial sex role beliefs and hostile sexist attitudes, as opposed to egalitarian attitudes, were associated with the attribution of less credibility to the victim, perceived victim trauma, perpetrator culpability, perpetrator guilt, and shorter recommended prison sentences, as well as greater victim culpability and perceived victim pleasure. Laypersons' perceptions of sexual assault merit further study, as they are relevant to juror decision making and third party responses to sexual victimization (e.g., peer support for victim) and can contribute to the secondary victimization and recovery of survivors of sexual assault. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Family, Teachers, and Peers: Keys for Supporting Victims of Bullying

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    María Jesús Cava

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to analyse the differences in psychological adjustment in victims of bullying as a function of the quality of their relationships with parents, teachers, and peers. More specifically, it was compared four psychological adjustment indicators (self-esteem, depressive mood, loneliness, and stress perception in victims with good or bad communication with his/her mother, good or bad communication with his/her father, high or low perception of teacher´s help, and high or low identification with their peer group. The initial sample was composed of 1795 adolescents aged from 11 to 18 years old (M = 14.2, SD = 1.68. Results indicated better psychological adjustment in victims with better relationships with their parents, teachers, and peers than in victims with worse quality relationships. These results are discussed, and their implications in the development of intervention programmes on school violence are pointed out.

  13. Compensation for the victims of violence from the public funds

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    Mrvić-Petrović Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Serbia there is still neither a public fund for the compensation of the victims of the violent crime, nor do the until now undertaken reform of the penal law respect in the necessary measure the interests of the victims. The documents of the UN, the European Council and the EU contain guidelines for the foundation of funds for the public compensation of the victims of violence, and the comparative European experiences indicate by their action the existing system of social protection is completed. The authors analyses the reasons for the introduction of these funds and they plead for the compensation of the victims from public funds to be enabled for the reason of justice and humanity, according to the idea of prosperity within a state of prosperity. That reason should have priority in relation to other, pragmatic, criminal-political reasons and the obligation of the domestic legislation to (formally adjust itself to the European standards.

  14. Is it better to be average? High and low performance as predictors of employee victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jaclyn M; Patel, Pankaj C; Raver, Jana L

    2014-03-01

    Given increased interest in whether targets' behaviors at work are related to their victimization, we investigated employees' job performance level as a precipitating factor for being victimized by peers in one's work group. Drawing on rational choice theory and the victim precipitation model, we argue that perpetrators take into consideration the risks of aggressing against particular targets, such that high performers tend to experience covert forms of victimization from peers, whereas low performers tend to experience overt forms of victimization. We further contend that the motivation to punish performance deviants will be higher when performance differentials are salient, such that the effects of job performance on covert and overt victimization will be exacerbated by group performance polarization, yet mitigated when the target has high equity sensitivity (benevolence). Finally, we investigate whether victimization is associated with future performance impairments. Results from data collected at 3 time points from 576 individuals in 62 work groups largely support the proposed model. The findings suggest that job performance is a precipitating factor to covert victimization for high performers and overt victimization for low performers in the workplace with implications for subsequent performance.

  15. Resisting rape: the effects of victim self-protection on rape completion and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tark, Jongyeon; Kleck, Gary

    2014-03-01

    The impact of victim resistance on rape completion and injury was examined utilizing a large probability sample of sexual assault incidents, derived from the National Crime Victimization Survey (1992-2002), and taking into account whether harm to the victim followed or preceded self-protection (SP) actions. Additional injuries besides rape, particularly serious injuries, following victim resistance are rare. Results indicate that most SP actions, both forceful and nonforceful, reduce the risk of rape completion, and do not significantly affect the risk of additional injury.

  16. Relationships between bullying victimization psychological distress and breakfast skipping among boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Willmore, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to further explore the association between bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in children and adolescents. Compared to the previous study, we have used a larger and representative sample of middle and high school students, examined the effect of gender, different forms (physical, verbal, theft/vandalism and cyber) and severity of bullying on breakfast eating behaviour. Data from students (2286 boys and 2859 girls) aged 11 to 19 years (mean ± SD age: 14.6 ± 1.9 years) from the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS) were analysed using self-reports of being bullied, diet, psychological distress, demographics, socio-economic status, weight status, and substance use. Results revealed greater odds of breakfast skipping in girl victims of physical, verbal, and cyber bullying, and in boy victims of verbal and cyber bullying. There was a dose-response relationship between experience of both school and cyber bullying victimization and breakfast skipping behaviour for both genders. Mediation analysis indicated that psychological distress fully mediated the relationship between both verbal and physical bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in girls, and partially mediated the relationship between verbal bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in boys. Psychological distress also partially mediated the link between cyber bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in both boys and girls. These results corroborate previous findings on the association between bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in children and adolescents. The strong and consistent associations with different forms of bullying victimization, the dose-response relationship, and the mediating role of psychological distress suggest a causal relationship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adolescent predictors of young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization among Australian youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current paper was to examine the adolescent risk and protective factors (at the individual, peer group, and family level) for young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Methods Data from 2006 (Grade 9) to 2010 (young adulthood) were analyzed from a community sample of 927 Victorian students originally recruited as a state-wide representative sample in Grade 5 (age 10–11 years) in 2002 and followed up to age 18–19 years in 2010 (N = 809). Participants completed a self-report survey on adolescent risk and protective factors and traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, and young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Results As young adults, 5.1% self-reported cyber-bullying perpetration only, 5.0% cyber-bullying victimization only, and 9.5% reported both cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. In fully adjusted logistic regression analyses, the adolescent predictors of cyber-bullying perpetration only were traditional bullying perpetration, traditional bullying perpetration and victimization, and poor family management. For young adulthood cyber-bullying victimization only, the adolescent predictor was emotion control. The adolescent predictors for young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization were traditional bullying perpetration and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, possible targets for prevention and early intervention are reducing adolescent involvement in (traditional or cyber-) bullying through the development of social skills and conflict resolution skills. In addition, another important prevention target is to support families with adolescents to ensure they set clear rules and monitor adolescent’s behavior. Universal programs that assist adolescents to develop skills in emotion control are warranted. PMID:24939014

  18. Low Self-Control and the Victim-Offender Overlap: A Gendered Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexon, Jamie L; Meldrum, Ryan C; Piquero, Alex R

    2016-07-01

    The overlap between victimization and offending is well documented. Yet, there have been fewer investigations of the reasons underlying this relationship. One possible, but understudied, explanation lies with Gottfredson and Hirschi's arguments regarding self-control. The current study adds to this line of inquiry by assessing whether low self-control accounts for the victim-offender overlap in a sample of young adults and whether self-control accounts for the observed overlap similarly across gender. Results from a series of bivariate probit regression models indicate that low self-control is positively related to both victimization and offending. However, only among males does low self-control account for a substantive portion of the victim-offender overlap. Limitations of the study and implications and directions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. The Influence of Gender Ideology, Victim Resistance, and Spiking a Drink on Acquaintance Rape Attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, D J; Mitchell, Damon; Smith, Danielle

    2016-02-24

    The current study examined observer's attributions about the victim and perpetrator of an alleged acquaintance rape. Participants included 504 college students from a public university in the northeastern United States who read a brief crime report and completed a series of questionnaires for course credit. While men tended to attribute more blame to the victim than women, gender ideology emerged as a stronger predictor of rape attributions, and some types of sexist beliefs were associated with greater victim blaming and others with less victim blaming. Endorsement of hostile sexism, rape myths, and heterosexual intimacy was generally associated with the attribution of greater victim culpability, as well as less perpetrator culpability, perpetrator criminality, and victim credibility. However, complementary gender differentiation was associated with greater perpetrator culpability and criminality, while protective paternalism was associated with greater victim credibility. Observers attributed lower victim culpability and greater perpetrator criminality when the victim's drink was spiked, and attributed greater perpetrator culpability when the victim verbally resisted the perpetrator's advances. Given the implications that observer attitudes can have on professional and personal support for survivors, as well as juror decision making, the ongoing examination of the complex interplay between the person and situational factors affecting attributions of rape is essential. Sexual assault prevention programs may also benefit from a psychoeducational component that targets reducing traditional gender ideology. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Prevalence of facial trauma and associated factors in victims of road traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, Lorena Marques; Cavalcante, Gigliana M S; Lima, Monalyza M S M; Madruga, Renata C R; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; d'Avila, Sérgio

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of facial trauma among victims of road traffic accidents and investigate factors associated with it. A cross-sectional study was carried out using the medical and dental charts of 2570 victims of road traffic accidents with bodily and/or facial injuries between 2008 and 2011. Sociodemographic variables of the victims and characteristics of the accidents and injuries were evaluated. Statistical analyses included the χ(2) test as well as the Poisson univariate and multivariate regression analyses for the determination of the final hierarchical model. The prevalence of facial injuries was 16.4%. Most of the victims were male. Among the victims with facial injuries, 44.3% had polytrauma to the face. The prevalence of facial injuries was high among accidents that occurred at night (Prevalence Ratio (PR), 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-1.84; P = .007) and victims up to 9 years of age (PR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.03-5.17; P = .041). Moreover, the prevalence of facial injuries was lower among victims of motorcycle accidents than victims of automobile accidents (PR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.44-0.89; P = .001). The prevalence of facial injuries was high in this study and was significantly associated with the place of residence, time of day, age group, and type of accident. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of police on crime, disorder and victim precaution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.; Koning, P.W.C.

    2009-01-01

    Using individual data from a large-scale Dutch crime victimization survey, we are able to expand the analysis of the effect of police on crime to crimes types that do not easily find their way into police statistics, and to public disorder and victim precaution. To address heterogeneity and

  2. Victimization by Bullying and Physical Symptoms among South Korean Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyeon

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between victimization by bullying and physical symptoms among South Korean school children. Data were analyzed from a nationally representative sample of 2006 schoolchildren across South Korea aged 9-17 years. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the associations between victimization by…

  3. A Longitudinal Investigation of Peer Sexual Harassment Victimization in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2009-01-01

    The current study describes longitudinal trends in sexual harassment by adolescent peers and highlights gender, pubertal status, attractiveness, and power as predictors of harassment victimization. At the end of 5th, 7th, and 9th grades, 242 adolescents completed questionnaires about sexual harassment victimization, pubertal status, and perceived…

  4. Neighborhood, Family and Individual Influences on School Physical Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Few studies on the correlates of school violence include school and neighborhood influences. We use ecological systems theory and social disorganization theory to simultaneously incorporate neighborhood (e.g., concentrated poverty, residential instability, and immigrant concentration), school, family, and individual predictors of physical school victimization longitudinally among a large socio-economically and ethnically diverse (49% Hispanic; 34% African American) sample of 6 and 9 year olds (49% female) from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). These children were followed up at Wave II at ages 8 and 11 (n=1425). Results of Hierarchical Generalized Linear Models reveal neighborhood residential instability increases school victimization net of family and individual correlates. Furthermore, cross-level interactions were also supported where residential family mobility has a stronger risk influence in areas of high residential instability. Also, the influence of residential family mobility is decreased in areas with higher levels of immigrant concentration. We also found cross-context connections where parent-to-child aggression in the home is connected to a higher risk of victimization at school. The role of neighborhood and family residential instability on victimization warrants further research. PMID:23263822

  5. Human trafficking for organ removal in India: a victim-centered, evidence-based report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiani-Saberi, Debra A; Raja, Kallakurichi Rajendiran; Findley, Katie C; Kerketta, Ponsian; Anand, Vijay

    2014-02-27

    Enhancements in the national transplant law to prohibit commercial transplants in India have curbed the trade. Yet, the human rights abuse of human trafficking for organ removal (HTOR) continues in various transplant centers throughout India. Beginning in September 2010 until May 2012, in-depth interviews were conducted with 103 victims of HTOR in India in which victims described their experiences of a commercial kidney removal in compelling detail. Victims were located in Tamil Nadu, and reference is made to the broader study that included 50 additional victims in small towns and villages in West Bengal and Karnataka. Fourteen cases (14%) in Tamil Nadu and an additional 20 cases (40%) from West Bengal and Karnataka occurred between 2009 to May 2012. The cases in Tamil Nadu ranged in age from 19 to 55 years, with an average age of 33 years in Erode and 36 years in Chennai. Fifty-seven percent of the victims in Erode are female, and 87% of the victims in Chennai are female. Twelve percent of the individuals were widowed or abandoned, 79% were married, and 91% were parents with an average of two kids. Of those interviewed, 28% had no formal education, 19% had some primary schooling, 22% had some secondary schooling, and no individuals reported schooling above high school. All victims interviewed lived in abject poverty with monthly income levels well below the national average. The majority of victims reported long lasting health, economic, social, and psychological consequences. No matter the reason expressed for an organ sale, all victims reported that they would not have agreed to the organ removal if their economic circumstances were not so dire. One hundred percent of the victims interviewed expressed that they need assistance to cope with these consequences. Human trafficking for an organ removal continues in private transplant centers throughout India, service to foreign patients is ongoing, and victims' consequences are long lasting. A rights-based response

  6. Nurses' Perceptions of Victims of Human Trafficking in an Urban Emergency Department: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Elizabeth; Dowdell, Elizabeth B

    2017-12-15

    Human trafficking is estimated to surpass the drug trade as the leading illegal industry in the world. According to a recent study, over 87.8% of trafficking survivors came into contact with a healthcare professional while they were enslaved and were not identified as a victim of human trafficking. The aims of this study are to understand the perceptions of emergency nurses about human trafficking, victims of violence, and prostitution. A qualitative, descriptive study using a semi-structured interview approach was done with ten registered nurses in a large, urban Emergency Department in the northeastern U.S. Interviews were recorded and transcribed; thematic analysis was performed. Six themes emerged from the interviews including, "human trafficking exists in the patient population" yet no nurse has screened or treated a victim; human trafficking victims are perceived to be "young, female, and foreign born"; all of the emergency nurses reported having worked with or screened a victim of violence; victims of violence were viewed as patients who present as "sad and grieving"; prostitutes are seen as "hard and tough"; and emergency nurses did not have education on human trafficking victims' needs or resources. Emergency nurses should be more aware about victims of human trafficking. The media portrayal of human trafficking victims had influenced the nurses' perceptions of this population. Victims of violence are perceived to be very different from prostitutes, but there is a desire for education about violence as well as information about specific resources open to victims. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The English and Welsh perspective on legal aid for crime victims

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Louise

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give a brief overview of the English and Welsh Criminal Justice System and to explain the role of crime victims within it; to offer an insight into some of the soft law provisions that have been developed in England and Wales as alternatives to more formal provisions such as legal aid in offering protection and support to crime victims; and to question whether a right to legal aid to provide independent legal representation (ILR) for victims shou...

  8. Cyberbully and Victim Experiences of Pre-service Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Nilgün Tosun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of different types of cyber bullying, the ways in which cyber bullying occurred, whether the identity of cyber bullies were known, and reaction to being cyber bullied among pre-service teachers. Relationships between gender and likelihood of being a cyber bully/victim were also investigated. Using a questionnaire based on the Cyber Bully and Victim Scale developed by [1], males were found to engage in cyber bullying more than females. Cybe...

  9. Cyberbullying Victimization, Self-Esteem and Suicidal Ideation in Adolescence: Does Emotional Intelligence Play a Buffering Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extremera, Natalio; Quintana-Orts, Cirenia; Mérida-López, Sergio; Rey, Lourdes

    2018-01-01

    Cyberbullying has been linked to social, physical and psychological problems for adolescent victims but there has been no analysis of the specific role of emotional intelligence in protecting against the negative symptoms associated with cyberbullying victimization. This study examined the interaction between cyberbullying victimization and emotional intelligence (EI) as predictors of psychological maladjustment (operationalized as high suicidal ideation and low self-esteem) in 1,660 Spanish adolescents. We also investigated whether levels of EI moderated the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and mental health problems. The cyberbullying victimization x EI interaction contributed to variance in suicidal ideation and self-esteem in our sample of adolescent victims. Adolescent victims of cyberbullying with high EI scores reported lower suicidal ideation and higher self-esteem than their less emotionally intelligent counterparts. Thus, our data provide empirical support for theoretical and conceptual work connecting victimization, EI abilities and mental health associated with cyberbullying. This suggests that alone, but also in combination, EI may be particularly relevant in leading to increased levels of mental health issues in cyberbullying victims. Finally, the theoretical implications of our findings on the relationship between these variables and the mental health issues of adolescent victims of cyberbullying are discussed.

  10. The Role of Adolescent Victimization in Energy Drink Consumption: Monitoring the Future, 2010-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B; Leal, Wanda E; Posick, Chad; Vaughn, Michael G; Olivan, Myrah

    2018-05-21

    Energy drinks have been linked to a number of deleterious health outcomes among youth. Even so, the underlying risk factors for energy drink consumption among youth are less frequently examined. The present study examines the link between adolescent victimization experiences (i.e., property and violent victimization) and energy drink consumption among a nationally representative sample of adolescents. We employed the seven most recent cohorts (2010-2016) from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to acquire the U.S. Youths reported the extent to which they consumed energy drinks. Additionally, three indicators of property victimization and four indicators of violent victimization were available in the data. The findings reveal a significant dose-response relationship between energy drink consumption and victimization. This relationship was especially pronounced among females. For instance, more than 52% of females with the highest count of various violent victimization experiences consumed energy drinks, which was three times the rate of females who had no previous violent victimization experiences. Practitioners who interact with adolescent victims may probe for energy drink usage in addition to other addictive substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and drugs. Additional scrutiny may also be in order in regulating the amount of caffeine and sugar allowed in these beverages.

  11. Peer Victimization among Classmates—Associations with Students’ Internalizing Problems, Self-Esteem, and Life Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara B. Låftman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is a major problem in schools and a large number of studies have demonstrated that victims have a high excess risk of poor mental health. It may however also affect those who are not directly victimized by peers. The present study investigates whether peer victimization among classmates is linked to internalizing problems, self-esteem, and life satisfaction at the individual level, when the student’s own victimization has been taken into account. The data were derived from the first wave of the Swedish part of Youth in Europe Study (YES!, including information on 4319 students in grade 8 (14–15 years of age distributed across 242 classes. Results from multilevel analyses show a significant association between classes with a high proportion of students being victimized and higher levels of internalizing problems, lower self-esteem, and lower life satisfaction at the student level. This association holds when the student’s own victimization has been taken into account. This suggests that peer victimization negatively affects those who are directly exposed, as well as their classmates. We conclude that efficient methods and interventions to reduce bullying in school are likely to benefit not only those who are victimized, but all students.

  12. The aflatoxin-affair: the invisible victims of crime in the food-sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerschke-Risch Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aflatoxin affair is an example which can be assumed as a typical offence committed in the food sector in a globalized world. In 2013 mouldy Serbian feed was distributed by an international logistics company to Germany. The exceptional danger of aflatoxin infested feed is the carry over effect, which means that harmful substances devolve into animal products like milk. Generally speaking victims are identifiable persons who have been physically injured or suffer from financial losses or psychological damage. In contrast to e.g. victims of violence we know almost nothing about the effects of victimization as a result of offences committed in the food sector. The aim of this article is to show and discuss the possible effects of the aflatoxin scandal on consumers who have been victimized. As a result it suggests that victimization effects of offences related to food in general are ignored hitherto both by policy and criminologists.

  13. Reappraising the Impact of Offending on Victimization: A Propensity Score Matching Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posick, Chad

    2017-05-01

    Existing evidence clearly supports an empirical connection between offending and victimization. Often called the "victim-offender overlap," this relationship holds for both sexes, across the life course, and across a wide range of countries and cultural environments. In addition, the relationship is sustained regardless of the study sample and statistical methods applied in the analyses of the sample data. However, there has yet to be a study that examines this relationship for violent and property crime using quasi-experimental methods accounting for a wide range of potential confounders including individual differences and cultural contexts. This study subjects the victim-offender relationship to testing through propensity score matching for both violent and property crimes using an international dataset. The results show that previous violent and theft offending increases the odds of victimization when matching on individual and contextual factors. This finding supports previous literature and suggests that delinquent behavior may act as a "switch" that exposes one to subsequent violent and theft victimization.

  14. Sexual Violence Victimization and Associations with Health in a Community Sample of Hispanic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASILE, KATHLEEN C.; SMITH, SHARON G.; WALTERS, MIKEL L.; FOWLER, DAWNOVISE N.; HAWK, KATHRYN; HAMBURGER, MERLE E.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to add to the limited information currently available on circumstances of sexual violence victimization and associated negative health experiences among Hispanic women. Data come from a community sample of mostly Mexican women in an urban southwestern city. Household interviews were completed with a sample of 142 women during 3 months in 2010. Findings indicate that 31.2% of women reported rape victimization and 22.7% reported being sexually coerced in their lifetime. Victims of rape and/or sexual coercion were significantly more likely to report symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during their lifetime. Among victims whose first unwanted sexual experience resulted in rape and/or sexual coercion, perpetrators were almost always someone known to the victims, and were mostly family members or intimate partners, depending on the victim’s age. About one-fifth of victims were injured and 17.1% needed medical services. These findings suggest the need for more attention to the physical and mental health needs of sexually victimized Hispanic women. PMID:26752978

  15. Student Victimization in U.S. Schools: Results from the 2015 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. Stats in Brief. NCES 2018-106

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez, Christina; Lessne, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    Student victimization and school violence have been an ongoing cause of national concern, resulting in a concerted effort among educators, administrators, parents, and policymakers to determine the gravity of the issue and consider approaches to crime prevention. This Statistics in Brief presents estimates of student criminal victimization at…

  16. Characteristics of Brazilian Offenders and Victims of Interpersonal Violence: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Avila, Sérgio; Campos, Ana Cristina; Bernardino, Ítalo de Macedo; Cavalcante, Gigliana Maria Sobral; Nóbrega, Lorena Marques da; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the profile of Brazilian offenders and victims of interpersonal violence, following a medicolegal and forensic perspective. A cross-sectional and exploratory study was performed in a Center of Forensic Medicine and Dentistry. The sample was made up of 1,704 victims of nonlethal interpersonal violence with some type of trauma. The victims were subject to forensic examinations by a criminal investigative team that identified and recorded the extent of the injuries. For data collection, a specific form was designed consisting of four parts according to the information provided in the medicolegal and social records: sociodemographic data of the victims, offender's characteristics, aggression characteristics, and types of injuries. Descriptive and multivariate statistics using cluster analysis (CA) were performed. The two-step cluster method was used to characterize the profile of the victims and offenders. Most of the events occurred during the nighttime (50.9%) and on weekdays (66.3%). Soft tissue injuries were the most prevalent type (94.6%). Based on the CA results, two clusters for the victims and two for the offenders were identified. Victims: Cluster 1 was formed typically by women, aged 30 to 59 years, and married; Cluster 2 was composed of men, aged 20 to 29 years, and unmarried. Offenders: Cluster 1 was characterized by men, who perpetrated violence in a community environment. Cluster 2 was formed by men, who perpetrated violence in the familiar environment. These findings revealed different risk groups with distinct characteristics for both victims and offenders, allowing the planning of targeted measures of care, prevention, and health promotion. This study assesses the profile of violence through morbidity data and significantly contributes to building an integrated system of health surveillance in Brazil, as well as linking police stations, forensic services, and emergency hospitals.

  17. The Citizen-Victim: Expansion, Opening and Regulation Laws on Vulnerable Lives (Spain, 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gatti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Spain has enacted legislation that addresses victims of different kinds. From victims of ETA terrorist acts to others of varying origins, these laws addressed an ever broadening range of vulnerabilities for the average everyday individual. In this article, we are interested in discussing the emergence and increase of this kind of legislation, as a trend that promotes the construction of a new subjective type: the victim. Victims in contemporary societies seem to be gaining ground as central figures simultaneously, integrating themselves alongside the average citizen. We will analyze the broadening aspects of the Victims using three distinct stages: first focusing on their political nature, showing a breaking point with the monopoly of ETA victims in public perception, which led to progressive legislative awareness and concern of other kinds of victims. This became a ongoing political trigger. Secondly, broadening the definition of Victim brought it closer to situations, directly connected to “vulnerable citizens”. Lastly, addressing the category itself through a new expression of “citizen-victim”.

  18. Tracking Offenders: The Child Victim. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Donald A.; Sedgwick, Jeffrey L., Ed.

    This research focused on the criminal justice system's handling of offenders against children, comparing it with the processing of offenders against all victims. Data were obtained from California, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Utah, and Virginia for offenses against children and against all victims in the areas of kidnapping, sexual assault,…

  19. Acculturation and Dating Violence Victimization among Filipino and Samoan Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Do, Jane J.; Goebert, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    Dating violence victimization is an important public health issue. Recent studies on minority youths have found higher risks of dating violence victimization compared to White youths. This study examined the influence of acculturation components on youths' experiences of dating violence by utilizing data from a survey of 193 Samoan and Filipino…

  20. “It must be me” or “It could be them?” : The impact of the social network position of bullies and victims on victims' adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitsing, Gijs; Veenstra, René; Sainio, Miia; Salmivalli, Christina

    2012-01-01

    It was examined in this study whether the association between victimization and psychological adjustment (depression and self-esteem) is moderated by the classroom network position of bullies and victims. Multivariate multilevel regression analysis was used on a large sample representative of grades

  1. Victimization from bullying among school-attending adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Rudatsikira; Seter Siziya; Adamson Sinjani Muula

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Among school- attending adolescents, victimization from bullying is associated with anxiety, depression and poor academic performance. There are limited reports on victimization from bullying in Zambia; we therefore conducted this study to determine the prevalence and correlates for victimization from bullying among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in the country in order to add information on the body of knowledge on victimization from bullying. Methods: The 2004 Zambia Gl...

  2. Crime Victims Support System and Restorative Justice: Possible Implementation in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlinda Azman, PhD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Victims’ position is increasingly acknowledged in the criminal justice system across the world. Because of that, criminal justice systems in various countries slowly transform from focusing too much on the relationship between offenders and the legal system and to between the offenders and their victims. Several programs are highlighted such as victim-offender mediation, family group conferences, reparative orders and referral orders in this article. Findings from several studies support the effectiveness of the programs on both the victims and the offenders in terms of several measurements such as satisfaction and recidivism. Looking at this revolution, Malaysian academicians and professionals are beginning to recognize restorative justice as a possible revolution to its criminal justice system, but Malaysian criminal justice system first needs to strengthen or build components that support victims of crime, as this is one of the main principles of restorative justice. Currently, Malaysia still focuses on offenders and their relationship with legal system, but not much with their own victims (physical, emotional, and psychological consequences of the crime. Several possible issues before formal implementation of restorative justice are discussed. The issues (culture, training, and attitude of Malaysian people, including the victims, offenders, and those who work with them can influence the efficiency of restorative justice programs if not identified systematically. These issues can also be the possible research areas to be ventured in the future as these researches can help in implementation.

  3. The mediating role of shame in the relationship between childhood bullying victimization and adult psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strøm, Ida Frugård; Aakvaag, Helene Flood; Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Felix, Erika; Thoresen, Siri

    2018-01-01

    Background : Psychological distress following experiencing bullying victimization in childhood has been well documented. Less is known about the impact of bullying victimization on psychosocial adjustment problems in young adulthood and about potential pathways, such as shame. Moreover, bullying victimization is often studied in isolation from other forms of victimization. Objective : This study investigated (1) whether childhood experiences of bullying victimization and violence were associated with psychosocial adjustment (distress, impaired functioning, social support barriers) in young adulthood; (2) the unique effect of bullying victimization on psychosocial adjustment; and (3) whether shame mediated the relationship between bullying victimization and these outcomes in young adulthood. Method : The sample included 681 respondents (aged 19-37 years) from a follow-up study (2017) conducted via phone interviews derived from a community telephone survey collected in 2013. Results : The regression analyses showed that both bullying victimization and severe violence were significantly and independently associated with psychological distress, impaired functioning, and increased barriers to social support in young adulthood. Moreover, causal mediation analyses indicated that when childhood physical violence, sexual abuse, and sociodemographic factors were controlled, shame mediated 70% of the association between bullying victimization and psychological distress, 55% of the association between bullying victimization and impaired functioning, and 40% of the association between bullying victimization and social support barriers. Conclusions : Our findings support the growing literature acknowledging bullying victimization as a trauma with severe and long-lasting consequences and indicate that shame may be an important pathway to continue to explore. The unique effect of bullying victimization, over and above the effect of violence, supports the call to integrate the two

  4. Rape and Sexual Assault Victimization Among College-Age Females, 1995-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics DECEMBER 2014 Special Report NCJ 2484 71 Rape and Sexual Assault Victimization Among College-Age Females, 1995–2013 Sofi ... 18 to 24 had the highest rate of rape and sexual assault victimizations compared to females in ...

  5. Predictors of Traditional and Cyber-Bullying Victimization: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Secondary School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Tollit, Michelle; Kotevski, Aneta; Heerde, Jessica A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present article is to compare the individual, peer, family, and school risk and protective factors for both traditional and cyber-bullying victimization. This article draws on data from 673 students from Victoria, Australia, to examine Grade 7 (aged 12-13 years) predictors of traditional and cyber-bullying victimization in Grade 9 (aged 14-15 years). Participants completed a modified version of the Communities That Care youth survey. There were few similarities and important differences in the predictors of traditional and cyber-bullying victimization. For Grade 9 cyber-bullying victimization, in the fully adjusted model, having been a victim of traditional bullying in Grade 7 and emotional control in Grade 7 were predictors. For Grade 9 traditional bullying victimization, predictors were Grade 7 traditional bullying victimization, association with antisocial peers, and family conflict, with family attachment and emotional control marginally statistically significant. The use of evidence-based bullying prevention programs is supported to reduce experiences of both traditional and cyber-bullying victimization, as is the implementation of programs to assist students to regulate their emotions effectively. In addition, traditional bullying victimization may be reduced by addressing association with antisocial friends, family conflict, and bonding to families. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Non-governmental organizations assisting victims of crime in Belgrade: Survey results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milivojević Sanja K.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of survey regarding non-governmental organizations assisting victims of crime in Belgrade. The survey was completed at the end of 2002 for purposes of establishing a Victim Support Service in Serbia. In introduction authors give a short review of victim support services development in the World and the region, explaining the need for such service in Serbia, the subject and the aim of the article as well as the purpose of the survey. Second part of the paper contains the sample, methodology and the aim of the interview with NGO representatives. In the third section authors present the analysis of the survey data. Finally, in conclusion authors summarize the data and observed problems, suggestions for possible solution and directions of future development of services and organizations assisting victims of crime in Serbia.

  7. Restorative justice and the active victim: Exploring the concept of empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aertsen Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper departs from the observation that the victim image leading public discourse has transformed in recent years: increasingly victims reject the traditional victim label implying helplessness and dependency to adopt the image of the emancipated victim that wishes to participate in the criminal proceedings. Restorative justice at first sight provides an answer to these emancipated victims’ wishes, offering them participation in criminal proceedings. Yet, using the concept of empowerment as an example and the community psychology perspective as a theoretical reference, our analysis suggests that restorative justice uses a restricted definition of empowerment: it reduces empowerment to developing self-confidence and new understandings of the offence, neglecting the behavioural component of empowerment. This characteristic of restorative justice seems to deny victims’ capacities to promote social change and inhibit them from reaching true empowerment.

  8. Human Trafficking Victims versus Irregular Migrants. Challenges and Guidelines for the Attention and Protection of Foreigners Victims of Human Trafficking in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Cristina; Marinelli, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The text aims to identify aspects that should be considered in preparing the State’s institutions to effectively combat human trafficking of a transnational nature. It addresses four main issues. First, it notices the specific problems of foreign human trafficking victims, which could be confused or overlapped with other categories, such as migrant smuggling and illegal migrant status. Subsequently, it develops three fundamental arguments that give primacy to their status as victims of human ...

  9. Preventive Activities of Preliminary Investigation Bodies in Respect of Crime Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Timko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of the prevention of victimization by the investigation and inquiry divisions of the internal affairs bodies of the Russian Federation. It defines the main forms and methods of working with the victim during the investigation of a crime aimed at reducing the possibility of again becoming a victim of criminal assault. The organizational and legal directions of victimological prevention are analyzed, the necessity of developing effective mechanisms for assessing the activities of the units of internal affairs agencies in crime prevention is justified.

  10. 28 CFR Appendix to Subpart A - International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program (ITVERP); Chart of Expense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Terrorism Victim Expense... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Pt. 94, Subpt. A, App. Appendix to Subpart A—International Terrorism Victim Expense...

  11. A Latent Class Approach to Examining Forms of Peer Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Waasdorp, Tracy E.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in gender differences in the experience of various forms of peer victimization; however, much of the work to date has used traditional variable-centered approaches by focusing on scales or individual forms of victimization in isolation. The current study explored whether there were discrete groups of adolescents who…

  12. Employment Status and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder following Compensation Seeking in Victims of Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Maarten J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study was developed to explore the associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), level of compensation for pain and suffering, and employment status in a sample of victims of violence (n = 226) who had held a full-time job at time of victimization and had filed a claim with the Dutch Victim Compensation Fund (DVCF)…

  13. A pernicious cycle: Finding the pathways from child maltreatment to adolescent peer victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Dalhee; Yoon, Susan; Park, Jiho; Yoon, Miyoung

    2018-05-04

    The purpose of this study was to identify the pathways from childhood physical and sexual abuse to adolescent physical and sexual victimization by assessing behavior symptoms (both internalizing and externalizing) and peer popularity as potential mediating variables. The data derive from Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN), which tracks the consequences of child abuse and neglect using five study sites across the US. Child physical and sexual abuse was measured at age 12 using self-reports of life-time maltreatment experiences. Internalizing and externalizing symptoms were assessed at age 12 using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Peer popularity was assessed at age 14 by teachers. Peer victimization was assessed at age 16 using the modified version of the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire. The results indicated that physical abuse had no direct effect on either physical or sexual peer victimization, whereas sexual abuse had significant direct effect on both physical and sexual victimization. Assessed at age 12, children who had been physically or sexually maltreated were found to have higher levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms. These increased symptoms are associated with lower peer popularity at age 14, which in turn is associated with greater physical and sexual peer victimization at age 16. The findings suggest that multiple points for interventions may exist to disrupt the cycle of victimization. Early assessment and treatment for externalizing symptoms and for low peer popularity may be helpful in preventing physical peer victimization among adolescents who have been physically and/or sexually abused. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dissociation mediates the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences among early adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syudo Yamasaki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Peer victimization increases the risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms among clinical and general populations, but the mechanism underlying this association remains unclear. Dissociation, which is related to peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences, has been demonstrated as a significant mediator in the relation between childhood victimization and hallucinatory experience among adult patients with psychosis. However, no studies have examined the mediating effect of dissociation in a general early adolescent population. We examined whether dissociation mediates the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences among 10-year-old adolescents using a population-based cross-sectional survey of early adolescents and their main parent (Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey; N = 4478. We examined the mediating effect of dissociation, as well as external locus of control and depressive symptoms, on the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences using path analysis. The model assuming mediation effects indicated good model fit (comparative fit index = .999; root mean square error of approximation = .015. The mediation effect between peer victimization and hallucination via dissociation (standardized indirect effect = .038, p < .001 was statistically significant, whereas the mediation effects of depressive symptoms (standardized indirect effect = −.0066, p = 0.318 and external locus of control (standardized indirect effect = .0024, p = 0.321 were not significant. These results suggest that dissociation is a mediator in the relation between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences in early adolescence. For appropriate intervention strategies, assessing dissociation and peer victimization as they affect hallucinatory experiences is necessary.

  15. The toll of stalking: the relationship between features of stalking and psychopathology of victims.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, E.; Winkel, F.W.; Arensman, E.; Sheridan, L.; Freeve, A.

    2002-01-01

    Information on the psychological consequences of stalking on victims is scarce. The present study aimed to investigate whether stalking victims have a heightened prevalence of psychopathology and the extent to which symptom levels are associated with stalking features. Stalking victims (N = 241)

  16. Longitudinal pathways of sexual victimization, sexual self-esteem, and depression in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Berger, Anja

    2017-03-01

    This article presents a longitudinal analysis of the links between sexual assault victimization, depression, and sexual self-esteem by examining their cross-lagged paths among both men and women. Male and female college students (N = 2,425) in Germany participated in the study that comprised 3 data waves in their first, second, and third year of university, separated by 12-month intervals. Sexual assault victimization was assessed at Time 1 (T1) since the age of 14 and at Time 2 (T2) and Time 3 (T3) for the last 12 months. Depression and sexual self-esteem were measured at each wave. Random-intercept cross-lagged panel analyses, controlling for individual differences in depression and sexual self-esteem, showed that sexual assault at T1 predicted depression and lower sexual self-esteem at T2, and depression and lower self-esteem at T2 predicted sexual assault victimization at T3. In addition, significant paths were found from T1 depression to T2 sexual assault victimization and from T2 sexual assault victimization to depression at T3. Sexual victimization at T1 was indirectly linked to sexual victimization at T3 via depression at T2. Both depression and sexual self-esteem at T1 were indirectly linked to sexual victimization at T3. The paths did not differ significantly between men and women. Sexual assault victimization was shown to be a risk factor for both depression as a general mental health indicator and lowered sexual self-esteem as a specific outcome in the domain of sexuality. Moreover, depression and sexual self-esteem increased the vulnerability for sexual assault victimization, which has implications for prevention and intervention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The image of the family among the victims of rape in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houda Bouzidi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic clinic research showed that a highly traumatic event, such as rape, is able to upset the balance of the victim and her family. Indeed, as a result of rape, feeling like the shame, the guilt and the inability to cope with the each other’s gaze arise among families of the victims, particularly in some cultural contexts as is the case in Algeria. We recorded attitudes as the refusal and family abandonment among families of the victims, which made them more vulnerable and urged them to develop a chronic PTSD. It seems, in fact, that the negative attitudes of families are the cause of great suffering for the victims.  This is the finding that we made during our clinical work with a dozen victims of rape in Algeria. In this article, I try to identify and analyze, through the dreamlike stories provided by only three of these victims, in our clinical meetings, the multi-faceted or even images related to the representation of the family circle in the context of trauma.                                                                              Keywords: Rape, Victim, Family, Algerian Girl, Dream, Speech, Clinical Interview.

  18. Peer Victimization and Internalizing Symptoms in Middle School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Grills, Amie E.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships among peer victimization, global self-worth, social support, and internalizing behaviors (e.g., anxiety, social anxiety, and depression). Of particular interest were the potential mediating and moderating roles of global self-worth and social support in the anticipated relationships between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. All sixth grade children from a public middle school completed self-report measur...

  19. Male victims of sexual assault; 10 years' experience from a Danish Assault Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mie-Louise; Hilden, Malene

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to provide descriptive data regarding male victims of sexual assault seen at the Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen, Denmark. All 55 male victims attending the center in the time period of March 2001 until December 2010 underwent a standardized data collection. Data...... by another man is considered a taboo subject and it is likely that the dark figure of men exposed to sexual assault is much higher than it is for women. Strengthening our knowledge regarding male victims of sexual assault is necessary to improve both primary and secondary preventive measures in order to make...

  20. Cyberbullying Victimization, Self-Esteem and Suicidal Ideation in Adolescence: Does Emotional Intelligence Play a Buffering Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalio Extremera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyberbullying has been linked to social, physical and psychological problems for adolescent victims but there has been no analysis of the specific role of emotional intelligence in protecting against the negative symptoms associated with cyberbullying victimization. This study examined the interaction between cyberbullying victimization and emotional intelligence (EI as predictors of psychological maladjustment (operationalized as high suicidal ideation and low self-esteem in 1,660 Spanish adolescents. We also investigated whether levels of EI moderated the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and mental health problems. The cyberbullying victimization x EI interaction contributed to variance in suicidal ideation and self-esteem in our sample of adolescent victims. Adolescent victims of cyberbullying with high EI scores reported lower suicidal ideation and higher self-esteem than their less emotionally intelligent counterparts. Thus, our data provide empirical support for theoretical and conceptual work connecting victimization, EI abilities and mental health associated with cyberbullying. This suggests that alone, but also in combination, EI may be particularly relevant in leading to increased levels of mental health issues in cyberbullying victims. Finally, the theoretical implications of our findings on the relationship between these variables and the mental health issues of adolescent victims of cyberbullying are discussed.

  1. Cyberbullying Victimization, Self-Esteem and Suicidal Ideation in Adolescence: Does Emotional Intelligence Play a Buffering Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extremera, Natalio; Quintana-Orts, Cirenia; Mérida-López, Sergio; Rey, Lourdes

    2018-01-01

    Cyberbullying has been linked to social, physical and psychological problems for adolescent victims but there has been no analysis of the specific role of emotional intelligence in protecting against the negative symptoms associated with cyberbullying victimization. This study examined the interaction between cyberbullying victimization and emotional intelligence (EI) as predictors of psychological maladjustment (operationalized as high suicidal ideation and low self-esteem) in 1,660 Spanish adolescents. We also investigated whether levels of EI moderated the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and mental health problems. The cyberbullying victimization x EI interaction contributed to variance in suicidal ideation and self-esteem in our sample of adolescent victims. Adolescent victims of cyberbullying with high EI scores reported lower suicidal ideation and higher self-esteem than their less emotionally intelligent counterparts. Thus, our data provide empirical support for theoretical and conceptual work connecting victimization, EI abilities and mental health associated with cyberbullying. This suggests that alone, but also in combination, EI may be particularly relevant in leading to increased levels of mental health issues in cyberbullying victims. Finally, the theoretical implications of our findings on the relationship between these variables and the mental health issues of adolescent victims of cyberbullying are discussed. PMID:29623058

  2. Imaging findings of avalanche victims

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Alexandra B.; Grosse, Claudia A.; Anderson, Suzanne [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Diagnostic, Pediatric and Interventional Radiology, Berne (Switzerland); Steinbach, Lynne S. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Zimmermann, Heinz [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Trauma and Emergency Medicine, Berne (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    Skiing and hiking outside the boundaries remains an attractive wilderness activity despite the danger of avalanches. Avalanches occur on a relatively frequent basis and may be devastating. Musculoskeletal radiologists should be acquainted with these injuries. Fourteen avalanche victims (11 men and 3 women; age range 17-59 years, mean age 37.4 years) were air transported to a high-grade trauma centre over a period of 2 years. Radiographs, CT and MR images were prospectively evaluated by two observers in consensus. Musculoskeletal findings (61%) were more frequent than extraskeletal findings (39%). Fractures were most commonly seen (36.6%), involving the spine (14.6%) more frequently than the extremities (9.8%). Blunt abdominal and thoracic trauma were the most frequent extraskeletal findings. A wide spectrum of injuries can be found in avalanche victims, ranging from extremity fractures to massive polytrauma. Asphyxia remains the main cause of death along with hypoxic brain injury and hypothermia. (orig.)

  3. Differences in Bullying Victimization between Students with and without Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, George G.; Mantz, Lindsey S.; Glutting, Joseph J.; Yang, Chunyan; Boyer, Deborah E.

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence rates for bullying victimization among children with disabilities have varied greatly in the research literature. Two reasons for such variability were the focus of this study: (a) rates vary as a function of disability type, and (b) rates vary based on the bullying measure and criteria used to classify students as bullying victims. The…

  4. Consequences of bullying victimization in childhood and adolescence: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Norman, Rosana E; Suetani, Shuichi; Thomas, Hannah J; Sly, Peter D; Scott, James G

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify health and psychosocial problems associated with bullying victimization and conduct a meta-analysis summarizing the causal evidence. METHODS A systematic review was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, ERIC and PsycINFO electronic databases up to 28 February 2015. The study included published longitudinal and cross-sectional articles that examined health and psychosocial consequences of bullying victimization. All meta-analyses were based on quality-effects models. Evidence for causality was assessed using Bradford Hill criteria and the grading system developed by the World Cancer Research Fund. RESULTS Out of 317 articles assessed for eligibility, 165 satisfied the predetermined inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Statistically significant associations were observed between bullying victimization and a wide range of adverse health and psychosocial problems. The evidence was strongest for causal associations between bullying victimization and mental health problems such as depression, anxiety, poor general health and suicidal ideation and behaviours. Probable causal associations existed between bullying victimization and tobacco and illicit drug use. CONCLUSION Strong evidence exists for a causal relationship between bullying victimization, mental health problems and substance use. Evidence also exists for associations between bullying victimization and other adverse health and psychosocial problems, however, there is insufficient evidence to conclude causality. The strong evidence that bullying victimization is causative of mental illness highlights the need for schools to implement effective interventions to address bullying behaviours. PMID:28401049

  5. ‘Today I Speak’: Exploring How Victim-Survivors Use Reddit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tully O'Neill

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Digital platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook and online communities on reddit, are increasingly used by victim-survivors across the world to post about their experiences of sexual violence. Emerging research suggests a variety of reasons why victim-survivors discuss their experiences online. This article contributes to this developing area of research by exploring the underlying motivations for victim-survivors using an online rape survivor community on reddit.  This article questions how and why victim-survivors of sexual violence engage with digital technologies through content analysis of narratives posted to a public rape survivor forum on reddit. Overall, the study found that there are three primary motivators prompting survivors to access online communities: to find a supportive community; to seek advice; and for storytelling. The article uncovers some of the broader implications of online storytelling, suggesting that this is an important framework to consider online disclosures of sexual violence. Online communities like /r/rapecounseling might be conceptualised as spaces where counter-narratives of sexual violence are collectively shared.

  6. Questionnaire for the management of the victim of sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iztok Takač

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Caring for victims of sexual assault demands of the physician a precise physical examination, provision of evidence, psychological support and appropriate treatment. Because the majority of victims of sexual violence are women, we usually encounter these patients in gynecological clinics. If the evidence is collected and stored properly, with special forensic methods we can distinguish between any two persons in the world, except identical twins. Therefore, patient’s history and taking evidence is of utmost importance. In the case of sexual assault, infection with sexually transmitted diseases is possible, so they should be diagnosed and treated in time. The victim should be offered the use of emergency contraception, which is only effective in the first days after sexual assault. To make sure that each step of the examination is completed and all samplings are done in the correct order, it is useful to have a written questionnaire or a routine protocol. We describe stepby- step management procedures for victims of sexual assault, taking into consideration the victim’s history, physical examination, different samplings, and different emergency treatments.

  7. Status of dental health in chemical warfare victims: the case of Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaghi, Ahmad; Hoseinzade, Abolfath; Zamani, Elham; Araghizade, Habib Allah

    2012-01-01

    Little evidence is available regarding the dental health of victims of chemical warfare in Iran. Therefore, in this study, we examined the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (DMFT), community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN), and saliva secretion rate of chemical warfare victims living in the province of Isfahan in Iran. This case-control study was conducted with 300 chemical warfare victims as the treatment group and 300 age-matched individuals without exposure to chemical warfare as the control group. DMFT and CPITN indices and saliva secretion rate were measured and compared between the two groups. Chemical warfare victims had significantly higher scores than the control group for decayed teeth (4.25 ± 3.88 vs 3.52 ± 2.81; P=0.009), missing teeth (8.79 ± 9.3 vs 6.15 ± 8.43; Pwarfare victims was significantly lower than that in the control group (1.71 ± 0.05 vs 3.85 ± 1.95 cc/5 min; PChemical warfare victims have relatively poor dental/oral health. Chemical injury might cause a dysfunction in saliva secretion, with decrease in saliva secretion increasing the risk for tooth decay and periodontal disorders. Further research is required to find out the exact underlying mechanisms and the factors associated with poor dental/oral health in chemical warfare victims.

  8. Do You Love Me? Psychological Characteristics of Romance Scam Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, Monica T

    2018-02-01

    The online dating romance scam is an Advance Fee Fraud, typically conducted by international criminal groups via online dating sites and social networking sites. This type of mass-marketing fraud (MMF) is the most frequently reported type of MMF in most Western countries. This study examined the psychological characteristics of romance scam victims by comparing romance scam victims with those who had never been scammed by MMFs. Romance scam victims tend to be middle-aged, well-educated women. Moreover, they tend to be more impulsive (scoring high on urgency and sensation seeking), less kind, more trustworthy, and have an addictive disposition. It is argued here that these findings might be useful for those developing prevention programs and awareness campaigns.

  9. Cyberbullying Victimization in Adolescents as Related to Body Esteem, Social Support, and Social Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit; Heiman, Tali

    2017-01-01

    The authors examined cyberbullying victimization in the context of issues of key importance to youth: body esteem, social support, and social self-efficacy. Research has found that traditional peer-bullying victimization is significantly correlated with low body esteem in Western societies, especially pertaining to weight (R. Puhl & J. Luedicke, 2012 ). Studies have also found a relationship among bullying victimization, appearance-related bullying, low body esteem, and psychosocial difficulties among youth (L. E. Park, R. M. Calogero, A.F. Young, & A. Diraddo, 2010 ). However, the emergence of cyberbullying, characterized by its own special features (P. K. Smith et al., 2008 ), has raised a salient need to explore the relationship between cyber victimization and body esteem, no less important with social framework, because both are key components in adolescents' lives that may be associated with cyberbullying victimization. The authors examined these relationships among 204 Israeli adolescents 14-16 years old. The results indicate a noteworthy prevalence (45%) of cyber victims. Cyber victimization is significantly correlated with low body esteem and low social support and social self-efficacy. Low body esteem and low social support predicted the probability of being a cyber victim. The results extend the knowledge about potential personal and social risk factors for cyber victimization during adolescence. Implications for specific intervention programs are discussed.

  10. Crime and Context : The Impact of Individual, Neighborhood, City and Country Characteristics on Victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilsem, Johan Arend van

    2003-01-01

    This book deals with the distribution of criminal victimization across social groups and spatial areas. Why do certain kinds of people run higher risk of victimization than others? Why do spatial units, such as neighborhoods, cities and countries, differ in their rates of victimization? The present

  11. Stop Blaming the Victim: A Meta-Analysis on Rape Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Eliana; Gadalla, Tahany M.

    2010-01-01

    Although male rape is being reported more often than before, the majority of rape victims continue to be women. Rape myths--false beliefs used mainly to shift the blame of rape from perpetrators to victims--are also prevalent in today's society and in many ways contribute toward the pervasiveness of rape. Despite this, there has been limited…

  12. The Effect Social Interest Trainingon lifestyle in Bullying and Victim Adolescences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Poorseyed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to The Effect Social Interest Training on lifestyle in Bullying and Victim Adolescences. The research design was quasi-experimental with pretest posttest, two month Follow-up and two control groups.In this study statistical population was second and third high school grades bullying and victim boy students in Abarkooh in the academic year 2015-2016.Implement research after applying sociometry and running the Olweus Bulling/ victimization revised questionnaire, of  among the students who based on the analysis of the results of sociometry and achieved scores in the Bulling/victimization revised questionnaire were classified as bullying and victimization adolescents, 40 students were randomly selected as bullying group and 40 students were selected as victimization group. Then each group was randomly assigned into two groups of experimental and control. Then they were completed Kern lifestyles questionnaire in pre-test. Experimental groups participated in Social Interest Training for 12 sessions (two sessions per week separately. Control group were placed on a waiting list to receive training. At the end of the sessions, both groups of experimental and control were reassessed via reappraisal. Mixed intra-between group Multivariate Variance analysis and pairwise comparisons results indicated that Social Interest Therapy could amelioration lifestyle in experimental groups than in post-test and follow-up. The results showed that Increasing Social Interest is certainly a beginning toward positive movement and caused the individual will create a lifestyle based on empathy, responsibility, cooperation goals that will increase the probability of successfully solving the life task.

  13. Psychiatric outcomes of bullying victimization: a study of discordant monozygotic twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberg, J L; Copeland, W; Linker, J; Moore, A A; Roberson-Nay, R; York, T P

    2016-07-01

    Bullying victimization in childhood is associated with a broad array of serious mental health disturbances, including anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation and behavior. The key goal of this study was to evaluate whether bullying victimization is a true environmental risk factor for psychiatric disturbance using data from 145 bully-discordant monozygotic (MZ) juvenile twin pairs from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development (VTSABD) and their follow-up into young adulthood. Since MZ twins share an identical genotype and familial environment, a higher rate of psychiatric disturbance in a bullied MZ twin compared to their non-bullied MZ co-twin would be evidence of an environmental impact of bullying victimization. Environmental correlations between being bullied and the different psychiatric traits were estimated by fitting structural equation models to the full sample of MZ and DZ twins (N = 2824). Environmental associations were further explored using the longitudinal data on the bullying-discordant MZ twins. Being bullied was associated with a wide range of psychiatric disorders in both children and young adults. The analysis of data on the MZ-discordant twins supports a genuine environmental impact of bullying victimization on childhood social anxiety [odds ratio (OR) 1.7], separation anxiety (OR 1.9), and young adult suicidal ideation (OR 1.3). There was a shared genetic influence on social anxiety and bullying victimization, consistent with social anxiety being both an antecedent and consequence of being bullied. Bullying victimization in childhood is a significant environmental trauma and should be included in any mental health assessment of children and young adults.

  14. Child homicide victims in forensic autopsy in Taiwan: A 10-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Pan, Chih-Hsin; Shu, Guang-Ming; Chang, Chin-Hao; Lee, Tsui-Ting; Lee, James Chun-I

    2015-12-01

    Child homicides are critical medico-legal issues worldwide. Data on the characteristics of these cases in Asia are limited. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of child homicides in Taiwan. A retrospective analysis of forensic autopsy records of child homicide victims (aged 0-17 years) in Taiwan, during a 10-year period between 2001 and 2010, was carried out. The age, sex, relationship with the perpetrator(s), injury patterns of the victims, and causes of death were analyzed. In all, 193 child homicide autopsies were identified. There were 38 (19.7%), 82 (42.5%), 25 (13.0%), and 48 (24.9%) homicide victims aged under 1, 1-5, 6-12, and 13-17 years, respectively. One-hundred boys (mean age: 8.4±7.0) and 93 girls (mean age: 3.7±4.3) were included. A female predominance was noted among the victims aged 0-5. Blunt force (53.4%) was the most frequent method of injury, followed by suffocation/strangulation (20.2%) and sharp force (13.0%). Bruise (64.8%) and brain injury (45.1%) were the most common types of injuries. The cranium (62.2%) and face (60.6%) were the most frequently injured body regions. The distribution of fatal injuries varied among victims in different age groups. Neurogenic shock, asphyxia, and hemorrhagic shocks were most common in victims aged 0-5, 6-12, and 13-17, respectively. The most frequent causes of death included blunt force head injury (40.4%), suffocation/strangulation (20.2%), and sharp force lung trauma (7.3%). The type of offenders, injury methods, types of injuries, distribution of injuries, mechanism of death, and causes of death were significantly different among victims of different age groups. Eighteen (9.33%) victims displayed no external evidence of trauma. The patterns of injuries, mechanism of death, and causes of death were different among victims of different age groups. A female predominance was noted among the victims aged 0-5. Complete forensic autopsy is necessary to identify child homicide. This report will

  15. Victims, civil society and transitional justice in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey Michael

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of victim organizations in the transitional justice process is examined in postwar Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH. These organizations emerged in the context of the top-down accountability agenda driven by the international crisis intervention in the Balkan wars and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY. By contrast, in Latin America victim organizations emerged as a self-conscious movements of individuals galvanized by their traumatic experience of state repression and demanding accountability from the bottom-up. In BiH accountability became a condition for re-establishing state political and legal authority but also international financing for reconstruction and progress towards EU accession. Victim organizations were part of the NGO sector which grew rapidly in response to the neoliberal governance model of selforganizing civil society to transform post-socialist and postwar BiH. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs, run largely by professional middle class displaced from careers in the downsized state bureaucracy, became intermediaries between external donors and war affected populations. Victim organizations participated in the transitional justice process by supporting victims/witnesses in international and national prosecutions, tracing the missing persons and supporting the right of return of displaced populations. In BiH, victims’ organizations did not emerge as social movements advocating for citizenship and social justice, but became incorporated in the neoliberal governance model, sponsored by international agendas for stabilization, democratization and EU accession.

  16. How Victimization, Climate, and Safety around Sexual Orientation and Gender Expression Relate to Truancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Berger, Christian; Dantas, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Victimization based on actual or perceived sexual orientation or gender expression (SOGE) carries significant consequences. In this study, we examined how SOGE-based victimization and contextual factors predicted truancy among 886 Chilean students (M[subscript age] = 16.00, SD = 1.30) in four high schools. Victimization predicted truancy…

  17. The Tendency to Arrest Victims of Domestic Violence: A Preliminary Analysis of Officer Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Daniel G.

    1995-01-01

    Studied 111 police officers. Predicted that those inclined to arrest victims of domestic violence would have more negative stereotypes and attitudes toward victims and women. Results showed that those with an inclination to arrest victims believed domestic violence is justified situationally and that women stay in violent relationships for…

  18. I see so I feel: Coping with workplace violence among victims and witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Biru; Marchand, Alain; Guay, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Workplace violence is a serious concern for workers' mental health and well-being in high risk work sectors. This study examined victims' and witnesses' experiences after exposure to workplace violence, and the types of help they used to cope with the violent event. Workers (n = 211) from five different work sectors participated in our study. Multiple mediation analysis was used to investigate the indirect effects through psychological and work consequences on victims' versus witnesses' differential likelihood of using formal, paraformal and informal helping. Results showed that workplace violence has detrimental effects on both victims and witnesses. Direct victims were more negatively affected psychologically and at work than witnesses. The indirect effect through psychological difficulty after experiencing workplace violence was significant in predicting formal helping. The indirect effect through reduced work functioning in predicting paraformal helping was also significant. No significant indirect effect was found in predicting informal helping. Both victims and witnesses used multiple types of helping to cope with the violent event. This study has practical implications on management and clinical practices for better organizations of resources in helping victims and witnesses to cope with workplace violence.

  19. Relationship between peer victimization, cyberbullying, and suicide in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul; Tanilon, Jenny

    2014-05-01

    Peer victimization is related to an increased chance of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation or suicide attempts using meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were searched for articles from 1910 to 2013. The search terms were bully*, teas*, victim*, mobbing, ragging, and harassment in combination with the term suic*. Of the 491 studies identified, 34 reported on the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation, with a total of 284,375 participants. Nine studies reported on the relationship between peer victimization and suicide attempts, with a total of 70,102 participants. STUDY SELECTION Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported an effect size on the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation or suicide attempt in children or adolescents. Two observers independently coded the effect sizes from the articles. Data were pooled using a random effects model. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES This study focused on suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Peer victimization was hypothesized to be related to suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. RESULTS Peer victimization was found to be related to both suicidal ideation (odds ratio, 2.23 [95% CI, 2.10-2.37]) and suicide attempts (2.55 [1.95 -3.34]) among children and adolescents. Analyses indicated that these results were not attributable to publication bias. Results were not moderated by sex, age, or study quality. Cyberbullying was more strongly related to suicidal ideation compared with traditional bullying. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Peer victimization is a risk factor for child and adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. Schools should use evidence-based practices to reduce bullying.

  20. Backlash for Breaking Racial and Ethnic Breaking Stereotypes: Adolescent School Victimization Across Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A; Jiang, Xin

    2016-03-01

    This research examines if and how social and cultural stereotypes insulate or aggravate the risk for adolescent victimization and partially explain racial and ethnic disparities with being a victim of violence at school. Analyses that draw on the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 and use multilevel analytical techniques suggest important results. Most notably, increased educational achievement, academic involvement, and having White American friendships are potential victimization risk factors for Black/African American and Latino American adolescents at urban and/or suburban schools. In addition to discussing the findings, this study underscores the importance of investigating the complexities associated with race and ethnicity when addressing adolescent victimization. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Bullying, Victimization, School Performance, and Mother-Child Relationship Quality: Direct and Transactional Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Kostas A. Fanti; Stelios N. Georgiou

    2013-01-01

    The current investigation examines longitudinal differences between bullies, victims, and bully victims in terms of the quality of their relationship with their parents and school performance. We also investigate the transactional association between the quality of the parent-child relationship and bullying behavior, after taking into account the longitudinal association among bullying, victimization, and school performance. The sample consisted of 895 mothers and their children who participa...

  2. Antisocial Behavior and Victimization Over 2-Year Follow-Up in Subgroups of Childhood Arrestees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Domburgh, Lieke; Geluk, Charlotte; Jansen, Lucres; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo

    2016-10-01

    Not only are childhood onset offenders at high risk of becoming serious persistent offenders, they are also at high risk of becoming victimized themselves. Furthermore, studies in the general population suggest that a combined perpetrator-victim group can be distinguished from a perpetrator-only and a victim-only group on individual and family risk factors. The current study investigated the co-occurrence of offending and victimization among first-time arrestees and the 2-year predictive value of previously found clusters of dynamic risk factors of offending. Childhood first-time arrestees ( N = 308; M age = 10.3, SD = 1.45) were clustered into three groups based on dynamic risk factors of offending in the individual, peer, school, and family domains: a pervasive high, an externalizing intermediate, and a low problem group. Police records and self-report data on re-offending and victimization of these children were collected over a 2-year follow-up period. Compared with the low problem group, the prevalence of re-offending was higher in both the externalizing intermediate group and the pervasive high group. The pervasive high group was most likely to display co-occurring future antisocial behavior and victimization. These findings emphasize that attention should be paid to victimization in addition to future antisocial behavior, especially if additional internalizing and family problems are present. Furthermore, the differences in re-offending and victimization between subgroups of childhood onset offenders stress the need for specific interventions tailored to the risk profile of a child.

  3. The Role of Parent Communication and Connectedness in Dating Violence Victimization among Latino Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Nicole Rebecca; Eisenberg, Marla E; Sieving, Renee E

    2016-06-01

    Dating violence among U.S. adolescents is a substantial concern. Previous research indicates that Latino youth are at increased risk of dating violence victimization. This secondary data analysis examined the prevalence of physical and sexual dating violence victimization among subgroups of Latino adolescents and associations of parent communication, parent caring, and dating violence victimization using data from the 2010 Minnesota Student Survey (N = 4,814). Parallel analyses were conducted for Latino-only and multiple-race Latino adolescents, stratified by gender. Multivariate logistic regression models tested associations between race/ethnicity, parent communication, perceived parent caring, and adolescent dating violence experiences. Overall, 7.2% to 16.2% of Latinos reported physical or sexual dating violence. Both types of dating violence were more prevalent among multiple-race Latinos than among Latino-only adolescents, with prevalence rates highest among multiple-race Latino females (19.8% and 19.7% for physical and sexual dating violence victimization, respectively). In multivariate models, perceived parent caring was the most important protective factor against physical and sexual dating violence among males and females. High levels of mother and father communication were associated with less physical violence victimization among males and females and with less sexual violence victimization among females. Results highlight the importance of parent communication and parent caring as buffers against dating violence victimization for Latino youth. These findings indicate potential for preventive interventions with Latino adolescents targeting family connectedness to address dating violence victimization. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. The Role of the School Environment in Relational Aggression and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaesser, Caitlin; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David

    2013-01-01

    Research conducted over the last decade has documented both the high rates of and serious consequences associated with both victimization and perpetration of relational aggression. This study examines risk for involvement in relational aggression and victimization among middle school youth, evaluating both individual beliefs about violence, as…

  5. 8 CFR 214.14 - Alien victims of certain qualifying criminal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alien victims of certain qualifying criminal activity. 214.14 Section 214.14 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS NONIMMIGRANT CLASSES § 214.14 Alien victims of certain qualifying criminal activity. (a...

  6. Socially anxious children at risk for victimization : The role of personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Saskia F.; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether Big Five personality traits affect the extent to which a socially anxious child will be victimized. A total of 1814 children participated in the study (mean age = 11.99 years). Children completed self-reports and peer reports of victimization, which were aggregated, and

  7. Adaptation Studies of the Aggression and Victimization Scales for Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu KURNAZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Recent studies emphasize the importance of evaluation for relational /social behaviors (e.g., rejection, as wellas overt behaviors (e.g., hitting in the assessment of peer aggression and victimization among school children. For thisreason the present study aimed to evaluate the applicability of the two scales, namely Children’s Social Behavior Scale-Self Report -CSBS-SR (Crick & Grotpeter, 1995 and Children’s Self Experience Questionnaire-Self Report -CSEQ-SR(Crick & Grotpeter, 1996 for Turkish Elementary school children. CSBS-SR and CSEQ-SR include overt and relationaldimensions of peer aggression and victimization respectively.Methods: A representative sample consisting of a total of 422 (boys n=205; girls n=207 and 415 children (n=210; girlsn=205 attending public and private elementary schools in Ankara were recruited for the validity and reliability studies ofthe CSBS-SR and CSEQ-SR respectively. The Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (ROBVQ; Olweus, 1996 wereutilized for the criterion validity.Results: Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the five factor model suggested for the CSBS-SR and three factormodel for the CSEQ-SR met the criteria standards for adequacy of fit. A moderate correlation of the CSBS-SR withROBVQ-Bully Subscale (r=.47 and moderate to high correlation of the CSEQ-SR with ROBVQ-Victim Subscale (r=.70supported both scale’s criterion validitiy. CSBS-SR’s and CSEQ-SR’s test-retest reliability were found to be .64 and.80 and internal consistency assessed by Cronbach Alpha were found to be .84 and .90 respectively. T-test analysesfor independent groups demonstrated that boys had higher mean scores for overt aggression than girls (t(423=3.025,p<.05. On the other hand girls had higher mean scores for relational victimization than boys (t(413=3.213, p<.01. Therewere significant positive correlation of mean relational aggression scores with fathers’ education (r=.14 and family income(r=.15

  8. Identification and Management of Human Trafficking Victims in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachey, Lisa M; Phillippi, Julia C

    Health care practitioners serve an important role in identification and assistance of human trafficking victims. Advanced practice registered nurses, including certified nurse midwives, clinical nurse specialists, and nurse practitioners, are in a unique position to interact with persons trafficked and seen in the clinical setting, yet they require knowledge to identify the signs of human trafficking. Lack of training and education has been identified as a barrier for health care professionals to recognize human trafficking victims and implement needed health care services (; ). Barriers to identification and management include gap in knowledge about the process to screen for trafficking, to assist victims, and to make referrals. A patient-centered, trauma-informed approach can provide a safe environment to sensitively screen patients for human trafficking. Advanced practice registered nurses should be able to assess for trafficking indicators, collaborate with multidisciplinary service providers, and ensure understanding and availability of federal, state, and local resources to manage the care of victims of trafficking.

  9. School climate, peer victimization, and academic achievement: results from a multi-informant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E; Haltigan, J D; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-09-01

    School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling, with school climate as a contextual variable. Boys and girls reported no differences in victimization by their peers, although boys had lower GPAs than girls. Peer victimization was related to lower GPA and to a poorer perception of school climate (individual-level), which was also associated with lower GPA. Results of multilevel analyses revealed that peer victimization was again negatively associated with GPA, and that lower school-level climate was associated with lower GPA. Although no moderating effects of school-level school climate or sex were observed, the relation between peer victimization and GPA remained significant after taking into account (a) school-level climate scores, (b) individual variability in school-climate scores, and (c) several covariates--ethnicity, absenteeism, household income, parental education, percentage of minority students, type of school, and bullying perpetration. These findings underscore the importance of a positive school climate for academic success and viewing school climate as a fundamental collective school outcome. Results also speak to the importance of viewing peer victimization as being harmfully linked to students' academic performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Skewed sex ratios and criminal victimization in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Scott J; Trent, Katherine; Bose, Sunita

    2014-06-01

    Although substantial research has explored the causes of India's excessively masculine population sex ratio, few studies have examined the consequences of this surplus of males. We merge individual-level data from the 2004-2005 India Human Development Survey with data from the 2001 India population census to examine the association between the district-level male-to-female sex ratio at ages 15 to 39 and self-reports of victimization by theft, breaking and entering, and assault. Multilevel logistic regression analyses reveal positive and statistically significant albeit substantively modest effects of the district-level sex ratio on all three victimization risks. We also find that higher male-to-female sex ratios are associated with the perception that young unmarried women in the local community are frequently harassed. Household-level indicators of family structure, socioeconomic status, and caste, as well as areal indicators of women's empowerment and collective efficacy, also emerge as significant predictors of self-reported criminal victimization and the perceived harassment of young women. The implications of these findings for India's growing sex ratio imbalance are discussed.

  11. Skewed Sex Ratios and Criminal Victimization in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Scott J.; Trent, Katherine; Bose, Sunita

    2014-01-01

    Although substantial research has explored the causes of India’s excessively masculine population sex ratio, few studies have examined the consequences of this surplus of males. We merge individual-level data from the 2004–2005 India Human Development Survey with data from the 2001 India population census to examine the association between the district-level male-to-female sex ratio at ages 15 to 39 and self-reports of victimization by theft, breaking and entering, and assault. Multilevel logistic regression analyses reveal positive and statistically significant albeit substantively modest effects of the district-level sex ratio on all three victimization risks. We also find that higher male-to-female sex ratios are associated with the perception that young unmarried women in the local community are frequently harassed. Household-level indicators of family structure, socioeconomic status, and caste, as well as areal indicators of women’s empowerment and collective efficacy, also emerge as significant predictors of self-reported criminal victimization and the perceived harassment of young women. The implications of these findings for India’s growing sex ratio imbalance are discussed. PMID:24682921

  12. Revenge versus forgiveness/forbearance in response to narrative-simulated victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgram, Noach; Stern, Miri; Levin, Shelly

    2006-03-01

    The authors engaged men and women (N = 120) who read one of two versions of a dramatic narrative in which the narrator became HIV-positive following heterosexual intercourse with an AIDS-infected partner. Assuming the role of the narrator, the participants completed two situation-instigated criterion measures as a response to becoming HIV-infected, indicated whom they blamed for their predicament, and completed two "trait" predictor measures-negative affect and response to perceived victimization in everyday life. Trait victimization response and blaming the sexual partner were strongly associated with high rather than low negative affect. Reasons for the reluctance to blame the sexual partner and seek revenge were discussed, and recommendations were made to develop less problematic simulated victimization narratives.

  13. Do You Love Me? Psychological Characteristics of Romance Scam Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The online dating romance scam is an Advance Fee Fraud, typically conducted by international criminal groups via online dating sites and social networking sites. This type of mass-marketing fraud (MMF) is the most frequently reported type of MMF in most Western countries. This study examined the psychological characteristics of romance scam victims by comparing romance scam victims with those who had never been scammed by MMFs. Romance scam victims tend to be middle-aged, well-educated women. Moreover, they tend to be more impulsive (scoring high on urgency and sensation seeking), less kind, more trustworthy, and have an addictive disposition. It is argued here that these findings might be useful for those developing prevention programs and awareness campaigns. PMID:28657792

  14. Identifying risk factors for victimization among male prisoners in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shih-Ya; Cuvelier, Steven J; Huang, Yung-Shun

    2014-02-01

    This study identified risk factors for prison victimization in Taiwan with an application of Western literature and assessed the extent of its applicability in an Eastern context. The sample was drawn from four male prisons located in Northern, Central, Southern, and Eastern Taiwan; a total of 1,181 valid surveys were collected. The results generally support the major findings of the extant Western studies. Crowding, however, was not significantly associated with the risk of victimization in any of the statistical models, which might be related to the different experiences and living conditions in the free community between Taiwanese and American inmates. This study generated clear policy implications, which may reduce prison victimization and engender a greater sense of well-being in the prison environment.

  15. Offer and Acceptance of Apology in Victim-Offender Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Dhami, MK; Dhami, MK

    2012-01-01

    Past research on restorative justice (RJ) has highlighted the importance of apology for both victims and offenders and the prevalence of apology during the RJ process. The present study moves this work further by examining the nature of the apologies that are offered during victim-offender mediation, as well as the individual-, case-, and mediation-level factors that can affect the offer and acceptance of apology. In addition, we measure the implications that the offer and acceptance of apolo...

  16. [Widows of victims of Nazi concentration camps: their pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryn, Z J

    1992-09-01

    The psychosocial situation of widows and orphans of victims of the Nazi concentration camps in Poland are presented. In 1984, 74 widows of victims from the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp were interviewed. This article describes widows' emotional-behavioral reactions when facing the imprisonment and death of their husbands, their difficulties in adapting themselves to widowhood, different adaptative forms of memories of their married life, and consequences relevant to widows' mental health and family, and social consequences of widowhood.

  17. Clinical observations over 20 years period of Bikini victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumatori, Toshiyuki

    1976-01-01

    The author outlined the results of medical examinations performed in a period of 20 years on the Japanese fishermen who were exposed at Bikini in 1954. Exposure doses were estimated, and the progress of medical examinations for skin injury, hematological changes, cytogenetic changes, and spermatogenetic disturbance was described. In view of internal exposure, none of the long half-life nuclides was retained in the body. The victims were compared with the victims exposed in Marshall Islands. (Serizawa, K.)

  18. The epidemiology of self-defense gun use: evidence from the National Crime Victimization Surveys 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Solnick, Sara J

    2015-10-01

    To describe the epidemiology of self-defense gun use (SDGU) and the relative effectiveness of SDGU in preventing injury and property loss. Data come from the National Crime Victimization Survey for 2007-2011, focusing on personal contact crimes. For property loss, we examined incidents where the intent was to steal property. Multivariate analyses controlled for age, gender of offender and victim, if offender had a gun, urbanicity, and thirteen types of self-protective action. Of over 14,000 incidents in which the victim was present, 127 (0.9%) involved a SDGU. SDGU was more common among males, in rural areas, away from home, against male offenders and against offenders with a gun. After any protective action, 4.2% of victims were injured; after SDGU, 4.1% of victims were injured. In property crimes, 55.9% of victims who took protective action lost property, 38.5 of SDGU victims lost property, and 34.9% of victims who used a weapon other than a gun lost property. Compared to other protective actions, the National Crime Victimization Surveys provide little evidence that SDGU is uniquely beneficial in reducing the likelihood of injury or property loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bullying victimization prevalence and its effects on psychosomatic complaints: can sense of coherence make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Moya, Irene; Suominen, Sakari; Moreno, Carmen

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of bullying victimization and its impact on physical and psychological complaints in a representative sample of adolescents and to explore the role of sense of coherence (SOC) in victimization prevalence and consequences. A representative sample of Spanish adolescents (N = 7580, mean age = 15.41) was selected as part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Bullying victimization, physical and psychological symptoms, and SOC were measured, and comparisons were made between strong- and weak-SOC adolescents regarding their likelihood of being a victim of bullying and the negative effects of bullying victimization on their health. Weak-SOC adolescents were significantly more likely to suffer from bullying victimization regardless of type (nonphysical vs physical and nonphysical) or means (traditional vs cyberbullying). In addition, bullying victimization showed significant increasing effects on weak-SOC adolescents' physical and psychological symptoms whereas in strong-SOC adolescents it was not significantly associated with increases in physical complaints and its effects on psychological complaints seemed to be weaker. Weak-SOC adolescents seem to be at higher risk of becoming bullying victims and victimization experiences appear to have increased negative effects on them when compared to strong-SOC students. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  20. Physical dating violence victimization in college women in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Jocelyn A; Lehrer, Evelyn L; Zhao, Zhenxiang

    2010-05-01

    There are no published studies on physical dating violence in college students in Chile, and campuses across the country currently lack systematized programs to prevent or respond to this public health problem. This is the first study to examine prevalence and predictors of physical dating violence victimization with a sample of female college students in Chile. A closed-ended questionnaire was administered to students enrolled in general education courses at a major public university. The prevalence of women's physical dating violence victimization was calculated, and generalized ordered logit models were used to estimate risk factors for such victimization (n = 441). Ancillary analyses examined associations of dating violence victimization with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. Approximately 21% of subjects reported one or more incidents of physical dating violence not involving physical injury since age 14, and another 5% reported at least one incident resulting in physical injury during this time period. Risk factors identified in five sequential models were sexual abuse and witnessing of domestic violence in childhood, low parental education, residence away from the parental home, urban residence, and having had sexual intercourse. Maternal employment and religious participation had protective effects. Dating violence victimization was found to be significantly associated with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. The study findings show a high prevalence of physical dating violence, strong associations between several sociodemographic factors and dating violence, and links between dating violence and sexual/reproductive risk. Our results indicate a need to expand attention to this public health problem in Chile as well as other developing countries, where research and prevention/response initiatives have generally been similarly limited. The findings also have important implications for the content of

  1. School violence in the eyes of the beholders: an integrative aggression-victimization perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskov-Peled, Ronit; Wolf, Yuval

    2002-10-01

    Five experiments explored, within the framework of functional measurement, the importance assigned by 3rd and 4th graders (n = 117) to expectations of potential perpetrators from their potential victims. Each participant was requested to imagine potential incidents of school violence where four familiar classmates were presented as protagonists (i.e., perpetrator and victim). An orderly manipulation of the combination of the level (high or low) of aggressiveness and susceptibility to victimization in each protagonist was made. The participants were informed whether or not the victim was about to deliver tangible rewards, display signs of suffering, or retaliate (2*2*2 = 8 conditions). For each potential incident, the participant estimated the likelihood that an attack will take place. The following order of importance was found: Reward > Retaliation > Suffering. Victim's aggressiveness was slightly effective. From an applied perspective, most notable is the tendency to lower the likelihood of violence when the educator knows about the incidents.

  2. Sexual Harassment Victimization, School Belonging, and Depressive Symptoms Among LGBTQ Adolescents: Temporal Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchel, Tyler; Espelage, Dorothy L; Huang, Yuanhong

    2017-06-15

    Peer victimization and the associated poor outcomes among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth have been the focus of countless studies. School climate is a factor that has garnered significant attention. Perceptions of school contexts may even be mechanisms that define how victimization relates to poor outcomes. However, there is a lack of rigorous scholarship that could demonstrate directionality and therefore further augment our understanding of these relations. Specifically, it is not clear if victimization is strictly an antecedent to mental health issues like depressive symptoms. This longitudinal study examined the associations among sexual harassment victimization, school belonging, and depressive symptoms among LGBTQ high school students (n = 404). Self-report measures were completed at 3 time points across 3 school years in 6 Midwest high schools. Structural equation modeling indicated that peer victimization was an antecedent to depressive symptoms, and that school belonging mediated the association. Implications and future directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Bullying and Victimization: Predictive Role of Individual, Parental, and Academic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atik, Gökhan; Güneri, Oya Yerin

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the roles of individual factors (age, gender, locus of control, self-esteem, and loneliness), parenting style, and academic achievement in discriminating students involved in bullying (as bullies, victims, and bully/victims) from those not involved. Participants comprised 742 middle school students (393 females, 349 males). The…

  4. Child Abuse, Street Victimization, and Substance Use among Homeless Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research documents high rates of child abuse, street victimization, and substance use among homeless youth, few studies have investigated these three constructs simultaneously, and thus little is known about how various forms of victimization are uniquely associated with substance use among this population. The purpose of this…

  5. Teen Dating Violence Victimization Among High School Students: A Multilevel Analysis of School-Level Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth M; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom; Debnam, Katrina J; Milam, Adam J; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2017-09-01

    Much etiologic research has focused on individual-level risk factors for teen dating violence (TDV); therefore, less is known about school-level and neighborhood-level risk factors. We examined the association between alcohol outlet density around high schools and TDV victimization and the association between markers of physical disorder around schools and TDV victimization among adolescents. Data come from high school students participating in the Maryland Safe and Supportive Schools Initiative. Alcohol outlet density was calculated using walking distance buffers around schools. An observational tool was used to assess indicators of physical disorder on school property (eg, alcohol and drug paraphernalia). Hierarchical linear modeling was used to identify student- and school-level predictors associated with TDV victimization. Overall, 11% of students reported experiencing physical TDV and 11% reported experiencing psychological TDV over the past year. Recent alcohol use was a risk factor for TDV victimization for both sexes, whereas feeling safe at school was protective against TDV victimization for both sexes. Greater alcohol outlet density was associated with decreased TDV victimization for males, however, it was nonsignificant for females. Physical disorder around schools was not associated with TDV victimization for either sex. Although the school-level predictors were not associated with TDV victimization, alcohol use and perceptions of safety at school were significantly associated with TDV victimization. Prevention efforts to address alcohol use may affect TDV victimization. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  6. 10-Year Study of Christian Church Support for Domestic Violence Victims: 2005-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zust, Barbara; Flicek, Breanna; Moses, Katie; Schubert, Courtney; Timmerman, Jessica

    2018-02-01

    Religious beliefs play a significant role in the lives of victims of domestic violence. Victims find strength in their faith and would rather endure the violence at all costs to keep a family or a marriage together, than to compromise their faith by leaving. This 10 -year study explored the climate of support for victims of domestic violence among Christian clergy and church members between 2005 and 2015. Using a convenience sample, surveys were sent out to congregations in the Upper Midwest in 2005 and 2015. The survey included demographics; two items measuring perception of domestic violence in the congregation andcommunity; six Likert Scale items regarding agreement with statements concerning leaving an abusive marriage; four 'Yes-No' items regarding the impact of faith in leaving, support of the congregation, community resources,and clergy as counselors. The clergy's survey had the same questions, plus open-ended questions about their skills in counseling victims, their congregation's support for victims, community resources, and beliefs that could impact a victim's choice in leaving. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, simple frequencies, and bivariate correlations. Narrative data were analyzed using content analysis. The results of this study indicated that change is slow. Members want their clergy to become more educated in counseling and in speaking about domestic violence from the pulpit. Clergy felt comfortable in making referrals for professional counseling, while the majority of members would prefer counseling with their pastor if they were in a violent relationship. Both clergy and members want to create a safe and supportive environment for victims/survivors of violent relationships. Findings from this study exemplify the need for pastors to remove the silence about domestic violence in their congregations and address the misunderstood social religious beliefs that may bind a victim to the violence.

  7. DNA Damages and White Blood Cell Death Processes in Victims with Severe Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the mechanisms of posttraumatic changes in the blood cells, by investigating DNA damages associat ed with hypoxia caused by massive blood loss (BL in severe injury.Subjects and methods. Ninetyfive patients aged 40.6±16.5 years (from 20 to 79 years who had sustained severe mechanical injury with different BL volumes (BLV (from 100 to 4000 ml and hemodynamic disorders were examined to study DNA damages and white blood cell necrotic and apop totic processes. In terms of the victims' weight, the mean BL was 21.5±16.5 ml/kg (from 1.4 to 61.5 ml/kg. The victimswere divided into 4 groups according to BLV: 1 26 victims whose BLV was less than 750 ml (5.93±2.41 ml/kg (grade I BL; 2 23 victims whose BLV was 750—1500 ml (11.5±1.5 ml/kg (grade 2 BL; 3 23 victims whose BLV was 1500—2000 ml (23.8±4.0 ml/kg (grade 3 BL; 4 23 victims whose BLV was over 2000 ml (45.6±10.1 ml/kg (grade 4 BL, according to the type of injury: 1 severe skeletal injury (SSI (n=17; 2 brain injury (BI (n=43; 3 a concurrence of SSI and BI (SSI+BI (n=35; according to the development of infectious complications: 1 69 victims who developed infectious com plications on days 5—7 postinjury; 2 26 victims who did not. To evaluate the impact of hypoxia on DNA damages, white blood cell apoptotic and necrotic processes, the victims were divided into 2 groups: 1 hypoxia (18 of the 95 victims who had 4 altered indicators, such as capillary blood pO2, plasma lactate levels, pH, and BE; 2 no hypoxia (10 of the 95 victims whose indicators were within the normal range. DNA damages and necrotic and apoptotic changes in the white blood cells were assessed by the DNA comet assay. The plasma concentration of extracellular DNA was fluorometrically determined using a QuantiTTM HS DNA Assay Kit (Invitrogen, USA. That of 8hydroxy2deoxyguanosine was estimated by enzyme immunoassay employing an 8hydroxy2deoxyGuanosine EIA Kit (Cayman Chemical, USA. The levels of cas

  8. Impact of Physical and Relational Peer Victimization on Depressive Cognitions in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Keneisha R.; Cole, David A.; Dukewich, Tammy; Felton, Julia; Weitlauf, Amy S.; Maxwell, Melissa A.; Tilghman-Osborne, Carlos; Jacky, Amy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find longitudinal evidence of the effect of targeted peer victimization (TPV) on depressive cognitions as a function of victimization type and gender. Prospective relations of physical and relational peer victimization to positive and negative self-cognitions were examined in a 1-year, 2-wave longitudinal study.…

  9. From Survivor to Thriver: A Pilot Study of an Online Program for Rape Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather; Buck, Katherine; Rosman, Lindsey; Grills-Taquechel, Amie

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 15% to 20% of women have been victims of rape and close to a third report current rape-related PTSD or clinically significant depression or anxiety. Unfortunately, very few distressed rape victims seek formal help. This suggests a need to develop alternative ways to assist the many distressed victims of sexual violence. Online…

  10. An evaluation of the coping patterns of rape victims: integration with a schema-based information-processing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather

    2007-08-01

    The current study sought to provide an expansion of Resick and Schnicke's information-processing model of interpersonal violence response. Their model posits that interpersonal violence threatens victims' schematic beliefs and that victims can resolve this threat through assimilation, accommodation, or overaccommodation. In addition, it is hypothesized that how victims resolve schematic threat affects their coping strategies. To test this hypothesis, a cluster analysis of rape victims' coping patterns was conducted. Victims' coping patterns were related to distress, self-worth, and rape label in ways consistent with predictions. Thus, future research should focus on the implications of how victims integrate trauma with schemas.

  11. A psychological analysis of the rehabilitation of the Goiania accident victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Neto, S.B. da

    1992-01-01

    This paper brings out a psycho social analysis of the consequences of the radiologic accident of Goiania-Brazil, verified especially among its direct victims. It makes clear the psychological aspects shown by the isolated victims (hospitalized and sheltered) and the psycho therapeutic processes used by the Psychology Department. After all that study, it is clear the need of specific training for health professionals necessary for the regards and multi professional and interdisciplinary attendance to the victims Goiania. It is also important a unity of institutional objectives such as essential conditions for the rehabilitation of the patients in its largest bio psycho social aspect. (author)

  12. Tragedy in Savar: Management of Victims in Enam Medical College Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Alamgir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rana Plaza collapse is the worst and deadliest man-made industrial disaster in the history of garment sector in the world. Around 1200 people died and thousands more were injured. Most of the victims of the disaster were treated in Enam Medical College Hospital (EMCH. We conducted this study to give an overview on the disaster victims and services provided by EMCH. Objective: The study was done to observe the length of time between accident and admission in EMCH, length of time between admission and discharge, to observe the numbers, types and sites of injuries to the victims, medical measures given to the victims and finally to observe the status of the victims at the time of discharge. Materials and Methods: This descriptive type of observational study was carried out among the victims of Rana Plaza tragedy during the period of May to October 2013. All admitted patients in EMCH were included in the study. Purposive nonprobability sampling technique was applied in this research work. Data were collected from the hospital record. After collection, data were manually compiled, edited and analyzed. Results: Among 621 victims treated in different wards, 276 (44.45% were admitted to the hospital on the day of accident. Among the admitted patients, 255 (41.06% stayed in the hospital for 1--3 days,133 (21.42% for 4--7 days and 88 (14.17% for more than 10 days. Fracture and dislocation were present in 32.70% patients, lacerated injury in 18.20%, abrasion in 15.78%, bruise in 13.53%, incised wound in 15.45% and punctured wound in 4.34% patients. Single injury was present in 56.68% and rest had multiple injuries. Lower limbs were the most (33.01% affected part of the body followed by head and neck (22.06%, upper limbs (18.52%, thorax (17.55% and abdomen (8.86%. Two hundred seventy two patients (43.80% were improved after treatment and 56 (9.02% were fully cured; 23.83% of the victims were referred to higher medical centers for special

  13. Cyber-Dependent Crime Victimization: The Same Risk for Everyone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Marie Christine; Dreißigacker, Arne; von Skarczinski, Bennet; Wollinger, Gina Rosa

    2018-02-01

    The Internet has simplified daily life activities. However, besides its comfortability, the Internet also presents the risk of victimization by several kinds of crimes. The present article addresses the question of which factors influence cyber-dependent crime and how they vary between three kinds of cyber-dependent offences: malware infection, ransomware infection, and misuse of personal data. According to the Routine Activity Approach, it is assumed that crime is determined by a motivated offender, the behavior of the Internet user, and the existence of prevention factors. Our analyses were based on a random sample of 26,665 Internet users in two federal states in Germany, aged 16 years and older; 16.6 percent of the respondents had experienced at least one form of cyber-dependent victimization during the year 2014. The results indicate that individual and household factors, as well as online and prevention behavior, influence the risk of cyber-dependent victimization. Furthermore, the effects differ between the three types of offences. In conclusion, the risk of being victimized by cyber-dependent crime is not the same for anyone, but depends on multivariate factors according to the idea of Routine Activity Approach. However, in view of the fact that crime-related factors also matter, studying different cybercrime offences separately seems to be an appropriate research approach.

  14. Economic Insecurity and Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiding, Matthew J; Basile, Kathleen C; Klevens, Joanne; Smith, Sharon G

    2017-10-01

    Previous research has consistently found that low SES is associated with higher levels of both intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence (SV) victimization. Though associated with poverty, two indicators of economic insecurity, food and housing insecurity, have been identified as conceptually distinct social determinants of health. This study examined the relationship between food and housing insecurity experienced in the preceding 12 months and IPV and SV victimization experienced in the preceding 12 months, after controlling for SES and other demographic variables. Data were from the 2010 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, a nationally representative telephone survey of U.S. adults. In 2016, multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to examine the association between food and housing insecurity and multiple forms of IPV and SV victimization. Robust associations were found between food and housing insecurity experienced in the preceding 12 months and IPV and SV experienced in the preceding 12 months, for women and men, even after controlling for age, family income, race/ethnicity, education, and marital status. Food and housing insecurity may be important considerations for the prevention of SV and IPV or the reductions of their consequences, although future research is needed to disentangle the direction of the association. Strategies aimed at buffering economic insecurity may reduce vulnerability to IPV and SV victimization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Post-mortem imaging compared with autopsy in trauma victims--A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalalzadeh, Hamid; Giannakopoulos, Georgios F; Berger, Ferco H; Fronczek, Judith; van de Goot, Frank R W; Reijnders, Udo J; Zuidema, Wietse P

    2015-12-01

    Post-mortem imaging or virtual autopsy is a rapidly advancing field of post-mortem investigations of trauma victims. In this review we evaluate the feasibility of complementation or replacement of conventional autopsy by post-mortem imaging in trauma victims. A systematic review was performed in compliance with the PRISMA guidelines. MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane databases were systematically searched for studies published between January 2008 and January 2014, in which post-mortem imaging was compared to conventional autopsy in trauma victims. Studies were included when two or more trauma victims were investigated. Twenty-six studies were included, with a total number of 563 trauma victims. Post-mortem computer tomography (PMCT) was performed in 22 studies, post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMRI) in five studies and conventional radiography in two studies. PMCT and PMMRI both demonstrate moderate to high-grade injuries and cause of death accurately. PMCT is more sensitive than conventional autopsy or PMMRI in detecting skeletal injuries. For detecting minor organ and soft tissue injuries, autopsy remains superior to imaging. Aortic injuries are missed frequently by PMCT and PMMRI and form their main limitation. PMCT should be considered as an essential supplement to conventional autopsy in trauma victims since it detects many additional injuries. Despite some major limitations, PMCT could be used as an alternative for conventional autopsy in situations where conventional autopsy is rejected or unavailable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bullying and Victimization: The Role of Conduct Problems and Psychopathic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Kostas A.; Kimonis, Eva R.

    2012-01-01

    Bullying and victimization occurring in adolescence can have a long-lasting negative impact into adulthood. This study investigates whether conduct problems (CP) and dimensions of psychopathy predict the developmental course of bullying and victimization from ages 12 to 14 among 1,416 Greek-Cypriot adolescents. Results indicate that initial levels…

  17. Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners' Perceptions of the Revictimization of Rape Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Shana L.

    2012-01-01

    While Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner programs have improved the treatment of rape victims by offering more compassionate and thorough treatment, SANEs believe victims continue to face revictimization by the medical, criminal justice and legal systems. The purpose of this research is to explore SANEs' perceptions of the revictimization of rape…

  18. A Night in Tijuana: Female Victimization in a High-Risk Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley-Baker, Tara; Mumford, Elizabeth A.; Vishnuvajjala, Radha; Voas, Robert B.; Romano, Eduardo; Johnson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    We examine the epidemiology of victimization among females crossing the U.S. border to drink in Tijuana, Mexico, with the purpose of creating a framework for an intervention to improve safety among female youth in drinking settings. Drinking history, history of victimization, evening drinking experience, and environmental factors are assessed.…

  19. An Exploration of Effects of Bullying Victimization From a Complete Mental Health Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen Fullchange

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the effects of being bullied from a dual-factor lens, specifically examining the relation between victimization and constructs that contribute to social-emotional well-being. Prior to carrying out the main analyses, the factor structure of self-report items related to experiencing bullying and harassment from the California Healthy Kids Survey, which was administered to more than 14,000 high school students, was examined to establish that these items represent an overall factor: students’ experience of victimization. This factor was then used as an independent variable in a series of planned comparisons with a dependent variable represented by constructs addressed by the Social Emotional Health Survey–Secondary: belief-in-self, emotional competence, belief-in-others, and engaged living. With increased frequency of victimization, suicidality increased and belief-in-others decreased. For other constructs, belief-in-self, engaged living, and depression, there were significant differences found between individuals who had experienced frequencies of bullying as low as less than once a month and those who did not experience bullying at all but no further detrimental impacts were seen with even higher frequencies of victimization, indicating that being victimized at all is significantly worse than not being victimized for these variables. Implications and future directions for research are explored.

  20. Technology-Facilitated Sexual Violence Victimization: Results From an Online Survey of Australian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Anastasia; Henry, Nicola

    2016-10-01

    Online forms of sexual harassment and abuse as experienced by adults represent an emerging yet under-researched set of behaviors, such that very few studies have sought to estimate the extent of the problem. This article presents the results of an online survey of 2,956 Australian adult (aged 18 to 54 years) experiences of technology-facilitated sexual violence (TFSV) victimization. The prevalence of TFSV was analyzed in relation to a 21-item scale developed in accordance with prior conceptual research identifying multiple dimensions of TFSV including digital sexual harassment, image-based sexual abuse, sexual aggression and/or coercion, and, gender and/or sexuality-based harassment (including virtual sexual violence). Results revealed significant differences in lifetime TFSV victimization for younger (18-24) and non-heterosexual identifying adults. Lifetime TFSV victimization for men and women was not significantly different, though women were more likely to report sexual harassment victimization and men were more likely to report victimization through the distribution of non-consensual images, as well as gender and/or sexuality-based harassment. The authors conclude that although women and men report experiencing similar overall prevalence of TFSV victimization, the nature and impacts of those experiences differ in particular gendered ways that reflect broader patterns in both gender relations and "offline" sexual harassment.

  1. The Joint Development of Traditional Bullying and Victimization with Cyber Bullying and Victimization in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Paul E.; Kljakovic, Moja; Scheib, Emma; Notter, Olivia

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the stabilities of and interrelationships among traditional (i.e., face-to-face) bullying, traditional victimhood, cyber bullying, and cyber victimhood among adolescents over time. About 1,700 adolescents aged 11-16 years at Time 1 self-reported levels of both bullying and victimization in four contexts (in school,…

  2. Victimization, perception of insecurity, and changes in daily routines in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, María Elena; Martínez-Ferrer, Belén; Vera, Alejandro; Bahena, Alejandro; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2016-10-03

    To analyze the relationships between victimization, perception of insecurity, and changes in routines. The 8,170 subjects of both sexes (49.9% women and 50.1% men) aged between 12 and 60 years, selected from a proportional stratified sampling, participated in this study. The measuring instrument was an adaptation of the National Survey on Victimization and Perception of Public Security. Chi-square tests were performed. The results show significant differences on victimization and sex regarding perception of insecurity, restrictions on everyday activities, and protection measures. 13.1% of those interviewed claimed to have been victims of a crime in the past 12 months. 52.7% of women considered their municipality as unsafe or very unsafe. In the case of men, this percentage was 58.2%. Female victims reported significant restrictions in everyday activities when compared to non-victims. In relation to men, the percentage of victims with a high restriction of activities was higher in male victims than non-victims. In the group of victimized women, the segment of women who opted for increased measures of protection against crime was larger than expected, while those of non-victims who took less protective measures was lower than expected. These same results were observed in the group of men. The experience of victimization implies a greater perception of insecurity. However, the climate of insecurity is widespread in a large number of citizens. Gender differences in a high-crime environment show the importance of investigating in depth the roles of both genders in the perception of insecurity and changes in routines. Analizar las relaciones existentes entre victimización, percepción de inseguridad y cambios en las rutinas. Participaron en este estudio 8,170 sujetos de ambos sexos (49.9% mujeres y 50.1% hombres) de entre 12 y 60 años, seleccionados a partir de un muestro estratificado proporcional. El instrumento de medida fue una adaptación de la Encuesta Nacional

  3. Gun Violence Following Inpatient Psychiatric Treatment: Offense Characteristics, Sources of Guns, and Number of Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivisto, Aaron J

    2017-10-01

    This study presents data on the relative contribution to gun violence by people with a history of inpatient psychiatric treatment and on federal efforts to deter presumptively dangerous persons from obtaining firearms, information useful for analyzing the potential public health benefits of gun policies targeting people with serious mental illness. The study also estimates the reduction in gun violence victims that would be expected if individuals with a previous psychiatric hospitalization were prohibited from purchasing firearms. Data from 838 violent gun offenders from a nationally representative sample of state prison inmates were analyzed. Those with and without a history of psychiatric hospitalization were compared on a range of offense characteristics, including relationship to the victim, number of victims, location of the offense, and source of firearms. Inmates with a history of hospitalization constituted 12% of all violent gun offenders and accounted for 13% of the sample's victims. They were less likely than those without a previous hospitalization to victimize strangers (odds ratio=.52) and were no more likely to commit gun violence in public or to have multiple victims. Among those with previous hospitalizations, 78% obtained guns from sources not subject to federal background checks. Of the total 1,041 victims of gun violence, only 3% were victimized by participants with a history of hospitalization who obtained guns from currently regulated sources. Prohibiting all individuals with a history of psychiatric hospitalization from purchasing firearms, absent expanded background checks, was estimated to reduce the number of gun violence victims by only 3%.

  4. Does cortisol moderate the environmental association between peer victimization and depression symptoms? A genetically informed twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendgen, Mara; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Lupien, Sonia; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2017-10-01

    Many youths who are victimized by peers suffer from depression symptoms. However, not all bullying victims show depression symptoms and individuals' biological sensitivity may play an important moderating role in this regard. In line with this notion, peer victimization has been associated with increased depressive symptoms in youth with higher basal cortisol secretion. It is unclear, however, whether this moderating effect of cortisol really concerns the environmental effect of peer victimization on depression. Indeed, genetic factors can also influence individuals' environmental experiences, including peer victimization, and part of these genetic factors may be those associated with depression. Using a genetically informed design based on 159 monozygotic and 120 dizygotic twin pairs (52% girls) assessed at age 14 years, this study examined whether cortisol secretion moderates the environmental or the genetic association between peer victimization and depression symptoms. Salivary cortisol at awakening was obtained with buccal swabs during four school week days. Peer victimization and depression were assessed via self-reports. Cholesky modeling revealed that peer victimization was associated with depression symptoms via both genetic and environmental pathways. Moreover, the environmental association between peer victimization and depression symptoms steadily increased with increasing levels of morning cortisol. The genetic association between peer victimization and depression symptoms also varied, albeit less, as a function of individuals' cortisol secretion. These findings support the hypothesis that peer victimization increases internalizing psychopathology mainly in youth with heightened biological reactivity to environmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Functions of Aggression and Peer Victimization in Elementary School Children: the Mediating Role of Social Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manring, Sam; Christian Elledge, L; Swails, Lisette W; Vernberg, Eric M

    2018-05-01

    This study examined whether social preference was a mechanism that explained the relation between proactive and reactive aggression and peer victimization. Participants were 494 children in grades 2-5. Proactive and reactive aggression was assessed via a self-report measure and indices of social preference and peer victimization were assessed via a peer nomination inventory. Data was collected during the fall and spring of two academic years. The relations among aggression, social preference, and peer victimization varied as a function of aggression and gender. For girls, reactive aggression was a significant negative predictor of social preference. Findings also revealed social preference mediated the relation between reactive aggression and peer victimization for girls. This pathway did not hold for boys. There was some evidence that proactive aggression was negatively associated with peer victimization, but only for girls. Findings from the current study suggest social preference may be a key mechanism through which reactive aggression is associated with future victimization for girls. Boys' aggression was not related to subsequent peer victimization. Future research and intervention efforts should consider gender differences and the function of aggression when investigating children's peer victimization experiences.

  6. Prevalence of and risk factors for sexual victimization in college women in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Jocelyn A; Lehrer, Vivian L; Lehrer, Evelyn L; Oyarzún, Pamela B

    2007-12-01

    To date, no quantitative studies have examined the prevalence or correlates of sexual violence among college students in Chile. An anonymous survey with questions on gender-based violence, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, and childhood experiences with violence was administered to students at a major public university in Santiago. Descriptive statistics were generated to determine the prevalence and context of sexual victimization experienced by female students, and ordered logit models were used to identify associated risk factors. Nine percent of subjects reported that the most severe form of undesired sexual contact they had experienced since age 14 was rape; 6% indicated attempted rape and 16% another form of sexual victimization. Seventeen percent of subjects reported having experienced some form of undesired sexual contact in the past 12 months alone. Alcohol or other drugs had been used in most cases of rape or attempted rape, by the victim (6%), the perpetrator (9%) or both (56%). In four sequential models, factors associated with increased odds of victimization included low parental education (Model 1) and childhood sexual abuse (Models 3 and 4); the association between witnessing domestic violence and victimization attained marginal significance (Model 2). Attending religious services during adolescence was associated with reduced odds of victimization (Models 1 and 2). Childhood sexual abuse was the only factor associated with victimization when all variables were included. A substantial proportion of young women in the sample reported experiences of rape, attempted rape or other forms of forced sexual contact, indicating a need for further attention to this public health problem in Chile.

  7. Sexual Victimization and Somatic Complaints in Pregnancy: Examination of Depression as a Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that women with histories of sexual victimization are more likely to experience somatic complaints in pregnancy. However, prior studies have been limited by homogenous samples, have primarily only examined the relationship of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to somatic complaints, and have not examined potential mechanisms explaining this association. Thus, the current study examined the relationship between lifetime sexual victimization history and somatic complaints in pregnancy in an ethnically diverse sample of pregnant women. Additionally, depressive symptoms were examined as a mediator of the sexual victimization-somatic complaints relationship. Women were recruited from the waiting room of a university-affiliated obstetrics-gynecology clinic to complete a study of psychological health and negative sexual experiences. The 407 currently pregnant participants who completed measures of their sexual victimization history, depressive symptoms, and somatic complaints were primarily African American (53.6%), low to middle income (75.4%), and reported an unplanned pregnancy (72%). A total of 27.7% of women had a history of CSA and/or adolescent/adult sexual assault. Mediation analyses using bootstrapping supported depression as a significant mediator of the relationship between sexual victimization and somatic complaints, with a medium-sized effect (κ(2) = .09). Having a history of sexual victimization is associated with risk for poor mental and physical health during pregnancy. There are likely multiple mechanisms explaining the association between sexual victimization and somatic complaints in pregnancy, which should be investigated in future research. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. INTERACTION STRATEGIES GENERATED BY KIDNAPPER TOWARD THE VICTIM DURING CAPTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONARDO ALBERTO RODRÍGUEZ CELY

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to make a descriptive analysis of the interaction strategies used by the kidnapper withthe victim during captivity, based on information taken from selected documents containing the victim testimonies.Information was supplemented with data from bibliographic references, profound interviews to GAULAgroup members. Document content was analyzed by confronting the three information sources. The findingswere that there is not a single but a multiple type of kidnappers: kidnappers, persons taking care, commanders,negotiators and suppliers. Likewise, it was evident that the type of relationship that the kidnapper establisheswith the victim varies depending on his/her hierarchy in the group, the roll played, age, education, ideal-drivingmotivations and the empathy with the person kidnapped. Other important variables of the study were: kidnappingstage, location, duration and releasing aspects.

  9. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims...... shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD diagnosis based solely on the three core symptom clusters was best identified by a subclinical ASD diagnosis based on all ASD criteria except dissociation. However, a full PTSD diagnosis including the A2 and F criteria was best identified by classifying...... on ASD severity and sexual problems following the rape accounted for only 28% of the PTSD severity variance. In conclusion, the ASD diagnosis is not an optimal method for identifying those most at risk for PTSD. It remains to be seen whether a better way can be found....

  10. The identifiable victim effect in charitable giving: evidence from a natural field experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Tine; Rasmussen, O. D.

    2014-01-01

    or a statistical victim. Unlike much previous research, which has used only laboratory experiments, we find that the campaign letter focusing on one identifiable victim did not result in significantly larger donations than the campaign letter focusing on the statistical victim. In addition to the role......We design a natural field experiment to enhance our understanding of the role of the identifiable victim effect in charitable giving. Using direct mail solicitations to 25797 prior donors of a nonprofit charity, we tested the responsiveness of donors to make a contribution to either an identifiable...... campaigns. We find some evidence of crowding out, indicating that charitable giving could be a zero-sum game; however, the treatment letters did not have different effects on other payments....

  11. Electronic Bullying and Victimization and Life Satisfaction in Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Page Malmsjo; Huebner, E. Scott; Hills, Kimberly J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the nature and prevalence of electronic bullying and victimization in a sample of middle school students in a southeastern USA school. Relationships among measures of electronic bullying and victimization and global and domain-specific life satisfaction were also investigated. A total of 855 7th and 8th grade US students…

  12. Incidence and Outcomes of Dating Violence Victimization Among High School Youth: The Role of Gender and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Katie M

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine rates of dating violence (DV) victimization and DV victimization outcomes as a function of sex and sexual orientation. Participants were 25,122 high school students who participated in the 2013 New Hampshire Youth Risk Behavior Survey study. Heterosexual youth, especially heterosexual male youth, were less likely to report experiencing physical and sexual DV victimization than lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) girls and boys. Among LGBQ girls and boys, there was little variability in rates of DV victimization with the exception of questioning boys being significantly more likely to experience physical and sexual DV victimization than several other LGBQ sub-groups. Furthermore, LGBQ DV victims reported worse outcomes than heterosexual DV victims on measures of depression, binge drinking, and poor academic performance. At the sub-group level, bisexual and questioning female victims were most at risk for depression; bisexual and questioning male victims were most at risk for binge drinking; bisexual male victims were most at risk for poor academic performance. The findings underscore the importance of better understanding variability in DV incidence and outcomes within the LGBQ population and using this information to inform clinical intervention and prevention efforts.

  13. Online gaming and risks predict cyberbullying perpetration and victimization in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Miao, Nae-Fang; Chen, Ping-Hung; Lee, Ching-Mei; Huang, Tzu-Fu; Pan, Yun-Chieh

    2015-02-01

    The present study examined factors associated with the emergence and cessation of youth cyberbullying and victimization in Taiwan. A total of 2,315 students from 26 high schools were assessed in the 10th grade, with follow-up performed in the 11th grade. Self-administered questionnaires were collected in 2010 and 2011. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to examine the factors. Multivariate analysis results indicated that higher levels of risk factors (online game use, exposure to violence in media, internet risk behaviors, cyber/school bullying experiences) in the 10th grade coupled with an increase in risk factors from grades 10 to 11 could be used to predict the emergence of cyberbullying perpetration/victimization. In contrast, lower levels of risk factors in the 10th grade and higher levels of protective factors coupled with a decrease in risk factors predicted the cessation of cyberbullying perpetration/victimization. Online game use, exposure to violence in media, Internet risk behaviors, and cyber/school bullying experiences can be used to predict the emergence and cessation of youth cyberbullying perpetration and victimization.

  14. [Unmanned aerial vehicles: usefulness for victim searches and triage in disasters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo Ríos, Manuel; Pérez Alonso, Nuria; Lasheras Velasco, Joaquín; Juguera Rodríguez, Laura; López Ayuso, Belén; Muñoz Solera, Rubén; Martínez Riquelme, Carolina; Nieto Fernández-Pacheco, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the influence of drones equipped with thermal cameras for finding victims and aiding triage during disasters. We carried out a prospective, cross-sectional analysis and 6 experimental simulations, each with 25 victims to locate and triage. Nurses were randomized to a control group or a drone group. Drone-group nurses were given access to images from the thermal cameras 10 minutes before the exercise started. The mean (SD) distance the nurses searched in the control group (1091.11 [146.41] m) was significantly greater than the distance searched by nurses in the drone group (920 [ 71.93] m (P = .0031). The control group found a mean of 66.7% of the victims, a significantly smaller percentage than the drone group's mean of 92% (P = .0001). Triage quality (undertriage and overtriage) was similar in the 2 groups as shown by maneuvers undertaken to open airways and control bleeding. Drones with thermal cameras were useful in searching for victims of simulated disasters in this study, although they had no impact on the quality of the nurses' triage.

  15. Moral judgments and emotions in contexts of peer exclusion and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Malti, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Morality is at the core of social development. How individuals treat one another, develop a sense of obligation toward others regarding equality and equity, and understand the emotions experienced by victims and victimizers, are essential ingredients for healthy development, and for creating a just and civil society. In this chapter, we review research on two forms of social exclusion, intergroup exclusion and interpersonal victimization, from a moral development perspective, identifying distinctions as well as areas of overlap and intersections. Intergroup exclusion (defined as exclusion based on group membership, such as gender, race, ethnicity, and nationality) is most often analyzed at the group level in contrast to interpersonal victimization (defined as the repeated infliction of physical and psychological harm on another) which is most often analyzed at the individual level. In this chapter, we assert that research needs to examine both group-level and individual-level factors for intergroup and interpersonal exclusion and that moral development provides an important framework for investigating these phenomena. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cyber victimization by peers: Prospective associations with adolescent social anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landoll, Ryan R; La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S; Chan, Sherilynn F; Herge, Whitney M

    2015-07-01

    Peer victimization that occurs via electronic media, also termed cybervictimization, is a growing area of concern for adolescents. The current study evaluated the short-term prospective relationship between cybervictimization and adolescents' symptoms of social anxiety and depression over a six-week period. Participants were 839 high-school aged adolescents (14-18 years; 58% female; 73% Hispanic White), who completed measures of traditional peer victimization, cybervictimization, depression, and social anxiety at two time points. Findings supported the distinctiveness of cybervictimization as a unique form of peer victimization. Furthermore, only cybervictimization was associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms over time, and only relational victimization was associated with increased social anxiety over time, after controlling for the comorbidity of social anxiety and depression among youth. Cybervictimization appears to be a unique form of victimization that contributes to adolescents' depressive symptoms and may be important to target in clinical and preventive interventions for adolescent depression. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. THE ONLINE AND OFFLINE BULLYING: VICTIMS VERSUS AGGRESSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA VELICU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I shall analyze – using data from the EU Kids Online II project – the spread and the impact of online and offline bullying among children and teenagers (9 to 16 year old. I will start with an overview of what cyber bullying and online bullying are in the context of, on one hand, the risks of the Internet and on the other, of the aggressive behavior in general, regardless its channel of manifestation. In the second half, I analyze the online bullying data for Romania. Upon the theoretical set from the first part, the goal of the empirical data analysis is to sketch of victims and aggressors in terms of age, gender and socioeconomic status, complemented with some psychological and behavioral features. Some of the key questions I sought an answer were: are the kids involved in such phenomena “prone” to a certain role (victim or aggressor or the roles can be reversed? Is there a connection between their Internet user features (length of daily time online, variety of activities, level of digital literacy and their involvement in bullying (online and offline as victim and/or aggressor?

  18. The Challenges Facing Domestic Violence Victims in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flutura TAHIRAJ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of domestic violence cases that are reported officially in Kosovo does not represent the real situation. The cases that are reported do not get the expected support by the relevant institutions. The concerning situation on the lack of protection for the domestic violence victims keeps being reported by Non-governmental organizations that work on protection of women’s rights. The paper is based on the literature review, statistical data, surveys, and interviews. The results show women hesitate to report the violence against them. The relevant institutions, mainly police and the courts do not implement the dispositions of the applicable laws accordingly to ensure protection of the domestic violence victims. In few cases, the protection order petitions were neglected, and this negligence in one of the cases resulted having the perpetrator kill the victim. It shows that there should be a stricter monitoring of implementation of the applicable laws and not permit the cultural approach toward domestic violence be part of the institutions and have impact in their decisions. That would directly enable Kosovo society change the perception and raise the awareness that the perpetrators of the domestic violence shall get the relevant punishment.

  19. Direct and vicarious violent victimization and juvenile delinquency: an application of general strain theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Hsu; Cochran, John K; Mieczkowski, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Using a national probability sample of adolescents (12–17), this study applies general strain theory to how violent victimization, vicarious violent victimization, and dual violent victimization affect juvenile violent/property crime and drug use. In addition, the mediating effect and moderating effect of depression, low social control, and delinquent peer association on the victimization–delinquency relationship is also examined. Based on SEM analyses and contingency tables, the results indicate that all three types of violent victimization have significant and positive direct effects on violent/property crime and drug use. In addition, the expected mediating effects and moderating effects are also found. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  20. Prise en charge post exposition des victimes d'agression par un ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The number of victims of aggression by an animal are growing in Burkina. Each year more than 5000 cases of attacks by animals are notified by the anti rabies treatment centers in the country. The study is to describe the post aggression management of victims of the town of Ouagadougou. It is a retrospective descriptive ...

  1. The Right of Child Victims of Armed Conflict to Reintegration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Article 39 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child provides for the right to recovery and reintegration of child victims of armed conflict. In this publication an explanation is tendered of when children are considered to be victims of armed conflict. Specific reference is made to the question of whether or not a former child ...

  2. Criminal victimization and psychotic experiences: cross-sectional associations in 35 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVylder, J E; Kelleher, I; Oh, H; Link, B G; Yang, L H; Koyanagi, A

    2018-04-22

    Criminal victimization has been associated with elevated risk for psychotic symptoms in the United Kingdom, but has not been studied in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Understanding whether crime exposure may play a role in the social etiology of psychosis could help guide prevention and intervention efforts. We tested the hypothesis that criminal victimization would be associated with elevated odds of psychotic experiences in 35 LMICs (N = 146 999) using cross-sectional data from the World Health Organization World Health Survey. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to test for associations between criminal victimization and psychotic experiences. Victimization was associated with greater odds of psychotic experiences, OR (95% CI) = 1.72 (1.50-1.98), and was significantly more strongly associated with psychotic experiences in non-urban, OR (95% CI) = 1.93 (1.60-2.33), compared to urban settings, OR (95% CI) = 1.48 (1.21-1.81). The association between victimization and psychosis did not change across countries with varying aggregated levels of criminal victimization. In the largest ever study of victimization and psychosis, the association between criminal victimization and psychosis appears to generalize across a range of LMICs and, therefore, across nations with a broad range of crime rates, degree of urban development, average per capita income, and racial/ethnic make-up. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Victimization of women as a consequence of feminization of migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović Nikola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind the increased exposure of migrant women to victimization, this article analyses the etiology of feminization of migration and phenomenology of victimization of migrant women, particularly focusing on the abuse of female domestic workers and trafficking in women for sexual and labor exploitation. The main objective of this article is to offer suggestions for improving the position of female migrants by analyzing the causes and forms of their victimization. The main causes of feminization of migration include: 1 poverty, unemployment and poor economic conditions, 2 different forms of gender based violence, including domestic violence and sexual violence, and 3 gender inequality in access to education and information. In the context of phenomenology of feminization of migration the article considers as a main problem - unequal position of female migrants at the labor market, which is related to various forms of their discrimination. In order to eliminate discrimination of female migrants, it is concluded that it is crucial to improve employment conditions in countries of destination in terms of providing migrant women with the access to professional training, retraining and legal protection in case of unjustified termination of employment. On the other hand, because of the fact that female migrants are exposed to trafficking in women for sexual and labor exploitation in countries of destination, the states should provide the possibility of granting them a temporary residence permit during criminal proceedings against traffickers, in order to avoid secondary victimization of female victims of trafficking. In this regard, the main task of the international community must be a continuous and persistent struggle against all forms of discrimination against migrant women.

  4. Victimisation and suicide ideation in the TRAILS study : Specific vulnerabilities of victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herba, C.M.; Ferdinand, R.F.; Stijnen, T.; Veenstra, R.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.

    Background: Scientific studies have provided some support for a link between being a victim of bullying and suicide ideation. We examine whether (1) parental psychopathology and (2) feelings of rejection (at home and at school) exacerbate vulnerability to suicide ideation in victims of bullying

  5. Examining the Relationship Between School Climate and Peer Victimization Among Students in Military-Connected Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pedro, Kris Tunac; Astor, Ron Avi; Gilreath, Tamika; Benbenishty, Rami; Berkowitz, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    In the Iraq and Afghanistan war context, studies have found that military-connected youth- youth with parents and/or siblings serving in the military-have higher rates of school victimization than their nonmilitary-connected peers. A positive school climate-where students perceive high levels of school connectedness, caring relationships and high expectations from adults, and meaningful participation-is associated with lower rates of victimization in secondary public schools. Based on a survey of 7th, 9th, and 11th grade students (N =14,493) enrolled in 6 military-connected school districts (districts that have a significant proportion of military-connected students), this study explores victimization rates and the role of school climate, deployment, and school transitions in the victimization of military-connected students and their civilian peers. The findings indicate that deployment and school transitions were significant predictors of physical violence and nonphysical victimization. In addition, multiple school climate factors were significantly associated with physical violence and nonphysical victimization. The authors conclude with a discussion of future directions for research on school climate, victimization, and military-connected youth.

  6. Police Victimization Among Persons Who Inject Drugs Along the U.S.-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, Miguel; Burgos, Jose Luis; Zuniga, Maria Luisa; Perez, Ramona; Macera, Caroline A; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2015-09-01

    Problematic policing practices are an important driver of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in the U.S.-Mexico border region. This study identifies factors associated with recent (i.e., past 6 months) police victimization (e.g., extortion, physical and sexual violence) in the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. From 2011 to 2013, 733 PWID (62% male) were recruited in Tijuana and completed a structured questionnaire. Eligible participants were age 18 years or older, injected illicit drugs within the past month, and spoke Spanish or English. Multivariable logistic regression analyses identified correlates of recent experiences of police victimization (e.g., bribes, unlawful confiscation, physical and sexual violence). Overall, 56% of PWID reported a recent police victimization experience in Tijuana. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, factors independently associated with recent police victimization included recent injection of methamphetamine (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.62; 95% CI [1.18, 2.21]) and recently received injection assistance by a "hit doctor" (AOR = 1.56; 95% CI [1.03, 2.36]). Increased years lived in Tijuana (AOR = 0.98 per year; 95% CI [0.97, 0.99]) and initiating drug use at a later age (AOR = 0.96 per year; 95% CI [0.92, 0.99]) were inversely associated with recent police victimization. Physical drugusing markers may increase PWID susceptibility to police targeting and contribute to experiences of victimization. Interventions aimed at reducing police victimization events in the U.S.-Mexico border region should consider PWID's drug-using behaviors. Reducing problematic policing practices may be a crucial public health strategy to reduce HIV risk among PWID in this region.

  7. Children's peer violence perpetration and victimization: Prevalence and associated factors among school children in Afghanistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julienne Corboz

    Full Text Available Child peer violence is a global problem and seriously impacts children's physical and psychological health, and their education outcomes. There are few research studies on children's peer violence available in South Asian countries, particularly in Afghanistan. This paper describes the prevalence of children's peer violence perpetration and victimization and associated factors among school children in Afghanistan.A total of 770 children were recruited into a baseline study conducted as part of an intervention evaluation in 11 schools (seven girls' and four boys' schools. All children were interviewed with a questionnaire developed for the study. The main outcome is a three-level peer violence variable consisting of (a no violence, (b victimization only, or (c perpetration (with or without victimization. Peer violence victimization was measured through the Multidimensional Peer-Victimization Scale, and peer violence perpetration was measured through an adjusted version of the same scale with wording changed to measure perpetration.49.7% of boys and 43.3% of girls reported having experienced more than one instance of violence victimization in the past month, and 31.7% of boys and 17.6% of girls disclosed perpetration of more than one instance of violence in the past month, with considerable overlap found between experience of victimization and perpetration, particularly among boys. Multinomial models of factors associated with peer violence show that for boys, food insecurity was associated with perpetration of peer violence but not with victimization, and experiencing corporal punishment at school in the last month was significantly associated with both peer victimization and perpetration. For girls, food insecurity, more depressive symptoms and experiencing any beating at home were associated with both violence victimization and perpetration. Having a disability was associated with victimization only, and having witnessed their father fighting

  8. Children's peer violence perpetration and victimization: Prevalence and associated factors among school children in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corboz, Julienne; Hemat, Osman; Siddiq, Wahid; Jewkes, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Child peer violence is a global problem and seriously impacts children's physical and psychological health, and their education outcomes. There are few research studies on children's peer violence available in South Asian countries, particularly in Afghanistan. This paper describes the prevalence of children's peer violence perpetration and victimization and associated factors among school children in Afghanistan. A total of 770 children were recruited into a baseline study conducted as part of an intervention evaluation in 11 schools (seven girls' and four boys' schools). All children were interviewed with a questionnaire developed for the study. The main outcome is a three-level peer violence variable consisting of (a) no violence, (b) victimization only, or (c) perpetration (with or without victimization). Peer violence victimization was measured through the Multidimensional Peer-Victimization Scale, and peer violence perpetration was measured through an adjusted version of the same scale with wording changed to measure perpetration. 49.7% of boys and 43.3% of girls reported having experienced more than one instance of violence victimization in the past month, and 31.7% of boys and 17.6% of girls disclosed perpetration of more than one instance of violence in the past month, with considerable overlap found between experience of victimization and perpetration, particularly among boys. Multinomial models of factors associated with peer violence show that for boys, food insecurity was associated with perpetration of peer violence but not with victimization, and experiencing corporal punishment at school in the last month was significantly associated with both peer victimization and perpetration. For girls, food insecurity, more depressive symptoms and experiencing any beating at home were associated with both violence victimization and perpetration. Having a disability was associated with victimization only, and having witnessed their father fighting and

  9. Children's peer violence perpetration and victimization: Prevalence and associated factors among school children in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemat, Osman; Siddiq, Wahid; Jewkes, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Background Child peer violence is a global problem and seriously impacts children’s physical and psychological health, and their education outcomes. There are few research studies on children’s peer violence available in South Asian countries, particularly in Afghanistan. This paper describes the prevalence of children’s peer violence perpetration and victimization and associated factors among school children in Afghanistan. Methods A total of 770 children were recruited into a baseline study conducted as part of an intervention evaluation in 11 schools (seven girls’ and four boys’ schools). All children were interviewed with a questionnaire developed for the study. The main outcome is a three-level peer violence variable consisting of (a) no violence, (b) victimization only, or (c) perpetration (with or without victimization). Peer violence victimization was measured through the Multidimensional Peer-Victimization Scale, and peer violence perpetration was measured through an adjusted version of the same scale with wording changed to measure perpetration. Results 49.7% of boys and 43.3% of girls reported having experienced more than one instance of violence victimization in the past month, and 31.7% of boys and 17.6% of girls disclosed perpetration of more than one instance of violence in the past month, with considerable overlap found between experience of victimization and perpetration, particularly among boys. Multinomial models of factors associated with peer violence show that for boys, food insecurity was associated with perpetration of peer violence but not with victimization, and experiencing corporal punishment at school in the last month was significantly associated with both peer victimization and perpetration. For girls, food insecurity, more depressive symptoms and experiencing any beating at home were associated with both violence victimization and perpetration. Having a disability was associated with victimization only, and having witnessed

  10. Victimization of people by natural disasters: Spatial and temporal distribution of consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijalković Saša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a descriptive statistical analysis of geospatial and temporal distributions of victimized people (killed, injured, affected and damage with specific reference to geophysical, meteorological, climatological, biological and hydrological disasters that have occurred in the world of from 1900 to 2013 year. In addition, people affected by the various natural disasters could be classified as invisible victims as they are not recognized as victims either by the state or society, and consequently they do not receive adequate protection, assistance and support. Statistical research was conducted on data from the international database of the Centre for Research on Disaster Epidemiology Disaster (CRED in Brussels. Temporal analysis examined the distribution and effects of natural disasters on people, at intervals of ten years. The same methodology was adopted for analyses of geospatial distribution of victimized people because of natural disasters by continent. The aim of the research is to determine the geospatial and temporal distribution of victimization of people with natural disasters in the world geospace in the period from 1900 to 2013. The survey results clearly indicate an increase in the number and severity of the consequences of natural disasters. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179044: Razvoj metodologije evidentiranja kriminaliteta kao osnova kreiranja efikasnih mera za njegovo suzbijanje i prevenciju

  11. Fifth-grade children's daily experiences of peer victimization and negative emotions: moderating effects of sex and peer rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Michael T; Hubbard, Julie A; Barhight, Lydia J; Thomson, Amanda K

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the relations of fifth-grade children's (181 boys and girls) daily experiences of peer victimization with their daily negative emotions. Children completed daily reports of peer victimization and negative emotions (sadness, anger, embarrassment, and nervousness) on up to eight school days. The daily peer victimization checklist was best represented by five factors: physical victimization, verbal victimization, social manipulation, property attacks, and social rebuff. All five types were associated with increased negative daily emotions, and several types were independently linked to increased daily negative emotions, particularly physical victimization. Girls demonstrated greater emotional reactivity in sadness to social manipulation than did boys, and higher levels of peer rejection were linked to greater emotional reactivity to multiple types of victimization. Sex and peer rejection also interacted, such that greater rejection was a stronger indicator of emotional reactivity to victimization in boys than in girls.

  12. Comparison of Psychopathological Symptoms in Adolescents Who Experienced Sexual Violence as a Victim and/or as a Perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlert, Jeannine; Seidler, Corinna; Rau, Thea; Fegert, Jörg; Allroggen, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Research on sexual violence victims and perpetrators indicates that victims in general are found to report higher levels of psychopathological symptoms, especially internalizing behavior, whereas perpetrators often show externalizing behavior. Little is known, however, about the psychopathology of perpetrators of sexual violence who have also experienced sexual victimization (victim-perpetrators). Thus, the aim of the current study was to examine this group within a sample of adolescents living in residential care or federal boarding schools. Participants reported their lifetime experience with sexual violence (both as victim and perpetrator) and completed the Youth Self Report. Results indicate that all three groups of adolescents with sexual violence experience report higher total problem scores than adolescents without this experience. Victim-perpetrators show results more similar to those of perpetrators only than those of victims only. The discussion deals with the implications of our findings for the treatment of victims of sexual violence.

  13. Peer victimization and social phobia: a follow-up study among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Klaus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri

    2013-04-01

    This study examined longitudinal associations between direct and relational peer victimization (DV/RV) and self-reported social phobia (SP) among adolescents from 15 to 17 years of age, controlling for depression and family socioeconomic covariates. A total of 3,278 Finnish adolescents with a mean age of 15.5 years were surveyed at baseline (T1), and followed up 2 years afterwards (T2) their mean age being 17.6 years. In all, 2,070 adolescents were reached for the follow-up. Both types of victimization were assessed with structured questions, SP with the Social Phobia Inventory, and depression with the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory. Socioeconomic covariates were assessed with items from the Life Events Checklist. Frequency of victimization and SP were assessed at T1 and T2, and incidence and persistence from T1 to T2. Longitudinal associations between victimization and SP were examined with three logistic regression analyses with depression and socioeconomic covariates controlled for, with SP, DV, and RV in turn as the dependent endpoint (T2) variables. Among boys a bidirectional association between DV and SP was found with DV both predicting SP [Odds Ratio (OR) 2.6] and being predicted by SP (OR 3.9). Among girls RV predicted SP (OR 2.8), but not vice versa, while depression in turn predicted DV (OR 4.3). Direct victimization and SP have a bidirectional association among boys, while among girls RV increases the risk of subsequent SP.

  14. For Whom Does Hate Crime Hurt More? A Comparison of Consequences of Victimization Across Motives and Crime Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellgren, Caroline; Andersson, Mika; Ivert, Anna-Karin

    2017-12-01

    Hate crimes have been found to have more severe consequences than other parallel crimes that were not motivated by the offenders' hostility toward someone because of their real or perceived difference. Many countries today have hate crime laws that make it possible to increase the penalties for such crimes. The main critique against hate crime laws is that they punish thoughts. Instead, proponents of hate crime laws argue that sentence enhancement is justified because hate crimes cause greater harm. This study compares consequences of victimization across groups of victims to test for whom hate crimes hurt more. We analyzed data that were collected through questionnaires distributed to almost 3,000 students at Malmö University, Sweden, during 2013. The survey focused on students' exposure to, and experiences of, hate crime. A series of separate logistic regression analyses were performed, which analyzed the likelihood for reporting consequences following a crime depending on crime type, perceived motive, repeat victimization, gender, and age. Analyzed as one victim group, victims of hate crime more often reported any of the consequences following a crime compared with victims of parallel non-hate-motivated crimes. And, overall victims of threat more often reported consequences compared with victims of sexual harassment and minor assault. However, all hate crime victim groups did not report more consequences than the non-hate crime victim group. The results provide grounds for questioning that hate crimes hurt the individual victim more. It seems that hate crimes do not hurt all more but hate crimes hurt some victims of some crimes more in some ways.

  15. Developmental associations between victimization and body mass index from 3 to 10 years in a population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualter, Pamela; Murphy, Suzanne M; Abbott, Janice; Gardner, Kathryn J; Japel, Christa; Vitaro, Frank; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E

    2015-03-01

    In the current prospective study, we investigated (1) whether high and low BMI in early childhood puts a child at risk of victimization by their peers, and (2) whether being victimized increases BMI over the short- and long-term, independent of the effect of BMI on victimization. We also examined whether gender moderated these prospective associations. Participants were 1,344 children who were assessed yearly from ages 3 to 10 years as part of the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD). BMI predicted annual increases in victimization for girls aged 6 years and over; for boys aged 7 and 8 years of age, higher BMI reduced victimization over the school year. Further, victimization predicted annual increases in BMI for girls after age 6 years. When these short-term effects were held constant, victimization was also shown to have a three and 5-year influence on annual BMI changes for girls from age 3 years. These short- and long-term cross-lagged effects were evident when the effects of family adversity were controlled. The findings support those from previous prospective research showing a link between higher BMI and victimization, but only for girls. Further, being victimized increased the likelihood that girls would put on weight over time, which then increased future victimization. The implications of these prospective findings for interventions are considered. Aggr. Behav. 42:109-122, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [Female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, 2009-2010: a descriptive study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Arleide da; Cabral Filho, José Eulálio; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the epidemiological profile of female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Northeast Brazil. An observational descriptive and prospective study included all homicides from March 2009 to February 2010 with female victims from Recife, 10 to 49 years of age. A questionnaire was used to record socioeconomic, demographic, and biological risk factors. Relatives of the victims were interviewed, and data were collected from death certificates. We identified 60 homicides during the study period. Most victims were adult women with brown skin color and low schooling and low income. Other characteristics included smoking in 39.7%, alcohol and illicit drugs in 48.3% and 24.1%, respectively, and physical and/or sexual violence in the 12 months prior to the murder in 29.3%. Firearms were used in 69% of these homicides.

  17. Violence against women: featuring the victim, aggression and the author

    OpenAIRE

    Costa Leite, Franciele Marabotti; Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo; Bravim, Larissa Regina; Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo; Lima, Eliane de Fátima Almeida; Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo; Primo, Cândida Caniçali; Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Describing the profile of violence against women regarding aggression, the socio-demographic characteristics of the victim and the perpetrator of the violence. Method: a transversal study of quantitative approach and descriptive analysis. The population consisted of 42 women victims of violence. Results: of the total 42 participants, prevailed in women aged 30-39 years old, with complete high school and family income of 1-3 minimum wages. The physical, psychological and moral viole...

  18. The role and importance of victim surveys in criminal research

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Polat; Serdar Kenan Gül

    2010-01-01

    Due to increasing crime rates, insufficient policies and the limitations of the official statistics, victim surveys are being used as an alternative crime measurement technique. These types of surveys are inspired most of the criminological theories and regarded as a data source especially in shaping the crime policies of the Anglo-Saxon countries. Even though they have developed over time, victim surveys have limitations which create an obstacle in measuring crime. However, these surveys cou...

  19. Abuse Is Abuse: The Influence of Type of Abuse, Victim Age, and Defendant Age on Juror Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Chelsea L; Pica, Emily; Pozzulo, Joanna D

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the role of victim age, defendant age, and type of abuse on mock juror decision making. Mock jurors ( N = 556) read a trial transcript in which a soccer coach was accused of sexual abuse or physical abuse against a player. The victim's age (child, adolescent, or young adult), the defendant's age (young, middle age, or older adult), and the type of abuse (sexual or physical) were varied. Mock jurors provided a dichotomous and continuous verdict and rated their perceptions of the victim and the defendant. Although no differences on mock jurors' dichotomous verdict were found due to victim age, defendant age, or type of abuse, mock jurors provided higher guilt ratings when the abuse was sexual and both the victim and defendant were described as young adults. Similarly, mock jurors rated the victim more positively when the victim was described as a young adult (vs. child) for both sexual and physical abuse cases, and rated the defendant more positively when the victim was described as a child compared with young adult in sexual abuse cases. These findings suggest that mock jurors were largely influenced by victim age, particularly when the victim was described as an adult compared with a child.

  20. Peer Victimization and Social Anxiety: An Exploration of Coping Strategies as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelly M.; Shellman, Alison B.; Osmer, Sarah C.; Day, Susan X.; Dempsey, Allison G.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between recalled peer victimization, coping styles, and current social anxiety. College students (N = 298, 87.9% female) completed a demographic questionnaire, the Recalled Victimization Questionnaire- Revised (RVQ-R), the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE), and the Coping Styles Questionnaire (CSQ).…