Sample records for victims injuries circumstances

  1. Dog bites in The Netherlands: A study of victims, injuries, circumstances and aggressors to support evaluation of breed specific legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.M.R.; Hopster, H.


    As part of an evaluation of Dutch breed specific legislation, data were collected from dog bite victims (1078) and dog owners (6139) using Internet surveys. The incidence rate of dog bites and details of incidents (victims, injuries, circumstances and aggressors) are reported and the justification

  2. Dog bites in The Netherlands: a study of victims, injuries, circumstances and aggressors to support evaluation of breed specific legislation. (United States)

    Cornelissen, Jessica M R; Hopster, Hans


    As part of an evaluation of Dutch breed specific legislation, data were collected from dog bite victims (1078) and dog owners (6139) using Internet surveys. The incidence rate of dog bites and details of incidents (victims, injuries, circumstances and aggressors) are reported and the justification for using breed specific measurements to deal with dog bites are considered. For aggressors, attack records for breed groups and popular breeds were established by calculating breed risk indices using a reference population. Several breeds and breed groups were over- and under-represented in the biting population and there was a mismatch between risk indices and the then-current legislation. Mitigation strategies should not be based on attack records (since this would lead to the rejection of a significant proportion of the canine population) but on the circumstances of the incidents. Preventative measures must focus on a better understanding of how to handle dogs. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Circumstance and outcome of ocular paintball injuries. (United States)

    Greven, Craig M; Bashinsky, Alice L


    To determine the circumstance and outcome of ocular injuries attributable to paintball projectiles. Retrospective interventional case series. Institutional review board approved retrospective chart review of 19 consecutive eyes with paintball injuries with minimum follow-up of 3 months. Ten eyes (53%) had final visual acuity of 20/40 or better, while seven (36%) were 20/200 or worse. Ten eyes were injured in paintball games, (two formal and eight informal), while nine (47%) were injured by accidents or assaults not associated with any "game." Paintball injuries often cause severe and permanent visual loss. Nearly half of these injuries occur outside a war game setting as accidents or assaults.

  4. How Knowledge of Extenuating Circumstances Influences Community Reactions toward Suicide Victims and Their Bereaved Families. (United States)

    Range, Lillian M.; Martin, Stephen K.


    Examined how circumstances of a suicide victim's life may influence people's responses in college students (n=180) who read a fictitious newspaper article about a man who committed suicide following psychological pain, physical pain, or terminal illness. Results indicated that subjects were intolerant of suicide when the victim was suffering from…


    Antabak, Anko; Matković, Nikša; Papeš, Dino; Karlo, Robert; Romić, Ivan; Fuchs, Nino; Madarić, Miroslav; Stilinović, Marina; Stanić, Lana; Luetić, Tomislav


    Clavicle fractures in children occur twice as often as in adults. During a child's growth period they account for 10-15% of all fractures sustained. The questions which should be asked are how these fractures are sustained and under which circumstances are the children injured. In the study 256 children with clavicle fractures treated during the period 2008-2013 were analyzed. The underlying cause and place of injuries were classified using the ICD-10 classification system, using environmental causes of injury. The circumstances were in each case accidental injury. Environmental causes were traffic accidents (V01-V99) or mishaps/accidents (W00-X59). Fracture injuries were caused in traffic accidents in 24 (9.4%), and in mishaps/accidents in 232 (90.6%) children. Of the injuries caused by mishaps/accidents, in 204 children these were caused by falls (W00-W19). In 123 of them the injuries were caused by falls from a ground level, and in 81 were from a greater height. Direct blow injuries, caused by another person or a blunt instrument, weere the causes of fractures seen in 28 children. Place of fracture sustainment was dominantly at home. This was followed by injuries sustained outside in recreational areas, while least were suffered at school or kindergarden facilities. Bicycle riding was the cause of clavicle fractures in 48 children, which was 18.7% of all fractures seen. Sports related injuries and fractures were seen in 47 (18.4%) out of 256 children: 30 in football, 10 in defensive sports (wrestling, judo, karate), three in hockey, while basketball and gymnastics accounted for two each. Preschool children were injured more often while in the care of their parents while school aged children were adaquately protected, but in after-school activities they were often injured. The most common injuries after school were those suffered in traffic accidents and recreational sports activities. In the adolescent period, the most common injuries seen were again those in

  6. The Violent Victimization of Children, Adolescents, Adults, and the Elderly: Situational Characteristics and Victim Injury. (United States)

    Kelsay, James D; Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Tillyer, Rob; Ward, Jeffrey T


    This study explores the nature and outcome of violent incidents experienced by child, adolescent, adult, and elderly victims. Data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) are used to determine whether there are differences in the situational characteristics-including location, time of day, weapons, and the victim-offender relationship-of violent victimization experiences across the 4 age groups, including whether situational characteristics influence the likelihood of victim injury. Results indicate that victim injury is most prevalent among adult victims and that the situational characteristics of violent incidents vary by victim age, as do the correlates of victim injury. These findings suggest that of the nature of violent victimization should be examined within the context of victim age, and supports research by scholars who have proposed a model of developmental victimology to identify age-specific victimization patterns.

  7. Toxicology and circumstances of death of homicide victims in New South Wales, Australia 1996-2005. (United States)

    Darke, Shane; Duflou, Johan


    To determine the prevalence and circumstances of psychoactive substances amongst homicide victims, 485 consecutive cases autopsied at the NSW Department of Forensic Medicine (1/1/1996-12/31/2005) were analyzed. Substances were detected in 62.6% of cases, and illicit drugs in 32.8%. Alcohol, cannabis, opioids, and psychostimulants were most commonly detected. Alcohol and cannabis were both more prevalent amongst males. Mean ages were significantly younger for decedents who tested positive for a substance and for an illicit drug. Cases where death resulted from a physical altercation were more likely to have had alcohol and cannabis present. Illicit drugs were prominent amongst firearms deaths. The proportion of alcohol positive cases increased from 25.0% on Monday to 49.4% for Saturdays/Sundays. Alcohol was more common in incidents in the 0001-0600 h and 1800-2400 h periods. Psychoactive substances appear to substantially increase the risk of homicide, although there are important differences between drug classes in the circumstances of such incidents.

  8. Neck injuries in young pediatric homicide victims. (United States)

    Brennan, Laura K; Rubin, David; Christian, Cindy W; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Mirchandani, Haresh G; Rorke-Adams, Lucy B


    In this study, the authors estimate the prevalence of injuries to the soft tissue of the neck, cervical vertebrae, and cervical spinal cord among victims of abusive head trauma to better understand these injuries and their relationship to other pathophysiological findings commonly found in children with fatal abusive head trauma. The population included all homicide victims 2 years of age and younger from the city of Philadelphia, Pennyslvania, who underwent a comprehensive postmortem examination at the Office of the Medical Examiner between 1995 and 2003. A retrospective review of all available postmortem records was performed, and data regarding numerous pathological findings, as well as the patient's clinical history and demographic information, were abstracted. Data were described using means and standard deviations for continuous variables, and frequency and ranges for categorical variables. Chi-square analyses were used to test for the association of neck injuries with different types of brain injury. The sample included 52 children, 41 (79%) of whom died of abusive head trauma. Of these, 29 (71%) had primary cervical cord injuries: in 21 there were parenchymal injuries, in 24 meningeal hemorrhages, and in 16, nerve root avulsion/dorsal root ganglion hemorrhage were evident. Six children with abusive head trauma had no evidence of an impact to the head, and all 6 had primary cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). No child had a spinal fracture. Six of 29 children (21%) with primary cervical SCIs had soft-tissue (ligamentous or muscular) injuries to the neck, and 14 (48%) had brainstem injuries. There was a significant association of primary cervical SCI with cerebral edema (p = 0.036) but not with hypoxia-ischemia, infarction, or herniation. Cervical SCI is a frequent but not universal finding in young children with fatal abusive head trauma. In the present study, parenchymal and/or root injury usually occurred without evidence of muscular or ligamentous damage

  9. Circumstances Preceding Homicide-Suicides Involving Child Victims: A Qualitative Analysis. (United States)

    Holland, Kristin M; Brown, Sabrina V; Hall, Jeffrey E; Logan, Joseph E


    Homicide-suicide incidents involving child victims can have a detrimental impact on survivors of the violence, family members and friends of the decedents, and other community members, but the rare occurrence of these acts makes using quantitative data to examine their associated antecedents challenging. Therefore, using qualitative data from the 2003-2011 National Violent Death Reporting System, we examined 175 cases of homicide-suicide involving child victims in an effort to better understand the complex situational factors of these events. Our findings indicate that 98% of homicide-suicides with child victims are perpetrated by adults (mostly parents) and propelled by the perpetrators' intimate partner problems, mental health problems, and criminal/legal problems. These events are often premeditated, and plans for the violence are sometimes disclosed prior to its occurrence. Findings provide support for several theoretical perspectives, and implications for prevention are discussed.

  10. Standard of victims and injuries in trauma with motorcycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Soares Simoneti


    Full Text Available Introduction: In Brazil, at least one in nine hospitalized patients was a traffic accident victim. The impact of these numbers implies economic, social and administrative repercussions. Objectives: To raise epidemiological data on victims of traumatic events with motorcycles forwarded to a tertiary level hospital (Conjunto Hospitalar de Sorocaba to describe the injuries and discuss the impact on quality of life of these victims. Method: Prospective study that included trauma victims from accidents with motorcycles, between April and September, 2013, referenced to a tertiary level hospital. For data collection, standardized form was drawn up with trauma scores, mechanism of trauma and description of injuries. Results: A total of 143 patients were analyzed: 83.2% men and 16.8% women, with the predominance of the age group between 20–29 years (49.6%. The use of helmets was reported in 98.5% of cases. The male gender accounted for about 86% in the category of the motorcycle driver. The main mechanisms of trauma were collisions (72.7%, followed by drop of motorcycle (15.4%. The most frequent injuries were bruises (72.9% and cut- blunt injuries (13.8%. The most affected anatomical segments were the arms and legs, representing 83% of the cases. All patients were assessed for Revised Trauma Score (RTS; victims with RTS=12 amounted to 97.9%, suggesting relatively light gravity of most patients. Conclusions: The findings of this study, as the standard majority of victims of accidents involving motorcycles are compatible with the literature. The dominance of the economically active population of the country in as costly and disabling events such as motorcycle accidents implies the need for new strategies in traffic management and public health.

  11. Circumstances around weapon injury in Cambodia after departure of a peacekeeping force: prospective cohort study (United States)

    Meddings, David R; O’Connor, Stephanie M


    Objective To examine the circumstances surrounding weapon injury and combatant status of those injured by weapons. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Northwestern Cambodia after departure of United Nations peacekeeping force. Subjects 863 people admitted to hospital for weapon injuries over 12 months. Main outcome measures Annual incidence of weapon injury by time period; proportions of injuries inflicted as a result of interfactional combat (combat injuries) and outside such combat (non-combat injuries) by combatant status and weapon type. Results The annual incidence of weapon injuries was higher than the rate observed before the peacekeeping operation. 30% of weapon injuries occurred in contexts other than interfactional combat. Most commonly these were firearm injuries inflicted intentionally on civilians. Civilians accounted for 71% of those with non-combat injuries, 42% of those with combat related injuries, and 51% of those with weapon injuries of either type. Conclusions The incidence of weapon injuries remained high when the disarmament component of a peacekeeping operation achieved only limited success. Furthermore, injuries occurring outside the context of interfactional combat accounted for a substantial proportion of all weapon injuries, were experienced disproportionately by civilians, and were most likely to entail the intentional use of a firearm against a civilian. Key messagesThe study took place in Cambodia after a United Nations peacekeeping operation that achieved only limited success in disarmamentA substantial proportion of weapon injuries was inflicted in contexts unrelated to interfactional combatThese injuries were most commonly firearm injuries inflicted intentionally on civiliansWidespread availability of weapons can facilitate social violence PMID:10445922

  12. Time-trends and circumstances surrounding ankle injuries in men's professional football : an 11-year follow-up of the UEFA Champions League injury study


    Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Ekstrand, Jan


    Background Ankle injury is common in football, but the circumstances surrounding them are not well characterised. Aim To investigate the rates, especially time-trends, and circumstances of ankle injuries in male professional football. Methods 27 European clubs with 1743 players were followed prospectively between 2001/2002 and 2011/2012. Time loss injuries and individual-player exposure during training sessions and matches were recorded. Injury rate was defined as the number of injuries/1000 ...

  13. Injury patterns of female homicide victims in South Africa. (United States)

    Mathews, Shanaaz; Abrahams, Naeemah; Jewkes, Rachel; Martin, Lorna J; Lombard, Carl; Vetten, Lisa


    Injury patterns and interpretation of injuries in homicidal deaths are important components of medicolegal autopsies. The objective of this article is to describe the incidence of female homicides and their related injury patterns with reference to autopsy practices in South Africa. A national retrospective mortuary-based study of homicides in women of 14 years and older in 1999 was conducted. Data were gathered from medical legal laboratory records, autopsy reports, and police interviews from a stratified multistage sample of 25 mortuaries. The most common cause of homicide was a gunshot wound injury, with a firearm mortality rate of 7.5/100,000 women, 14 years and older, in 1999, followed by sharp force injury (6.8/100,000) and blunt force injury (6.1/100,000). Gunshot victims were more likely to be African, and those killed by sharp force injury were more likely colored. Significantly, blunt force injury deaths occurred predominantly in intimate partner homicides. A full autopsy was performed only in 70% of cases. An assessment of postmortem reports revealed poor descriptions of the anatomic location of injuries and the specifications of wound dimensions. South Africa has a high female homicide rate that exceeds reported rates with the cause of homicide varying by social group. Assessment of injury description suggests weaknesses in the documentation of injuries at autopsy. This weakens the forensic investigation and undermines the strength of evidence presented in court. Further measures are needed to strengthen forensic pathology services in South Africa.

  14. The Forgotten Disaster Victim: Reducing Responder Injury (United States)


    through research databases provided by the Naval Postgraduate School’s Dudley Knox Library, including databases such as EBSCO, JSTOR , ProQuest, and...Association, U.S. Fire Administration, National Fire Incident Reporting System, National Law Enforcement Officer Memorial Fund Database , and National EMS...Memorial Service Database .46 Their analysis focused heavily on firefighter injuries, for which the largest amount of data was available. Based on their

  15. Peer victimization during early adolescence: an injury trigger, an injury mechanism and a frequent exposure in school. (United States)

    Laflamme, Lucie; Engström, Karin; Möller, Jette; Hallqvist, Johan


    There is a documented effect of peer victimization in school as an injury trigger, but the question of differences between children according to age and sex remains unexplored. Nor do we know the role played by school peer victimization as a direct injury mechanism. The study considered age and sex differences with regard to peer victimization's triggering effect on physical injury, its direct relation to injury (i.e. physical violence), and its age- and gender-specific frequency and manner of occurrence. Data were gathered through structured interviews with children aged 10-15 years, residing in Stockholm County in Sweden during two consecutive school years, and who had been hospitalized due to injury (n = 592). Peer victimization operated on injury risk-both indirectly as a trigger of injurious events (most of which are unintentional), and directly as a causal mechanism in relation to intentional physical harm. Further, intentionally injured children frequently knew their offender(s)--often from school--and, in those instances, had been previously victimized by them. There is a quantitative and a qualitative difference in the manner in which occasional and frequent victims are victimized by their peers. Peer victimization impacts on children's safety and is a common element in the school background of many children. Differences between occasional and frequent victims in forms and consequences of victimization are more remarkable than those based on sex and age of the child, with the exception of victimization as a direct cause of injury.

  16. Resisting rape: the effects of victim self-protection on rape completion and injury. (United States)

    Tark, Jongyeon; Kleck, Gary


    The impact of victim resistance on rape completion and injury was examined utilizing a large probability sample of sexual assault incidents, derived from the National Crime Victimization Survey (1992-2002), and taking into account whether harm to the victim followed or preceded self-protection (SP) actions. Additional injuries besides rape, particularly serious injuries, following victim resistance are rare. Results indicate that most SP actions, both forceful and nonforceful, reduce the risk of rape completion, and do not significantly affect the risk of additional injury.

  17. The relationship of victim injury to the progression of sexual crimes through the criminal justice system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, Kieran M


    A number of factors are known to influence the progression of sexual crimes through the criminal justice system. The role of victim injury in influencing decision-making at pivotal stages has been addressed by a number of separate research projects. This article consolidates existing research evidence in order to highlight the important role that victim injury plays at each step of the legal process. The importance of accurate diagnosis and recording of victim injury is highlighted. Furthermore, by describing the significant impact that the presence of victim injury can have on the legal outcome, the importance of ensuring that cases without victim injury are correctly interpreted by the police, legal professionals, judiciary and the jury is heavily emphasised.

  18. Victim Injury and Social Distance: A National Test of a General Principle of Conflict. (United States)

    Rennison, Callie Marie; Jacques, Scott; Allen, Andrea


    Our inquiry focuses on why some violent offenses but not others result in injury to the victim. Building on existing theory nested in the paradigm of pure sociology, we propose and test a general principle of conflict: Victim injury varies directly with social distance. This principle predicts that offenders are more likely to harm victims with whom they are less well acquainted and less similar culturally. We test three hypotheses derived from this principle with data from the National Crime Victimization Survey and find little support for the theory. Rather, findings suggest exactly the opposite of that predicted: As social distance between offender and victim increases, the odds of victim injury decreases. Recommendations of additional research are made.

  19. Sociodemographic and Incident Variables as Predictors of Victim Injury From Intimate Partner Violence: Findings From Police Reports. (United States)

    Karlsson, Marie E; Reid Quiñones, Kathryn; López, Cristina M; Andrews, Arthur R; Wallace, Megan M; Rheingold, Alyssa


    Predictors of victim injury from intimate partner violence (IPV) were investigated using 1,292 police reports collected in South Carolina in 2009/2010. All cases were opposite sex adults. Results from bivariate statistics showed that IPV cases with ( n = 649) and without visible injuries ( n = 643) differed on victim gender, victim race, type of relationship, and perpetrator's alcohol use. Results from a logistic regression analysis predicting victim injury showed higher odds ratios for males, Whites, and couples identified as cohabitants. Although most victims, including most injured victims, were Black women, males and Whites were overrepresented in the injured group.

  20. Victimization, aggression, and visits to the school nurse for somatic complaints, illnesses, and physical injuries. (United States)

    Vernberg, Eric M; Nelson, Timothy D; Fonagy, Peter; Twemlow, Stuart W


    To examine how involvement in aggressor-victim interactions is linked to somatic complaints, illnesses, and physical injuries among elementary school-aged children. This study was composed of a school-based sample of 590 children in grades 3 through 5. Independent sources were used to assess victimization (self-report) and aggression (peer report) in the fall semester. School nursing logs for the entire school year were collected in May and coded for the number of times each child presented with a somatic complaint, illness, or injury. Both aggression and victimization were significantly related to all 3 reasons for nurse visits, controlling for demographic variables. Higher levels of aggression and victimization each were independently associated with more frequent visits to the school nurse for somatic complaints, illnesses, and injuries. A significant victimization-times-aggression interaction was found for illnesses, with nonaggressive victimized children presenting most frequently for illness visits. Involvement in aggressor-victim interactions, as either aggressor, victim, or both, is associated with more frequent health complaints, based on school nursing logs. Prevention, early identification, and treatment of problems with victimization and aggression may have important health implications for children.

  1. Injury Pattern Among Non-fatal Road Traffic Crash Victims | Gichuhi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study and analyse the pattern of injuries among non-fatal road traffic crash victims. Design: Retrospective analytical study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi over a six-month period from February to July 2004. Subjects: Road traffic crashes victims treated at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi during ...

  2. The Nature of Bias Crime Injuries: A Comparative Analysis of Physical and Psychological Victimization Effects. (United States)

    Fetzer, Matthew D; Pezzella, Frank S


    The core justification of bias crime statutes concerns whether bias-motivated crimes are qualitatively different from otherwise motivated crimes. We test the hypothesis that bias crimes are more detrimental than non-bias crimes by testing for multi-dimensional injuries to victims of bias and non-bias-motivated criminal conduct. Using National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) Extract 2013 Collection Year Incident-level Extract File, we analyzed physical injuries and psychological trauma to NCVS victims during 2013. We found a range of covariates consistent with the likelihood of physical injury and psychological trauma. These included whether the incident was bias motivated, whether weapons (firearms, knives, other or unknown type of weapons) were involved, whether the incident involved multiple offenders or strangers, or whether drugs or alcohol were involved. Our findings reinforce previous studies that detected empirical evidence of multi-dimensional physical and psychological injuries to bias crime victims. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Time-trends and circumstances surrounding ankle injuries in men's professional football: an 11-year follow-up of the UEFA Champions League injury study. (United States)

    Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Ekstrand, Jan


    Ankle injury is common in football, but the circumstances surrounding them are not well characterised. To investigate the rates, especially time-trends, and circumstances of ankle injuries in male professional football. 27 European clubs with 1743 players were followed prospectively between 2001/2002 and 2011/2012. Time loss injuries and individual-player exposure during training sessions and matches were recorded. Injury rate was defined as the number of injuries/1000 h. A total of 1080 ankle injuries were recorded (13% of all injuries) with lateral ligament ankle sprain being the most common injury subtype (51% of all ankle injuries). The rates of ankle injury and ankle sprain were 1/1000 h and 0.7/1000 h, respectively. The ankle sprain rate declined slightly over time during the 11-year study period (on average 3.1%/season) with a statistically significant seasonal trend (p=0.041). Foul play according to the referee was involved in 40% of the match-related ankle sprains. Syndesmotic sprains and ankle impingement were uncommon causes of time loss (3% each of all ankle injuries). Lateral ligament ankle sprain constituted half of all ankle injuries in male professional football, whereas ankle impingement syndromes were uncommon. The ankle sprain rate decreased slightly over time, but many ankle sprains were associated with foul play. Our data extend the body of literature that provides football policy makers with a foundation to review existing rules and their enforcement.

  4. Psychological injury in victims of child sexual abuse: A meta-analytic review


    Amado, Bárbara G.; Arce, Ramón; Herraiz, Andrés


    In order to assess the effects of child/adolescent sexual abuse (CSA/ASA) on the victim's probability of developingsymptoms of depression and anxiety, to quantify injury in populational terms, to establish theprobability of injury, and to determine the different effects of moderators on the severity of injury, a meta-analysis was performed. Given the abundant literature, only studies indexed in the scientific databaseof reference, the Web of Science, were selected. A total of 78 studies met t...

  5. Psychological injury in victims of child sexual abuse: A meta-analytic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara G. Amado


    Full Text Available In order to assess the effects of child/adolescent sexual abuse (CSA/ASA on the victim's probability of developingsymptoms of depression and anxiety, to quantify injury in populational terms, to establish theprobability of injury, and to determine the different effects of moderators on the severity of injury, a meta-analysis was performed. Given the abundant literature, only studies indexed in the scientific databaseof reference, the Web of Science, were selected. A total of 78 studies met the inclusion criteria: they measuredCSA/ASA victimization or injury in terms of depression or anxiety symptoms, measured the effectsize or included data for computing them, and provided a description of the sample. The results showedthat CSA/ASA victims suffered significant injury, generally of a medium effect size and generalizable, victimshad 70% more probabilities of suffering from injury, and clinical diagnosis was significantly a moreadequate measure of injury than symptoms. The probability of chronic injury (dysthymia was greaterthan developing more severe injury, i.e., major depressive disorder (MDD. In the category of anxiety disorders,injury was expressed with a higher probability in specific phobia. In terms of the victim's gender,females had significantly higher rates of developing a depressive disorder (DD and/or an anxiety disorder(AD, quantified in a 42% and 24% over the baseline, for a DD and AD respectively. As for the type of abuse,the meta-analysis revealed that abuse involving penetration was linked to severe injury, whereas abusewith no contact was associated to less serious injury. The clinical, social, and legal implications of the resultsare discussed.

  6. Bilateral upper limb amputations in victims of high tension electrical injuries: Three case studies

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    Cajetan Nwadinigwe


    Full Text Available Bilateral upper limb amputations result in severe disability. High voltage electrical injury is a rare cause of such an outcome and injuries often occur as occupational hazards. We present three case reports of accidental high voltage injuries that occurred in a non-occupational setting. Victims were all initially managed at other centres before referral to our hospital and all subsequently had bilateral upper limb amputations. The high cost of treatment, importance of prevention, and need for rehabilitation are highlighted.

  7. Characteristics and circumstances of injuries vary with ethnicity of different population groups living in the same country. (United States)

    Tiruneh, Abebe; Siman-Tov, Maya; Radomislensky, Irina; Itg; Peleg, Kobi


    To examine whether characteristics and circumstances of injuries are related to ethnicity. The study was based on the Israeli National Trauma Registry data for patients hospitalized between 2008 and 2011. Data included demographics, injury, hospital resource utilization characteristics and outcome at discharge. Univariate analysis followed by logistic regression models were undertaken to examine the relationship between injury and ethnicity. The study included 116,946 subjects; 1% were Ethiopian Born Israelis (EBI), 11% Israelis born in the Former Soviet Union (FSUBI) and 88% the remaining Israelis (RI). EBI were injured more on street or at work place and had higher rates of penetrating and severe injuries. However, FSUBI were mostly injured at home, and had higher rates of fall injuries and hip fracture. Adjusted analysis showed that EBI and FSUBI were more likely to be hospitalized because of violence-related injuries compared with RI but less likely because of road traffic injuries. Undergoing surgery and referral for rehabilitation were greater among FSUBI, while admission to intensive care unit was greater among EBI. Targeted intervention programmes need to be developed for immigrants of different countries of origin in accordance with the identified characteristics.

  8. Examining the Correlation between Objective Injury Parameters, Personality Traits and Adjustment Measures among Burn Victims

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    Josef Mordechai Haik


    Full Text Available Background: Burn victims experience immense physical and mental hardship during their process of rehabilitation and regaining functionality. We examined different objective burn related factors as well as psychological ones, in the form of personality traits, that may affect the rehabilitation process and its outcome. Objective: To assess the influence and correlation of specific personality traits and objective injury related parameters on the adjustment of burn victims post-injury. Methods: 62 male patients admitted to our burn unit due to burn injuries were compared with 36 healthy male individuals by use of questionnaires to assess each group's psychological adjustment parameters. Multivariate and hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to identify differences between the groups. Results: A significant negative correlation was found between the objective burn injury severity (e.g. TBSA and burn depth and the adjustment of burn victims (p<0.05, p<0.001, table 3. Moreover, patients more severely injured tend to be more neurotic (p<0.001, and less extroverted and agreeable (p<0.01, table 4. Conclusions: Extroverted burn victims tend to adjust better to their post-injury life while the neurotic patients tend to have difficulties adjusting. This finding may suggest new tools for early identification of maladjustment-prone patients and therefore provide them with better psychological support in a more dedicated manner.

  9. Decision model support of severity of injury traffic accident victims care by SAMU 192

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    Rackynelly Alves Sarmento Soares


    Full Text Available Traffic accidents produce high morbidity and mortality in several countries, including Brazil. The initial care to victims of accidents, by a specialized team, has tools for evaluating the severity of trauma, which guide the priorities. This study aimed to develop a decision model applied to pre-hospital care, using the Abbreviated Injury Scale, to define the severity of the injury caused by the AT, as well to describe the features of accidents and their victims, occurred in Joao Pessoa, Paraiba. This is a descriptive epidemiological investigation, sectional, which analyzed all victims of traffic accidents attended by the SAMU 192, João Pessoa-PB, in January, April and June 2010. Data were collected in the medical regulation sheets of SAMU 192. Most of victims were male (76%, aged between 20 and 39 years (60%. Most injuries were classified as AIS1 (62.5%. The model of decision support implemented was the decision tree that managed to correctly classify 95.98% of the severity of injuries. By this model, it was possible to extract 29 rules of gravity classification of injury, which may be used for decision-making teams of the SAMU 192.

  10. Injury episodes and circumstances: National Health Interview Survey, 1997-2007. (United States)

    Chen, Li Hui; Warner, Margaret; Fingerhut, Lois; Makuc, Diane


    The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) provides estimates of nonfatal, medically attended injuries and poisonings occurring in the United States. The objectives of this report are to 1) document changes in the injury and poisoning section of NHIS from 1997 through 2007; 2) provide guidance on summarizing data across the 11-year study period; and 3) present detailed national estimates of nonfatal injury and poisoning episodes for the time period. NHIS samples the civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the United States living in households. NHIS data from the years 1997-2007 were used in this report. Some questions related to injury and poisoning episodes were modified in 2000 and 2004. During the period 1997-2004, many NHIS injury and poisoning questions were improved as a result of cognitive interviewing, data analysis, and feedback from interviewers and data users. Revisions to the NHIS injury and poisoning section pose some difficulties for trend analysis. However, some questions remained the same during the 11-year period, despite the questionnaire revisions. The injury and poisoning section has not been revised since 2004 and, where possible, analyses should be limited to 2004 and beyond. For analyses that require a longer time period, this report provides information on changes to questions and statistics that illustrate the effect of these changes on injury estimates. in 2007, the medically attended injury and poisoning episode rate among the U.S. civilian, noninstitutionalized population was 115.7 per 1,000 population. Despite differences in some questions during the period 1997-2007, NHIS data for these years show falls as the leading cause of injury and the home as the leading place that injury occurred.

  11. Analysis of the nature of injuries in victims of fall from height

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    Magdalena E. Kusior


    Full Text Available Aim of study: To assess the types and extent of injuries sustained by victims of fall from height depending on the height of fall. Material and methods: The study included 338 bodies of victims of fatal falls from different heights (from the 1st to 10th floors who were subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, between 1995 and 2014. For each individual, selected data were collected including gender, age, body height, injury types and presence of alcohol or other intoxicants in blood. The analysis comprised injuries to the brain, thoracic and abdominal organs, fractures of the skull, extremities, ribs and spine, and fractures of the scapula, clavicle and sternum (considered together. The study focused on determining the frequency of occurrence of different injuries in relation to one another and depending on the height of fall. Results : The number and extent of injuries was found to increase along with the height of fall. Three injury types, including injuries to the mesentery and both kidneys and fractures of upper extremity small bones, were shown to occur from the threshold heights of the 3rd, 4th and 6th floors. Eleven injuries demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with the height of fall. The study also revealed a number of correlations between the frequencies of occurrence of different injuries. Conclusions : Injuries found from the threshold value may suggest the minimal height of fall. The presence of injuries which correlate with increasing height, and the overall number of injuries observed in victims of fall from height, may be useful for inferring the height of the fall.

  12. A computer-based analysis of injuries sustained by victims of a major air disaster. (United States)

    Koelmeyer, T D; Beer, B; Mullins, P R


    A computer-based analysis of the injury patterns sustained by victims in the DC-10 aircraft that crashed into Mt. Erebus, Antarctica, On November 28, 1979, is presented. The distribution of these injury patterns supports the hypothesis that at impact the plane was in a nose-high attitude with respect to the slope and the impact point was the underside of the rear section of the fuselage.

  13. Patterns of injury seen in road crash victims in a South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patterns of injury seen in road crash victims in a South African trauma centre. F Parkinson, S Kent, C Aldous, G Oosthuizen, DL Clarke. Abstract. Background. Road traffic crashes (RTCs) account for a significant burden of disease in South Africa. This prospective study reviews basic demographic and outcome data of ...

  14. Cognitive and functional outcomes of terror victims who suffered from traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Schwartz, Isabella; Tuchner, Maya; Tsenter, Jeanna; Shochina, Mara; Shoshan, Yigal; Katz-Leurer, Michal; Meiner, Zeev


    To describe the outcomes of terror victims suffered from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Retrospective chart review of 17 terror and 39 non-terror TBI patients treated in a rehabilitation department during the same period. Variables include demographic data, Injury Severity Scale (ISS), length of stay (LOS) and imaging results. ADL was measured using the Functional Independence Measurement (FIM), cognitive and memory functions were measured using the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA) battery and the Rivermead Battery Memory Test (RBMT), respectively. Terror TBI patients were significantly younger, had higher ISS score and higher rates of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), brain surgery and penetrating brain injuries than the non-terror TBI group. There was no difference in mean LOS, mean FIM values, mean FIM gain and mean cognitive and memory improvement between groups. Terror victims suffered from a higher percentage of post-traumatic epilepsy (35% vs. 10%, p=0.05), whereas the rate of PTSD and the rate of return to previous occupation were similar between groups. Although TBI terror victims had more severe injury, they gained most of ADL functions and their rehabilitation outcomes were similar to non-terror TBI patients. These favourable results were achieved due to a comprehensive interdisciplinary approach to terror victims and also by national support which allowed an adequate period of treatment and sufficient resources as needed.

  15. Penetrating abdominal war injuries among the war victims at Lacor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective study of patients presenting with penetrating abdominal war injuries over a 15-months period was carried out at Lacor Hospital mission hospital in Gulu town in Northern Uganda. Those with major concomitant injuries to the chest, central nervous and musculo-skeletal systems were excluded from the study.

  16. DNA Damages and White Blood Cell Death Processes in Victims with Severe Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz


    Full Text Available Objective. To study the mechanisms of posttraumatic changes in the blood cells, by investigating DNA damages associat ed with hypoxia caused by massive blood loss (BL in severe injury.Subjects and methods. Ninetyfive patients aged 40.6±16.5 years (from 20 to 79 years who had sustained severe mechanical injury with different BL volumes (BLV (from 100 to 4000 ml and hemodynamic disorders were examined to study DNA damages and white blood cell necrotic and apop totic processes. In terms of the victims' weight, the mean BL was 21.5±16.5 ml/kg (from 1.4 to 61.5 ml/kg. The victimswere divided into 4 groups according to BLV: 1 26 victims whose BLV was less than 750 ml (5.93±2.41 ml/kg (grade I BL; 2 23 victims whose BLV was 750—1500 ml (11.5±1.5 ml/kg (grade 2 BL; 3 23 victims whose BLV was 1500—2000 ml (23.8±4.0 ml/kg (grade 3 BL; 4 23 victims whose BLV was over 2000 ml (45.6±10.1 ml/kg (grade 4 BL, according to the type of injury: 1 severe skeletal injury (SSI (n=17; 2 brain injury (BI (n=43; 3 a concurrence of SSI and BI (SSI+BI (n=35; according to the development of infectious complications: 1 69 victims who developed infectious com plications on days 5—7 postinjury; 2 26 victims who did not. To evaluate the impact of hypoxia on DNA damages, white blood cell apoptotic and necrotic processes, the victims were divided into 2 groups: 1 hypoxia (18 of the 95 victims who had 4 altered indicators, such as capillary blood pO2, plasma lactate levels, pH, and BE; 2 no hypoxia (10 of the 95 victims whose indicators were within the normal range. DNA damages and necrotic and apoptotic changes in the white blood cells were assessed by the DNA comet assay. The plasma concentration of extracellular DNA was fluorometrically determined using a QuantiTTM HS DNA Assay Kit (Invitrogen, USA. That of 8hydroxy2deoxyguanosine was estimated by enzyme immunoassay employing an 8hydroxy2deoxyGuanosine EIA Kit (Cayman Chemical, USA. The levels of cas

  17. Severity and treatment of "occult" intra-abdominal injuries in blunt trauma victims. (United States)

    Parreira, José G; Oliari, Camilla B; Malpaga, Juliano M D; Perlingeiro, Jacqueline A G; Soldá, Silvia C; Assef, José C


    to assess the severity and treatment of "occult" intra-abdominal injuries in blunt trauma victims. Retrospective analysis of charts and trauma register data of adult blunt trauma victims, admitted without abdominal pain or alterations in the abdominal physical examination, but were subsequently diagnosed with intra-abdominal injuries, in a period of 2 years. The severity was stratified according to RTS, AIS, OIS and ISS. The specific treatment for abdominal injuries and the complications related to them were assessed. Intra-abdominal injuries were diagnosed in 220 (3.8%) out of the 5785 blunt trauma victims and 76 (34.5%) met the inclusion criteria. The RTS and ISS median (lower quartile, upper quartile) were 7.84 (6.05, 7.84) and 25 (16, 34). Sixty seven percent had a GCS≥13 on admission. Injuries were identified in the spleen (34), liver (33), kidneys (9), intestines (4), diaphragm (3), bladder (3) and iliac vessels (1). Abdominal injuries scored AIS≥3 in 67% of patients. Twenty-one patients (28%) underwent laparotomy, 5 of which were nontherapeutic. The surgical procedures performed were splenectomy (8), suturing of the diaphragm (3), intestines (3), bladder (2), kidneys (1), enterectomy/anastomosis (1), ligation of the common iliac vein (1), and revascularization of the common iliac artery (1). Angiography and embolization of liver and/or spleen injuries were performed in 3 cases. Three patients developed abdominal complications, all of which were operatively treated. There were no deaths directly related to the abdominal injuries. Severe "occult" intra-abdominal injuries, requiring specific treatment, may be present in adult blunt trauma patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genitourinary injuries after traffic accidents: Analysis of a registry of 162,690 victims. (United States)

    Terrier, Jean-Etienne; Paparel, Philippe; Gadegbeku, Blandine; Ruffion, Alain; Jenkins, Lawrence C; N'Diaye, Amina


    Traffic accidents are the most frequent cause of genitourinary injuries (GUI). Kidney injuries after trauma have been well described. However, there exists a paucity of data on other traumatic GUI after traffic accidents. The objective of this study was to analyze the frequency and type of all GUI, by user category, after traffic accidents. Patient cases were extracted from the trauma registry of the French department of Rhone from 1996 to 2013. We assessed the urogenital injuries presented by each of road user's categories. Severity injuries were coded with the Abbreviated Injury Scale and the Injury Severity Score. Kidney trauma was mapped with the classification of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma. Multivariate prediction models were used for analysis of data. Of 162,690 victims, 963 presented with GUI (0.59%). 47% were motorcyclists, 22% were in a car, 18% on bicycles, and 9% were pedestrians. The most common organ injury was kidney (41%) followed by testicular (23%). Among the 208 motorists with a GUI, kidney (70%), bladder (10%), and adrenal gland (9%) were the most frequent lesions. Among the 453 motorcyclist victims with GUI, kidney (35%) and testicular (38%) traumas were the most frequent and 62% of injuries involved external genitalia. There were 175 cyclists with GUI, 70% of injuries involved external genitalia; penile traumas (23%) were the most frequent. In total, there were 395 kidney injuries, most being low grade. According to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma kidney injuries were grade I, 59%; grade II, 11%; grade III, 16%; grade IV, 9%; grade V, 3%; and indeterminate, 2%. GUI is an infrequent trauma after traffic accidents, with kidneys being the most commonly injured. Physicians must maintain a high awareness for external genitalia injuries in motorcyclists and cyclists. Prognostic and epidemiologic study, level III.

  19. A meta-analysis on the relation between peer victimization and adolescent non-suicidal self-injury. (United States)

    van Geel, Mitch; Goemans, Anouk; Vedder, Paul


    Several studies suggest that there are relations between children's or adolescents' self-injurious behaviors and peer victimization. In the current study, a meta-analysis was performed to study the relations between non-suicidal self-injury and peer victimization. Non-suicidal self-injury focuses on self-injurious behaviors without suicidal intent, that result in immediate tissue damage and are not socially sanctioned within one's culture or for display. Using a meta-analysis, effect sizes of existing studies can be statistically summarized, and publication bias and moderators can be analyzed. The databases PsycINFO, MEDLINE, ERIC and ProQuest were searched for relevant articles. Articles were only included if they focused on children or adolescents, if they focused on non-clinical samples, and if they focused on self-injuring behaviors as opposed to thoughts or ideation. We found nine studies with fourteen independent samples and a total of 20,898 adolescents and children reporting on the relation between peer victimization and non-suicidal self-injury. Our analysis showed positive and significant relations between non-suicidal self-injury and peer victimization. Further analyses showed an absence of publication bias. Younger children that were victimized reported significantly more non-suicidal self-injury than older children. By preventing peer victimization we may potentially prevent non-suicidal self-injury in children and adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Penetrating abdominal war injuries among the war victims at Lacor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    duodenum. Site/organ. M. M. M. Discussion. The diagnosis of penetrating abdominal injury is usually obvious. However, it is quite often associated with high morbidity and mortality. In many trauma centres, mandatory lapasotomy is recommended for gunshot wounds of the abdomen irrespective of the clinical signs','s3. The.

  1. Use of Facial Recognition Software to Identify Disaster Victims With Facial Injuries. (United States)

    Broach, John; Yong, Rothsovann; Manuell, Mary-Elise; Nichols, Constance


    After large-scale disasters, victim identification frequently presents a challenge and a priority for responders attempting to reunite families and ensure proper identification of deceased persons. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether currently commercially available facial recognition software can successfully identify disaster victims with facial injuries. Photos of 106 people were taken before and after application of moulage designed to simulate traumatic facial injuries. These photos as well as photos from volunteers' personal photo collections were analyzed by using facial recognition software to determine whether this technology could accurately identify a person with facial injuries. The study results suggest that a responder could expect to get a correct match between submitted photos and photos of injured patients between 39% and 45% of the time and a much higher percentage of correct returns if submitted photos were of optimal quality with percentages correct exceeding 90% in most situations. The present results suggest that the use of this software would provide significant benefit to responders. Although a correct result was returned only 40% of the time, this would still likely represent a benefit for a responder trying to identify hundreds or thousands of victims. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;0:1-5).

  2. The "second injury" to victims of violent acts. 1980. (United States)

    Symonds, Martin


    This paper, originally published in 1980, is a significant contribution to the study of psychological trauma and its treatment; particularly countertransference aspects of that treatment. Initially it was widely cited but then became little known, largely because of the inaccessibility of the original publication. The three major concepts in Symond's approach are: (1) self-hate and shame are the key dynamics in post traumatic distress; (2) ordinary professional attitudes of those who are supposed to help often intensify the traumatized person's self-hate and shame. Martin Symonds called this is the second injury; and (3) to counteract the self-hate and the shame, the professional must adopt a much more active attitude and behavior-in contrast to the previous experience the traumatized individual has had with the world of helpers (including family and friends). Here, Symonds addresses the analysts' vulnerability and shame and their role as active instruments against self-hate and shame.

  3. Emergency Department Visits and Injury Hospitalizations for Female and Male Victims and Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

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    Catherine L. Kothari


    Full Text Available Introduction. The potential for hospital-based interventions for male victims of intimate partner violence (IPV as well as adult perpetrators of both genders has been largely unexplored despite early evidence of acute-care utilization that may be as high as female victims. The current investigation compared the emergency department (ED and injury-related-hospitalization rates of IPV-involved individuals against standardized national norms, assessing differences by gender and victim/perpetrator-status. Methods. This cross-sectional study collected one-year ED and in-patient visit data from hospital records for individuals listed as victim or perpetrator in an IPV criminal charging request in a Midwestern county (N=2,937. Expected rates were calculated based upon age-adjusted national norms. Results. The IPV-involved population generated ED rates 4.1 times higher than expected and injury-related-hospitalization rates that were 4.0 times higher than expected. Bi-directionally-violent individuals (both victim and perpetrator in IPV charges consistently had the highest utilization rates (ED 8.4 RR, injury-hospitalization 22.5 RR. Victims, primarily female, had higher ED-visits than perpetrators, primarily male (victims = 4.6 RR, perpetrator = 3.1 RR. Perpetrators, though, had higher injury hospitalizations (victims = 0.8RR, perpetrators = 5.5 RR. Conclusions. Substantial opportunities exist within acute-care medical settings to intervene with IPV-involved women, men, victims, and perpetrators, although the magnitude of the opportunity varied by setting, gender and victim/perpetrator-status.

  4. Nineteen Victims of Homicide and Attempted Homicide in Sweden-Their Injuries, Cause of Death, and Offender Relationship. (United States)

    Khoshnood, Ardavan; Väfors Fritz, Marie; Ekelund, Ulf


    Victims of homicide and attempted homicide are not uncommon in Sweden. We therefore aimed to study these victims to understand their injuries, their cause of death, and their relationship to the offender. All cases during five years in a district court in Sweden, where an offender had been convicted for homicide or attempted homicide, were identified and the court documents reviewed. Nineteen victims were identified; 14 males and five females, with an average age of 39.1 years. Although knife/sharp weapon was the most common weapon used, the use of firearm caused more deaths. Our study shows higher rates of firearm use than many other countries. The most common anatomical site to be injured by knife/sharp weapon and firearm was the thorax followed by the head. The most common cause of death was hypovolemia, followed by intracranial injuries. The high rate of firearm use shows that firearms are common modus operandi in Sweden often causing lethal injuries, if the offender intends to kill the victim. Our results support other studies showing that it is foremost injuries to the vessels, intracranial injuries, and injuries to intrathoracic organs, which causes a victim's death when assaulted with knife/sharp weapon or firearm.

  5. Adolescent Peer Victimization, Peer Status, Suicidal Ideation, and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Examining Concurrent and Longitudinal Associations (United States)

    Heilbron, Nicole; Prinstein, Mitchell J.


    This study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations among peer victimization, peer status, and self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (i.e., suicidal ideation and nonsuicidal self-injury [NSSI]) over a 2-year period. A community sample of 493 adolescents (51% girls) in Grades 6-8 participated in the study. Participants completed measures…

  6. Adolescent Peer Victimization, Peer Status, Suicidal Ideation, and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Examining Concurrent and Longitudinal Associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heilbron, N.; Prinstein, M.J.


    This study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations among peer victimization, peer status, and self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (i.e., suicidal ideation and nonsuicidal self-injury [NSSI]) over a 2-year period. A community sample of 493 adolescents (51% girls) in Grades 6-8

  7. Risk for Repeat Emergency Department Visits for Violent Injuries in Youth Firearm Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ja Lim


    Full Text Available Objective To identify significant risk factors associated with repeat emergency department (ED. Visits for violent injuries in youth firearm victims. Methods The study subjects of this retrospective cohort study were firearm victims aged 18 and younger presenting to a Pediatric Emergency Department/Trauma Center at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin between 1990 and 1995. The primary outcome was subsequent Emergency Department visits (REDV at any emergency department in Milwaukee for a violent injury. Results A total of 495 subjects were eligible for the present study in the pediatric firearm victim's ED visit database. Eighty-five percent (n = 420 were males and 82% were African-Americans. Mean age was 15 years old (s.d = ±3.6. A majority of them had a single-parent family. Eighty-eight subjects (17.8% had a prior history of ED visit due to violence. During the study time, 201 subjects had at least one REDV. In the multivariable model, a subject without a social worker consulting at the hospital were more likely to have REDV compared to subjects with a social worker consulting (O.R = 1.749; p-value = 0.047, controlling for guardian and disposition. Subjects disposed to detention center or police custody were more likely to have REDV compared to subjects disposed to home or a hospital (O.R = 5.351; p-value = 0.003. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that individuals with guardians, those who did not receive social worker intervention on their initial visit, and those discharged in police custody were associated with increased repeat ED visits due to a violent injury.

  8. Developing a precise questionnaire to elucidate risk factors and injury pattern in RTA victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RK Singh


    Full Text Available Introduction: Road traffic injuries are a growing public health issue. Despite good numbers of traffic legislations/ law/bye-laws/ regulations/ policies at the national/ state level and various safety measures to prevent road accidents/ mishaps, awareness remains comparatively low in India. Till date no questionnaire has been suitably developed, standardized and positivised for determining association of causality with injury pattern and severity score. Objective: To design and develop a précised survey questionnaire determining association of causality with injury pattern along with severity score in RTA victims.  Methodology: Till date no such study has been ventured which has observed the inter relationship of these factors resulting in a specific injury. Designed questionnaire was based on literature review, and updated several times to ensure the precision and agreement with the help of institutional trauma expert team. As a pilot study, 30 RTA victims admitted in trauma centre of KG Medical University were enrolled and designed questionnaire was tested for easiness and doubts. The results were thoroughly analyzed for item difficulty, precision and internal consistency. Results: A significant agreement of question pertaining to speed (k=0.99, CI=0.95, visibility (k=0.87, alcohol (k=0.65 in the questionnaire. Questions related to environment, driver, vehicle and road factors show a significant consistency (p>0.05 as cause of accidents. Test of agreements done by Kappa showed in variables having value more than 0.60 except few variables. Discussion: The designed questionnaire is precise, reasonably reliable in perfect agreement. This questionnaire should emerge a useful tool in determining the association of risk factors with injury pattern and severity. 

  9. Association between victimization by bullying and direct self injurious behavior among adolescence in Europe: a ten-country study. (United States)

    Brunstein Klomek, Anat; Snir, Avigal; Apter, Alan; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Hoven, Christina W; Sarchiapone, Marco; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Kaess, Michael; Postuvan, Vita; Sisask, Merike; Tubiana, Alexandra; Varnik, Airi; Žiberna, Janina; Wasserman, Danuta


    Previous studies have examined the association between victimization by bullying and both suicide ideation and suicide attempts. The current study examined the association between victimization by bullying and direct-self-injurious behavior (D-SIB) among a large representative sample of male and female adolescents in Europe. This study is part of the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) study and includes 168 schools, with 11,110 students (mean age = 14.9, SD = 0.89). Students were administered a self-report survey within the classroom, in which they were asked about three types of victimization by bullying (physical, verbal and relational) as well as direct self-injurious behavior (D-SIB). Additional risk factors (symptoms of depression and anxiety, suicide ideation, suicide attempts, loneliness, alcohol consumption, drug consumption), and protective factors (parent support, peer support, pro-social behavior) were included. The three types of victimization examined were associated with D-SIB. Examination of gender as moderator of the association between victimization (relational, verbal, and physical) and D-SIB yielded no significant results. As for the risk factors, depression, but not anxiety, partially mediated the effect of relational victimization and verbal victimization on D-SIB. As for the protective factors, students with parent and peer support and those with pro-social behaviors were at significantly lower risk of engaging in D-SIB after being victimized compared to students without support/pro-social behaviors. This large-scale study has clearly demonstrated the cross-sectional association between specific types of victimization with self-injurious behavior among adolescents and what may be part of the risk and protective factors in this complex association.

  10. Discriminating real victims from feigners of psychological injury in gender violence: Validating a protocol for forensic setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Arce


    Full Text Available Standard clinical assessment of psychological injury does not provide valid evidence in forensic settings, and screening of genuine from feigned complaints must be undertaken prior to the diagnosis of mental state (American Psychological Association, 2002. Whereas psychological injury is Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, a clinical diagnosis may encompass other nosologies (e.g., depression and anxiety. The assessment of psychological injury in forensic contexts requires a multimethod approach consisting of a psychometric measure and an interview. To assess the efficacy of the multimethod approach in discriminating real from false victims, 25 real victims of gender violence and 24 feigners were assessed using a the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R, a recognition task; and a forensic clinical interview, a knowledge task. The results revealed that feigners reported more clinical symptoms on the SCL-90-R than real victims. Moreover, the feigning indicators on the SCL-90-R, GSI, PST, and PSDI were higher in feigners, but not sufficient to provide a screening test for invalidating feigning protocols. In contrast, real victims reported more clinical symptoms related to PTSD in the forensic clinical interview than feigners. Notwithstanding, in the forensic clinical interview feigners were able to feign PTSD which was not detected by the analysis of feigning strategies. The combination of both measures and their corresponding validity controls enabled the discrimination of real victims from feigners. Hence, a protocol for discriminating the psychological sequelae of real victims from feigners of gender violence is described.

  11. Compensating Victims of Personal Injury in Tort: The Nigerian Experience So Far

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwakemi ADEKILE


    Full Text Available This paper is a critical evaluation of the compensation system for personal injury tort in Nigeria. The present compensation system under the law of tort leaves many victims of personal injury uncompensated in Nigeria. This stems from many factors, including the fact that traditional tort theory of no liability without fault has continued to be the principal basis for liability. This is in spite of the heavy criticisms of the tort regime as an ineffective mode of compensation. Through an analytical assessment of selected core heads of claims in tort, the paper reveals the inadequacy in the foundations of tort law and its regulation of claims for personal injury in Nigeria. Implications: It finds that fault as the primary foundation of tort law in Nigeria creates a large volume of uncompensated plaintiffs, who, without an efficient alternative social security to fall upon, have to personally bear their losses. In the light of this, the paper uses examples from other jurisdictions to recommend that tort law in Nigeria is in need of more legislative intervention. Value: The paper recommends that the provision of a sustainable compensation system for personal injury is imperative for social justice in Nigeria.

  12. Effects of perpetrator identity on suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury in sexually victimized female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unlu G


    Full Text Available Gulsen Unlu, Burcu Cakaloz Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey Purpose: Child sexual abuse and sexual dating violence victimization are common problems that are known to have long-term negative consequences. This study aimed to compare the sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features of female adolescents who were sexually abused by different perpetrators, and identify the factors associated with suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI in these cases. Patients and methods: Data of 254 sexually abused female adolescents between the ages of 12–18 years were evaluated. The cases were classified into three groups, namely “sexual dating violence”, “incest”, and “other child sexual abuse”, according to the identity of the perpetrator. The three groups were compared in terms of sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features. Results: Major depressive disorder was the most common psychiatric diagnosis, which was present in 44.9% of the cases. Among all victims, 25.6% had attempted suicide, 52.0% had suicidal ideation, and 23.6% had NSSI during the postabuse period. A logistic regression analysis revealed that attempted suicide was predicted by dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.053; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.473, 6.330 and depression (AOR =2.238; 95% CI =1.226, 4.086. Dating violence victimization was also the strongest predictor of subsequent suicidal ideation (AOR =3.500; 95% CI =1.817, 6.741. In addition, revictimization was determined to be an important risk factor for both suicidal ideation (AOR =2.897; 95% CI =1.276, 6.574 and NSSI (AOR =3.847; 95% CI =1.899, 7.794. Conclusion: Perpetrator identity and revictimization are associated with negative mental health outcomes in sexually victimized female adolescents. Increased risk of suicidality and NSSI should be borne in mind while assessing cases with dating

  13. Aspiration-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Victims with Isolated Severe Brain Injury

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    Yu. A. Gorodovikova


    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the time and development rate of acute lung injury (ALI in severe brain injury (SBI complicated by aspiration of gastric contents or blood. Subjects and methods. Twenty-nine patients aged 19 to 70 years, who had isolated SBI, of whom there were 24 males and 5 females, were examined. The patients were divided into 2 groups: those with aspiration of gastric contents (n=9 or blood (n=10. A control group included 10 patients with SBI without aspiration. A PiCCO plus device was used to determine pulmonary extravascular fluid. ALI was diagnosed in accordance with the recommendations of the Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Results. SBI patients with aspiration of gastric contents or blood were found to have significantly increased pulmonary extravascular water (p<0.01 and a lower oxygenation index (<300, which correlated with each other. ALI was recorded in the first hours after injury in about 50% of cases in both patients with gastric contents aspiration and those with blood aspiration. Conclusion. In patients with SBI complicated by aspiration of gastric contents or blood, pulmonary extravascular fluid accumulation concurrent with other signs of injury may be regarded as a criterion for acute lung injury. Key words: severe brain injury, aspiration, acute lung lesion.

  14. Dating violence victimization, dispositional aggression, and nonsuicidal self-injury among psychiatrically hospitalized male and female adolescents. (United States)

    Rizzo, Christie J; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Swenson, Lance; Hower, Heather M; Wolff, Jennifer; Spirito, Anthony


    The objective of the current study was to characterize the association between dating violence victimization and dispositional aggression in predicting nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among psychiatrically hospitalized male and female adolescents. One hundred fifty-five adolescents (ages 13-17) and their parents completed the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children clinical interview to assess NSSI and child abuse; adolescents completed self-report measures of aggression and dating violence victimization (verbal, physical, and sexual). Dating violence victimization and NSSI were found to be highly prevalent among both males and females in this psychiatric inpatient sample. Two moderational models were supported, wherein dating violence was associated with NSSI in the context of elevated trait anger in males and indirect aggression in females. Findings suggest that helping victims of dating violence acquire skills to address certain forms of dispositional aggression may attenuate NSSI. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  15. eye injuries among road traffic accident victims in ogun state, nige

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    RTA) victims managed at a referral hospital in Ogun State, Nigeria. Materials and Method: All RTA victims who presented at. Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital (OOUTH) between July 2004 and June 2005; their eyes were examined.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Sheeju


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Motor vehicle crashes are a major cause of fatality all over the world. By 2020, motor vehicle injury is projected to become the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease in the world. Motor cyclists are about 25 times more likely than car occupants to die in Road Traffic Accidents. Data on the incidence and types of crashes is required to guide safety policy. Knowledge of how injuries are caused and of what type they are of valuable instrument for identifying interventions and monitoring the effectiveness of intervention. The present study was done to find out the factors that contribute for motor cycle crashes and to study the injury pattern seen in helmeted and non-helmeted victims. MATERIAL AND METHODS Victims of two wheeler accidents brought for autopsy in a Govt. Medical College were studied from October 2010 to August 2011. Two wheelers include motor cycles, scooters and mopeds. Bicycles were excluded from the study. Accidents include all types; against all types of vehicles running on the road, collision with any object, surface or any animal or fall from vehicle. The details of the accident were collected in a printed proforma from relative/witnesses and from police officials. The injuries were entered in the specific columns of proforma. Data was analysed with MS Excel. RESULTS Death due to head injury is more in non-helmeted (52.5% compared to helmeted drivers (43.8 % whereas injury to chest and abdomen and limbs are more in helmeted. Combination of injuries (Head+Chest+Abdomen predominated in helmeted drivers (18.8% compared to 5% in non-helmeted drivers. Spinal injuries were more in helmeted than in non-helmeted. CONCLUSION The pattern of head injury was analysed in detail in helmeted and non-helmeted drivers. This will help in detailing of pattern of head injury in both groups.

  17. The nature of violence: a multilevel analysis of gun use and victim injury in violent interpersonal encounters. (United States)

    Burgason, Kyle A; Thomas, Shaun A; Berthelot, Emily R


    A large number of studies have examined predictors of crime quantities yet considerably less attention has been directed toward exploring patterns in the nature or quality of violence within and across communities. The current study adds to the literature on qualitative variations in violence by assessing the incident and contextual-level predictors of offender gun use and physical injuries sustained by victims of robbery and aggravated assault. Specifically, we examine incident-level data from the National Incident Based Reporting System in conjunction with contextual-level data on the cities in which the incidents occurred. We use hierarchical linear and nonlinear modeling techniques to explore variations in predictors of offender gun use and extent of victim injury. Supporting cultural effects explicated by Anderson, results reveal certain individual-level predictors are conditioned by community characteristics.

  18. The correlation between stabbing-related upper extremity wounds and survival of stabbing victims with abdominal and thoracic injuries. (United States)

    Rozenfeld, Michael; Peleg, Kobi; Givon, Adi; Kessel, Boris


    When treating patients with stab injuries of the torso, clinicians often lack timely information about the degree and nature of internal organ damage. An externally observable sign significantly associated with characteristics of torso injuries may therefore be useful for practitioners. One such potential sign is the presence of wounds to the hands, sometimes sustained during victims' attempt to defend themselves during the violent altercation. Thus, the primary aim of this study was to evaluate the association between presence of upper extremity wounds and the severity of the thoracic and intra-abdominal injuries due to stabbing. This study was carried out retrospectively using data on 8714 patients with stabbing-related injuries from 19 trauma centers that participated in the Israeli National Trauma Registry (INTR) between January 1st1997 and December 31st 2013. Patients with wounds of upper extremities in addition to torso injuries (UE group) were compared to other patients with torso injuries (TO group) in terms of demographics, injury characteristics and clinical outcome. The compared groups were found to be homogeneous in terms of age and systolic blood pressure; the number of sustained torso injuries was also identical. The UE group comprised a slightly greater percentage of females, however both groups were predominantly male. Patients with upper extremity injuries had a lower proportion of internal organ damage (36% vs. 38.5%) and lower mortality (0.9% vs. 2%). The higher mortality of patients without upper extremity wounds remained significantly different even when adjusted by other epidemiological parameters (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.33-5.08).The number of sustained upper extremity injuries was positively associated with deeper penetration of the torso by the stabbing instrument. Patients with stabbing-related upper extremity wounds had a significant survival advantage over patients without such injuries. However, a greater number of sustained upper extremity

  19. A Snapshot of Serial Rape: An Investigation of Criminal Sophistication and Use of Force on Victim Injury and Severity of the Assault. (United States)

    de Heer, Brooke


    Prior research on rapes reported to law enforcement has identified criminal sophistication and the use of force against the victim as possible unique identifiers to serial rape versus one-time rape. This study sought to contribute to the current literature on reported serial rape by investigating how the level of criminal sophistication of the rapist and use of force used were associated with two important outcomes of rape: victim injury and overall severity of the assault. In addition, it was evaluated whether rapist and victim ethnicity affected these relationships. A nation-wide sample of serial rape cases reported to law enforcement collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) was analyzed (108 rapists, 543 victims). Results indicated that serial rapists typically used a limited amount of force against the victim and displayed a high degree of criminal sophistication. In addition, the more criminally sophisticated the perpetrator was, the more sexual acts he performed on his victim. Finally, rapes between a White rapist and White victim were found to exhibit higher levels of criminal sophistication and were more severe in terms of number and types of sexual acts committed. These findings provide a more in-depth understanding of serial rape that can inform both academics and practitioners in the field about contributors to victim injury and severity of the assault. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Risk factors for recurrent injuries in victims of suspected non-accidental trauma: a retrospective cohort study. (United States)

    Deans, Katherine J; Thackeray, Jonathan; Groner, Jonathan I; Cooper, Jennifer N; Minneci, Peter C


    Many children who are victims of non-accidental trauma (NAT) may be repeatedly evaluated for injuries related to maltreatment. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for repeated injuries in children with suspected NAT. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using claims data from a pediatric Medicaid accountable care organization. Children with birth claims and at least one non-birth related claim indicating a diagnosis of NAT or skeletal survey in 2007-2011 were included. Recurrent events were defined as independent episodes of care involving an urgent/emergent care setting that included a diagnosis code specific for child abuse, a CPT code for a skeletal survey, or a diagnosis code for an injury suspicious for abuse. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine risk factors for recurrent events. Of the 1,361 children with suspected NAT, a recurrent NAT event occurred in 26% within 1 year and 40% within 2 years of their initial event. Independent risk factors for a recurrent NAT event included a rural residence, age < 30 months old, having only 1 or 2 initially detected injuries, and having a dislocation, open wound, or superficial injury at the previous event (p ≤ 0.01 for all). Over 25% of children who experienced a suspected NAT event had a recurrent episode within one year. These children were younger and more likely to present with "minor" injuries at their previous event.

  1. Incidence and severity of head and neck injuries in victims of road traffic crashes: In an economically developed country. (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Rahman, Yassir S Abdul; Mitra, Biswadev


    Head and neck injuries following the road traffic crashes (RTCs) are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in most developed and developing countries and may also result in temporary or permanent disability. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence pattern of head and neck injuries, investigate its trend and identify the severity of injuries involved with road traffic crashes (RTCs) during the period 2001-2006. This is a retrospective descriptive hospital based study. The patients with head and neck injuries were seen and treated in the Accident and Emergency Department of the Hamad General Hospital and other Trauma Centers of the Hamad Medical Corporation following the road traffic crashes during the period 2001-2006. This study is a retrospective analysis of 6709 patients attended and treated at the Accident and Emergency and Trauma centers for head and neck injuries over a 6 year period. Head and neck injuries were determined according to the ICD 10 criteria. Of these, 3013 drivers, 2502 passengers, 704 pedestrians and 490 two wheel riders (motor bike and cyclists). Details of all the road traffic crash patients were compiled in the database of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS), and the data of patients with head and neck injuries were extracted from this database. A total of 6709 patients with head and neck injuries was reported during the study period. Majority of the victims were non-Qataris (68.7%), men (85.9%) and in the age group 20-44 years (68.5%). There were statistical significant differences in relation to age, nationality, gender, and accident during week ends for head and neck injuries (p<0.001). The male to female ratio for head and neck injury was 6.1:1. There was a disproportionately higher incidence of accidents during weekends (27.8%). Majority of the patients had mild injury (87.2%), followed by moderate (7.3%) and severe (5.5%). The highest frequency of head injury was among the young adults 20-44 years (68


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar B. P


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Knowledge and understanding of the epidemiological profile is an essential prerequisite for analysing the public health needs in the country and to enable efficient programme planning and management. Mortality is an important indicator of the magnitude of a health problem, along with that, there are several thousand injury survivors who are left with permanent disability. These nonfatal outcomes must also be measured in order to describe accurately the burden of disease due to injury. Disability is defined as an existing difficulty in performing one or more activities with respect to the subject’s age, gender and social role. The basic components of daily living are self-care, social relations and economic activity. Permanent disability such as paraplegia, quadriplegia, loss of eyesight or brain damage can deprive of an individual’s ability to do these basic needs. Disabilities force the individuals to depend on others for routine physical care and economical support. The aims of the studyPrimary Objectives- 1 To describe the pattern of injury, mechanism of injury and disability pattern among injury victims seeking a tertiary care centre service. 2 The age and gender preponderances. Secondary Objective- To describe the mortality contributed by RTA and mechanism of injury pattern among injury victims in a tertiary care centre. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study Design- Both prospective and retrospective study. Study Period- Inpatient hospital study in orthopaedic ward, Government Medical College, Trivandrum, during the period; 23/09/2008 to 21/10/2009. RESULTS Total persons studied=1357; injured due to fresh trauma= 820; due to sequelae of trauma and other diseases= 537; 4.4% sustained acute soft tissue injuries and the rest were bony injuries. The mortality rate was 0.12% in the one year period. 2.1% were completely cured without any disability. 97.8% had left with some disability during the one year period. 6.8% of injured returned to

  3. Perceptions of Blame in Intimate Partner Violence: The Role of the Perpetrator's Ability to Arouse Fear of Injury in the Victim. (United States)

    Russell, Brenda; Kraus, Shane W; Chapleau, Kristine M; Oswald, Debra


    Men are more likely to be blamed more for intimate partner violence (IPV) than are women who commit the same offense. However, because men are typically stronger and perceived as more physically aggressive than women are, perpetrator sex is confounded with masculinity and the ability to arouse fear in the victim. This study disentangled the construct of gender in understanding bystanders' attributions of blame in IPV. Participants (N = 639) read a scenario in which the perpetrator's sex (male/female) and gender identity (masculine/feminine), and the victim's sex (male/female) were manipulated and rated how much they blamed the perpetrator and the perpetrator's ability to arouse fear of injury in the victim. Results showed that male perpetrators (regardless of gender identity) who assaulted a female victim were attributed the most blame and were perceived as having the greatest ability to arouse victim fear. In contrast, feminine female perpetrators were attributed the least blame and perceived as arousing the least victim fear regardless of the victim's gender. Furthermore, controlling for the perpetrator's ability to arouse fear in the victim resulted in the elimination of the interaction effects for blame. This finding suggests that perpetrators' ability to arouse fear is an underlying factor in bystanders' attributions of blame. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Homicidios en Medellín, Colombia, entre 1990 y 2002: actores, móviles y circunstancias Homicides in Medellín, Colombia, from 1990 to 2002: victims, motives and circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleny Cardona


    Full Text Available En Medellín, Colombia, el homicidio es la primera causa de morbimortalidad desde hace 20 años y sus tasas de mortalidad superan las de grandes capitales de América Latina. Se describen los actores, las circunstancias y los móviles de los homicidios en Medellín entre 1990 y 2002. De los 55.365 homicidios del período se estudiaron aleatoriamente 1.394, el 93,6% (IC95%: 92,2%-94,8% eran hombres, el 77,0% (IC95%: 75,0%-79,5% menores de 35 años, una cuarta parte estaban ebrios y en 9 de cada 10 fueron muertos con armas de fuego. Los principales móviles del homicidio fueron los ajustes de cuentas y los atracos. El 37,0% (IC95%: 34,0%-41,0% de los muertos provenían de los estratos más bajos de la ciudad y el riesgo de homicidio fue mayor a medida que el estrato socioeconómico era menor. Las características de los asesinatos en Medellín han permanecido invariables desde la década de los ochenta, cuando se inició el período de violencia más alto en la historia de la ciudad. Los grupos más afectados son los hombres jóvenes que viven y mueren en los barrios de estratos socioeconómicos más bajos, en hechos individuales que no dejan heridos.In Medellín, Colombia, homicide has been the first cause of morbidity and mortality for 20 years. Medellín has the highest homicide rates of all major cities in Latin America. This study describes the victims, motives, and circumstances in homicides in Medellín from 1990 to 2002. The period included 55,365 homicides, of which 1,394 were randomly studied. Of this sample, 93.6% (95%CI: 92.2%-94.8% were males, 77.0% (95%CI: 75.0%-79.5% less than 35 years of age, one-fourth had consumed alcohol, and nine out of ten were killed with firearms. The main motives were revenge and armed robbery. 37.0% (95%CI: 34.0%-41.0% of the victims lived in the lowest socioeconomic stratum of the city. Characteristics of homicides in Medellín have remained unchanged since the 1980s, when the most violent period in the

  5. The mediating effect of depressive symptoms on the relationship between bullying victimization and non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents: Findings from community and inpatient mental health settings in Ontario, Canada. (United States)

    Baiden, Philip; Stewart, Shannon L; Fallon, Barbara


    Although bullying victimization has been linked to a number of behavioral and emotional problems among adolescents, few studies have investigate the mechanism through which bullying victimization affect non-suicidal self-injury. The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of bullying victimization on non-suicidal self-injury and the mediating effect of depressive symptoms on the relationship between bullying victimization and non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents. Data for this study came from the interRAI Child and Youth Mental Health dataset. A total of 1650 adolescents aged 12-18 years (M =14.56; SD =1.79; 54.2% males) were analyzed. Binary logistic and Poisson regression models were conducted to identify the mediating effect of depressive symptoms on the relationship between bullying victimization and non-suicidal self-injury. Of the 1650 adolescents studied, 611 representing 37% engaged in non-suicidal self-injury and 26.7% were victims of bullying. The effect of bullying victimization on non-suicidal self-injury was partially mediated by depressive symptoms after adjusting for the effect of demographic characteristics, history of childhood abuse, social support, and mental health diagnoses. The contribution of bullying victimization and depression to non-suicidal self-injury adds to the case for the development of trauma-focused interventions in reducing the risk of non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Interrelated harms: Examining the associations among victimization, accidental injuries, and criminal offending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junger, M.; Keane, C.; Van der Heijden, P.G.M.


    Problem. This study investigated the existence of positive associations between criminal behavior (‘offending’), traffic accidents, falls and tripping, and being the victim of a crime. The motivation for the study was that the finding of positive associations would support the thesis that there may

  7. Interobserver agreement of the injury diagnoses obtained by postmortem computed tomography of traffic fatality victims and a comparison with autopsy results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Struckmann, Henrik; Lauritsen, Jens


    The present study investigated the interobserver variation between a radiologist and a forensic pathologist in 994 injury diagnoses obtained by postmortem computed tomography (CT) of 67 traffic fatality victims, and the results were compared with diagnoses obtained by autopsy. The injuries were...... system, but the pathologist diagnosed more organ injuries. We recommend the use of a radiologist as a consultant for the evaluation of postmortem CT images. Training in radiology should be included in forensic medicine postgraduate training. CT was superior to autopsy in detecting abnormal air...... accumulations, but autopsy was superior to CT in the detection of organ injuries and aortic ruptures. We recommend a combination of CT and autopsy for the postmortem investigation of traffic fatality victims....

  8. Injuries and absenteeism among motorcycle taxi drivers who are victims of traffic accidents. (United States)

    Barbosa, Kevan G N; Lucas-Neto, Alfredo; Gama, Bruno D; Lima-Neto, Jose C; Lucas, Rilva Suely C C; d'Ávila, Sérgio


    Facial injuries frequently occur in traffic accidents involving motorcycles. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of facial injuries among motorcycle drivers who perform motorcycle taxi service. The study design was cross-sectional. A total of 210 participants who served as motorcycle taxi drivers in a city in northeastern Brazil completed a survey concerning their experience of accidents involving facial injuries and consequent hospitalization and absenteeism from work. The motorcycle drivers included in the study were randomly selected from a list provided by the city. Out of the respondents, 165 (78.6%) who were involved in traffic accidents in the last 12 months, 15 (9.1%) reported facial injuries. The types of facial injury most frequently reported involved soft tissues (n = 8; 53.3%), followed by simple fracture (n = 4; 26.7%) and dentoalveolar fracture (n = 3; 20%). We found an association between facial injuries and absenteeism, as well as an association between the presence of facial injury and the need for hospitalization for a period of 2 days or more. Respondents reported that they had accidents, but due to the use of full face motorcycle helmet the number of facial injuries was low. For most of them, absenteeism was observed for a period of one month or more. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Time Course of Changes in the Level of Procalcitonin in the Development of Nosocomial Pneumonia in Victims with Severe Concomitant Injury in an Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Shabanov


    Full Text Available Background. The posttraumatic period in victims with severe concomitant injury is frequently complicated by nosocomial pneumonia, resulting in high mortality rates and longer time and increased cost of treatment in intensive care unit unit patients. Procalcitonin (PCT is considered to be a marker for infectious complications due to different critical conditions; however, its prognostic value for different patient categories and periods after injury remains unclear; elevated PCT levels maybe related to the development of pneumonia in view of the severity of injury and the duration of mechanical ventilation (MV. Objective: to establish a correlation between the time course of changes in PCT levels and the development of nosocomial pneumonia and sepsis in victims with severe concomitant injury in relation to its severity and the duration of MV. Subjects and methods. The case histories of 271 victims with severe concomitant injury treated in the Intensive Care Unit, N. V. Sklifosovsky Research Institute of Emergency Care, in 2008—2012 were retro- and prospectively analyzed. The admission PCT level and its changes were analyzed in relation to the severity of injury and secondary infectious complications. Severe concomitant injury was ascertained to be accompanied by elevated serum PCT levels. A correlation was found between injury severity, mortality, the development of infectious pulmonary complications, sepsis, and mean PCT levels. The more severe the injury, the higher serum PCT level was revealed. In the first 12 hours, a group of victims without pneumonia exhibited the highest PCT levels (1.91±0.51 ng/ml. Later on there was its smooth fall and normalization by days 3—5. In the group of victims with pneumonia, but without sepsis, the PCT level averaged 1.71±0.64 ng/ml just in the first 6 hours, then its concentration continued to rise and its maximum level (3.93±1.26 ng/ml was recorded in the first 48 hours. Later on, its decrease and

  10. Causes and Severity of Fatal Injuries in Autopsies of Victims of Fatal Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Panahi


    Full Text Available Introduction: In this retrospective study, we decided to determine the death causes and severity of injuries in traffic accidents according to reports of the forensic medical center of Yazd. Methods: A total of 251 fatalities due to traffic accidents that had undergone autopsy examinations at the Yazd forensic medicine center from2006 till 2008 were included in the study by census method. Data regarding gender, road user type, type of vehicle (car, motorcycle, autobus or minibus, consciousness level, and intensive care unit (ICU admission was gathered. For evaluation of injury severity, we used Injury Severity Score (ISS. Results: The population under study consisted of 202 men (80.5% and 49 women (19.5% with an average age of 34.1 years (range: 1-89 years. Motorcycle-pedestrian accidents were the most common type of injury (100, 39.8%. Head (220, 87.6% and face (169, 67.3% were the two most common sites of injuries. Mean (±SD of ISS was 23.2 (±10.4. According to autopsy records, the main cause of death was head trauma (146, 58.1%. Conclusion: Public awareness in terms of primary prevention of road accidents should be considered important. Also, regarding the high prevalence of brain injuries and complications associated with skull fractures, accessibility to neurosurgeons and availability of imaging devices have an important role in decreasing the mortality rate of traffic accidents.

  11. Perinatal and psychosocial circumstances associated with risk of attempted suicide, non-suicidal self-injury and psychiatric service use. A longitudinal study of young people.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, Robert


    Abstract Background Past studies using large population based datasets link certain perinatal circumstances (birth weight, parity, etc) with mental health outcomes such as suicide, self-harm and psychiatric problems. Problematically, population datasets omit a number of social confounds. The aim of this study is to replicate past research linking perinatal circumstances and mental health (suicidality and use of psychiatric services) and to determine if such associations remain after adjusting for social circumstances. Methods A longitudinal school-based survey of 2157 young people (surveyed at age 11, 13, 15) followed up in early adulthood (age 19). At age 11 parents of participants provided information about perinatal circumstances (birth weight, birth complications, etc.) and psychiatric service use. Participants provided data about their mental health at age 15 (attempted suicide, suicidal thoughts) and at ages 19 (self-harm, psychiatric service use). In addition, data were collected about their social and psychosocial circumstances (gender, deprivation, religion, sexual behaviour, etc.). Results Predictably, social factors were linked to mental health outcomes. For example, those with same sex partners were more likely (OR 4.84) to self-harm than those without a same sex partner. With a single exception, in both unadjusted and adjusted models, perinatal circumstances were not or only marginally associated with mental health outcomes. The exception was the number of birth complications; young people with two or more complications were approximately 2-3 times more likely than those without complications to use psychiatric services. Conclusions While we failed to replicate results found using large population based datasets, some of our results are compatible with prior research findings. Further, evidence from this study supports the influence of perinatal circumstances (birth complications) on later psychiatric problems, or at least higher than expected contact

  12. Perinatal and psychosocial circumstances associated with risk of attempted suicide, non-suicidal self-injury and psychiatric service use. A longitudinal study of young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Robert


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Past studies using large population based datasets link certain perinatal circumstances (birth weight, parity, etc with mental health outcomes such as suicide, self-harm and psychiatric problems. Problematically, population datasets omit a number of social confounds. The aim of this study is to replicate past research linking perinatal circumstances and mental health (suicidality and use of psychiatric services and to determine if such associations remain after adjusting for social circumstances. Methods A longitudinal school-based survey of 2157 young people (surveyed at age 11, 13, 15 followed up in early adulthood (age 19. At age 11 parents of participants provided information about perinatal circumstances (birth weight, birth complications, etc. and psychiatric service use. Participants provided data about their mental health at age 15 (attempted suicide, suicidal thoughts and at ages 19 (self-harm, psychiatric service use. In addition, data were collected about their social and psychosocial circumstances (gender, deprivation, religion, sexual behaviour, etc.. Results Predictably, social factors were linked to mental health outcomes. For example, those with same sex partners were more likely (OR 4.84 to self-harm than those without a same sex partner. With a single exception, in both unadjusted and adjusted models, perinatal circumstances were not or only marginally associated with mental health outcomes. The exception was the number of birth complications; young people with two or more complications were approximately 2-3 times more likely than those without complications to use psychiatric services. Conclusions While we failed to replicate results found using large population based datasets, some of our results are compatible with prior research findings. Further, evidence from this study supports the influence of perinatal circumstances (birth complications on later psychiatric problems, or at least higher than

  13. Perinatal and psychosocial circumstances associated with risk of attempted suicide, non-suicidal self-injury and psychiatric service use. A longitudinal study of young people. (United States)

    Young, Robert; Riordan, Vincent; Stark, Cameron


    Past studies using large population based datasets link certain perinatal circumstances (birth weight, parity, etc) with mental health outcomes such as suicide, self-harm and psychiatric problems. Problematically, population datasets omit a number of social confounds. The aim of this study is to replicate past research linking perinatal circumstances and mental health (suicidality and use of psychiatric services) and to determine if such associations remain after adjusting for social circumstances. A longitudinal school-based survey of 2157 young people (surveyed at age 11, 13, 15) followed up in early adulthood (age 19). At age 11 parents of participants provided information about perinatal circumstances (birth weight, birth complications, etc.) and psychiatric service use. Participants provided data about their mental health at age 15 (attempted suicide, suicidal thoughts) and at ages 19 (self-harm, psychiatric service use). In addition, data were collected about their social and psychosocial circumstances (gender, deprivation, religion, sexual behaviour, etc.). Predictably, social factors were linked to mental health outcomes. For example, those with same sex partners were more likely (OR 4.84) to self-harm than those without a same sex partner. With a single exception, in both unadjusted and adjusted models, perinatal circumstances were not or only marginally associated with mental health outcomes. The exception was the number of birth complications; young people with two or more complications were approximately 2-3 times more likely than those without complications to use psychiatric services. While we failed to replicate results found using large population based datasets, some of our results are compatible with prior research findings. Further, evidence from this study supports the influence of perinatal circumstances (birth complications) on later psychiatric problems, or at least higher than expected contact with psychiatric service.

  14. Buffering the effects of peer victimization on adolescent non-suicidal self-injury: The role of self-compassion and family cohesion. (United States)

    Jiang, Yongqiang; You, Jianing; Hou, Yang; Du, Chao; Lin, Min-Pei; Zheng, Xiaoling; Ma, Congfen


    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a significant behavioral problem among adolescents all over the world. This study examined the longitudinal relationship between peer victimization and NSSI, as well as the buffering effects of self-compassion and family cohesion on this relationship. Data were collected at two time points from 525 secondary school students (226 girls; Mage = 12.97, SD = 1.02) in China. Results showed that peer victimization (marginally) significantly predicted NSSI over time even after controlling for Wave 1 NSSI. This association was weakened under the condition of high levels of self-compassion. Findings of this study emphasize the buffering effect of self-compassion in the relationship between peer victimization and NSSI, and are informative for prevention and intervention of this behavioral problem. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hypoxic brain injury and cortical blindness in a victim of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En route the patient was noted as having severe breathing difficulty and had a reported respiratory ... imaging in a child who sustained significant brain injury following a bite from a Mozambican spitting cobra. We also discuss the .... respiratory depression and prompt respiratory assistance, even if antivenom is not available, ...

  16. Case Report: Hypoxic brain injury and cortical blindness in a victim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Snakebite and the subsequent envenomation is a serious and potentially fatal illness, owing to the effects of the various toxins present in the venom. Cortical blindness following bites containing neurotoxin is a rare complication. We describe the clinical findings and imaging in a child who sustained significant brain injury ...

  17. Patterns of injury seen in road crash victims in a South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 4, 2013 ... South Africa has a major burden of injury related to road traffic crashes (RTCs). The widespread use of flat-bed trucks and overcrowded minibuses to transport passengers and a pervasive culture of disregard for the rules of the road result in a very high rate of RTCs. This situation is not confined to South ...

  18. Older women: victims of rape. (United States)

    Tyra, P A


    Older female rape victims usually live alone, are raped by strangers, experience physical force and injury, and also are robbed. Rape trauma syndrome, a nursing diagnosis, consists of an acute phase of disorganization, and a long-term phase of reorganization of the victim's lifestyle. Rape victims experience emotional, physical, and cognitive reactions to the trauma of rape. Nursing actions can include providing specific interventions to victims during the acute phase, identifying victims during routine exams, referring victims for ongoing counseling, conducting community education programs on primary prevention and available services, and participating in longitudinal rape studies.

  19. Development of Central Diabetes Insipidus in a Female Victim with Severe Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Nikiforova


    Full Text Available Case report. A pregnant woman with severe brain injury developed cerebral salt-wasting syndrome concurrent with diabetes insipidus. Placental enzymatic destruction of antidiuretic hormone and thyroid, adrenal, and renal dysfunction were excluded. Polyuria developed on day 3 when diuresis was less than 8.5 liters, there was hyponatremia (Na+ < 130 mmol/l with a urinary Na+ content of > 40 mmol/l. The administration of 3% sodium chloride solution considerably enhanced polyuria. When minirin was given in a daily dose of 0.4 mg, diuresis reached 32.4 liters, which exceeds the levels described for the complete absence of antidiuretic hormone. The use of minirin in the mean therapeutic dose (0.6 mg daily reduced, but failed to normalize diuresis. Evident hypernatremia and hypokalemia were absent in the existing polyuria. Brain injury in the female patient was suspected to cause and impair the synthesis of antidiuretic hormone and to increase the elaboration of ouabaine. This concomitance led to the concurrent development of central diabetes insipidus and cerebral salt-wasting syndrome. On this basis, the dose of minirin was increased up to 1.2 mg daily; hypothiazid 50 mg twice daily was prescribed. Hydrocortisone 50 mg twice daily was intramuscularly injected after diuresis reduced to 4.7 liters and hyponatremia (Na+ = 112.2 mmol/l. The performed therapy could normalize diuresis up to 1.8 liters and correct the blood levels of electrolytes. Key words: brain injury, diabetes insipidus, cerebral salt-wasting syndrome.

  20. Pattern of Injuries and Treatment Given to Victims of Rana Plaza Tragedy in a Level II Armed Forces Medical Facility in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Alam, Shafiul; Alam, Rabiul; Islam, Manirul; Salek, Amin


    Rana Plaza building collapse is the worst industrial disaster of Bangladesh so far. The 9-storied structure collapsed suddenly on April 24, 2013, with more than 4000 people inside. Bangladesh Armed Forces played a key role in the massive rescue operations. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 423 victims who were treated at a Combined Military Hospital to review the pattern of injuries and management provided. Middle-aged (35±12.75 years) females (68.32%) were the majority of the victims. Among the injured, 42.35% had soft tissue injury, 22.55% had abrasions, 18.79% had fractures, 3.75% had facial injuries, and 2.5% each had head and abdominal injuries. We treated the injured with various surgical approaches, such as soft tissue debridement (38.84%), fasciotomy (18.79%), amputation (3.75%), and other procedures. We had to refer 8.27% of the patients to different advanced centers. The mortality rate was 5.91%, including 1 volunteer rescuer. Pattern of injuries and modalities of management needed in an industrial disaster is a valuable experience which can be utilized in preparing to face disasters in the future and beyond. Death of a voluntary rescuer once again warrants the necessity of using a helmet and safety gear during any rescue operation. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:21-24).

  1. [Characteristics and Treatment Strategies for Penetrating Injuries on the Example of Gunshot and Blast Victims without Ballistic Body Armour in Afghanistan (2009 - 2013)]. (United States)

    Güsgen, Christoph; Willms, Arnulf; Richardsen, Ines; Bieler, Dan; Kollig, Erwin; Schwab, Robert


    Much like other countries, Germany has recently seen terrorist attacks being planned, executed or prevented at the last minute. This highlights the need for expertise in the treatment of penetrating torso traumas by bullets or explosions. Data on the treatment of firearm injuries and, even more so, blast injuries often stems from crises or war regions. However, it is difficult to compare injuries from such regions with injuries from civilian terrorist attacks due to the ballistic body protection (protective vests, body armour) worn by soldiers. Methods An analysis was performed based on data from patients who were treated in the German Military Hospital Mazar-e Sharif for gunshots or injuries from explosions in the years 2009 to 2013. The data selection was based on patients with penetrating injuries to the thorax and/or abdomen. For better comparability with civilian attack scenarios, this study only included civilian patients without ballistic body protection (body armour, protective vests). Results Out of 117 analysed patients, 58 were affected by firearms and 59 by explosive injuries of the thorax or abdomen. 60% of patients had a thoracic injury, 69% had an abdominal injury, and 25.6% had combined thoracic-abdominal injuries. Blast injury patients were significantly more affected by thoracic trauma. As regards abdominal injuries, liver, intestinal, and colonic lesions were leading in number. Patients with blast injuries had significantly more injured organs and a significantly higher ISS averaging 29. 26% of the shot patients and 41% of the blast wounded patients received Damage Control Surgery (DCS). Despite a lower ISS, gunshot victims did not have a lower total number of operations per patient. Overall mortality was 13.7% (10.3% gunshot wounds, 16.7% blast injury). The highest mortality rate (25.7%) was recorded for patients with combined thoracoabdominal injuries (vs. 8.3% for thoracic and 8.7% for abdominal injuries). The ISS of deceased patients was

  2. Lesões no complexo maxilofacial em vítimas de violência no ambiente escolar Maxillo facial injuries in victims of violence at school environment

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    Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti


    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou a presença de lesões no complexo maxilofacial em crianças e adolescentes vítimas de violência física no ambiente escolar. Foram analisados 42 laudos de exames de corpo de delito envolvendo crianças e adolescentes vítimas de violência física na escola, nos anos de 2003 e 2006. Os dados foram registrados em formulário específico e as variáveis coletadas foram gênero, idade, agente agressor, localização das lesões nas distintas regiões do corpo, tipo e número de lesões presentes, acometimento da cavidade bucal e tipo de envolvimento tecidual. Observou-se que 61,9% das vítimas eram do gênero masculino, sendo a faixa etária de 13 a 17 anos a mais atingida. Os colegas foram os perpetradores mais frequentes (92,9% enquanto os professores foram os agressores em 7,1% dos casos. Lesões nas regiões da cabeça e face estavam presentes em 69,1% da amostra, com 23,8% das vítimas apresentando injúrias na cavidade bucal, sendo que a totalidade das lesões localizadas em tecido mole, principalmente nos lábios. Constatou-se ser elevada a existência de injúrias na cavidade bucal em vítimas de agressão no ambiente escolar, confirmando a importância da odontologia no diagnóstico de lesões nas regiões da cabeça e face em vítimas de violência física.This study investigated the presence of injuries in the maxillofacial complex in children and adolescents victims of physical violence in school environment. Forty-two proofs involved children and adolescents victims of physical violence in school in the years of 2003 and 2006 were analyzed. The data had been registered in specific form collecting the following variables: gender, age, perpetrator agent, localization of the injuries in the distinct regions of the body, type and number of injuries, existence of injuries in oral cavity and tissue involvement. It was observed that 61.9% of the victims were male (61.9%, age-group 13 to 17 years the most reached. In

  3. Profile of women treated in the municipal program of treatment of women who are victims of sexual violence in Londrina-PR and the circumstances of the sexual violence suffered by them: from October 2001 to august 2004

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    Paula Men de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Sexual violence is one of the most serious ways of violence that affects women. Considered as hideous crimes, rape and violent assault are characterized by a not-allowed sexual contact. The consequences caused by these acts are: early sexual experience, physical traumas, HIV/STDs infections, unwanted pregnancies to psychic sequels that fit into post-traumatic stress disturb. The purpose of this paper is to bring up the profile of the population treated in the Program of Treatment of Women who are Victims of Sexual Violence – “Rosa Viva” – and the available information that could characterize the incidents in Londrina – PR. This was a descriptive study carried out based on data gathered from 106 records used in the treatments in the Municipal Maternity Ward from October 2001 to August 2004. The characterization points out that: 59,9% are in the age group of 10 to 19 years old; 52,8% look for the service on the first 24 hours after the aggression, when it was necessary to administer the emergency contraception in 54,7% of the women. The isolated rape happened in 50,2% of the cases and the absence of traumas predominated in 56,6%. In general, 58,5% of the aggressors were unknown, although in the age group of 10 to 14 years old, the victim would be able to identify the aggressor. Based on the deficiency of data on the analysis of the records, some important items are suggested to be included in the medical records, considering as fundamental an instrument capable of showing in detail the dimension of the violence against women.

  4. Traumatic arteriovenous fistula due to an old gunshot injury: a victim from the Afghanistan War. (United States)

    Dabbagh, Ali; Mar'ashi, Ali S; Malek, Bahman


    A 75-year-old man referred to the outpatient vascular surgery clinic of Taleghani Hospital (Shaheed Beheshti University of Medicine, Tehran, Iran) due to a local nontender mass in his groin. In his history, it was discovered that the mass had appeared a few months after a gunshot injury. He had a history of shortness of breath with a New York Heart Association functional class fluctuating between II and III, but no history of smoking or addiction. In the physical examination, a 5-cm by 5-cm nonpulsatile mass with engorged vessels was found in the anterior portion of the left groin, which was not tender. An elective arterial angiography revealed an arteriovenous fistula joining the femoral artery to the femoral vein at the left groin. The cardiac assessments revealed cor pulmonale (with a restrictive pattern and diastolic dysfunction) and pulmonary hypertension due to primary pulmonary dysfunction. The patient was anesthetized with a balanced general anesthesia method, considering all relevant cardiac and respiratory monitoring methods and specially withholding drugs increasing pulmonary vascular bed pressure, suppressing the myocardium, or increasing the regurgitant flow across the mitral and, especially, the tricuspid valve. The moment the fistula was closed, a rapid fall in the patient's heart rate was noted, from approximately 60 beats per minute to above 40 beats per minute; this decreased heart rate continued up to a few hours after the surgery and did not accompany any significant hemodynamic derangement including the patient's blood pressure. The patient received his postoperative care in the ordinary surgical ward and was discharged a few days later.

  5. Prevalence, circumstances and consequences of non-fatal road traffi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence, circumstances and consequences of non-fatal road traffi c injuries and other bodily injuries among older people in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia ... injury, while younger age, residing in a rural area, hazardous or harmful alcohol use and having a sleeping problem were associated with other bodily injury.

  6. Profile of victims and treatment of injuries by external causes according to attendance by the Municipal Rehabilitation Center of Uberlandia, MG - external causes and physiotherapy. (United States)

    Lemos, Carla Andréa Gondim; Jorge, Miguel Tanús; Ribeiro, Lindioneza Adriano


    In Brazil, external causes are responsible for many disabilities. Most research has emphasized the mortality and the demand for hospital treatment, and little is known about the evolution of non-fatal injuries. The objective of this study was to identify the profile of victims and the characteristics of injuries from external causes, physical therapy and functional evolution of patients treated in a public rehabilitation center. Data were prospectively collected by interviews with patients who entered the Municipal Rehabilitation Center (CEREM) of Uberlândia, from January to July 2005. Most patients were male and predominated those from 20 to 59 years old, with low income and education. The main causes of injury were falls and traffic accidents, almost half of the events occurred on public roads, and fractures were common, especially in upper limbs. The resources most frequently used were physiotherapeutic kinesiotherapy, electrotherapy and thermotherapy by addition, and most treatments started was completed. The profile of patients that seeking CEREM due to injuries from external causes may reflect, above all, that people who suffer such injuries. Simple physiotherapy resources showed to be enough for a good outcome.

  7. Padrão das lesões nas vítimas de acidentes de motocicleta Injury patterns in motorcycle accident victims

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    Maria Sumie Koizumi


    Full Text Available Apresenta-se uma análise do padrão das injúrias nas vítimas de acidentes de motocicleta internadas num hospital governamental de ensino, do Município de São Paulo, o qual conta com um serviço de emergência de referência. Ficou confirmado que nas vítimas internadas predominam os jovens, do sexo masculino e que a grande maioria recebe alta do hospital. Quanto às injúrias, verificou-se predomínio das classificadas no grau de intensidade leve (ISS de 1 a 9 e as lesões mais freqüentes foram as fraturas de membros e pelve, os ferimentos de superfície externa, os traumatismos crânio-encefálicos e as luxações de membros e pelve. Nas que faleceram, além das fraturas de membros e pelve, as lesões de órgãos abdominais e traumatismos crânio-encefálicos preponderaram e a ISS foi superior a 20. Nos pacientes com trauma de crânio, constatou-se relação direta entre escores altos da Escala de Coma de Glasgow e baixos da ISS e vice-versa.An analysis of the injury patterns presented by inpatients of a government teaching hospital, known as one of the emergency centers of S. Paulo city, Brazil, is given the majority of victims are young, male adults and most of them were later discharged from the hospital. In relation to the injuries the majority of the patients were classified as being of minor injury grade (ISS between 1 and 9 and the most frequent injuries were extremity and pelvic fractures, surface trauma, traumatic brain injury and extremity and pelvic dislocations. Besides extremity and pelvic fractures, the victims who died showed abdominal organ injury and traumatic brain injury and the ISS was over 20. Head injury patients who had a high Glasgow Coma Scale score had a low ISS and vice-versa.

  8. [Medico-legal assessment of the injuries of fatal victims of building collapse at Katowice International Fair in Katowice/Chorzów on January 28, 2006]. (United States)

    Chowaniec, Czesław; Kobek, Mariusz; Chowaniec, Małgorzata; Rygol, Krystian; Kabiesz-Neniczka, Stanisława; Skowronek, Rafał


    On January 28, 2006, during an exhibition of carrier pigeons, the roof of one of the buildings at Katowice International Fair collapsed. At the time of accident, there were 700 people in the building--65 died and 171 were injured. It was the biggest building disaster in the history of modern Poland. The aim of this study was to present the type (character) of the observed injuries, the cause of death of 48 fatal victims and the range of activities and medico-legal examinations performed in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. In the period of January 29-February 1, 2006, on February 14, 2006, and February 17, 2006, post-mortem examinations of the 48 deceased were carried out, and in some cases additional dissecting techniques were employed. During autopsies, numerous specimens for various additional examinations (histopathological, toxicological) were collected. For identification purposes, photographic material and specimens, necessary for genetic identification, were secured. Additionally, the bodies were identified by families. The post-mortem procedures eventually allowed for establishing the cause of death of all the victims. The authors emphasize the range of necessary medico-legal procedures and examinations that should be carried out in a Department of Forensic Medicine in case of a building collapse with a large number of fatalities in order to determine the type of injuries, cause and mechanism of death and to identify the deceased.

  9. Gender Victimization

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    Johnson Oluwole Ayodele


    Full Text Available Badagry is the first community to receive the Christian religion in Nigeria. For this, every good reason exists to suppose that its coming into early contact with the missionaries should have caused the Ogu people to acquire a healthier understanding of fair play in the context of widowhood practices. Regrettably, they seem to respond more slowly to change in their attitudes to widows. Thus, despite the overwhelming presence of Christian relics in the ancient town of Badagry, traditional customs such as wife inheritance and widowhood rites have continued to appear significantly associated with violence against which women are not well-protected. “Gender Victimization: A Study of Widowhood Practices” among Ogu People of Lagos is the focus of this study. Quantitative and qualitative methods were adopted for the study. Thus, five in-depth interviews and three focus group discussion instruments were used to collect primary data, which were used to complement quantitative data. Although quantitative data were subjected to univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses, qualitative data were cleaned, reorganized into themes and analyzed. The study found that much as the Ogu people of Lagos acknowledge the position of the scriptures on society’s non-criminal relation with widows, they still believe that their culture comfortably drives the greater proportion of their widow-friendly interactions. This study suggests that the adoption of cultural best practices in handling women and their peculiar issues will tone down violence in customary widowhood practices and enable women who lost their husbands in circumstances beyond their controls access community-based support.

  10. The Situational Context of Adolescent Homicide Victimization in Johannesburg, South Africa. (United States)

    Swart, Lu-Anne; Seedat, Mohamed; Nel, Juan


    Although studies have described the incidence and epidemiology of adolescent homicide victimization in South Africa, little is known about the situational contexts in which they occur. This study aimed to describe the victim, offender, and event characteristics of adolescent homicide and to generate a typology based on the particular types of situational contexts associated with adolescent homicide in South Africa. Data on homicides among adolescents (15-19 years) that occurred in Johannesburg (South Africa) during the period 2001-2007 were obtained from the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System (NIMSS) and police case records. Of the 195 cases available for analysis, 81% of the victims were male. Most of the offenders were male (90%), comprising of strangers (42%) and friends/acquaintances (37%). Arguments (33%) were the most common precipitating circumstances, followed by revenge (11%), robbery (11%), and acts of vigilantism/retribution for a crime (8%). Through the use of cluster analysis, the study identified three categories of adolescent homicide: (a) male victims killed by strangers during a crime-related event, (b) male victims killed by a friend/acquaintance during an argument, and (c) female victims killed by male offenders. The results can serve to inform the development of tailored and focused strategies for the prevention of adolescent homicide. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Adding insult to injury: neural sensitivity to social exclusion is associated with internalizing symptoms in chronically peer-victimized girls. (United States)

    Rudolph, Karen D; Miernicki, Michelle E; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Davis, Megan M; Telzer, Eva H


    Despite evidence documenting activation of the social pain network in response to social rejection and its link to temporary distress, far less is known regarding its role in pervasive emotional difficulties. Moreover, research has not considered the intersection between neural activation to experimentally induced social exclusion and naturally occurring social adversity. This study examined an integrated social pain model of internalizing symptoms, which posits that (i) neural sensitivity in the social pain network is associated with internalizing symptoms, (ii) this linkage is more robust in youth with than without a history of social adversity, and (iii) heightened avoidance motivation serves as one pathway linking neural sensitivity and internalizing symptoms. During a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, 47 adolescent girls (M age = 15.46 years, SD = .35) with well-characterized histories of peer victimization were exposed to social exclusion. Whole-brain analyses revealed that activation to exclusion in the social pain network was associated with internalizing symptoms. As anticipated, this linkage was stronger in chronically victimized than non-victimized girls and was partially accounted for by avoidance motivation. This research indicates the importance of integrating neural, social and psychological systems of development in efforts to elucidate risk for internalizing symptoms among adolescent girls. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email:

  12. Gay homicide victims in England and Wales:helping the police with their enquiries.


    Leahy, S.; Francis, Brian J.; Miller, N.


    This study aims to assist those working on homicide investigations with gay victims, by considering the relationship between the characteristics of the offender, the victim and the circumstances of the offence.

  13. Violência doméstica: análise das lesões em mulheres Domestic violence: an analysis of injuries in female victims

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    Cléa Adas Saliba Garbin


    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de lesões de cabeça e pescoço em mulheres, frente aos inquéritos policiais registrados como lesão corporal e maus-tratos na Delegacia de Defesa da Mulher de Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brasil, no ano de 2002. Foram totalizados 204 inquéritos policiais no ano de 2002, e destes extraídos 33 laudos periciais referentes aos crimes de lesões corporais e maus-tratos em mulheres. Analisou-se nos laudos médicos da perícia, aspectos relativos à idade das vítimas e local das lesões por elas apresentadas na ocasião do exame. Os resultados encontrados revelam que as agressões ocorrem em faixas etárias diversas, com predominância na infância e adolescência. Além disso, ocorreu a maior prevalência de lesões na região da cabeça e pescoço, área de atuação do cirurgião-dentista que necessita estar preparado para atender, entre outros, o paciente vítima de violência.This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of head and neck injuries in females based on complaints registered as bodily harm or cruel and unusual punishment at the Women's Defense Precinct in Araçatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2002. A total of 204 police inquiries were conducted in 2002, resulting in 33 police reports of bodily harm and cruel and unusual punishment to females. The police reports were examined as to victim's age and site of injury. The results showed that injuries are inflicted on various age brackets, with a higher prevalence in children and adolescents. In addition, the highest prevalence of injuries was in the head and neck, encompassing the area where dentists work and where they should be prepared to treat victims of such violence.

  14. An analysis of the relationship between bodily injury severity and fall height in victims of fatal falls from height

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    Grzegorz Teresiński


    Full Text Available Aim of the study : One of the basic issues discussed in forensic literature regarding falls from a height is determination of fall heights and differentiation between suicidal and accidental falls. The aim of the study was to verify the usefulness of the available methods for the purposes of forensic expertises. Material and methods : The study encompassed fatalities of falls from a height whose autopsies were performed in the Department of Forensic Medicine in Lublin. Results : Similarly to other authors, the severity of injuries was assessed using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS and injury severity score (ISS. The study findings demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between the fall height and the severity of injuries according to ISS and a statistically significant difference in fall heights between the groups of accidents and suicides.

  15. Prevalence, circumstances and consequences of non-fatal road ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Prevalence, circumstances and consequences of non-fatal road traffic injuries and other bodily injuries among older people in China, Ghana, India,. Mexico, Russia and South Africa. Karl Peltzer1. HIV/STIs and TB Research Programme, Human Sciences Research Council, South. Africa; Department of Research ...

  16. Barriers and facilitators to provide effective pre-hospital trauma care for road traffic injury victims in Iran: a grounded theory approach

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    Hasselberg Marie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Road traffic injuries are a major global public health problem. Improvements in pre-hospital trauma care can help minimize mortality and morbidity from road traffic injuries (RTIs worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs with a high rate of RTIs such as Iran. The current study aimed to explore pre-hospital trauma care process for RTI victims in Iran and to identify potential areas for improvements based on the experience and perception of pre-hospital trauma care professionals. Methods A qualitative study design using a grounded theory approach was selected. The data, collected via in-depth interviews with 15 pre-hospital trauma care professionals, were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Results Seven categories emerged to describe the factors that hinder or facilitate an effective pre-hospital trauma care process: (1 administration and organization, (2 staff qualifications and competences, (3 availability and distribution of resources, (4 communication and transportation, (5 involved organizations, (6 laypeople and (7 infrastructure. The core category that emerged from the other categories was defined as "interaction and common understanding". Moreover, a conceptual model was developed based on the categories. Conclusions Improving the interaction within the current pre-hospital trauma care system and building a common understanding of the role of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS emerged as key issues in the development of an effective pre-hospital trauma care process.

  17. The management of trauma victims with head injury: a study by the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death. (United States)

    Smith, N C E; Findlay, G P; Weyman, D; Freeth, H


    In 2006 the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death undertook a large prospective study of trauma care, which revealed several findings pertaining to the management of head injuries in a sample of 493 patients. Case note data were collected for all trauma patients admitted to all hospitals accepting emergencies in england, wales, Northern Ireland and the Channel Islands over a three-month period. severely injured patients with an injury severity score (iss) of ≥16 were included in the study. the case notes for these patients were peer reviewed by a multidisciplinary group of clinicians, who rated the overall level of care the patient received. Of the 795 patients who met the inclusion criteria for the study, 493 were admitted with a head injury. Room for improvement in the level of care was found in a substantial number of patients (265/493). Good practice was found to be highest in high volume centres. The overall head injury management was found to be satisfactory in 84% of cases (319/381). This study has shown that care for trauma patients with head injury is frequently rated as less than good and suggests potential long-term remedies for the problem, including a reconfiguration of trauma services and better provision of neurocritical care facilities.

  18. Victims of peer violence

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    Mršević Zorica


    Full Text Available This paper presents facts on peer violence victims, committed by minor perpetrators against other minors. The author analyses four main characteristics of peer violence: imbalance of power between perpetrators and victims, identified intention to cause injuries, permanent treats of repeated violence and afraidness of the victims. Otherness and weakness (physical and social of the victims are identified as the main motives of the perpetrators who decide to attack, and these characteristics form the basis of the victim typology. Due to the fact that the research is phenomenologically based mostly on media report on peer violence cases in the period between September 2011 and the end of 2012, the author illustrates all main statements with the real cases which took place in the focused period. Measures to combat peer violence are presented, like the already established such as the school without violence program, and those recently proposed, such as the so called Aleksa’s class. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: Društvene transformacije u procesu evropskih integracija - multidisciplinarni pristup

  19. Childhood Victimization and Crime Victimization (United States)

    McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz


    The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…

  20. An unusual autopsy case of a victim stabbed during sadomasochistic prostitution. (United States)

    Yamazaki, M; Terada, M; Tun, Z; Takikita, S; Honda, K; Matoba, R; Shinohara, T


    A 29-year-old male who lived alone was found dead with his back leaning against the wall of his room. He had been stabbed in his abdomen with a survival-type knife. The victim's mouth was plugged with a pink-colored glove and was sealed with packing tape. His wrists were tightly tied behind his back with the same type of packing tape. The cause of death was diagnosed as hemorrhage from the right common iliac artery and vein. Due to the strange circumstances of the crime scene, the police initially considered the possibility of homicide by a group of assassins. Two months later, the police arrested a male suspect who was a member of a vice racketeer. The victim was characterized as a masochist and bisexual. He often hired the male suspect to perform sadomasochistic activities. On the day of the crime, the victim prepared a survival-type knife and packing tape himself to experience fear and pain more strongly. The victim hoped to use the knife to increase sexual excitement. In this case of sadomasochistic prostitution leading to death, the legal issues of homicide for money, malicious request of injury by the victim and accidental death were involved.

  1. Understanding victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn


    This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show that the proba......This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show...... that the probability of being victimized is increasing in income, but at a diminishing rate. The effect of income is dependent on the type of crime, and poorer households are vulnerable. While less at risk of victimization, they suffer relatively greater losses when such shocks occur. Lower inequality and increased...

  2. Understanding Victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn


    This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show that the proba......This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show...... that the probability of being victimized is increasing in income, but at a diminishing rate. The effect of income is dependent on the type of crime, and poorer households are vulnerable. While less at risk of victimization, they suffer relatively greater losses when such shocks occur. Lower inequality and increased...

  3. Legal aid for victims in criminal proceedings in Portugal


    Costa Ramos, Vânia


    The following article gives an overview of legal aid for victims in criminal cases in Portugal. It addresses the issues of a victim’s access to a lawyer, when and how the right is granted (right to legal assistance), and under what circumstances the victim has a right to financial legal aid (right to financial legal aid).

  4. Geriatric Assault Victims Treated at U.S. Trauma Centers: Five-Year Analysis of the National Trauma Data Bank (United States)

    Rosen, Tony; Clark, Sunday; Bloemen, Elizabeth M.; Mulcare, Mary R.; Stern, Michael E.; Hall, Jeffrey E.; Flomenbaum, Neal; Lachs, Mark S.; Eachempati, Soumitra R.


    Introduction While geriatric trauma patients have begun to receive increased attention, little research has investigated assault-related injuries among older adults. Our goal was to describe characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of geriatric assault victims and compare them to geriatric victims of and younger accidental injury assault victims. Patients and Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of the 2008–2012 National Trauma Data Bank. We identified cases of assault-related injury admitted to trauma centers in patients aged ≥60 using the variable “intent of injury.” Results 3,564 victims of assault-related injury in patients aged ≥60 were identified and compared to 200,194 geriatric accident victims and 94,511 assault victims aged 18–59. Geriatric assault victims were more likely than geriatric accidental injury victims to be male (81% vs. 47%) and were younger than accidental injury victims (67±7 vs. 74±9 years). More geriatric assault victims tested positive for alcohol or drugs than geriatric accident victims (30% vs. 9%). Injuries for geriatric assault victims were more commonly on the face (30%) and head (27%) than for either comparison group. Traumatic brain injury (34%) and penetrating injury (32%) occurred commonly. The median injury severity score (ISS) for geriatric assault victims was 9, with 34% having severe trauma (ISS≥16). Median length of stay was 3 days, 39% required ICU care, and in-hospital mortality was 8%. Injury severity was greater in geriatric than younger adult assault victims, and, even when controlling for injury severity, in-hospital mortality, length of hospitalization, and need for ICU-level care were significantly higher in older adults. Conclusions Geriatric assault victims have characteristics and injury patterns that differ significantly from geriatric accidental injury victims. These victims also have more severe injuries, higher mortality, and poorer outcomes than younger victims. Additional research

  5. Geriatric assault victims treated at U.S. trauma centers: Five-year analysis of the national trauma data bank. (United States)

    Rosen, Tony; Clark, Sunday; Bloemen, Elizabeth M; Mulcare, Mary R; Stern, Michael E; Hall, Jeffrey E; Flomenbaum, Neal E; Lachs, Mark S; Eachempati, Soumitra R


    While geriatric trauma patients have begun to receive increased attention, little research has investigated assault-related injuries among older adults. Our goal was to describe characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of geriatric assault victims and compare them both to geriatric victims of accidental injury and younger assault victims. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the 2008-2012 National Trauma Data Bank. We identified cases of assault-related injury admitted to trauma centers in patients aged ≥60 using the variable "intent of injury." 3564 victims of assault-related injury in patients aged ≥60 were identified and compared to 200,194 geriatric accident victims and 94,511 assault victims aged 18-59. Geriatric assault victims were more likely than geriatric accidental injury victims to be male (81% vs. 47%) and were younger than accidental injury victims (67±7 vs. 74±9 years). More geriatric assault victims tested positive for alcohol or drugs than geriatric accident victims (30% vs. 9%). Injuries for geriatric assault victims were more commonly on the face (30%) and head (27%) than for either comparison group. Traumatic brain injury (34%) and penetrating injury (32%) occurred commonly. The median injury severity score (ISS) for geriatric assault victims was 9, with 34% having severe trauma (ISS≥16). Median length of stay was 3 days, 39% required ICU care, and in-hospital mortality was 8%. Injury severity was greater in geriatric than younger adult assault victims, and, even when controlling for injury severity, in-hospital mortality, length of hospitalization, and need for ICU-level care were significantly higher in older adults. Geriatric assault victims have characteristics and injury patterns that differ significantly from geriatric accidental injury victims. These victims also have more severe injuries, higher mortality, and poorer outcomes than younger victims. Additional research is necessary to improve identification of these victims and

  6. Development of inhalable formulations of anti-inflammatory drugs to potentially treat smoke inhalation injury in burn victims. (United States)

    Thai, A; Xiao, J; Ammit, A J; Rohanizadeh, R


    Injury arising from smoke inhalation is a significant mortality risk in severe burned patients. Inflammatory processes are major contributors to the development of respiratory insufficiency owing to pulmonary oedema, formation of airway fibrin clots and hypoxaemia. Anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant drugs such as heparin and pentoxifylline are currently systemically administered for the treatment of smoke inhalation. Delivery of these drugs in the form of inhalable particles could be an effective manner to achieve rapid targeted action for acceleration of the treatment. The study developed and characterised a series of spray-dried heparin and pentoxifylline dry powder formulations suitable for inhalation administration. Drug particles were co-spray-dried with leucine in varying ratios. Particle size analysis confirmed all powders (except 2%, w/w, pentoxifylline with 1%, w/w, leucine in spray-drying feed solution) had particle size in the optimal range (heparin surface topography while pentoxifylline formulations were a mixture of elongated needles interspersed with wrinkly particles. Addition of leucine improved fine particle fraction of heparin and pentoxifylline. The study indicated manufacture of inhalable heparin and pentoxifylline was feasible and can potentially be an attractive delivery alternative to the more conventional systemic delivery route. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cyberstalking victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilić Vida


    Full Text Available Global social networks contributed to the creation of new, inconspicuous, technically perfect shape of criminality which is hard to suppress because of its intangible characteristics. The most common forms of virtual communications’ abuse are: cyberstalking and harassment, identity theft, online fraud, manipulation and misuse of personal information and personal photos, monitoring e-mail accounts and spamming, interception and recording of chat rooms. Cyberstalking is defined as persistent and targeted harassment of an individual by using electronic communication. The victim becomes insecure, frightened, intimidated and does not figure out the best reaction which will terminate the harassment. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance and necessity of studying cyberstalking and to point out its forms in order to find the best ways to prevent this negative social phenomenon. Basic topics that will be analyzed in this paper are the various definitions of cyberstalking, forms of cyberstalking, and the most important characteristics of victims and perpetators.

  8. Imaging findings of avalanche victims

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Alexandra B.; Grosse, Claudia A.; Anderson, Suzanne [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Diagnostic, Pediatric and Interventional Radiology, Berne (Switzerland); Steinbach, Lynne S. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Zimmermann, Heinz [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Trauma and Emergency Medicine, Berne (Switzerland)


    Skiing and hiking outside the boundaries remains an attractive wilderness activity despite the danger of avalanches. Avalanches occur on a relatively frequent basis and may be devastating. Musculoskeletal radiologists should be acquainted with these injuries. Fourteen avalanche victims (11 men and 3 women; age range 17-59 years, mean age 37.4 years) were air transported to a high-grade trauma centre over a period of 2 years. Radiographs, CT and MR images were prospectively evaluated by two observers in consensus. Musculoskeletal findings (61%) were more frequent than extraskeletal findings (39%). Fractures were most commonly seen (36.6%), involving the spine (14.6%) more frequently than the extremities (9.8%). Blunt abdominal and thoracic trauma were the most frequent extraskeletal findings. A wide spectrum of injuries can be found in avalanche victims, ranging from extremity fractures to massive polytrauma. Asphyxia remains the main cause of death along with hypoxic brain injury and hypothermia. (orig.)

  9. Thermal Injuries in Veterinary Forensic Pathology. (United States)

    Wohlsein, P; Peters, M; Schulze, C; Baumgärtner, W


    Localized thermal injuries in animals may be caused by exposure to fire and radiant heat, contact with hot items including hot liquids or steam, inhalation of hot air, and exposure to cold temperatures. In addition, animal fire victims may have intoxications caused by smoke gas. This article reviews the causes, pathogenetic aspects, morphological findings, additional investigations, differential diagnoses, and causes of death in various forms of thermal injuries. Since these cases do not occur frequently in diagnostic pathology, they represent a challenging task in general but also with respect to forensic or criminal aspects, such as whether a lesion represents an accidental or nonaccidental effect. Besides detailed information about the circumstances at the location, thermal injuries in animals require a thorough morphological evaluation, including additional investigations in conjunction with a profound knowledge about the possible lesion spectrum and suitable additional investigations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Profile Of Burn Victims Attended By An Emergency Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Souza Lima


    Full Text Available Objectives: to identify the sociodemographic and health profile of burn victims, knowing the characteristics of the events and detecting the major analgesics prescribed in the emergency department. Methods: descriptive, exploratory and quantitative study with 16 burn victims treated at a Burn Treatment Unit from October 2015 to May 2016. Results: the average age of participants was 31.8 years (± 14.1. Mostly, the subjects were male (62.5%, single (43.8%, brown (68.8%, economically active (75.0% and coming from Aracaju and its surroundings (62.5%. Injuries from burns were mostly of second degree (93.8% and reached the lower limbs (68.8%. The average burned body surface was 15.8% (± 11.5. The circumstances surrounding burns occurred mainly at home (50.0%, on Sundays (25.0% and in the shifts morning (37.5% and night (37.5%. The main etiological agent was alcohol (31.3%. All patients received analgesia in the emergency department, but the minority had pain documented (18.8%. The physician was the only professional who reported pain in their records, but did incompletely (18.8%. Conclusion: due to the negative effects of burns, it is crucial to adopt educational and preventive measures to change the current scenario of epidemiology of such trauma. Keywords: Burns; Epidemiology; Analgesia; Emergency.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Melikhov


    Full Text Available Results of surgical treatment of 35 victims who had received serious blunt open and closed injuries of hand were analyzed. All injuries of hand were divided into three types, depending on mechanism and circumstances of trauma. On the basis of the data received at direct measurement of compartment pressure, indirect signs of a menacing ischemia of intrinsic muscles have been defined, and the technique of preventive maintenance of an ischemic lesion of own hand muscles were developed. High efficiency of the offered medical approaches at the expense of the maximum restoration of function of the injured extremity was proved.

  12. Sexually assaulted victims are getting younger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherer, Susanne; Hansen, Steen Holger; Lynnerup, Niels


    INTRODUCTION: From the clinical forensic examination reports produced by the Department of Forensic Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in 2007 concerning rape, attempted rape and sexual assault (RAS), circumstances were.......5% were under 30 years of age. 53% knew the perpetrator. More than one perpetrator was reported in 11%. 46% of the assaulted victims had a total number of 1-5 observed lesions and these were observed in all types of perpetrator relationship. Eight victims with more than 20 lesions were assaulted...

  13. Social circumstances and teaching profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beara Mirjana


    Full Text Available Teachers, as an element of the educational system, are considered to be the most important factor for improving the quality of work in schools. At the same time, schools and teachers, as well as the entire educational system, are functioning in the framework of broader social conditions that may be perceived as favorable and unfavorable for particular aspects of their job and profession. The paper examined teachers' perceptions of the social circumstances in which they work and professionally develop, as well as their temporal satisfaction of their profession and professional development. Temporal satisfaction involves cognitive evaluation of professional area of life through the prism of time (past, present, future. Examined was the interrelationship between these factors, as well as correlations with certain socio-demographic variables: length of employment, age, gender, initial education and type of school in which they are employed. Results indicate that teachers generally perceive social conditions as unfavorable to their professional development, being more satisfied with the past, than with the present and future professional aspects of life. Professional satisfaction was significantly correlated with the perception of social circumstances. Significant differences were established in the temporal satisfaction and perception of social conditions in relation to sex. Teachers in secondary vocational schools are more satisfied with their profession compared to teachers in gymnasiums and primary schools.

  14. Female stalkers and their victims. (United States)

    Meloy, J Reid; Boyd, Cynthia


    Demographic, clinical, and forensic data were gathered in an archival study of 82 female stalkers from the United States, Canada, and Australia. Female stalkers were predominantly single, heterosexual, educated individuals in their mid 30s who had pursued their victims for more than a year. Major mental disorder and personality disorder were suggested, especially borderline personality disorder. They usually threatened violence, and if they did threaten, were more likely to be violent. Frequency of interpersonal violence was 25 percent, but there was limited use of weapons, and injuries were minor. Stalking victims were most likely to be slightly older male acquaintances; but if the victim was a prior sexual intimate of the female stalker, her risk of being violent toward him exceeded 50 percent. Unlike male stalkers who often pursue their victims to restore intimacy, these female stalkers often pursued their victims to establish intimacy. Common emotions and motivations included anger, obsessional thoughts, rage at abandonment, loneliness, dependency, jealousy, and perceived betrayal. Results are interpreted from a clinical and risk management perspective.

  15. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.


    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of

  16. NCHS - Injury Mortality: United States (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes injury mortality in the United States beginning in 1999. Two concepts are included in the circumstances of an injury death: intent of injury...

  17. Fatal cranial injuries caused by an electric angle grinder. (United States)

    Telmon, N; Allery, J P; Scolan, V; Rougé, D


    A case of fatal cranial injuries caused by an angle grinder is reported. The scalp lesions were typical of those produced by a cutting disk in a side-slipping movement. On the cranial vault were two bony losses of substance, one of which was deep enough for intracranial penetration of the disk. Signs of deflection of the disk, identical to those found on the scalp, were observed on the external bony table. Because of the circumstances in which the victim was discovered, in particular the damage to the machine which had a broken handle, and the lack of any indication of homicide or suicide, an accident is the most likely hypothesis.

  18. Victims and contemporary tendencies in crime control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soković Snežana


    Full Text Available Victimological dimension of new criminality forms is a specific challenge for contemporary criminal law systems; new time brings new forms of criminality, new victims, but also new ways and opportunities for more efficient protection of victims. At the same time with review and improvement of existing standards of victims` protection, contemporary criminality control systems show strong tendency toward compromising the general position of the victim. Victim’s interests are being instrumentalized because of the justification of changes in criminality control in the direction of significant strengthening of criminal law repression. The crime which is emotionalized with the affective media presentation of the victim justifies stricter penal policy and provides the populist support for repressive criminality control strategies and criminal law expansionism. The aim of the paper is the analysis of the mechanisms of victim “use“ in contemporary criminality control and the examination of its consequences, with special review on domestic circumstances through analysis of the Code on special measures for prevention of crimes against sexual freedom towards juveniles (Marija`s Code.

  19. Victims of Occupational Injuries: A Comparison between Migrants and Italians. Results of a survey conducted in Trentino in 2009 / Vittime di infortunio sul lavoro : una comparazione tra italiani e stranieri. Risultati di una ricerca condotta in Trentino nel 2009 / Victimes d’accidents du travail: une comparaison entre travailleurs immigrés et italiens. Résultats d’une enquête conduite en 2009 en Trentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinello Daniela


    Full Text Available This essay deals with victims of occupational injuries and delves deeper into the differences between Italians and migrants. The study is based on the carrying out of a survey in Trentino: a questionnaire has been administered to two samples, one of Italian victims (300 respondents and one of immigrant victims (200 respondents of work injuries. The work on the field has allowed, then, to gain the following objectives: verifying whether migrants are more vulnerable to occupational injuries than Italians; depicting a profile of the injured migrant and of the injured Italian and finding out, though statistical analysis, the factors that help to explain migrants’ over-representation in the phenomenon. This essay gives the following answers: Who is the victim? How often is he/she victimized? What about the inclination not to report injuries? What are the personal characteristics (age, gender, etc. of the victim and his/her occupational history? What are the characteristics of companies where he/she works? What is the level of compliance with Health and Safety rules in these companies? How often has he/she been victimized? Then, some factors that may help to explain the higher victimization of migrants in the phenomenon are presented and some suggestions about possible actions to pursue are indicated.Questo saggio pone l’attenzione sulle vittime di infortunio sul lavoro e approfondisce le differenze tra italiani e stranieri. Lo studio è stato condotto tramite la realizzazione di una survey in Trentino: un questionario è stato somministrato a due campioni, uno di vittime italiane di infortuni sul lavoro (300 rispondenti e uno di vittime straniere (200 rispondenti. Il lavoro sul campo ha permesso di raggiungere i seguenti obiettivi: verificare se gli stranieri siano meno o più vulnerabili degli Italiani rispetto agli infortuni sul lavoro; stilare un profilo dell’infortunato straniero e di quello italiano e individuare, attraverso l

  20. Reporting on pediatric unintentional firearm injury--who's responsible. (United States)

    Faulkenberry, J Grey; Schaechter, Judy


    Gun injury is a leading cause of death among US children and adolescents. Unintentional firearm death disproportionately affects youth. Reports have shown that at least a third of US homes with children have firearms. When children are fatally injured by guns, the location is most often a home, the shooter is family, the gun owner is a relative, and the gun most often originates from the home, where it was left unlocked. We conducted an Internet search of pediatric (0-18 years old) fatal and nonfatal firearm injuries from January 1 to August 31, 2014, in the United States, querying the terms shot, gun, accident, and year-old for media reports. Cases were screened for intent and coded for demographics, location, gun specifics, circumstances, relationship between the victim, shooter, gun owner, and any resultant charges. A total of 277 unintentional pediatric gun injury events were reviewed, two-thirds were nonfatal. Half of the victims were younger than 13 years; 25.3% were younger than 7 years, 80% of the victims and 85.6% of the shooters were male. Of shooters, 84.3% were the child victim themselves, a family member, or a friend/acquaintance. Seventy-seven percent of the events took place in a residence. When gun ownership was reported, 68% were owned by a family member. When charges were reported, a third were against minors. This study reinforced previous studies that unintentional child firearm injuries predominantly involve the home, family guns, young children, and males, and most could be prevented through adult responsibility for minimizing child access and securing storage of firearms. We further learned that media accounts frequently did not report on gun ownership or charges, details which might increase community awareness or inform policies useful to prevention. Shooters, not owners, were more often charged in unintentional child injuries, and minors were charged even when Child Access Prevention laws could be applied. Epidemiologic study, level 4.

  1. Perioperative care of a pregnant trauma victim: a review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 3, 2004 ... Key words: Pregnancy, trauma, abdominal trauma, head injury, cervical spine injury, fetal injury, gun shot wounds, blunt trauma, motor vehicle accidents, falls, violent assaults, .... ventilation for both, the airway control and control of the in- tracranial pressure. However, trauma victims with “good”. GCS's can ...

  2. Quality of life in chemical warfare survivors with ophthalmologic injuries: the first results form Iran Chemical Warfare Victims Health Assessment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush Mohammad


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iraq used chemical weapons extensively against the Iranians during the Iran-Iraq war (1980–1988. The aim of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQOL in people who had ophthalmologic complications due to the sulfur mustard gas exposure during the war. Methods The Veterans and Martyrs Affair Foundation (VMAF database indicated that there were 196 patients with severe ophthalmologic complications due to chemical weapons exposure. Of these, those who gave consent (n = 147 entered into the study. Quality of life was measured using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 and scores were compared to those of the general public. In addition logistic regression analysis was performed to indicate variables that contribute to physical and mental health related quality of life. Results The mean age of the patients was 44.8 (SD = 8.7 ranging from 21 to 75 years. About one-third of the cases (n= 50 reported exposure to chemical weapons more than once. The mean exposure duration to sulfur mustard gas was 21.6 years (SD = 1.2. The lowest scores on the SF-36 subscales were found to be: the role physical and the general health. Quality of life in chemical warfare victims who had ophthalmologic problems was significantly lower than the general public (P Conclusion The study findings suggest that chemical warfare victims with ophthalmologic complications suffer from poor health related quality of life. It seems that the need for provision of health and support for this population is urgent. In addition, further research is necessary to measure health related quality of life in victims with different types of disabilities in order to support and enhance quality of life among this population.

  3. Trauma admissions among victims of domestic violence at a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Domestic violence, physical trauma, injury characteristics, treatment, outcome, Tanzania .... Disrespect to husband' in laws. 103. 41.9 ..... commonly injured reflecting the tendency of victims to defend themselves with their hands.

  4. Victims of Crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karin Wittebrood


    Original title: Slachtoffers van criminaliteit. More than three million people in the Netherlands are victims of crime each year. Are all Dutch citizens equally at risk of becoming victims? And of those who become victims, which report the offence to the police, and what motivates them to do

  5. Quality of life in chemical warfare survivors with ophthalmologic injuries: the first results form Iran Chemical Warfare Victims Health Assessment Study (United States)

    Mousavi, Batool; Soroush, Mohammad Reza; Montazeri, Ali


    Background Iraq used chemical weapons extensively against the Iranians during the Iran-Iraq war (1980–1988). The aim of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQOL) in people who had ophthalmologic complications due to the sulfur mustard gas exposure during the war. Methods The Veterans and Martyrs Affair Foundation (VMAF) database indicated that there were 196 patients with severe ophthalmologic complications due to chemical weapons exposure. Of these, those who gave consent (n = 147) entered into the study. Quality of life was measured using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and scores were compared to those of the general public. In addition logistic regression analysis was performed to indicate variables that contribute to physical and mental health related quality of life. Results The mean age of the patients was 44.8 (SD = 8.7) ranging from 21 to 75 years. About one-third of the cases (n= 50) reported exposure to chemical weapons more than once. The mean exposure duration to sulfur mustard gas was 21.6 years (SD = 1.2). The lowest scores on the SF-36 subscales were found to be: the role physical and the general health. Quality of life in chemical warfare victims who had ophthalmologic problems was significantly lower than the general public (P < 0.001). The results obtained from logistic regression analysis indicated that those who did not participate in sport activities suffer from a poorer physical health (OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.36 to 6.30, P = 0.006). The analysis also showed that poor mental health was associated with longer time since exposure (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.39, P = 0.03) and lower education (OR = 3.03, 95% CI = 1.21 to 7.56, P = 0.01). Conclusion The study findings suggest that chemical warfare victims with ophthalmologic complications suffer from poor health related quality of life. It seems that the need for provision of health and support for this population is urgent. In addition, further research

  6. Spinal cord injury - Symptoms and causes (United States)

    ... immediate medical evaluation for the possibility of a spinal injury. In fact, it's safest to assume that trauma victims have a spinal injury until proved otherwise because: A serious spinal injury ...

  7. Circumstances and outcomes of falls among high risk community-dwelling older adults


    Judy A Stevens; Mahoney, Jane E; Ehrenreich, Heidi


    Background For older adults, falls threaten their health, independence, and quality of life. Knowing the circumstances surrounding falls is essential for understanding how behavioral and environmental factors interact in fall events. It is also important for developing and implementing interventions that are effective and acceptable to older adults. This study investigated the circumstances and injury outcomes of falls among community-dwelling older adults at high risk for falls. Methods In t...

  8. Glass injuries seen in the emergency department of a South African district hospital. (United States)

    Nzaumvila, Doudou; Govender, Indiran; Kramer, Efraim B


    The emergency department of Embhuleni Hospital frequently manages patients with glass-related injuries. This study assessed these injuries and the glass that caused them in more detail. The objectives of our study included determining the type of glass causing these injuries and describing the circumstances associated with different types of glass injuries. The emergency department of Embhuleni Hospital in Elukwatini, Mpumalanga province, South Africa. This was a cross-sectional study with a sample size of 104 patients. Descriptive statistics were used to assess the characteristics of the glass injuries. Five different types of glass were reported to have caused the injuries, namely car glass (7.69%), glass ampoules (3.85%), glass bottles (82.69%), glass windows (3.85%) and street glass shards (1.92%). Glass bottle injuries were mainly caused by assaults (90.47%) and most victims were mostly young males (80.23%). The assaults occurred at alcohol-licensed premises in 65.11% of cases. These injuries occurred mostly over weekends (83.72%), between 18:00 and 04:00. The face (34.23%) and the scalp (26.84%) were the sites that were injured most often. Assault is the most common cause of glass injuries, usually involving young men at alcohol-licensed premises. Glass injuries generally resulted in minor lacerations, with few complications (2.68%).

  9. Secondary victims of rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Bak, Rikke; Elklit, Ask


    Rape is often a very traumatic experience, which affects not only the primary victim (PV) but also his/her significant others. Studies on secondary victims of rape are few and have almost exclusively studied male partners of female rape victims. This study examined the impact of rape on 107...... secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels...... of social support for the respondent, and feeling let down by others. The respondents were generally interested in friend-, family-, and partner-focused interventions, particularly in receiving education about how best to support a rape victim...

  10. Single centre experience of combat-related vascular injury in victims of Syrian conflict: Retrospective evaluation of risk factors associated with amputation. (United States)

    Şişli, Emrah; Kavala, Ali Aycan; Mavi, Mustafa; Sarıosmanoğlu, Osman Nejat; Oto, Öztekin


    To elucidate the risk factors associated with amputation in cases with combat-related vascular injury (CRVI). This retrospective study included 90 cases with CRVI treated between May 2011 and July 2013. The patients were divided into group I (n=69), in which the limb was salvaged and group II (n=21), in which the patients received amputation. The overall and the secondary amputation rates were 23% and 18%, respectively. There were no amputations with the MESS of nine or less, increasing proportions of amputations at 10 and 11, with a level of 12 leading to 100% amputation rate. The mortality rate was 2%. Among the 52 (58%) cases with the mangled extremity severity score (MESS) ≥7, the limb salvage rate was 60%. The patients in group II were more likely to have a combined artery and vein injury (p=0.042). They were also more likely to be injured as a result of an explosion (p=0.004). Along with the MESS (pamputation, the odds ratio of the bony fracture (OR: 61.39, p=0.011), nerve injury (OR: 136.23, p=0.004), DoI (OR: 2.03, p=0.003), vascular ligation (OR: 8.65, p=0.040) and explosive device injury (OR: 10.8, p=0.041) were significant. Although the DoI (pamputation rate (p=1.0). The DoI and the variables indicating the extent of tissue disruption were the major determinants of amputation. While statistically non-significant, the benefit of the application of a TVS is non-negligible. MESS is a valid scoring system but should not be the sole foundation for deciding on amputation. Extremities which were doomed to amputation with the MESS>7 seem to benefit from revascularisation with initiation of reperfusion at once. The validity of MESS merits further investigation with regard to the determination of a new cut-off value under ever developing medical management strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk Factor Profile of Motorcycle Crash Victims in Rural Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Road traffic injuries involving motorcycles are increasing especially in rural Kenya resulting in both human and economic loss. This study was done to identify the risk factors and the host characteristics associated with motorcycle injury victims in rural setting so as to institute appropriate interventions for ...

  12. Soda pop vending machine injuries. (United States)

    Cosio, M Q


    Fifteen male patients, 15 to 24 years of age, sustained injuries after rocking soda machines. The machines fell onto the victims, resulting in a variety of injuries. Three were killed. The remaining 12 required hospitalization for their injuries. Unless changes are made to safeguard these machines, people will continue to suffer severe and possibly fatal injuries from what are largely preventable accidents.

  13. Sudden death victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceelen, Manon; van der Werf, Christian; Hendrix, Anneke; Naujocks, Tatjana; Woonink, Frits; de Vries, Philip; van der Wal, Allard; Das, Kees


    The goal of this study was to ascertain accordance between cause of death established by the forensic physician and autopsy results in young sudden death victims in the Netherlands. Sudden death victims aged 1-45 years examined by forensic physicians operating in the participating regions which also

  14. Yoga and victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić-Ristanović Vesna


    Full Text Available In this paper the findings of literature review and explorative empirical research of yoga application in the work with victims of various forms of sufferings is presented. The largest notion of victim is accepted, which encompasses victims of crime, victims of human rights violations (including convicted persons, as well as victims of war, natural disasters and other sufferings. After determination of the notion of victim and yoga, the review and analyses of research findings and direct experiences with the application of yoga in victim support and victimisation prevention worldwide and in Serbia, is done. The author’s research findings as well as personal experiences with the application of yoga in the work with prisoners in prison for women in Pozarevac (Serbia, within the workshops that Victimology Society of Serbia implemented during 2012/2013, are presented as well. In the conclusions, contribution of yoga to holistic approach to victim support as well as important role that yoga may have in prevention of victimisation and criminalisation, is stressed. The importance of yoga for support of prisoners as the part of preparation for re-entry and with the aim to prevent recidivism, as well as to enable their more successful reintegration into the society, is particularly emphasised. The paper is based on the research implemented by the author for the purpose of writing the final essey at the course for yoga instructors on International yoga academy, Yoga Allience of Serbia.

  15. Victimization of Obese Adolescents (United States)

    Robinson, Sabrina


    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…

  16. [And if it happened to children? Adapting medical care during terrorist attacks with multiple pediatric victims]. (United States)

    Alix-Séguin, L; Lodé, N; Orliaguet, G; Chamorro, E; Kerroué, F; Lorge, C; Moreira, A


    In light of the recent terrorist attacks in Europe, we need to reconsider the organization of rescue and medical management and plan for an attack involving multiple pediatric victims. To ensure quick surgical management, but also to minimize risk for on-site teams (direct threats from secondary terrorist attacks targeting deployed emergency services), it is crucial to evacuate patients in a swift but orderly fashion. Children are vulnerable targets in terrorist attacks. Their anatomical and physiological characteristics make it likely that pediatric victims will suffer more brain injuries and require more, often advanced, airway management. Care of multiple pediatric victims would also prove to be a difficult emotional challenge. Civilian medical teams have adapted the military-medicine principles of damage control in their medical practice using the MARCHE algorithm (Massive hemorrhage, Airway, Respiration [breathing], Circulation, Head/Hypothermia, Evacuation). They have also learned to adapt the level of care to the level of safety at the scene. Prehospital damage control principles should now be tailored to the treatment of pediatric patients in extraordinary circumstances. Priorities are given to hemorrhage control and preventing the lethal triad (coagulopathy, hypothermia, and acidosis). Managing hemorrhagic shock involves quickly controlling external bleeding (tourniquets, hemostatic dressing), using small volumes for fluid resuscitation (10-20ml/kg of normal saline), quickly introducing a vasopressor (noradrenaline 0.1μg/kg/min then titrate) after one or two fluid boluses, and using tranexamic acid (15mg/kg over 10min for loading dose, maximum 1g over 10min). Prehospital resources specifically dedicated to children are limited, and it is therefore important that everyone be trained and prepared for a scene with multiple pediatric patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. 28 CFR 551.14 - Special circumstances. (United States)


    ... MISCELLANEOUS Marriages of Inmates § 551.14 Special circumstances. (a) Detainers and pending charges. Staff review of a marriage request from an inmate who has a detainer(s) and/or a pending charge(s) shall include an assessment of the legal effects of the marriage on these actions. For example, an inmate could...

  18. Is the victim blameless? (United States)

    Fattah, E A


    The study concerned 50 cases occurring throughout Austria between 1950 and 1962 where murder was committed for the purpose of robbing the victim. Fifty-nine convicted killers and 61 victims were involved and 1950 was chosen as the starting point of the research in order to avoid undue influence from the extraordinary factors affecting criminality during and immediately following the Second World War. Cases were consecutive and unselected apart from a very small number excluded through unavailability of their files for legal reasons at the time when the data were collected. Unsuccessful murder attempts were not excluded since there is no difference between crimes actually carried out and those merely attempted as regards criminogenic factors, the pre-criminal situation, the choice of victim, the relationship and interaction between criminal and victim, and the recourse to homicide. However, the inquiry was confined to cases where guilt had been proven because of the aim to study not only the crime and the victim, but also the relationship of the criminal and victim. The latter is obviously not possible where the murderer remains unknown. Accordingly, since the material comprises a large number of cases over a fairly long period (more than a decade) from all over Austria, it is fair to claim that it provides an overview of the criminality of murder with intent to rob, and of the killers and the victims, for an entire country and over a significant epoch.

  19. Victims of violence and the general practitioner.


    Mezey, G; King, M.; MacClintock, T


    BACKGROUND: Violent crime is on the increase in Britain, with 17% of the 15 million incidents of crime reported in 1991 being of a violent nature. Although there is some information on the role of accident and emergency departments for victims who sustain physical injury, little is known about the role of the general practitioner (GP) in managing the acute and longer-term sequelae of violence. AIM: To examine the links between experiencing physical of sexual assault and seeking help from GPs ...

  20. Predictors of victim disclosure in child sexual abuse: Additional evidence from a sample of incarcerated adult sex offenders. (United States)

    Leclerc, Benoit; Wortley, Richard


    The under-reporting of child sexual abuse by victims is a serious problem that may prolong the suffering of victims and leave perpetrators free to continue offending. Yet empirical evidence indicates that victim disclosure rates are low. In this study, we perform regression analysis with a sample of 369 adult child sexual offenders to examine potential predictors of victim disclosure. Specifically, we extend the range of previously examined potential predictors of victim disclosure and investigate interaction effects in order to better capture under which circumstances victim disclosure is more likely. The current study differs from previous studies in that it examines the impact of victim and offense variables on victim disclosure from the perspective of the offender. In line with previous studies, we found that disclosure increased with the age of the victim and if penetration had occurred. In addition, we found that disclosure increased when the victim came from a non-dysfunctional family and resisted the abuse. The presence of an interaction effect highlighted the impact of the situation on victim disclosure. This effect indicated that as victims get older, they are more likely to disclose the abuse when they are not living with the offender at the time of abuse, but less likely to do so when they are living with the offender at the time of abuse. These findings are discussed in relation to previous studies and the need to facilitate victim disclosure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Underwater disaster victim identification: the process and the problems. (United States)

    Winskog, Calle


    An underwater disaster may involve a crime scene investigation which should be handled as if it were located above water and include a detailed description and documentation of items, belongings and findings. The environment, however, creates special circumstances, each with specific problems that are not encountered during land investigations. Risks associated with underwater recovery cannot be overestimated and underwater disaster recovery diving should not be performed without special training and careful pre-dive planning. Handling of cadavers in an underwater recovery operation also requires special training and a systematic approach to victim recovery. Environmental circumstances, local judicial requirements, religious and cultural issues and the scope of the disaster are only some of the factors that have to be considered before commencing any aquatic disaster victim recovery operation.

  2. Nem doente, nem vítima: o atendimento às "lesões autoprovocadas" nas emergências Neither ill, nor victim: the self-injury in the emergency care

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    Rosana Machin


    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda as concepções e práticas de profissionais de saúde relativas aos casos de "lesões autoprovocadas". Problematiza-se o hiato existente entre sua formação profissional baseada no modelo biomédico e suas práticas de trabalho, nas quais estão presentes dimensões não contempladas pela biomedicina. A referência empírica da pesquisa é um hospital público de emergências na cidade de São Paulo. O estudo de natureza qualitativa foi desenvolvido por meio de observação dos atendimentos, consulta a prontuários médicos e entrevistas com profissionais de saúde. A questão que emerge diz respeito ao modelo de inteligibilidade da doença, baseado no corpo como lócus privilegiado do cuidado, e a doença como um evento de caráter fortuito ou acidental. Contrariamente, as situações de lesões autoprovocadas (tentativas de suicídio, abuso de drogas e álcool são abordadas como eventos carregados de intencionalidade, resultantes de uma escolha, de uma opção, o que acarreta a não identificação de seus autores como doentes ou vítimas a demandar cuidados.This paper shows concepts and practices of health professionals regarding cases of self-injury. It is problematized the existent gap between professionals training based in the biomedical model and practices, in which are presented dimension not considered for biomedicine. The empiric reference is a public emergency hospital in the city of São Paulo. The qualitative nature study was developed by observing attendances, consults to medical records and interviews with health professionals. The underlying question is related to intelligibility model of the illness, based in the body as a privileged locus of care, and illness as accidental event. Contradictively, self-injury situations (suicide attempts, drug and alcohol abuse are analyzed as intentionally events, consequence of a choice, implicating no identification of their authors as patients or victims of care.

  3. Age, sex, causal and injury patterns in tarsometatarsal dislocations: a literature review of over 2000 cases. (United States)

    Lievers, W Brent; Frimenko, Rebecca E; Crandall, Jeff R; Kent, Richard W; Park, Joseph S


    The causes and mechanisms of tarsometatarsal (TMT) dislocations are poorly characterized. Unfortunately, the rarity of these injuries makes it difficult and costly to gather the epidemiological data needed to better understand the populations at risk and the circumstances under which injury is most likely to occur. To address this issue, literature reports of TMT dislocations were identified and analyzed to generate statistical descriptions of the common causes of injury, the age and sex of those injured, and the pattern of injury. Over 2000 injuries were identified from 187 articles. The analysis reveals that over 40% of injuries were related to traffic accidents. Based on the Hardcastle classification system, more than 60% of TMT dislocation were partial (type B) injuries. Over 55% of the injured were between 15 and 35 years of age, and males were injured more than twice as frequently. Conversely, the victims of falls tended to be older and represented a larger proportion of females. The age and sex of those injured by TMT dislocations vary by cause. An improved understanding of the epidemiologic patterns will benefit research into the mitigation and prevention of these injuries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cyber-Victimized Students

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    Kaitlyn N. Ryan


    Full Text Available Bullying is a common topic in the media and academic settings. Teachers are regularly expected to provide curriculum and intervene regarding all forms of bullying, including cyber-bullying. Altering the behaviors of those who bully is often the focus of interventions, with less attention being placed on victim impact. The purpose of this article was to provide educators with a review of evidence regarding the occurrence, impact, and interventions for victims of cyber-bullying. Evidence reveals that cyber-bullying can have emotional, social, and academic impacts but that there are very few documented, and even fewer evidence-based, programs for victims of cyber-bullying. We conclude by proposing that school-wide programs and support be developed and provided to victims.

  5. The incongruity of workplace bullying victimization and inclusive excellence. (United States)

    Dzurec, Laura Cox; Kennison, Monica; Gillen, Patricia

    Bullying occurs frequently-and with significant negative outcomes-in workplace settings. Once established, bullying endures in the workplace, requiring the interaction of a bully perpetrator and an intended target who takes on the role of victim. Not every target becomes a victim, however. The purpose of this study is to investigate the processes by which targets, intended objects of bullies' affronts, become victims, those individuals who experience ongoing emotional injury in response to bullies' affronts, and to clarify how bullying victimization impedes inclusive excellence in the workplace. The design for this study was pragmatic utility, an inductive research approach grounded in assumptions of hermeneutics. The pragmatic utility process involved the investigators' synthesis of descriptions from a broad, interdisciplinary published literature. Integrating knowledge from their previous research and practice experiences with the pragmatic utility process, they derived qualitative features of victims' experiences, differentiating target from victim in bullying encounters. For those targets who ultimately are victimized, response to bullies' affronts extends far beyond the immediate present. Redolence of personal, lived experience revives bygone vulnerabilities, and naïve communication and relationship expectations reinforce a long-standing, impoverished sense. That sense couples with workplace dynamics to augment a context of exclusion. Findings suggest that, as Heidegger contended, we are our histories. Personal history demonstrates a significance influence on the manifestation of bullying victimization, acting to distance them from their workplace peers and to impede inclusive excellence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Trauma Center-Based Surveillance of Nontraffic Pedestrian Injury among California Children

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    John Sherck, MD


    Full Text Available Introduction: Every year in the United States, thousands of young children are injured by passengervehicles in driveways or parking areas. Little is known about risk factors, and incidence rates aredifficult to estimate because ascertainment using police collision reports or media sources isincomplete. This study used surveillance at trauma centers to identify incidents and parent interviewsto obtain detailed information on incidents, vehicles, and children.Methods: Eight California trauma centers conducted surveillance of nontraffic pedestrian collisioninjury to children aged 14 years or younger from January 2005 to July 2007. Three of these centersconducted follow-up interviews with family members.Results: Ninety-four injured children were identified. Nine children (10% suffered fatal injury. Seventychildren (74% were 4 years old or younger. Family members of 21 victims from this study (23%completed an interview. Of these 21 interviewed victims, 17 (81% were male and 13 (62% were 1 or 2years old. In 13 cases (62%, the child was backed over, and the driver was the mother or father in 11cases (52%. Fifteen cases (71% involved a sport utility vehicle, pickup truck, or van. Most collisionsoccurred in a residential driveway.Conclusion: Trauma center surveillance can be used for case ascertainment and for collectinginformation on circumstances of nontraffic pedestrian injuries. Adoption of a specific external cause-ofinjurycode would allow passive surveillance of these injuries. Research is needed to understand thecontributions of family, vehicular, and environmental characteristics and injury risk to inform preventionefforts.

  7. Analysis of injuries and causes of death in fatal farm-related incidents in Lower Silesia, Poland

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    Marta Rorat


    Full Text Available Introduction. Workers in the agriculture sector are among the groups at the highest risk of fatal occupational injuries. The aim of study is to show the most common causes of farm-related deaths in Poland, with the circumstances, injuries sustained and mechanisms of death. Materials and methods. There were 109 (90.8% males aged 19–81 and 11 females aged 19–73. 18.3% were over 60 years of age. There were 6 children (boys aged between 2–6. A retrospective review was undertaken of 16,140 medico-legal autopsy reports by the Department of Forensic Medicine in Wroclaw between 1991–2011, which included 120 fatal farm-related incidents. The study protocol included gender, age, date and cause of death, all injuries found, circumstances and mechanism of death, place of death and blood alcohol concentration. Results. The most common (33/120; 27.5% causes of death, both in men and women, were traffic accidents, the second being hit, crushed or buried by materials and falling objects. The most common injury was multi-organ damage (27/120; 22.5%, less common were cranio-cerebral injury (17/120; 14.2% and thoracic blunt trauma (11/120; 9.2%. In multi-organ and thoracic traumas the mechanism of death was almost always exsanguinations. 85.3% of victims died at the place found. 37.2% of victims were drunk. Conclusion. In Poland, fatal injuries occurring in agriculture are mostly related to the misuse of transport and machinery. The main efforts to prevent accidents are engineering improvements, use of personal protective equipment, alcohol intake prevention and appropriate education of the workforce. Special prevention programmes should take gender and age differences into account.

  8. Global Human Trafficking and Child Victimization. (United States)

    Greenbaum, Jordan; Bodrick, Nia


    Trafficking of children for labor and sexual exploitation violates basic human rights and constitutes a major global public health problem. Pediatricians and other health care professionals may encounter victims who present with infections, injuries, posttraumatic stress disorder, suicidality, or a variety of other physical or behavioral health conditions. Preventing child trafficking, recognizing victimization, and intervening appropriately require a public health approach that incorporates rigorous research on the risk factors, health impact, and effective treatment options for child exploitation as well as implementation and evaluation of primary prevention programs. Health care professionals need training to recognize possible signs of exploitation and to intervene appropriately. They need to adopt a multidisciplinary, outward-focused approach to service provision, working with nonmedical professionals in the community to assist victims. Pediatricians also need to advocate for legislation and policies that promote child rights and victim services as well as those that address the social determinants of health, which influence the vulnerability to human trafficking. This policy statement outlines major issues regarding public policy, medical education, research, and collaboration in the area of child labor and sex trafficking and provides recommendations for future work. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Traumatic brain injuries in illustrated literature: experience from a series of over 700 head injuries in the Asterix comic books. (United States)

    Kamp, Marcel A; Slotty, Philipp; Sarikaya-Seiwert, Sevgi; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel


    The goal of the present study was to analyze the epidemiology and specific risk factors of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the Asterix illustrated comic books. Among the illustrated literature, TBI is a predominating injury pattern. A retrospective analysis of TBI in all 34 Asterix comic books was performed by examining the initial neurological status and signs of TBI. Clinical data were correlated to information regarding the trauma mechanism, the sociocultural background of victims and offenders, and the circumstances of the traumata, to identify specific risk factors. Seven hundred and four TBIs were identified. The majority of persons involved were adult and male. The major cause of trauma was assault (98.8%). Traumata were classified to be severe in over 50% (GCS 3-8). Different neurological deficits and signs of basal skull fractures were identified. Although over half of head-injury victims had a severe initial impairment of consciousness, no case of death or permanent neurological deficit was found. The largest group of head-injured characters was constituted by Romans (63.9%), while Gauls caused nearly 90% of the TBIs. A helmet had been worn by 70.5% of victims but had been lost in the vast majority of cases (87.7%). In 83% of cases, TBIs were caused under the influence of a doping agent called "the magic potion". Although over half of patients had an initially severe impairment of consciousness after TBI, no permanent deficit could be found. Roman nationality, hypoglossal paresis, lost helmet, and ingestion of the magic potion were significantly correlated with severe initial impairment of consciousness (p ≤ 0.05).

  10. Lifetime Prevalence and Characteristics of Child Sexual Victimization in a Community Sample of Spanish Adolescents. (United States)

    Pereda, Noemí; Abad, Judit; Guilera, Georgina


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence and characteristics of self-reported child sexual victimization and associations between sexual victimization and sociodemographic characteristics and victimological profiles in community adolescents in Spain. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (Finkelhor, Hamby, Ormrod, & Turner, 2005) was applied to a sample of 1,105 community adolescents (M = 14.52 years, SD = 1.76). Experience of sexual victimization (with or without physical contact) was reported by 8.8% of the sample, at a mean age of 13 years old. Sexual victimization was more prevalent in girls (14.2%) and in older adolescents (10.6%). Offenders were mainly male (87.6%) and were mostly friends, neighbors, or schoolmates (52.6%). No injuries resulted from victimization (4.3%), although the percentage of penetration or attempted penetration was very high (30.6%). Only 9.3% of victims reported the incident to the police or the justice system. In regard to victimological profiles, sexual victims also experienced other forms of victimization (M = 7.16; SD = 3.39): boys reported more conventional crimes, peer and sibling victimization, and witnessing community violence than other victims, whereas sexually victimized girls reported more caregiver victimization and property crimes. Sexually victimized youth present a distinctive sociodemographic and victimological profile. Professionals need to be aware of these characteristics in order to conduct adequate prevention programs. We also need to assess a wide range of victimization experiences when treating sexual abuse victims in order to make adolescents less vulnerable to violence.


    Hăisan, Anca; Dumea, Mihaela; Ursaru, Manuela; Bulat, C; Cimpoeşu, Diana Carmen


    Emergency medicine as a medical specialty has to deal with all kind of emergency situations, from medical to post traumatic acute eyents and from new born to the elderly persons, but also with particular situations like explosions. In Romania nowadays these are accidental explosions and rare like frequency, but may be dramatic due to numbers of victims and multisystem injury that may occur. We present a case of a single victim of accidental detonated bomb, a projectile from the Second World War, which unfortunately still may be found in some areas. The management of the case from first call to 112 until the victim is discharge-involves high professional team work. We use these opportunity to make a brief review of the mechanism through the lesions may appear and also to renew the fact that the most impressive lesion may not be the most severe, and we have to examine carefully in order to find the real life threatening injury of the patient.

  12. Victimization and pain

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    Małgorzata K. Szerla


    Full Text Available Pain has several causes. It can be caused not only by operative trauma or cancer. Some patients suffer from pain as a result of being victims of violence. The aim of the study was to introduce diagnosis and treatment of pain problems in patients who are victims of violence, from a physician’s and a psychologist’s common perspective. Physical pain-related primary effects experienced by the victims of domestic violence go far beyond the results which are noticeable directly and confirmed visually in a forensic examination. In the present paper we introduce an ‘invisible’ group of secondary effects of violence. They appear in time, often after several years, in the form of a variety of psychosomatic disorders. The body is devastated insidiously and the secondary effects are visible as vegetative symptoms, a variety of psychosomatic disorders and pain, difficult to diagnose and treat.

  13. Virtual animation of victim-specific 3D models obtained from CT scans for forensic reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, C; Olsen, K B; Hansen, S H


    physiognomics and can be used to create whole-body 3D virtual animations. In such way, virtual reconstructions of the probable ante-mortem postures of victims can be constructed and contribute to understand the sequence of events. This procedure is demonstrated in two victims of gunshot injuries. Case #1...

  14. Status of dental health in chemical warfare victims: The case of Isfahan, Iran

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    Ahmad Mottaghi


    Conclusion: Chemical warfare victims have relatively poor dental/oral health. Chemical injury might cause a dysfunction in saliva secretion, with decrease in saliva secretion increasing the risk for tooth decay and periodontal disorders. Further research is required to find out the exact underlying mechanisms and the factors associated with poor dental/oral health in chemical warfare victims.

  15. Costs of traffic injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the socioeconomic costs of traffic injuries in Denmark, notably the healthcare costs and the productivity costs related to traffic injuries, in a bottom-up, register-based perspective. METHOD: Traffic injury victims were identified using national...... emergency room data and police records. Victims were matched with five controls per case by means of propensity score, nearest-neighbour matching. In the cohort, consisting of the 52 526 individuals that experienced a traffic injury in 2000 and 262 630 matched controls, attributable healthcare costs were...... assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic...

  16. Measuring Poly-Victimization Using the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.; Hamby, Sherry L.


    Objective: Children who experience multiple victimizations (referred to in this paper as poly-victims) need to be identified because they are at particularly high risk of additional victimization and traumatic psychological effects. This paper compares alternative ways of identifying such children using questions from the Juvenile Victimization…

  17. Poly-Victimization: A Neglected Component in Child Victimization (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.


    Objective: To assess the role of multiple victimization, or what is termed in this article "poly-victimization," in explaining trauma symptomatology. Method: In a nationally representative sample of 2,030 children ages 2-17, assessment was made of the past year's victimization experiences and recent trauma symptoms. Results: Children experiencing…

  18. Is sexual victimization gender specific?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundaram, Vanita; Laursen, Bjarne; Helweg-Larsen, Karin


    The present study investigates the prevalence of sexual victimization and correlations between sexual victimization and indicators of poor health in two representative samples of men and women in Denmark. Specifically, the authors explore the prevalence of self-reported victimization among...

  19. Sexually Victimized Boys. (United States)

    Grayson, Joann, Ed.


    The documented incidence of sexual abuse of boys is reported. Though prevalence rates varied from different sources, all sources agreed that reported cases reflect only a fraction of the actual prevalence. The paper also discusses characteristics of the abusers, risk factors of victims, the effects of abuse, and the coping styles of the young male…

  20. Victims and Heroes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg, Christian K.


    Victimization, autochthony and citizenship, power and nation-building constitute recurrent, interrelated themes in post-war Manding historical memory in the border area between Liberia and Guinea. While the perceived history of the Manding diverges from academic, historical knowledge as well...

  1. Between "Victims" and "Criminals"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plambech, Sine


    This article is about the lives of Nigerian sex workers after deportation from Europe, as well as the institutions that intervene in their migration trajectories. In Europe, some of these women's situations fit the legal definitions of trafficking, and they were categorized as “victims of human...

  2. First Person Victim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Bruni, Luis Emilio; Khalil, Faysal Fuad


    of violent interactive shooter experiences by allowing the participants to experience the feeling of being a victim of war. An evaluation of the implementation indicated that participants experienced free spatial interaction, while still being able to acquire an understanding of the theme being mediated....

  3. Adolescent sexual victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P


    at baseline and first time APSV during a 6-month period. Data analysis was a binary logistic regression analysis. Number of sexual partners and displaying sexual risk behaviors significantly predicted subsequent first time peer-on-peer sexual victimization, whereas a history of child sexual abuse, early...

  4. Disaster victim identification: Tsunami. (United States)

    Bajaj, Arveen


    In the aftermath of the devastating tsunami that hit South East Asia last December, a huge operation to try to identify thousands of victims got underway, with the help of many overseas medical and dental professionals. British dentist Gareth Pearson went to Thailand to try and help in this task and here recounts his experience.

  5. [The war victim]. (United States)

    Hugeux, P; Barouti, H


    Just as the concept of war itself, the concept of the war victim is progressive, necessitating legal, economic, social, sanitary, ethical and political adaptations. In France, the laws of 1919, effective from 2nd August 1914, brought radical reform as laws of public solidarity, which guaranteed by the nation, the support of invalids of the most savage war in history. The collective nature of this new social risk obliged the state to replace a purely financial compensation by a solution of rehabilitation. The "Office National des Mutilés et Réformés", created in March 1916, was put in charge of the organisation of professional reeducation. The "war invalids" category was being transform a logic of assistance into one of social action. Later, the legislative structure made extensions, enlarging the beneficiaries in the "war victim" category. The "Service de Santé des Armées" in its basic mission of support to the armed forces covers many areas. The "Anciens Combattants et Victimes de Guerre" administration disposes of specific instruments, such as the "Institution Nationale des Invalides", the "Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur l'Appareillage des Handicapés", the "Office National des Anciens Combatants". These joint actions, added to the ones of very influential autonomous associations, contribute to give handicapped war victims an honourable citizenship.

  6. Antecedents of sexual victimization: factors discriminating victims from nonvictims. (United States)

    Synovitz, L B; Byrne, T J


    A sexual victimization survey was used to assess the factors that would discriminate between victims and nonvictims of sexual assault. The sample consisted of 241 female college students at a large midwestern university. Victimization status was ascertained from the 13-question Sexual Experiences Survey developed by Koss and Gidycz and Koss and Oros. Data eliciting information about possible associated factors (demographics, dating history, sexual history, personality characteristics and traits) and victimization status were obtained by adapting several scales and instruments into a single Dating and Relationship Survey. Of the 241 women, 102 reported they had been victimized. Discriminant function analysis was used to develop a set of variables that significantly identified victimization status. The variables found to be related to women's being sexually victimized were (a) number of different lifetime sexual partners, (b) provocative dress, and (c) alcohol use.

  7. Psychiatric and Psychological Support to Reduce the Psychological Effects Incurred to Female Victim in the Crime of Rape

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    Maryam Sedaqat Far


    Full Text Available The modern world with all the blessings of easier and more pleasant life is a world full of unsolved contradictions and complexities. industrialization of communities, the expansion of class gap and poverty, lack of proper management systems, lack of proper sanitation and lack of access to home and many other things have caused irreparable social damage on the body of society. One of these injuries is the problem of sexual violence against women and rape and deliberate and widespread harassment of women in different environments, including enterprises, community, neighborhood, streets and more. Rape is a wrong act and is punished hard in the Iranian criminal law or social convention. Yet, in the meantime, the women affected by this type of sexual violence not only do not enjoy the legal protections but also face identity crisis due to participation in family and community. So the issue of Psychiatric and psychological support for the female victims should be put on the priority of law and women's rights organization committed to ending violence. Methods: this study has been conducted via descriptive and analytical method and library and Internet tools. To describe the psychiatric and psychological support to reduce the psychological effects incurred to female victim in the crime of rape, female victims were interviewed using a case study. To complete the obtained information and analyze research findings using interview, some of the findings of provincial criminal court judges, public courts prosecutors, psychologists and psychiatrists were examined. Finding: The best legal action in support of women victim is psychiatric and psychological supports for these women in safe houses. Women who are suffering from this scourge often commit suicide or live with the fear of this event or their natural life is seriously disrupted. Therefore, it is incumbent on legislators to approve strong support rules in helping and supporting the victim and raped

  8. Victim Simulator for Victim Detection Radar (United States)

    Lux, James P.; Haque, Salman


    Testing of victim detection radars has traditionally used human subjects who volunteer to be buried in, or climb into a space within, a rubble pile. This is not only uncomfortable, but can be hazardous or impractical when typical disaster scenarios are considered, including fire, mud, or liquid waste. Human subjects are also inconsistent from day to day (i.e., they do not have the same radar properties), so quantitative performance testing is difficult. Finally, testing a multiple-victim scenario is difficult and expensive because of the need for multiple human subjects who must all be coordinated. The solution is an anthropomorphic dummy with dielectric properties that replicate those of a human, and that has motions comparable to human motions for breathing and heartbeat. Two airfilled bladders filled and drained by solenoid valves provide the underlying motion for vinyl bags filled with a dielectric gel with realistic properties. The entire assembly is contained within a neoprene wetsuit serving as a "skin." The solenoids are controlled by a microcontroller, which can generate a variety of heart and breathing patterns, as well as being reprogrammable for more complex activities. Previous electromagnetic simulators or RF phantoms have been oriented towards assessing RF safety, e.g., the measurement of specific absorption rate (SAR) from a cell phone signal, or to provide a calibration target for diagnostic techniques (e.g., MRI). They are optimized for precise dielectric performance, and are typically rigid and immovable. This device is movable and "positionable," and has motion that replicates the small-scale motion of humans. It is soft (much as human tissue is) and has programmable motions.

  9. Adult femicide victims in forensic autopsy in Taiwan: A 10-year retrospective study. (United States)

    Fong, Wen-Li; Pan, Chih-Hsin; Lee, James Chun-I; Lee, Tsui-Ting; Hwa, Hsiao-Lin


    Violence against women and adult femicides are critical medico-legal issues worldwide. Intimate partner violence is one of the leading contributory risk factors. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of femicides in Taiwan. A retrospective analysis of forensic autopsy records of adult femicide victims in Taiwan during a 10-year period was carried out. The age, victim-offender relationship, injury patterns and causes of death were analyzed. Among the 220 adult femicide victims recruited, 114 were killed by intimate partners and 106 were killed by non-intimate partner offenders. The average age of victims killed by intimate partners (40.0 y/o) were younger than those killed by non-intimate partner perpetrators (48.6 y/o). The most common site of injuries in the intimate partner group and the non-intimate partner group was the neck and the upper limbs, respectively. The rates of bruise and intracranial injury of non-intimate partner group were significantly higher than that of the intimate partner group. The most common causes of death in both groups were strangulation and sharp force injury. The heart injury was significantly more frequent in victims offended by intimate partners than by other assailants. The characteristics of adult femicides, and the patterns of injury in victims killed by intimate partners and non-intimate partner offenders were different. This data is helpful for corpus inspection in forensic casework and for strategic planning of femicides prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Interviewing victims of sexual crimes]. (United States)

    Magalhães, Teresa; Ribeiro, Catarina


    The approach to victims of sexual crimes is of special complexity due to the nature of this kind of crime, the impact of victimization and the specificity of judicial investigation procedures. The absence of physical evidence and the secrecy that characterizes the majority of sexual victimization cases frequently lead the victim's story to be used as one of few proof elements. Given the importance of the information supplied by the victim in the criminal inquiry, it is essential to create strategies to optimise the interview process, not only to preserve evidence, but also to prevent a secondary victimization process. This review discusses in a brief manner the extent to which information given by victims can be considered relevant forensic evidence, and then presents the methodological guidelines for interview that should be used in this type of expertise.

  11. Alcohol consumption in homicide victims in the city of São Paulo. (United States)

    Andreuccetti, Gabriel; de Carvalho, Heráclito Barbosa; de Carvalho Ponce, Júlio; de Carvalho, Débora Gonçalves; Kahn, Túlio; Muñoz, Daniel Romero; Leyton, Vilma


    To assess the association between alcohol use and victimization by homicide in individuals autopsied at the Institute of Legal Medicine in São Paulo, Brazil. Cross-sectional study. Excessive consumption of alcohol is a serious public health issue and a major factor in triggering violent situations, which suggests a strong association between alcohol ingestion and becoming a victim of homicide. Data from 2042 victims of homicides in 2005 were obtained from medical examiner reports. The victim's gender, age, ethnicity and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) were collected. The method of death and homicide circumstances, as well as the date, time and place of death were also studied. Alcohol was detected in blood samples of 43% of the victims, and mean BAC levels were 1.55 +/- 0.86 g/l. The prevalence of positive BAC levels was higher among men (44.1%) than women (26.6%), P victims of homicide by sharp weapons (P victims with positive BAC were killed at weekends compared to weekdays (56.4 and 38.5%, respectively; P homicide rates and the average BAC for the central area of the city was positive (r(s) = 0.90; P homicide victimization in the greatest urban center in South America, supporting public strategies and future research aiming to prevent homicides and violence related to alcohol consumption.

  12. Circumstances and consequences of falls in polio survivors. (United States)

    Bickerstaffe, Alice; Beelen, Anita; Nollet, Frans


    Many polio survivors have symptoms that are known risk factors for falls in elderly people. This study aims to determine the: (i) frequency; (ii) consequences; (iii) circumstances; and (iv) factors associated with falls in polio survivors. A survey was conducted among 376 polio survivors. Participants completed a falls history questionnaire and additional information was obtained from their medical files. Of the 305 respondents, 74% reported at least one fall in the past year and 60% two or more. Sixteen percent of fallers described a major injury after a fall in the last year and 69% reported fear of falling. One-third of fallers had reduced the amount they walked because of their fear of falling. Most reported falls in a familiar environment (86%), during ambulation (72%) and in the afternoon (50%). Quadriceps weakness of the weakest leg (Medical Research Council (MRC) ≤ 3), fear of falling and complaints of problems maintaining balance were independently associated with both falls and recurrent falls, while increasing age and medication use were not. The high rate of falls and consequences thereof, merit the implementation of fall intervention strategies. To maximize effect, they should be tailor-made and target the fall mechanisms specific to polio survivors.

  13. Disaster victim identification. (United States)

    Graham, Eleanor A M


    In the event of any mass fatality incident, despite the cause, disaster victim identification must be undertaken; the humanitarian and legal responsibility for this falls on the forensic community. Mass fatality incidents can be natural (e.g., tsunamis, earthquakes, hurricanes), accidental (e.g., building collapse, ship sinking) or can occur as a result of a terrorist attack. Terrorism alone has been responsible for thousands of deaths in recent years and can be encountered in many forms (e.g., suicide bombings, airplane hijackings). In mass fatality situations, the experitise of many specialities are called on to assist in the identification efforts and to allow for the speedy return of recovered human remains to the relatives of the deceased. Today, DNA plays a vital but never solitary role in disaster victim identification.

  14. Trauma and identification of victims of suicidal terrorism in Israel. (United States)

    Hiss, J; Kahana, T


    The postmortem examination and identification procedures performed by medical and law enforcement personnel involved in mass disaster management in Israel are reported. The Israel National Police, the Israel Defense Forces, and the L. Greenberg Institute of Forensic Medicine's experts examined 171 victims who died in 21 incidents of suicidal terrorism. The trauma sustained by the victims and perpetrators of suicidal bombings included complete body disruption and explosive, flying missile, and blast injuries. The modus operandi of the perpetrators, reconstructed from the distribution and type of injury of the victims, is discussed. Fifty-five victims perished in open space bombings and 91 inside buses. All perpetrators of these bombings died at the time of the incident regardless of their location. Identification of the victims was achieved using fingerprints, dental records, medical intervention signs, anatomic variation, genetic profile, and personal recognition. Prompt identification of the perpetrators allowed speedy apprehension of the accomplices and prevention of similar attacks. Collaboration between the different forensic, military, and law enforcement teams increased the efficiency of disaster management efforts.

  15. The battered woman: is she a silent victim? (United States)

    Blair, K A


    Although hardly a recent phenomenon, the battered woman has still not been a clearly recognizable presence to primary caregivers. Unawareness of actual victims stems from an incomplete understanding of the reality of the "battered wife syndrome," lack of knowledge about the various forms of abuse and the silence of the victims themselves. The victim rarely reports abuse to the primary care provider without being asked. She does, however, present with common psychosomatic complaints, such as choking, gastrointestinal disorders or nervousness. Her injuries may range from bruises to fractures, and the explanation of these injuries is usually inappropriate. Characteristically, the victim of abuse has low self-esteem and anger that has been internalized. These lead to self-destructive behaviors such as alcohol or drug abuse. Many of the victim's behaviors are predictable and best understood in the contexts of learned helplessness, a cycle of violence or anticipatory fear. Recognizing that child abuse and spouse abuse often occur within the same family, the nurse practitioner can play a vital role in halting the cycle of family violence. Early recognition, knowledge of the forms of legal recourse in the community and intervention by the nurse practitioner will have an impact on the morbidity and mortality of this social problem.

  16. Beyond bullying: Aggravating elements of peer victimization episodes. (United States)

    Turner, Heather A; Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne; Hamby, Sherry; Mitchell, Kimberly


    This study sought to identify features of peer victimization that aggravate negative outcomes in children. The features that were assessed include "power imbalance," a commonly used criterion in defining bullying, and 5 other characteristics: injury, weapon involvement, Internet involvement, sexual content, and bias content. Three outcomes were assessed: level of fear, missing school, and trauma symptoms. A nationally representative sample of 3,164 children and youth ages 6-17 (51.8% male; 68.4% white, 12.5% black, 13.5% Hispanic, 5.7% other race) was obtained through Random Digit Dial and supplemented with an address-based sample to capture cell-phone-only households. One child was randomly selected from each household. Interviews were conducted with parents of children age 6-9 and with the youths themselves if they were age 10-17. Peer victimization was assessed with the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ). Almost half (48.4%) of the entire sample of school-age children experienced at least 1 form of peer victimization in the past year. Injury and power imbalance independently increased the impact on children for all 3 outcomes. Additionally, weapon involvement and sexual content were associated with trauma symptoms, with sexual content having the strongest effect (B = .23, p peer victimization along with more research to identify the aggravating features that signal the greatest need for intervention. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Cyber-Victimized Students


    Kaitlyn N. Ryan; Tracey Curwen


    Bullying is a common topic in the media and academic settings. Teachers are regularly expected to provide curriculum and intervene regarding all forms of bullying, including cyber-bullying. Altering the behaviors of those who bully is often the focus of interventions, with less attention being placed on victim impact. The purpose of this article was to provide educators with a review of evidence regarding the occurrenc...

  18. Motor vehicle trauma: analysis of injury profiles by road-user category

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Markogiannakis, H; Sanidas, E; Messaris, E; Koutentakis, D; Alpantaki, K; Kafetzakis, A; Tsiftsis, D


    .... The mechanism of injury influences the patterns of injury in victims of vehicle accidents. Identification and analysis of injury profiles of motor-vehicle trauma patients in a Greek level I trauma centre, by road-user category...

  19. Emotional disclosure and victim blaming. (United States)

    Harber, Kent D; Podolski, Peter; Williams, Christian H


    Victim blaming occurs when people are unfairly held responsible for their misfortunes. According to just world theory, witnessing another's victimization threatens just world beliefs, which arouses distress. Victim blaming redeems just world beliefs, thereby reducing distress. However, negative emotions can also be resolved through emotional disclosure, suggesting that disclosure can prevent victim blaming. Two experiments confirmed this prediction. In Study 1 participants viewed a woman being victimized or a woman in a nonvictimizing conflict. Participants then disclosed or suppressed the emotions aroused by these scenes and 1 week later evaluated the woman they had viewed. Disclosure reduced blaming of the victim but did not affect blaming of the nonvictim. Further, the more distress participants disclosed, the less they blamed the victim. Study 2 replicated the primary results of Study 1 and also showed that (a) disclosure exclusively reduces blaming of victims; it does not moderate judgments of victimizers, and (b) the effects of disclosure on blaming applies across genders. These 2 studies confirm that victim blaming is a form of emotion management (per just world theory), and that emotional disclosure prevents blaming by supplying an alternative mode of emotion management. This research also suggests that emotional disclosure moderates social perception, in general. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. [Volleyball sport school injuries]. (United States)

    Knobloch, K; Rossner, D; Gössling, T; Richter, M; Krettek, C


    Ball sport school injuries account for a significant morbidity among children and adolescents. Volleyball is popular in school sport and leads frequent injuries in youth besides basketball and soccer. During a school year 2234 school sport injuries have been reported to the Gemeinde Unfall Versicherung (GUV) from all schools in Niedersachsen, Germany. The major disciplines were ball sport injuries, accounting for 59.5 % (1330 accidents), Gymnastic sport injuries follow at second position accounting for 18 % (403 accidents), followed by athletics with 8.1 %. Regarding the non-gender-specific distribution of the ball sport disciplines, basketball leads with 32.4 % (431 injuries), followed by soccer (23.8 %, 316 injuries), volleyball (17.4 %, 232 injuries), small ball games (11.2 %, 149 injuries), handball (8.3 %, 110 injuries), and hockey (4.9 %, 65 injuries). In boys, volleyball accounts third among the ball sport injuries (10 %, 63 injuries), after soccer (38 %, 245 injuries), and basketball (28.5 %, 185 injuries). In girls, volleyball was the second major ball sport injury discipline (24.8 %, 169 injuries) after basketball (36.1 %, 246 injuries), followed by small ball games (12.9 %, 88 injuries), and soccer at 4 (th) position (10.4 %, 71 injuries). The analysis of the distribution of injury during volleyball accidents dominate upper extremity injuries (71.3 %), with special emphasis on finger injuries in 53 %, followed by lower extremity injuries (21.5 %) and head injuries (4.3 %). Spine injuries were rare (0.9 %). The type of injury during volleyball school sport injuries were predominantly sprains (21 %), ligament distorsions and ruptures (20 %), fractures (17 %), and bruise (16 %). Analyzing the circumstances of the injuries, most injuries during volleyball school sport occurred without a opponent contact during ball contact (59 %), followed during movements (9 %), the landing phase (9 %), and after a strike of the ball (7 %). Volleyball injuries account for a

  1. Modelling length of hospital stay in motor victims

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    Mercedes Ayuso-Gutiérrez


    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze which socio-demographic and other factors related to motor injuries affect the length of hospital recovery stay. Materials and methods. In the study a sample of 17 932 motor accidents was used. All the crashes occurred in Spain between 2000 and 2007. Different regression models were fitted to data to identify and measure the impact of a set of explanatory regressors. Results. Time of hospital stay for men is on average 41% larger than for women. When the victim has a fracture as a consequence of the accident, the mean time of hospital stay is multiplied by five. Injuries located in lower extremities, the head and abdomen are associated with greater hospitalization lengths. Conclusions. Gender, age and type of victim, as well as the location and nature of injuries, are found to be factors that have significant impact on the expected length of hospital stay.

  2. Child homicide victims in forensic autopsy in Taiwan: A 10-year retrospective study. (United States)

    Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Pan, Chih-Hsin; Shu, Guang-Ming; Chang, Chin-Hao; Lee, Tsui-Ting; Lee, James Chun-I


    Child homicides are critical medico-legal issues worldwide. Data on the characteristics of these cases in Asia are limited. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of child homicides in Taiwan. A retrospective analysis of forensic autopsy records of child homicide victims (aged 0-17 years) in Taiwan, during a 10-year period between 2001 and 2010, was carried out. The age, sex, relationship with the perpetrator(s), injury patterns of the victims, and causes of death were analyzed. In all, 193 child homicide autopsies were identified. There were 38 (19.7%), 82 (42.5%), 25 (13.0%), and 48 (24.9%) homicide victims aged under 1, 1-5, 6-12, and 13-17 years, respectively. One-hundred boys (mean age: 8.4±7.0) and 93 girls (mean age: 3.7±4.3) were included. A female predominance was noted among the victims aged 0-5. Blunt force (53.4%) was the most frequent method of injury, followed by suffocation/strangulation (20.2%) and sharp force (13.0%). Bruise (64.8%) and brain injury (45.1%) were the most common types of injuries. The cranium (62.2%) and face (60.6%) were the most frequently injured body regions. The distribution of fatal injuries varied among victims in different age groups. Neurogenic shock, asphyxia, and hemorrhagic shocks were most common in victims aged 0-5, 6-12, and 13-17, respectively. The most frequent causes of death included blunt force head injury (40.4%), suffocation/strangulation (20.2%), and sharp force lung trauma (7.3%). The type of offenders, injury methods, types of injuries, distribution of injuries, mechanism of death, and causes of death were significantly different among victims of different age groups. Eighteen (9.33%) victims displayed no external evidence of trauma. The patterns of injuries, mechanism of death, and causes of death were different among victims of different age groups. A female predominance was noted among the victims aged 0-5. Complete forensic autopsy is necessary to identify child homicide. This report will

  3. Post-mortem imaging compared with autopsy in trauma victims--A systematic review. (United States)

    Jalalzadeh, Hamid; Giannakopoulos, Georgios F; Berger, Ferco H; Fronczek, Judith; van de Goot, Frank R W; Reijnders, Udo J; Zuidema, Wietse P


    Post-mortem imaging or virtual autopsy is a rapidly advancing field of post-mortem investigations of trauma victims. In this review we evaluate the feasibility of complementation or replacement of conventional autopsy by post-mortem imaging in trauma victims. A systematic review was performed in compliance with the PRISMA guidelines. MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane databases were systematically searched for studies published between January 2008 and January 2014, in which post-mortem imaging was compared to conventional autopsy in trauma victims. Studies were included when two or more trauma victims were investigated. Twenty-six studies were included, with a total number of 563 trauma victims. Post-mortem computer tomography (PMCT) was performed in 22 studies, post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMRI) in five studies and conventional radiography in two studies. PMCT and PMMRI both demonstrate moderate to high-grade injuries and cause of death accurately. PMCT is more sensitive than conventional autopsy or PMMRI in detecting skeletal injuries. For detecting minor organ and soft tissue injuries, autopsy remains superior to imaging. Aortic injuries are missed frequently by PMCT and PMMRI and form their main limitation. PMCT should be considered as an essential supplement to conventional autopsy in trauma victims since it detects many additional injuries. Despite some major limitations, PMCT could be used as an alternative for conventional autopsy in situations where conventional autopsy is rejected or unavailable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Victim fragmentation patterns and seat location supplements crash data: American Airlines flight 587. (United States)

    Vidoli, Giovanna M; Mundorff, Amy Z


    In 2001, American Airlines flight 587 crashed shortly after takeoff. All 260 people aboard and 5 people on the ground were killed. This study's objective was to explore the extent of victim injuries and fragmentation patterns along with their assumed seat locations as related to the crash event and the plane's structural damage. There were 2058 body fragments recovered and, of those, 1750 have been identified. Autopsy reports detailing injuries and extent of fragmentation, flight manifest, and the NTSB Aircraft Accident Report were examined for correlations among injuries, seat location, and crash event. Using the AIS as a model, a fragmentation scale was designed to record injury location and severity, with a focus on the extremities. More whole bodies were recovered from victims seated on the plane's right side and back half. Conversely, significantly more fragments for victims seated on the plane's left side were recovered. The increased fragmentation from victims on the left side is an irregular pattern, particularly because the last information from the flight data recorder showed the plane's sideslip to the right. However, there are no data for the flight's final 13.6 s. Most eyewitnesses recount the plane rolling left before crashing. The increased fragmentation of victims seated on the left is consistent with structural damage from a left side impact, corroborating eyewitness accounts. Correlating victim injuries and fragmentation patterns, seat location, and the plane's structural damage can assist an investigation into plane crashes, particularly if flight data are missing.

  5. Acute subdural hematoma and diffuse axonal injury in fatal road traffic accident victims: a clinico-pathological study of 15 patients Hematoma subdural agudo e lesão axonal difusa em vítimas fatais de acidente de trânsito: estudo clínico-patológico de 15 pacientes

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    Sebastião Nataniel Silva Gusmão


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although acute subdural hematoma (ASDH and diffuse axonal injury (DAI are commonly associated in victims of head injury due to road traffic accidents, there are only two clinico-pathological studies of this association. We report a clinical and pathological study of 15 patients with ASDH associated with DAI. METHOD: The patients were victims of road traffic accidents and were randomly chosen. The state of consciousness on hospital admission was evaluated by the Glasgow coma scale. For the identification of axons the histological sections of the brain were stained with anti-neurofilament proteins. RESULTS: Twelve of the 15 patients were admitted to hospital in a state of coma; in three patients, the level of consciousness was not evaluated, as they died before hospital admission. CONCLUSION: The poorer prognosis in patients with ASDH who lapse into coma immediately after sustaining a head injury, as described by several authors, can be explained by the almost constant association between ASDH and DAI in victims of fatal road traffic accidents.OBJETIVO: Embora o hematoma subdural agudo (HSDA e a lesão axonal difusa (LAD estejam frequentemente associados em vítimas de trauma crânio-encefálico causado por acidentes de trânsito, há somente dois estudos clínico-patológicos sobre esta associação. Relatamos o estudo clínico-patológico de 15 pacientes com HSDA associado com LAD. MÉTODO: Os pacientes, vítimas de acidentes de trânsito, foram selecionados aleatoriamente. O estado de consciência à admissão hospitalar foi avaliado pela escala de coma de Glasgow. Para a identificação dos axônios, os cortes histológicos do cérebro foram corados com antisoro anti-proteínas do neurofilamento. RESULTADOS: Doze dos 15 pacientes foram admitidos no hospital em estado de coma; em três pacientes, o nível de consciência não foi avaliado, pois eles faleceram antes da admissão hospitalar. CONCLUSÃO: O pior prognóstico em pacientes

  6. [Identifying victims of a disaster]. (United States)

    de Boer, Hans H; Kloosterman, Ate D; de Bruijn, Arie G; Maat, George J R


    Identifying the victims of a disaster is important for the next of kin, to issue a death certificate and, if necessary, for forensic investigations. In the Netherlands victims are identified by the Dutch disaster victim identification team, which is part of the national forensic investigation team ('Landelijk Team Forensische Opsporing'). Ante-mortem data are collected during the identification process; these include the victim's specific medical characteristics and the DNA profile of the victim and their family members. The victim's own doctor can play an important role in the ante-mortem investigation because of his or her knowledge of their personal medical details, and of the possible availability of samples for establishing a DNA profile. The ante-mortem data are then compared with post-mortem data. For a definitive identification at least 1 primary identification characteristic has to be established from the physical remains - dermatoglyphics, the DNA profile or the dental status.

  7. Further victimization of child sexual abuse victims: A latent class typology of re-victimization trajectories. (United States)

    Papalia, Nina L; Luebbers, Stefan; Ogloff, James R P; Cutajar, Margaret; Mullen, Paul E; Mann, Emily


    The association between child sexual abuse (CSA) and risk for re-victimization is well-documented; however, less is known about the temporal progression of re-victimization experiences over the early life-course among CSA survivors, and whether this differs from that of those without known sexual abuse histories. This study investigated whether there are distinct temporal pathways of interpersonal re-victimization between the ages of 10-25 years among medically confirmed CSA cases, and considered whether abuse variables, re-victimization variables, and the presence of other adverse outcomes, were associated with heterogeneity in re-victimization pathways. The data were collected as part of a large-scale data-linkage study in which the medical records of 2759 cases of contact-CSA between 1964 and 1995 were linked, between 13 and 44 years following abuse, to police and public psychiatric databases; cases were compared to a matched community sample (n=2677). Using a subsample of 510 (401 victims; 109 comparisons) individuals with an interpersonal (re)victimization history, we examined the aggregate 'age-(re)victimization' curves for CSA victims and comparisons, respectively. Further, we applied longitudinal latent class analysis to explore heterogeneity in re-victimization trajectories among abuse survivors across their early life-course. Four latent pathways were identified, labeled: Normative; Childhood-Limited; Emerging-Adulthood; and Chronic re-victimization trajectories. Older age at abuse, a criminal history, and mental health problems were uniquely predictive of membership to the more problematic and persistent re-victimization trajectories. Findings indicate that individuals exposed to CSA during adolescence may be particularly vulnerable to poorer re-victimization trajectories, characterized by multiple risk indices, and thus may warrant increased service provision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Each Is in Different Circumstances Anyway

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    John Eastwood


    Full Text Available We present here a realist multilevel situational analysis of maternal depression. We use situational analysis to identify the interaction of mothers with social structures and the possible causal influence of those social structures on her well-being. The analysis moves from an emergent empirical approach toward the more reflexive and abductive approach of situational analysis, thus better informing our abductive reasoning and the generation of theory. Critical realism and symbolic interactionism provide the methodological underpinning for the study. The setting was South Western Sydney, Australia. Interviews of mothers and practitioners were analyzed using open coding to enable maximum emergence. Situational analysis was then undertaken using situational and social worlds/arena maps. Home and neighborhood situational analysis mapping and analysis of relations identified the following concepts: (a expectations and dreams, (b marginalization and being alone, (c loss or absence of power and control, and (d support and nurturing. The neighborhood and macro-arena situational analysis mapping and analysis of relations identified the following concepts: (a social support networks, social cohesion and social capital; (b services planning and delivery and social policy; and (c global economy, business, and media. Emerging was the centrality of being alone and expectations lost as possible triggers of stress and depression within circumstances where media portrays expectations of motherhood that are shattered by reality and social marginalization. We further observe that powerful global economic and political forces are having an impact on the local situations. The challenge for policy and practice is to support families within this adverse regional and global economic context.

  9. Homicide-followed-by-suicide incidents involving child victims. (United States)

    Logan, Joseph E; Walsh, Sabrina; Patel, Nimeshkumar; Hall, Jeffrey E


    To describe homicide-followed-by-suicide incidents involving child victims Using 2003-2009 National Violent Death Reporting System data, we characterized 129 incidents based on victim and perpetrator demographic information, their relationships, the weapons/mechanisms involved, and the perpetrators' health and stress-related circumstances. These incidents accounted for 188 child deaths; 69% were under 11 years old, and 58% were killed with a firearm. Approximately 76% of perpetrators were males, and 75% were parents/caregivers. Eighty-one percent of incidents with paternal perpetrators and 59% with maternal perpetrators were preceded by parental discord. Fifty-two percent of incidents with maternal perpetrators were associated with maternal psychiatric problems. Strategies that resolve parental conflicts rationally and facilitate detection and treatment of parental mental conditions might help prevention efforts.

  10. Predicting in-hospital mortality of traffic victims: A comparison between AIS-and ICD-9-CM-related injury severity scales when only ICD-9-CM is reported. (United States)

    Van Belleghem, Griet; Devos, Stefanie; De Wit, Liesbet; Hubloue, Ives; Lauwaert, Door; Pien, Karen; Putman, Koen


    Injury severity scores are important in the context of developing European and national goals on traffic safety, health-care benchmarking and improving patient communication. Various severity scores are available and are mostly based on Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) or International Classification of Diseases (ICD). The aim of this paper is to compare the predictive value for in-hospital mortality between the various severity scores if only International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification ICD-9-CM is reported. To estimate severity scores based on the AIS lexicon, ICD-9-CM codes were converted with ICD Programmes for Injury Categorization (ICDPIC) and four AIS-based severity scores were derived: Maximum AIS (MaxAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), New Injury Severity Score (NISS) and Exponential Injury Severity Score (EISS). Based on ICD-9-CM, six severity scores were calculated. Determined by the number of injuries taken into account and the means by which survival risk ratios (SRRs) were calculated, four different approaches were used to calculate the ICD-9-based Injury Severity Scores (ICISS). The Trauma Mortality Prediction Model (TMPM) was calculated with the ICD-9-CM-based model averaged regression coefficients (MARC) for both the single worst injury and multiple injuries. Severity scores were compared via model discrimination and calibration. Model comparisons were performed separately for the severity scores based on the single worst injury and multiple injuries. For ICD-9-based scales, estimation of area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) ranges between 0.94 and 0.96, while AIS-based scales range between 0.72 and 0.76, respectively. The intercept in the calibration plots is not significantly different from 0 for MaxAIS, ICISS and TMPM. When only ICD-9-CM codes are reported, ICD-9-CM-based severity scores perform better than severity scores based on the conversion to AIS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  11. Korean atomic bomb victims. (United States)

    Sasamoto, Yukuo


    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).

  12. What Are the Circumstances of Falls and Fractures in Long-Term Care? (United States)

    McArthur, Caitlin; Gonzalez, David A; Roy, Eric; Giangregorio, Lora


    This prospective, observational study characterizes the circumstances that led to falls in long-term care (LTC) residents and describes the characteristics of residents who fractured following a fall. Staff recorded the location of the fall, time of day, activity the participant was doing prior, and if an injury occurred. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the falls, and a generalized linear model was used to determine differences between the circumstances. Of the 101 LTC residents who participated, 41 per cent experienced at least one fall. Residents were significantly more likely to have fallen in the bedroom and while walking. Of the 17 falls resulting in fractures, most occurred in the bedroom and bathroom, during the early morning; most residents who fractured were female with cognitive impairment. To monitor falls comprehensively, ambulatory monitoring that avoids privacy issues in bedrooms or bathrooms may be needed. Interventions should target walking or the bedroom setting.

  13. 40 CFR 2.209 - Disclosure in special circumstances. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure in special circumstances. 2.209 Section 2.209 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Confidentiality of Business Information § 2.209 Disclosure in special circumstances. (a) General. Information...

  14. It All Just Piles Up: Challenges to Victim Credibility Accumulate to Influence Sexual Assault Case Processing. (United States)

    Morabito, Melissa Schaefer; Pattavina, April; Williams, Linda M


    The underreporting of sexual assault is well known to researchers, practitioners, and victims. When victims do report, their complaints are unlikely to end in arrest or prosecution. Existing research on police discretion suggests that the police decision to arrest for sexual assault offenses can be influenced by a variety of legal and extra-legal factors particularly challenges to victim credibility. Although extant literature examines the effects of individual behaviors on police outcomes, less is known about how the accumulation of these behaviors, attributions, and characteristics affects police decision making. Using data collected from the Los Angeles Police Department and Sheriff's Department, we examine one police decision point-the arrest to fill this gap in the literature. First, we examine the extent to which the effects of potential challenges to victim credibility, based on victim characteristics and behaviors, influence the arrest decision, and next, how these predictors vary across circumstances. Specifically, we examine how factors that challenge victim credibility affect the likelihood of arrest in sexual assault cases where the victim and offender are strangers, acquaintances, and intimate partners.

  15. Victims of Bullying in Schools (United States)

    Graham, Sandra


    This article provides an overview of current research on bullying (peer victimization, peer harassment) in school, with a focus on victims of such bullying. The 1st section provides a working definition of bullying and its many forms. The 2nd section describes some of the known consequences of being bullied for mental health, physical health, and…

  16. The dilemmas of victim positioning

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    Dorte Marie Søndergaard


    Full Text Available This article centres on some of the dilemmas contained within victim positioning. Such dilemmas are often overlooked by the authorities involved with people subjected to relational aggression. 2 For example, when teachers rule out cases of bullying because the victim has 'participated in' or 'laughed at' some of the bullies' initiatives, or when a rape victim's status as a victim is questioned because, in the lead up to the assault, she was supposedly friendly to the rapist. In these cases, it could be useful to explore the reason for the bullying victim's apparent collusion or to better understand the premises for the rape victim's positioning options in relation to the perpetrator. In other words, it could be fruitful to explore the dynamics and dilemmas of the victim position. In this article, I aim to reflect on the motivational conditions of the victim phenomenon. These reflections are based on an analysis of qualitative data produced through interviews with school children as well as on relevant secondary literature.

  17. Post electrical or lightning injury syndrome: a proposal for an American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual formulation with implications for treatment

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    Christopher J Andrews


    Full Text Available In the past, victims of electrical and lightning injuries have been assessed in a manner lacking a systematic formulation, and against ad hoc criteria, particularly in the area of neuropsychological disability. In this manner patients have, for example, only been partially treated, been poorly or incorrectly diagnosed, and have been denied the full benefit of compensation for their injuries. This paper contains a proposal for diagnostic criteria particularly for the neuropsychological aspects of the post injury syndrome. It pays attention to widely published consistent descriptions of the syndrome, and a new cluster analysis of post electrical injury patients. It formulates a proposal which could be incorporated into future editions of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM. The major neuropsychological consequences include neurocognitive dysfunction, and memory subgroup dysfunction, with ongoing consequences, and sometimes including progressive or delayed psychiatric, cognitive, and/or neurological symptoms. The proposed diagnostic criteria insist on a demonstrated context for the injury, both specifying the shock circumstance, and also physical consequences. It allows for a certain delay in onset of symptoms. It recognizes exclusory conditions. The outcome is a proposal for a DSM classification for the post electrical or lightning injury syndrome. This proposal is considered important for grounding patient treatment, and for further treatment trials. Options for treatment in electrical or lightning injury are summarised, and future trials are foreshadowed.

  18. Post electrical or lightning injury syndrome: a proposal for an American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual formulation with implications for treatment. (United States)

    Andrews, Christopher J; Reisner, Andrew D; Cooper, Mary Ann


    In the past, victims of electrical and lightning injuries have been assessed in a manner lacking a systematic formulation, and against ad hoc criteria, particularly in the area of neuropsychological disability. In this manner patients have, for example, only been partially treated, been poorly or incorrectly diagnosed, and have been denied the full benefit of compensation for their injuries. This paper contains a proposal for diagnostic criteria particularly for the neuropsychological aspects of the post injury syndrome. It pays attention to widely published consistent descriptions of the syndrome, and a new cluster analysis of post electrical injury patients. It formulates a proposal which could be incorporated into future editions of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). The major neuropsychological consequences include neurocognitive dysfunction, and memory subgroup dysfunction, with ongoing consequences, and sometimes including progressive or delayed psychiatric, cognitive, and/or neurological symptoms. The proposed diagnostic criteria insist on a demonstrated context for the injury, both specifying the shock circumstance, and also physical consequences. It allows for a certain delay in onset of symptoms. It recognizes exclusory conditions. The outcome is a proposal for a DSM classification for the post electrical or lightning injury syndrome. This proposal is considered important for grounding patient treatment, and for further treatment trials. Options for treatment in electrical or lightning injury are summarised, and future trials are foreshadowed.

  19. Cyberbullying victimization in adolescents’ population

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    Nešić Marija


    Full Text Available With the rapid development of communication technology and its wide use by the adolescents, cyberspace became a new risky environment for bullying manifestation and victimization. The significance of the problem lies in the fact that, unlike the traditional bullying, the cyberbullying victimization occurs also out of the school surroundings, it’s characterized by the possible anonymity of the bully, it’s harder to discover it and it could have a much bigger audience. Results of numerous studies show that the prevalence of cyberbullying victimization is 10% to 40% during one school year and that it is related to different negative outcomes - from problems of lower self-esteem to severe psychological and behavioral problems. The aim of the paper is to present basic characteristics and negative outcomes of cyberbullying victimization and also to summarize possible factors which are associated with this form of bullying. Lastly, possible ways of preventive action and coping with cyberbullying victimization will be reviewed.

  20. Procedural protection of juvenile victims of negligence and abuse

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    Ilić Ivan


    Full Text Available Violence against children is often designated as the worst form of domestic violence, and violence in general. Such a conclusion is a result of multiple factors: children's age and vulnerability, the distinctive features in their physical and mental development which makes them inferior to adults, the kinship (blood relations] and emotional bonds between parents and children, etc. The positive trend in the evolution of the social response to violence against children is reflected in the effort to discover and prevent the abuse, to punish the offenders and to protect the child/victim from secondary victimization during the criminal proceedings. In the Republic of Serbia, the procedural measures governing the protection of juvenile victims/witnesses are set out in Part III of the Juvenile Justice Act (Act on the Juvenile Offenders and Criminal Law Protection of Minors]. However, it was soon evident that there was a need to provide a better legislative framework than the one envisaged in this Act, particularly in terms of ensuring a better protection of minors in the course of criminal proceedings involving children who are victims of abuse and neglect. For this purpose, in 2004, the legislator adopted the National Action Plan on Children in Adversity. This document envisaged the adoption of the General Protocol on the protection of children from abuse and negligence, as well as the adoption of subject-specific protocols which would further regulate the specific procedures for the protection of children-victims in particular social circumstances (health, education, justice] by different social institutions (police, social services]. In this paper, the author analyses the legal framework governing the procedural protection of juvenile victims in the course of criminal proceedings. In addition, the author also explores the statutory provisions (by-laws] adopted in order to establish specific standards and ensure a higher level of protection of

  1. Análise comparativa entre as lesões encontradas em motociclistas envolvidos em acidentes de trânsito e vítimas de outros mecanismos de trauma fechado Comparative analysis of injuries observed in motorcycle riders involved in traffic accidents and victims of other blunt trauma mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gustavo Parreira


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar uma análise comparativa entre as lesões encontradas em motociclistas envolvidos em acidentes de trânsito e vítimas de outros mecanismos de trauma fechado. MÉTODOS: Análise dos protocolos (colhidos prospectivamente dos traumatizados com idade superior a 13 anos, admitidos de 10/06/2008 a 01/09/2009, vítimas de trauma fechado. Foram coletadas informações sobre mecanismo de trauma, dados vitais à admissão, exames complementares, lesões e tratamento. A estratificação da gravidade do trauma e das lesões foi realizada pelo cálculo dos índices de trauma: RTS, escala de coma de Glasgow (ECG, AIS, ISS e TRISS. Comparamos as variáveis entre os motociclistas (grupo A e os demais (grupo B. Consideramos graves as lesões com AIS > 3. Para a análise estatística, utilizamos os testes t de Student, Mann Whitney, qui-quadrado e Fisher, considerando p OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comparative analysis of the lesions found among motorcycle riders involved in traffic accidents and victims of other mechanisms of blunt trauma. METHODS: Analysis of data prospectively collected on protocols for trauma patients older than 13 years, admitted from 06/10/2008 to 09/01/2009, victims of blunt trauma. Data collected included trauma mechanism, vital signs at admission, laboratory tests, injuries, and treatment.Stratification of trauma and lesion severity was performed by calculating the trauma index: Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, Revised Trauma Score (RTS, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS, Injury Severity Score (ISS and TRISS. We compared the variables between motorcycle riders (group A and the others (group B. Severe injuries were considered when AIS > 3. For statistical analysis, we used Student's t, Mann Whitney, chi-square and Fisher's test, with p < 0.05 considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The study included 3,783 blunt trauma victims, aged 14 to 99 years, of which 76.0% were males. The most frequent trauma mechanisms were accidents

  2. Perpetrator or victim?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    Paper 3: HAN091384 Victim, Perpetrator and Pupil - Teacher Perspectives on Peer Bullying Helle Rabøl Hansen, University of Aarhus This paper investigates the approaches and strategies taken up by two crucial actors in relation to bullying in schools: 1. documents indicating school policies...... on bullying, and 2. teacher strategies in relation to bullying practices among children. The paper analyses the relationship between policy documents and their implied discourses on the one hand and the discourses and understandings taken up by teaches in their everyday interaction with children...... and colleagues on the other hand. The paper is based on empirical data including surveys among 253 teachers from 10 schools, interview with 12 teachers, and observations among teachers in their respectively class and staff rooms. In the analyses punishment and sanctions appear to work as general strategies...

  3. First Person Victim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Bruni, Luis Emilio; Khalil, Faysal Fuad


    in the “First Person Victim” experience to create awareness about the consequences of war for civilians. The paper will also explain how our “Interactive Dramatic Experience Model” organizes the various events of the experience and mediates an emergent narrative by the use of the first person shooter form......Scientific and psychological studies claim a variety of triggers in video games with violent content may promote aggression. To oppose the violent behavior of players in these games, this paper will describe how the sources of aggression and first person shooter conventions have been exploited....... The theme is communicated through the use of tragedy, and turns the roles around to let the participants encounter a realistic war-scenario while being confronted with ethical issues, by enacting the experience of being a victim of war. An evaluation of the implemented experience indicated...

  4. The victims of unethical human experiments and coerced research under National Socialism. (United States)

    Weindling, Paul; von Villiez, Anna; Loewenau, Aleksandra; Farron, Nichola


    There has been no full evaluation of the numbers of victims of Nazi research, who the victims were, and of the frequency and types of experiments and research. This paper gives the first results of a comprehensive evidence-based evaluation of the different categories of victims. Human experiments were more extensive than often assumed with a minimum of 15,754 documented victims. Experiments rapidly increased from 1942, reaching a high point in 1943. The experiments remained at a high level of intensity despite imminent German defeat in 1945. There were more victims who survived than were killed as part of or as a result of the experiments, and the survivors often had severe injuries. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Victims of cyberstalking in Serbia

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    Kovačević-Lepojević Marina


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present research findings on prevalence and characteristics of cyberstalking in Serbia. A web-based questionnaire was used to collect data from a group of respondents who were recruited by snowball sampling via e-mail. A total of 237 respondents completed the online questionnaire. The aim of the first part of this paper is to determine the notion of cyberstalking as well as, to review research about the prevalence and the nature of stalking. The main results are the following: 39,6 % of respondents reported stalking; every fourth stalking victim is a victims of cyberstalking; mostly, cyberstalking victims were female and perpetrators were male. Victims were stalked by: persistent sending of unwanted e-mails and telephone calls, spreading rumors, abusive and negative comments and threats, encouraged other users to harass, threaten or insult, manipulating with victim's personal data, sending malicious programs and files, etc. In Serbia, cyberstalking is not criminalized yet and there are no organizations to whom victims may appeal and ask for help. We are hoping that this research will raise the awareness on cyberstalking and serve as a base for further research and legal reforms regarding cyberstalking victimization in Serbia.

  6. Supporting children: Victims of crime, within victim support

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    Walle Vande Ilse


    Full Text Available All too often, the victimization of children is automatically associated with child abuse and sexual abuse. However, children are also confronted, either directly or indirectly, with other kinds of criminality. In spite of that children usually do not get appropriate support and assistance. In this paper, the establishment and development of services for the support of children-victims of crime in Belgium, as well as European cooperation in this regard, are described.

  7. Circumstances and Consequences of Falls in Community-Living Elderly in North Bangalore Karnataka

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    Savita S. Patil


    Full Text Available Background: Falls are one of the causes of injuries and non-communicable diseases associated with old age. Falls lead to 20-30% of mild to severe injuries and are underlying cause of 10-15% of all emergency departments. Knowledge of the circumstances and consequences of falls is important for understanding the etiology and prevention of falls. Material and Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted for a period of one year. Complete enumerations of all the elderly were undertaken by house-to-house visit and a sample of 416 elderly was taken by simple random sampling. A pretested semistructured questionnaire was administered. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17.Results: Prevalence of falls was 29.8 %, about 82.3% of the old had a single episode of fall, 17.7% had recurrent falls in a year. The fall rate was higher 65.7% among old, 26.3% in young old and 20.0% in very old, outdoor falls constituted 57.2%, indoor falls 42.8%. About 81.4% had one or the other form of injury. Injury rate was 82% in females and 80% in males. Statistically significant higher fall rate of 47.8% falls was seen with elderly who had fear of falling than those without fear of fall with 11.8%. Bruises, internal injuries were commonest (48.5% and (13.8% of injuries resulted in fractures.18.4% had difficulty in carrying out activities of daily living, deformity was observed in 12.6%, and residual disability in 10.6% of the elderly. Conclusion: The morbidity due to falls includes injuries, fractures, restricted mobility. The results of this study reflect on the circumstances observed in the indoor and outdoor falls like falls on the footpath, in the bathroom, while using stairs etc. The consequences like bruises and internal injuries followed by sprains, cuts and fractures have been observed. The study suggests possible ways of preventing falls.

  8. Circumstances of Trauma and Accidents in Children: A Thesaurus-based Survey (United States)

    Séjourné, Claire; Philbois, Olivier; Vercherin, Paul; Patural, Hugues


    Introduction : Injuries and accidents are major causes of morbidity and mortality in children in France. Identification and description of the mechanisms of accidents are essential to develop adapted prevention methods. For this purpose, a specific thesaurus of ICD-10 codes relating to the circumstances of trauma and accidents in children was created in the French Loire department. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relevance and acceptability of the thesaurus in the pediatric emergency unit of Saint-Etienne university hospital.Material and Methods : This study was conducted in two phases. The first, longitudinal phase was conducted over three periods between May and October 2014 to compare codings by emergency room physicians before using the thesaurus with those defined on the basis of the thesaurus. The second phase retrospectively compared coding in July and August 2014 before introduction of the thesaurus with thesaurus-based coding in July and August 2015.Results : The first phase showed a loss of more than half of the information without the thesaurus. The circumstances of trauma can be described by an appropriate code in more than 90% of cases. The second phase showed a 13% increase in coding of the circumstances of trauma, which nevertheless remains insufficient.Discussion : The thesaurus facilitates coding and generally meets the coding physician’s expectations and should be used in large-scale epidemiological surveys.

  9. The epidemiology of self-defense gun use: evidence from the National Crime Victimization Surveys 2007-2011. (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Solnick, Sara J


    To describe the epidemiology of self-defense gun use (SDGU) and the relative effectiveness of SDGU in preventing injury and property loss. Data come from the National Crime Victimization Survey for 2007-2011, focusing on personal contact crimes. For property loss, we examined incidents where the intent was to steal property. Multivariate analyses controlled for age, gender of offender and victim, if offender had a gun, urbanicity, and thirteen types of self-protective action. Of over 14,000 incidents in which the victim was present, 127 (0.9%) involved a SDGU. SDGU was more common among males, in rural areas, away from home, against male offenders and against offenders with a gun. After any protective action, 4.2% of victims were injured; after SDGU, 4.1% of victims were injured. In property crimes, 55.9% of victims who took protective action lost property, 38.5 of SDGU victims lost property, and 34.9% of victims who used a weapon other than a gun lost property. Compared to other protective actions, the National Crime Victimization Surveys provide little evidence that SDGU is uniquely beneficial in reducing the likelihood of injury or property loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Victims and Their Defenders: A Dyadic Approach (United States)

    Sainio, Miia; Veenstra, Rene; Huitsing, Gijs; Salmivalli, Christina


    This study focused on the dyadic defending relationships of victimized children in grades 3, 4, and 5 (N = 7481 children from 356 school classes, mean ages 10-12 years). Most of the victims (72.3%) had at least one defender. Being defended was positively related to victims' adjustment and social status. Analyses on victim-defender dyads showed…

  11. 45 CFR 1637.4 - Change in circumstances. (United States)


    ... REPRESENTATION OF PRISONERS § 1637.4 Change in circumstances. If, to the knowledge of the recipient, a client becomes incarcerated after litigation has commenced, the recipient must use its best efforts to withdraw...

  12. Victims of violence and the general practitioner. (United States)

    Mezey, G; King, M; MacClintock, T


    Violent crime is on the increase in Britain, with 17% of the 15 million incidents of crime reported in 1991 being of a violent nature. Although there is some information on the role of accident and emergency departments for victims who sustain physical injury, little is known about the role of the general practitioner (GP) in managing the acute and longer-term sequelae of violence. To examine the links between experiencing physical of sexual assault and seeking help from GPs in London. A cross-sectional survey of all adult attendees in one large group practice was carried out. The main outcome measures were prevalence of assault, reporting to the doctor and other people, and scores on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the Impact of Events scale. Of the 195 people who took part, 33 (17%) reported a physical or sexual assault in the previous year. Women were three times more likely than men to report any type of assault. Women rarely spontaneously disclosed these experiences to the GP and yet the experience of violence was associated with higher levels of distress, as measured on the GHQ and the Impact of Events Scale. Assault is a relatively common event in the lives of people who consult their GP. Doctors could help these patients through gaining an awareness of the problem and by fostering links with voluntary services, such as victim support schemes, which can provide support, practical assistance, and advice on compensation claims and legal procedures.

  13. Soda pop vending machine injuries: an update. (United States)

    Cosio, M Q; Taylor, G W


    Soda pop vending machine tipping continues to be a dangerous behavior that can result in lethal or crippling injuries. This study analyzes 64 cases of injuries secondary to crushing by a soda machine. All were male victims except one. The average age was 19.8 years with a range of 5-39 years. Thirteen victims sustained multiple trauma. Fifteen victims were killed. Increased public awareness coupled with support by the government and private industry has contributed to a sharp reduction in incidence of accidents and improved public safety.

  14. Punishment goals of crime victims. (United States)

    Orth, Uli


    Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals.

  15. [Health consequence of stalking victimization]. (United States)

    Will, R; Hintz, E; Blättner, B


    Life time prevalence of stalking is about 12-20%, while females are more often affected than male. Stalking is a statutory offense. However, it is not an assault of victims' law. For the purpose of health consequences for stalking victims, research in following database were conducted: EMBASE, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Social Science Index. English and German published studies of the years 2002-2010 were included. 17 primary studies and 2 meta-analyses were identified. Direct physiological consequences are relatively rare; however stalking victims report a poorer physiological health status. Almost every second stalking victim shows impairments on his/her psychical well-being. Impairments of social well-being are common, too. As a result, there is still a lot of research, especially in long-term studies, required. Socio-legal reassessment of stalking will probably benefit only a few of the affected people. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Media coverage of women victimization


    Konstantinović-Vilić, Slobodanka; Žunić, Natalija


    Mass media seem to be playing the central role in our everyday life and the media impact is so overpowering nowadays that we live in a mediasaturated culture. Not only are mass media an inseparable part of our contemporary life but they also significantly define and shape our daily existence. In order to explain the cultural impact that the media coverage of crime and victimization has in our society, it is necessary to understand the relationship between crime, victimization and mass media. ...

  17. Bullying and Victimization Among Children


    Shetgiri, Rashmi


    Bullying among children is a significant public health problem world-wide. Bullying is most commonly defined as repeated, intentional aggression, perpetrated by a more powerful individual or group against a less powerful victim. Trends in victimization and moderate to frequent bullying may be decreasing slightly in the United States, but over 20% of children continue to be involved in bullying. Direct bullying consists of physical and verbal aggression, whereas indirect bullying involves rela...

  18. Management of crush victims in mass disasters: highlights from recently published recommendations. (United States)

    Sever, Mehmet Sukru; Vanholder, Raymond


    Crush syndrome is the second most common cause of death after earthquakes (the first most common is direct trauma). Many logistic problems with the treatment of patients with crush syndrome are due to chaotic disaster circumstances; consequently, medical and logistic recommendations on the treatment of crush victims are needed. In a joint initiative of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force of the International Society of Nephrology and European Renal Best Practice, a work group of nephrologists, intensivists, surgeons, and logisticians with disaster experience or experts in guideline preparation collaborated to provide comprehensive information and recommendations on the management of crush casualties considering their occurrence with "epidemic" dimensions after mass disasters. The result is the monograph "Recommendations for the Management of Crush Victims in Mass Disasters", which may help provide effective health care to disaster victims with renal problems. This article discusses medical and logistic principles of the treatment of crush victims, both at the disaster field and on admission to hospitals, and guidance is described. The importance of early fluid administration even before extrication of the victims and avoidance of potassium-containing solutions during the treatment of crush victims is underlined. Also, the logistic problems in treating crush casualties are emphasized. The most important aspects of the recently published recommendations are highlighted.

  19. Identification of human trafficking victims in health care settings. (United States)

    Baldwin, Susie B; Eisenman, David P; Sayles, Jennifer N; Ryan, Gery; Chuang, Kenneth S


    An estimated 18,000 individuals are trafficked into the United States each year from all over the world, and are forced into hard labor or commercial sex work. Despite their invisibility, some victims are known to have received medical care while under traffickers' control. Our project aimed to characterize trafficking victims' encounters in US health care settings. The study consisted of semi-structured interviews with six Key Informants who work closely with trafficking victims (Phase I) and 12 female trafficking survivors (Phase II). All survivors were recruited through the Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking, an NGO in Los Angeles, and all were trafficked into Los Angeles. Interviews were conducted in English and six other languages, with the assistance of professional interpreters. Using a framework analysis approach that focused on victims' encounters in health care settings, we assessed interview transcript content and coded for themes. We used an exploratory pile-sorting technique to aggregate similar ideas and identify overarching domains. The survivors came from 10 countries. Eight had experienced domestic servitude, three had survived sex trafficking, and one had experienced both. Half the survivors reported that they had visited a physician while in their traffickers' control, and another worked in a health care facility. All Key Informants described other victims who had received medical care. For domestic servants, medical visits were triggered by injury and respiratory or systemic illness, while sex trafficking victims were seen by health professionals for sexually transmitted infections and abortion. Trafficking victims were prevented from disclosing their status to health care providers by fear, shame, language barriers, and limited interaction with medical personnel, among other obstacles. This exploration of survivors' experiences in health care settings supports anecdotal reports that US health care providers may unwittingly encounter

  20. [Diagnosis of flexor tendon injuries of the hand]. (United States)

    Hahn, P; Unglaub, F; Spies, C K


    Open or closed flexor tendon injuries may be caused by a variety of circumstances. Loss of function based on flexor tendon injuries is quite often missed. Therefore, a precise knowledge of the anatomy, the biomechanical behaviour of tendons and the intrinsic hand muscles enables the clinician to examine flexor tendon injuries adequately. This article focuses on relevant clinical tests for flexor tendon injuries.

  1. Pediatric firearm injuries, Kansas City, 1992: a population-based study. (United States)

    Dowd, M D; Knapp, J F; Fitzmaurice, L S


    To determine the morbidity, mortality, and epidemiologic features of pediatric powder-firearm injuries in a defined urban population. A population-based, descriptive epidemiologic study was conducted of firearm injuries to children in a mid-size urban community (total population: 435,178) in 1992. The population was 56% white and 39% black. Data from prehospital care providers, all city and adjacent community hospitals, and medical examiner and police records were searched for cases of firearm injury. The 1990 United States census provided denominator data. Subjects were all 0- to 16-year-old residents of Kansas City, Missouri who sought medical treatment at a hospital for a powder-firearm injury or who presented to the medical examiner with a fatal firearm injury in calendar year 1992. Seventy-two children met the case definition, for an incidence of 70 per 100,000 persons per year. There were 12 (16.7%) fatalities, for a mortality rate of 11.7 per 100,000 persons per year. Almost 10% of the patients sustained permanent disability. Mean and median ages of the patients were 14.9 years and 15.8 years, respectively; 79% were male and 82% were black. The majority of the children (63%) lived in census tracts with a high proportion of families in poverty. Black males had the highest rates of firearm injury, with a 1-year incidence of 233 per 100,000 persons per year. At younger than 12 years, the rates were equal among the races; however, for those 12 years and older, black adolescents had 13 times the risk of white adolescents (541 compared to 42 per 100,000 persons per year). The majority (71%) of injuries were due to assaults, with drive-by shootings the most frequent circumstance. The majority of unintentional injuries occurred to adolescents as the result of an unplanned discharge of a handgun as it was being placed in or removed from concealment. Among the patients, 39% were admitted to the hospital and 26% required surgery. 1) Black male adolescents had the

  2. Physical Dating Violence Victimization in College Women in Chile (United States)

    Lehrer, Evelyn L.; Zhao, Zhenxiang


    Abstract Objectives There are no published studies on physical dating violence in college students in Chile, and campuses across the country currently lack systematized programs to prevent or respond to this public health problem. This is the first study to examine prevalence and predictors of physical dating violence victimization with a sample of female college students in Chile. Methods A closed-ended questionnaire was administered to students enrolled in general education courses at a major public university. The prevalence of women's physical dating violence victimization was calculated, and generalized ordered logit models were used to estimate risk factors for such victimization (n = 441). Ancillary analyses examined associations of dating violence victimization with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. Results Approximately 21% of subjects reported one or more incidents of physical dating violence not involving physical injury since age 14, and another 5% reported at least one incident resulting in physical injury during this time period. Risk factors identified in five sequential models were sexual abuse and witnessing of domestic violence in childhood, low parental education, residence away from the parental home, urban residence, and having had sexual intercourse. Maternal employment and religious participation had protective effects. Dating violence victimization was found to be significantly associated with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. Conclusions The study findings show a high prevalence of physical dating violence, strong associations between several sociodemographic factors and dating violence, and links between dating violence and sexual/reproductive risk. Our results indicate a need to expand attention to this public health problem in Chile as well as other developing countries, where research and prevention/response initiatives have generally been similarly limited. The findings

  3. The contribution of childhood circumstances, current circumstances and health behaviour to educational health differences in early adulthood

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    Härkänen Tommi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The life course approach emphasises the contribution of circumstances in childhood and youth to adult health inequalities. However, there is still a lot to know of the contribution of living conditions in childhood and youth to adult health inequalities and how later environmental and behavioural factors are connected with the effects of earlier circumstances. This study aims to assess a how much childhood circumstances, current circumstances and health behaviour contribute to educational health differences and b to which extent the effect of childhood circumstances on educational health differences is shared with the effects of later living conditions and health behaviour in young adults. Methods The data derived from the Health 2000 Survey represent the Finnish young adults aged 18–29 in 2000. The analyses were carried out on 68% (n = 1282 of the sample (N = 1894. The cross-sectional data based on interviews and questionnaires include retrospective information on childhood circumstances. The outcome measure was poor self-rated health. Results Poor self-rated health was much more common among subjects with primary education only than among those in the highest educational category (OR 4.69, 95% CI 2.63 to 8.62. Childhood circumstances contributed substantially (24% to the health differences between these educational groups. Nearly two thirds (63% of this contribution was shared with behavioural factors adopted by early adulthood, and 17% with current circumstances. Health behaviours, smoking especially, were strongly contributed to educational health differences. Conclusion To develop means for avoiding undesirable trajectories along which poor health and health differences develop, it is necessary to understand the pathways to health inequalities and know how to improve the living conditions of families with children.

  4. Victimization experiences and the stabilization of victim sensitivity. (United States)

    Gollwitzer, Mario; Süssenbach, Philipp; Hannuschke, Marianne


    People reliably differ in the extent to which they are sensitive to being victimized by others. Importantly, "victim sensitivity" predicts how people behave in social dilemma situations: Victim-sensitive individuals are less likely to trust others and more likely to behave uncooperatively-especially in socially uncertain situations. This pattern can be explained with the sensitivity to mean intentions (SeMI) model, according to which victim sensitivity entails a specific and asymmetric sensitivity to contextual cues that are associated with untrustworthiness. Recent research is largely in line with the model's prediction, but some issues have remained conceptually unresolved so far. For instance, it is unclear why and how victim sensitivity becomes a stable trait and which developmental and cognitive processes are involved in such stabilization. In the present article, we will discuss the psychological processes that contribute to a stabilization of victim sensitivity within persons, both across the life span ("ontogenetic stabilization") and across social situations ("actual-genetic stabilization"). Our theoretical framework starts from the assumption that experiences of being exploited threaten a basic need, the need to trust. This need is so fundamental that experiences that threaten it receive a considerable amount of attention and trigger strong affective reactions. Associative learning processes can then explain (a) how certain contextual cues (e.g., facial expressions) become conditioned stimuli that elicit equally strong responses, (b) why these contextual untrustworthiness cues receive much more attention than, for instance, trustworthiness cues, and (c) how these cues shape spontaneous social expectations (regarding other people's intentions). Finally, avoidance learning can explain why these cognitive processes gradually stabilize and become a trait: the trait which is referred to as victim sensitivity.

  5. Victimization Experiences and the Stabilization of Victim Sensitivity

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    Mario eGollwitzer


    Full Text Available People reliably differ in the extent to which they are sensitive to being victimized by others. Importantly, victim sensitivity predicts how people behave in social dilemma situations: Victim-sensitive individuals are less likely to trust others and more likely to behave uncooperatively - especially in socially uncertain situations. This pattern can be explained with the Sensitivity to Mean Intentions (SeMI model, according to which victim sensitivity entails a specific and asymmetric sensitivity to contextual cues that are associated with untrustworthiness. Recent research is largely in line with the model’s prediction, but some issues have remained conceptually unresolved so far. For instance, it is unclear why and how victim sensitivity becomes a stable trait and which developmental and cognitive processes are involved in such stabilization. In the present article, we will discuss the psychological processes that contribute to a stabilization of victim sensitivity within persons, both across the life span (ontogenetic stabilization and across social situations (actual-genetic stabilization. Our theoretical framework starts from the assumption that experiences of being exploited threaten a basic need, the need to trust. This need is so fundamental that experiences that threaten it receive a considerable amount of attention and trigger strong affective reactions. Associative learning processes can then explain (a how certain contextual cues (e.g., facial expressions become conditioned stimuli that elicit equally strong responses, (b why these contextual untrustworthiness cues receive much more attention than, for instance, trustworthiness cues, and (c how these cues shape spontaneous social expectations (regarding other people’s intentions. Finally, avoidance learning can explain why these cognitive processes gradually stabilize and become a trait: the trait which is referred to as victim sensitivity.

  6. Víctimización Vial y Justicia Restaurativa: Reflexiones desde la Propia Experiencia Victimal (Road Victimization and Restorative Justice: some Reflections from the own Experience

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    Isabel Germán


    Full Text Available After a very brief statement of the circumstances of road victimization suffered by the author of this text, some reflections on their perceptions of restorative justice in cases of serious victimization are presented. As well, and on the basis of some victimological and criminological concepts that have previously been delimited, the author suggests some touches on issues such as direct and indirect victimization, the secondary victimization, altruistic and vicarious pain, resilience, and the facilitating role of forgiveness to re-build and re-create the victims. Tras una breve exposición de las circunstancias de victimización vial sufrida por la autora de este texto, se plasman algunas reflexiones sobre su percepción de la Justicia restaurativa en casos graves de victimación. Así, con base en conceptos victimológico-criminológicos que se van delimitando a lo largo del texto, se apuntan algunas pinceladas sobre cuestiones como la victimización directa e indirecta, la victimización secundaria, el dolor altruista y el dolor vicario, la resiliencia, y la función facilitadora del perdón para re-construir y re-crear a la víctima.

  7. Neuroscience in Nazi Europe Part III: victims of the Third Reich. (United States)

    Zeidman, Lawrence A; Kondziella, Daniel


    In Part I, neuroscience collaborators with the Nazis were discussed, and in Part II, neuroscience resistors were discussed. In Part III, we discuss the tragedy regarding european neuroscientists who became victims of the Nazi onslaught on “non-Aryan” doctors. Some of these unfortunate neuroscientists survived Nazi concentration camps, but most were murdered. We discuss the circumstances and environment which stripped these neuroscientists of their profession, then of their personal rights and freedom, and then of their lives. We include a background analysis of anti-Semitism and Nazism in their various countries, then discuss in depth seven exemplary neuroscientist Holocaust victims; including Germans Ludwig Pick, Arthur Simons, and Raphael Weichbrodt, Austrians Alexander Spitzer and Viktor Frankl, and Poles Lucja Frey and Wladyslaw Sterling. by recognizing and remembering these victims of neuroscience, we pay homage and do not allow humanity to forget, lest this dark period in history ever repeat itself.

  8. Reflections on the society’s reaction towards rape victims in Delhi City

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    Hetu Vibha


    Full Text Available In general, most people display stronger beliefs in ‘aggravated rape‘ or ‘real rape‘; including victims of such rape cases who often identify themselves as ‘rape victims’ than the victims of ‘simple rape’, where none of the aggravating circumstances are present. Despite myths to the contrary these ‘simple rape’ cases in fact make up the majority of cases. This article considers the implications of ‘real rape‘ and demonstrates how notions about what a ‘typical rape‘ should be, in the form of rape myths, directly impact on societal attitudes towards rape victims and how the media continue to reinforce and perpetuate the notion of real rape through their selective reporting of ‘serial rape’, ‘stranger rape’ or especially ‘violent rapes’.

  9. The Second Victim: a Review. (United States)

    Coughlan, B; Powell, D; Higgins, M F


    Amongst the lay and media population there is a perception that pregnancy, labour and delivery is always physiological, morbidity and mortality should be "never events" and that error is the only cause of adverse events. Those working in maternity care know that it is an imperfect art, where adverse outcomes and errors will occur. When errors do occur, there is a domino effect with three groups being involved - the patient (first victim), the staff (second victims) and the organization (third victims). If the perceived expectation of patients on all clinicians is that of perfection, then clinicians may suffer the consequences of adverse outcomes in isolation and silence. More recently identification and discussion on the phenomenon of the second victim has become a popular research topic. This review aimed to study not only the phenomenon of second victim in general medical care but to also concentrate on maternity care where the expectation of perfection may be argued to be greater. Risk factors, prevalence and effect of second victims were identified from a thorough search of the literature on the topic. The review focuses on the recent research of the effect on maternity staff of adverse outcomes and discusses topical issues of resilience, disclosure, support systems as well as Learning from Excellence. It is now well documented that when staff members are supported in their disclosure of errors this domino effect is less traumatic. It is the responsibility of everyone working in healthcare to support all the victims of an error, as an ethical duty and to have a supportive culture of disclosure. In addition, balance can be provided by developing a culture of learning from excellence as well as from errors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Justice And Legal Certainty For Child Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Setiadi


    Full Text Available Focus of attention in the criminal justice system so far has always been to the perpetrator, whereas parties related to a process of criminal justice encompasses the perpetrator, the victim, and the community. A crime victim, in particular, would suffer more since he/she could experience secondary victimization in the criminal justice system. The law concerning victim and witness protection only states the limitation for the criminal victim to ask for compensation to criminal justice system, either as a victim of direct criminal or a victim of abuse power done by law enforcement officers. Child victims are treated the same way as to adult victims, whilst they have a greater dimension of the problem and effects to be dealt with Mechanism and procedures to be followed are ius constituendum (intended/desirable law, as they only share expectation of indemnity, compensation, and rehabilitation which have not been empirically tested in a real situation.

  11. Exploring the Characteristics of Personal Victims Using the National Crime Victimization Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jairam, Shashi


    .... Two statistical methods were used to investigate these hypotheses, logistical regression for victimization prevalence, and negative binomial regression for victimization incidence and concentration...

  12. Peer Victimization and Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Depressed Adolescents. (United States)

    Stewart, Jeremy G; Valeri, Linda; Esposito, Erika C; Auerbach, Randy P


    Suicide is a leading cause of death among youth worldwide, and depressed adolescents are at a significantly elevated risk to report suicidal ideation, planning, and attempts. Peer victimization is a robust predictor of adolescent suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs), but little research has focused on why bullying leads to suicidal thoughts and behaviors. To address this empirical gap, we recruited 340 (246 female) depressed adolescents ages 13-19 (M = 15.59, SD = 1.41) within 48 h of admission for acute psychiatric treatment. At the initial assessment, participants were administered clinical interviews characterizing psychopathology, nonsuicidal self-injury, and STBs (ideation, plans, and attempts). Further, they completed questionnaires assessing 3 forms of victimization (overt, relational, and reputational), recent risky behavior engagement, and psychiatric symptom severity. Controlling for internalizing symptoms and age, overt and reputational bullying were associated with more frequent past month suicide attempts, but not suicide ideation. Past month risky behavior engagement, but not NSSI, mediated the relation between victimization and attempts. However, sex differences revealed that this effect only held for males whereas bullying was directly associated with suicide attempts among females. In contrast, overt and relational bullying were non-linearly associated with suicide plans, and these relations were not mediated by risky behaviors or NSSI. Results highlight the complex network of factors that lead victimized adolescents to engage in STBs and may inform targeted suicide prevention and intervention programs.

  13. Community Violence Perpetration and Victimization Among Adults With Mental Illnesses (United States)

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Johnson, Kiersten L.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Swartz, Marvin S.


    Objectives. In a large heterogeneous sample of adults with mental illnesses, we examined the 6-month prevalence and nature of community violence perpetration and victimization, as well as associations between these outcomes. Methods. Baseline data were pooled from 5 studies of adults with mental illnesses from across the United States (n = 4480); the studies took place from 1992 to 2007. The MacArthur Community Violence Screening Instrument was administered to all participants. Results. Prevalence of perpetration ranged from 11.0% to 43.4% across studies, with approximately one quarter (23.9%) of participants reporting violence. Prevalence of victimization was higher overall (30.9%), ranging from 17.0% to 56.6% across studies. Most violence (63.5%) was perpetrated in residential settings. The prevalence of violence-related physical injury was approximately 1 in 10 overall and 1 in 3 for those involved in violent incidents. There were strong associations between perpetration and victimization. Conclusions. Results provided further evidence that adults with mental illnesses experienced violent outcomes at high rates, and that they were more likely to be victims than perpetrators of community violence. There is a critical need for public health interventions designed to reduce violence in this vulnerable population. PMID:24524530

  14. War liver injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Nebojša


    Full Text Available Aim. To provide a retrospective analysis of our results and experience in primary surgical treatment of subjects with war liver injuries. Methods. From July 1991 to December 1999, 204 subjects with war liver injuries were treated. A total of 82.8% of the injured were with the liver injuries combined with the injuries of other organs. In 93.7%, the injuries were caused by fragments of explosive devices or bullets of various calibers. In 140 (68.6% of the injured there were minor lesions (grade I to II, treated with simple repair or drainage. There were complex injuries of the liver (grade III-V in 64 (31.4% of the injured. Those injuries required complex repair (hepatorrhaphy, hepatotomy, resection debridement, resection, packing alone. The technique of perihepatic packing and planned reoperation had a crucial and life-saving role when severe bleeding was present. Routine peritoneal drainage was applied in all of the injured. Primary management of 74.0% of the injured was performed in war hospitals. Results. After primary treatment, 72 (35.3% of the injured were with postoperative complications. Reoperation was done in 66 injured. Total mortality rate in 204 injured was 18.1%. All the deceased had significant combined injuries. Mortality rates due to the liver injury of the grade III, IV and V were 16.6%, 70.0% and 83.3%, respectively. Conclusion. Complex liver injuries caused very high mortality rate and the management of the injured was delicate under war circumstances (if the injured reached the hospital alive. Our experience under war circumstances and with war surgeons of limited knowledge of the liver surgery and war surgery, confirmed that it was necessary to apply compressive abdominal packing alone or in combination with other techniques for hemostasis in the treatment of liver injuries grade III-V, resuscitation and rapid transportation to specialized hospitals.

  15. Gender and victimization by intimates. (United States)

    Walker, L E; Browne, A


    Recent data demonstrate that, although gender has an impact upon the experience of being a victim of an intimate's violence, there is no particular personality pattern that leads one to become a victim. Rather, women--who are socialized to adapt and submit, and who are likely to become victims of men's sexual violence or physical abuse--may not develop adequate self-protection skills as children, especially if they come from childhood homes in which females are victimized, leading to a later vulnerability to physical and sexual abuse. Men, however, socialized to express anger and aggression in an outward manner, learn to model the abuse witnessed or experienced in childhood and often learn that women are the "appropriate" recipients of this violence. Social learning theories of modeling and aggression are used to explain how such personality patterns develop, and the theory of learned helplessness is used to explain battered women's coping responses to their partners' abusive behavior. The extreme situation, in which a battered woman kills her partner in self-defense, is analyzed in order to understand women victims' sense of desperation and entrapment in severely abusive relationships and the extent to which their behaviors are in reaction to the abuse perpetrated by the mate.

  16. Bullying and Victimization Among Children (United States)

    Shetgiri, Rashmi


    Bullying among children is a significant public health problem world-wide. Bullying is most commonly defined as repeated, intentional aggression, perpetrated by a more powerful individual or group against a less powerful victim. Trends in victimization and moderate to frequent bullying may be decreasing slightly in the United States, but over 20% of children continue to be involved in bullying. Direct bullying consists of physical and verbal aggression, whereas indirect bullying involves relational aggression. Cyber bullying is an emerging problem which may be more difficult to identify and intervene with than traditional bullying. Bullies, victims, and bully-victims are at risk for negative short and long-term consequences such as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and delinquency. Various individual, parental, and peer factors increase the risk for involvement in bullying. Anti-bullying interventions are predominantly school-based and demonstrate variable results. Healthcare providers can intervene in bullying by identifying potential bullies or victims, screening them for co-morbidities, providing counseling and resources, and advocating for bullying prevention. PMID:24007839

  17. Victimization and the general theory of crime. (United States)

    Nofziger, Stacey


    Theories of victimization developed independently of theories of offending, in spite of consistent findings of similarities between offenders and victims of crime. This study examines whether Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) general theory of crime, typically used to predict offending, also has relevance in understanding juvenile victimization. The data for this project are drawn from a sample of over 1,200 middle and high school students. Using structural equation models, the findings suggest that higher self-control does directly decrease victimization and that self-control also affects victimization indirectly though opportunities (peer deviance). Implications for the studies of victimization as well as the general theory of crime are discussed.

  18. Alcohol consumption in adolescent homicide victims in the city of Johannesburg, South Africa. (United States)

    Swart, Lu-Anne; Seedat, Mohamed; Nel, Juan


    To describe the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of adolescent homicide victims in Johannesburg, South Africa and to identify the victim and event characteristics associated with a positive BAC at the time of death. Logistic regression of mortality data collected by the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System (NIMSS). Johannesburg, South Africa. A total of 323 adolescent (15-19 years) homicide victims for the period 2001-9 who had been tested for the presence of alcohol. Data on the victims' BAC level, demographics, weapon or method used, scene, day and time of death were drawn from NIMSS. Alcohol was present in 39.3% of the homicide victims. Of these, 88.2% had a BAC level equivalent to or in excess of the South African limit of 0.05 g/100 ml for intoxication. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that a positive BAC in homicide victims was associated significantly with the victim's sex [male: odds ratio (OR) = 2.127; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.012-4.471], victim's age (18-19 years: OR = 2.364; CI = 1.343-4.163); weapon used (sharp instruments: OR = 2.972; CI = 1.708-5.171); and time of death (weekend: OR = 3.149; CI = 1.842-5.383; night-time: OR = 2.175; CI = 1.243-3.804). Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with a substantial proportion of adolescent homicides in Johannesburg, South Africa, and is more prevalent among male and older adolescent victims and in victims killed with sharp instruments over the weekends and during the evenings. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. The sexual abuse of male children; prevalence, characteristics of victims, their families, and offenders, and consequences when the offender is male or female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Repič


    Full Text Available According to the traditional belief, which is still often held to be true, girls and women are thought to be the victims in the majority of sexual abuses, whereas men are the offenders. However several recent researches have shown that also many men find themselves among the victims (3–34%, also from the part of women as offenders. The paper throws light upon, evaluates critically and reviews existing studies on boys as victims of this traumatic experience. It examines closely and describes characteristics of victims (boys and offenders. Victims of a female offender and a male offender are compared. Further, the family circumstances in which sexually abused boys mostly grow up are analysed.

  20. The happy victimizer phenomenon: Not found here

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevtić Ana


    Full Text Available Children’s attribution of emotions to a moral transgressor is an important research topic in the psychology of moral and emotional development. This is especially because of the so-called Happy Victimizer Phenomenon (HVP where younger children attribute positive emotions to a moral transgressor described in a story. In the two studies that we have conducted (children aged 5, 7 and 9, 20 of each age; 10 of each age in the second study we have tested the possible influence of the fear of sanctions and the type of transgression (stealing and inflicting body injuries on the attribution of emotions. Children were presented with stories that described transgressions and they were asked to answer how the transgressor felt. The fear of sanctions did not make a significant difference in attribution but the type of transgression did - more negative emotions were attributed for inflicting body injuries than for stealing. Positive emotions were explained with situational-instrumental explanations in 84% of cases while negative emotions were explained with moral explanations in 63,5%. Girls attributed more positive emotions (61% than boys (39%. However, our main finding was that, for the aforementioned age groups, we did not find the HVP effect although it has regularly been registered in foreign studies. This finding denies the generalizability of the phenomenon and points to the significance of disciplining styles and, even more so, culture for children’s attribution of emotions to moral transgressors.

  1. Intimate partner violence against women, circumstances of aggressions and oral-maxillofacial traumas: A medical-legal and forensic approach. (United States)

    de Macedo Bernardino, Ítalo; Santos, Luzia Michelle; Ferreira, Alysson Vinicius Porto; de Almeida Lima, Tomás Lucio Marques; da Nóbrega, Lorena Marques; d'Avila, Sérgio


    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health problem that frequently results in oral-maxillofacial traumas, generating high social and economic costs. The aim of this study was to describe the profile of women victims of IPV and determine the pattern of oral-maxillofacial traumas, according to a medical-legal and forensic perspective. An exploratory study of 1361 suspected cases of women victims of IPV was carried out based on database of an Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Dentistry of Northeastern Brazil during a period of 4 years. Medico-legal and social records of victims were searched for information related to sociodemographic data, circumstances of aggressions and trauma patterns. Descriptive and multivariate statistics and Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) were performed. Almost half of victims exhibited some oral-maxillofacial trauma resulting from IPV (45.8%). Lesions affecting more than one third of the face (41.3%), especially in soft tissues (96.1%) were the most common. Based on the MCA results, two distinct victimization profiles (P1 and P2) have been identified. P1 was mainly characterized by women aged less than 28 years, living in the urban area, with higher education and working. They were assaulted using physical force in community settings perpetrated by former partner or ex-boyfriend during the night and weekends, resulting in oral-maxillofacial traumas. P2 was mainly composed of women aged over 28 years, living in the suburban or rural areas, with low schooling and who did not work. They were assaulted by firearm or weapon in their own home, perpetrated by their partner or boyfriend during the day and weekdays, resulting in trauma to other body parts. Oral and maxillofacial traumas are very common among women victims of IPV who searched for medical-legal service. In this context, forensic dentists can play a key role during the diagnostic process and should always work together with medical, biochemical and



    Jovica Jovanovic; Milan Jovanovic


    The aim of that paper is to examine the nature of the injury problem in relation to age and sex of the victims, to estimate the type and consequences of occupational injuries, particularly in terms of lost working days and to identify the way in which they occur. Male workers have a slightly higher injury rate than female workers. Leading causes of injuries over the examined ten years period were: being struck by flying or falling objects, collision and being compressed by mechanical or other...

  3. Delayed Diagnosis of Injury in survivors of the February 2009 crash of flight TK 1951

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Ingri L. E.; Winkelhagen, J.; Bijlsma, T. S.; Bloemers, F. W.; Heetveld, M. J.; Goslings, J. C.


    Introduction: On 25th February 2009, a Boeing 737 crashed nearby Amsterdam, leaving 126 victims. In trauma patients, some injuries initially escape detection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of Delayed Diagnosis of Injury (DDI) and the tertiary survey on the victims of a plane

  4. Men as Victims: "Victim" Identities, Gay Identities, and Masculinities (United States)

    Dunn, Peter


    The impact and meanings of homophobic violence on gay men's identities are explored with a particular focus on their identities as men and as gay men. Homosexuality can pose a challenge to conventional masculinities, and for some gay men, being victimized on account of sexual orientation reawakens conflicts about their masculinity that they…

  5. Percutaneous injuries during surgical procedures. (United States)

    Tokars, J I; Bell, D M; Culver, D H; Marcus, R; Mendelson, M H; Sloan, E P; Farber, B F; Fligner, D; Chamberland, M E; McKibben, P S


    To study the numbers and circumstances of percutaneous injuries (eg, needle sticks, cuts) that occur during surgical procedures. Surgical personnel risk infection with blood-borne pathogens from percutaneous injuries; some injuries might also place patients at risk by exposing them to a health care worker's blood. Observers present at 1382 surgical procedures recorded information about the procedure, the personnel present, and percutaneous injuries that occurred. Four US teaching hospitals during 1990. Operating room personnel in five surgical specialties. Numbers and circumstances of percutaneous injuries among surgical personnel and instances in which surgical instruments that had injured a worker recontacted the patient's surgical wound. Ninety-nine injuries occurred during 95 (6.9%) of the 1382 procedures. Seventy-six injuries (77%) were caused by suture needles and affected the nondominant hand (62 injuries [63%]), especially the distal forefinger. The risk of injury adjusted for confounding variables by logistic regression was higher during vaginal hysterectomy (odds ratio [OR], 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6 to 7.5) and lower during certain orthopedic procedures (OR, 0.2; CI, 0.1 to 0.7) than during 11 other types of procedures (reference group; OR, 1.0). Use of fingers rather than an instrument to hold the tissue being sutured was associated with 35 injuries (35%). Eighty-eight injuries (89%) were sustained by resident or attending surgeons; in 28 (32%) of the 88 injuries in surgeons, the sharp object that caused the injury recontacted the patient. Percutaneous injuries occur regularly during surgery, placing surgical personnel and, to a lesser extent, patients at risk for infection with blood-borne pathogens. Many such injuries may be preventable with changes in devices, techniques, or protective equipment; all such measures require careful evaluation to determine their efficacy in reducing injury and their effect on patient care.

  6. Sexual and physical violence victimization among senior high school students in Ghana: Risk and protective factors. (United States)

    Ohene, Sally-Ann; Johnson, Kiana; Atunah-Jay, Sarah; Owusu, Andrew; Borowsky, Iris Wagman


    Violence in all forms poses a concern because of associations with multiple adverse effects including injuries and mental health problems. There is however limited data on violence in general and youth violence in particular in Ghana. To explore the nature and scope of youth violence in Ghana, we used the nationwide Global School-based Health Survey, conducted among senior high school students in Ghana, to explore risk and protective factors at the individual, family, and environmental levels associated with sexual and physical violence victimization. A fifth of these students reported being forced to have sex in their lifetime while two out of five had been a victim of a physical attack in the year preceding the survey. In final multivariate analysis, for sexual violence victimization, history of sexual activity with or without condom use at last sex, feeling sad or hopeless, and being a victim of bullying and electronic bullying were identified as risk factors, while having friends who were not sexually active was protective. Independent risk factors for physical violence victimization were attempting suicide in the last year, alcohol use in the past month, and bullying other students in the past month. Parent respect for privacy just reached significance as a protective factor for physical violence victimization in the final model. Recognition of the magnitude of violence victimization among Ghanaian students and associated factors must be used to guide development and implementation of appropriate concrete measures to prevent and address the problem.

  7. The Effect of Victim Resistance on Rape Completion: A Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    Wong, Jennifer S; Balemba, Samantha


    When confronted with a sexual attacker, women are often extremely concerned with avoiding rape completion. While narrative reviews typically suggest that the victim resistance is linked to rape avoidance, much of the existing literature relies on overlapping samples from the National Crime Victimization Survey. The current meta-analysis examines whether victim resistance is related to a greater likelihood of avoiding rape completion. Results from a systematic literature search across 25 databases supplemented by a search of the gray literature resulted in 4,581 hits of which seven studies met eligibility criteria for the review. Findings suggest that women who resist their attacker are significantly more likely than nonresisters to avoid rape completion. This finding held across analyses for physical resistance, verbal resistance, or resistance of any kind. Limitations of the analysis and policy implications are discussed, with particular focus on other research findings that resistance may be linked to greater victim injury. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Acute stress disorder in hospitalised victims of 26/11-terror attack on Mumbai, India. (United States)

    Balasinorwala, Vanshree Patil; Shah, Nilesh


    The 26/11 terror attacks on Mumbai have been internationally denounced. Acute stress disorder is common in victims of terror. To find out the prevalence and to correlate acute stress disorder, 70 hospitalised victims of terror were assessed for presence of the same using DSM-IV TR criteria. Demographic data and clinical variables were also collected. Acute stress disorder was found in 30% patients. On demographic profile and severity of injury, there were some interesting observations and differences between the victims who developed acute stress disorder and those who did not; though none of the differences reached the level of statistical significance. This study documents the occurrence of acute stress disorder in the victims of 26/11 terror attack.

  9. Suffering in Silence: The Male Incest Victim. (United States)

    Nasjleti, Maria


    The reasons why boys who are victims of incest remain silent are explored in terms of the special meaning of victimization to males. Males' inability to express helplessness and vulnerability is identified as a major contributing factor. (CM)

  10. [Somatic examination of a female victim of a sexual offence]. (United States)

    Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Vuori-Holopainen, Elina


    Examination of a female victim of a sexual offence is carried out usually within seven days of the incident. It includes an interview, inspection and documentation of bodily injuries, gynecologic examination and collection of specimens of sexually transmitted diseases and appropriate forensic specimens. Preventive antimicrobial therapy and postcoital contraception will also be provided. The need for anti-HIV medication as well as hepatitis and tetanus vaccines is considered on a case-by-case basis. A tranquil scene of examination, written instructions for follow-up observation and taking care of emotional support are essential for the recovery of the victim. Guidance for the collection of forensic tissue specimens should also be available in gynecology units.

  11. Leading Schools Facing Challenging Circumstances: Some Insights from Western Australia (United States)

    Gillett, Jonathan; Clarke, Simon; O'Donoghue, Tom


    This paper examines leadership strategies that are most likely to engender success in schools that may be defined as facing challenging circumstances. First, it presents an overview of the relevant literature in order to illustrate distinctive challenges that tend to be encountered in these environments, as well as strategies that are adopted for…

  12. Self-reported circumstances and consequences of driving while

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radun, I.; Radun, J.; Wahde, M.; Watling, C.N.; Kecklund, L.G.


    Driver surveys are indispensable sources of information when estimating the role of sleepiness in crash causation. The purpose of the study was to (1) identify the prevalence of driving while sleepy among Finnish drivers, (2) determine the circumstances of such instances, and (3) identify risk

  13. 14 CFR 1206.608 - Time extensions in unusual circumstances. (United States)


    ... determination that the record cannot be identified or located, or reviewed, within the 20-working-day time limit... AVAILABILITY OF AGENCY RECORDS TO MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC Procedures § 1206.608 Time extensions in unusual circumstances. (a) In “unusual circumstances” as that term is defined in § 1206.101(f), the time limits for an...

  14. 7 CFR 3560.459 - Special borrower circumstances. (United States)


    ..., insolvency, and divorce actions. The Agency will address borrower accounts affected by special circumstances such as death, bankruptcy, insolvency, and divorce on a case-by-case basis. The Agency will make...; and (4) The impact of the identified actions on the operation of the project. (b) Membership liability...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bickerstaffe, Alice; Beelen, Anita; Nollet, Frans


    Objectives: Many polio survivors have symptoms that are known risk factors for falls in elderly people. This study aims to determine the: (i) frequency; (ii) consequences; (iii) circumstances; and (iv) factors associated with falls in polio survivors. Methods: A survey was conducted among 376 polio

  16. Human trafficking for organ removal in India: a victim-centered, evidence-based report. (United States)

    Budiani-Saberi, Debra A; Raja, Kallakurichi Rajendiran; Findley, Katie C; Kerketta, Ponsian; Anand, Vijay


    Enhancements in the national transplant law to prohibit commercial transplants in India have curbed the trade. Yet, the human rights abuse of human trafficking for organ removal (HTOR) continues in various transplant centers throughout India. Beginning in September 2010 until May 2012, in-depth interviews were conducted with 103 victims of HTOR in India in which victims described their experiences of a commercial kidney removal in compelling detail. Victims were located in Tamil Nadu, and reference is made to the broader study that included 50 additional victims in small towns and villages in West Bengal and Karnataka. Fourteen cases (14%) in Tamil Nadu and an additional 20 cases (40%) from West Bengal and Karnataka occurred between 2009 to May 2012. The cases in Tamil Nadu ranged in age from 19 to 55 years, with an average age of 33 years in Erode and 36 years in Chennai. Fifty-seven percent of the victims in Erode are female, and 87% of the victims in Chennai are female. Twelve percent of the individuals were widowed or abandoned, 79% were married, and 91% were parents with an average of two kids. Of those interviewed, 28% had no formal education, 19% had some primary schooling, 22% had some secondary schooling, and no individuals reported schooling above high school. All victims interviewed lived in abject poverty with monthly income levels well below the national average. The majority of victims reported long lasting health, economic, social, and psychological consequences. No matter the reason expressed for an organ sale, all victims reported that they would not have agreed to the organ removal if their economic circumstances were not so dire. One hundred percent of the victims interviewed expressed that they need assistance to cope with these consequences. Human trafficking for an organ removal continues in private transplant centers throughout India, service to foreign patients is ongoing, and victims' consequences are long lasting. A rights-based response

  17. Bullying Victimization Among School-Aged Immigrant Youth in the United States. (United States)

    Maynard, Brandy R; Vaughn, Michael G; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Sharon


    Bullying is a serious sociodevelopmental issue associated with a range of short- and long-term problems among youth who are bullied. Although race and ethnicity have been studied, less attention has been paid to examining prevalence and correlates of bullying victimization among immigrant youth. Using data from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (N = 12,098), we examined prevalence and correlates of bullying victimization among U.S. immigrant youth. After controlling for several demographic variables, findings indicate that immigrant youth are more likely to experience bullying victimization than native-born youth. Furthermore, immigrant youth who experience bullying victimization were more likely to report interpersonal, socioemotional, health, and substance use problems. Given the greater risk and unique challenges experienced by immigrant youth, prevention and intervention programs may need to be tailored to their specific needs and circumstances. Further research is needed to understand the specific factors and mechanisms involved in bullying victimization among immigrant youth. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bullying Victimization among School-Aged Immigrant Youth in the United States (United States)

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Vaughn, Sharon R.


    Purpose Bullying is a serious socio-developmental issue associated with a range of short and long term problems among youth who are bullied. While race and ethnicity have been studied, less attention has been paid to examining prevalence and correlates of bullying victimization among immigrant youth. Methods Using data from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (N = 12,098), we examined prevalence and correlates of bullying victimization among U.S. immigrant youth. Results After controlling for several demographic variables, findings indicate that immigrant youth are more likely to experience bullying victimization than native-born youth. Further, immigrant youth who experience bullying victimization were more likely to report interpersonal, socio-emotional, health and substance use problems. Conclusions Given the greater risk and unique challenges experienced by immigrant youth, prevention and intervention programs may need to be tailored to their specific needs and circumstances. Further research is needed to understand the specific factors and mechanisms involved in bullying victimization among immigrant youth. PMID:26903431

  19. Closed cervical spine trauma associated with bilateral vertebral artery injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloen, P.; Patterson, J. D.; Wintman, B. I.; Ozuna, R. M.; Brick, G. W.


    Bilateral vertebral artery injuries in closed cervical spine injuries are uncommon, but early recognition and treatment are important to prevent neurological deterioration. A case of bilateral vertebral injuries in a 35-year-old motor vehicle accident victim is presented, and the current literature

  20. Closed cervical spine trauma associated with bilateral vertebral artery injuries. (United States)

    Kloen, P; Patterson, J D; Wintman, B I; Ozuna, R M; Brick, G W


    Bilateral vertebral artery injuries in closed cervical spine injuries are uncommon, but early recognition and treatment are important to prevent neurological deterioration. A case of bilateral vertebral injuries in a 35-year-old motor vehicle accident victim is presented, and the current literature is reviewed.

  1. Comparing alertness and injury severity following motor vehicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: From casual observation of injury patterns in Motor Vehicular Accidents (MVAs), it was sometimes observed that if the victim had been more alert and reacts protectively, injury severity might be reduced. Protective response is often expected to minimize the severity of injuries. Objective: To determine the ...

  2. emergency management of injuries sustained during child sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    the management of child rape victims has focused on the forensic, psychosocial ... management of the sexually abused child in the South African context. .... after the injury. Abdominal injuries. Injury to intra-abdominal organs is rarely a result of a sexual assault, but if not detected can cause death from blood loss or later ...

  3. Pattern of Motorcycle Accident-Associated Injuries in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The peak age of the victims was 20 – 39years and these made up 68.2% of the patients. The male/female ratio was 2:1. ... Motorcycle-car collisions were the commonest mechanism of injury (56.8%), while indirect or secondary injuries were commonest types (59.1%) of injuries. Conclusion: Motorcycle accidents cause a ...

  4. Forgiveness: The Victim's Prerogative | Govier | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores and offers a qualified defence of the claim that the entitlement to forgive a wrongdoer belongs to the victim of the wrong. A summary account of forgiveness is given, followed by arguments in favor of the victim's prerogative to forgive. Primary, or direct victims are then distinguished from secondary and ...

  5. Prevention of victimization following sexual assaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria; Sidenius, Katrine


    Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen is a centre for interdisciplinary research and practice. Goals of the centre are to contribute to the documentation of victimization and to prevent further victimization. Research at the centre aims at the examination of the diversity of conditions...

  6. Sexual victimization, partner aggression and alcohol consumption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the relationship sexual victimization (both childhood sexual victimization and adult sexual victimization), aggression and alcohol consumption. The data for this research is from the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: an International Study (GENACIS). A random sample of 2070 adults (53.8% males and ...

  7. Victims and their defenders : A dyadic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sainio, Miia; Veenstra, René; Huitsing, Gijs; Salmivalli, Christina

    This study focused on the dyadic defending relationships of victimized children in grades 3, 4, and 5 (N = 7481 children from 356 school classes, mean ages 10-12 years). Most of the victims (72.3%) had at least one defender. Being defended was positively related to victims' adjustment and social

  8. Systemic Patterns in Bullying and Victimization (United States)

    Chan, John H. F.


    Using a new non-anonymous questionnaire and a nomination method by which victims were asked to name their aggressors, Chan (2002) collated the responses from individual victims to produce name-clusters that were studied for systemic patterns of bullying and victimization within the whole-school community. Three such patterns emerged: serial…

  9. [Shotgun injury--multiple pellets]. (United States)

    Hejna, P; Pleskot, J


    Both typical and less frequent features of gunshot wounds caused by shotguns are reported in the following article. The pattern of shotgun injury predominantly depends on gauge, choke, number and diameter of used pellets, muzzle-victim distance and on character of the afflicted area of the body. Characteristic ballistic properties of shotgun pellets, their wounding potential and significance in forensic patology are presented.

  10. Hidden Forms of Victimization in Elementary Students Involved in Bullying (United States)

    Holt, Melissa K.; Finkelhor, David; Kantor, Glenda Kaufman


    This study explored the possibility that bullies, victims of bullying, and bully-victims (i.e., youth who both perpetrate and are victims of bullying) are at increased risk for victimization in four other domains: conventional crime, child maltreatment, sexual victimization, and witnessing or indirect victimization. It also evaluated the extent to…

  11. Lawnmower injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Nora


    OBJECTIVE: Power lawnmowers can pose significant danger of injury to both the operator and the bystander, from direct contact with the rotary blades or missile injury. Our objective was to review our experience with paediatric lawnmower-associated trauma, and the safety recommendations available to operators of power lawnmowers. METHODS: The patient cohort comprised paediatric (<16 years of age) patients treated for lawnmower-associated trauma, by the plastic surgery service, between 1996 and 2003. These patients were identified retrospectively. Age at the time of injury, location and extent of bony and soft tissue injuries sustained, treatment instituted and clinical outcome were recorded. Brochures and instruction manuals of six lawnmower manufacturers were reviewed, and safety recommendations noted. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were identified. The majority of injuries occurred from direct contact with the rotary blades (93%); the remaining child sustained a burn injury. Fourteen children (93%) required operative intervention. Seven patients (46%) sustained injuries resulting in amputation, two of whom had major limb amputations. All children, except the burns patient, underwent wound debridement and received antibiotic therapy. Reconstructive methods ranged from primary closure to free tissue transfer. Many patients required multiple procedures. In all instruction manuals, instructions to keep children and pets indoors or out of the yard when mowing were found. CONCLUSIONS: Lawnmower injuries can be devastating, particularly in children. Many victims have lasting deformities as a result of their injuries. Awareness of and stringent adherence to safety precautions during use of power lawnmowers can prevent many of these accidents.

  12. Alcohol consumption in victims of violence : A trend study for the period 1970-1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, J


    This 29-yr. retrospective study is about alcohol consumption by victims of violence intentionally injured (N = 13,048) and general patients unintentionally injured (N=296,544) who were treated for their injuries at the Trauma Center of the University Hospital Groningen (The Netherlands) during the





    ABSTRACT : BACKGROUND: Firearms and explosives constitute convenient means of destroying human life from considerable distance. OBJECTIVE : Study of wounds in victims of homicide by fireams and explosives . METHODS: The present study comprised of one hundred cases of homicidal firearms and explosives injuries drawn from the medicolegal autopsies held in the mortuary of the department of Forensic Medici ne. RESULTS : There was presence of fire...

  14. Accidental injuries and cutaneous contaminations during general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of accidental injuries and body contaminations among the operating personnel during general surgical operation, those involved, the circumstances surrounding the injuries or body contaminations and the factors affecting the prevalence in a unit of a teaching hospital in Nigeria.

  15. Perforating globe injury from Taser trauma. (United States)

    Teymoorian, Savak; San Filippo, Ashley N; Poulose, Abraham K; Lyon, David B


    We report a case of a blinding, perforating globe injury from Taser trauma. There have been other instances involving similar circumstances, but this traumatic event resulted in the loss of all meaningful vision and eventual enucleation. Despite meticulous planning and intervention, however, Taser trauma can result in devastating ocular injury.

  16. Blunt thoracic aortic injuries: an autopsy study. (United States)

    Teixeira, Pedro G R; Inaba, Kenji; Barmparas, Galinos; Georgiou, Chrysanthos; Toms, Carla; Noguchi, Thomas T; Rogers, Christopher; Sathyavagiswaran, Lakshmanan; Demetriades, Demetrios


    The objective of this study was to identify the incidence and patterns of thoracic aortic injuries in a series of blunt traumatic deaths and describe their associated injuries. All autopsies performed by the Los Angeles County Department of Coroner for blunt traumatic deaths in 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who had a traumatic thoracic aortic (TTA) injury were compared with the victims who did not have this injury for differences in baseline characteristics and patterns of associated injuries. During the study period, 304 (35%) of 881 fatal victims of blunt trauma received by the Los Angeles County Department of Coroner underwent a full autopsy and were included in the analysis. The patients were on average aged 43 years±21 years, 71% were men, and 39% had a positive blood alcohol screen. Motor vehicle collision was the most common mechanism of injury (50%), followed by pedestrian struck by auto (37%). A TTA injury was identified in 102 (34%) of the victims. The most common site of TTA injury was the isthmus and descending thoracic aorta, occurring in 67 fatalities (66% of the patients with TTA injuries). Patients with TTA injuries were significantly more likely to have other associated injuries: cardiac injury (44% vs. 25%, p=0.001), hemothorax (86% vs. 56%, pinjury (74% vs. 49%, pinjury. Patients with a TTA injury were significantly more likely to die at the scene (80% vs. 63%, p=0.002). Thoracic aortic injuries occurred in fully one third of blunt traumatic fatalities, with the majority of deaths occurring at the scene. The risk for associated thoracic and intra-abdominal injuries is significantly increased in patients with thoracic aortic injuries.

  17. Vomiting is not associated with poor outcomes in pediatric victims of unintentional submersions. (United States)

    Farr, Kimberley M; Camp, Elizabeth A; Yusuf, Shabana; Shenoi, Rohit P


    The outcome of submersion victims depends on submersion duration and the availability of timely and effective resuscitation. The prognostic implication of vomiting during resuscitation of submersion victims is unclear. The study sought to determine whether vomiting during resuscitation in children treated for unintentional submersion injuries adversely impacts outcome. This was a retrospective study of unintentional submersion victims under age 18 treated at an urban tertiary-care children's hospital from 2003-2009. Submersion and victim details were obtained from hospital, EMS, and fatality records. Outcomes studied were survival at 24 hours and condition (Favorable: good/mild impairment or Poor: death/severe disability) at hospital discharge. Descriptive comparisons between emesis groups (yes/no) and categorical covariates were analyzed. There were 281 victims. The median age was 3 years; 66% were males. Most incidents occurred at swimming pools (77%) and bathtubs (16%). Most were hospitalized (83%). The presence or absence of emesis was documented in 246 (88%). Victims with emesis were significantly less likely to have apnea or be intubated in the ED, have a low ED GCS or die. No patient who had emesis died at 24 hours or had a poor outcome at hospital discharge. Victims who had emesis post-resuscitation were significantly more likely to have received CPR or chest compressions than rescue breaths. Emesis in pediatric submersion victims is inversely associated with death at 24 hours or poor outcome at hospital discharge. The relationship between emesis and the adequacy of resuscitation of pediatric submersion victims needs to be further studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors Associated with Interpersonal Violence Injuries as Seen at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    injuries is a significant contributor to surgical morbidity and mortality. ... Results: Among the 138 participants (victims) the risk factors identified were: Alcohol abuse (31%); Land conflicts (17%); Robbery (14.3%); Business-related / money issues ...

  19. Cyberbullying: who are the victims? A comparison of victimization in internet chatrooms and victimization in school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katzer, C.; Fetchenhauer, D.; Belschak, F.


    Bullying is not a phenomenon exclusive to the school environment. Pupils also become victims of verbal aggression (teasing, threats, insults, or harassment) in the context of internet chatrooms. The present study addresses the following questions: (1) How often does bullying occur in internet

  20. Os efeitos das alterações comportamentais das vítimas de trauma crânio-encefálico para o cuidador familiar Los efectos de las alteraciones comportamentales de las victimas de trauma cráneo encefálico para el cuidador familiar Effect of the behavioral alterations of victims of traumatic brain injury for the family caregiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilene Curvelo Hora


    variación de humor. Los seis primeros comportamientos mencionados fueron los que más incidieron negativamente sobre el cuidador. No se encontró relación entre el tiempo transcurrido y los efectos de las alteraciones comportamentales.This study aimed to identify alterations in the intensity at which the negative behaviors of the victims of traumatic brain injury (TBI affect the main family caregiver comparing the periods before and after the trauma and to verify the relation between the intensity of these alterations and time passed after the traumatic event. Participants were 50 caregivers of victims with different levels of dependence after TBI. The effect of the victim’s behaviors on the caregiver was measured by means of a Likert scale, in view of eleven negative behaviors cited in literature. According to the caregiver, the victim was more aggressive, anxious, dependent, depressed, irritated, and forgetful after the trauma, with a more explosive temperament, more self-centered, impulsive, with greater social inadequacy and mood oscillation. The first six cited behaviors were the ones that affected the caregiver more negatively. No relation was found between the passed time and the effect of the behavioral alterations

  1. Medicolegal characteristics of defense injuries in cases of homicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rančić Nemanja


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. During the homicidal act, a victim usually tries to defend himself/herself, and due to these attempts he/she could sustain so-called defense injuries, mostly localized on the arms. The aim of this research was to analyze important medicolegal characteristics of defense injuries, particularly regarding their importance in forensic expertise of homicides. Methods. We analyzed autopsies of all homicidal cases with defense injuries in Belgrade during a three-year period. Results. Defensive injuries were registered in 71 victims of murder. The majority (67.61% of victims with defense injuries were males. About 25% of victims were aged from 21 to 30 years. The majority (60 of victims were not under influence of alcohol. Homicides were mostly (90.14% performed by mechanical weapons. The highest frequency of defense injuries was noticed in the victims with multiple homicidal injuries localized on the front side of the body. In a half (50.7% of the cases they were present on both arms of the victim, mostly on the dorsal side of hands and forearms. Bruises were the most frequent form of defense injuries (36.61% out of 71 cases, while incisions, abrasions, gunshot injuries and stab wounds were less common. Conclusion. Determination of defense injuries and their medicolegal characteristics enables collecting of facts that are important for legal estimation of homicide, as well as for adequate sentence at the end of the court procedure. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 175014

  2. The Australian Pig Industry Crisis – An Unexceptional Circumstance!


    Ronan, Glenn


    The collapse in Australian pig prices during 1997/98 to their lowest levels in three decades triggered the third industry economic crisis for the nineties, appeals for government assistance and relief from pigmeat import competition. Two national inquiries were instigated in 1998: a Rural Adjustment Scheme Advisory Council (RASAC) Exceptional Circumstances inquiry and later, a Productivity Commission (PC) inquiry, “Pig and Pigmeat Industries: Safeguard Action Against Imports”. The PC inquiry ...

  3. Leadership development: making a difference in unfavourable circumstances


    Clarke, Martin; Bailey, Catherine; Burr, Joanna


    Abstract Purpose – This paper is derived from a two-year study that sought to provide a critical understanding of the current state of business leadership development (BLD) and to identify directions for innovative future practice. The second of two companion papers, this contribution aims to investigate the influence of unfavourable competing agendas on BLD and how human resource development (HRD) professionals can work effectively within such circumstances. Design/methodol...

  4. Clinical profile of assault burn victims: A 16-year review | Theodorou ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Assaults by burning occur infrequently and are related to the social circumstances and demographics of each population. We aimed to explore the mechanisms, complications, morbidity and mortality associated with assault burn injuries admitted to the Burns Intensive Care Unit of Merheim University Hospital in ...

  5. The dilemmas of victim positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie


    Based on a conceptualization of bullying and relational aggression in groups as an effect of social dynamics rather than individual deficits – this article reflects upon some of the intricate mechanisms and dilemmas involved in victim positioning. Victims of bullying and relational aggression often....... The hopes of (eventual) social belonging may in that sense work paradoxically as a strong agent in the denial of oppression and marginalization. The article is theoretically informed by poststructuralist conceptualizations and grounded in cases of bullying and marginalization (one of them involving rape......). One case is taken from the empirical data produced by the author and a research project on bullying among children (eXbus: Exploring Bullying in School). Two other cases are borrowed from publications of respectively B. Davies from Australia and A. Evaldsson from Shweden. The article opens insights...

  6. Models of resistance: "victims" lead. (United States)

    McGovern, Theresa M


    This author has found through professional and personal experience that throughout the world, women directly affected by injustice have led demands for accountability. The purpose of this article is to challenge mainstream human rights groups to create a different type of partnership between themselves and the people for whom they advocate by seeking the involvement of "victims", including leaders of successful "victim-led" initiatives. This approach will result in more appropriate policy recommendations and will enhance both entities' capacity for outreach. Moreover, it will bring mainstream human rights organizations into greater compliance with their own stated values, as well as exemplifying the same respect, flexibility, and accommodation that these groups often recommend to governmental, political, and institutional entities.

  7. The complexity of victim-questioning attitudes by rape victim advocates: exploring some gray areas. (United States)

    Maier, Shana L


    Despite efforts to educate and create community awareness, rape myths and victim-blaming attitudes persist in society. This research explores whether advocates express victim-questioning attitudes or questions, negative judgment, or frustration regarding victims' behavior or choices. Data from interviews with 58 advocates reveal that the majority (76%) of advocates never expressed any victim-questioning attitudes during the interview. However, responses from 14 advocates (24%) show that victim-questioning has evolved into a much more complex, subtle form than historical victim blaming or acceptance of rape myths.

  8. Ocular chemical injuries and their management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Singh


    Full Text Available Chemical burns represent potentially blinding ocular injuries and constitute a true ocular emergency requiring immediate assessment and initiation of treatment. The majority of victims are young and exposure occurs at home, work place and in association with criminal assaults. Alkali injuries occur more frequently than acid injuries. Chemical injuries of the eye produce extensive damage to the ocular surface epithelium, cornea, anterior segment and limbal stem cells resulting in permanent unilateral or bilateral visual impairment. Emergency management if appropriate may be single most important factor in determining visual outcome. This article reviews the emergency management and newer techniques to improve the prognosis of patients with chemical injuries.

  9. Using robotic telecommunications to triage pediatric disaster victims. (United States)

    Burke, Rita V; Berg, Bridget M; Vee, Paul; Morton, Inge; Nager, Alan; Neches, Robert; Wetzel, Randall; Upperman, Jeffrey S


    During a disaster, hospitals may be overwhelmed and have an insufficient number of pediatric specialists available to care for injured children. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of remotely providing pediatric expertise via a robot to treat pediatric victims. In 2008, Los Angeles County held 2 drills involving telemedicine. The first was the Tri-Hospital drill in which 3 Los Angeles County hospitals, one being a pediatric hospital, participated. The disaster scenario involved a Metrolink train crash, resulting in a large surge of traumatic injuries. The second drill involved multiple agencies and was called the Great California Shakeout, a simulated earthquake exercise. The telemedicine equipment installed is an InTouch Health, Inc, Santa Barbara, CA robotic telecommunications system. We used mixed-methods to evaluate the use of telemedicine during these drills. Pediatric specialists successfully provided remote triage and treatment consults of victims via the robot. The robot proved to be a useful means to extend resources and provide expert consult if pediatric specialists were unable to physically be at the site. Telemedicine can be used in the delayed treatment areas as well as for training first receivers to collaborate with specialists in remote locations to triage and treat seriously injured pediatric victims. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Big Five Personality Traits of Cybercrime Victims. (United States)

    van de Weijer, Steve G A; Leukfeldt, E Rutger


    The prevalence of cybercrime has increased rapidly over the last decades and has become part of the everyday life of citizens. It is, therefore, of great importance to gain more knowledge on the factors related to an increased or decreased likelihood of becoming a cybercrime victim. The current study adds to the existing body of knowledge using a large representative sample of Dutch individuals (N = 3,648) to study the relationship between cybercrime victimization and the key traits from the Big Five model of personality (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience). First, multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between the personality traits and three victim groups, that is, cybercrime victims versus nonvictims, traditional crime victims versus nonvictims, and cybercrime victims versus traditional crime victims. Next, logistic regression analyses were performed to predict victimization of cyber-dependent crimes (i.e., hacking and virus infection) and cyber-enabled crimes (i.e., online intimidation, online consumer fraud, and theft from bank account). The analyses show that personality traits are not specifically associated with cybercrime victimization, but rather with victimization in general. Only those with higher scores on emotional stability were less likely to become a victim of cybercrime than traditional crime. Furthermore, the results indicate that there are little differences between personality traits related to victimization of cyber-enabled and cyber-dependent crimes. Only individuals with higher scores on openness to experience have higher odds of becoming a victim of cyber-enabled crimes.

  11. Emergency Centre care for sexual assault victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allana M. Krolikowski


    Full Text Available Sexual assault is a topic of importance worldwide to health professionals that provide emergency care. Victims of sexual assault include adult men, adult women, and children. The prevalence of sexual assault is likely under-reported. These patients should be offered comprehensive medical care upon arrival to the emergency centre. This includes assessment for acute injuries; medical history; physical examination; and possible collection of evidence. Depending on the patient's situation, he or she may be offered prophylactic and therapeutic management, which includes pregnancy testing and emergency contraception, prophylaxis for sexually transmitted infections, and HIV post-exposure prophylaxis. This article addresses the most up-to-date information on this management. Patients should also be offered mental health counselling on-site if appropriate health professionals are available. A number of countries have national protocols for care of the sexual assault patient. Implementing these protocols can be strengthened through such interventions as hiring sexual assault nurse examiners or creating a sexual assault centre within the emergency centre. The patient's immediate and future safety and emotional needs should be evaluated and a plan formulated for safety when the patient is discharged. Medical follow up is recommended and should be strongly encouraged.

  12. Frostbite injury of the foot from portable fire extinguisher. (United States)

    Sever, Celalettin; Kulahci, Yalcin; Uygur, Fatih; Sahin, Cihan


    Frostbite burns are uncommon and their etiologies are varied. We present a case of sudden frostbite burn of the left foot caused by carbon dioxide. The circumstances of this injury and preventive measures are discussed.

  13. Injury prevention and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sleet


    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  14. Mean ages of homicide victims and victims of homicide-suicide. (United States)

    Bridges, F Stephen; Tankersley, William B


    Using Riedel and Zahn's 1994 reformatted version of an FBI database, the mean age of homicide victims in 2,175 homicide-suicides (4,350 deaths) was compared with that of all other victims of homicides reported for the USA from 1968 to 1975. The overall mean age of homicide victims in homicide-suicides was 1 yr. greater than for victims of homicides not followed by suicides, whereas the mean age for both male and female homicide-suicide victims was, respectively, 3 yr. less and greater than the other homicide victims. The mean age of Black homicide victims of homicide-suicides was 2.4 yr. less than that for Black victims of other homicides, whereas the means for Black and White male homicide victims in homicide-suicides were, respectively, about 4 and 5 yr. less than for victims of other homicides. Also, the mean age of White female homicide victims in homicide-suicides was more than two years greater than for female victims of homicides not followed by suicides. When both sex and race were considered, the mean age for those killed in homicide-suicides relative to those killed in homicides not followed by suicides may represent subpopulations with different mean ages of victims.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper aims to be a scientific approach to the issue of euthanasia, bringing into the debate current and future controversies raised by euthanasia, as a result of the introduction into the Romanian penal law of the criminal offence of homicide by request of the victim. The study represents an approach to moral, religious, constitutional, civil, criminal procedure debates and last but not least to criminal debates regarding the legalization of the euthanasia, as the most difficult task lies with the criminal law.

  16. Dating Violence and Injury Among Youth Exposed to Violence. (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E; Kearns, Megan C; Houry, Debra; Valle, Linda A; Holland, Kristin M; Marshall, Khiya J


    To assess gender differences in the proportion of adolescents reporting teen dating violence (TDV) and the frequency of TDV at multiple age points across adolescence in a high-risk sample of youth with previous exposure to violence. A cross-sectional, high-risk sample of boys and girls (n = 1149) ages 11 to 17 years completed surveys assessing TDV and self-defense. Indices of TDV included perpetration and victimization scales of controlling behaviors, psychological TDV, physical TDV, sexual TDV, fear/intimidation, and injury. More girls reported perpetrating psychological and physical TDV, whereas twice as many boys reported sexual TDV perpetration. More girls reported fear/intimidation victimization than boys. When comparing the frequency of TDV across adolescence, boys reported more sexual TDV victimization at younger ages, and girls demonstrated a trend toward more victimization at older ages. Likewise, younger boys reported more fear/intimidation and injury perpetration and injury victimization than younger girls. However, by age 17, girls reported more injury perpetration than boys, and reports of injury victimization and use of self-defense did not differ. Notably, despite potential parity in injury, girls consistently reported more fear/intimidation victimization associated with TDV. Contrary to data suggesting that girls experience far more sexual TDV and injury, these data suggest that at specific times during adolescence, boys among high-risk populations may be equally at risk for victimization. However, the psychological consequences (fear) are greater for girls. These findings suggest a need to tailor strategies to prevent TDV based on both age- and gender-specific characteristics in high-risk populations. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Patterns of trauma in conflict victims from Timor Leste. (United States)

    Komar, Debra A; Lathrop, Sarah


    Understanding population-level trauma patterns has implications for the recognition of war crimes and crimes against humanity. Trauma data were abstracted from autopsy and anthropology reports for 105 victims from the 1999 conflict in Timor Leste. A significant number of individuals displayed no evidence of injury. No trauma was found in 25% of the sample, while a further 5% had only minor, nonlethal wounds. Where trauma was evident, sharp force injuries were most common (35%), followed by gunshot (20%) and blunt force (13.33%). Timorese frequencies of trauma differ significantly from percentages found in prior reports of mass killings from Cambodia, Bosnia, Croatia, and Afghanistan but closely resemble reported trauma patterns in Rwanda. Decomposition and percentage of body recovered were shown to have a significant impact on the presence/absence of trauma. Complete, fleshed remains were 10.4 times more likely than skeletal remains to have evidence of major or lethal trauma. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Victim's Rights - Comparative Approach within EU Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pocora


    Full Text Available Usually is talking about offender rights and rarely about victim's rights. This study aims to analyse victim's rights especially in Romanian legislation from all points of view. Having involuntary fallen victim to crime, the person is often unaware of what information is available. It is therefore important that the onus is not put on the victim to request a certain piece of information. Victims of crimes need to have their important role in the criminal proceedings and he or she has to know about the extension of them rights. Not least, the study is focus on the right of the victim to receive information, not to be made responsible for the practicalities surrounding its delivery.

  19. Violence witnessing, perpetrating and victimization in medellin, Colombia: a random population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo Alexandra


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of injury from violence and the costs attributable to violence are extremely high in Colombia. Despite a dramatic decline in homicides over the last ten years, homicide rate in Medellin, Colombia second largest city continues to rank among the highest of cities in Latin America. This study aims to estimate the prevalence and distribution of witnesses, victims and perpetrators of different forms of interpersonal violence in a representative sample of the general population in Medellin in 2007. Methods A face-to-face survey was carried out on a random selected, non-institutionalized population aged 12 to 60 years, with a response rate of 91% yielding 2,095 interview responses. Results We present the rates of prevalence for having been a witness, victim, or perpetrator for different forms of violence standardized using the WHO truncated population pyramid to allow for cross-national comparison. We also present data on verbal aggression, fraud and deception, yelling and heavy pranks, unarmed aggression during last year, and armed threat, other severe threats, robbery, armed physical aggression, and sexual aggression during the lifetime, by age, sex, marital and socioeconomic status, and education. Men reported the highest prevalence of being victims, perpetrators and witnesses in all forms of violence, except for robbery and sexual violence. The number of victims per perpetrator was positively correlated with the severity of the type of violence. The highest victimization proportions over the previous twelve months occurred among minors. Perpetrators are typically young unmarried males from lower socio-economic strata. Conclusions Due to very low proportion of victimization report to authorities, periodic surveys should be included in systems for epidemiological monitoring of violence, not only of victimization but also for perpetrators. Victimization information allows quantifying the magnitude of different forms of

  20. Occipital condyle fracture: an unusual airbag injury. (United States)

    Zaglia, Elisabetta; De Leo, Domenico; Lanzara, Guido; Urbani, Urbano; Dolci, Marco


    The installation of airbags in motor vehicles, in association with the use of seat belts, has reduced the incidence of head injuries, as well as significantly decreasing morbidity and mortality in motor vehicle accidents. Nevertheless, the literature on the subject increasingly refers to lesions related to airbag deployment. These are usually minor, but in certain circumstances, severe and fatal injuries can result. This is a case report of serious injury due to airbag deployment, involving a restrained driver who suffered occipital condylar injury when his airbag deployed in a frontal collision. The range of airbag associated injuries is reported and predisposing factors, such as the probable proximity to the airbag housing, is discussed.

  1. Effects of perpetrator gender and victim sexuality on blame toward male victims of sexual assault. (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Pollard, Paul; Archer, John


    Most researchers who have investigated attributions of blame toward victims in sexual-assault depictions have considered only female victims of male perpetrators. Few researchers have investigated the effects of perpetrator gender or victim sexual orientation on blame attributions toward male victims. The present authors investigated those two variables. Participants were 161 undergraduates at a British university in social science courses, each of whom read one scenario of a set in which perpetrator gender and victim sexual orientation were varied between subjects, and who completed a questionnaire measuring their blame toward the victim and the perpetrator. The present results showed that male participants blamed the victim more if a person of the gender that he was normally attracted to assaulted him. Male participants also regarded the female perpetrator in more favorable terms than they did the male perpetrator regardless of the victim's sexual orientation. The authors discussed the present results in relation to gender role stereotypes.

  2. Victimization, polyvictimization , and health in Swedish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aho N


    Full Text Available Nikolas Aho, Marie Proczkowska Björklund, Carl Göran Svedin Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden Abstract: The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16–20 years, standard deviation =0.652, of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV] proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization. Keywords: victimization, childhood trauma, psychological symptoms, JVQ, TSCC

  3. Peer and self-reported victimization: Do non-victimized students give victimization nominations to classmates who are self-reported victims? (United States)

    Oldenburg, Beau; Barrera, Davide; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits; van der Meulen, Matty; Vermande, Marjolijn; Aleva, Elisabeth; Sentse, Miranda; Veenstra, René


    Using data from 2413 Dutch first-year secondary school students (M age=13.27, SD age=0.51, 49.0% boys), this study investigated as to what extent students who according to their self-reports had not been victimized (referred to as reporters) gave victimization nominations to classmates who according to their self-reports had been victimized (referred to as receivers). Using a dyadic approach, characteristics of the reporter-receiver dyad (i.e., gender similarity) and of the reporter (i.e., reporters' behavior during bullying episodes) that were possibly associated with reporter-receiver agreement were investigated. Descriptive analyses suggested that numerous students who were self-reported victims were not perceived as victimized by their non-victimized classmates. Three-level logistic regression models (reporter-receiver dyads nested in reporters within classrooms) demonstrated greater reporter-receiver agreement in same-gender dyads, especially when the reporter and the receiver were boys. Furthermore, reporters who behaved as outsiders during bullying episodes (i.e., reporters who actively shied away from the bullying) were less likely to agree on the receiver's self-reported victimization, and in contrast, reporters who behaved as defenders (i.e., reporters who helped and supported victims) were more likely to agree on the victimization. Moreover, the results demonstrated that reporters gave fewer victimization nominations to receivers who reported they had been victimized sometimes than to receivers who reported they had been victimized often/very often. Finally, this study suggested that reporter-receiver agreement may not only depend on characteristics of the reporter-receiver dyad and of the reporter, but on classroom characteristics as well (e.g., the number of students in the classroom). Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Being a Victim of Medical Error in Brazil: An (Un)Real Dilemma. (United States)

    Mendonça, Vitor Silva; Custódio, Eda Marconi


    Medical error stems from inadequate professional conduct that is capable of producing harm to life or exacerbating the health of another, whether through act or omission. This situation has become increasingly common in Brazil and worldwide. In this study, the aim was to understand what being the victim of medical error is like and to investigate the circumstances imposed on this condition of victims in Brazil. A semi-structured interview was conducted with twelve people who had gone through situations of medical error in their lives, creating a space for narratives of their experiences and deep reflection on the phenomenon. The concept of medical error has a negative connotation, often being associated with the incompetence of a medical professional. Medical error in Brazil is demonstrated by low-quality professional performance and represents the current reality of the country because of the common lack of respect and consideration for patients. Victims often remark on their loss of identity, as their social functions have been interrupted and they do not expect to regain such. It was found, however, little assumption of error in the involved doctors' discourses and attitudes, which felt a need to judge the medical conduct in an attempt to assert their rights. Medical error in Brazil presents a punitive character and is little discussed in medical and scientific circles. The stigma of medical error is closely connected to the value and cultural judgments of the country, making it difficult to accept, both by victims and professionals.

  5. Disaster victim identification of military aircrew, 1945-2002. (United States)

    Smith, Adrian


    Aviation accident fatalities are characterized by substantial tissue disruption and fragmentation, limiting the usefulness of traditional identification methods. This study examines the success of disaster victim identification (DVI) in military aviation accident fatalities in the Australian Defense Force (ADF). Accident reports and autopsy records of aircrew fatalities during the period 1945-2002 were examined to identify difficulties experienced during the DVI process or injuries that would prevent identification of remains using non-DNA methods. The ADF had 301 aircraft fatalities sustained in 144 accidents during the period 1945-2002. The autopsy reports for 117 fatalities were reviewed (covering 73.7% of aircrew fatalities from 1960-2002). Of the 117 victims, 38 (32.4%) sustained injuries which were severe enough to prevent identification by traditional (non-DNA) comparative scientific DVI techniques of fingerprint and dental analysis. Many of the ADF fatalities who could not be positively identified in the past could be identified today through the use of DNA techniques. Successful DNA identification, however, depends on having a reference DNA profile. This paper recommends the establishment of a DNA repository to store reference blood samples to facilitate the identification of ADF aircrew remains without causing additional distress to family members.

  6. [Injury mechanisms in extreme violence settings]. (United States)

    Arcaute-Velazquez, Fernando Federico; García-Núñez, Luis Manuel; Noyola-Vilallobos, Héctor Faustino; Espinoza-Mercado, Fernando; Rodríguez-Vega, Carlos Eynar


    Extreme violence events are consequence of current world-wide economic, political and social conditions. Injury patterns found among victims of extreme violence events are very complex, obeying several high-energy injury mechanisms. In this article, we present the basic concepts of trauma kinematics that regulate the clinical approach to victims of extreme violence events, in the hope that clinicians increase their theoretical armamentarium, and reflecting on obtaining better outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  7. Furniture injuries in children. (United States)

    Cho, Jin H; Adams, Susan; Holland, Andrew J A


    To determine the incidence, type and severity of furniture-related injuries in children in the Sydney region. Retrospective analysis of presentations to the emergency departments of two paediatric tertiary hospitals in Sydney over a 4-year period from January 2000 to December 2003 with furniture-related injuries. Deaths of children because of furniture-related injuries reported to the Coroner, from 2000-2002, were also reviewed. The main outcome measures were circumstances of injury, type and number of injuries, morbidity, and mortality. 52 children presented with furniture-related injuries. The median age was 2.5 years (range 9 months-15 years), with a male-to-female ratio of 3:2. Falling televisions accounted for 22 (42%) of the injuries. Median Injury Severity Score was 1 (range 1-25). One child died. The most common regions injured were the limbs and the head. Thirty-one children (60%) required medical imaging, 28 (54%) required admission to hospital and 6 were allowed home in under 12 h. Of the 22 patients admitted for longer than 12 h, 14% required intensive care. Median length of stay was 1 day (range 0-15 days). Eighteen patients (35%) suffered scarring or long-term limitations as a result of their injuries. From 2000 to 2002 there were four additional deaths in NSW because of furniture-related injuries, two because of a falling television. Furniture-related injuries represent a cause of serious trauma and death in Australian children. There remains a need for the stability and security of televisions and large furniture items to be improved.

  8. The Consent of the Victim as Legal Defence in Cybercrime cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The rise of Cybercrimes provides with great concerns among users, industry, banking sector or public institutions in terms of how much secure their computer systems or computer data are. Both Ethical and Non-Ethical hacking came-up as viable solutions for any natural or legal person willing to perform its own security checks. Taking into consideration the nature of such security evaluation techniques, that in certain situations may be regarded as cybercrimes, there should be a proper understanding of the circumstances when the victim may grant permission to the attackers to perform specific tasks against its own systems or data, especially when these belongs to a public institution.

  9. Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Comparisons (United States)

    Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.


    This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…

  10. Moral Reasoning and Emotion Attributions of Adolescent Bullies, Victims, and Bully-Victims (United States)

    Perren, Sonja; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline; Malti, Tina; Hymel, Shelley


    This study investigated different facets of moral development in bullies, victims, and bully-victims among Swiss adolescents. Extending previous research, we focused on both bullying and victimization in relation to adolescents' morally disengaged and morally responsible reasoning as well as moral emotion attributions. A total of 516 adolescents…

  11. Delayed Brainstem Hemorrhage Secondary to Mild Traumatic Head Injury: Report of Case with Good Recovery. (United States)

    Hou, Kun; Zhao, Jinchuan; Gao, Xianfeng; Zhu, Xiaobo; Li, Guichen


    In clinical practice, secondary traumatic brainstem hemorrhage often develops during descending transtentorial herniation due to raised intracranial pressure, which is known as Duret hemorrhage. Although usually considered a fatal and irreversible event, in rare circumstances, victims of Duret hemorrhage could gain favorable outcomes. To our knowledge, secondary brainstem hemorrhage due to mild traumatic head injury without descending transtentorial herniation has never been reported. In this report, we present a case of delayed brainstem hemorrhage secondary to a relatively mild traumatic brain injury that experienced a rapid and favorable recovery. A 48-year-old man was admitted for a motorcycle accident. Head computed tomography 2 hours after the accident revealed mild subarachnoid hemorrhage at the interpeduncular cistern. In the following in-hospital days, he experienced 2 episodes of mental state deterioration and increase of the SAH and hematoma extension to the brainstem. A digital subtraction angiography was performed with no positive finding of vascular anomaly and evident cerebral vasospasm. He experienced a rapid and favorable recovery. His Glasgow Outcome Scale score was 5 at 3 months' follow-up. We present a rare case of secondary traumatic brainstem hemorrhage that experienced a rapid and good recovery process. The mechanism is still obscure to us and needs to be further studied. Although traumatic brainstem hemorrhage usually means a fatal event to most of the patients, some patients may experience a favorable recovery. This rare circumstance should be stressed in prognosis consultation and clinical management of these kinds of patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Major mental disorders, gender, and criminological circumstances of homicide. (United States)

    Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane; Bouyer-Richard, Anne-Isabelle; Annweiler, Cédric; Gourevitch, Raphaël; Jollant, Fabrice; Olie, Jean-Pierre; Bourdel, Marie-Chantal; Lhuillier, Jean-Paul; Beauchet, Olivier


    To examine the criminological circumstances of homicide in a group of French murderers with and without major mental disorders (MMD) stratified by the perpetrator's gender. Sociodemographic, clinical, and criminological variables were collected from the psychiatric expert reports of 210 cases of homicide heard at the High Court of Angers, France. Murderers were categorized according to MMD diagnosis and gender. Among 210 murderers, 17.6% (n = 37) had a MMD (20% of the female perpetrators). Logistic regression models showed that being a murderer with a MMD was associated with younger age (adjusted Odds Ratio OR = 1.03, P = 0.034), high school education (OR = 2.48, P = 0.036), previous use of psychiatric services (OR = 4.75, P = 0.003), alcohol intoxication (OR = 2.71, P = 0.027), and delusional state (OR = 3.96, P = 0.002) at the time of the homicide. Multiple correspondence analyses showed that female murderers with a MMD were more prone to have depression and to use drowning as a method than those without a MMD, and that male murderers with a MMD more often had a high school education and delusional beliefs at the time of the homicide than those without a MMD. Specific profiles of criminological circumstances of homicide could help to explore the risk of homicide in female and male patients with a MMD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. Multiple socio-economic circumstances and healthy food habits. (United States)

    Lallukka, T; Laaksonen, M; Rahkonen, O; Roos, E; Lahelma, E


    To examine associations between seven indicators of socio-economic circumstances and healthy food habits, while taking into account assumed temporal order between these socio-economic indicators. Data were derived from cross-sectional postal questionnaires in 2000-2002. Socio-economic circumstances were assessed by parental education, childhood economic difficulties, own education, occupational class, household income, home ownership and current economic difficulties. Healthy food habits were measured by an index consisting of consumption of fresh vegetables, fruit or berries, rye bread, fish and choosing vegetable fats on bread and oil in cooking. Sequential logistic regression models were used, adjusting for age and marital status. Employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland (n=8960, aged 40-60 years). Healthy food habits were reported by 28% of women and by 17% of men. Own education, occupational class, household income, home ownership and current economic difficulties were associated with healthy food habits. These associations were attenuated but mainly remained after mutual adjustments for the socio-economic indicators. Among women, a pathway was found suggesting that part of the effects of education on food habits were mediated through occupational class. Employees in higher and lower socio-economic positions differ in their food habits, and those in lower positions and economically disadvantaged are less likely to report healthy food habits. Health promotion programmes and food policies should encourage healthier food choices among those in lower socio-economic positions and among those with economic difficulties in particular.

  14. Circumstances and contributing causes of fall deaths among persons aged 65 and older: United States, 2010. (United States)

    Stevens, Judy A; Rudd, Rose A


    To determine whether the increasing fall death rate among people aged 65 and older is due in part to temporal changes in recording the underlying cause of death. Analyses of multiple cause of death data using the online Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging ON-line Data for Epidemiologic Research system, which uses the National Center for Health Statistics' Multiple Cause of Death data set. United States, 1999 to 2010. People aged 65 and older with a fall listed on their death record as the underlying or a contributing cause of death. Circumstances and contributing causes off all deaths--records listing International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, codes W00 to W19 as the underlying cause of death--and underlying causes for records with falls as a contributing cause were examined. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to assess trends in the proportion of fall and fall-associated deaths to total deaths for 1999 to 2010. In 2010, there were 21,649 fall deaths and 5,402 fall-associated deaths among people aged 65 and older; 48.7% of fall deaths involved a head injury. Approximately half the fall death records included diseases of the circulatory system as contributing causes. From 1999 to 2010, there was a trend toward more-specific reporting of falls circumstances, although total deaths remained unchanged. The proportion of fall deaths to total deaths increased 114.3%, and that of fall-associated deaths to total deaths increased 43.1%. The reasons behind the increasing older adult fall death rate deserve further investigation. Possible contributing factors include changing trends in underlying chronic diseases and better reporting of falls as the underlying cause of death. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  15. An exploratory study of the perceived impact of health problems of landmine/UXO victims versus another disability group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyper Russell B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this exploratory study is to pilot a biopsychosocial instrument called the Perceived Impact of Problem Profile (PIPP on a cohort of landmine/Unexploded Ordnance (UXO victims with lower limb disability versus a cohort of persons with similar disability due to other trauma or medical causes. The aim is to provide greater understanding of the psychosocial impact of landmine/UXO injury to inform victim assistance a interventions within Lao PDR. Methods This study employs a mixed methods design, which involved piloting the PIPP instrument through an interviewer administered questionnaire and demographic questionnaire. Fifty one participants were interviewed in both urban and rural locations within Lao PDR. Results An analysis of the data reveals significant differences in perceived impact for pain, anxiety and how recently the injury/illness occurred. Both groups complained of high levels of anxiety and depression; landmine/UXO victims who complained of anxiety and depression reported a much greater impact on life satisfaction and mood. Conclusion The perceived impact of the disability is greatest on psychosocial factors for both cohorts, but especially in landmine/UXO victims emphasising the need to focus on improving psychosocial interventions for landmine/UXO victims within Victim assistance programmes in Lao PDR.

  16. Reporting Crime Victimizations to the Police and the Incidence of Future Victimizations: A Longitudinal Study. (United States)

    Ranapurwala, Shabbar I; Berg, Mark T; Casteel, Carri


    Law enforcement depends on cooperation from the public and crime victims to protect citizens and maintain public safety; however, many crimes are not reported to police because of fear of repercussions or because the crime is considered trivial. It is unclear how police reporting affects the incidence of future victimization. To evaluate the association between reporting victimization to police and incident future victimization. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using National Crime Victimization Survey 2008-2012 data. Participants were 12+ years old household members who may or may not be victimized, were followed biannually for 3 years, and who completed at least one follow-up survey after their first reported victimization between 2008 and 2012. Crude and adjusted generalized linear mixed regression for survey data with Poisson link were used to compare rates of future victimization. Out of 18,657 eligible participants, 41% participants reported to their initial victimization to police and had a future victimization rate of 42.8/100 person-years (PY) (95% CI: 40.7, 44.8). The future victimization rate of those who did not report to the police (59%) was 55.0/100 PY (95% CI: 53.0, 57.0). The adjusted rate ratio comparing police reporting to not reporting was 0.78 (95%CI: 0.72, 0.84) for all future victimizations, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.90) for interpersonal violence, 0.73 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.78) for thefts, and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.07) for burglaries. Reporting victimization to police is associated with fewer future victimization, underscoring the importance of police reporting in crime prevention. This association may be attributed to police action and victim services provisions resulting from reporting.

  17. Qualifying information on deaths and serious injuries caused by road traffic in five Brazilian capitals using record linkage. (United States)

    Mandacaru, Polyana Maria Pimenta; Andrade, Ana Lucia; Rocha, Marli Souza; Aguiar, Fernanda Pinheiro; Nogueira, Maria Sueli M; Girodo, Anne Marielle; Pedrosa, Ana Amélia Galas; Oliveira, Vera Lídia Alves de; Alves, Marta Maria Malheiros; Paixão, Lúcia Maria Miana M; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Silva, Marta Maria Alves; Morais Neto, Otaliba Libanio de


    Road traffic crashes (RTC) are an important public health problem, accounting for 1.2 million deaths per year worldwide. In Brazil, approximately 40,000 deaths caused by RTC occur every year, with different trends in the Federal Units. However, these figures may be even greater if health databases are linked to police records. In addition, the linkage procedure would make it possible to qualify information from the health and police databases, improving the quality of the data regarding underlying cause of death, cause of injury in hospital records, and injury severity. This study linked different data sources to measure the numbers of deaths and serious injuries and to estimate the percentage of corrections regarding the underlying cause of death, cause of injury, and the severity injury in victims in matched pairs from record linkage in five representative state capitals of the five macro-regions of Brazil. This cross-sectional, population-based study used data from the Hospital Information System (HIS), Mortality Information System (MIS), and Police Road Traffic database of Belo Horizonte, Campo Grande, Curitiba, Palmas, and Teresina, for the year 2013 for Teresina, and 2012 for the other capitals. RecLink III was used to perform probabilistic record linkage by identifying matched pairs to calculate the global correction percentage of the underlying cause of death, the circumstance that caused the road traffic injury, and the injury severity of the victims in the police database. There was a change in the cause of injury in the HIS, with an overall percentage of correction estimated at 24.4% for Belo Horizonte, 96.9% for Campo Grande, 100.0% for Palmas, and 33.2% for Teresina. The overall percentages of correction of the underlying cause of death in the MIS were 29.9%, 11.9%, 4.2%, and 33.5% for Belo Horizonte, Campo Grande, Curitiba, and Teresina, respectively. The correction of the classification of injury severity in police database were 100.0% for Belo

  18. Evaluation of pedestrian road traffic maxillofacial injuries in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. (United States)

    Aladelusi, T O; Akinmoladun, I V; Olusanya, O O; Akadiri, O A; Fasola, A O


    Background: Walking is the most basic form of mobility and forms an important part of daily activities; however, walking could often be associated with risks. This is more so when pedestrians share a common space with motorized vehicles especially in developing countries. Despite the frequency of road traffic crashes (RTC) related pedestrian injuries in many developing countries, there is a dearth of documentation of maxillofacial injuries in victims of pedestrian road traffic crashes. The aim of this study was to determine the causes, frequency, pattern, severity, concomitant injuries and outcome of pedestrian maxillofacial injuries observed at a tertiary trauma centre in Nigeria. Pedestrian victims of RTC were prospectively recruited from among all maxillofacial trauma patients seen at the Accident and Emergency department and the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the University College Hospital, Ibadan between April 2011 and November 2011. Ethical approval was obtained from the UI/UCH Joint Ethics Review Board before the commencement of the study and informed consent was obtained from participants. Patients' demography, the crash events, types of maxillofacial injuries, and concomitant injuries were recorded. Severity of maxillofacial injury was estimated based on the Maxillofacial Injury Severity Scale (MFISS). Forty-six participants (22.9% of all victims of road traffic crashes seen within the study period) were victims of pedestrian RTC. Pedestrian RTC occurred in all age groups with almost 40% of the victims in their 1st and 2nd decades of life. The most severe MFISS was observed in the 21 - 30 year age group while the least severe injury observed was in the 71 - 80 years age group. Thirty participants (65.2%) were hit by a car or minibus while fourteen (30.4%) were knocked down by a motorcycle. Two (4.4%) were hit by a truck. Soft tissue injury was the most common maxillofacial injury and head injury was the commonest concomitant injury

  19. Differences between children and adolescents who commit suicide and their peers: A psychological autopsy of suicide victims compared to accident victims and a community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freuchen Anne


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge about the circumstances related to suicide among children and adolescents 15 years and younger. Methods We conducted a psychological autopsy, collecting information from parents, hospital records and police reports on persons below the age of 16 who had committed suicide in Norway during a 12-year period (1993-2004 (n = 41. Those who committed suicide were compared with children and adolescents who were killed in accidents during the same time period (n = 43 and with a community sample. Results: Among the suicides 25% met the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis and 30% had depressive symptoms at the time of death. Furthermore, 60% of the parents of the suicide victims reported the child experienced some kind of stressful conflict prior to death, whereas only 12% of the parents of the accident victims reported such conflicts. Conclusion One in four suicide victims fulfilled the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis. The level of sub-threshold depression and of stressful conflict experienced by youths who committed suicide did not appear to differ substantially from that of their peers, and therefore did not raise sufficient concern for referral to professional help.

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Sibling Victimization Types (United States)

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne M.; Turner, Heather


    Objective: The goal of this study was to document the prevalence and correlates of any past year sibling victimization, including physical, property, and psychological victimization, by a co-residing juvenile sibling across the spectrum of childhood from one month to 17 years of age. Methods: The National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence…

  1. A Transactional Model of Bullying and Victimization (United States)

    Georgiou, Stelios N.; Fanti, Kostas A.


    The purpose of the current study was to develop and test a transactional model, based on longitudinal data, capable to describe the existing interrelation between maternal behavior and child bullying and victimization experiences over time. The results confirmed the existence of such a model for bullying, but not for victimization in terms of…

  2. Disasters, Victimization, and Children's Mental Health (United States)

    Becker-Blease, Kathryn A.; Turner, Heather A.; Finkelhor, David


    In a representative sample of 2,030 U.S. children aged 2-17, 13.9% report lifetime exposure to disaster, and 4.1% report experiencing a disaster in the past year. Disaster exposure was associated with some forms of victimization and adversity. Victimization was associated with depression among 2- to 9-year-old disaster survivors, and with…

  3. Rape victim assessment: Findings by psychiatrists and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    valid at the lower end of the IQ range. The assessment of rape victims is a sensitive matter and poses a number of challenges to the clinician. Rape victims are often traumatised by their experience, and this can make them reluctant to talk about the incident. In a study done by Elklit et al.,[2] it was found that ~70% of sexual ...

  4. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M.


    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD…

  5. Incest Victims: Inadequate Help by Professionals. (United States)

    Frenken, Jos; Van Stolk, Bram


    Interviews with 130 Dutch professionals helping incest victims and 50 adult women who were incest victims as children found that assistance was hampered by institutional distrust, inability of professionals to stop ongoing incest, frequent breaking off of contact by the young girls, professionals' shortcomings in knowledge and skills, and…

  6. Associations between Peer Victimization and Academic Performance (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Hong, Jun Sung; Rao, Mrinalini A.; Low, Sabina


    This article reviews the extant literature on the links between peer victimization and academic performance and engagement among children and adolescents. Although most of the research on this association is based on cross-sectional investigations, research using longitudinal designs is starting to point to the fact that peer victimization does…

  7. [The victim within the framework of criminology]. (United States)

    Pittaro, P


    The Author makes a 'tour d'horizon', albeit summarized, of the problems brought about by the victim "from crime" in the exclusive picture of criminology. After defining the dogmatic relations between criminology and victimology, stating that such a (new) discipline highlights the entirety of the criminal event centering upon the dyad criminal-victim, the latest classifications of the victim viewed individually and also in his manifold relationships with the acting subject, are reviewed, in the attempt of identifying, on the basis of the various situations of victimization as they occur, if not some causal laws proper, at least some constants and some emerging lines susceptible of an in-depth analysis. After hinting to the problems brought about by the victim in the supranational prospect, and by the crimes so-called without a victim, the importance of the victim from the criminalistics and criminal execution angle, is outlined, and the Author closes up, by way of conclusion, and at the operational level, broadly hinting to the most suitable methods for the prevention and repairing in regard of the victims of crime.

  8. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming (United States)

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray


    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  9. Relational Aggression and Victimization in College Students (United States)

    Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy


    For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…

  10. Sleep Loss and Partner Violence Victimization (United States)

    Walker, Robert; Shannon, Lisa; Logan, T. K.


    Intimate partner violence victimization has been associated with serious health problems among women, including many disorders that involve sleep disturbances. However, there has been only limited examination of sleep duration among women with victimization experiences. A total of 756 women with a domestic violence order (DVO) against a male…

  11. 78 FR 52877 - VOCA Victim Assistance Program (United States)


    ... child abuse. In addition, the definition clarifies that child pornography related offenses are a form of... used terms, including ``crime victim'', ``State administering agency'', ``victim of child abuse'', and... Guidelines. OVC proposes a new definition of the undefined statutory term ``child abuse'' that is intended to...

  12. Emergency Care of the Snakebite Victim. (United States)

    Ballard, Carol N.


    Describes emergency care of snakebite victims, including noting signs and symptoms of venomous snakebites, keeping the victim calm, and seeking immediate medical attention. Provides information on variables that affect the amount of injected venom and how to distinguish nonpoisonous from poisonous snakes. (LP)

  13. Peer and self-reported victimization : Do non-victimized students give victimization nominations to classmates who are self-reported victims?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Beau; Barrera, Davide; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits; van der Meulen, Matty; Vermande, Marjolijn; Aleva, Elisabeth; Sentse, Miranda; Veenstra, Rene

    Using data from 2413 Dutch first-year secondary school students (M age = 13.27, SD age = 0.51, 49.0% boys), this study investigated as to what extent students who according to their self-reports had not been victimized (referred to as reporters) gave victimization nominations to classmates who

  14. Peer and self-reported victimization : Do non-victimized students give victimization nominations to classmates who are self-reported victims?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Beau; Barrera, Davide; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits; van der Meulen, Matty; Vermande, Marjolijn; Aleva, Liesbeth; Sentse, Miranda; Veenstra, René


    Using data from 2413 Dutch first-year secondary school students (M age. = 13.27, SD age. = 0.51, 49.0% boys), this study investigated as to what extent students who according to their self-reports had not been victimized (referred to as reporters) gave victimization nominations to classmates who

  15. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization in female victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence in Maputo City, Mozambique (United States)

    Zacarias, Antonio Eugenio; Macassa, Gloria; Soares, Joaquim JF; Svanström, Leif; Antai, Diddy


    Background Little knowledge exists in Mozambique and sub-Saharan Africa about the mental health (symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization) of women victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) by type of abuse (psychological aggression, physical assault without/with injury, and sexual coercion). This study scrutinizes factors associated with mental health among women victims and perpetrators of IPV over the 12 months prior to the study. Methods and materials Mental health data were analyzed with bivariate and multiple regression methods for 1442 women aged 15–49 years who contacted Forensic Services at Maputo Central Hospital (Maputo City, Mozambique) for IPV victimization between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2008. Results In bivariate analyses, victims and perpetrators of IPVs scored higher on symptoms of mental health than their unaffected counterparts. Multiple regressions revealed that controlling behaviors, mental health comorbidity, social support, smoking, childhood abuse, sleep difficulties, age, and lack of education were more important in explaining symptoms of mental health than demographics/socioeconomics or life-style factors. Victimization and perpetration across all types of IPV were not associated with symptoms of mental health. Conclusion In our sample, victimization and perpetration were not important factors in explaining mental ill health, contrary to previous findings. More research into the relationship between women’s IPV victimization and perpetration and mental health is warranted as well as the influence of controlling behaviors on mental health. PMID:23071419

  16. [Reconstruction of a real car-pedestrian-accident. Part I: Generating an individual digital topographic image of the victim]. (United States)

    Wegendt, Kirsten; Keppler, Valentin; Johannes, Kruse; Wehner, Heinz-Dieter


    The aim of forensic biomechanics is the reconstruction of traumatic events based on the pathological findings in the victim's morphology, the accident traces and the car damages. The use of forensic documentation tools (e.g. Streifenlichttopometrie) enables 3-dimensional and proportional accurate documentation of the victim's body, of its injuries and of the car damages with submillimeter precision. The generated topographic image serves as input for a multi-body system model of the victim. It allows further to determine exactly the contact points between car and victim for a computer simulated dynamical reconstruction of the impact situation. In the case of an accident involving a car and a pedestrian the generation and application of computer aided 3-dimensional reconstruction models are shown.

  17. Revealing Victimization: The Impact of Methodological Features in the National Crime Victimization Survey. (United States)

    Owens, Jennifer Gatewood


    This study examines the impact of methodological features of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) on respondent willingness to report violent, serious violent, and property victimizations to the NCVS. Bounded and unbounded data from the 1999-2005 NCVS are used to create a longitudinal file of respondents, and survey-weighted logistic regression models are used to assess the factors associated with the reporting of victimization. Net of sociodemographic control variables, unbounded interviews produced higher estimates of serious violence (72%), violence (66%), and property victimization (67%). Mobile respondents reported higher estimates than nonmobile respondents of serious violence (48%), violence (35%), and property victimization (15%). Compared with in-person interviews, interviewing by telephone increased reporting for serious violence (7%), violence (12%), and property victimization (17%). This study highlights the importance of controlling for these factors in both longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses to estimate victimization risk.

  18. Sexual minority youth victimization and social support: the intersection of sexuality, gender, race, and victimization. (United States)

    Button, Deeanna M; O'Connell, Daniel J; Gealt, Roberta


    In comparison to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth are more likely to experience victimization. Multiple studies have connected anti-gay prejudice and anti-gay victimization to negative outcomes. Research shows that social support may protect sexual minorities from the harmful effects of anti-gay victimization. However, rates of victimization and the negative outcomes linked to sexual identity within the sexual minority community have been relatively unexplored. Using data from three years of statewide data from heterosexual and sexual minority adolescents in grades 9-12, this study examines victimization, substance use, suicidality, and access to social support by sexuality. Results indicate that sexual minority youth are at increased risk for victimization, substance use, suicidality, and social isolation compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Results also indicate that there is very little bivariate difference within the sexual minority community. Multivariate results indicate differences among sexual minorities' experiences with victimization and substance use.

  19. Stalking Victimization, Labeling, and Reporting: Findings From the NCVS Stalking Victimization Supplement. (United States)

    Ménard, Kim S; Cox, Amanda K


    Using the National Crime Victimization Survey 2006 Stalking Victimization Supplement (NCVS-SVS) and guided by Greenberg and Ruback's social influence model, this study examines the effects of individual (e.g., severity, sex, victim-offender relationship) and contextual (e.g., location) factors on stalking victimization risk, victim labeling and help seeking, and victim and third-party police contacts. Logistic regression results suggest individual and contextual characteristics matter. Consistent with prior research and the theoretical model, the positive effects of severity and sex (female) were significant across all dependent variables, whereas the interaction effect of victim-offender relationship and location held only for third-party police contacts. © The Author(s) 2015.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Jovanovic


    Full Text Available The aim of that paper is to examine the nature of the injury problem in relation to age and sex of the victims, to estimate the type and consequences of occupational injuries, particularly in terms of lost working days and to identify the way in which they occur. Male workers have a slightly higher injury rate than female workers. Leading causes of injuries over the examined ten years period were: being struck by flying or falling objects, collision and being compressed by mechanical or other objects and equipment. These injuries resulted in an average of 69.1± 10.9 lost workdays per injured worker. The sprains and lacerations were statistically significant and more frequently presented in female than in male workers. Ruptures of internal organs, fractures and ruptures and tears of joints and ligaments resulted in 100 or more lost workdays for each worker. The number of days off work rose proportionally to the age of the victims. Chemical industry presents one of the more hazardous industry. These results are important for the control and prevention of occupational injuries.

  1. High performance leadership in unusually challenging educational circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Hargreaves


    Full Text Available This paper draws on findings from the results of a study of leadership in high performing organizations in three sectors. Organizations were sampled and included on the basis of high performance in relation to no performance, past performance, performance among similar peers and performance in the face of limited resources or challenging circumstances. The paper concentrates on leadership in four schools that met the sample criteria.  It draws connections to explanations of the high performance ofEstoniaon the OECD PISA tests of educational achievement. The article argues that leadership in these four schools that performed above expectations comprised more than a set of competencies. Instead, leadership took the form of a narrative or quest that pursued an inspiring dream with relentless determination; took improvement pathways that were more innovative than comparable peers; built collaboration and community including with competing schools; and connected short-term success to long-term sustainability.

  2. Forensic evidence findings in prepubertal victims of sexual assault. (United States)

    Christian, C W; Lavelle, J M; De Jong, A R; Loiselle, J; Brenner, L; Joffe, M


    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends forensic evidence collection when sexual abuse has occurred within 72 hours, or when there is bleeding or acute injury. It is not known whether these recommendations are appropriate for prepubertal children, because few data exist regarding the utility of forensic evidence collection in cases of child sexual assault. This study describes the epidemiology of forensic evidence findings in prepubertal victims of sexual assault. The medical records of 273 children Criminalistics Laboratory were retrospectively reviewed for history, physical examination findings, forensic evidence collection, and forensic results. Some form of forensic evidence was identified in 24.9% of children, all of whom were examined within 44 hours of their assault. Over 90% of children with positive forensic evidence findings were seen within 24 hours of their assault. The majority of forensic evidence (64%) was found on clothing and linens, yet only 35% of children had clothing collected for analysis. After 24 hours, all evidence, with the exception of 1 pubic hair, was recovered from clothing or linens. No swabs taken from the child's body were positive for blood after 13 hours or sperm/semen after 9 hours. A minority of children (23%) had genital injuries. Genital injury and a history of ejaculation provided by the child were associated with an increased likelihood of identifying forensic evidence, but several children had forensic evidence found that was unanticipated by the child's history. The general guidelines for forensic evidence collection in cases of acute sexual assault are not well-suited for prepubertal victims. The decision to collect evidence is best made by the timing of the examination. Swabbing the child's body for evidence is unnecessary after 24 hours. Clothing and linens yield the majority of evidence and should be pursued vigorously for analysis.

  3. Wide Spectrum of Traumatic Rhabdomyolysis in Earthquake Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Atabak


    Full Text Available In the natural disasters such as earthquake, based on severity of trauma, time under the rubble and quality/quantity of hydratation we will confront with a spectrum of traumatic rhabdomyolysis. In present study we evaluate victims of Bam earthquake to show different stage of muscle trauma, from minor trauma with almost normal level of muscle enzyme to those with moderate trauma leading to crush injury and finally to advanced crush syndrome. Questionnaire consisted of clinical, biochemical and demographic items was designed and completed by our research team retrospectively. We divided the patients to crush and non-crush and also crush injury and crush syndrome, and then compared aforementioned items between them. Clinical and laboratory data of 2962 hospitalized victims, with an average age of 28.4(SD14.2 years (range 1-90 were collected (40% female. 611 patients were affected with crush injury (20%. These were entrapped 2.2 hours longer than the others (P<0.001. Mean IV intake in first 5 days was 3.6(SD2.6 liters for these patients in compare with 2.5(SD1.4 liters for others (P<0.001. 200 cases showed complete feature of crush syndrome. Electrolyte imbalance and systemic complications were drastically increased in the worst patients with crush syndrome. In approach to crushed patients of natural disasters by attention to the wide spectrum of muscle damage and systemic problems, the stepwise management protocol based on severity of traumatic rhabdomyolysis is inevitable and warranted.

  4. The happy victimizer phenomenon: Thinking or knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simunović Vojin


    Full Text Available The attribution of emotions to transgressors has received considerable attention of researchers since the end of the1980s. A common research finding in the Western countries (the USA, Germany, and Portugal is that children younger than 8 years attribute positive emotions to transgressors (which is called “the happy victimizer phenomenon”, HVP. On the other hand, a research study conducted in Belgrade, Serbia, did not find the HVP even among 5-year-old children. It was established that children from Belgrade focused more on the moral side of the transgression than on the instrumental side (i.e. the things that the transgressor achieved by the transgression. The goal of our research was to evaluate whether Serbian children actually reason in this way or simply repeat what they have learned. In order to verify this hypothesis, Piaget’s method of “a pair of stories” (instead of presenting the stories one by one was used in two studies. In the first study, the degree of injury inflicted to the other child was varied (as one aspect of the moral side of the transgression. In the second study, the type of intention (good or bad was varied (as another aspect of the moral side of the transgression. In both studies, the sample consisted of 40 children, with two age groups (5- and 7-year-old children that included 20 children each (10 boys and 10 girls. The conclusion of both studies was that subjects attributed negative emotions to transgressors in accordance with the moral instead of instrumental understanding of the transgression. These findings imply that children’s responses do not represent moral knowledge, but reflect authentic moral reasoning.

  5. Open globe injuries in patients seen at Groote Schuur Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aug 3, 2013 ... of injury and visual acuity outcomes after open globe injury in patients seen at GSH, with emphasis on its associations with assault and alcohol use as well as the relationship, if any, between victim and assailant. The findings were compared with those of other studies internationally. Methods. Data were ...

  6. Research and Theory Towards a National Injury Costing System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the actual cost associated with these injuries remains relatively unknown, the estimated direct cost of the medical treatment, rehabilitation and administration of these victims may run into billions of rands. This public–private injury costing pilot study (hereafter the study) was conducted at a tertiary public health facility in ...

  7. Long-term outcomes after upper limb arterial injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderSluis, CK; Kucey, DS; Brenneman, FD; Hunter, GA; Maggisano, R; tenDuis, HJ

    OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term outcomes in multisystem trauma victims who have arterial injuries to upper limbs. DESIGN: A retrospective case series. SETTING: Tertiary care regional trauma centre in a university hospital. PATIENTS: All consecutive severely injured patients (Injury Severity Score

  8. The pattern of paediatric burn injuries in Southwestern, Saudi Arabia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Burn injuries constitute a major concern in the paediatric age group with respect to morbidity and mortality particularly among children in developing countries. Burn injuries represent an extremely stressful experience for both the burn victims as well as their families. Objectives: To identify the pattern and ...

  9. Predictors of abdominal injuries in blunt trauma. (United States)

    Farrath, Samiris; Parreira, José Gustavo; Perlingeiro, Jacqueline A G; Solda, Silvia C; Assef, José Cesar


    To identify predictors of abdominal injuries in victims of blunt trauma. retrospective analysis of trauma protocols (collected prospectively) of adult victims of blunt trauma in a period of 15 months. Variables were compared between patients with abdominal injuries (AIS>0) detected by computed tomography or/and laparotomy (group I) and others (AIS=0, group II). Student's t, Fisher and qui-square tests were used for statistical analysis, considering p3) in head (18.5% vs. 7.9%), thorax (29.2% vs. 2.4%) and extremities (40.0% vs. 13.7%). The highest odds ratios for the diagnosis of abdominal injuries were associated flail chest (21.8) and pelvic fractures (21.0). Abdominal injuries were more frequently observed in patients with hemodynamic instability, changes in Glasgow coma scale and severe lesions to the head, chest and extremities.

  10. To Not Only Being Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Fantauzzi


    Full Text Available Hannah Arendt is against the idea that Jews were only the victims of history. Starting from the idea that the Age of Enlightenment and the Jewish emancipation put the Jewish tradition and history in crisis, she is adamant that this same history is not only full of suffering, but includes  a hidden tradition of activism that is important to uncover and to claim. The aim of these pages is to analyse the Arendtian thinking of the 30s and 40s in order to show some elements that can help us to understand what the loss of humanity means today and to indicate the possibilities of claiming and recovering it.


    Levinson, Jay; Domb, Abraham J


    Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) is a triangle, the components of which are secular law, religious law and custom and professional methods. In cases of single non-criminal deaths, identification often rests with a hospital or a medical authority. When dealing with criminal or mass death incidents, the law, in many jurisdictions, assigns identification to the coroner/medical examiner, who typically uses professional methods and only answers the religious requirements of the deceased's next-of-kin according to his personal judgment. This article discusses religious considerations regarding scientific methods and their limitations, as well as the ethical issues involved in the government coroner/medical examiner's becoming involved in clarifying and answering the next-of-kin's religious requirements.

  12. Injury data needs and opportunities in Europe. (United States)

    Kisser, Rupert; Latarjet, Jaques; Bauer, Robert; Rogmans, Wim


    Targeted injury prevention needs information, and the basis is data. The EU Council Recommendation on injury prevention of 2007 recommends that Member States make better use of the existing data, and that they implement additional injury surveillance, when appropriate, in order to obtain comparable information. In almost all Member States, some data on injuries are available: on deaths, hospital discharges, external causes of injuries, traffic accidents and workplace accidents. It is examined how far these data meet the information needs of key stakeholders in injury prevention. General information about the health burden of injury, based on mortality and hospital discharges, is available and sufficient for identifying injury as a priority for health policy. Health indicators like lost life years, rates of hospitalisation, estimated rates of disabilities or health care costs could be derived, but are not widely available yet. Information about external circumstances (causes) of injuries is indispensible for targeted prevention, but only 12 countries have a harmonised surveillance system on external causes in place (European Injury Database IDB 2009). It is recommended that the harmonised collection of data on fatalities, hospital discharges and external causes of injuries should become compulsory within the new European health information system. The provision of harmonised injury indicators should be promoted. The surveillance system on external causes (IDB) should be implemented in countries without such system. National injury data administrators ('clearing houses') should be established for the provision of comprehensive injury reports and for serving the needs of key stakeholders in injury prevention.

  13. The Role of Dentistry in Disaster Management and Victim Identification: An Overview of Challenges in Indo-Nepal Scenario. (United States)

    Dutta, Shubha Ranjan; Singh, Purnima; Passi, Deepak; Varghese, Don; Sharma, Sarang


    Recently, natural disasters and terrorist activities have been leading to mass casualty situations unexpectedly around the globe. In addition to the traditional emergency medical services centering around medically trained and paramedic personnel, dental practitioners having vital skills and attributes may be important in responding to a mass casualty situation. This paper aims at discussing the role of dentists in disaster management and the role of forensic odontology in the disaster victim identification (DVI), its status in India and some suggestions to develop the plans for same. Articles were searched in various medical databases such as Google Scholar, Pubmed Central, Sciencedirect,Wiley online Library, Scopus, Copernicus to gather all relevant information on the subject. Various keywords were used as search tool such as 'Mass disaster', 'Forensic odontology', 'Victim identification'. The search resulted in total of 170 articles which we reviewed. Due to limitation to the list of references we have constricted our review to only 39 articles for more informative literature and supported the topic of the present manuscript 'The Role of Dentistry in Disaster Management and Victim Identification: An Overview of Challenges in Indo-Nepal Scenario' more specifically. Every disaster is unique and involves interplay of different factors and circumstances such as nature of disaster, number of victims and extent of body fragmentation that ultimately challenges the disaster response planning. Apart from the victim recovery and evacuation, the disaster response planning must include the established procedures for the identification of the victims of the disaster. The identification of victims essentially relies on forensic anthropology, radiology, DNA typing and fingerprints, as well as odontology.

  14. Young traffic victims' long-term health-related quality of life : Child self-reports and parental reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturms, LM; van der Sluis, CK; Groothoff, JW; ten Duis, HJ; Eisma, WH

    Objectives: To describe the long-term health-related quality of life (HRQOL) reported by young traffic injury victims and to assess the child-parent agreement on the child's HRQOL. Design: Cohort study with a mean follow-up of 2.4 years. Setting: Traumatology department in a university hospital in

  15. When and Why We See Victims as Responsible: The Impact of Ideology on Attitudes Toward Victims. (United States)

    Niemi, Laura; Young, Liane


    Why do victims sometimes receive sympathy for their suffering and at other times scorn and blame? Here we show a powerful role for moral values in attitudes toward victims. We measured moral values associated with unconditionally prohibiting harm ("individualizing values") versus moral values associated with prohibiting behavior that destabilizes groups and relationships ("binding values": loyalty, obedience to authority, and purity). Increased endorsement of binding values predicted increased ratings of victims as contaminated (Studies 1-4); increased blame and responsibility attributed to victims, increased perceptions of victims' (versus perpetrators') behaviors as contributing to the outcome, and decreased focus on perpetrators (Studies 2-3). Patterns persisted controlling for politics, just world beliefs, and right-wing authoritarianism. Experimentally manipulating linguistic focus off of victims and onto perpetrators reduced victim blame. Both binding values and focus modulated victim blame through victim responsibility attributions. Findings indicate the important role of ideology in attitudes toward victims via effects on responsibility attribution. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  16. Crime victims in the criminal justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja M.


    Full Text Available Negative social reaction and inadequate reaction of the agencies of the formal control on the primary victimization is leading to the so called secondary victimization that can be a source of trauma and frustration as much as the primary victimization. Due to that, relation of the police and the judiciary towards the crime victims is of a great importance regarding victims’ willingness to report the victimization, their confidence in these agencies, and cooperation during clearing up the crime. In order to realize the victim’s position in the criminal justice system, this paper contains an overview of how the police, prosecutor’s office and courts are functioning. The paper is based on the interviews made with the representatives of these state agencies, as well as on the previous knowledge and realized surveys concerning this topic. The aim of the paper is to emphasize the position and the role of the victim support service in the system of the state intervention, based upon the obtained data, as well as to give some basic information on how victims could report the crime, what are their rights and duties, what can they expect from the competent agencies.

  17. What is past is prologue: A population-based case-control study of repeat victimization, premature mortality, and homicide. (United States)

    Pridemore, William Alex; Berg, Mark T


    We examined risk of male premature mortality associated with recent criminal victimization. Prior victimization is among the most consistent predictors of future risk but the explanation of repeat victimization remains elusive. Two general perspectives frame this debate. According to the state-dependence perspective, repeat victimization is forged through intervening processes connecting an initial with a subsequent violent victimization. According to the risk-heterogeneity perspective, this association is spurious because all victimization events for a person result from underlying individual traits. Research on health outcomes and premature mortality provides related, but often overlooked, conceptual assumptions about the co-occurring health burden of preventable injuries and disease. We extend and apply each of these perspectives in the current study to assess the nature and sources of repeat violent victimization. Data were from the Izhevsk (Russia) Family Study, a large-scale population-based case-control study. Cases (n = 1750) were all male deaths aged 25-54 living in Izhevsk between October 2003 and October 2005. Controls (n = 1750) were randomly selected from a city population register. Key independent variables were prior year prevalence of violent, property, and residential victimization. We used logistic regression to estimate mortality odds ratios. Results provided evidence for state dependence. We found that (i) after controlling for indicators of risk heterogeneity men who had been victims of violence (but not property or residential crime) within the past year were 2.6 times more likely than those who had not to die prematurely; and (ii) the only type of death for which risk was higher was homicide. Aggr. Behav. 43:176-189, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Incidence of dog bite injuries and clinical rabies in a tertiary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ratio of 4.8:1, lower limb/buttock injuries were significantly higher in children than adults, but the adults sustained significantly more severe (type III) injury. The majority of dog bite injuries were washed with soap and irrigated with water or saline and 87.7% of the victim of dog bite received postexposure anti-rabies vaccine.

  19. Prioritizing Child Pornography Notifications: Predicting Direct Victimization. (United States)

    Smid, Wineke; Schepers, Klaartje; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; van Linden, Sabine; Bartling, Sarah


    The growing number of notifications for child pornography (CP) possession constitutes a capacity problem for police forces entrusted with the investigation of these offenses. Notifications of CP offenses in which the investigation reveals concurrent direct victimization, in the form of contact offenses, grooming, online offending, or the production of CP material, form a potential target group for prioritization. The first of the twofold aims of this study was to validate the occurring distinction between mixed suspects (i.e., CP possession suspects who were also ever associated with direct victimization) and CP-only suspects (i.e., CP possession suspects who were never associated with direct victimization) to predict an outcome of the investigation including direct victimization. The second aim was to explore variables related to direct victimization among CP-only suspects. A total of 150 files of police investigations into notifications for CP offenses were studied. Findings confirmed significantly greater prevalence of direct victimization as an outcome of the investigation among mixed suspects than CP-only suspects (90% vs. 10%). Among CP-only suspects, direct victimization was predicted by (a) prior police contacts, charges, or convictions concerning noncontact sexual offending, (b) the confiscation of more than two computers during the house search, and (c) a more serious nature of the CP material that formed the basis for the notification in terms of younger victims and more extreme content. These variables may point to a small subgroup of heavily invested CP offenders who are at a higher risk to cross the line to direct victimization. Cross-validation of these preliminary findings is indicated. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. [Possibilities of videothoracoscopy for penetrating thoracic injuries]. (United States)

    Voskresenskij, O V; Radchenko, Yu A; Abakumov, M M


    It was analyzed the medical reports of 596 victims with thoracic injuries including 360 cases with following conventional therapeutic approach and 236 patients who underwent videothoracoscopy. We estimated condition severity in case of injuries of thoracic wall, lungs, pericardium and heart. Hemodynamic disorders were estimated according to Allgower-Burri shock index. Intrapleural bleeding was calculated using volume of hemothorax and time before injury and operation. Severity of physiological damages was determined using RTS criterion, anatomic--using ISS criterion. We estimated possibility for videothoracoscopy in patients with conventional therapeutic approach comparing severity of injuries, severity of condition in both groups and volume of surgery. Retrospective analysis revealed possibility of videothoracoscopy in 86.7% of victims with pulmonary injury, in 83.3% with bleeding at the muscular vessels of thoracic wall, in 40.3% with intercostal vessels injury, in 31.2% with heart injury, in 27.3% with damage of pericardium and in 18.8% with internal thoracic vessels injury. Our investigation revealed that videothoracoscopy may be used more widely in case of thoracic injury.

  1. [Legal aspects of sports injuries]. (United States)

    Allard, R H B


    Victims of sports injuries have to be advised about aspects of legal liablity, especially in case of luxation or avulsion of teeth, since there still may be dental consequences years later. The transference of information by the first-aid-dentist to the sportsman's own dentist should take place with care. If the patient has no family dentist, the first-aid-dentist should at least keep the sportsman free of pain, for example by starting endodontic treatment. Because sports injuries mostly occur beyond normal practice-hours, there may be reasons to deviate from the clinical guideline.

  2. Sexual murderers with adult or child victims: are they different? (United States)

    Spehr, Aranke; Hill, Andreas; Habermann, Niels; Briken, Peer; Berner, Wolfgang


    This study investigates characteristics differentiating sexually motivated murderers targeting child victims (CV; n = 35) from those with only adult victims (AV; n = 100). In the initial phase, psychiatric court reports were evaluated using standardized instruments (SCID-II, PCL-R, HCR-20, SVR-20, Static-99). In the second phase, data on duration of detention and reconviction rates were obtained from German federal criminal records. The CV group showed more often diagnostic criteria of pedophilia (43% vs. 4%) and less often alcohol abuse and drug dependency (31% vs. 55%), sexual dysfunctions (9% vs. 29%) and narcissistic personality disorder (0% vs. 13%). No significant differences were found regarding PCL-R and total risk assessment scores. Child victim perpetrators were more likely to have committed acts of sexual child abuse before the sexual homicide (46% vs. 16%) but were less likely to have committed rape or sexual assault (17% vs. 42%) or caused bodily injury (26% vs. 50%). The CV group was detained more frequently in forensic psychiatric hospitals (59% vs. 26%), but the two groups showed the same rates of release and reconviction for sexual (22% for both groups), nonsexual violent (CV 25% vs. AV 15%) and nonviolent offenses (CV 63% vs. AV 59%). Although well-known differences between nonhomicidal sexual child abusers and rapists were replicated in this study on sexual homicide perpetrators, the groups showed more similarities than differences. The high prevalence of violence and antisocial personality disorder in both groups seem to be important risk factors for committing a (sexual) homicide and might have outweighed other differences.

  3. Injury patterns of seniors in traffic accidents: A technical and medical analysis (United States)

    Brand, Stephan; Otte, Dietmar; Mueller, Christian Walter; Petri, Maximilian; Haas, Philipp; Stuebig, Timo; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl


    AIM: To investigate the actual injury situation of seniors in traffic accidents and to evaluate the different injury patterns. METHODS: Injury data, environmental circumstances and crash circumstances of accidents were collected shortly after the accident event at the scene. With these data, a technical and medical analysis was performed, including Injury Severity Score, Abbreviated Injury Scale and Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale. The method of data collection is named the German In-Depth Accident Study and can be seen as representative. RESULTS: A total of 4430 injured seniors in traffic accidents were evaluated. The incidence of sustaining severe injuries to extremities, head and maxillofacial region was significantly higher in the group of elderly people compared to a younger age (P accident-related injuries was higher in the group of seniors compared to other groups. CONCLUSION: Seniors are more likely to be involved in traffic injuries and to sustain serious to severe injuries compared to other groups. PMID:23173111

  4. A victim-centered approach to justice? Victim satisfaction effects on third-party punishments. (United States)

    Gromet, Dena M; Okimoto, Tyler G; Wenzel, Michael; Darley, John M


    Three studies investigated whether victims' satisfaction with a restorative justice process influenced third-party assignments of punishment. Participants evaluated criminal offenses and victims' reactions to an initial restorative justice conference, and were later asked to indicate their support for additional punishment of the offender. Across the three studies, we found that victim satisfaction (relative to dissatisfaction) attenuates people's desire to seek offender punishment, regardless of offense severity (Study 2) or conflicting reports from a third-party observer (Study 3). This relationship was explained by the informational value of victim satisfaction: Participants inferred that victims felt closure and that offenders experienced value reform, both of which elevated participants' satisfaction with the restorative justice outcome. The informational value communicated by victim satisfaction, and its criminal justice implications, are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Violence and Alcohol: A Study of Injury Presentations to Emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to estimate the extent of alcoholrelatedness in injury patients, with special reference to interpersonal violence. A cross-sectional hospital-based descriptive study was undertaken in Eldoret, Kenya, over a period of six months. Demographic and injury circumstances data were collected on ...

  6. Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths: Sleep Environment and Circumstances (United States)

    Schnitzer, Patricia G.; Covington, Theresa M.; Dykstra, Heather K.


    Objectives. We sought to describe the characteristics and sleep circumstances of infants who die suddenly and unexpectedly and to examine similarities and differences in risk factors among infants whose deaths are classified as resulting from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), suffocation, or undetermined causes. Methods. We used 2005 to 2008 data from 9 US states to assess 3136 sleep-related sudden unexpected infant deaths (SUIDs). Results. Only 25% of infants were sleeping in a crib or on their back when found; 70% were on a surface not intended for infant sleep (e.g., adult bed). Importantly, 64% of infants were sharing a sleep surface, and almost half of these infants were sleeping with an adult. Infants whose deaths were classified as suffocation or undetermined cause were significantly more likely than were infants whose deaths were classified as SIDS to be found on a surface not intended for infant sleep and to be sharing that sleep surface. Conclusions. We identified modifiable sleep environment risk factors in a large proportion of the SUIDs assessed in this study. Our results make an important contribution to the mounting evidence that sleep environment hazards contribute to SUIDs. PMID:22515860

  7. Expert Recommendations on Treating Psoriasis in Special Circumstances (Part II). (United States)

    Carrascosa, J M; Galán, M; de Lucas, R; Pérez-Ferriols, A; Ribera, M; Yanguas, I


    There is insufficient information on how best to treat moderate to severe psoriasis in difficult clinical circumstances. We considered 5 areas where there is conflicting or insufficient evidence: pediatric psoriasis, risk of infection in patients being treated with biologics, psoriasis in difficult locations, biologic drug survival, and impact of disease on quality of life. Following discussion of the issues by an expert panel of dermatologists specialized in the management of psoriasis, participants answered a questionnaire survey according to the Delphi method. Consensus was reached on 66 (70.9%) of the 93 items analyzed; the experts agreed with 49 statements and disagreed with 17. It was agreed that body mass index, metabolic comorbidities, and quality of life should be monitored in children with psoriasis. The experts also agreed that the most appropriate systemic treatment for this age group was methotrexate, while the most appropriate biologic treatment was etanercept. Although it was recognized that the available evidence was inconsistent and difficult to extrapolate, the panel agreed that biologic drug survival could be increased by flexible, individualized dosing regimens, continuous treatment, and combination therapies. Finally, consensus was reached on using the Dermatology Quality of Life Index to assess treatment effectiveness and aid decision-making in clinical practice. The structured opinion of experts guides decision-making regarding aspects of clinical practice for which there is incomplete or conflicting information. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. The Temporal Window of Multisensory Integration under Competing Circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Van der Burg


    Full Text Available Our brain tends to integrate information from different sensory modalities when presented within the so-called temporal window of integration. Whereas other studies investigated this window using a single audio-visual event, we examine the effect of competing spatio-temporal circumstances. Participants saw nineteen luminance-modulating discs while hearing an amplitude modulating tone. The luminance-modulation of each disc had a unique temporal phase (between −380 and 380 ms; steps of 40 ms, one of which was synchronized with the tone. Participants were instructed to identify which disc was synchronized with the tone. The waveforms of auditory and visual modulations were either both sinusoidal or square. Under sine-wave conditions, participants selected disks with phase offsets indistinguishable from guessing. In contrast, under square-wave conditions, participants selected the correct disc (phase = 0 ms with a high degree of accuracy. When errors did occur, they tended to decrease with temporal phase separation, yielding an integration window of ∼140ms. These results indicate reliable AV integration depends upon transient signals. Interestingly, spatial analysis of confusion density profiles indicate transient elements left and right of fixation are integrated more efficiently than elements above or below. This anisotropy suggests that the temporal window of AV integration is constrained by intra-hemsipheric competition.

  9. Cyber Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Sexual Minority College Students (United States)

    Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.


    This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…

  10. Mental health in violent crime victims: Does sexual orientation matter? (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J; McNiel, Dale E; Holley, Sarah R; Shumway, Martha; Boccellari, Alicia


    The present study investigates victim sexual orientation in a sample of 641 violent crime victims seeking emergency medical treatment at a public-sector hospital. Victim sexual orientation was examined as it: (a) varies by type of violent crime and demographic characteristics, (b) directly relates to psychological symptoms, and (c) moderates the relationship between victim and crime characteristics (i.e., victim gender, victim trauma history, and type of crime) and psychological symptoms (i.e., symptoms of acute stress, depression, panic, and general anxiety). Results showed that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) victims were more likely to be victims of sexual assault. Heterosexual victims were more likely to be victims of general assault and shootings. LGBT victims demonstrated significantly higher levels of acute stress and general anxiety. Moreover, victim sexual orientation moderated the association of type of crime with experience of panic symptoms. Also, victim sexual orientation moderated the relation of victim trauma history and general anxiety symptoms. Results are discussed in relation to victimization prevalence rates, sexual prejudice theory, and assessment and treatment of violent crime victims.

  11. Predictors and protective factors for adolescent Internet victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Schütt, Nina; Larsen, Helmer Bøving


    To examine the rate of Internet victimization in a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 14-17 and to analyze predictors and protective factors for victimization.......To examine the rate of Internet victimization in a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 14-17 and to analyze predictors and protective factors for victimization....

  12. The Dimensionality of Social Victimization: A Preliminary Investigation (United States)

    Blake, Jamilia J.; Kim, Eun Sook; Sohn McCormick, Anita L.; Hayes, DeMarquis


    The purpose of the current study was to examine the dimensionality of social victimization and to assess the relation between social victimization and classmate social support in a sample of 260 students. Confirmatory factor analyses yielded four dimensions of peer victimization: overt, verbal social, and nonverbal social victimization and peer…

  13. Injuries and Falls in an Aging Cohort with Spinal Cord Injury: SCI Aging Study. (United States)

    Saunders, Lee L; Krause, James S


    Limited research suggests that additional "subsequent" injuries occur frequently among persons with an existing spinal cord injury (SCI), which may result in further significant complications and added disability. The purpose of this study was to (a) report the 12-month incidence of injuries by age in an aging SCI cohort, (b) report the 12-month incidence of falls, (c) assess the impact of injuries on participation by age, and (d) assess the relationship of age with injuries and falls while controlling for potential confounding factors. Participants (N = 759) responded to questions about injuries and falls resulting in injury in the past year. Demographic and SCI characteristics, binge drinking, and prescription medication use were measured. A total of 19.2% reported 1 or more injuries in the past year, and 10.4% reported a fall resulting in an injury in the past year. Among those who sustained 1 or more injuries, 22.8% had at least 1 hospitalization for an injury within the past 12 months. Additionally, 47.6% were limited in their normal daily activities for a week or more due to injury. Prescription medication use was associated with injury in the past year and falls resulting in injury. Equal time between walking and wheelchair use as the primary mode of locomotion was also associated with falls in the past year. Future research should investigate circumstances surrounding subsequent injuries to aid in prevention efforts. Additionally, information is needed on whether subsequent injuries further contribute to physical disability.

  14. Back Injuries (United States)

    ... extending from your neck to your pelvis. Back injuries can result from sports injuries, work around the house or in the garden, ... back is the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include Sprains ...

  15. Electrical Injuries (United States)

    ... it can pass through your body and cause injuries. These electrical injuries can be external or internal. You may have one or both types. External injuries are skin burns. Internal injuries include damage to ...

  16. Testicular Injuries (United States)

    ... Sports 5 Ideas for Eco-Friendly Celebrations Testicular Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Testicular Injuries Print A A ... addressed as soon as possible. continue Serious Testicular Injuries Examples of serious testicular injury are testicular torsion ...

  17. The reported thoracic injuries in Homer's Iliad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolaki Mary


    Full Text Available Abstract Homer's Iliad is considered to be a prominent and representative work of the tradition of the ancient Greek epic poetry. In this poem Homer presents the battles which took place during the last year of the 10-year lasting Trojan War between Achaeans and Trojans. We wanted to examine the chest wounds, especially those which are described in detail, according to their localization, severity and mortality. Finally, there are reported 54 consecutive thoracic injuries in the Iliad. The mostly used weapons were the spear (63%, the stones (7.4%, the arrow (5.5% and the sword (5.5%. We divided the injuries according to their severity in mild (those which did not cause serious injury to the victim, medium (those which cause the victim to abandon the battlefield, and severe (those which cause death of the victim. According to this classification, the reported injuries were mild in 11.11%, medium in 18.52%, and severe in the last 70.37% of the reported cases. In other words, 89% of the injuries belong to the medium or severe category of thoracic injury. As far as the mortality of the injuries is concerned, 38 out of 54 thoracic injuries include death, which makes the mortality percentage reach 70.37%. Concerning the "allocation of the roles", the Achaean were in 68% perpetrators and the Trojans in only 32%. In terms of gravity, out of 38 mortal injuries 30 involve a Trojan (78.95% and the remaining 8 an Achaean (21.05%. The excellent and detailed description of the injuries by Homer, as well as of the symptoms, may reveal a man with knowledge of anatomy and medicine who cared for the injured warriors in the battlefield.

  18. The reported thoracic injuries in Homer's Iliad. (United States)

    Apostolakis, Efstratios; Apostolaki, Georgia; Apostolaki, Mary; Chorti, Maria


    Homer's Iliad is considered to be a prominent and representative work of the tradition of the ancient Greek epic poetry. In this poem Homer presents the battles which took place during the last year of the 10-year lasting Trojan War between Achaeans and Trojans. We wanted to examine the chest wounds, especially those which are described in detail, according to their localization, severity and mortality. Finally, there are reported 54 consecutive thoracic injuries in the Iliad. The mostly used weapons were the spear (63%), the stones (7.4%), the arrow (5.5%) and the sword (5.5%). We divided the injuries according to their severity in mild (those which did not cause serious injury to the victim), medium (those which cause the victim to abandon the battlefield), and severe (those which cause death of the victim). According to this classification, the reported injuries were mild in 11.11%, medium in 18.52%, and severe in the last 70.37% of the reported cases. In other words, 89% of the injuries belong to the medium or severe category of thoracic injury. As far as the mortality of the injuries is concerned, 38 out of 54 thoracic injuries include death, which makes the mortality percentage reach 70.37%. Concerning the "allocation of the roles", the Achaean were in 68% perpetrators and the Trojans in only 32%. In terms of gravity, out of 38 mortal injuries 30 involve a Trojan (78.95%) and the remaining 8 an Achaean (21.05%). The excellent and detailed description of the injuries by Homer, as well as of the symptoms, may reveal a man with knowledge of anatomy and medicine who cared for the injured warriors in the battlefield.

  19. Cervical spine injury in children: A case report and literature review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . But may be associated with significant disability and mortality. Pediatric victims of blunt trauma have mechanisms of injury, developmental and anatomic characteristics different than the adults. The purpose of this observation is to highlight ...

  20. Persistent versus periodic experiences of social victimization: predictors of adjustment. (United States)

    Rosen, Lisa H; Underwood, Marion K; Beron, Kurt J; Gentsch, Joanna K; Wharton, Michelle E; Rahdar, Ahrareh


    This study examined self-reports of social victimization and parent reports of adjustment for a sample followed from fourth through seventh grades. Different patterns of social victimization experiences were identified; of the 153 students (79 girls) with complete data, 24% reported chronic social victimization, 23% reported transient experiences of social victimization, and 53% reported being socially victimized at no more than one time point. We examined whether students who experienced persistent and periodic social victimization were at greater risk for internalizing problems than nonvictims. Persistently victimized children demonstrated continuously elevated levels of internalizing problems. Children who were not originally victimized by social aggression but became victimized with time did not demonstrate higher levels of internalizing problems than did nonvictims. Findings were mixed for those who escaped social victimization during this period.

  1. Fear of property crime: examining the effects of victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk. (United States)

    Cook, Carrie L; Fox, Kathleen A


    Fear of crime research has primarily focused on fear of crime in general or on fear of specific types of violent crimes. This study builds from this line of research by focusing exclusively on the night fear of six types of property crimes, including fear of burglary while away from home, vehicle theft, bicycle theft, property theft, vandalism, and vehicle burglary. This study examines the effects of victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk on fear of property crime. Survey data from college students reveal that victimization and vicarious victimization were not significant predictors of fear of property crime, whereas perceived risk was a consistent and significant predictor of fear of all property crimes.

  2. La victime, acteur de la sécurité ? / The victim, a security actor ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieu François


    Full Text Available What is the position of the victim in security policy? Only recently has the victim been the object, in France and elsewhere, of considerable attention by the social system, which has taken into account the different aspects of victimization. However, the victim is only partially associated to actions led in this domain, either as a source of data on the state of delinquency through public meetings and victimization surveys, or as an auxiliary to prevention with measure of community and situational prevention.Quelle est la place de la victime dans les politiques de sécurité ? Ce n’est que très récemment que la victime a fait l’objet, en France comma ailleurs, d’une attention plus soutenue de la part du système social, avec le développement d’une meilleure prise en charge des différents aspects de la victimisation. Pour autant, la victime n’est associée que très partiellement aux actions conduites en ce domaine, soit comme source de données sur l’état de la délinquance au moyen de réunions publiques et d’enquête de victimation, soit comme auxiliaire de la prévention avec les dispositifs de prévention communautaire et situationnelle.

  3. Drawings by Child Victims of Incest. (United States)

    Yates, Alayne; And Others


    Child victims of incest were judged to have more poorly developed impulse controls, a defensive structure which emphasizes repression, and were significantly more variable in the degree to which they expressed sexual features in the drawings. (Author/CL)

  4. Treatment of Child Victims of Incest. (United States)

    Boatman, Bonny; And Others


    Reviews three treatment methods (individual, group, and family therapy) used over a five-year period for child incest victims. Presents common themes, issues, and pitfalls that arose during therapy. Stresses potential benefits of psychotherapy to this population. (Author)

  5. Decreases in the Proportion of Bullying Victims in the Classroom: Effects on the Adjustment of Remaining Victims (United States)

    Garandeau, Claire F.; Lee, Ihno A.; Salmivalli, Christina


    Sharing a classroom environment with other victimized peers has been shown to mitigate the adverse effects of peer victimization on children's social and psychological adjustment. By extension, this study hypothesized that classroom reductions in the proportion of victims would be harmful for children who remain victimized. Data were collected at…

  6. Simulating Peer Support for Victims of Cyberbullying


    Van der Zwaan, J.M.; Dignum, M.V.; Jonker, C.M.


    This paper proposes a design for an Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) that empowers victims of cyberbullying by simulating peer support. The anti-cyberbullying buddy helps a child to cope with negative emotions due to a cyberbullying incident and it shows the child how to deal with future incidents of cyberbullying. The buddy interacts with the victim in three stages: first the child communicates her emotional state, next the buddy gathers information about the situation at hand, then the b...

  7. Psychodynamics and treatment of sexual assualt victims. (United States)

    Schuker, E


    This paper discusses (1) how my own interest in the treatment of sexual assualt victims developed and how I view the scope of this problem; (2) myths and facts about sexual assault; (3) common reactions of those who work with rape victims; (4) the rape trauma syndrome; (5) an approach to immediate and short-term treatment; and (6) the long-term effects of sexual assault and related treatment issues.

  8. Peer Victimization in British Columbia Youth


    Van Blyderveen, Sherry Lynn


    Peer victimization is an issue which has recently received considerable attention from the media, the school system, and academic literature. The present study examines a number of expected correlates, both risk factors and outcomes, of peer victimization through the use of the Adolescent Health Survey - II conducted by the McCreary Centre Society in the province of British Columbia. Approximately 25,800 youth, from grades 7 through 12, from various regions of the province completed the quest...

  9. Types of aggressive victims in bullying situations at secondary school


    Del Moral, Gonzalo; Suárez, Cristian; Villareal, Mª Elena; Musitu Ochoa, Gonzalo


    El artículo está en inglés y en castellano The distinction between subtypes of passive and aggressive victims in studies of bullying has been a cornerstone of research in recent decades. However, some aspects of victimization still need further elaboration, such as the differentiation of subtypes of aggressive victims of bullying, the dynamics of the process of victimization, and the perceptions that participants have of their victimized classmates. The objective of this qualitative resear...

  10. Angle grinder injuries: a cause of serious head and neck trauma. (United States)

    Wongprasartsuk, S; Love, R L; Cleland, H J


    Over the past 12 months, the Victorian Trauma Centre at the Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, has dealt with serious head and neck injuries associated with angle grinder use. Three cases are presented, documenting the circumstances and severity of these injuries and subsequent management. Angle grinder injuries are a source of serious morbidity and mortality, much of which is preventable.

  11. [The elderly as victims of violent crime]. (United States)

    Ahlf, E H


    Up to now, victimology has only dealt with partial aspects of the situation of the elderly as victims of violent crime. Nevertheless, the Police Crime Statistics enable us to make the following three basic statements: In general, old people are less likely to become victims of violent crime (than young people). The acts of violence committed against the elderly are mainly ones in which there was a relationship between offender and victim before the offense. Elderly women are disproportionately more often victims of purse snatching. The increasing social isolation of old people constitutes not only a specific form of victimization, it probably also increases their susceptibility to become victims. The theory that old people have "a particularly pronounced fear of crime" cannot be generally proven. This question must be considered from differing points of view and depends largely on the individual vulnerability of the old people. In Germany, there has hardly been any empirical study of violence towards the elderly in institutions and in family households (so-called domestic violence). It is believed that more violence takes place in both than in generally assumed.

  12. Schizophrenia—A Victim's Perspective (United States)

    Pushpa, K.


    This article is based on my own personal experience of having undergone “coma treatment” and being given approximately 37 coma injections between the period 1983–1993 despite the fact that I was not psychotic and was normal in every way. The experiences I had following the injections and the forcible administration of innumerable antipsychotics and drugs have shaped my perspective of what it is to be a victim of “iatrogenic” psychiatric treatment—iatrogenic because it induced symptoms of schizophrenia or at the least schizoidism in a normal person like me—an inability to think, feel, and reason, over time. I have also with my own eyes seen at least 7 or 8 women who look me (my clones) that has reinforced my belief that the injections split me. The British psychiatrist, Richard David Laing (Encyclopedia Britannica 2004 DVD [DVD]) also theorized that it is the division of the self that leads to the symptoms of schizophrenia such as splitting and fragmentation of the mind. PMID:18775845

  13. Schizophrenia--a victim's perspective. (United States)

    Pushpa, K


    This article is based on my own personal experience of having undergone "coma treatment" and being given approximately 37 coma injections between the period 1983-1993 despite the fact that I was not psychotic and was normal in every way. The experiences I had following the injections and the forcible administration of innumerable antipsychotics and drugs have shaped my perspective of what it is to be a victim of "iatrogenic" psychiatric treatment-iatrogenic because it induced symptoms of schizophrenia or at the least schizoidism in a normal person like me-an inability to think, feel, and reason, over time. I have also with my own eyes seen at least 7 or 8 women who look me (my clones) that has reinforced my belief that the injections split me. The British psychiatrist, Richard David Laing (Encyclopedia Britannica 2004 DVD [DVD]) also theorized that it is the division of the self that leads to the symptoms of schizophrenia such as splitting and fragmentation of the mind.

  14. Structure of road traffic injuries at residents of the industrial city


    Karpov Sergey Mihailovich; Ulyanchenko Maxim; Hodzhayan Anna; Apaguni Artur; Vishlova Irina; Dolgova Irina; Shevchenko Petr; Karpova Elena


    We analyzed the number of road traffic injuries in 10 years, residents of the city of Stavropol including road accidents and the number of resident population from 2010 to 2012. Mortality rates were estimated with the accident. It was found that the annual numerical increase in victims of road traffic accidents, which provided medical assistance for emergency medical care, is due to the injury of the adult population. Among the victims were most of those aged 16 to 50 years old, mostly male, ...

  15. Use of antenatal corticosteroids in special circumstances: a comprehensive review. (United States)

    Magann, Everett F; Haram, Kjell; Ounpraseuth, Songthip; Mortensen, Jan H; Spencer, Horace J; Morrison, John C


    The aim of this study was to determine, in pregnancies complicated by preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), hypertension, intrauterine growth restriction, multi-fetal gestations and pregnancies 23-26 weeks and ≥34 weeks' gestation, whether antenatal corticosteroids benefit the fetus. Literature review using PubMed, Web of Science, Clinical, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1990-2015). Search terms linked special circumstances with corticosteroids. Randomized clinical trials, retrospective and prospective cohort studies, and case control studies were reviewed. In all, 468 abstracts were identified and 84 added from selected article bibliographies; of these, 503 abstracts were excluded, leaving 49 articles as the basis of review. The literature supports corticosteroids for PPROM up to 32-34 weeks without chorioamnionitis. Antenatal corticosteroids are beneficial for preterm infants of women with HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets) syndrome/severe preeclampsia. Postpartum corticosteroid treatment of HELLP patients results in more rapid correction of liver enzymes, platelet counts, and urinary output, which can reduce maternal morbidity. Corticosteroids in twin pregnancies decrease respiratory distress syndrome but the effect is less than in singleton pregnancies. Corticosteroid effects on intrauterine growth restriction pregnancies are conflicting and steroid use should be individualized. Corticosteroid use for 23-26 weeks reduces neonatal mortality but not morbidity. In pregnancies of 34 weeks to 366/7  weeks, corticosteroids reduce respiratory distress syndrome, but follow-up studies are unavailable. No long-term adverse child developmental effects have been observed with one or two courses of corticosteroids, but three or more steroid courses lowers birthweight and organ weight, and there may be an increase in neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Longer follow up of corticosteroid-treated fetuses is required.

  16. Life circumstances of women entering sex work in Nagaland, India. (United States)

    Bowen, Kathryn J; Dzuvichu, Bernice; Rungsung, Rachel; Devine, Alexandra E; Hocking, Jane; Kermode, Michelle


    The study objective was to enhance understanding of female sex workers' lives in Nagaland, India (one of the country's highest HIV prevalence states), to inform the development of interventions to reduce HIV transmission and assist women who want to leave sex work. A cross-sectional survey (n = 220) and semi-structured interviews (n = 30) were conducted with sex workers. Topics included the following: life situation currently and at time of initial engagement in sex work, circumstances of first sex work occasion, and current patterns of sex work. Participants' lives at time of entry into sex work were socio-culturally and economically vulnerable as evidenced by the early age of sexual debut, low levels of education, unemployment, absence of protective male partners, and poor relationships with families. Participants experienced high levels of mobility, insecure accommodation, the need to financially support family, and the demand to give a portion of their income to others. The use of alcohol and other drugs, including heroin, was widespread. For these women, sex work can be seen as a pragmatic option for earning sufficient income to live. The women's lives would be improved by strategies to promote their health, ensure their safety, and protect their rights as long as they are engaging in sex work. This is likely to benefit not only the sex workers but also their children, their families, and the wider community. The development of alternative employment opportunities is vital to protect against entry into sex work and to support women who want to exit sex work.

  17. Circumstances and toxicology of sudden or unnatural deaths involving alprazolam. (United States)

    Darke, Shane; Torok, Michelle; Duflou, Johan


    There has been a great deal of clinical concern regarding alprazolam abuse. This paper reported on alprazolam positive cases of sudden or unnatural deaths presenting to the New South Wales Department of Forensic Medicine (DOFM), 1/1/1997-31/12/2012. Case series. 412 cases were identified. There was a large increase in the annual number of cases, from 3 in 1997 to 86 in 2012. By 2012, 4.5% of all DOFM case presentations involved alprazolam. The mean age was 41.3 years, and 66.5% were male. Circumstances of death were: accidental drug toxicity (57.0%), deliberate drug toxicity (10.4%), suicide by means other than drug overdose (12.6%), disease (10.0%), accident (5.1%), homicide (2.4%). The major factor driving the increase in cases was accidental drug toxicity involving alprazolam, rising from 0 in 1997 to 58 in 2012. A history of drug/alcohol problems was noted in 80.4%, and 56.6% were injecting drug users. The median alprazolam concentration was 0.08 mg/L (range 0.005-2.10mg/L), with 37.4% of cases having concentrations of ≥ 0.1 mg/L. In 94.9% of cases, drugs other than alprazolam and its metabolites were present, including all accidental overdoses. The most commonly detected drugs were opioids (64.6%), other benzodiazepines (44.4%) and alcohol (34.5%). A third (31.8%) of cases were HCV positive. Cases involving alprazolam increased markedly, driven mostly by toxicity deaths amongst people with known drug and alcohol problems. Caution in prescribing alprazolam would appear appropriate, particularly to those with known drug dependence. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Expert recommendations on treating psoriasis in special circumstances. (United States)

    Carrascosa, J M; Belinchón, I; de-la-Cueva, P; Izu, R; Luelmo, J; Ruiz-Villaverde, R


    A great amount of information on systemic and biologic therapies for moderate to severe psoriasis is now available. However, applying the evidence in numerous clinical scenarios has engendered debate; under these circumstances, the consensus of experts is useful. A scientific committee systematically reviewed the literature relevant to 5 clinical scenarios. An online Delphi survey of dermatologists with experience treating moderate to severe psoriasis was then carried out in order to shed light on questions that remained unresolved by the available evidence. Twenty-three dermatologists responded to the survey and consensus was reached on 37 (56%) of the 66 statements proposed. These results led to consensus on various clinical situations even though firm evidence was lacking. Thus, intermittent therapeutic regimens and strategies for reducing the intensity of treatment are considered appropriate for optimizing biologic treatment and reducing costs. The measurement of drug and antidrug antibody levels should be included routinely when following patients on biologics to treat psoriasis. Concomitant psoriatic arthritis or a history of cardiovascular conditions will influence the choice of biologic; in these situations, an agent with anti-tumor necrosis factor properties will be preferred. Tailored management is important when the patient is pregnant or intends to conceive; drug half-life and disease severity are important factors to take into consideration in these scenarios. A combination of systematic review of the literature and structured discussion of expert opinion facilitates decision-making in specific clinical scenarios. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  19. Crime victimization and the implications for individual health and wellbeing: A Sheffield case study. (United States)

    Tan, Su-Yin; Haining, Robert


    Public health and criminology have developed largely independently of one another at the research and policy levels so that the links between crime victimization and health status are not well understood. Although it is not difficult to support the idea of crime as a threat to the health of individuals and the wider community, the difficulty lies in quantifying the impact of crime on public health, while controlling other variables, including gender and ethnicity. We report the results of a study, the goals of which were to: develop an understanding conceptually of the relationships between different types of crime (violent and non-violent) and health; explore the impact of victimization on quality of life and physical and psychological wellbeing; investigate the role of social and demographic factors in shaping any relationships. The study is based on 840 responses from a postal survey administered to 4,100 households in Sheffield, England, located primarily in deprived areas where overall crime rates were high. Non-violent crimes were more frequently reported than violent crimes and in general, inner city neighbourhoods were associated with higher violent crime rates. Out of 392 victims of crime, 27% of individuals detailed physical injuries resulting directly from a crime event and 31% had taken some medical steps to treat a crime-related injury. 86% experienced at least one psychological or behavioural change, including stress, sleeping difficulties, loss of confidence, and depression. Logistic regression models estimated victimization risk based on various social and demographic variables. Violent crimes were consistently linked with higher odds of seeking medical treatment and a higher likelihood of experiencing psychological ill health effects or behavioural changes. In comparison, victims of non-violent or property crimes were not significantly associated with mental health or behavioural/lifestyle effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  20. Incendiari e vittime / Arsonists and Victims / Incendiaires et victimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Bisi


    Full Text Available Human beings need fire !Contrary to other living beings, mankind could not live without fire so it is quite astonishing to observe that most of the fires which burn on the earth are caused by man.Many fires spread all over the North Mediterranean area, from Portugal to Turkey, during the summer 2007.Human beings and fire: associated to the sacrifice of Titan Prometheus which was meant to be a sort of pattern to be followed by men to honour the gods.Fire is alive like water and air but it is difficult to capture it with the eyes: we can look at it for a long time before we discover that it never looks like itself.Fire has brought about important changes to human life, giving it much more security and comfort.However, the destructive power of fire is a real threat which not only takes many victims and results in wounded, intoxicated and homeless people but its force also wipes out and destroys places recognized as the heritage of mankind.Les hommes ont besoin du feu! Contrairement à tous les autres êtres vivants, les hommes ne pourraient pas vivre comme ils le font sans le feu; d'autre part, le fait que la plupart des feux qui brûlent sur la planète sont causés par l’homme, représente un aspect inquiétant.Pendant l’été 2007, beaucoup d’incendies ont frappé toute la zone du Nord de la Méditerranée, du Portugal à la Turquie. Hommes et feu : un binôme lié à la création du sacrifice du Titan Prométhée et qui aurait ainsi établi le modèle suivi par les hommes afin d'honorer les dieux.Le feu est vivant, comme l’eau et l'air, mais il est insaisissable au regard, c’est à dire que nous pouvons passer beaucoup de temps à le regarder mais il ne sera jamais égal à lui même. L’usage du feu a rendu la vie de l’homme plus sûre et plus confortable et il a modifié, au cours du temps, la face de la terre.Toutefois, la force déstructrice du feu représente une menace réelle qui fait des victimes, des blessés, des intoxiqu

  1. Co-occurrence of victimization from five subtypes of bullying: physical, verbal, social exclusion, spreading rumors, and cyber. (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J; Luk, Jeremy W; Nansel, Tonja R


    To examine co-occurrence of five subtypes of peer victimization. Data were obtained from a national sample of 7,475 US adolescents in grades 6 through 10 in the 2005/2006 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study. Latent class analyses (LCA) were conducted on victimization by physical, verbal, social exclusion, spreading rumors, and cyber bullying. Three latent classes were identified, including an all-types victims class (9.7% of males and 6.2% of females), a verbal/relational victims class (28.1% of males and 35.1% of females), and a nonvictim class (62.2% of males and 58.7% of females). Males were more likely to be all-type victims. There was a graded relationship between the three latent classes and level of depression, frequency of medically attended injuries, and medicine use, especially among females. Increased co-occurrence of victimization types put adolescents at greater risks for poorer physical and psychological outcomes.

  2. Frequency and circumstances of falls for people with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: A cross sectional survey. (United States)

    Ramdharry, Gita M; Reilly-O'Donnell, Louise; Grant, Robert; Reilly, Mary M


    People with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease may be at risk of falls due to distal muscle weakness and sensory impairment. We aimed to understand the frequency of falls in a cohort, where they occurred, injury and to what people attributed the possible cause. A cross-sectional survey design was used. It was sent by post to ascertain the frequency of falls and near falls, plus the circumstances of the last three falls events they could recall. The survey was administered to 252 people with CMT who were patients at a specialist neuromuscular centre. People were approached who had a clinical diagnosis by a neuromuscular specialist neurologist. Not applicable. The Falls Event Questionnaire. Responses were received from 107 people with CMT. Falls and near falls were reported by 86% of survey respondents. The majority of falls occurred at home, and muscular weakness appeared to be blamed the most, with participants describing tripping due to foot drop or joints giving way. A similar pattern was observed for near falls, but they tended to be more frequent. Moderate and major injuries were relatively rare, with the majority of falls resulting in scrapes and bruises or the faller feeling shaken by the experience. The impact of falls is far reaching, in terms of injury risk and the consequences of the fear of falling. Interventions to improve balance and reduce falls are an important rehabilitation focus for people with CMT. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Rock climbing rescues: causes, injuries, and trends in Boulder County, Colorado. (United States)

    Lack, Daniel A; Sheets, Alison L; Entin, Jacob M; Christenson, David C


    To describe rates and patterns of rock climbing rescue incidents, morbidity and mortality in Boulder County, CO. Rocky Mountain Rescue Group incident reports from 1998 to 2011 were reviewed to provide a 14-year statistical account of rock climbing incidents. Rock climbing rescues in Boulder accounted for 428 of a total of 2198 (19.5%) mountain and wilderness rescue victims. Most rock climbing victims were male (78%), and 46% of victims were between the ages of 20 and 29 years; most rock climbing incidents occurred on weekend days (median time of 3:30 pm) during the spring, summer, and autumn. Technical roped climbers accounted for 58% of climbing victims, whereas unroped climbers accounted for 34%. Belay incidents accounted for 12% of climbing victims, whereas rock fall incidents accounted for 4.5% of victims. Most victims were uninjured (43% stranded or lost), whereas lower extremity injuries were the most common injury (29.5% of injured victims). A total of 5.5% of climbing victims were fatally injured (23 victims: 5 from lead falls and 9 from unroped falls). The occurrence of rock climbing-related rescue victims comprised one fifth of all rescue victims in Boulder County. A large fraction of incidents and fatalities resulted from unroped climbing. Incidents of lost or uninjured stranded climbers and belay incidents account for more than half of victims, which can likely be prevented by gaining appropriate experience, seeking local information, and applying some simple safety measures for control of rope belays. Copyright © 2012 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bony injuries in homicide cases (1994-2014). A retrospective study. (United States)

    Flieger, Alexander; Kölzer, Sarah C; Plenzig, Stefanie; Heinbuch, Sara; Kettner, Mattias; Ramsthaler, Frank; Verhoff, Marcel A


    Even when human skeletal remains are found in contexts indicative of body disposal after homicide, none of the bones may manifest injuries. When skeletons are incomplete, there are two possibilities, the injured bones are missing or none were injured. This leads to the question how frequently bones are injured during homicide, where the injuries tend to be placed, and whether the frequency of injury is related to the type of homicide. To answer these questions, the postmortem reports from all autopsies performed for homicide victims at the Institute of Legal Medicine at the University Hospital in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, between 1994 and 2014, were retrospectively evaluated for bony injuries discovered during autopsy. In 90 cases, a preliminary postmortem computed tomography (pmCT) examination had been performed. The cases were categorized into the following five groups by type of fatal trauma: blunt force, sharp force, gunshot injury, strangulation, or other. In total, the postmortem reports for 897 homicides (527 male, 370 female) were evaluated. The number of victims per trauma category were sharp force, 309; blunt force, 179; gunshot injury, 242; strangulation, 92; and other, 75. Bony injuries had been reported in 70.9 % of the homicides. The "gunshot" category contained the highest proportion of victims with bony injuries (92.6 %). With 80.4 %, the second-highest proportion of victims with bony injuries was in the "blunt force" category, followed by 66.3 % of victims in the "sharp force" group. In contrast, with 53.3 %, the second-lowest proportion of victims with bony injuries was in the "strangulation" category, which contained a preponderance of female victims, followed by 17.3 % of victims with bony injuries in the "other" category. Bony injuries thus occurred in the majority of homicides. Forensic osteological analysis should, therefore, always be performed on badly decomposed human remains. Where necessary, the additional use of visualization

  5. [Rehabilitation outcomes of terror victims with multiple trauma: the experience in Hadassah University Hospital 2000-2004]. (United States)

    Meiner, Zeev; Tuchner, Maya; Shiri, Shimon; Tsenter, Jeanna; Shochina, Mara; Shoshan, Yigal; Katz-Leurer, Michal; Schwartz, Isabella


    From late September 2000 until 2005, the State of Israel was attacked by continuing acts of terrorism known as the Al Aqsa Intifada. During this period the number of terror victims treated in rehabilitation facilities has escalated significantly. The city of Jerusalem has a unique place in the heart of the Israel-Palestinian conflict and, therefore, almost 20% of national atrocities have been carried out in Jerusalem. Between September.2000 and September 2004, 72 terror victims were treated in the department of rehabilitation in Hadassah University Hospital. Among them, 47 (65%) suffered from multiple trauma without CNS involvment, 19 (26%) suffered from traumatic brain injury and 6 (8%) suffered from spinal cord injury. The rehabilitation outcomes of terror victims was compared to the rehabilitation outcomes of non-terror multiple trauma patients treated in the same rehabilitation facility over the same period. The rehabilitation outcomes were evaluted using the following parameters: length of hospitalization (LOH) in acute care departments, inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation departments, functional outcome (Functional Independence Measurement, FIM), occupational outcome (returning to previous occupation) and psychological outcome (Salomon PTSD questionnaire). The mean LOH of terror victims was 218 +/- 131 days as opposed to 152 +/- 114 days for the non-terror group (p terror victims as compared to controls (41.1 +/- 21.6 vs. 30.8 +/- 21.8, p = 0.002). The rate of PTSD was higher among terror victims than non-terror control (40.9% vs. 24.2%, p = 0.04). The rate of returning to previous occupation was similar between terror and non-terror victims (53% vs. 46.9% respectively). Long term study showed that terror victims still suffer from lower quality of life and life satisfaction 2 years after the insult. In summary, terror victims spent longer periods in rehabilitation and regained most of the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) functions similar to the non

  6. A source of healthcare disparity: Race, skin color, and injuries after rape among adolescents and young adults (United States)

    Baker, Rachel B.; Fargo, Jamison D.; Shambley-Ebron, Donna; Sommers, Marilyn S.


    Differences in anogenital injury resulting from rape may occur because of racial or skin color differences in adult women. It is critical to determine if these differences also are associated with differences in injury prevalence and frequency in adolescents and young adults. In a retrospective review of medical records, we examined whether Black adolescent/young adult females had different anogenital injuries as compared to White females following rape. Next, we examined whether skin color differences explained a significant amount of the racial difference in injuries. We reviewed charts of 234 female victims of rape ages 14 to 29. Overall injury prevalence was 62.8%. Race was significantly associated with frequency of injuries in several anatomical locations, with White victims having a higher frequency of injuries than Black victims. Skin color was significantly associated with injury frequency in many anatomical locations, with victims with light skin sustaining more injuries than victims with dark skin. Even when skin color was included in the relationship, race remained a statistically significant factor, suggesting that the relationship between race and injuries may be more complicated than merely a skin color difference that has been mislabeled a racial difference. PMID:21175535

  7. Discriminant factors for adolescent sexual offending: On the usefulness of considering both victim age and sibling incest. (United States)

    Joyal, Christian C; Carpentier, Julie; Martin, Caroline


    Understanding the pathways and circumstances of juvenile sexual offending is of utmost importance. However, juvenile sexual offenders (JSO) represent an especially diverse group of individuals, and several categorizations have been proposed to obtain more homogeneous subgroups. Victim age-based and family relation-based categorizations are particularly promising because they seem theoretically and clinically relevant. Empirical results however are still inconsistent, and most studies have not considered these two dimensions jointly. The first goal of this study was to further examine the value of subgrouping JSO according to the age of their victim. A second goal was to determine the supplementary value, if any, of considering sibling incest. Based on a sample of 351 male JSO, it was first confirmed that sexual abuse of children was more strongly related to asociality (social skill deficits) than sexual abuse of peers, the latter being more closely associated with antisociality (general delinquency). The relevance of considering mixed-type JSO (with both child and peer victims) separately was also confirmed. More importantly, multivariate statistical analyses demonstrated that adding sibling incest to the equation was useful. JSO of intra-familial child were significantly more likely to have been victimized during their own childhood compared to JSO with extra-familial victims. Nevertheless, adolescents who had committed sibling incest obtained middle ground results on most variables (except for crime severity), suggesting that they constitute a distinct but not extreme, subgroup. This study confirmed the utility of using both the age and the family relation with the victim in characterizing juvenile sexual offending. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization in female victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence in Maputo City, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares JJ


    Full Text Available Antonio Eugenio Zacarias,1,2 Gloria Macassa,3 Joaquim JF Soares,1 Leif Svanström,1 Diddy Antai1,41Karolinska Institutet, Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Eduardo Mondlane University, Faculty of Medicine, Maputo, Mozambique; 3University of Gävle, Department of Occupational and Health Sciences, Gävle, Sweden; 4Division of Global Health and Inequalities, The Angels Trust – Nigeria, Abuja, NigeriaBackground: Little knowledge exists in Mozambique and sub-Saharan Africa about the mental health (symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization of women victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV by type of abuse (psychological aggression, physical assault without/with injury, and sexual coercion. This study scrutinizes factors associated with mental health among women victims and perpetrators of IPV over the 12 months prior to the study.Methods and materials: Mental health data were analyzed with bivariate and multiple regression methods for 1442 women aged 15–49 years who contacted Forensic Services at Maputo Central Hospital (Maputo City, Mozambique for IPV victimization between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2008.Results: In bivariate analyses, victims and perpetrators of IPVs scored higher on symptoms of mental health than their unaffected counterparts. Multiple regressions revealed that controlling behaviors, mental health comorbidity, social support, smoking, childhood abuse, sleep difficulties, age, and lack of education were more important in explaining symptoms of mental health than demographics/socioeconomics or life-style factors. Victimization and perpetration across all types of IPV were not associated with symptoms of mental health.Conclusion: In our sample, victimization and perpetration were not important factors in explaining mental ill health, contrary to previous findings. More research into the relationship between women’s IPV victimization and perpetration

  9. Blame Attributions of Victims and Perpetrators: Effects of Victim Gender, Perpetrator Gender, and Relationship. (United States)

    Ayala, Erin E; Kotary, Brandy; Hetz, Maria


    Although research has been conducted on rape myth acceptance (RMA) and other factors associated with attribution formation, researchers have not yet determined how the combination of such factors simultaneously affects levels of victim blame and perpetrator blame. The current investigation recruited 221 students from an all-women's college to examine differences in blame attributions across RMA, victim gender, and perpetrator gender, and the relationship between the two parties (i.e., stranger vs. acquaintance). Results suggested that RMA, victim gender, and perpetrator gender account for a significant amount of variance in blame attributions for both victims and perpetrators. In sum, victim blame with female perpetrators was relatively consistent across levels of RMA, but increased substantially for male perpetrators as individuals endorsed higher levels of RMA. Perpetrator blame, however, was highest with male perpetrators when individuals endorsed low levels of RMA and lowest for male perpetrators when individuals endorsed relatively higher levels of RMA. Findings demonstrate the continued influence of RMA on blame attributions for both victims and perpetrators, and the stigma faced by male victims. More research is needed on the differing attributions of male and female victims and perpetrators, as well as differing attributions based on type of relationship. Such research will lead to a better and more thorough understanding of sexual assault and rape. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Determining Police Response to Domestic Violence Victims. The Role of Victim Preference. (United States)

    Buzawa, Eve S.; Austin, Thomas


    Reports on a study of 110 Detroit (Michigan) domestic assault cases to determine whether victim preference about arrest of the assailant had an impact on police behavior and the recurrence of violence. Finds that mandatory arrest policies reduces police discretion and ignores victim preference. (CFR)

  11. Bystander Involvement in Peer Victimization: The Value of Looking beyond Aggressors and Victims (United States)

    Wiens, Brenda A.; Dempsey, Allison


    Peer victimization has been a focus of both research and prevention program development. This construct is typically measured from the victim and aggressor perspectives. However, prevention programming often includes an additional bystander perspective. The present study evaluated whether questions regarding witnessing peer victimization…

  12. Help-Seeking in a National Sample of Victimized Latino Women: The Influence of Victimization Types (United States)

    Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Schally, Jennifer L.


    The current study aimed to examine formal and informal help-seeking responses to interpersonal victimization among a national sample of Latino women. In addition, an examination of help-seeking by victimization type was undertaken. Data came from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas (SALAS) study that obtained help-seeking rates among a victimized…

  13. Circumstances surrounding dying in the paediatric intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plötz Frans B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Death is inevitable in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU. We aimed to describe the circumstances surrounding dying in a PICU. Method The chart records of all patients less than 18 years of age who died at the PICU between January first 2000 and July first 2005 were retrospectively analyzed. Information regarding sex, age, length of stay, admission, diagnosis, and the way a patient died was registered. Post mortem information regarding natural versus unnatural death, autopsy and donation was obtained. Non-survivors were allocated in five groups: do-not-resuscitate (DNR, withholding and/or withdrawal of therapy (W/W, failed cardiopulmonary resuscitation (failed CPR, brain death (BD, and terminal organ failure (TOF. Results During the study period 87 (4.4% of the 1995 admitted patients died. Non-survivors were more often admitted during the day (54% and the week (68%. W/W was found in 27.6%, TOF in 26.4%, BD in 23.0%, failed CPR in 18.4%, and DNR in 4.6%. Forty-three percent died in the first two days, of which BD (40.5% and failed CPR (37.8% were most common. Seventy-five children (86% died due to a natural cause. Autopsy permission was obtained in 19 of 54 patients (35%. The autopsies confirmed the clinical diagnosis in 11 patients, revealed new information in 5 patients, and in 3 patients the autopsy did not provide additional information. Nine patients were medically suitable for organ donation and 24 patients for tissue donation, whereas consent was only obtained in 2 cases in both groups. Conclusion We observed that 43% of the patients died within the first two days of admission due to BD and failed CPR, whereas after 4 days most patients died after W/W. Autopsy remains an useful tool to confirm clinical diagnoses or to provide new information. Only a small percentage of the deceased children is suitable for organ donation.

  14. Victimization experiences of adolescents in Malaysia. (United States)

    Choo, Wan-Yuen; Dunne, Michael P; Marret, Mary J; Fleming, Marylou; Wong, Yut-Lin


    There has been little community-based research regarding multiple-type victimization experiences of young people in Asia, and none in Malaysia. This study aimed to estimate prevalence, explore gender differences, as well as describe typical perpetrators and family and social risk factors among Malaysian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey of 1,870 students was conducted in 20 randomly selected secondary schools in Selangor state (mean age: 16 years; 58.8% female). The questionnaire included items on individual, family, and social background and different types of victimization experiences in childhood. Emotional and physical types of victimization were most common. A significant proportion of adolescents (22.1%) were exposed to more than one type, with 3% reporting all four types. Compared with females, males reported more physical, emotional, and sexual victimization. The excess of sexual victimization among boys was due to higher exposure to noncontact events, whereas prevalence of forced intercourse was equal for both genders (3.0%). Although adult male perpetrators predominate, female adults and peers of both genders also contribute substantially. Low quality of parent-child relationships and poor school and neighborhood environments had the strongest associations with victimization. Family structure (parental divorce, presence of step-parent or single parent, or household size), parental drug use, and rural/urban location were not influential in this sample. This study extends the analysis of multiple-type victimization to a Malaysian population. Although some personal, familial, and social factors correlate with those found in western nations, there are cross-cultural differences, especially with regard to the nature of sexual violence based on gender and the influence of family structure. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Victims’ relation towards the offence and victim-offender mediation

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    Hrnčić Jasna


    Full Text Available The paper analyse relation of victims toward the offence and their readiness for victim-offender mediation (VOM. Aims were analysis of feelings, behaviours and needs of victims regarding the offence, as well as and analysis of readiness of victims for VOM. 17 mediators assessed 41 victims and 42 offenders, participants of 41 VOM by Assessment Visit Check List (Quill, Wynne, 1993. Victims showed strong feelings of bitterness, anger and grievance more frequently than offenders, while offenders showed feeling of guilt more frequently than victims. Victims had higher defensive attitude and self-confidence then offenders. Almost all victims and offenders needed reparation and agreement with the other party. Most of them wanted to know more about the other party in conflict and were opened to contacts with him. The results were discussed in relation to current knowledge. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47011: Kriminal u Srbiji: fenomenologija, rizici i mogućnosti socijalne intervencije

  16. Teachers' victimization-related beliefs and strategies: associations with students' aggressive behavior and peer victimization. (United States)

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Ladd, Gary W


    Although teachers are often called upon to reduce children's bullying and aggression, little is known regarding teachers' responses to students' harassment of peers or the beliefs which may inform their response strategies. To address this limitation, data were collected from 170 6th- and 7th-grade teachers (33 men; 137 women) and 2,938 (1,413 girls; 1,525 boys) of their students. Teachers beliefs regarding peer victimization were predictive of their efforts to advice victims how to cope with peer harassment. In particular, teachers who held more normative views of peer victimization were less likely to report reprimanding aggressive students and were more likely to utilize passive response strategies. Specific links emerged between teachers' beliefs and strategies and classroom-levels of aggression and peer victimization in the fall and in the spring, as well as changes in students' aggressive behavior and victimization over the course of the school year. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  17. Childhood Victimization, Attachment, Coping, and Substance Use Among Victimized Women on Probation and Parole. (United States)

    Dishon-Brown, Amanda; Golder, Seana; Renn, Tanya; Winham, Katherine; Higgins, George E; Logan, T K


    Justice-involved women report high rates of victimization across their life span, and these experiences contribute to their involvement in the criminal justice (CJ) system. Within this population, research has identified an overlap among victimization and substance use, a high-risk coping mechanism. Furthermore, research indicates attachment style is related to coping and high-risk behaviors. Research is needed to understand the relationship among these mechanisms as they relate to intimate partner violence (IPV). To address this gap, this study investigated the relationship between attachment, coping, childhood victimization, substance use, and IPV among 406 victimized women on probation/parole. Results of 6 multivariate regression analyses were statistically significant, accounting for 8%-13% of the variance in IPV. Particularly, childhood sexual victimization and negative coping were significant in all analyses. Findings provide practitioners, administrators, and policymakers information about the specific needs of justice-involved women.

  18. Child sexual abuse and psychological impairment in victims: results of an online study initiated by victims. (United States)

    Schaefer, Gerard A; Mundt, Ingrid A; Ahlers, Christoph J; Bahls, Christian


    Sexual abuse of children has been a topic of scientific investigation for the past few decades. Research in this area, however, is rarely initiated, conceptualized, and conducted by victims themselves. Apart from possibly having painted a one-sided picture of sexual abuse, this presumed dominance of nonvictims might also have marginalized victims in a research area central to their lives. This study was conducted by a victims interest group as an effort to meet the need to add victims' perspectives to our current understanding of this topic. The online survey focused on investigating victims' psychosocial impairment, which was found to be extensive. Results indicated that an intact social support system facilitates better health, especially when offered early on.

  19. Child injury surveillance capabilities in NSW: informing policy and practice

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    Rebecca Mitchell


    Full Text Available Injury is one of the most common reasons why a child is hospitalised. Information gained from injury surveillance activities provides an estimate of the injury burden, describes injury event circumstances, can be used to monitor injury trends over time, and is used to design and evaluate injury prevention activities. This perspective article provides an overview of child injury surveillance capabilities within New South Wales (NSW, Australia, following a stocktake of population-based injury-related data collections using the Evaluation Framework for Injury Surveillance Systems. Information about childhood injury in NSW is obtained from multiple administrative data collections that were not specifically designed to conduct injury surveillance. Obtaining good information for child injury surveillance in NSW will involve better coordination of information from agencies that record information about childhood injury. Regular reporting about childhood injury to provide a comprehensive profile of injuries of children and young people in the state should be considered, along with the provision and/or linkage of child injury information from multiple data collections. This could support the development of a suite of injury performance indicators to monitor childhood injury reduction strategies across NSW.

  20. Psychosocial profile of bullies, victims, and bully-victims: A cross-sectional study

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    Marie eLeiner


    Full Text Available While adverse conditions in a child’s life do not excuse inappropriate behavior, they may cause emotional and behavioral problems that require treatment as a preventive measure to reduce the likelihood of bullying. We aimed to identify differences in the psychosocial profiles of adolescents who classified themselves as bullies, victims, or bully-victims. We performed a cross-sectional study in which data were collected between January 2009 and January 2010 from seven university-based clinics in a large metropolitan area with a predominantly Mexican-American population. We collected data on physical aggression among adolescents who self-categorized into the following groups: uninvolved, bullies, victims, and bully-victims. We determined the psychosocial profiles of the adolescents based on responses to the Youth Self Report (YSR and parent’s responses to the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. A one-way analysis of variance and multivariate regression analyses were performed to compare the various components of the psychosocial profiles among the groups. Our analysis of the CBCL and the YSR assessments identified differences between the uninvolved group and one or more of the other groups. No significant differences were observed among the bully, victim, and bully-victim groups based on the CBCL. We did find significant differences among those groups based on the YSR, however. Our results suggest that emotional and behavioral problems exist among bullies, victims, and bully-victims. Therefore, treatment should not focus only on the victims of bullying; treatment is equally important for the other groups (bullies and bully-victims. Failure to adequately treat the underlying problems experienced by all three groups of individuals could allow the problems of bullying to continue.

  1. [Clinical characteristics of pediatric victims in the Lushan and Wenchuan earthquakes and experience of medical rescue]. (United States)

    Jiang, Xin; Xiang, Bo; Liu, Li-Jun; Liu, Min; Tang, Xue-Yang; Huang, Lu-Gang; Li, Yuan; Peng, Ming-Xing; Xin, Wen-Qiong


    To get a more comprehensive understanding of the clinical characteristics of pediatric victims in earthquake and to summarize the experience of medical rescue. The clinical information was collected from the pediatric victims who were admitted to West China Hospital, Sichuan University following the Lushan earthquake in 2013 and Wenchuan earthquake in 2008. The clinical data were compared between the pediatric victims in the two earthquakes. Thirty-four children under 14 years of age, who were injured in the Lushan earthquake, were admitted to the West China Hospital before April 30, 2013. Compared with the data in the Wenchuan earthquake, the mean age of the pediatric victims in the Lushan earthquake was significantly lower (Pearthquake to hospitalization was significantly shorter (Pearthquake, 67.6% of the injured children had variable limb fractures; traumatic brain injury was found in 29.4% of hospitalized children, versus 9.5% in the Wenchuan earthquake (Pearthquake than in the Wenchuan earthquake. But these cases recovered well, which was possibly due to timely on-site rescue and transfer and multi-sector, multi-institution, and multidisciplinary cooperation.

  2. Evaluation of the polytrauma victim by the nursing staff in an emergency service of Santa Catarina

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    Leandro Sanceverino Mattos


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the actions developed by the nursing staff of a private hospital emergency service in the southern Santa Catarina (SC, related to primary and secondary evaluation of polytrauma victims. Methods: Research of a qualitative approach, the type of case study, performed with twelve nurses. Sample has been characterized as non-probabilistic intentional. Data collection has been performed using the techniques of semi-structured interview and participant observation. Data analysis has been developed using the technique of content analysis. Results: Analysis of nurses’ testimonies and the results of observation have showed that most participants comprehend the importance of adopting the ABCDE rule in primary evaluation - A (Air Way - airway permeability with safe administration of cervical collar; B (Breathing; C (Circulation - search for bleeding and control; D (Disability - neurological evaluation; e E (Exposure - patient’s body exposition seeking missed injuries - and the need of meticulous secondary evaluation of polytrauma victim. However, due to demand of urgency and agility in emergencies of this nature, the rule is not followed in a systematic way. Conclusion: It has been demonstrated the nursing staff’s concern over the following aspects: agility of service; immediate performance of examinations; communication between emergency service professionals; adequate perception of the general condition of the victim; and the reception to victim and family.

  3. Influence of social circumstance and day care surgery in children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In order to achieve good results in day surgery and avoid pitfalls, selection of appropriate procedures and patients is required with attention given to the social circumstances among other considerations. The aim of this prospective study therefore was to evaluate the influence of the social circumstances of the ...

  4. 31 CFR 363.126 - Under what circumstances will payment be made? (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Under what circumstances will payment be made? 363.126 Section 363.126 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... Payment § 363.126 Under what circumstances will payment be made? We will make payment: (a) Upon your...

  5. 12 CFR 792.16 - What unusual circumstances can delay NCUA's response? (United States)


    ... FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT AND PRIVACY ACT, AND BY SUBPOENA; SECURITY PROCEDURES FOR CLASSIFIED INFORMATION The Freedom of Information Act Records Available Upon Request § 792.16 What unusual circumstances can delay NCUA's response? (a) In unusual circumstances, the time limits for responding to your...

  6. 19 CFR 122.184 - Change of identification; change in circumstances of employee; additional employer responsibilities. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change of identification; change in circumstances of employee; additional employer responsibilities. 122.184 Section 122.184 Customs Duties U.S... REGULATIONS Access to Customs Security Areas § 122.184 Change of identification; change in circumstances of...

  7. 76 FR 27634 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Final Results of Countervailing Duty Changed Circumstances Review and... (United States)


    ....J. Heinz Company (``Heinz'') to initiate a no-interest changed circumstances review and revocation... (July 24, 1996). \\4\\ See Letter from Heinz to the Department, Request to Initiate a No-Interest Changed Circumstances Review and Revocation, in Part, with Respect to Gluten-Free Pasta (July 29, 2010) (``Heinz Letter...

  8. 5 CFR 591.234 - Under what circumstances may people recruited locally receive a post differential? (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Under what circumstances may people... Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Post Differentials § 591.234 Under what circumstances may people... in the post differential area for travel or formal study at the time they are hired and have...

  9. Violent victimization among state prison inmates. (United States)

    Wooldredge, John; Steiner, Benjamin


    Violent victimization in prison may enhance inmates' cynicism toward legal authority and the risk of subsequent criminality. Both micro- and macro-level effects on the prevalence and incidence of inmate-on-inmate physical assault during a 6-month period were examined for random samples of inmates (n1 = 5,640) from all state prisons in Ohio and Kentucky (n2 = 46). Findings revealed that nonprovoked assaults were more common among inmates with lifestyles that might have increased their vulnerability to victimization (less time spent in structured activities, committed violent acts themselves, etc.), and in prisons with larger populations and officers who practice lax rule enforcement. A supplementary analysis of violent offending also revealed that inmate offenders and victims may look less like each other compared to offenders and victims in the general population. Policies focused on increasing inmates' involvement in structured prison activities, enhancing professionalism among officers, and lowering prison populations may be most effective for minimizing the risk of violent victimization.

  10. Nonlinear relationship between income, age and criminal victimization in Brazil

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    E. Sant’Anna


    Full Text Available This study was mainly intended to investigate the effects of the income and age of individuals on their risk of becoming victims of physical assault, theft, robbery and attempted theft or robbery. Specifically, we were looking for evidence for a nonlinear relationship between these variables and victimization risk. Data from a national victimization survey were used to estimate victimization probability models. We found that, except for robbery and physical assault, the relationship between personal income and victimization risk has an inverted-U shape. We also found an inverted U-shape relationship between the age of individuals and victimization risk for the four types of crimes analyzed.

  11. Developing support service for victims of hate crime

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    Dunn Peter


    Full Text Available This article describes the nature and development of Victim Support’s services to victims of hate crime in England and Wales. It provides definitions of hate crime, information about its extent, and considers why services for victims of some forms of hate crime have developed faster than others. It concludes with a summary of points made during a discussion at the 2004 European Forum for Victim Services conference about whether or not services to victims of hate crime should be provided by mainstream victim services or specialist agencies.

  12. [Regional spatial patterns of water circumstances in loess plateau area based GIS]. (United States)

    Hu, Liangjun; Shao, Ming'an


    Based on the integration of GIS and geo-synthesis analysis, the water circumstances for plant growth in the Shaanxi Loess Plateau area were studied and a map reflecting regional water circumstances at the scale of 1:500,000 was made. The results showed that the water circumstances for plant growth in the Loess Plateau area were affected by the integration of precipitation soil texture, loess deposition, geomorphology and coverage, and could be measured by sub-indicators from the mentioned aspects. The index from the view point of plant development was used for the water circumstance assessment. The water circumstances of the Loess Plateau including forest zone, shrub zone and grassland zone appeared a complex spatial mosaic structure, and the main of the plateau was suitable for forestry which meant the plateau had an expected potential for eco-restoration.

  13. Firefighter burn injuries: predictable patterns influenced by turnout gear. (United States)

    Kahn, Steven A; Patel, Jignesh H; Lentz, Christopher W; Bell, Derek E


    Approximately 100 firefighters suffer fatal injuries annually and tens of thousands receive nonfatal injuries. Many of these injuries require medical attention and restricted activity but may be preventable. This study was designed to elucidate etiology, circumstances, and patterns of firefighter burn injury so that further prevention strategies can be designed. In particular, modification of protective equipment, or turnout gear, is one potential strategy to prevent burn injury. An Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective review was conducted with records of firefighters treated for burn injury from 2005 to 2009. Data collected included age, gender, TBSA, burn depth, anatomic location, total hospital days per patient, etiology, and circumstances of injury. Circumstances of injury were stratified into the following categories: removal/dislodging of equipment, failure of equipment to protect, training errors, and when excessive external temperatures caused patient sweat to boil under the gear. Over the 4-year period, 20 firefighters were treated for burn injury. Mean age was 38.9 ± 8.9 years and 19 of 20 patients were male. Mean burn size was 1.1 ± 2.7% TBSA. Eighteen patients suffered second-degree burns, while two patients suffered first-degree burns. Mean length of hospitalization was 2.45 days. Scald burns were responsible for injury to 13 firefighters (65%). Flame burns caused injury to four patients (20%). Only three patients received contact burns (15%). The face was the site most commonly burned, representing 29% of injuries. The hand/wrist and ears were the next largest groups, with 23 and 16% of the injuries, respectively. Other areas burned included the neck (10%), arm (6.5%), leg (6.5%), knees (3%), shoulders (3%), and head (3%). Finally, the circumstance of injury was evaluated for each patient. Misuse and noncontiguous areas of protective equipment accounted for 14 of the 20 injuries (70%). These burns were caused when hot steam

  14. Road traffic crash circumstances and consequences among young unlicensed drivers: A Swedish cohort study on socioeconomic disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laflamme Lucie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young car drivers run a higher risk of road traffic crash and injury not only because of their lack of experience but also because of their young age and their greater propensity for adopting unsafe driving practices. Also, low family socioeconomic position increases the risk of crash and of severe crash in particular. Whether this holds true for young unlicensed drivers as well is not known. Increasing attention is being drawn to the prevalence and practice of unlicensed driving among young people as an important contributor to road traffic fatalities. Methods This is a population-based cohort study linking Swedish national register data for a cohort of 1 616 621 individuals born between 1977 and 1991. Crash circumstances for first-time road traffic crash (RTC were compared considering licensed and unlicensed drivers. The socioeconomic distribution of injury was assessed considering household socioeconomic position, social welfare benefits, and level of urbanicity of the living area. The main outcome measure is relative risk of RTC. Results RTCs involving unlicensed drivers were over-represented among male drivers, suspected impaired drivers, severe injuries, crashes occurring in higher speed limit areas, and in fair road conditions. Unlicensed drivers from families in a lower socioeconomic position showed increased relative risks for RTC in the range of 1.75 to 3.25. Those living in rural areas had an increased relative risk for a severe RTC of 3.29 (95% CI 2.47 - 4.39 compared to those living in metropolitan areas. Conclusions At the time of the crash, young unlicensed drivers display more risky driving practices than their licensed counterparts. Just as licensed drivers, unlicensed young people from low socioeconomic positions are over-represented in the most severe injury crashes. Whether the mechanisms lying behind those similarities compare between these groups remains to be determined.

  15. Current Approaches to the Treatment of Head Injury in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Fen Hu


    Full Text Available Head trauma is one of the most challenging fields of traumatology and demands immediate attention and intervention by first-line clinicians. Symptoms can vary from victim to victim and according to the victim's age, leading to difficulties in making timely and accurate decisions at the point of care. In children, falls, accidents while playing, sports injuries, and abuse are the major causes of head trauma. Traffic accidents are the main cause of disability and death in adolescents and adults. Injury sites include facial bones, muscles, ligaments, vessels, joints, nerves, and focal or whole-brain injuries. Of particular importance are cranial and intracranial injuries. A closed injury occurs when the head suddenly and violently hits an object but the object does not break through the skull. A penetrating injury occurs when an object pierces the skull and affects the brain tissue. Early diagnosis and proper management are crucial to treat patients with potentially life-threatening head and neck trauma. In this review, we discuss the different cases of traumatic brain injury and summarize the current therapies and neuroprotective strategies as well as the related outcomes for children with traumatic brain injury.

  16. [The outcomes of different surgical procedures for thoracic injuries]. (United States)

    Voskresenskiy, O V; Abakumov, M M


    To assess the outcomes of video-assisted techniques compared with conventional procedures. 596 victims with thoracic injuries were enrolled. Video-assisted techniques were applied in 236 cases, conventional procedures - 360 patients. Groups were standardized by the type of surgery. Morbidity, hospital-stay and mortality according to Clavien-Dindo classification have been analyzed. There was similar incidence of complications in both groups. However, severe adverse events followed by redo surgery under general anesthesia occurred in 1.2% and 7.1% of cases respectively (p0.05). In victims with thoracic injuries and no need for urgent thoracotomy video-assisted techniques are preferable for diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Transforming Care for Victims of Violence. (United States)

    Boatright, Anne C


    In this month's Magnet® Perspectives column, Anne Boatright, MSN, RN, SANE, describes her efforts to develop a comprehensive forensic nursing program at Methodist Hospital in Omaha. Ms Boatright transformed a sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) program into one that provides 24/7 coverage at Methodist's 2 SANE locations and cares not only for victims of sexual assault but also for the victims domestic violence, sex trafficking, strangulation, elder abuse, and neglect. Her work extends beyond the walls of Methodist to the community, where she serves as a core member of the Nebraska Human Trafficking Task Force. She works collaboratively with the Federal Bureau of Investigation and helped Nebraska state senators draft legislation to create a sexual assault payment program. In recognition of her determination to make a difference for victims of violence, she received the 2016 National Magnet Nurse of the Year Award for Transformational Leadership.

  18. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M


    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims...... shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD diagnosis based solely on the three core symptom clusters was best identified by a subclinical ASD diagnosis based on all ASD criteria except dissociation. However, a full PTSD diagnosis including the A2 and F criteria was best identified by classifying...... victims according to a full ASD diagnosis. Regardless of whether cases were classified according to full PTSD status or according to meeting the criteria for the three PTSD core symptom clusters, the classification was correct only in approximately two thirds of the cases. A regression analysis based...

  19. Brief report: Identifying defenders of peer victimization. (United States)

    Meter, Diana J; Card, Noel A


    Betweenness centrality quantifies the amount of network flow that a network member controls as hypothetical traffic passes between network members. Those with high betweenness centrality within the peer social network based on nominations of liking may be especially important connectors between individuals who do not like each other. This study tested the hypothesis that individuals' betweenness centrality would predict their defending of victimized peers. After controlling for popularity, perception of being liked, and defenders' victimization, betweenness centrality predicted defending. Those found to be connectors within the peer group were more likely to be those who defend peer victims. This investigation showed that analysis of betweenness centrality is a viable way to identify potential defenders in research and also those who could potentially act as mediators. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of a Victim-Centered, Trauma-Informed Victim Notification Protocol for Untested Sexual Assault Kits (SAKs). (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca; Shaw, Jessica; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina


    Throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing, which raises complex issues regarding how victims ought to be notified about what happened to their kits. In this project, we evaluated a victim-centered, trauma-informed victim notification protocol that was implemented in Detroit, Michigan. Most victims (84%) did not have a strong negative emotional reaction to notification, and most (57%) decided to reengage with the criminal justice system. Victims of nonstranger sexual assaults were less likely to reengage postnotification compared with victims of stranger rape.

  1. Eye Injuries (United States)

    ... of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work ...

  2. Ocular Injury (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Ocular Injury En Español What causes eye injuries ? Injuries ... only the eyelid but the structures that drain tears from the eye. Lacerations of the eyelid or ...

  3. Sports Injuries (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  4. Child and youth traffic-related injuries: use of a trauma registry to identify priorities for prevention in the United Arab Emirates. (United States)

    Grivna, Michal; Barss, Peter; Stanculescu, Cristina; Eid, Hani O; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M


    Traffic-related injuries are the main cause of death during childhood and youth in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), use of safety restraints by citizens is uncommon, rollovers are frequent, and current legislation does not protect rear-seat occupants. Because little was known about the circumstances of hospitalizations for traffic injuries to guide prevention, a trauma registry was used to assess causes and determinants for traffic-related injuries during childhood and youth (trauma hospital in the Al-Ain region during a 36-month period (2003-2006). Injuries were analyzed by age, nationality, road user and vehicle types, severity, anatomical region, and the presence of head injury using Injury Severity Scores (ISS) and the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Traffic injuries represented 40 percent (n = 193) of injuries to 0- to 19-year-olds, followed by falls (39 percent). Among 15- to 19-year-olds, who accounted for 46 percent of child and youth victims, the incidence was 150/100,000 person years, compared to an incidence of 15 to 51 for younger age groups. Overall, 53 percent were vehicle occupants, 23 percent were pedestrians, 14 percent were bicyclists, 6 percent were motorcyclists, with 4 percent other. The ratio of male-to-female victims was 6.7:1; for drivers it was 33:0; and for pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorcyclists it was between 10:1 and 12:1; injured females were mainly rear-seat passengers and the male: female ratio was 1.4:1. Seventy-one percent of pedestrians were ≤9 years old. Although the ratio of UAE children to foreign children was estimated at 0.7:1 in the community, 58 percent of the injured were UAE citizens. The ratio of injured UAE: non-UAE citizens was 1.4:1 overall but 5.6:1 for drivers and 4.5:1 for motorcyclists. Forty-one percent of citizens were injured in 4-wheel drive sport utility vehicles compared to 13 percent of non-citizens. Head injuries occurred in 68 percent of vehicle occupants and 51 percent of nonoccupants, with AIS ≥ 3

  5. Multilevel noncontiguous cervical spine injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetunji Mapaderun Toluse


    Full Text Available This case report highlights the successful combination of operative and nonoperative management of a patient with noncontiguous cervical spine fractures and incomplete spinal cord injury. A case report of a 40-year-old male victim of a motor vehicular accident who presented with noncontiguous cervical spine fractures (Anderson and D'Alonzo Type III odontoid fracture and traumatic spondylolisthesis of C4/C5 and incomplete spinal cord injury. The odontoid fracture was managed nonoperatively, whereas anterior cervical discectomy and fusion were done at the C4/C5 vertebral level. The patient made full neurologic recovery with radiologic evidence of successful fusion and fracture healing at 12 weeks postoperation in both levels of injuries. Operative and nonoperative modalities can be utilized to manage selected patients.

  6. Identification of victims in extreme events (United States)

    Talipova, Yu.; Polukhina, O.


    Catastrophic natural disasters including tsunami events are increased the frequency in last years. One of very important problems here is the identification of personality of the victims. Due to difficult identification of the dead bodies lied into water for a long time the analysis of tooth-jaw system is proposed to apply because teeth are extremely stable to the destructive actions of environment. The method of identification of the age, sex and race of victims based on the mathematic model of pattern recognition and collected database is described. Some examples from extreme sea wave events are analyzed.

  7. DNA analysis in Disaster Victim Identification. (United States)

    Montelius, Kerstin; Lindblom, Bertil


    DNA profiling and matching is one of the primary methods to identify missing persons in a disaster, as defined by the Interpol Disaster Victim Identification Guide. The process to identify a victim by DNA includes: the collection of the best possible ante-mortem (AM) samples, the choice of post-mortem (PM) samples, DNA-analysis, matching and statistical weighting of the genetic relationship or match. Each disaster has its own scenario, and each scenario defines its own methods for identification of the deceased.

  8. SUDEP revisited - a decade on: have circumstances changed? (United States)

    Beran, Roy G


    A paper, published a decade ago, endorsed doctors' right to avoid discussing Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). It did not negate discussion, advocating same where appropriate. This paper investigates the current situation to identify any changes. The tort of negligence includes a duty to discuss "material risks" and adhere to accepted practice. Within the last decade, "material risks" for SUDEP have not altered significantly and international practice discusses SUDEP with those patients who seek advice or in whom such discussion is designed to improve patient compliance. Doctors are unlikely to be found negligent for not discussing SUDEP, acknowledging a push encouraging same, despite it being contrary to routine practice in the US, Italy, UK and elsewhere. Doctors should continue to practice the "art of medicine", discuss SUDEP when warranted and with patients seeking such advice. They must warn about risks, such as bathing alone, avoiding accident and injuries and possibly SUDEP in non-compliant patients and also consider the impact of such discussion. With no 'material' changes in the last decade, doctors must recognise when to discuss SUDEP, with which patients and in what context, accepting it may have a negative psychosocial impact on family dynamics unless discussed in a culturally competent fashion, to avoid causing additional stress for families where accepting the diagnosis of epilepsy may already prove difficult. Having formed a therapeutic relationship with the patient, discussion of SUDEP should be considered within that context, acknowledging the "art of medicine" and the implications of such discussion, similar to the situation a decade ago. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment, Services and Follow-up for Victims of Family Violence in Health Clinics in Maputo, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jetha, Eunice Abdul Remane


    Full Text Available Background: Family violence (FV is a global health problem that not only impacts the victim, but the family unit, local community and society at large.Objective: To quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the treatment and follow up provided to victims of violence amongst immediate and extended family units who presented to three health centers in Mozambique for care following violence.Methods: We conducted a verbally-administered survey to self-disclosed victims of FV who presented to one of three health units, each at a different level of service, in Mozambique for treatment of their injuries. Data were entered into SPSS (SPSS, version 13.0 and analyzed for frequencies. Qualitative short answer data were transcribed during the interview, coded and analyzed prior to translation by the principal investigator.Results: One thousand two hundred and six assault victims presented for care during the eight-week study period, of which 216 disclosed the relationship of the assailant, including 92 who were victims of FV. Almost all patients (90% waited less than one hour to be seen, with most patients (67% waiting less than 30 minutes. Most patients did not require laboratory or radiographic diagnostics at the primary (70% and secondary (93% health facilities, while 44% of patients received a radiograph at the tertiary care center. Among all three hospitals, only 10% were transferred to a higher level of care, 14% were not given any form of follow up or referral information, while 13% required a specialist evaluation. No victims were referred for psychological follow-up or support. Qualitative data revealed that some patients did not disclose violence as the etiology, because they believed the physician was unable to address or treat the violence-related issues and/or had limited time to discuss.Conclusion: Healthcare services for treating the physical injuries of victims of FV were timely and rarely required advanced levels of medical care, but there

  10. Head Injuries (United States)

    ... ATV) Safety Balance Disorders Knowing Your Child's Medical History First Aid: Falls First Aid: Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Getting Help: Know the Numbers Concussions Stay ...

  11. Bullying and victimization in elementary schools : A comparison of bullies, victims, bully/victims, and uninvolved preadolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, René; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Winter, Andrea F. de; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    Research on bullying and victimization largely rests on univariate analyses and on reports from a single informant. Researchers may thus know too little about the simultaneous effects of various independent and dependent variables, and their research may be biased by shared method variance. The

  12. Identifying victims of violence using register-based data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Sørensen, Jan; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik


    nationwide registers to identify victims of violence: The National Patient Register, the Victim Statistics, and the Causes of Death Register. We merged these data and assessed the degree of overlap between data sources. We identified a reference population by selecting all individuals in Denmark over 15....... RESULTS: In 2006, 22,000 individuals were registered as having been exposed to violence. About 70% of these victims were men. Most victims were identified from emergency room contacts and police records, and few from the Causes of Death Register. There was some overlap between the two large data sources....... We found significant differences between victims and non-victims according to socio-economic status, education, marital status, and ethnic origin, and also between victims by source of identification. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a study population consisting of individual victims of violence...

  13. Categorization of crime victims: comparing theory and legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifi Besa


    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the categorization of victims by several victimological schools and to compare that to the categorization in the Criminal Procedure Code of Macedonia (CPC. The first part of this article analyzes different theoretical categories of victims, taking into consideration approaches of representatives of positivist, conservative, radical and critical victimology. A parallel is drawn between theoretical and legislative categorization of victims. Many countries have reformed their criminal legislation providing certain rights to the victim of crime. The second part of the article discusses the categorization of the victims within the CPC of Macedonia. Categorization of the victims is linked to their separate rights guaranteed by law. The article draws certain conclusions and recommendations regarding the categorization of victims and their specific rights. The importance of effective implementation of the guaranteed rights for the victim is especially emphasized.

  14. Peer victimization among children and adolescents with anxiety disorders. (United States)

    Cohen, Jeremy S; Kendall, Philip C


    This study examined peer victimization among a sample of youth who were seeking treatment at an outpatient anxiety disorders clinic. The study examined the association between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms and looked at whether frequent victimization was more common among youth with Social Phobia (SoP) as compared to youth with other anxiety disorders The study also examined the relation between SoP and peer victimization dimensionally. Participants were 90 youth (47 boys; M age = 11.06 years) and their parents. Results showed that peer victimization was associated with social anxiety symptoms, and relational victimization, in particular, was associated with internalizing problems among youth with anxiety disorders. Negative beliefs about the peer group accounted for some of this relation. Victimization was associated with symptomatology rather than diagnosis. Peer victimization is important to assess and consider in the treatment of anxiety disorders in youth.

  15. Peer Victimization in Extremely Low Birth Weight Survivors. (United States)

    Day, Kimberly L; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Schmidt, Louis A


    Extremely low birth weight (ELBW; peer victimization. We examined retrospectively reported peer victimization in ELBW and control children in the oldest known, prospectively followed, population-based birth cohort of ELBW survivors. We compared levels of verbal and physical peer victimization in ELBW and control children. We also predicted peer victimization in the ELBW sample from child characteristics. ELBW children, especially girls, were at an increased risk for verbal, but not physical victimization. In addition, ELBW children with a higher IQ reported higher levels of verbal victimization, although ELBW females who had a lower body mass index in childhood reported higher levels of physical victimization. Findings highlight the need for parents and clinicians to be aware that ELBW girls, especially those with a lower body mass index in childhood, may be at increased risk of peer victimization, as are ELBW children with a higher IQ. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. A latent class analysis of bullies, victims and aggressive victims in Chinese adolescence: relations with social and school adjustments. (United States)

    Shao, Aihui; Liang, Lichan; Yuan, Chunyong; Bian, Yufang


    This study used the latent class analysis (LCA) to identify and classify Chinese adolescent children's aggressive behaviors. It was found that (1) Adolescent children could be divided into four categories: general children, aggressive children, victimized children and aggressive victimized children. (2) There were significant gender differences among the aggressive victimized children, the aggressive children and the general children. Specifically, aggressive victimized children and aggressive children had greater probabilities of being boys; victimized children had equal probabilities of being boys or girls. (3) Significant differences in loneliness, depression, anxiety and academic achievement existed among the aggressive victims, the aggressor, the victims and the general children, in which the aggressive victims scored the worst in all questionnaires. (4) As protective factors, peer and teacher supports had important influences on children's aggressive and victimized behaviors. Relative to general children, aggressive victims, aggressive children and victimized children had lower probabilities of receiving peer supports. On the other hand, compared to general children, aggressive victims had lower probabilities of receiving teacher supports; while significant differences in the probability of receiving teacher supports did not exist between aggressive children and victimized children.

  17. A latent class analysis of bullies, victims and aggressive victims in Chinese adolescence: relations with social and school adjustments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihui Shao

    Full Text Available This study used the latent class analysis (LCA to identify and classify Chinese adolescent children's aggressive behaviors. It was found that (1 Adolescent children could be divided into four categories: general children, aggressive children, victimized children and aggressive victimized children. (2 There were significant gender differences among the aggressive victimized children, the aggressive children and the general children. Specifically, aggressive victimized children and aggressive children had greater probabilities of being boys; victimized children had equal probabilities of being boys or girls. (3 Significant differences in loneliness, depression, anxiety and academic achievement existed among the aggressive victims, the aggressor, the victims and the general children, in which the aggressive victims scored the worst in all questionnaires. (4 As protective factors, peer and teacher supports had important influences on children's aggressive and victimized behaviors. Relative to general children, aggressive victims, aggressive children and victimized children had lower probabilities of receiving peer supports. On the other hand, compared to general children, aggressive victims had lower probabilities of receiving teacher supports; while significant differences in the probability of receiving teacher supports did not exist between aggressive children and victimized children.

  18. Child abuse and neglect and intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration: a prospective investigation. (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally; Dutton, Mary Ann


    This paper describes the extent to which abused and neglected children report intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration when followed up into middle adulthood. Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children (ages 0-11) with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n=497) were matched with children without such histories (n=395) and assessed in adulthood (Mage=39.5). Prevalence, number, and variety of four types of IPV (psychological abuse, physical violence, sexual violence, and injury) were measured. Over 80% of both groups - childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and controls - reported some form of IPV victimization during the past year (most commonly psychological abuse) and about 75% of both groups reported perpetration of IPV toward their partner. Controlling for age, sex, and race, overall CAN [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.60, 95% CI [1.03, 2.49


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Porkhanov


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. The number of burn victims in Russia is growing annually. However, combustiology remains one of the few medical specialties in the country, which has no accepted procedure for the care delivery.MATERIAL AND METHODS. The article presents an analysis of high-tech medical assistance delivery to victims of burns in the Krasnodar Region. We also consider challenging issues on combustiology services organization in Russia and economic aspects for patients with burn injury under the compulsory medical insurance.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION. Up to 3,000 patients requiring hospital treatment are registered in the Krasnodar Region. Of 2,200 operations, 2,000 surgeries are performed in the regional burn center. Implementation of regional system of “early surgical treatment” allowed to reach some of the lowest mortality rates in Russia (in the Region: total 2.43%, adults 4.69%, children 0.16%.

  20. Intimate partner stalking victimization and posttraumatic stress symptoms in post-abuse women. (United States)

    Fleming, Kimberly N; Newton, Tamara L; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Miller, James J; Ellison Burns, Vicki


    This study aimed to further understanding of intimate partner stalking victimization in post-abuse women, with particular attention to the definition of stalking (with or without fear and threat) most predictive of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. In community midlife women with histories of divorce (N = 192), a history of stalking victimization accompanied by fear and threat was positively correlated with PTS symptom severity, after accounting for other partner abuse. The presence, compared with absence, of fear-and-threat stalking history doubled the odds of symptomatic levels of hyperarousal. Greater physical assault and injury chronicity differentiated fear-and-threat stalked women from other stalked women. Stalking contributed to a fuller understanding of PTS symptoms in women, showing particular relevance for hyperarousal.

  1. Role of radiology in the study and identification of casualty victims

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenstein, J.E.; Madewell, J.E.


    Radiology is assuming an increasingly important role in the investigation of casualty victims. Radiographic screening for foreign bodies, personal effects, dental and surgical artifacts and occult skeletal injury has long been an established technique in forensic medicine. Positive radiographic identification of the victims by comparison with antemortem films and records in a more recent, important development. Large scale radiographic investigations may require improvised facilities posing unaccustomed technical and logistical problems. Radiologic experience gained from aviation accident investigation is found to apply in other casualty situations as well as in individual fatality investigations. Radiologic data may aid determination of the cause of incidents, resulting in improved safety procedures and design, as well as serving humanitarian and forensic functions.

  2. Head injuries in helmeted child bicyclists. (United States)

    Grimard, G.; Nolan, T.; Carlin, J. B.


    OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics and the severity of head and facial injuries to helmeted child bicyclists, and whether the helmet contributed to the injury, and to study factors related to bicycle accidents. DESIGN: Retrospective review of two case series. Children sustaining head injury while not wearing helmets were studied as a form of reference group. SETTING: Large paediatric teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: 34 helmeted child bicyclists and 155 non-helmeted bicyclists, aged 5-14 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of injuries, type of injuries, injury severity score, deaths, and accident circumstances. RESULTS: 79% of the head injuries of the helmeted child group were mild and two thirds of these had facial injuries. Children in the helmet group were in a greater proportion of bike-car collisions than the no helmet group and at least 15% of the helmets were lost on impact. There were no injuries secondary to the helmet. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the head injuries sustained by the helmeted children were of mild severity and there was no evidence to suggest that the helmet contributed to injury. Nevertheless, consideration should be given to designing a facial protector for the bicycle helmet and to improvement of the fastening device. PMID:9345988

  3. Prevalence and characteristics of child victims in motor vehicle collisions in Panama. (United States)

    Nuñez-Samudio, Virginia; Jaramillo-Morales, Javier; Landires, Ivan


    Fatalities from motor vehicle collisions are one of the leading causes of death among children in developed countries. Previous publications have shown that the rate is approximately 4 times higher in Latin American countries. We aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of child victims of motor vehicle collisions in Panama and to compare them with data from a more developed country. In this study, Spain was the country chosen for such comparison. A descriptive and retrospective study on the prevalence and characteristics of child victims from motor vehicle collisions that occurred from 2005 to 2012 in Panama was performed. To carry out this study, the records pertaining to victims of motor vehicle collisions in Panama were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics and Census and the Spanish data were obtained from the Road Accident Report. The variables analyzed were age, sex, number of victims, number of injuries, number of fatalities, and type of motor vehicle collision. The child mortality rate in Panama by motor vehicle collisions during the evaluated time period ranged from 2.11 to 3.63, whereas mortality rates in Spain ranged from 0.6 to 1.9, making rates in Panama 3 to 4 times higher than the rates observed in Spain. Children under 5 years old were the group with the highest number of fatalities in Panama. In Panama, a lack of specific legislation on the use of child restraints (car seats) as well as a lack of information and awareness campaigns could be responsible for the high toll of child victims associated with motor vehicle collisions.

  4. Psychological Adjustment in Bullies and Victims of School Violence (United States)

    Estevez, Estefania; Murgui, Sergio; Musitu, Gonzalo


    The present study examined psychosocial adjustment in the following four groups of students: victims, bullies, bully/victims and a control group of adolescents not involved in bullying or victimization problems. Psychosocial adjustment was measured considering as indicators: level of self-esteem, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress,…

  5. 76 FR 19909 - International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program (United States)


    ... of Justice Programs 28 CFR Part 94 RIN 1121-AA78 International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement... Victims of Crime (OVC) is promulgating this interim-final rule for its International Terrorism Victim... as an incident of international terrorism. DATES: Effective date: This interim-final rule is...

  6. From Victim to Taking Control: Support Group for Bullied Schoolchildren (United States)

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Aabø, Liv Sandnes; Saeteren, Berit


    School bullying is a serious problem affecting the victims in their daily lives at school. The aim of this study was to investigate whether support groups were able to help the victims of bullying to overcome their victim status and to explore what it means to be a member of a support group. An exploratory qualitative design, with individual and…

  7. 28 CFR 9.8 - Provisions applicable to victims. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Provisions applicable to victims. 9.8... MITIGATION OF CIVIL AND CRIMINAL FORFEITURES § 9.8 Provisions applicable to victims. The provisions of this section apply to victims of an offense underlying the forfeiture of property, or of a related offense, who...

  8. Children's Tendency to Defend Victims of School Bullying (United States)

    Porter, James R.; Smith-Adcock, Sondra


    Defenders, or children who help victims, are studied less often than children who bully or are victims of bullying. In this study, the authors examined middle schools students' perceived normative pressure from significant others to help victims. Findings suggest that normative pressure from best friends mediated gender and defending, and the…

  9. Students' Perceptions of Their Own Victimization: A Youth Voice Perspective (United States)

    Corby, Emma-Kate; Campbell, Marilyn; Spears, Barbara; Slee, Phillip; Butler, Des; Kift, Sally


    This article investigates the perceptions of 156 students who were victims of both traditional and cyberbullying (117 female, 45 male), ages 10 to 17 years, as to which form of bullying was more hurtful. Overall, students perceived traditional victimization to be more hurtful than cyber victimization. Reasons identified in the data to explain the…

  10. Social Information Processing Mechanisms and Victimization: A Literature Review. (United States)

    van Reemst, Lisa; Fischer, Tamar F C; Zwirs, Barbara W C


    The aim of the current literature review, which is based on 64 empirical studies, was to assess to what extent mechanisms of the Social Information Processing (SIP) model of Crick and Dodge (1994) are related to victimization. The reviewed studies have provided support for the relation between victimization and several social information processing mechanisms, especially the interpretation of cues and self-efficacy (as part of the response decision). The relationship between victimization and other mechanisms, such as the response generation, was only studied in a few articles. Until now research has often focused on just one step of the model, instead of attempting to measure the associations between multiple mechanisms and victimization in multivariate analyses. Such analyses would be interesting to gain more insight into the SIP model and its relationship with victimization. The few available longitudinal studies show that mechanisms both predict victimization (internal locus of control, negative self-evaluations and less assertive response selection) and are predicted by victimization (hostile attribution of intent and negative evaluations of others). Associations between victimization and SIP mechanisms vary across different types and severity of victimization (stronger in personal and severe victimization), and different populations (stronger among young victims). Practice could focus on these stronger associations and the interpretation of cues. More research is needed however, to investigate whether intervention programs that address SIP mechanisms are suitable for victimization and all relevant populations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Sexual Abuse Victimization and Psychological Distress among Adolescent Offenders. (United States)

    Phan, Debra L.; Kingree, J. B.


    This study focused on sexual abuse victimization and psychological distress among 272 adolescent offenders. Female respondents reported more sexual abuse victimization and psychological distress than did their male counterparts. Furthermore, church attendance moderated the association between sexual abuse victimization and psychological distress…

  12. Factors that Influence Children's Responses to Peer Victimization (United States)

    Terranova, Andrew M.


    Children's responses to peer victimization are associated with whether the victimization continues, and its impact on adjustment. Yet little longitudinal research has examined the factors influencing children's responses to peer victimization. In a sample of 140 late elementary school children (n = 140, Mean age = 10 years, 2 months, 55% female,…

  13. History of Peer Victimization and Children's Response to School Bullying (United States)

    Elledge, L. Christian; Cavell, Timothy A.; Ogle, Nick T.; Malcolm, Kenya T.; Newgent, Rebecca A.; Faith, Melissa A.


    We examined the degree to which children with and without a history of stable peer victimization differentially endorse strategies for dealing with school bullies. Participants were 323 children, 58 of whom met criteria for chronic peer victimization. Children with a history of stable peer victimization differed from comparison children in how…

  14. 77 FR 25345 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2012 (United States)


    ... April 27, 2012 Part V The President Proclamation 8804--National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2012 #0; #0... Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation For..., services, and support for victims of crime. Our Nation stands stronger for their efforts. Today, thousands...

  15. 28 CFR 0.91 - Office for Victims of Crime. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office for Victims of Crime. 0.91 Section...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.91 Office for Victims of Crime. The Office for Victims of Crime is headed by a Director appointed by the Assistant Attorney General, Office of Justice...

  16. Occurrence of Stalking Victimization among Female and Male Undergraduate Students (United States)

    Myers, Rachel K.; Nelson, Deborah B.; Forke, Christine M.


    We examined the occurrence of stalking victimization among female and male undergraduate students attending three urban colleges. Specifically, we explored the proportion of students who experienced only stalking victimization and the relationship to the perpetrator identified by victims of stalking. Our findings suggest that stalking…

  17. [Minor Victims of Violent Acts in the Context of the Victim Reparation Law]. (United States)

    Hellwig, Katharina; Kröger, Christoph; Franke, Stefanie; Wehrmeyer, Matthias; Heinrichs, Nina


    A descriptive analysis of victim compensation applications for children and adolescents as well as sociodemographic and trauma-specific information concerning victims and perpetrators. We did analysis of 100 victim-compensation application files based on a self-developed category System. The files included solely interpersonal trauma, 59 % of which are type II trauma. The most frequent form is sexual violence. The perpetrators stem mostly from children’s homes or peripherals. 79 % of the victims received a diagnosis of a mental disorder, most often posttraumatic stress disorder. Sexually abused children and adolescents make up the majority of the target population in OEG-related trauma outpatient units. Such outpatient units should therefore offer a specific expertise in treating sexually abused children and adolescents.

  18. Lifetime Assessment of Poly-Victimization in a National Sample of Children and Youth (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.


    Objective: To use a lifetime assessment of victimization experiences to identify children and youth with high cumulative levels of victimization (poly-victims). Also to compare such children to other victims and non-victims, and assess the contribution of cumulative victimization to levels of psychological distress. Design: A national sample of…

  19. Sexual Risk Behaviors, Sexual Offenses, and Sexual Victimization Among Homeless Youth: A Systematic Review of Associations With Substance Use. (United States)

    Heerde, Jessica A; Hemphill, Sheryl A


    The use of substances among youth experiencing homelessness is an important issue in the context of addressing the developing burden of morbidities arising due to illness, injury, physical and mental health concerns, and low rates of health care utilization among this population group. Youth experiencing homelessness report engaging in and being victimized by various forms of sexual behavior. Of interest in this systematic review were published studies investigating substance use in its association with perpetration of sexual offenses, engagement in sexual risk behavior, or experience of sexual victimization among homeless youth. A systematic search of 12 psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "sex crimes," "sexual victimization," "survival sex," "rape," "drugs," and "substance abuse." Twenty-three studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. No studies statistically examining substance use in its association with perpetrating sexual offenses were located. Findings showed substance use was generally associated with sexual risk behavior or sexual victimization; however, it remains unclear whether substance use precedes or follows these behaviors and experiences. It is possible substances are used by homeless youth as a means of coping with sexual risk behavior and victimization. Implications of the review findings in relation to prevention and intervention approaches aimed to decrease the incidence and severity of health concerns among homeless youth are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Violence Exposure and Victimization among Rural Adolescents (United States)

    Mykota, David B.; Laye, Adele


    Violence exposure is a serious public health concern for adolescents in schools today. Violence exposure can be quite severe and frequent with multiple acts of indirect and direct victimization having lasting effects on the physical, emotional, and intellectual well-being of adolescents. The purpose of the present study is to examine the rates of…

  1. Bullying Victims' Perceptions of Classroom Interaction (United States)

    Havik, Trude


    This study investigated bullying victims' perceptions of their teachers' support and monitoring when controlling for level of mental health problems, peer relationships, gender, and grade level. Given the nested structure of the data, multilevel analyses were employed to examine these associations. The quality of classroom interaction is highly…

  2. The Perception of Cyberbullying in Adolescent Victims (United States)

    Sevcikova, Anna; Smahel, David; Otavova, Mlada


    The goal of this study was to explore how victims of cyberbullying perceive online aggressive attacks and when they see them as harmful. Interviews were carried out with 16 cybervictimised participants aged 15-17 years. The findings showed differences in the perception of online victimisation when perpetrated by an anonymous Internet user versus…

  3. Internet piracy and consequences for victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Miljan


    Full Text Available After the evolution of technology made it possible to perform actions via the Internet that constitute copyright violations, the analysis of the effects of internet piracy on social welfare became the subject of academic polemics. The main and the biggest victims of Internet piracy are the holders of copyright and related rights, however, the damage that piracy causes them comes from multiple sources, is difficult to quantify and is only a part of the total social cost of piracy. However, there are other categories of victims, such as those whose honor was besmirched as a result of piracy, and who suffer the consequences in the form of negative emotional reactions, loss of job as well as those who subsequently commit suicide. The object of this paper is to describe the effects of internet piracy on the victims of this phenomenon, and the goal is the analysis of the various direct and indirect effects of piracy on victims and their motivation for future creation, as well as analysis of prevention measures, with special emphasis on the Republic of Serbia.

  4. Connections to Rescue Our Victims of Violence (United States)

    Hardy, Lawrence


    In this article, the author focuses on the Washington, D.C. school system and Antonio, a child victim of violence, to discuss the background problems that affect the school performance of children from troubled neighborhoods. People who work in schools know that children--even kindergarten and preschool children--don't come to them as blank slates…

  5. Student Victimization by Educational Staff in Israel (United States)

    Khoury-Kassabri, Mona


    Objectives: This study examines the relationships between physical, emotional, and sexual victimization of school students by educational staff with a number of variables describing the student (gender, age, and relationship with teachers) and the school (the socioeconomic status (SES) of the students' families and school's neighborhood, school…

  6. Always the victim : Israel's present wars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, T.


    In the Israeli discourse, Israel has always been the innocent victim of vicious aggression from its neighbors. This perception of reality has only intensified with its two recent wars - against the Palestinians in Gaza and against Lebanon. On this view, in both cases Israel has manifested its good

  7. Psychological characteristics of victims of trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larin A.N.


    Full Text Available The article describes the main causes of falling into slavery, forms of slave labour, as well as moral-psychological properties and characteristics of potential victims of trafficking. Noted risk factors leading to victimization of the person and increase the possibility of becoming an object for criminal groups specializing in this kind of crime. The number of victims of international trafficking ranges from 600 to 800 thousand people a year, and when you consider human trafficking within the individual countries, the total number of victims ranges from 2 to 4 million people. 80% of trafficked people are women and children, of which 70% are sold to other countries for sexual exploitation. According to the International organization for migration (International Organization of Migration annually only in the European markets of prostitution sold is not less than 500 thousand women. Among the personal factors that affect the increase in the number of such crimes, it is necessary to indicate family trouble, which manifests itself, primarily, to neglect, loss of relationships with family and parents, or in the absence of moral and material support from existing family and friends.

  8. Sexual Coercion among Adolescents: Victims and Perpetrators (United States)

    Lacasse, Anne; Mendelson, Morton J.


    Adolescence is a transitional period when the pressure to engage in romantic and sexual relationships can leave teenagers feeling confused and at risk for sexual coercion. Our studies investigated characteristics of male and female perpetrators and victims of peer sexual coercion, focusing on self-esteem, sexist attitudes, and involvement in…

  9. Simulating Peer Support for Victims of Cyberbullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zwaan, J.M.; Dignum, M.V.; Jonker, C.M.


    This paper proposes a design for an Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) that empowers victims of cyberbullying by simulating peer support. The anti-cyberbullying buddy helps a child to cope with negative emotions due to a cyberbullying incident and it shows the child how to deal with future

  10. Children's Peer Victimization, Empathy, and Emotional Symptoms (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Perren, Sonja; Buchmann, Marlis


    This study investigated the concurrent and longitudinal relations among children's peer victimization, empathy, and emotional symptoms. The sample consisted of 175 children (85 girls, mean age = 6.1 years) recruited from kindergartens in Switzerland and followed for 1 year (Time 2). Parents and teachers reported on the children's emotional…

  11. Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes and Bullying Victimization (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A.; Williams, Lisa M.


    Bullying is a serious problem within the U.S. school system. Prior research suggests that victimization is stratified by race and ethnicity. However, few studies consider factors that may moderate this relationship. This article extends research on this topic by considering whether stereotypes moderate bullying among racial and ethnic youth. Youth…

  12. Prioritizing Child Pornography Notifications: Predicting Direct Victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, W.; Schepers, K.; Kamphuis, J.H.; van Linden, S.; Bartling, S.


    The growing number of notifications for child pornography (CP) possession constitutes a capacity problem for police forces entrusted with the investigation of these offenses. Notifications of CP offenses in which the investigation reveals concurrent direct victimization, in the form of contact

  13. Media-Cultivated Perceptions of Criminal Victimization. (United States)

    Ogles, Robert M.

    Many television viewers construct their social reality from media content as well as from sensory and interpersonally communicated information. One aspect of this media-influenced social reality is television viewers' estimates of crime in society, or their fear of criminal victimization. Several media-effects studies have demonstrated the…

  14. Previous emergency department use among homicide victims and offenders: a case-control study. (United States)

    Crandall, Cameron S; Jost, Peter F; Broidy, Lisa M; Daday, Gerhard; Sklar, David P


    We differentiate risk factors for future homicide victimization and offending, and we measure emergency department (ED) use among homicide victims, offenders, and controls. The design was a matched case-control study conducted in Bernalillo County, NM, and its university-affiliated health sciences center and hospital. All Bernalillo County homicide victims (N=124) and offenders (N=138) identified between January 1996 and December 2001 who were linked to university physician billing records and who had health care use during the 3 years before the homicide incident were included as cases. Randomly selected age-matched (+/-1 year) and sex-matched subjects with health care use within 3 years of their matched pair's homicide were included as controls. Main outcome measures were the number and type of ED visits by cases and controls. Among the 124 victims and 138 offenders who used health care, most were men (80%) and averaged 27.7 years of age. Victims and offenders had similar health care use and were grouped for final analyses. Cases (victims and offenders) were more likely to have had an ED visit within 3 years of the homicide (85%) compared with controls (59%) (odds ratio [OR] 4.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0 to 6.2). Within previous ED visits, assault (OR 4.5; 95% CI 2.9 to 7.0), firearm injury (OR 13.6; 95% CI 4.9 to 37.7), and substance abuse (OR 3.7; 95% CI 2.2 to 6.0) were associated with future homicide. ED visits clustered closer to the homicide incident for cases (median days before the homicide -402 days; 95% CI -434 to -364) compared with controls (median -487 days; 95% CI -498 to -474). Patients with ED visits for assault, firearm injuries, and substance abuse are at increased risk for homicide and often have an escalating number of visits leading up to the homicide event. ED-based identification and referral programs similar to those used for intimate partner violence or other preventive strategies should be considered for this high-risk population.

  15. [Hand injuries caused by fireworks and treated by plastic surgeons]. (United States)

    van der Zee, Caroline; Smeulders, Mark; van de Kar, Annekatrien


    To make an inventory of the number and nature of hand injuries caused by private firework use in the Netherlands during the New Year celebrations 2013-2014 and that were seen and treated by plastic surgeons. Descriptive study. In October 2013 the Netherlands Association of Plastic Surgeons (Nederlandse Vereniging voor Plastische Chirurgie) asked its members to register patients treated for hand injuries caused by fireworks during the New Year celebrations 2013-2014. The registration form was sent to all members by email. Patient data, the sort of firework, the nature of and treatment for the injury and the legality of the fireworks were registered. It was also important to note which hand was affected, whether it was the dominant hand and how many fingers were involved. Finger, thumb and hand amputations were also recorded. A total of 76 patients were seen by a plastic surgeon for the treatment of hand injuries caused by fireworks. The patients were all male. In 50% of patients the injury was caused by setting off illegal fireworks. The largest group of victims were aged fireworks, leading to 63 total finger amputations, including 11 total thumb amputations. Many serious injuries occurred outside the legally permitted time period for setting off fireworks. The number of victims with serious hand injuries caused by fireworks was high during the New Year celebrations 2013-2014 and had increased in comparison with the preceding year. The majority of victims were aged fireworks by themselves.

  16. Tyre-blast injuries. (United States)

    Murty, O P


    A teenager college student was fatally injured by burst tyre air pressure while waiting on a public bus stand to catch a bus to reach her college at Kuala Lumpur. She accidentally came near the wheel while boarding when tube and tyre got burst .The air pressure had blown the girl in the air and she subsequently fell on a rough surface. The iron-locking rim of the wheel acted as a missile and hit the girl. She died on her way to the hospital. A medico-legal autopsy was performed which showed extensive injuries in the cranial and chest cavity. Head had large scalp laceration with diffuse separation and gaping from in the vault region; skull bones were fractured. Chest cavity had extensive rib fractures, lacerated lungs and haemo-thorax while externally there was no obvious injury. It requires intensive care management and screening of the victims. Tyre-blast injuries are not so common. This case exposes the hazard due to burst tyre.

  17. The burden of injury in Brazil, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Pinheiro Gawryszewski

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Since 1980, injuries have been the second biggest cause of death among the Brazilian population. This study aimed to analyze national data on fatal injuries and nonfatal injury hospitalization in Brazil, for 2003. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a population-based descriptive study, Brazil, 2003. METHODS: Data from 126,520 fatal injuries and 733,712 nonfatal injuries seen at public hospitals were analyzed. The data were stratified by sex, age, intent and injury mechanism. Raw and age- and sex-specific rates were calculated per 100,000 individuals. RESULTS: The raw injury mortality rate was 71.5/100,000 (122.6/100,000 for male and 22.0/100,000 for female. For fatal injuries, the proportions of unintentional and intentional injuries were equal (44.3% and 46.9%, respectively. Homicides were the leading cause, 40.3% overall (28.8/100,000, followed by transport-related deaths, 26.2% overall (17.0/100,000. For nonfatal injuries, the rate was 414.8/100,000 and unintentional injuries were predominant (88.9%. Overall, the leading cause was unintentional falls, accounting for 42.6% of victims treated in public hospitals (176.8/100,000. Transport-related injuries were second: 15.0% overall; 62.0/100,000. Fractures comprised 46.7% of principal diagnoses at hospitals. The injury types in the fatal and nonfatal datasets varied according to sex and age. The highest rates were found among young males and elderly people. CONCLUSIONS: Injury prevention activities need to be developed. To prevent deaths, homicide has to be addressed. Among hospitalized cases, falls are the most important problem. Traffic-related injuries play an important role in morbidity and mortality.

  18. Inhalation Injuries (United States)

    Inhalation injuries are acute injuries to your respiratory system and lungs. They can happen if you breathe in toxic substances, such as smoke (from fires), chemicals, particle pollution, and gases. Inhalation injuries can also be caused by extreme heat; these are a type of thermal injuries. ...

  19. Revictimization of Victims Sexually Abused by Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata H. Kowalczyk


    Full Text Available Victims experiencing the sexual abuse are surviving not only physical injustice but above all deep traumas, which very often in different forms, are keeping them company through the entire life. Quite often at establishing different results a sex is underestimated for the perpetrator. Therefore knowing the problem of sexual abuses from a perspective of close as well as distant results is very important in the event that a woman was a perpetrator of these acts – mother, minder. In the present article based on analysis of literature, a problem of results of the sexual abuse was presented at victims which experienced these behaviours on the part of women. In order to draw up discussing the survived specificity by victims was both of sex of the trauma connected with the sexual application as well as close and distant consequences of these events in the form prime victimisation and revictimisation for figure being noticeable in the adult life of psychosexual disorders and social shortages. Amongst the consequence isolated traumatic factors are deserving the particular attention about dynamic character which are provoking the appearance of many symptoms characteristic of children which experienced the sexual violence. Recalled factors it: traumatic sexualisation of child, the betrayal, the stigmatization and the helplessness. The specificity of these factors results from the fact that they will leave distant “tracks” in the psyche and they can undergo the additional reinforcement if a woman is a perpetrator of the sexual violence. It results from frequent attitudes of “denying” towards the sexual violence applied by women. In the study they pointed also at one of possible consequences of the revictimisation process copying patterns of behaviour connected with the sexual exploitation of children in their more late life by victims is which. This process resulting from the alternating identification of the perpetrator and the victim is starting

  20. The UEFA injury study: 11-year data concerning 346 MCL injuries and time to return to play. (United States)

    Lundblad, Matilda; Waldén, Markus; Magnusson, Henrik; Karlsson, Jón; Ekstrand, Jan


    Medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury is the most common knee ligament injury in professional football. To investigate the rate and circumstances of MCL injuries and development over the past decade. Prospective cohort study, in which 27 professional European teams were followed over 11 seasons (2001/2002 to 2011/2012). Team medical staffs recorded player exposure and time loss injuries. MCL injuries were classified into four severity categories. Injury rate was defined as the number of injuries per 1000 player-hours. 346 MCL injuries occurred during 1 057 201 h (rate 0.33/1000 h). The match injury rate was nine times higher than the training injury rate (1.31 vs 0.14/1000 h, rate ratio 9.3, 95% CI 7.5 to 11.6, pdifference in median lay-off between index injuries and reinjuries (18 vs 13, p=0.20). Almost 70% of all MCL injuries were contact-related, and there was no difference in median lay-off between contact and non-contact injuries (16 vs 16, p=0.74). This largest series of MCL injuries in professional football suggests that the time loss from football for MCL injury is 23 days. Also, the MCL injury rate decreased significantly during the 11-year study period.