WorldWideScience

Sample records for victims fund preservation

  1. Administrator of 9/11 victim compensation fund to administer Hokie Spirit Memorial Fund distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Hincker, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Virginia Tech President Charles Steger has asked Kenneth R. Feinberg, who served as "Special Master of the federal September 11th Victim Compensation Fund of 2001," to administer distributions of the university Hokie Spirit Memorial Fund (HSMF).

  2. Clinton wants to establish trust fund for African AIDS victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-04

    This article reports on the plans of President Clinton to sign a bill establishing a trust fund care for African AIDS victims. Clinton planned to use his weekly radio address to announce the signing. The signing will likely take place in Lake Placid, New York. Clinton also planned to direct Treasury Secretary Lawrence Summers to begin negotiations with the World Bank to set up the trust fund. The bill, passed by Congress in July 2000, authorizes US contributions of US$150 million a year for 2 years. A portion of the money has been allocated for orphans in Africa, while other resources will go toward preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV and improving education and prevention programs. American attention to the AIDS crisis has taken on a new dimension in recent months since the administration declared it a national security threat that could destabilize fragile democracies and crush economic progress for whole continents.

  3. Tissue preservation and projectile context in a Spanish Civil War victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferllini, Roxana

    2010-07-01

    Exhumations of mass graves containing the remains of those executed during the Spanish Civil War and the subsequent Franco regime are currently being conducted at the request of surviving relatives. This individual case report illustrates how soft tissue preservation, through copper ion contact in one particular victim aided in preserving the projectile in an anatomical context, thereby permitting the correct interpretation of the projectile's path and angle, which otherwise would not have been possible as no bone tissue was affected. The information obtained has important relevance for human rights investigations and the work of the forensic anthropologist. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Human tissue preservation for disaster victim identification (DVI) in tropical climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Hall, A; McNevin, D

    2012-09-01

    Disaster victim identification (DVI) poses unique challenges for forensic personnel. Typical scenarios may involve many bodies or body parts to identify in remote locations with limited access to laboratory facilities and in extreme temperatures. Transportation of tissue samples to a forensic laboratory for DNA profiling can take weeks without refrigeration. As well as protecting DNA for subsequent analysis, tissue preservation methods ideally should be safe, readily available and easy to transport to the scene at relatively low cost. We examined eight tissue preservatives (salt, DMSO, ethanol, ethanol with EDTA, TENT buffer, RNAlater(®), DNA Genotek Tissue Stabilising Kit and DNAgard(®)) and compared the quantity and quality of DNA recovered from human tissue and preservative solution stored at 35°C. Salt, DMSO, ethanol solutions, DNA Genotek and DNAgard(®) produced full Identifiler(®) genotypes up to one month from DNA extracts. In addition, DMSO, DNA Genotek and DNAgard(®) produced full profiles from aliquots of the liquid preservative. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 77 FR 42265 - Notice of Funding Availability: Section 515 Multi-Family Housing Preservation Revolving Loan Fund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... by Rural Development through its MFH loan program under Sections 515, 514, and 516 of the Housing Act..., Finance and Loan Analyst, Multi-Family Housing, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Rural Housing Service... provided funding for, and authorized Rural Development to conduct a revolving loan fund demonstration...

  6. 37 CFR 10.112 - Preserving identity of funds and property of client.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and property of client. 10.112 Section 10.112 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT... funds and property of client. (a) All funds of clients paid to a practitioner or a practitioner's firm... therein. (2) Funds belonging in part to a client and in part presently or potentially to the practitioner...

  7. 75 FR 68748 - Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA): Section 515 Multi-Family Housing Preservation Revolving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... Development announces the availability of funds and the timeframe to submit applications for loans to private... demonstration program must be financed by Rural Development through its MFH loan program under Sections 515, 514.... Department of Agriculture, Rural Housing Service, or Michael Steininger, Director Guaranteed Loan Division...

  8. A Victim of the Great East Japan Earthquake Identified with the Preserved Medical Samples of Her Deceased Mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Hitoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Takayama, Shin; Ishii, Tadashi

    2017-07-01

    On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and huge tsunami occurred near the Pacific coast of northeast Japan, in which more than 18,000 people died or went missing and more than 120,000 buildings were destroyed. In Taro district, one of the areas struck hardest by the tsunami, a middle-aged woman was found deceased in the rubble. Generally, a family physician can recognize victims based on their appearance; the place where they were found; their home or work address; their belongings; the identifying marks on their clothes; their dental charts; and their living biological parents, children, or multiple siblings through DNA analysis. However, in this case, the middle-aged woman remained the area's sole unidentified person for months, because her appearance was different, her body was slightly swollen, and she was missing some teeth. The district's medical and dental facilities were destroyed and almost all medical records and dental charts lost. Fortunately, a family physician who had worked in the district for many years survived the disaster, and was available to provide background information about the victim, her family, and their relationship. He recalled the existence of tissue samples of her mother who had died several years earlier. Subsequently, the individual was identified through the DNA analysis of her blood and mother's tissue samples. As demonstrated in the case, appropriately managed medical information and samples from previously deceased relatives can aid disaster victim identification. The destruction caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake forms our investigation's background.

  9. Room temperature DNA preservation of soft tissue for rapid DNA extraction: an addition to the disaster victim identification investigators toolkit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, E A M; Turk, E E; Rutty, G N

    2008-01-01

    In mass fatality incidents, for example following a vehicle accident or terrorist event, severe fragmentation of bodies may occur, making identification by the use of traditional techniques such as fingerprinting or odontology difficult. In such situations DNA profiling can be employed for individualization and re-association of fragmented remains. As at times disrupted soft tissue may be the predominate tissue type requiring identification and re-association. We have investigated the use of two buffer solutions for preservation of soft tissue samples that may be collected during such investigations, when buccal cells, blood samples or teeth or bone may not be available. Both buffer solutions have shown sufficient DNA preservation over a 12-month period of storage at room temperature to allow for DNA profiling to be successfully performed when 5-1000 mg muscle tissue was stored in each solution.

  10. 75 FR 28542 - Notice of Funds Availability for the Section 533 Housing Preservation Grants for Fiscal Year 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Preservation Grants for Fiscal Year 2010 AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; Correction... Edwards-Jackson, Finance and Loan Analyst, Multi-Family Housing Preservation and Direct Loan Division... information should read: For Fiscal Year 2010, $10,146,815.03 is available for the HPG Program. The total...

  11. Civic engagement and social capital in ship-preservation work in Norway: The scope, impact, and demographics of formal volunteering and publicly funded engagements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula S. Goth

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The current focus on volunteering related to civic engagement in Norway has led to a rise in complementary private initiatives and public funding, specifically with regard to the preservation of historic ships. Volunteers for this programme are primarily men aged over 50 years who spend significant amounts of leisure time in municipalities along the coast, fjords, and lakes of Norway. Despite the historical significance of this kind of volunteering, the social capital that is gained and the substantial funding that the Directorate for Cultural Heritage provides, no study has mapped the impact or outcome of these efforts over the past 20 years. Objective: The primary objective has been to study the scope of formal voluntary ship-preservation work in Norway. This article aims to map the volunteers in associations in this programme, the breadth of their efforts, and their motivations. Design: All ships (n = 90 that were funded by the Directorate in 2009 were included in the case study. A qualitative survey of telephone interviews with 82 key informants (100% response rate was conducted, and questionnaires were mailed to gather descriptive statistics. Results: Age, gender and a robust relationship with the region and the specific ships appear to be relevant to voluntary ship preservation activities. The reasons for commitment and effort were companionship, unity, and memories of and relationship to the specific ships. The strong socio-political aspect of the volunteers’ efforts was reflected in an aggregate of approximately 5.5 million euros in unpaid work. Conclusion: Volunteering in this context is an important component of social capital among elderly men in Norway. The group dynamics and strong collective aspect of these voluntary associations maintain internal cohesion and the members only leave when forced by increasing age, poor health, or insufficient financial resources.

  12. 78 FR 49450 - Notice of Funds Availability for the Section 533 Housing Preservation Grants for Fiscal Year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... Fiscal Year 2013 AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; correction SUMMARY: The Rural... CONTACT: Bonnie Edwards-Jackson, Finance and Loan Analyst, Multi-Family Housing Preservation and Direct... award information should read: For Fiscal Year 2013, $3,803,461.25 is available for the HPG Program...

  13. [Interviewing victims of sexual crimes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Teresa; Ribeiro, Catarina

    2007-01-01

    The approach to victims of sexual crimes is of special complexity due to the nature of this kind of crime, the impact of victimization and the specificity of judicial investigation procedures. The absence of physical evidence and the secrecy that characterizes the majority of sexual victimization cases frequently lead the victim's story to be used as one of few proof elements. Given the importance of the information supplied by the victim in the criminal inquiry, it is essential to create strategies to optimise the interview process, not only to preserve evidence, but also to prevent a secondary victimization process. This review discusses in a brief manner the extent to which information given by victims can be considered relevant forensic evidence, and then presents the methodological guidelines for interview that should be used in this type of expertise.

  14. Woman-to-woman rape and sexual assault, and its impact upon the occupation of work: Victim/survivors' life roles of worker or student as disruptive and preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twinley, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Woman-to-woman rape and sexual assault globally remains largely unknown and unaddressed. Expectedly, victim/survivors often cope alone, or with limited support, in the traumatic aftermath of their sexual victimisation. Work is one occupation that is impacted upon at this time. The study explored the perceived impacts of woman-to-woman rape and sexual assault, the subsequent experience of disclosure, reaction, and support, and the consequences for victim/survivors' subjective experience of occupation. The study combined a sociological auto/biographical approach with an occupational science perspective. A web-based survey generated initial data, and was also used as a sampling tool; subsequently, 10 respondents were interviewed face-to-face, in various UK locations. An eleventh respondent shared her story through correspondence. Four key themes emerged: 1) Identity; 2) Emotion; 3) Survival; and 4) Occupation. The latter, occupation, incorporated study and work. For these victim/survivors, work or education can be experienced as either: disrupted (triggering) or as preservative (maintenance). Their life roles as worker or student were impacted by feelings that they could have performed better and achieved more. Occupational therapists and other relevant service providers could work with sexually victimised people in order to participate more satisfactorily and healthily in the occupation of work.

  15. The New York State Program for the Conservation and Preservation of Library Research Materials. Selected Press Clippings about Projects Funded by the Discretionary Grant Program, 1988/89 and 1989/90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Library, Albany. Div. of Library Development.

    This document is composed of clippings from news publications and press releases about projects funded by the New York State Discretionary Grant Program for Conservation and Preservation of Library Research Materials, which annually awards $500,000 to libraries, archives, historical societies, and similar agencies in New York State through…

  16. Childhood Victimization and Crime Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…

  17. Understanding victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show that the proba......This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show...... that the probability of being victimized is increasing in income, but at a diminishing rate. The effect of income is dependent on the type of crime, and poorer households are vulnerable. While less at risk of victimization, they suffer relatively greater losses when such shocks occur. Lower inequality and increased...

  18. Understanding Victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show that the proba......This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show...... that the probability of being victimized is increasing in income, but at a diminishing rate. The effect of income is dependent on the type of crime, and poorer households are vulnerable. While less at risk of victimization, they suffer relatively greater losses when such shocks occur. Lower inequality and increased...

  19. VT Historic Preservation Grant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The State-funded Historic Preservation Grant Program helps municipalities and non-profit organizations rehabilitate the historic buildings that are a vital part of...

  20. Cyberstalking victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilić Vida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Global social networks contributed to the creation of new, inconspicuous, technically perfect shape of criminality which is hard to suppress because of its intangible characteristics. The most common forms of virtual communications’ abuse are: cyberstalking and harassment, identity theft, online fraud, manipulation and misuse of personal information and personal photos, monitoring e-mail accounts and spamming, interception and recording of chat rooms. Cyberstalking is defined as persistent and targeted harassment of an individual by using electronic communication. The victim becomes insecure, frightened, intimidated and does not figure out the best reaction which will terminate the harassment. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance and necessity of studying cyberstalking and to point out its forms in order to find the best ways to prevent this negative social phenomenon. Basic topics that will be analyzed in this paper are the various definitions of cyberstalking, forms of cyberstalking, and the most important characteristics of victims and perpetators.

  1. Gender Victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Oluwole Ayodele

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Badagry is the first community to receive the Christian religion in Nigeria. For this, every good reason exists to suppose that its coming into early contact with the missionaries should have caused the Ogu people to acquire a healthier understanding of fair play in the context of widowhood practices. Regrettably, they seem to respond more slowly to change in their attitudes to widows. Thus, despite the overwhelming presence of Christian relics in the ancient town of Badagry, traditional customs such as wife inheritance and widowhood rites have continued to appear significantly associated with violence against which women are not well-protected. “Gender Victimization: A Study of Widowhood Practices” among Ogu People of Lagos is the focus of this study. Quantitative and qualitative methods were adopted for the study. Thus, five in-depth interviews and three focus group discussion instruments were used to collect primary data, which were used to complement quantitative data. Although quantitative data were subjected to univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses, qualitative data were cleaned, reorganized into themes and analyzed. The study found that much as the Ogu people of Lagos acknowledge the position of the scriptures on society’s non-criminal relation with widows, they still believe that their culture comfortably drives the greater proportion of their widow-friendly interactions. This study suggests that the adoption of cultural best practices in handling women and their peculiar issues will tone down violence in customary widowhood practices and enable women who lost their husbands in circumstances beyond their controls access community-based support.

  2. Employment Status and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder following Compensation Seeking in Victims of Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Maarten J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study was developed to explore the associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), level of compensation for pain and suffering, and employment status in a sample of victims of violence (n = 226) who had held a full-time job at time of victimization and had filed a claim with the Dutch Victim Compensation Fund (DVCF)…

  3. Preservation for Institutional Repositories: practical and invisible

    OpenAIRE

    Hitchcock, Steve; Brody, Tim; Hey, Jessie M.N.; Carr, Leslie

    2005-01-01

    With good prospects for growth in institutional repository (IR) contents, in the UK, due to the proposed RCUK policy on mandating deposit of papers on funded work, and internationally due to the Berlin 3 recommendation, it is timely to investigate preservation solutions for IRs. The paper takes a broad view of preservation issues for IRs - based on practice, experience and visions for the future - from the perspective of Preserv, a JISC-funded project. It considers preservation in the context...

  4. Victims of Crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karin Wittebrood

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Slachtoffers van criminaliteit. More than three million people in the Netherlands are victims of crime each year. Are all Dutch citizens equally at risk of becoming victims? And of those who become victims, which report the offence to the police, and what motivates them to do

  5. Secondary victims of rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Bak, Rikke; Elklit, Ask

    2012-01-01

    Rape is often a very traumatic experience, which affects not only the primary victim (PV) but also his/her significant others. Studies on secondary victims of rape are few and have almost exclusively studied male partners of female rape victims. This study examined the impact of rape on 107...... secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels...... of social support for the respondent, and feeling let down by others. The respondents were generally interested in friend-, family-, and partner-focused interventions, particularly in receiving education about how best to support a rape victim...

  6. Sudden death victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceelen, Manon; van der Werf, Christian; Hendrix, Anneke; Naujocks, Tatjana; Woonink, Frits; de Vries, Philip; van der Wal, Allard; Das, Kees

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to ascertain accordance between cause of death established by the forensic physician and autopsy results in young sudden death victims in the Netherlands. Sudden death victims aged 1-45 years examined by forensic physicians operating in the participating regions which also

  7. Yoga and victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić-Ristanović Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the findings of literature review and explorative empirical research of yoga application in the work with victims of various forms of sufferings is presented. The largest notion of victim is accepted, which encompasses victims of crime, victims of human rights violations (including convicted persons, as well as victims of war, natural disasters and other sufferings. After determination of the notion of victim and yoga, the review and analyses of research findings and direct experiences with the application of yoga in victim support and victimisation prevention worldwide and in Serbia, is done. The author’s research findings as well as personal experiences with the application of yoga in the work with prisoners in prison for women in Pozarevac (Serbia, within the workshops that Victimology Society of Serbia implemented during 2012/2013, are presented as well. In the conclusions, contribution of yoga to holistic approach to victim support as well as important role that yoga may have in prevention of victimisation and criminalisation, is stressed. The importance of yoga for support of prisoners as the part of preparation for re-entry and with the aim to prevent recidivism, as well as to enable their more successful reintegration into the society, is particularly emphasised. The paper is based on the research implemented by the author for the purpose of writing the final essey at the course for yoga instructors on International yoga academy, Yoga Allience of Serbia.

  8. Victimization of Obese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…

  9. Socket preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caecilia Susetya Wahyu Nurhaeini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar ridge will commonly decrease in volume and change morphologically, as a result of a tooth loss. These changes are usually clinically significant and can make placement of a conventional protesa  or an implant more difficult. Socket preservation after tooth extraction can minimize ridge resorption. By using socket preservation techniques, it is possible to preserve the height and width of the ridge. Socket preservation can be done by atraumatic tooth extraction, placement of bone graft material, membrane, combination of bone graft and membrane, and connective tissue graf.

  10. Aid for the victims of the forest fires in Greece

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To support the victims of the fires which devastated the Peloponnese at the end of August, the Permanent Mission of Greece in Geneva has informed us that the Greek government has opened an account into which donations may be paid. The funds collected will be used to assist the many victims of these fires. Bank of Greece Account name: Logariasmos Arogis Pyropathon (Hellenic Republic) (account reserved for aid for the victims of the forest fires) SWIFT : BNGRGRAA IBAN : GR 98 0100 0230 0000 0234 1103 053

  11. Software preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Vodopivec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comtrade Ltd. covers a wide range of activities related to information and communication technologies; its deliverables include web applications, locally installed programs,system software, drivers, embedded software (used e.g. in medical devices, auto parts,communication switchboards. Also the extensive knowledge and practical experience about digital long-term preservation technologies have been acquired. This wide spectrum of activities puts us in the position to discuss the often overlooked aspect of the digital preservation - preservation of software programs. There are many resources dedicated to digital preservation of digital data, documents and multimedia records,but not so many about how to preserve the functionalities and features of computer programs. Exactly these functionalities - dynamic response to inputs - render the computer programs rich compared to documents or linear multimedia. The article opens the questions on the beginning of the way to the permanent digital preservation. The purpose is to find a way in the right direction, where all relevant aspects will be covered in proper balance. The following questions are asked: why at all to preserve computer programs permanently, who should do this and for whom, when we should think about permanent program preservation, what should be persevered (such as source code, screenshots, documentation, and social context of the program - e.g. media response to it ..., where and how? To illustrate the theoretic concepts given the idea of virtual national museum of electronic banking is also presented.

  12. Is the victim blameless?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, E A

    1990-01-01

    The study concerned 50 cases occurring throughout Austria between 1950 and 1962 where murder was committed for the purpose of robbing the victim. Fifty-nine convicted killers and 61 victims were involved and 1950 was chosen as the starting point of the research in order to avoid undue influence from the extraordinary factors affecting criminality during and immediately following the Second World War. Cases were consecutive and unselected apart from a very small number excluded through unavailability of their files for legal reasons at the time when the data were collected. Unsuccessful murder attempts were not excluded since there is no difference between crimes actually carried out and those merely attempted as regards criminogenic factors, the pre-criminal situation, the choice of victim, the relationship and interaction between criminal and victim, and the recourse to homicide. However, the inquiry was confined to cases where guilt had been proven because of the aim to study not only the crime and the victim, but also the relationship of the criminal and victim. The latter is obviously not possible where the murderer remains unknown. Accordingly, since the material comprises a large number of cases over a fairly long period (more than a decade) from all over Austria, it is fair to claim that it provides an overview of the criminality of murder with intent to rob, and of the killers and the victims, for an entire country and over a significant epoch.

  13. 78 FR 26489 - Consumer Financial Civil Penalty Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Administrator will report to the Chief Financial Officer. In addition, the rule provides that the Civil Penalty... Fund payments only to compensate victims for the harms they suffered from a violation for which... victims' harm that the Bureau believes to be potentially practicable to calculate, and thus susceptible to...

  14. United States: Funding restrictions threaten sex workers' rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleifer, Rebecca

    2005-08-01

    Recent developments concerning the US government's restrictive policies on HIV/AIDS funding have drawn attention to how the government's mandatory "anti-prostitution pledge" endangers the lives of sex workers and trafficking victims.

  15. Digital preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Deegan, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Digital preservation is an issue of huge importance to the library and information profession right now. With the widescale adoption of the internet and the rise of the world wide web, the world has been overwhelmed by digital information. Digital data is being produced on a massive scale by individuals and institutions: some of it is born, lives and dies only in digital form, and it is the potential death of this data, with its impact on the preservation of culture, that is the concern of this book. So how can information professionals try to remedy this? Digital preservation is a complex iss

  16. Cyber-Victimized Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn N. Ryan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is a common topic in the media and academic settings. Teachers are regularly expected to provide curriculum and intervene regarding all forms of bullying, including cyber-bullying. Altering the behaviors of those who bully is often the focus of interventions, with less attention being placed on victim impact. The purpose of this article was to provide educators with a review of evidence regarding the occurrence, impact, and interventions for victims of cyber-bullying. Evidence reveals that cyber-bullying can have emotional, social, and academic impacts but that there are very few documented, and even fewer evidence-based, programs for victims of cyber-bullying. We conclude by proposing that school-wide programs and support be developed and provided to victims.

  17. Victims of peer violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents facts on peer violence victims, committed by minor perpetrators against other minors. The author analyses four main characteristics of peer violence: imbalance of power between perpetrators and victims, identified intention to cause injuries, permanent treats of repeated violence and afraidness of the victims. Otherness and weakness (physical and social of the victims are identified as the main motives of the perpetrators who decide to attack, and these characteristics form the basis of the victim typology. Due to the fact that the research is phenomenologically based mostly on media report on peer violence cases in the period between September 2011 and the end of 2012, the author illustrates all main statements with the real cases which took place in the focused period. Measures to combat peer violence are presented, like the already established such as the school without violence program, and those recently proposed, such as the so called Aleksa’s class. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: Društvene transformacije u procesu evropskih integracija - multidisciplinarni pristup

  18. Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    In line with the decisions concerning the new governance of the Pension Fund taken by the Council in June and September 2007, amendments to Section 2 "Structure and Functions" of the Rules of the Fund (Article I 2.08 – Composition of the Investment Committee and Article I 2.08b – Chairman of the Investment Committee) entered into force on 1st January 2009. These articles replace the provisions of the existing Regulations of the Investment Committee of the Pension Fund relating to the composition and chairman of the Investment Committee. Amendment No. 27 (PDF document) may be downloaded directly from the Pension Fund website: http://pensions.web.cern.ch/Pensions/statuts___rules.htm or obtained from the Administration of the Fund (Tel. 022 7672742, mailto:Barbara.Bordjah@cern.ch).

  19. Forensic odontology involvement in disaster victim identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berketa, John William; James, Helen; Lake, Anthony W

    2012-06-01

    Forensic odontology is one of three primary identifiers designated by Interpol to identify victims of mass casualty events. Forensic odontology is involved in all five phases-Scene, Postmortem, Antemortem, Reconciliation and Debrief. Forward planning, adequate funding, international cooperation and standardization are essential to guarantee an effective response. A Standard Operation Procedure should be utilized to maximize quality, facilitate occupation and health issues, maintain security and form a structure to the relief program. Issues that must be considered in the management of the forensic odontology component of disaster victim identification are given in "Appendix 1". Each stage of the disaster, from initial notification to debrief, is analyzed and a comprehensive checklist of actions suggested.

  20. Older women: victims of rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyra, P A

    1993-05-01

    Older female rape victims usually live alone, are raped by strangers, experience physical force and injury, and also are robbed. Rape trauma syndrome, a nursing diagnosis, consists of an acute phase of disorganization, and a long-term phase of reorganization of the victim's lifestyle. Rape victims experience emotional, physical, and cognitive reactions to the trauma of rape. Nursing actions can include providing specific interventions to victims during the acute phase, identifying victims during routine exams, referring victims for ongoing counseling, conducting community education programs on primary prevention and available services, and participating in longitudinal rape studies.

  1. ARGICULTURAL LAND PROTECTION FUND AND FOREST FUND AS ECOLOGICAL FUNDS

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Bartniczak

    2009-01-01

    Funds for environmental protection and water management, Agricultural Land Protection Fund and Forest Fund make up the Polish system of special fund in environment protection. The main aim of this article is to analyze the activity of two latest funds. The article tries to answer the question whether that funds could be considered as ecological funds. The author described incomes and outlays of that funds and showed which reform should be done in Polish special funds system.

  2. Victimization and pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata K. Szerla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pain has several causes. It can be caused not only by operative trauma or cancer. Some patients suffer from pain as a result of being victims of violence. The aim of the study was to introduce diagnosis and treatment of pain problems in patients who are victims of violence, from a physician’s and a psychologist’s common perspective. Physical pain-related primary effects experienced by the victims of domestic violence go far beyond the results which are noticeable directly and confirmed visually in a forensic examination. In the present paper we introduce an ‘invisible’ group of secondary effects of violence. They appear in time, often after several years, in the form of a variety of psychosomatic disorders. The body is devastated insidiously and the secondary effects are visible as vegetative symptoms, a variety of psychosomatic disorders and pain, difficult to diagnose and treat.

  3. Fund Raising for Haiti

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2010-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, Following the devastating earthquake that hit Haiti on 12 January 2010, the CERN Management and the Staff Association are organizing a collection to help the victims. The money collected will be transferred to associations or bodies guaranteeing proper use of the funds, such as the Association Haïti Ecoles based in Cessy, which our Long Term Collections supported for several years. From today you can pay your donations into a special UBS account, indicating “Séisme Haïti” as the reason for payment . SWIFT : UBSWCHZH12B IBAN : CH85 0027 9279 HU10 6832 1 Account Holder : Association du personnel du CERN We are counting on the generosity of the CERN community to support the Haitian people at this very difficult time. Thank you on their behalf. Rolf Heuer Director-General Gianni Deroma President of the Staff Association

  4. Measuring Poly-Victimization Using the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.; Hamby, Sherry L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Children who experience multiple victimizations (referred to in this paper as poly-victims) need to be identified because they are at particularly high risk of additional victimization and traumatic psychological effects. This paper compares alternative ways of identifying such children using questions from the Juvenile Victimization…

  5. Poly-Victimization: A Neglected Component in Child Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the role of multiple victimization, or what is termed in this article "poly-victimization," in explaining trauma symptomatology. Method: In a nationally representative sample of 2,030 children ages 2-17, assessment was made of the past year's victimization experiences and recent trauma symptoms. Results: Children experiencing…

  6. Funding innovation

    CERN Multimedia

    Marina Giampietro

    2012-01-01

    For the first time, six knowledge and technology transfer activities are set to benefit from a dedicated fund made available by the Knowledge Transfer group. This initiative cements CERN’s commitment to sharing its technological knowledge and expertise with society.   GEM detectors for flame detection and early earthquake prediction, radio-frequency absorbers for energy recovery, and exotic radioisotopes for medical applications are among the projects funded by the recently introduced KT Fund. “CERN’s scientific programme generates a considerable amount of intellectual property, a natural driver for innovation,” explains Giovanni Anelli, Head of the Knowledge Transfer Group. “Very often, though, financial support is needed to bring the newly-born technologies a step further and make them ready for transfer to other research institutes or to companies.” This is where the KT fund comes into play. It provides vital support in the early sta...

  7. Pension Fund

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    In line with the decisions taken by the Council in June and September 2007 concerning the new governance of the Pension Fund, amendments to Section 2 «Structure and Functions» of the Rules of the Fund entered into force on 1st January 2009 (Article I 2.08 – Composition of the Investment Committee and Article I 2.08bis – Chairman of the Investment Committee). Amendment n°27 may be downloaded (PDF document) directly from the Pension Fund website: http://pensions.web.cern.ch/Pensions/statuts___rules.htm or obtained from the Administration of the Fund (Tel. 022 767 2742, mailto:Barbara.Bordjah@cern.ch).

  8. Is sexual victimization gender specific?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundaram, Vanita; Laursen, Bjarne; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the prevalence of sexual victimization and correlations between sexual victimization and indicators of poor health in two representative samples of men and women in Denmark. Specifically, the authors explore the prevalence of self-reported victimization among...

  9. Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Pension Fund Governing Board (PFGB) held two meetings over the summer, the first on 9 June and the second on 1st September. The agendas of the two meetings had several items in common, including progress reports on the work of the four working groups. Group 1, which is responsible for the revision of Chapter I, Section 2 of the Rules of the Fund, has made good progress but will need more time to complete its terms of reference in view of the number and complexity of the articles to be amended. In parallel, the Group has approved a code of conduct for the Pension Fund, which is based, in particular, on the new charter introduced for Swiss pension funds by the Swiss Association of Provident Institutions (ASIP) and the CFA (Chartered Financial Analyst) code of ethics applicable to members of pension fund bodies. The PFGB took note that the Group had also been working on the rules relating to the status of the personnel of the Fund and the composition of the Investment Committee. The work of Group 2, responsi...

  10. Sexually Victimized Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Joann, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The documented incidence of sexual abuse of boys is reported. Though prevalence rates varied from different sources, all sources agreed that reported cases reflect only a fraction of the actual prevalence. The paper also discusses characteristics of the abusers, risk factors of victims, the effects of abuse, and the coping styles of the young male…

  11. Victims and Heroes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg, Christian K.

    2010-01-01

    Victimization, autochthony and citizenship, power and nation-building constitute recurrent, interrelated themes in post-war Manding historical memory in the border area between Liberia and Guinea. While the perceived history of the Manding diverges from academic, historical knowledge as well...

  12. Between "Victims" and "Criminals"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plambech, Sine

    2014-01-01

    This article is about the lives of Nigerian sex workers after deportation from Europe, as well as the institutions that intervene in their migration trajectories. In Europe, some of these women's situations fit the legal definitions of trafficking, and they were categorized as “victims of human...

  13. First Person Victim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Bruni, Luis Emilio; Khalil, Faysal Fuad

    2010-01-01

    of violent interactive shooter experiences by allowing the participants to experience the feeling of being a victim of war. An evaluation of the implementation indicated that participants experienced free spatial interaction, while still being able to acquire an understanding of the theme being mediated....

  14. Adolescent sexual victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P

    2012-01-01

    at baseline and first time APSV during a 6-month period. Data analysis was a binary logistic regression analysis. Number of sexual partners and displaying sexual risk behaviors significantly predicted subsequent first time peer-on-peer sexual victimization, whereas a history of child sexual abuse, early...

  15. Disaster victim identification: Tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Arveen

    2005-04-23

    In the aftermath of the devastating tsunami that hit South East Asia last December, a huge operation to try to identify thousands of victims got underway, with the help of many overseas medical and dental professionals. British dentist Gareth Pearson went to Thailand to try and help in this task and here recounts his experience.

  16. [The war victim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugeux, P; Barouti, H

    1994-10-01

    Just as the concept of war itself, the concept of the war victim is progressive, necessitating legal, economic, social, sanitary, ethical and political adaptations. In France, the laws of 1919, effective from 2nd August 1914, brought radical reform as laws of public solidarity, which guaranteed by the nation, the support of invalids of the most savage war in history. The collective nature of this new social risk obliged the state to replace a purely financial compensation by a solution of rehabilitation. The "Office National des Mutilés et Réformés", created in March 1916, was put in charge of the organisation of professional reeducation. The "war invalids" category was being transform a logic of assistance into one of social action. Later, the legislative structure made extensions, enlarging the beneficiaries in the "war victim" category. The "Service de Santé des Armées" in its basic mission of support to the armed forces covers many areas. The "Anciens Combattants et Victimes de Guerre" administration disposes of specific instruments, such as the "Institution Nationale des Invalides", the "Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur l'Appareillage des Handicapés", the "Office National des Anciens Combatants". These joint actions, added to the ones of very influential autonomous associations, contribute to give handicapped war victims an honourable citizenship.

  17. Antecedents of sexual victimization: factors discriminating victims from nonvictims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synovitz, L B; Byrne, T J

    1998-01-01

    A sexual victimization survey was used to assess the factors that would discriminate between victims and nonvictims of sexual assault. The sample consisted of 241 female college students at a large midwestern university. Victimization status was ascertained from the 13-question Sexual Experiences Survey developed by Koss and Gidycz and Koss and Oros. Data eliciting information about possible associated factors (demographics, dating history, sexual history, personality characteristics and traits) and victimization status were obtained by adapting several scales and instruments into a single Dating and Relationship Survey. Of the 241 women, 102 reported they had been victimized. Discriminant function analysis was used to develop a set of variables that significantly identified victimization status. The variables found to be related to women's being sexually victimized were (a) number of different lifetime sexual partners, (b) provocative dress, and (c) alcohol use.

  18. Victim Simulator for Victim Detection Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James P.; Haque, Salman

    2013-01-01

    Testing of victim detection radars has traditionally used human subjects who volunteer to be buried in, or climb into a space within, a rubble pile. This is not only uncomfortable, but can be hazardous or impractical when typical disaster scenarios are considered, including fire, mud, or liquid waste. Human subjects are also inconsistent from day to day (i.e., they do not have the same radar properties), so quantitative performance testing is difficult. Finally, testing a multiple-victim scenario is difficult and expensive because of the need for multiple human subjects who must all be coordinated. The solution is an anthropomorphic dummy with dielectric properties that replicate those of a human, and that has motions comparable to human motions for breathing and heartbeat. Two airfilled bladders filled and drained by solenoid valves provide the underlying motion for vinyl bags filled with a dielectric gel with realistic properties. The entire assembly is contained within a neoprene wetsuit serving as a "skin." The solenoids are controlled by a microcontroller, which can generate a variety of heart and breathing patterns, as well as being reprogrammable for more complex activities. Previous electromagnetic simulators or RF phantoms have been oriented towards assessing RF safety, e.g., the measurement of specific absorption rate (SAR) from a cell phone signal, or to provide a calibration target for diagnostic techniques (e.g., MRI). They are optimized for precise dielectric performance, and are typically rigid and immovable. This device is movable and "positionable," and has motion that replicates the small-scale motion of humans. It is soft (much as human tissue is) and has programmable motions.

  19. Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The PFGB held two meetings over the summer, the first on 9 June and the second on 1st September. The agendas of the two meetings had several items in common, including progress reports on the work of the four working groups. Group 1, which is responsible for the revision of Chapter I, Section 2 of the Rules of the Fund, has made good progress but will need more time to complete its terms of reference in view of the number and complexity of the articles to be amended. In parallel, the Group has approved a code of conduct for the Pension Fund, which is based, in particular, on the new charter introduced for Swiss pension funds by the Swiss Association of Provident Institutions (ASIP) and the CFA (Chartered Financial Analyst) code of ethics applicable to members of pension fund bodies. The PFGB took note that the Group had also been working on the rules relating to the status of the personnel of the Fund and the composition of the Investment Committee. The work of Group 2, resp...

  20. PENSION FUND

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    The Governing Board of the Pension Fund held its first three meetings of the year on 2 February, 2 March and 13 April.At the first of these meetings the Board first heard a presentation by Mrs H. Richmond of JP Morgan on the results of the currency overlay programme applied to the Fund's assets. Thanks to the policy pursued by this company, volatility, i.e. portfolio risk for assets denominated in currencies other than the Swiss franc, has been reduced. However, despite the fact that JP Morgan has considerable expertise in this field, no gain has been achieved over the past year. The Governing Board heard a report by the Investment Committee Chairman G. Maurin on the meetings of 21-22 and 28 January at which the Pension Fund's various fund managers had been interviewed on their results. Decisions were taken on benchmarks aimed at optimising management and on the terms of reference of the Internal Management Unit. It was also decided to place two fund managers on a watching list and to request them to make eve...

  1. Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual General Asssembly to be held in the CERN Auditorium on Wednesday 8 October 2003 at 14.30 hrs The Agenda comprises: 1. Opening RemarksJ. Bezemer 2. Annual Report 2002: Presentation and results Copies of the Report are available from divisional secretariats. C. Cuénoud 3. Overview of the present situation with regard to pension funds C. Cuénoud 4. Performance of the Fund since the year 2000 and aspects of the ongoing asset/liability modelling exercise G. Maurin 5. Questions from members and beneficiariesPersons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. 6. Conclusions J. Bezemer As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 2002 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund tel.(+4122)767 27 42; e-mail Sophia.Revol@cern.ch)

  2. Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Amendment No 19 to the Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund has just been published and can be obtained from Divisional secretariats or, in the case of pensioners, directly from the Administration of the Fund (tel. 767-91 94/27 38), bldg 5, 1-030. This Amendment, which entered into force on 1.1.2003, concerns 1) the fixed sums and allowances adjusted at same date (Annex B) and 2) the articles which have been amended, in accordance with the Finance Committee's decision, regarding voting rules of the Governing Board and the role and composition of the Investment Committee.

  3. Modelling the Costs of Preserving Digital Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2012-01-01

    on experiences from a Danish project to develop a cost model. It was found that a generic cost model should account for the nature of the organisation and the assets to be preserved, and for all major preservation activities and cost drivers. In addition, it should describe accounting principles. It was proposed......Information is increasingly being produced in digital form, and some of it must be preserved for the longterm. Digital preservation includes a series of actively managed activities that require on-going funding. To obtain sufficient resources, there is a need for assessing the costs...... and the benefits accrued by preserving the assets. Cost data is also needed for optimizing activities and comparing the costs of different preservation alternatives. The purpose of this study is to analyse generic requirements for modelling the cost of preserving digital assets. The analysis was based...

  4. Disaster victim identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Eleanor A M

    2006-09-01

    In the event of any mass fatality incident, despite the cause, disaster victim identification must be undertaken; the humanitarian and legal responsibility for this falls on the forensic community. Mass fatality incidents can be natural (e.g., tsunamis, earthquakes, hurricanes), accidental (e.g., building collapse, ship sinking) or can occur as a result of a terrorist attack. Terrorism alone has been responsible for thousands of deaths in recent years and can be encountered in many forms (e.g., suicide bombings, airplane hijackings). In mass fatality situations, the experitise of many specialities are called on to assist in the identification efforts and to allow for the speedy return of recovered human remains to the relatives of the deceased. Today, DNA plays a vital but never solitary role in disaster victim identification.

  5. Cyber-Victimized Students

    OpenAIRE

    Kaitlyn N. Ryan; Tracey Curwen

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a common topic in the media and academic settings. Teachers are regularly expected to provide curriculum and intervene regarding all forms of bullying, including cyber-bullying. Altering the behaviors of those who bully is often the focus of interventions, with less attention being placed on victim impact. The purpose of this article was to provide educators with a review of evidence regarding the occurrenc...

  6. Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Following the approval by the CERN Council, at its Session in March 2006, of the amendments to Administrative Circular No. 14 (Protection of the members of the personnel against the financial consequences of illness, accident and disability) and the resulting amendments to the Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund, which entered into force on 1st July 2006, the Administration of the Fund has decided to publish a complete new edition of the Rules and Regulations incorporating all amendments up to 1st July 2006. Members of the Fund will be informed once the new edition of the Rules and Regulations is available from Departmental secretariats.In the meantime, the amendments to the text of the Pension Fund Rules and Regulations, which entered into force on 1st July 2006, are presented below (Previous text/Amended text): Chapter II - Section 1: Contributions and benefits Article II 1.04 - Reference Salary - Part-time Work OLD TEXT: The reference salary of a member with a contract for part-time work shall b...

  7. Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Following the approval by the CERN Council, at its Session in March 2006, of the amendments to Administrative Circular No. 14 (Protection of the members of the personnel against the financial consequences of illness, accident and disability) and the resulting amendments to the Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund, which entered into force on 1st July 2006, the Administration of the Fund has decided to publish a complete new edition of the Rules and Regulations incorporating all amendments up to 1st July 2006. Members of the Fund will be informed once the new edition of the Rules and Regulations is available from Departmental secretariats. In the meantime, the amendments to the text of the Pension Fund Rules and Regulations, which entered into force on 1st July 2006, are presented below (Previous text/Amended text) : Chapter II - Section 1: Contributions and benefits Article II 1.04 - Reference Salary - Part-time Work OLD TEXT: the reference salary of a member with a contract for part-time work shall be e...

  8. PENSION FUND

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The Governing Board of the Pension Fund held its 104th and 105th meetings on 8th November and 4th December 2001, respectively. The agenda of the 8th November meeting was devoted to a single item, namely the outcome of the Finance Committee's meeting the previous day. The Governing Board noted with satisfaction that both its proposed amendments to the Rules and Regulations of the Fund - allowing, in particular, the award of a deferred retirement pension after five years of service - and its proposal for the adjustment of pensions on 1.1.2002 had been approved for recommendation to the Council in December. At its meeting on 4th December, the Governing Board dealt mainly with the items examined at the latest meeting of the Investment Committee. The Committee's chairman, G. Maurin, stated that the 2001 return on the Fund's overall investments was likely to be between -2% and -3%. He also noted that a new study of the Fund's cash flows (incomings and outgoings) had been performed. He underlined that, while the flo...

  9. Perception of library staff on the preservation and conservation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result also indicated high useful on the perceived usefulness of preservation of printed materials in the library. Availability of fire extinguisher in each unit was rated high as one of the preservative measure in place in the library. The challenges faced were lack of preservation policy as well as lack of funding to purchase ...

  10. Emotional disclosure and victim blaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, Kent D; Podolski, Peter; Williams, Christian H

    2015-10-01

    Victim blaming occurs when people are unfairly held responsible for their misfortunes. According to just world theory, witnessing another's victimization threatens just world beliefs, which arouses distress. Victim blaming redeems just world beliefs, thereby reducing distress. However, negative emotions can also be resolved through emotional disclosure, suggesting that disclosure can prevent victim blaming. Two experiments confirmed this prediction. In Study 1 participants viewed a woman being victimized or a woman in a nonvictimizing conflict. Participants then disclosed or suppressed the emotions aroused by these scenes and 1 week later evaluated the woman they had viewed. Disclosure reduced blaming of the victim but did not affect blaming of the nonvictim. Further, the more distress participants disclosed, the less they blamed the victim. Study 2 replicated the primary results of Study 1 and also showed that (a) disclosure exclusively reduces blaming of victims; it does not moderate judgments of victimizers, and (b) the effects of disclosure on blaming applies across genders. These 2 studies confirm that victim blaming is a form of emotion management (per just world theory), and that emotional disclosure prevents blaming by supplying an alternative mode of emotion management. This research also suggests that emotional disclosure moderates social perception, in general. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Report from the Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    In this column, the Chairman of the Pension Fund Governing Board (PFGB) presents the Board's latest main decisions, initiatives and accomplishments to the Fund's members and beneficiaries.   Since my last report in July, the Fund has continued the implementation of its capital preservation approach with encouraging results. There have also been several communication events focusing, in particular, on the Fund’s governance and its investment processes. At the September sessions of the Finance Committee and Council, the Chairman of the Pension Fund Investment Committee, Dr Sigurd Lettow, gave comprehensive presentations on the governance and operations of the Fund’s Investment Committee. The Investment Committee is the subsidiary and expert body of the PFGB on investments. Its mandate is to define the process according to which the Fund’s assets - which amount to approximately 3.7 billion Swiss Francs - are invested, and to supervise the implem...

  12. Data Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Meghini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Digital information is a vital resource in our knowledge economy, valuable for research and education, science and the humanities, creative and cultural activities, and public policy (The Blue Ribbon Task Force on Sustainable Digital Preservation and Access, 2010. New high-throughput instruments, telescopes, satellites, accelerators, supercomputers, sensor networks, and running simulations are generating massive amounts of data (Thanos, 2011. These data are used by decision makers for improving the quality of life of citizens. Moreover, researchers are employing sophisticated technologies to analyse these data to address questions that were unapproachable just a few years ago (Helbing & Balietti, 2011. Digital technologies have fostered a new world of research characterized by immense datasets, unprecedented levels of openness among researchers, and new connections among researchers, policy makers, and the public (The National Academy of Sciences, 2009.

  13. [Identifying victims of a disaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Hans H; Kloosterman, Ate D; de Bruijn, Arie G; Maat, George J R

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the victims of a disaster is important for the next of kin, to issue a death certificate and, if necessary, for forensic investigations. In the Netherlands victims are identified by the Dutch disaster victim identification team, which is part of the national forensic investigation team ('Landelijk Team Forensische Opsporing'). Ante-mortem data are collected during the identification process; these include the victim's specific medical characteristics and the DNA profile of the victim and their family members. The victim's own doctor can play an important role in the ante-mortem investigation because of his or her knowledge of their personal medical details, and of the possible availability of samples for establishing a DNA profile. The ante-mortem data are then compared with post-mortem data. For a definitive identification at least 1 primary identification characteristic has to be established from the physical remains - dermatoglyphics, the DNA profile or the dental status.

  14. Further victimization of child sexual abuse victims: A latent class typology of re-victimization trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Nina L; Luebbers, Stefan; Ogloff, James R P; Cutajar, Margaret; Mullen, Paul E; Mann, Emily

    2017-04-01

    The association between child sexual abuse (CSA) and risk for re-victimization is well-documented; however, less is known about the temporal progression of re-victimization experiences over the early life-course among CSA survivors, and whether this differs from that of those without known sexual abuse histories. This study investigated whether there are distinct temporal pathways of interpersonal re-victimization between the ages of 10-25 years among medically confirmed CSA cases, and considered whether abuse variables, re-victimization variables, and the presence of other adverse outcomes, were associated with heterogeneity in re-victimization pathways. The data were collected as part of a large-scale data-linkage study in which the medical records of 2759 cases of contact-CSA between 1964 and 1995 were linked, between 13 and 44 years following abuse, to police and public psychiatric databases; cases were compared to a matched community sample (n=2677). Using a subsample of 510 (401 victims; 109 comparisons) individuals with an interpersonal (re)victimization history, we examined the aggregate 'age-(re)victimization' curves for CSA victims and comparisons, respectively. Further, we applied longitudinal latent class analysis to explore heterogeneity in re-victimization trajectories among abuse survivors across their early life-course. Four latent pathways were identified, labeled: Normative; Childhood-Limited; Emerging-Adulthood; and Chronic re-victimization trajectories. Older age at abuse, a criminal history, and mental health problems were uniquely predictive of membership to the more problematic and persistent re-victimization trajectories. Findings indicate that individuals exposed to CSA during adolescence may be particularly vulnerable to poorer re-victimization trajectories, characterized by multiple risk indices, and thus may warrant increased service provision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    Pension Fund

    2006-01-01

    Amendment No. 22 to the Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund has just been published and can be obtained from Department/Unit secretariats or, in the case of pensioners, directly from the Administration of the Fund (tel. 767-91 94/27 38), bldg 5, 1-030. This Amendment, which entered into force following the CERN Council's decisions of 16 December 2005, includes the following new articles: Art. II 5.08 : Non-entitlement to Pension for Surviving Spouse Art. II 5.09 : Procurement of an entitlement to Pension for Surviving Spouse Art. II 6.09 : Non-entitlement to Pension for Orphans Art. II 7.01 c) : Entitlement to Allowances Art. III 1.07 : Extension of the contract beyond the age limit of 65 as well as the following amended articles : Article II 1.07 - Contributions Annex B - Fixed sums and allowances

  16. Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Governing Board of the Pension Fund held its hundred and seventeenth meeting on 3 June 2003. On that occasion, it examined the recommendations made by the External Auditors in their report on their audit of the 2002 annual accounts and the replies by the Pension Fund's Administration. The Governing Board was gratified by the small number of remarks by the External Auditors. It also confirmed its agreement to the procedure followed by the Administration of the Pension Fund in the handling of transfer values. Under other items on the agenda, the Board once again examined ESO's request relating to the terms and conditions of membership by its staff members. In this regard, the Board wishes to receive from ESO a definitive request (following the necessary consultation procedures with the representatives of the personnel and discussions within ESO's governing bodies) so that the working group can continue its work on a clear basis and so that the Governing Board is in a position to take up a position in the m...

  17. PENSION FUND

    CERN Document Server

    Administration of the Fund

    2001-01-01

    The Administration of the Fund has just signed a contract with the 'La Suisse' insurance company, making life insurance available to persons leaving CERN under very similar conditions to those offered to the members of the CERN personnel. From now on, persons retiring from the Organization will be able to take out this new insurance at the moment of retirement, provided that they have been members of CERN's collective life insurance scheme for the last five years of service. Exceptionally, until the end of 2001, 'La Suisse' has agreed to allow persons who are already retired to take out this insurance, subject to their state of health (health questionnaire to be completed) and with a maximum insured amount set at 150,000 CHF. We therefore invite any retired persons interested in this insurance to consult the detailed terms and conditions, either on the Pension Fund's Web site (http://pensions.web.cern.ch/pensions) or by writing to the Administration of the Fund. For those wishing to apply, the documents to be...

  18. Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Governing Board of the Pension Fund held its one-hundred-and-twenty-second meeting on 3 February 2004. Opening the meeting, the Chairman, J. Bezemer, welcomed W. Zapf's alternate T. Lagrange, A. Naudi's alternate P. Geeraert, and M. Goossens' alternate M. Vitasse, who were attending the Governing Board for the first time. The Governing Board heard a report from its Chairman on the meeting of the CERN Council on 19 December 2003, at which, under Pension Fund matters, the Council had approved a pensions adjustment of 0.7%. The Governing Board then heard a report on the main elements of the Investment Committee's meeting on 3 December 2003. During a presentation, Expert Timing System (Madrid) and the Compagnie de Trésorerie Benjamin de Rothschild (Geneva) had proposed a bond portfolio investment following the same quantitative investment principles as the equities portfolio they already managed for the Fund. After some deliberation, the Investment Committee had decided, on that basis, to award t...

  19. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasamoto, Yukuo

    2009-01-01

    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).

  20. Victims of Bullying in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current research on bullying (peer victimization, peer harassment) in school, with a focus on victims of such bullying. The 1st section provides a working definition of bullying and its many forms. The 2nd section describes some of the known consequences of being bullied for mental health, physical health, and…

  1. The dilemmas of victim positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorte Marie Søndergaard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article centres on some of the dilemmas contained within victim positioning. Such dilemmas are often overlooked by the authorities involved with people subjected to relational aggression. 2 For example, when teachers rule out cases of bullying because the victim has 'participated in' or 'laughed at' some of the bullies' initiatives, or when a rape victim's status as a victim is questioned because, in the lead up to the assault, she was supposedly friendly to the rapist. In these cases, it could be useful to explore the reason for the bullying victim's apparent collusion or to better understand the premises for the rape victim's positioning options in relation to the perpetrator. In other words, it could be fruitful to explore the dynamics and dilemmas of the victim position. In this article, I aim to reflect on the motivational conditions of the victim phenomenon. These reflections are based on an analysis of qualitative data produced through interviews with school children as well as on relevant secondary literature.

  2. Mutual Fund Exit and Mutual Fund Fees

    OpenAIRE

    Philip C. English II; Ilhan Demiralp; William P. Dukes

    2011-01-01

    We examine the effect of mutual fund fee structure on mutual fund exit mode and timing. The evidence presented herein is consistent with fee maximization by mutual fund sponsors or managers, increased conflicts of interest for funds charging 12b-1 fees and higher management fees, and a pecking order for mutual fund exit method. Specifically, mutual fund exits that result in decreased fee income are delayed relative to exits that do not and exit strategies that retain fee income are more likel...

  3. PENSION FUND

    CERN Multimedia

    Administration of the Fund

    2001-01-01

    The Administration of the Fund has just signed a contract with the 'La Suisse' insurance company, making life insurance available to persons leaving CERN under very similar conditions to those offered to the members of the CERN personnel. From now on, persons retiring from the Organization will be able to take out this new insurance at the moment of retirement, provided that they have been members of CERN's collective life insurance scheme for the last five years of service. Exceptionally, until the end of 2001, 'La Suisse' has agreed to allow persons who are already retired to take out this insurance, provided that they are less than 70 years old and subject to their state of health (health questionnaire to be completed) and with a maximum insured amount set at 150,000 CHF. We therefore invite any retired persons interested in this insurance to consult the detailed terms and conditions, either on the Pension Fund's Web site (http://pensions.web.cern.ch/pensions) or contacting to the Administration of the Fun...

  4. Cyberbullying victimization in adolescents’ population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of communication technology and its wide use by the adolescents, cyberspace became a new risky environment for bullying manifestation and victimization. The significance of the problem lies in the fact that, unlike the traditional bullying, the cyberbullying victimization occurs also out of the school surroundings, it’s characterized by the possible anonymity of the bully, it’s harder to discover it and it could have a much bigger audience. Results of numerous studies show that the prevalence of cyberbullying victimization is 10% to 40% during one school year and that it is related to different negative outcomes - from problems of lower self-esteem to severe psychological and behavioral problems. The aim of the paper is to present basic characteristics and negative outcomes of cyberbullying victimization and also to summarize possible factors which are associated with this form of bullying. Lastly, possible ways of preventive action and coping with cyberbullying victimization will be reviewed.

  5. Shifting investments strategy from equity funds to money market funds – the case of Romanian open - end fund market during the financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu, I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutual funds are one of the key suppliers of liquidity in Romanian capital market. This paper uses quarterly data on Romanian open-end funds starting with 2006 until 2010. We find that significant negative flows (outflows were registered beginning with the end of 2007 (equity funds, during 2008 (equity funds, balanced funds, other funds and bond funds in the last 2 quarters of the year and from 2009 to 2010 (in the case of money market funds. There is evidence that the changing market conditions attract differently the incoming flows in these mutual funds. This is the reason why such perturbations affect investors’ confidence for these investment vehicles and impose the reorientation of the investment funds and of their investors to other alternatives in order to preserve their capital.

  6. Perpetrator or victim?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    Paper 3: HAN091384 Victim, Perpetrator and Pupil - Teacher Perspectives on Peer Bullying Helle Rabøl Hansen, University of Aarhus This paper investigates the approaches and strategies taken up by two crucial actors in relation to bullying in schools: 1. documents indicating school policies...... on bullying, and 2. teacher strategies in relation to bullying practices among children. The paper analyses the relationship between policy documents and their implied discourses on the one hand and the discourses and understandings taken up by teaches in their everyday interaction with children...... and colleagues on the other hand. The paper is based on empirical data including surveys among 253 teachers from 10 schools, interview with 12 teachers, and observations among teachers in their respectively class and staff rooms. In the analyses punishment and sanctions appear to work as general strategies...

  7. First Person Victim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Bruni, Luis Emilio; Khalil, Faysal Fuad

    2010-01-01

    in the “First Person Victim” experience to create awareness about the consequences of war for civilians. The paper will also explain how our “Interactive Dramatic Experience Model” organizes the various events of the experience and mediates an emergent narrative by the use of the first person shooter form......Scientific and psychological studies claim a variety of triggers in video games with violent content may promote aggression. To oppose the violent behavior of players in these games, this paper will describe how the sources of aggression and first person shooter conventions have been exploited....... The theme is communicated through the use of tragedy, and turns the roles around to let the participants encounter a realistic war-scenario while being confronted with ethical issues, by enacting the experience of being a victim of war. An evaluation of the implemented experience indicated...

  8. Victims of cyberstalking in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević-Lepojević Marina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present research findings on prevalence and characteristics of cyberstalking in Serbia. A web-based questionnaire was used to collect data from a group of respondents who were recruited by snowball sampling via e-mail. A total of 237 respondents completed the online questionnaire. The aim of the first part of this paper is to determine the notion of cyberstalking as well as, to review research about the prevalence and the nature of stalking. The main results are the following: 39,6 % of respondents reported stalking; every fourth stalking victim is a victims of cyberstalking; mostly, cyberstalking victims were female and perpetrators were male. Victims were stalked by: persistent sending of unwanted e-mails and telephone calls, spreading rumors, abusive and negative comments and threats, encouraged other users to harass, threaten or insult, manipulating with victim's personal data, sending malicious programs and files, etc. In Serbia, cyberstalking is not criminalized yet and there are no organizations to whom victims may appeal and ask for help. We are hoping that this research will raise the awareness on cyberstalking and serve as a base for further research and legal reforms regarding cyberstalking victimization in Serbia.

  9. What Is Fertility Preservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print What is fertility preservation? Fertility preservation is the process of saving or protecting ... children in the future. Who can benefit from fertility preservation? People with certain diseases, disorders, and life ...

  10. Consequences of bullying victimization in childhood and adolescence: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Norman, Rosana E; Suetani, Shuichi; Thomas, Hannah J; Sly, Peter D; Scott, James G

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify health and psychosocial problems associated with bullying victimization and conduct a meta-analysis summarizing the causal evidence. METHODS A systematic review was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, ERIC and PsycINFO electronic databases up to 28 February 2015. The study included published longitudinal and cross-sectional articles that examined health and psychosocial consequences of bullying victimization. All meta-analyses were based on quality-effects models. Evidence for causality was assessed using Bradford Hill criteria and the grading system developed by the World Cancer Research Fund. RESULTS Out of 317 articles assessed for eligibility, 165 satisfied the predetermined inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Statistically significant associations were observed between bullying victimization and a wide range of adverse health and psychosocial problems. The evidence was strongest for causal associations between bullying victimization and mental health problems such as depression, anxiety, poor general health and suicidal ideation and behaviours. Probable causal associations existed between bullying victimization and tobacco and illicit drug use. CONCLUSION Strong evidence exists for a causal relationship between bullying victimization, mental health problems and substance use. Evidence also exists for associations between bullying victimization and other adverse health and psychosocial problems, however, there is insufficient evidence to conclude causality. The strong evidence that bullying victimization is causative of mental illness highlights the need for schools to implement effective interventions to address bullying behaviours. PMID:28401049

  11. Consequences of bullying victimization in childhood and adolescence: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Norman, Rosana E; Suetani, Shuichi; Thomas, Hannah J; Sly, Peter D; Scott, James G

    2017-03-22

    To identify health and psychosocial problems associated with bullying victimization and conduct a meta-analysis summarizing the causal evidence. A systematic review was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, ERIC and PsycINFO electronic databases up to 28 February 2015. The study included published longitudinal and cross-sectional articles that examined health and psychosocial consequences of bullying victimization. All meta-analyses were based on quality-effects models. Evidence for causality was assessed using Bradford Hill criteria and the grading system developed by the World Cancer Research Fund. Out of 317 articles assessed for eligibility, 165 satisfied the predetermined inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Statistically significant associations were observed between bullying victimization and a wide range of adverse health and psychosocial problems. The evidence was strongest for causal associations between bullying victimization and mental health problems such as depression, anxiety, poor general health and suicidal ideation and behaviours. Probable causal associations existed between bullying victimization and tobacco and illicit drug use. Strong evidence exists for a causal relationship between bullying victimization, mental health problems and substance use. Evidence also exists for associations between bullying victimization and other adverse health and psychosocial problems, however, there is insufficient evidence to conclude causality. The strong evidence that bullying victimization is causative of mental illness highlights the need for schools to implement effective interventions to address bullying behaviours.

  12. Supporting children: Victims of crime, within victim support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walle Vande Ilse

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available All too often, the victimization of children is automatically associated with child abuse and sexual abuse. However, children are also confronted, either directly or indirectly, with other kinds of criminality. In spite of that children usually do not get appropriate support and assistance. In this paper, the establishment and development of services for the support of children-victims of crime in Belgium, as well as European cooperation in this regard, are described.

  13. Victims and Their Defenders: A Dyadic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainio, Miia; Veenstra, Rene; Huitsing, Gijs; Salmivalli, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on the dyadic defending relationships of victimized children in grades 3, 4, and 5 (N = 7481 children from 356 school classes, mean ages 10-12 years). Most of the victims (72.3%) had at least one defender. Being defended was positively related to victims' adjustment and social status. Analyses on victim-defender dyads showed…

  14. Pension fund

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Letter sent on Monday 8 December 2014 to the delegates of the Member States to CERN Council An item on the agenda of the CERN Council of Thursday 11 December concerned the CERN Pension Fund, namely a discussion of a document that proposes how to respond to the many questions concerning pensions that had been submitted by thirteen Member State delegations. That document lists all these questions and proposes, as a first step, to consider the legal feasibility and the actuarial cost to transform our current defined-benefit pension scheme into a defined-contribution scheme. Once again, several delegates show their determination to worsen our pension conditions. The Staff Association’s Pension Commission, in a special meeting on Thursday, 4 December, has decided to send an open letter to the delegates of the CERN Council. In this letter (shown below) the Staff Association and CERN-ESO Pensions’ Association express their opposition to these intentions. We underline, once more, that the 2010...

  15. Punishment goals of crime victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Uli

    2003-04-01

    Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals.

  16. [Health consequence of stalking victimization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, R; Hintz, E; Blättner, B

    2012-05-01

    Life time prevalence of stalking is about 12-20%, while females are more often affected than male. Stalking is a statutory offense. However, it is not an assault of victims' law. For the purpose of health consequences for stalking victims, research in following database were conducted: EMBASE, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Social Science Index. English and German published studies of the years 2002-2010 were included. 17 primary studies and 2 meta-analyses were identified. Direct physiological consequences are relatively rare; however stalking victims report a poorer physiological health status. Almost every second stalking victim shows impairments on his/her psychical well-being. Impairments of social well-being are common, too. As a result, there is still a lot of research, especially in long-term studies, required. Socio-legal reassessment of stalking will probably benefit only a few of the affected people. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Preservation For and By the People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimberg, June

    1973-01-01

    The American the Beautiful Fund (ABF) has for the past eight years been supporting imaginative urban design, the preservation of green spaces, and the protection of the character of small towns and vanishing Americana through staff assistance and modest seed grants. (JA)

  18. Building Digital Audio Preservation Infrastructure and Workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Anjanette; Olivieri, Blynne; Eckler, Karl; Gerontakos, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the University of Washington (UW) Libraries special collections received funding for the digital preservation of its audio indigenous language holdings. The university libraries, where the authors work in various capacities, had begun digitizing image and text collections in 1997. Because of this, at the onset of the project, workflows (a…

  19. Media coverage of women victimization

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinović-Vilić, Slobodanka; Žunić, Natalija

    2012-01-01

    Mass media seem to be playing the central role in our everyday life and the media impact is so overpowering nowadays that we live in a mediasaturated culture. Not only are mass media an inseparable part of our contemporary life but they also significantly define and shape our daily existence. In order to explain the cultural impact that the media coverage of crime and victimization has in our society, it is necessary to understand the relationship between crime, victimization and mass media. ...

  20. Bullying and Victimization Among Children

    OpenAIRE

    Shetgiri, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Bullying among children is a significant public health problem world-wide. Bullying is most commonly defined as repeated, intentional aggression, perpetrated by a more powerful individual or group against a less powerful victim. Trends in victimization and moderate to frequent bullying may be decreasing slightly in the United States, but over 20% of children continue to be involved in bullying. Direct bullying consists of physical and verbal aggression, whereas indirect bullying involves rela...

  1. Victimization experiences and the stabilization of victim sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollwitzer, Mario; Süssenbach, Philipp; Hannuschke, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    People reliably differ in the extent to which they are sensitive to being victimized by others. Importantly, "victim sensitivity" predicts how people behave in social dilemma situations: Victim-sensitive individuals are less likely to trust others and more likely to behave uncooperatively-especially in socially uncertain situations. This pattern can be explained with the sensitivity to mean intentions (SeMI) model, according to which victim sensitivity entails a specific and asymmetric sensitivity to contextual cues that are associated with untrustworthiness. Recent research is largely in line with the model's prediction, but some issues have remained conceptually unresolved so far. For instance, it is unclear why and how victim sensitivity becomes a stable trait and which developmental and cognitive processes are involved in such stabilization. In the present article, we will discuss the psychological processes that contribute to a stabilization of victim sensitivity within persons, both across the life span ("ontogenetic stabilization") and across social situations ("actual-genetic stabilization"). Our theoretical framework starts from the assumption that experiences of being exploited threaten a basic need, the need to trust. This need is so fundamental that experiences that threaten it receive a considerable amount of attention and trigger strong affective reactions. Associative learning processes can then explain (a) how certain contextual cues (e.g., facial expressions) become conditioned stimuli that elicit equally strong responses, (b) why these contextual untrustworthiness cues receive much more attention than, for instance, trustworthiness cues, and (c) how these cues shape spontaneous social expectations (regarding other people's intentions). Finally, avoidance learning can explain why these cognitive processes gradually stabilize and become a trait: the trait which is referred to as victim sensitivity.

  2. Victimization Experiences and the Stabilization of Victim Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eGollwitzer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available People reliably differ in the extent to which they are sensitive to being victimized by others. Importantly, victim sensitivity predicts how people behave in social dilemma situations: Victim-sensitive individuals are less likely to trust others and more likely to behave uncooperatively - especially in socially uncertain situations. This pattern can be explained with the Sensitivity to Mean Intentions (SeMI model, according to which victim sensitivity entails a specific and asymmetric sensitivity to contextual cues that are associated with untrustworthiness. Recent research is largely in line with the model’s prediction, but some issues have remained conceptually unresolved so far. For instance, it is unclear why and how victim sensitivity becomes a stable trait and which developmental and cognitive processes are involved in such stabilization. In the present article, we will discuss the psychological processes that contribute to a stabilization of victim sensitivity within persons, both across the life span (ontogenetic stabilization and across social situations (actual-genetic stabilization. Our theoretical framework starts from the assumption that experiences of being exploited threaten a basic need, the need to trust. This need is so fundamental that experiences that threaten it receive a considerable amount of attention and trigger strong affective reactions. Associative learning processes can then explain (a how certain contextual cues (e.g., facial expressions become conditioned stimuli that elicit equally strong responses, (b why these contextual untrustworthiness cues receive much more attention than, for instance, trustworthiness cues, and (c how these cues shape spontaneous social expectations (regarding other people’s intentions. Finally, avoidance learning can explain why these cognitive processes gradually stabilize and become a trait: the trait which is referred to as victim sensitivity.

  3. Recalled Peritraumatic Reactions, Self-Reported PTSD, and the Impact of Malingering and Fantasy Proneness in Victims of Interpersonal Violence Who Have Applied for State Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Maarten; Winkel, Frans Willem; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores the associations between three types of peritraumatic reactions (dissociation, distress, and tonic immobility) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of 125 victims of interpersonal violence who had applied for compensation with the Dutch Victim Compensation Fund (DCVF). In addition, the…

  4. The Second Victim: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, B; Powell, D; Higgins, M F

    2017-06-01

    Amongst the lay and media population there is a perception that pregnancy, labour and delivery is always physiological, morbidity and mortality should be "never events" and that error is the only cause of adverse events. Those working in maternity care know that it is an imperfect art, where adverse outcomes and errors will occur. When errors do occur, there is a domino effect with three groups being involved - the patient (first victim), the staff (second victims) and the organization (third victims). If the perceived expectation of patients on all clinicians is that of perfection, then clinicians may suffer the consequences of adverse outcomes in isolation and silence. More recently identification and discussion on the phenomenon of the second victim has become a popular research topic. This review aimed to study not only the phenomenon of second victim in general medical care but to also concentrate on maternity care where the expectation of perfection may be argued to be greater. Risk factors, prevalence and effect of second victims were identified from a thorough search of the literature on the topic. The review focuses on the recent research of the effect on maternity staff of adverse outcomes and discusses topical issues of resilience, disclosure, support systems as well as Learning from Excellence. It is now well documented that when staff members are supported in their disclosure of errors this domino effect is less traumatic. It is the responsibility of everyone working in healthcare to support all the victims of an error, as an ethical duty and to have a supportive culture of disclosure. In addition, balance can be provided by developing a culture of learning from excellence as well as from errors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Justice And Legal Certainty For Child Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Setiadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Focus of attention in the criminal justice system so far has always been to the perpetrator, whereas parties related to a process of criminal justice encompasses the perpetrator, the victim, and the community. A crime victim, in particular, would suffer more since he/she could experience secondary victimization in the criminal justice system. The law concerning victim and witness protection only states the limitation for the criminal victim to ask for compensation to criminal justice system, either as a victim of direct criminal or a victim of abuse power done by law enforcement officers. Child victims are treated the same way as to adult victims, whilst they have a greater dimension of the problem and effects to be dealt with Mechanism and procedures to be followed are ius constituendum (intended/desirable law, as they only share expectation of indemnity, compensation, and rehabilitation which have not been empirically tested in a real situation.

  6. Exploring the Characteristics of Personal Victims Using the National Crime Victimization Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jairam, Shashi

    1998-01-01

    .... Two statistical methods were used to investigate these hypotheses, logistical regression for victimization prevalence, and negative binomial regression for victimization incidence and concentration...

  7. PrePARe teaching modules in digital preservation

    OpenAIRE

    PrePARe project team

    2012-01-01

    The JISC-funded PrePARe project aimed to encourage researchers to take an interest and responsibility in digital preservation of their research outputs. Training materials in digital preservation have been designed to slot into existing training courses on related areas, such as Information Literacy and reference management. Five short modules provide an introduction to why digital preservation matters, and cover the issues of safe storage of digital materials, documentation and metadata, dat...

  8. Gender and victimization by intimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, L E; Browne, A

    1985-06-01

    Recent data demonstrate that, although gender has an impact upon the experience of being a victim of an intimate's violence, there is no particular personality pattern that leads one to become a victim. Rather, women--who are socialized to adapt and submit, and who are likely to become victims of men's sexual violence or physical abuse--may not develop adequate self-protection skills as children, especially if they come from childhood homes in which females are victimized, leading to a later vulnerability to physical and sexual abuse. Men, however, socialized to express anger and aggression in an outward manner, learn to model the abuse witnessed or experienced in childhood and often learn that women are the "appropriate" recipients of this violence. Social learning theories of modeling and aggression are used to explain how such personality patterns develop, and the theory of learned helplessness is used to explain battered women's coping responses to their partners' abusive behavior. The extreme situation, in which a battered woman kills her partner in self-defense, is analyzed in order to understand women victims' sense of desperation and entrapment in severely abusive relationships and the extent to which their behaviors are in reaction to the abuse perpetrated by the mate.

  9. Female stalkers and their victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J Reid; Boyd, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    Demographic, clinical, and forensic data were gathered in an archival study of 82 female stalkers from the United States, Canada, and Australia. Female stalkers were predominantly single, heterosexual, educated individuals in their mid 30s who had pursued their victims for more than a year. Major mental disorder and personality disorder were suggested, especially borderline personality disorder. They usually threatened violence, and if they did threaten, were more likely to be violent. Frequency of interpersonal violence was 25 percent, but there was limited use of weapons, and injuries were minor. Stalking victims were most likely to be slightly older male acquaintances; but if the victim was a prior sexual intimate of the female stalker, her risk of being violent toward him exceeded 50 percent. Unlike male stalkers who often pursue their victims to restore intimacy, these female stalkers often pursued their victims to establish intimacy. Common emotions and motivations included anger, obsessional thoughts, rage at abandonment, loneliness, dependency, jealousy, and perceived betrayal. Results are interpreted from a clinical and risk management perspective.

  10. Bullying and Victimization Among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetgiri, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Bullying among children is a significant public health problem world-wide. Bullying is most commonly defined as repeated, intentional aggression, perpetrated by a more powerful individual or group against a less powerful victim. Trends in victimization and moderate to frequent bullying may be decreasing slightly in the United States, but over 20% of children continue to be involved in bullying. Direct bullying consists of physical and verbal aggression, whereas indirect bullying involves relational aggression. Cyber bullying is an emerging problem which may be more difficult to identify and intervene with than traditional bullying. Bullies, victims, and bully-victims are at risk for negative short and long-term consequences such as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and delinquency. Various individual, parental, and peer factors increase the risk for involvement in bullying. Anti-bullying interventions are predominantly school-based and demonstrate variable results. Healthcare providers can intervene in bullying by identifying potential bullies or victims, screening them for co-morbidities, providing counseling and resources, and advocating for bullying prevention. PMID:24007839

  11. Support groups for older victims of domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R S

    2001-01-01

    A 1997 nationwide (US and Canada) search to identify support groups for older victims of domestic violence located 16 sponsored by domestic violence programs and 14 sponsored by aging services. Interviews with group leaders indicated more similarities than differences between the two types of sponsorship in group purpose, leadership, numbers served, content of support group sessions, and success in accomplishing goals. Resistance of elders to participate in a group experience was cited by leaders as a major barrier. Recommendations for future groups include insuring accessibility of meeting site; using a leader and co-leader, at least one of whom is older or familiar with aging issues; allocating resources for recruitment; and seeking a steady source of funding. A policy of collaboration among the state's domestic violence coalition, state unit on aging, adult protective services, and victim assistance program may help in promoting support group development and utilization.

  12. Victimization and the general theory of crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofziger, Stacey

    2009-01-01

    Theories of victimization developed independently of theories of offending, in spite of consistent findings of similarities between offenders and victims of crime. This study examines whether Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) general theory of crime, typically used to predict offending, also has relevance in understanding juvenile victimization. The data for this project are drawn from a sample of over 1,200 middle and high school students. Using structural equation models, the findings suggest that higher self-control does directly decrease victimization and that self-control also affects victimization indirectly though opportunities (peer deviance). Implications for the studies of victimization as well as the general theory of crime are discussed.

  13. The Violent Victimization of Children, Adolescents, Adults, and the Elderly: Situational Characteristics and Victim Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsay, James D; Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Tillyer, Rob; Ward, Jeffrey T

    2017-04-01

    This study explores the nature and outcome of violent incidents experienced by child, adolescent, adult, and elderly victims. Data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) are used to determine whether there are differences in the situational characteristics-including location, time of day, weapons, and the victim-offender relationship-of violent victimization experiences across the 4 age groups, including whether situational characteristics influence the likelihood of victim injury. Results indicate that victim injury is most prevalent among adult victims and that the situational characteristics of violent incidents vary by victim age, as do the correlates of victim injury. These findings suggest that of the nature of violent victimization should be examined within the context of victim age, and supports research by scholars who have proposed a model of developmental victimology to identify age-specific victimization patterns.

  14. Amazon Fund: financing deforestation avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Marcovitch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Fund, created in 2008 by the Brazilian Federal Government, is managed by Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES. It is a pioneering initiative to fundraise and manage financial resources to cut back deforestation and support sustainable development for 30 million inhabitants in the Amazon Biome. The Amazon Fund has already received more than R$ 1.7 billion in grants (about USD 787 million. This essay analyzes the Amazon Fund's governance and management with focus on its operation and from its stakeholders' perspectives. A combination of research methods includes: documental research, in-depth interviews, and speech analysis. The study offers a comparative analysis of strengths and weaknesses related to its governance. Furthermore, it proposes ways to improve its management towards greater effectiveness. The essay also includes an assessment of the government of Norway, a major donor to the fund. The governments of Norway and Germany, in partnership with Brazil, reveal how important it is to experiment with new means of international cooperation to successfully reduce greenhouse gas emissions through rainforest preservation.

  15. Men as Victims: "Victim" Identities, Gay Identities, and Masculinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The impact and meanings of homophobic violence on gay men's identities are explored with a particular focus on their identities as men and as gay men. Homosexuality can pose a challenge to conventional masculinities, and for some gay men, being victimized on account of sexual orientation reawakens conflicts about their masculinity that they…

  16. Suffering in Silence: The Male Incest Victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasjleti, Maria

    1980-01-01

    The reasons why boys who are victims of incest remain silent are explored in terms of the special meaning of victimization to males. Males' inability to express helplessness and vulnerability is identified as a major contributing factor. (CM)

  17. Danish mutual fund performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article provides the first independent performance analysis of Danish mutual funds. We analyse selectivity and market timing abilities for 71 mutual funds that have been in operation from 2001 to 2010. The results show great fund performance diversity. Half the funds have performed neutrally...

  18. Forgiveness: The Victim's Prerogative | Govier | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores and offers a qualified defence of the claim that the entitlement to forgive a wrongdoer belongs to the victim of the wrong. A summary account of forgiveness is given, followed by arguments in favor of the victim's prerogative to forgive. Primary, or direct victims are then distinguished from secondary and ...

  19. Prevention of victimization following sexual assaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria; Sidenius, Katrine

    2004-01-01

    Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen is a centre for interdisciplinary research and practice. Goals of the centre are to contribute to the documentation of victimization and to prevent further victimization. Research at the centre aims at the examination of the diversity of conditions...

  20. Sexual victimization, partner aggression and alcohol consumption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the relationship sexual victimization (both childhood sexual victimization and adult sexual victimization), aggression and alcohol consumption. The data for this research is from the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: an International Study (GENACIS). A random sample of 2070 adults (53.8% males and ...

  1. Victims and their defenders : A dyadic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sainio, Miia; Veenstra, René; Huitsing, Gijs; Salmivalli, Christina

    This study focused on the dyadic defending relationships of victimized children in grades 3, 4, and 5 (N = 7481 children from 356 school classes, mean ages 10-12 years). Most of the victims (72.3%) had at least one defender. Being defended was positively related to victims' adjustment and social

  2. Systemic Patterns in Bullying and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, John H. F.

    2006-01-01

    Using a new non-anonymous questionnaire and a nomination method by which victims were asked to name their aggressors, Chan (2002) collated the responses from individual victims to produce name-clusters that were studied for systemic patterns of bullying and victimization within the whole-school community. Three such patterns emerged: serial…

  3. Hidden Forms of Victimization in Elementary Students Involved in Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Melissa K.; Finkelhor, David; Kantor, Glenda Kaufman

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the possibility that bullies, victims of bullying, and bully-victims (i.e., youth who both perpetrate and are victims of bullying) are at increased risk for victimization in four other domains: conventional crime, child maltreatment, sexual victimization, and witnessing or indirect victimization. It also evaluated the extent to…

  4. Cyberbullying: who are the victims? A comparison of victimization in internet chatrooms and victimization in school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katzer, C.; Fetchenhauer, D.; Belschak, F.

    2009-01-01

    Bullying is not a phenomenon exclusive to the school environment. Pupils also become victims of verbal aggression (teasing, threats, insults, or harassment) in the context of internet chatrooms. The present study addresses the following questions: (1) How often does bullying occur in internet

  5. Disaster Victim Identification: quality management from an odontology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, A W; James, H; Berketa, J W

    2012-06-01

    The desired outcome of the victim identification component of a mass fatality event is correct identification of deceased persons in a timely manner allowing legal and social closure for relatives of the victims. Quality Management across all aspects of the Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) structure facilitates this process. Quality Management in forensic odontology is the understanding and implementation of a methodology that ensures collection, collation and preservation of the maximum amount of available dental data and the appropriate interpretation of that data to achieve outcomes to a standard expected by the DVI instructing authority, impacted parties and the forensic odontology specialist community. Managerial pre-event planning responsibility, via an odontology coordinator, includes setting a chain of command, developing and reviewing standard operating procedures (SOP), ensuring use of current scientific methodologies and staff training. During a DVI managerial responsibility includes tailoring SOP to the specific situation, ensuring member accreditation, encouraging inter-disciplinary cooperation and ensuring security of odontology data and work site. Individual responsibilities include the ability to work within a team, accept peer review, and share individual members' skill sets to achieve the best outcome. These responsibilities also include adherence to chain of command and the SOP, maintenance of currency of knowledge and recognition of professional boundaries of expertise. This article highlights issues of Quality Management pertaining particularly to forensic odontology but can also be extrapolated to all DVI actions.

  6. [Fertility preservation in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Laure; Grémeau, Anne-Sophie; Vorilhon, Solène; Pons, Hanae; Chabrot, Cécile; Grèze, Victoria; Pouly, Jean-Luc; Brugnon, Florence

    2018-01-01

    Since the improvement of cancer diagnosis and treatment, survival rates of these patients increase. Gonadal damages are frequent consequences of cancer treatments with different evidence of impaired fertility. In this context, fertility preservation should be proposed to patients exposed to potentially gonadotoxic treatments. Different preservation approaches may be proposed depending on patient age, sex, cancer type and type of treatment. The indications of fertility preservation depend on sexual maturity. In young girls, ovarian cortex cryopreservation is the only technique feasible in order to preserve their reproductive potential. Vitrification of oocytes which needs ovarian stimulation or oocytes in vitro maturation is becoming more commonly performed for pubertal women to preserve their fertility. Ovarian cortex freezing could be offered to emergency fertility preservation of adult female cancer patients. In prepubertal boys, testicular tissue cryopreservation is the only line treatment for fertility preservation. For future use, various approaches are being evaluated such as spermatogonial stem cell injection or in vitro maturation. Cryopreservation of spermatozoa is, today, an established and successful technique for male adults. When there are no spermatozoa in ejaculate, sperm can be retrieved after treatment of testicular biopsy. The French bioethics law clearly indicates that fertility preservation should be proposed to patients exposed to potentially gonadotoxic treatment. Today, many approaches are possible. Fertility preservation indications are based on multidisciplinary consultations within platforms for the fertility preservation in order to optimize the patient care. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Preserving Digital Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a single-volume introduction to the principles, strategies and practices currently applied by librarians and recordkeeping professionals to the critical issue of preservation of digital information. It incorporates practice from both the recordkeeping and the library communities, taking stock of current knowledge about digital preservation and describing recent and current research, to provide a framework for reflecting on the issues that digital preservation raises in professional practice.

  8. The dilemmas of victim positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2015-01-01

    Based on a conceptualization of bullying and relational aggression in groups as an effect of social dynamics rather than individual deficits – this article reflects upon some of the intricate mechanisms and dilemmas involved in victim positioning. Victims of bullying and relational aggression often....... The hopes of (eventual) social belonging may in that sense work paradoxically as a strong agent in the denial of oppression and marginalization. The article is theoretically informed by poststructuralist conceptualizations and grounded in cases of bullying and marginalization (one of them involving rape......). One case is taken from the empirical data produced by the author and a research project on bullying among children (eXbus: Exploring Bullying in School). Two other cases are borrowed from publications of respectively B. Davies from Australia and A. Evaldsson from Shweden. The article opens insights...

  9. Models of resistance: "victims" lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Theresa M

    2006-01-01

    This author has found through professional and personal experience that throughout the world, women directly affected by injustice have led demands for accountability. The purpose of this article is to challenge mainstream human rights groups to create a different type of partnership between themselves and the people for whom they advocate by seeking the involvement of "victims", including leaders of successful "victim-led" initiatives. This approach will result in more appropriate policy recommendations and will enhance both entities' capacity for outreach. Moreover, it will bring mainstream human rights organizations into greater compliance with their own stated values, as well as exemplifying the same respect, flexibility, and accommodation that these groups often recommend to governmental, political, and institutional entities.

  10. Imaging findings of avalanche victims

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Alexandra B.; Grosse, Claudia A.; Anderson, Suzanne [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Diagnostic, Pediatric and Interventional Radiology, Berne (Switzerland); Steinbach, Lynne S. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Zimmermann, Heinz [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Trauma and Emergency Medicine, Berne (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    Skiing and hiking outside the boundaries remains an attractive wilderness activity despite the danger of avalanches. Avalanches occur on a relatively frequent basis and may be devastating. Musculoskeletal radiologists should be acquainted with these injuries. Fourteen avalanche victims (11 men and 3 women; age range 17-59 years, mean age 37.4 years) were air transported to a high-grade trauma centre over a period of 2 years. Radiographs, CT and MR images were prospectively evaluated by two observers in consensus. Musculoskeletal findings (61%) were more frequent than extraskeletal findings (39%). Fractures were most commonly seen (36.6%), involving the spine (14.6%) more frequently than the extremities (9.8%). Blunt abdominal and thoracic trauma were the most frequent extraskeletal findings. A wide spectrum of injuries can be found in avalanche victims, ranging from extremity fractures to massive polytrauma. Asphyxia remains the main cause of death along with hypoxic brain injury and hypothermia. (orig.)

  11. BlogForever: Intelligent Blog Preservation

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    A new EU co-funded project, BlogForever, has set its sights on a developing region of the Internet: the blogosphere. With society growing ever more online-oriented, blogs have become rich repositories of cultural, scientific and social information. The BlogForever software platform is designed to manage and distribute this content and preserve it for posterity.   The BlogForever project will gather blog content into a safeguarded, online archive, turning the once temporary into a well-preserved resource. The project is scheduled for completion in 2013, with partners spread across 12 different companies, universities and research organisations, including CERN. While the CERN team is primarily involved in the technical aspect of the project – designing and implementing the repository – it will also contribute to the preservation guidelines that will be used to choose what content will be kept. “Building on the success of Invenio, the digital library software used by th...

  12. Fanconi Anemia Research Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support Publications Fundraising News What is the Fanconi Anemia Research Fund? Fanconi anemia is an inherited disease that can lead to ... population. Lynn and Dave Frohnmayer started the Fanconi Anemia Research Fund, in 1989 to find effective treatments ...

  13. The funding black hole

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Two physics students at the University of Bristol have organised a petition against the recently-announced funding cut of 80 million by the body that funds physics research in the UK, the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC).

  14. Rating mutual funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Rangvid, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    obtained a risk-adjusted excess return that is approximately 3-4 percentage points higher per annum than if the funds with the highest costs had been invested in. We compare the atpRating with the Morningstar Rating. We show that one reason why the atpRating and the Morningstar Rating contain different...... the return of a fund in a certain year generally contains only little information about the future return that the fund will generate. Finally, we have information on the investments in different mutual funds made by a small subgroup of investors known to have been exposed to both the atp......We develop a new rating of mutual funds: the atpRating. The atpRating assigns crowns to each individual mutual fund based upon the costs an investor pays when investing in the fund in relation to what it would cost to invest in the fund's peers. Within each investment category, the rating assigns...

  15. Rating mutual funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Rangvid, Jesper

    obtained an annual risk-adjusted excess return that is approximately 3-4 percentage points higher per annum than if the funds with the highest costs had been invested in. We compare the atpRating with the Morningstar Rating. We show that one reason why the atpRating and the Morningstar Rating contain......, whereas the return of a fund in a certain year generally contains only little information about the future return that the fund will generate. Finally, we have information on the investments in different mutual funds made by a small subgroup of investors known to have been exposed to both the atp......We develop a new rating of mutual funds: the atpRating. The atpRating assigns crowns to each individual mutual fund based upon the costs an investor pays when investing in the fund in relation to what it would cost to invest in the fund's peers. Within each investment category, the rating assigns...

  16. The complexity of victim-questioning attitudes by rape victim advocates: exploring some gray areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Shana L

    2012-12-01

    Despite efforts to educate and create community awareness, rape myths and victim-blaming attitudes persist in society. This research explores whether advocates express victim-questioning attitudes or questions, negative judgment, or frustration regarding victims' behavior or choices. Data from interviews with 58 advocates reveal that the majority (76%) of advocates never expressed any victim-questioning attitudes during the interview. However, responses from 14 advocates (24%) show that victim-questioning has evolved into a much more complex, subtle form than historical victim blaming or acceptance of rape myths.

  17. Big Five Personality Traits of Cybercrime Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Weijer, Steve G A; Leukfeldt, E Rutger

    2017-07-01

    The prevalence of cybercrime has increased rapidly over the last decades and has become part of the everyday life of citizens. It is, therefore, of great importance to gain more knowledge on the factors related to an increased or decreased likelihood of becoming a cybercrime victim. The current study adds to the existing body of knowledge using a large representative sample of Dutch individuals (N = 3,648) to study the relationship between cybercrime victimization and the key traits from the Big Five model of personality (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience). First, multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between the personality traits and three victim groups, that is, cybercrime victims versus nonvictims, traditional crime victims versus nonvictims, and cybercrime victims versus traditional crime victims. Next, logistic regression analyses were performed to predict victimization of cyber-dependent crimes (i.e., hacking and virus infection) and cyber-enabled crimes (i.e., online intimidation, online consumer fraud, and theft from bank account). The analyses show that personality traits are not specifically associated with cybercrime victimization, but rather with victimization in general. Only those with higher scores on emotional stability were less likely to become a victim of cybercrime than traditional crime. Furthermore, the results indicate that there are little differences between personality traits related to victimization of cyber-enabled and cyber-dependent crimes. Only individuals with higher scores on openness to experience have higher odds of becoming a victim of cyber-enabled crimes.

  18. Environmental education on wood preservatives and preservative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development and use of wood preservatives in Nigeria should address not only the cost and demand functions but also the potential hazards in environmental equations. Forest products specialists are often asked about the perceived risks and environmental costs of treated wood products. Evidently, the civil society is ...

  19. Picking Funds with Confidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Niels Strange; Lunde, Asger; Timmermann, Allan

    identified ex-ante as being superior earn substantially higher risk-adjusted returns than top funds identified by conventional alpha ranking methods. Importantly, we find strong evidence of variation in the breadth of the set of funds identified as superior, as well as fluctuations in the style and industry...... exposures of such funds over time and across different volatility states....

  20. Cost Model for Digital Preservation: Cost of Digital Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The Danish Ministry of Culture has funded a project to set up a model for costing preservation of digital materials held by national cultural heritage institutions. The overall objective of the project was to increase cost effectiveness of digital preservation activities and to provide a basis...... for comparing and estimating future cost requirements for digital preservation. In this study we describe an activity-based costing methodology for digital preservation based on the Open Archice Information System (OAIS) Reference Model. Within this framework, which we denote the Cost Model for Digital...... Preservation (CMDP), the focus is on costing the functional entity Preservation Planning from the OAIS and digital migration activities. In order to estimate these costs we have identified cost-critical activities by analysing the functions in the OAIS model and the flows between them. The analysis has been...

  1. A new award for the CERN Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the CERN Pension Fund was awarded the 2013 Investment and Pensions Europe (IPE) Award for “Best Use of Equities”. IPE is the leading European Pension Fund industry publication.   The award recognized CERN’s implementation of capital preservation principles in equities, referring in particular to CERN’s innovation with the development of “asymmetric” equity strategies. The awards were judged by a panel of 65 European pension fund executives, experts and consultants. In addition, CERN was selected by the judges as a finalist for “Best Public Pension Fund” in Europe.  This award was won by the UK government’s Pension Protection Fund.

  2. Mean ages of homicide victims and victims of homicide-suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, F Stephen; Tankersley, William B

    2010-02-01

    Using Riedel and Zahn's 1994 reformatted version of an FBI database, the mean age of homicide victims in 2,175 homicide-suicides (4,350 deaths) was compared with that of all other victims of homicides reported for the USA from 1968 to 1975. The overall mean age of homicide victims in homicide-suicides was 1 yr. greater than for victims of homicides not followed by suicides, whereas the mean age for both male and female homicide-suicide victims was, respectively, 3 yr. less and greater than the other homicide victims. The mean age of Black homicide victims of homicide-suicides was 2.4 yr. less than that for Black victims of other homicides, whereas the means for Black and White male homicide victims in homicide-suicides were, respectively, about 4 and 5 yr. less than for victims of other homicides. Also, the mean age of White female homicide victims in homicide-suicides was more than two years greater than for female victims of homicides not followed by suicides. When both sex and race were considered, the mean age for those killed in homicide-suicides relative to those killed in homicides not followed by suicides may represent subpopulations with different mean ages of victims.

  3. Performance Evaluations and Victim Satisfaction With State Compensation for Violent Crime: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, M J J; Koster, N N; Van Heugten, J

    2015-07-29

    Satisfaction with a particular good or service represents an affective state in response to an individual's evaluation of the performance of that good or service. This evaluation involves a comparison between perceived actual performance and prior expectations. The current study used this theoretical idea to study violent crime victims' levels of satisfaction with services provided by a Dutch state compensation scheme. One hundred and seventy-seven victims of violent crime who had applied for compensation from the Dutch Violent Offences Compensation Fund (DVOCF) participated in two brief telephone interviews: one before receipt of the fund's decision upon their request for compensation and one after receipt of that decision. Based on the theories of distributive and procedural justice, measurement of prior expectations was differentiated in expectations about receipt of compensation, treatment by fund workers, and information provision. Results suggested that satisfaction with the DVOCF depended on fulfillment of expectations about treatment by fund workers and information provision, but not on fulfillment of expectations about receipt of compensation. Other predictors of victim satisfaction were as follows: duration of the application procedure, approval upon request for compensation, and satisfaction assessed during the first interview. Results were discussed in light of theory, policy implications, study limitations, and future research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Are fund of hedge fund returns asymmetric?

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Margaret; Hutson, Elaine; Stevenson, Max

    2004-01-01

    We examine the return distributions of 332 funds of hedge funds and associated indices. Over half of the sample is significantly skewed according to the skewness statistic, and these are split 50/50 positive and negative. However, we argue that the skewness statistic can lead to erroneous inferences regarding the nature of the return distribution, because the test statistic is based on the normal distribution. Using a series of tests that make minimal assumptions about the shape of the ...

  5. Grafts for Ridge Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamjoom, Amal; Cohen, Robert E

    2015-08-07

    Alveolar ridge bone resorption is a biologic phenomenon that occurs following tooth extraction and cannot be prevented. This paper reviews the vertical and horizontal ridge dimensional changes that are associated with tooth extraction. It also provides an overview of the advantages of ridge preservation as well as grafting materials. A Medline search among English language papers was performed in March 2015 using alveolar ridge preservation, ridge augmentation, and various graft types as search terms. Additional papers were considered following the preliminary review of the initial search that were relevant to alveolar ridge preservation. The literature suggests that ridge preservation methods and augmentation techniques are available to minimize and restore available bone. Numerous grafting materials, such as autografts, allografts, xenografts, and alloplasts, currently are used for ridge preservation. Other materials, such as growth factors, also can be used to enhance biologic outcome.

  6. Grafts for Ridge Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Jamjoom

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar ridge bone resorption is a biologic phenomenon that occurs following tooth extraction and cannot be prevented. This paper reviews the vertical and horizontal ridge dimensional changes that are associated with tooth extraction. It also provides an overview of the advantages of ridge preservation as well as grafting materials. A Medline search among English language papers was performed in March 2015 using alveolar ridge preservation, ridge augmentation, and various graft types as search terms. Additional papers were considered following the preliminary review of the initial search that were relevant to alveolar ridge preservation. The literature suggests that ridge preservation methods and augmentation techniques are available to minimize and restore available bone. Numerous grafting materials, such as autografts, allografts, xenografts, and alloplasts, currently are used for ridge preservation. Other materials, such as growth factors, also can be used to enhance biologic outcome.

  7. Victim's Rights - Comparative Approach within EU Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pocora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Usually is talking about offender rights and rarely about victim's rights. This study aims to analyse victim's rights especially in Romanian legislation from all points of view. Having involuntary fallen victim to crime, the person is often unaware of what information is available. It is therefore important that the onus is not put on the victim to request a certain piece of information. Victims of crimes need to have their important role in the criminal proceedings and he or she has to know about the extension of them rights. Not least, the study is focus on the right of the victim to receive information, not to be made responsible for the practicalities surrounding its delivery.

  8. Self-preserving cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvaresou, A; Papageorgiou, S; Tsirivas, E; Protopapa, E; Kintziou, H; Kefala, V; Demetzos, C

    2009-06-01

    Preservatives are added to products for two reasons: first, to prevent microbial spoilage and therefore to prolong the shelf life of the product; second, to protect the consumer from a potential infection. Although chemical preservatives prevent microbial growth, their safety is questioned by a growing segment of consumers. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. In these formulations traditional/chemical preservatives have been replaced by other cosmetic ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to the Annex VI of the Commission Directive 76/768/EEC and the amending directives (2003/15/EC, 2007/17/EC and 2007/22/EC). 'Hurdle Technology', a technology that has been used for the control of product safety in the food industry since 1970s, has also been applied for the production of self-preserving cosmetics. 'Hurdle Technology' is a term used to describe the intelligent combination of different preservation factors or hurdles to deteriorate the growth of microorganisms. Adherence to current good manufacturing practice, appropriate packaging, careful choice of the form of the emulsion, low water activity and low or high pH values are significant variables for the control of microbial growth in cosmetic formulations. This paper describes the application of the basic principles of 'Hurdle Technology' in the production of self-preserving cosmetics. Multifunctional antimicrobial ingredients and plant-derived essential oils and extracts that are used as alternative or natural preservatives and are not listed in Annex VI of the Cosmetic Directive are also reported.

  9. Offshore Investment Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Jin Wei

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Offshore investment funds are alleged to have engaged in trading behavior that is different from their onshore counterparts because they may be subject to less supervision and regulation. In particular, they may trade more intensely. They could also pursue more aggressively certain trading strategies such as positive feedback trading or herding that could contribute to a greater volatility in the market. Using a unique data set, this chapter compares the trading behavior in the Korean stock market between offshore investment funds with their onshore counterparts registered in the US and UK. There are a number of interesting findings. First, there is indeed evidence suggesting that the offshore funds trade more intensely than their onshore counterparts. Second, however, there is no evidence that the offshore funds engage in positive feedback trading. In contrast, there is strong evidence that the funds from the U.S. and U.K. do. Third, while offshore funds do herd, they do so far less than onshore funds in the U.S. or UK. Fourth, offshore funds hold less glamour stocks (e.g. stocks with high P/E in their portfolio than funds in the U.S. or U.K. do. Moreover, flight to glamour stocks during the in-crisis period is less evident in the case of offshore funds. In sum, offshore funds are no especially worrisome monsters.

  10. Effects of perpetrator gender and victim sexuality on blame toward male victims of sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Pollard, Paul; Archer, John

    2006-06-01

    Most researchers who have investigated attributions of blame toward victims in sexual-assault depictions have considered only female victims of male perpetrators. Few researchers have investigated the effects of perpetrator gender or victim sexual orientation on blame attributions toward male victims. The present authors investigated those two variables. Participants were 161 undergraduates at a British university in social science courses, each of whom read one scenario of a set in which perpetrator gender and victim sexual orientation were varied between subjects, and who completed a questionnaire measuring their blame toward the victim and the perpetrator. The present results showed that male participants blamed the victim more if a person of the gender that he was normally attracted to assaulted him. Male participants also regarded the female perpetrator in more favorable terms than they did the male perpetrator regardless of the victim's sexual orientation. The authors discussed the present results in relation to gender role stereotypes.

  11. Victimization, polyvictimization , and health in Swedish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aho N

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nikolas Aho, Marie Proczkowska Björklund, Carl Göran Svedin Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden Abstract: The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16–20 years, standard deviation =0.652, of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV] proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization. Keywords: victimization, childhood trauma, psychological symptoms, JVQ, TSCC

  12. Peer and self-reported victimization: Do non-victimized students give victimization nominations to classmates who are self-reported victims?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Beau; Barrera, Davide; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits; van der Meulen, Matty; Vermande, Marjolijn; Aleva, Elisabeth; Sentse, Miranda; Veenstra, René

    2015-08-01

    Using data from 2413 Dutch first-year secondary school students (M age=13.27, SD age=0.51, 49.0% boys), this study investigated as to what extent students who according to their self-reports had not been victimized (referred to as reporters) gave victimization nominations to classmates who according to their self-reports had been victimized (referred to as receivers). Using a dyadic approach, characteristics of the reporter-receiver dyad (i.e., gender similarity) and of the reporter (i.e., reporters' behavior during bullying episodes) that were possibly associated with reporter-receiver agreement were investigated. Descriptive analyses suggested that numerous students who were self-reported victims were not perceived as victimized by their non-victimized classmates. Three-level logistic regression models (reporter-receiver dyads nested in reporters within classrooms) demonstrated greater reporter-receiver agreement in same-gender dyads, especially when the reporter and the receiver were boys. Furthermore, reporters who behaved as outsiders during bullying episodes (i.e., reporters who actively shied away from the bullying) were less likely to agree on the receiver's self-reported victimization, and in contrast, reporters who behaved as defenders (i.e., reporters who helped and supported victims) were more likely to agree on the victimization. Moreover, the results demonstrated that reporters gave fewer victimization nominations to receivers who reported they had been victimized sometimes than to receivers who reported they had been victimized often/very often. Finally, this study suggested that reporter-receiver agreement may not only depend on characteristics of the reporter-receiver dyad and of the reporter, but on classroom characteristics as well (e.g., the number of students in the classroom). Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Entrapment of Victims of Spousal Abuse in Ghana: A Discursive Analysis of Family Identity and Agency of Battered Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei, Stephen Baffour

    2015-06-02

    Drawing on discursive psychology and positioning theory, this study explores the influence of cultural and familial value orientations on battered women's identity, agency, and decision to leave or stay in abusive conjugal relationship in Ghana. Two semi-structured focus group discussions and four in-depth personal interviews were conducted with 16 victims of husband-to-wife abuse from rural and urban Ghana. The findings indicate that entrapment of victims of spousal abuse in Ghana reflects their social embeddedness and that battered women's identities and agency are expressed in the context of familial and cultural value orientations. The primacy of family identity and victims' apparent implicit moral obligation to preserve the social image of their extended family influence their entrapment. Participants' discursive accounts further suggest that stay or leave decisions of battered women in Ghana reflect a joint product of negotiated agency between victims and their extended family. It is thus argued that the agency of battered women in Ghana is not constituted by individual psychological states or motives, but instead, viewed as a property of victims who exercise it in a given relational context, and partly constituted by familial relationships and identities. The study suggests that intervention initiatives in Ghana should focus on the phenomenon of conjugal violence beyond immediate victims to include families and the larger communities in which victims are embedded. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…

  15. Moral Reasoning and Emotion Attributions of Adolescent Bullies, Victims, and Bully-Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perren, Sonja; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline; Malti, Tina; Hymel, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated different facets of moral development in bullies, victims, and bully-victims among Swiss adolescents. Extending previous research, we focused on both bullying and victimization in relation to adolescents' morally disengaged and morally responsible reasoning as well as moral emotion attributions. A total of 516 adolescents…

  16. Sovereign Wealth Funds: Issue of transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Daliborka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of the paper includes Sovereign Wealth Funds and the formation of the first regulatory framework for their investment activities. Sovereign Wealth Funds invested a significant amount of money in Western financial institutions during the global financial crisis and thus played a crucial role in the preservation and stabilization of the global financial system. However, at the same time, a large gap between the financial power of Sovereign Wealth Funds and the level of their transparency was noted. The need to improve the transparency of Sovereign Wealth Funds has been recognized by international institutions, the OECD and the IMF, which initiated the formulation of the first international regulatory framework regarding the operations of these types of funds. The current international regulatory framework represents a sufficient basis for the gradual improvement of transparency, but because of its non-binding and voluntary nature, certain issues such as the protection of national security interests remain open. Therefore, the solutions can be sought through a process of continuous improvement of international regulation as well as strengthening cooperation between Sovereign Wealth Funds and governments of countries in which they invest.

  17. Chronopolis Digital Preservation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Minor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chronopolis Digital Preservation Initiative, one of the Library of Congress’ latest efforts to collect and preserve at-risk digital information, has completed its first year of service as a multi-member partnership to meet the archival needs of a wide range of domains.Chronopolis is a digital preservation data grid framework developed by the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC at UC San Diego, the UC San Diego Libraries (UCSDL, and their partners at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR in Colorado and the University of Maryland's Institute for Advanced Computer Studies (UMIACS.Chronopolis addresses a critical problem by providing a comprehensive model for the cyberinfrastructure of collection management, in which preserved intellectual capital is easily accessible, and research results, education material, and new knowledge can be incorporated smoothly over the long term. Integrating digital library, data grid, and persistent archive technologies, Chronopolis has created trusted environments that span academic institutions and research projects, with the goal of long-term digital preservation.A key goal of the Chronopolis project is to provide cross-domain collection sharing for long-term preservation. Using existing high-speed educational and research networks and mass-scale storage infrastructure investments, the partnership is leveraging the data storage capabilities at SDSC, NCAR, and UMIACS to provide a preservation data grid that emphasizes heterogeneous and highly redundant data storage systems.In this paper we will explore the major themes within Chronopolis, including:a The philosophy and theory behind a nationally federated data grid for preservation. b The core tools and technologies used in Chronopolis. c The metadata schema that is being developed within Chronopolis for all of the data elements. d Lessons learned from the first year of the project.e Next steps in digital preservation using Chronopolis: how we

  18. Analysis Preservation in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Cranmer, Kyle; The ATLAS collaboration; Jones, Roger; South, David

    2015-01-01

    Long before data taking ATLAS established a policy that all analyses need to be preserved. In the initial data-taking period, this has been achieved by various tools and techniques. ATLAS is now reviewing the analysis preservation with the aim to bring coherence and robustness to the process and with a clearer view of the level of reproducibility that is reasonably achievable. The secondary aim is to reduce the load on the analysts. Once complete, this will serve for our internal preservation needs but also provide a basis for any subsequent sharing of analysis results with external parties.

  19. Ultrametricity in fund of funds diversification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, M. A.; Susinno, G.

    2004-12-01

    Minimum market transparency requirements impose hedge fund (HF) managers to use the statement declared strategy in practice. However, each declared strategy may actually generate a multiplicity of implemented management decisions. Is then the “actual ” strategy the same as the “announced” strategy? Can the actual strategy be monitored or compared to the actual strategy of HF belonging to the same “announced” class? Can the announced or actual strategy be used as a quantitative argument in the fund of funds policy? With the appropriate metric, it is possible to draw a minimum spanning tree (MST) to emphasize the similarity structure that could be hidden in the raw correlation matrix of HF returns.

  20. Reporting Crime Victimizations to the Police and the Incidence of Future Victimizations: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranapurwala, Shabbar I; Berg, Mark T; Casteel, Carri

    2016-01-01

    Law enforcement depends on cooperation from the public and crime victims to protect citizens and maintain public safety; however, many crimes are not reported to police because of fear of repercussions or because the crime is considered trivial. It is unclear how police reporting affects the incidence of future victimization. To evaluate the association between reporting victimization to police and incident future victimization. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using National Crime Victimization Survey 2008-2012 data. Participants were 12+ years old household members who may or may not be victimized, were followed biannually for 3 years, and who completed at least one follow-up survey after their first reported victimization between 2008 and 2012. Crude and adjusted generalized linear mixed regression for survey data with Poisson link were used to compare rates of future victimization. Out of 18,657 eligible participants, 41% participants reported to their initial victimization to police and had a future victimization rate of 42.8/100 person-years (PY) (95% CI: 40.7, 44.8). The future victimization rate of those who did not report to the police (59%) was 55.0/100 PY (95% CI: 53.0, 57.0). The adjusted rate ratio comparing police reporting to not reporting was 0.78 (95%CI: 0.72, 0.84) for all future victimizations, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.90) for interpersonal violence, 0.73 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.78) for thefts, and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.07) for burglaries. Reporting victimization to police is associated with fewer future victimization, underscoring the importance of police reporting in crime prevention. This association may be attributed to police action and victim services provisions resulting from reporting.

  1. A Fund of Wisdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Broome, André

    2006-01-01

    The International Monetary Fund spends most of its time monitoring its member states' economic performance and advising on institutional change. While much of the literature sees the Fund as a policy enforcer in "emerging market" and "frontier" economies, little attention has been paid to exploring...... for change on the basis of like-characteristics among economies. Many Western states, particularly small open economies, consider the Fund's advice as important not only for technical know-how, but because Fund assessments are significant to international and domestic political audiences. This article traces...... the Fund's advice on taxation and monetary reform to two coordinated market economies, Denmark and Sweden, and two liberal market economies, Australia and New Zealand from 1975 to 2004. It maps how the Fund advocated "policy revolutions" and "policy recombinations" during this period, advice that coincided...

  2. Funding begets biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrends, Antje; Burgess, Neil David; Gereau, Roy E.

    2011-01-01

    . Location Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania. Methods We analysed time series data (1980–2007) of funding (n = 134 projects) and plant species records (n = 75,631) from a newly compiled database. Perceived plant diversity, over three decades, is regressed against funding and environmental factors......, and variances decomposed in partial regressions. Cross-correlations are used to assess whether perceived biodiversity drives funding or vice versa. Results Funding explained 65% of variation in perceived biodiversity patterns – six times more variation than accounted for by 34 candidate environmental factors...... facilitating further research that results in more species discoveries. Here, we test whether there is circularity between funding and perceived biodiversity, which may reinforce the conservation status of areas already perceived to be important while other areas with less initial funding may remain overlooked...

  3. SRI funds: Nomen est omen

    OpenAIRE

    Kempf, Alexander; Osthoff, Peer

    2007-01-01

    We test the frequently made claim that SRI funds are conventional funds in disguise. For this purpose, we compare the portfolio holdings of SRI funds to conventional funds concerning their social and environmental standards. Our empirical study of US equity funds shows that SRI funds have a significantly higher ethical ranking than standard funds, i.e., they are not conventional funds in disguise. This result holds for all ethical criteria we investigate. It is stable over time and holds afte...

  4. CERN Pension Fund move

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Pension Fund has moved to new offices on the 5th floor of Building 5. The Benefits Service of the Fund is now located in Offices 5-5-017 - 5-5-021 - 5-5-023. We remind you that the office hours are: Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday from 10 am to 12 am and from 3 pm to 5 pm. The Fund would like to take this opportunity to warmly thank all the persons involved in the relocation.

  5. Data Preservation at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Holzner, André G; Igo-Kemenes, Peter; Maggi, Marcello; Malgeri, Luca; Mele, Salvatore; Pape, Luc; Plane, David; Schröder, Matthias; Schwickerath, Ulrich; Tenchini, Roberto; Timmermans, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The four LEP experiments ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL successfully recorded e+e- collision data during the years 1989 to 2000. As part of the ordinary evolution in High Energy Physics, these experiments can not be repeated and their data is therefore unique. This article briefly reviews the data preservation efforts undertaken by the four experiments beyond the end of data taking. The current status of the preserved data and associated tools is summarised.

  6. Digital preservation for heritages

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    ""Digital Preservation for Heritages: Technologies and Applications"" provides a comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of digital technologies in the area of cultural heritage preservation, including digitalization, research aiding, conservation aiding, digital exhibition, and digital utilization. Processes, technical frameworks, key technologies, as well as typical systems and applications are discussed in the book. It is intended for researchers and students in the fields of computer science and technology, museology, and archaeology. Dr. Dongming Lu is a professor at College of Computer Sci

  7. Advances in lung preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machuca, Tiago N; Cypel, Marcelo; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2013-12-01

    After a brief review of conventional lung preservation, this article discusses the rationale behind ex vivo lung perfusion and how it has shifted the paradigm of organ preservation from conventional static cold ischemia to the utilization of functional normothermia, restoring the lung's own metabolism and its reparative processes. Technical aspects and previous clinical experience as well as opportunities to address specific donor organ injuries in a personalized medicine approach are also reviewed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. INDEXING AND INDEX FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKAN SARITAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the efficient market hypothesis believe that active portfolio management is largely wasted effort and unlikely to justify the expenses incurred. Therefore, they advocate a passive investment strategy that makes no attempt to outsmart the market. One common strategy for passive management is indexing where a fund is designed to replicate the performance of a broad-based index of stocks and bonds. Traditionally, indexing was used by institutional investors, but today, the use of index funds proliferated among individual investors. Over the years, both international and domestic index funds have disproportionately outperformed the market more than the actively managed funds have.

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Sibling Victimization Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne M.; Turner, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to document the prevalence and correlates of any past year sibling victimization, including physical, property, and psychological victimization, by a co-residing juvenile sibling across the spectrum of childhood from one month to 17 years of age. Methods: The National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence…

  10. A Transactional Model of Bullying and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Stelios N.; Fanti, Kostas A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and test a transactional model, based on longitudinal data, capable to describe the existing interrelation between maternal behavior and child bullying and victimization experiences over time. The results confirmed the existence of such a model for bullying, but not for victimization in terms of…

  11. Disasters, Victimization, and Children's Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Blease, Kathryn A.; Turner, Heather A.; Finkelhor, David

    2010-01-01

    In a representative sample of 2,030 U.S. children aged 2-17, 13.9% report lifetime exposure to disaster, and 4.1% report experiencing a disaster in the past year. Disaster exposure was associated with some forms of victimization and adversity. Victimization was associated with depression among 2- to 9-year-old disaster survivors, and with…

  12. Rape victim assessment: Findings by psychiatrists and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    valid at the lower end of the IQ range. The assessment of rape victims is a sensitive matter and poses a number of challenges to the clinician. Rape victims are often traumatised by their experience, and this can make them reluctant to talk about the incident. In a study done by Elklit et al.,[2] it was found that ~70% of sexual ...

  13. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD…

  14. Incest Victims: Inadequate Help by Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenken, Jos; Van Stolk, Bram

    1990-01-01

    Interviews with 130 Dutch professionals helping incest victims and 50 adult women who were incest victims as children found that assistance was hampered by institutional distrust, inability of professionals to stop ongoing incest, frequent breaking off of contact by the young girls, professionals' shortcomings in knowledge and skills, and…

  15. Associations between Peer Victimization and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Hong, Jun Sung; Rao, Mrinalini A.; Low, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the extant literature on the links between peer victimization and academic performance and engagement among children and adolescents. Although most of the research on this association is based on cross-sectional investigations, research using longitudinal designs is starting to point to the fact that peer victimization does…

  16. [The victim within the framework of criminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaro, P

    1978-01-01

    The Author makes a 'tour d'horizon', albeit summarized, of the problems brought about by the victim "from crime" in the exclusive picture of criminology. After defining the dogmatic relations between criminology and victimology, stating that such a (new) discipline highlights the entirety of the criminal event centering upon the dyad criminal-victim, the latest classifications of the victim viewed individually and also in his manifold relationships with the acting subject, are reviewed, in the attempt of identifying, on the basis of the various situations of victimization as they occur, if not some causal laws proper, at least some constants and some emerging lines susceptible of an in-depth analysis. After hinting to the problems brought about by the victim in the supranational prospect, and by the crimes so-called without a victim, the importance of the victim from the criminalistics and criminal execution angle, is outlined, and the Author closes up, by way of conclusion, and at the operational level, broadly hinting to the most suitable methods for the prevention and repairing in regard of the victims of crime.

  17. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  18. Relational Aggression and Victimization in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy

    2013-01-01

    For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…

  19. Sleep Loss and Partner Violence Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert; Shannon, Lisa; Logan, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    Intimate partner violence victimization has been associated with serious health problems among women, including many disorders that involve sleep disturbances. However, there has been only limited examination of sleep duration among women with victimization experiences. A total of 756 women with a domestic violence order (DVO) against a male…

  20. 78 FR 52877 - VOCA Victim Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... child abuse. In addition, the definition clarifies that child pornography related offenses are a form of... used terms, including ``crime victim'', ``State administering agency'', ``victim of child abuse'', and... Guidelines. OVC proposes a new definition of the undefined statutory term ``child abuse'' that is intended to...

  1. Emergency Care of the Snakebite Victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Carol N.

    1994-01-01

    Describes emergency care of snakebite victims, including noting signs and symptoms of venomous snakebites, keeping the victim calm, and seeking immediate medical attention. Provides information on variables that affect the amount of injected venom and how to distinguish nonpoisonous from poisonous snakes. (LP)

  2. Peer and self-reported victimization : Do non-victimized students give victimization nominations to classmates who are self-reported victims?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Beau; Barrera, Davide; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits; van der Meulen, Matty; Vermande, Marjolijn; Aleva, Elisabeth; Sentse, Miranda; Veenstra, Rene

    Using data from 2413 Dutch first-year secondary school students (M age = 13.27, SD age = 0.51, 49.0% boys), this study investigated as to what extent students who according to their self-reports had not been victimized (referred to as reporters) gave victimization nominations to classmates who

  3. Peer and self-reported victimization : Do non-victimized students give victimization nominations to classmates who are self-reported victims?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Beau; Barrera, Davide; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits; van der Meulen, Matty; Vermande, Marjolijn; Aleva, Liesbeth; Sentse, Miranda; Veenstra, René

    2015-01-01

    Using data from 2413 Dutch first-year secondary school students (M age. = 13.27, SD age. = 0.51, 49.0% boys), this study investigated as to what extent students who according to their self-reports had not been victimized (referred to as reporters) gave victimization nominations to classmates who

  4. What Is Fertility Preservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Pharmacology Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a Study ... National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research (NCMRR) Center History Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOAs) for NCMRR Partners Training & ...

  5. Revealing Victimization: The Impact of Methodological Features in the National Crime Victimization Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jennifer Gatewood

    2017-08-01

    This study examines the impact of methodological features of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) on respondent willingness to report violent, serious violent, and property victimizations to the NCVS. Bounded and unbounded data from the 1999-2005 NCVS are used to create a longitudinal file of respondents, and survey-weighted logistic regression models are used to assess the factors associated with the reporting of victimization. Net of sociodemographic control variables, unbounded interviews produced higher estimates of serious violence (72%), violence (66%), and property victimization (67%). Mobile respondents reported higher estimates than nonmobile respondents of serious violence (48%), violence (35%), and property victimization (15%). Compared with in-person interviews, interviewing by telephone increased reporting for serious violence (7%), violence (12%), and property victimization (17%). This study highlights the importance of controlling for these factors in both longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses to estimate victimization risk.

  6. Sexual minority youth victimization and social support: the intersection of sexuality, gender, race, and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Deeanna M; O'Connell, Daniel J; Gealt, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    In comparison to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth are more likely to experience victimization. Multiple studies have connected anti-gay prejudice and anti-gay victimization to negative outcomes. Research shows that social support may protect sexual minorities from the harmful effects of anti-gay victimization. However, rates of victimization and the negative outcomes linked to sexual identity within the sexual minority community have been relatively unexplored. Using data from three years of statewide data from heterosexual and sexual minority adolescents in grades 9-12, this study examines victimization, substance use, suicidality, and access to social support by sexuality. Results indicate that sexual minority youth are at increased risk for victimization, substance use, suicidality, and social isolation compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Results also indicate that there is very little bivariate difference within the sexual minority community. Multivariate results indicate differences among sexual minorities' experiences with victimization and substance use.

  7. Stalking Victimization, Labeling, and Reporting: Findings From the NCVS Stalking Victimization Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Kim S; Cox, Amanda K

    2016-05-01

    Using the National Crime Victimization Survey 2006 Stalking Victimization Supplement (NCVS-SVS) and guided by Greenberg and Ruback's social influence model, this study examines the effects of individual (e.g., severity, sex, victim-offender relationship) and contextual (e.g., location) factors on stalking victimization risk, victim labeling and help seeking, and victim and third-party police contacts. Logistic regression results suggest individual and contextual characteristics matter. Consistent with prior research and the theoretical model, the positive effects of severity and sex (female) were significant across all dependent variables, whereas the interaction effect of victim-offender relationship and location held only for third-party police contacts. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Historic Preservation Information CFM Website

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA Historic Preservation Office keeps information about VA's programs to comply with Federal preservation requirements, and also interesting information about VA...

  9. Food Preservation beyond the Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, Phyllis

    1992-01-01

    Examines how current scientific knowledge of food preservation emerged from traditions handed down through the generations. Discusses various methods of preservation, their history, and current application. (LZ)

  10. National Education Trust Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapp, Milton J.

    1975-01-01

    A proposal from the governor of Pennsylvania for financing all levels of education through a National Education Trust Fund (NETF) that would operate as the present Federal Highway Trust Fund does on a revolving, self-liquidating basis with the cost of an individual's education repaid through a progressive education tax on income. (JT)

  11. New Funding Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Janet S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes five major developments that are changing the way schools are funded: Linking finance to achievement; changing demographics, such as fewer households with school-age children; teacher shortages, especially for certain fields and certain locations; funding technology; and school choice. (PKP)

  12. To Not Only Being Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Fantauzzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hannah Arendt is against the idea that Jews were only the victims of history. Starting from the idea that the Age of Enlightenment and the Jewish emancipation put the Jewish tradition and history in crisis, she is adamant that this same history is not only full of suffering, but includes  a hidden tradition of activism that is important to uncover and to claim. The aim of these pages is to analyse the Arendtian thinking of the 30s and 40s in order to show some elements that can help us to understand what the loss of humanity means today and to indicate the possibilities of claiming and recovering it.

  13. RELIGION AND DISASTER VICTIM IDENTIFICATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Jay; Domb, Abraham J

    2014-12-01

    Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) is a triangle, the components of which are secular law, religious law and custom and professional methods. In cases of single non-criminal deaths, identification often rests with a hospital or a medical authority. When dealing with criminal or mass death incidents, the law, in many jurisdictions, assigns identification to the coroner/medical examiner, who typically uses professional methods and only answers the religious requirements of the deceased's next-of-kin according to his personal judgment. This article discusses religious considerations regarding scientific methods and their limitations, as well as the ethical issues involved in the government coroner/medical examiner's becoming involved in clarifying and answering the next-of-kin's religious requirements.

  14. Main principles and approaches on the Ingushetia republic biodiversity preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. U. Tochiev

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the basic principles and approaches of the maintenance, developing and preservation of Ingushetia biodiversity, which is presented by lots of ecological-fauna and fauna-genetic groups of ancient genetic fund. It has many features presenting a big practical and theoretical interest.

  15. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mount, Richard; Brooks, Travis; /SLAC; Le Diberder, Francois; /Orsay, LAL; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Neal, Homer; /SLAC; Bellis, Matt; /Stanford U.; Boehnlein, Amber; Votava, Margaret; White, Vicky; Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab; Konigsberg, Jacobo; /Florida U.; Roser, Robert; Snider, Rick; /Fermilab; Lucchesi, Donatella; /INFN, Padua; Denisov, Dmitri; /Fermilab; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; /Manchester U.; Li, Qizhong; /Fermilab; Varnes, Erich; /Arizona U.; Jonckheere, Alan; /Fermilab; Gasthuber, Martin; Gulzow, Volker; /DESY /Marseille, CPPM /Dortmund U. /DESY /Gent U. /DESY, Zeuthen /KEK, Tsukuba /CC, Villeurbanne /CERN /INFN, Bari /Gjovik Coll. Engineering /Karlsruhe, Forschungszentrum /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Carleton U. /Cornell U. /Rutherford

    2012-04-03

    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group. Large data sets accumulated during many years of detector operation at particle accelerators are the heritage of experimental HEP. These data sets offer unique opportunities for future scientific studies, sometimes long after the shut-down of the actual experiments: new theoretical input; new experimental results and analysis techniques; the quest for high-sensitivity combined analyses; the necessity of cross checks. In many cases, HEP data sets are unique; they cannot and most likely will not be superseded by data from newer generations of experiments. Once lost, or in an unusable state, HEP data samples cannot be reasonably recovered. The cost of conserving this heritage through a collaborative, target-oriented long-term data preservation program would be small, compared to the costs of past experimental projects or to the efforts to re-do experiments. However, this cost is not negligible, especially for collaborations close or past their end-date. The preservation of HEP data would provide today's collaborations with a secure way to complete their data analysis and enable them to seize new scientific opportunities in the coming years. The HEP community will benefit from preserved data samples through reanalysis, combination, education and outreach. Funding agencies would receive more scientific return, and a positive image, from their initial investment leading to the production and the first analysis of preserved data.

  16. When and Why We See Victims as Responsible: The Impact of Ideology on Attitudes Toward Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Laura; Young, Liane

    2016-09-01

    Why do victims sometimes receive sympathy for their suffering and at other times scorn and blame? Here we show a powerful role for moral values in attitudes toward victims. We measured moral values associated with unconditionally prohibiting harm ("individualizing values") versus moral values associated with prohibiting behavior that destabilizes groups and relationships ("binding values": loyalty, obedience to authority, and purity). Increased endorsement of binding values predicted increased ratings of victims as contaminated (Studies 1-4); increased blame and responsibility attributed to victims, increased perceptions of victims' (versus perpetrators') behaviors as contributing to the outcome, and decreased focus on perpetrators (Studies 2-3). Patterns persisted controlling for politics, just world beliefs, and right-wing authoritarianism. Experimentally manipulating linguistic focus off of victims and onto perpetrators reduced victim blame. Both binding values and focus modulated victim blame through victim responsibility attributions. Findings indicate the important role of ideology in attitudes toward victims via effects on responsibility attribution. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  17. Cancer and fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertini, Matteo; Del Mastro, Lucia; Pescio, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, thanks to the improvement in the prognosis of cancer patients, a growing attention has been given to the fertility issues. International guidelines on fertility preservation in cancer patients recommend that physicians discuss, as early as possible, with all patients...... of reproductive age their risk of infertility from the disease and/or treatment and their interest in having children after cancer, and help with informed fertility preservation decisions. As recommended by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society for Medical Oncology, sperm...... cryopreservation and embryo/oocyte cryopreservation are standard strategies for fertility preservations in male and female patients, respectively; other strategies (e.g. pharmacological protection of the gonads and gonadal tissue cryopreservation) are considered experimental techniques. However, since then, new...

  18. Current Concepts in Hip Preservation Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Kelly L.; Cook, P. Christopher; Geisler, Paul R.; Yen, Yi-Meng; Giordano, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Successful treatment of nonarthritic hip pain in young athletic individuals remains a challenge. A growing fund of clinical knowledge has paralleled technical innovations that have enabled hip preservation surgeons to address a multitude of structural variations of the proximal femur and acetabulum and concomitant intra-articular joint pathology. Often, a combination of open and arthroscopic techniques are necessary to treat more complex pathomorphologies. Peri- and postoperative recovery after such procedures can pose a substantial challenge to the patient, and a dedicated, thoughtful approach may reduce setbacks, limit morbidity, and help optimize functional outcomes. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched to identify relevant scientific and review articles through December 2014 using the search terms hip preservation, labrum, surgical dislocation, femoroacetabular impingement, postoperative rehabilitation, peri-acetabular osteotomy, and rotational osteotomy. Reference lists of included articles were reviewed to locate additional references of interest. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Hip preservation procedures and appropriate rehabilitation have allowed individuals to return to a physically active lifestyle. Conclusion: Effective postoperative rehabilitation must consider modifications and precautions specific to the particular surgical techniques used. Proper postoperative rehabilitation after hip preservation surgery may help optimize functional recovery and maximize clinical success and patient satisfaction. PMID:26733593

  19. Crime victims in the criminal justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative social reaction and inadequate reaction of the agencies of the formal control on the primary victimization is leading to the so called secondary victimization that can be a source of trauma and frustration as much as the primary victimization. Due to that, relation of the police and the judiciary towards the crime victims is of a great importance regarding victims’ willingness to report the victimization, their confidence in these agencies, and cooperation during clearing up the crime. In order to realize the victim’s position in the criminal justice system, this paper contains an overview of how the police, prosecutor’s office and courts are functioning. The paper is based on the interviews made with the representatives of these state agencies, as well as on the previous knowledge and realized surveys concerning this topic. The aim of the paper is to emphasize the position and the role of the victim support service in the system of the state intervention, based upon the obtained data, as well as to give some basic information on how victims could report the crime, what are their rights and duties, what can they expect from the competent agencies.

  20. INVESTMENT FUNDS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COPIL CRINA ANGELA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available I chose this topic because my goal was to capture in detail all aspects of the evolution of investment funds under the influence of factors leading to globalization of the banking financial market. Main motivation was that I proposed to present in an original manner the concept of investment in mutual funds by the thoroughness of the following points: the different types of investment funds from Romania, the advantages, the risks and the specific costs of the investment in mutual funds and the effects of the financial crisis on the industry of the investment funds on the national level. The financial crisis and the risk of infecting the global economy affected the taste of risk of the investors and their request for the investment fund, determining the orientation of the investors to the funds with a lower risk – the diversified funds, the funds of bonds and the monetary funds. I considered important the theoretical approach of the concept of investments in investment funds because they are a barometer of the macro economical stability, in case the economical increase is positive on the macro economical level the investments in investments funds are increasing too. In Romania the market of the mutual funds is at an incipient level, but with potential and perspectives of development. Due to the bankruptcy of FNI in the beginning of the years 2000 and due to the absence of a clear legislation regarding the calculation of the unitary value of the net asset and the control of the activity developed by the investment funds, the development of the industry of the investment funds had to fight against the crisis of credibility generated by these events. The convergence of the Romanian economy to the European standards will attract also a modification of the structure of the financial investments of the individuals, by an increase of the investments in funds. In the world the investment funds are preferred by the investors for their advantages

  1. Endometriosis and Fertility Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Rebecca; Banks, Nicole; Decherney, Alan H

    2017-09-01

    Endometriosis is common, affecting 5% to 10% of reproductive age women. Nearly half of women with surgical evidence of endometriosis fail to achieve spontaneous pregnancy. Surgical treatment of endometriosis can be detrimental to ovarian reserve. In the absence of surgical intervention, ovarian reserve may still be negatively impacted over time. Fertility preservation was developed for women requiring gonadotoxic treatments. Improved methods have led to greater consideration of offering these services to women with other disease processes that threaten ovarian reserve. This chapter will present the debate regarding use of fertility preservation in management of endometriosis, and outline the need for further studies.

  2. Mass preserving image registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Sporring, Jon; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results the mass preserving image registration method in the Evaluation of Methods for Pulmonary Image Registration 2010 (EMPIRE10) Challenge. The mass preserving image registration algorithm was applied to the 20 image pairs. Registration was evaluated using four different...... scores: lung boundary alignment, major fissure lignment, landmark alignment and transform singularity scores. The registration algorithm achieved an average landmark alignment score of 2.20 } 2.05 mm and the median of 1.29 mm. In 19 out of 20 image pairs, the method produced invertible deformations....... Overall, the masspreserving image registration method was ranked 20th out of 34 participants...

  3. Prioritizing Child Pornography Notifications: Predicting Direct Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Wineke; Schepers, Klaartje; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; van Linden, Sabine; Bartling, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    The growing number of notifications for child pornography (CP) possession constitutes a capacity problem for police forces entrusted with the investigation of these offenses. Notifications of CP offenses in which the investigation reveals concurrent direct victimization, in the form of contact offenses, grooming, online offending, or the production of CP material, form a potential target group for prioritization. The first of the twofold aims of this study was to validate the occurring distinction between mixed suspects (i.e., CP possession suspects who were also ever associated with direct victimization) and CP-only suspects (i.e., CP possession suspects who were never associated with direct victimization) to predict an outcome of the investigation including direct victimization. The second aim was to explore variables related to direct victimization among CP-only suspects. A total of 150 files of police investigations into notifications for CP offenses were studied. Findings confirmed significantly greater prevalence of direct victimization as an outcome of the investigation among mixed suspects than CP-only suspects (90% vs. 10%). Among CP-only suspects, direct victimization was predicted by (a) prior police contacts, charges, or convictions concerning noncontact sexual offending, (b) the confiscation of more than two computers during the house search, and (c) a more serious nature of the CP material that formed the basis for the notification in terms of younger victims and more extreme content. These variables may point to a small subgroup of heavily invested CP offenders who are at a higher risk to cross the line to direct victimization. Cross-validation of these preliminary findings is indicated. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Understaning the "funding effect"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreskes, N.

    2016-12-01

    There is a long history of industry funding of scientific and engineering research in the USA. Much of this work has been of high quality. Research demonstrates, however, that corporate funding can represent a threat to scientific independence and integrity. Studies show that sponsors' interests can affect research results, particularly when sponsors have a strong interest in a particular research outcome. The effects may occur through the impact of subconscious bias on sampling, study design, data interpretation, and/or reporting of results. Corporate funding can also skew research toward investigating certain questions at the expense of others, downplaying the significance of adverse findings, and/or failing to report adverse results. Gifts can affect behavior, even when they are unrelated to research activities. These impacts that are so substantial that they have a name: "the funding effect."[i] Evidence shows that scientists who strive to be objective and fair-minded may nonetheless fall prey to the funding effect. In many cases, the challenges of corporate gifts and funding can be addressed through education and improved self-awareness, agreements that protect researchers' freedom to publish without sponsor approval, sensible disclosure policies, and reasonable sanctions for failures of disclosure. However, in some cases, it may be appropriate for researchers and scientific societies to decline funding.

  5. CERN Pension Fund move

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Pension Fund has moved to new offices at the 5th floor of Building 5. The Benefits Service of the Fund will henceforth receive you in the offices: 5-5-017 - 5-5-021 - 5-5-023. We remind you that the office hours are: Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday from 10 am to 12 am and from 3 pm to 5 pm. The Fund would like to take this opportunity to warmly thank all the persons involved in the Removal.

  6. A victim-centered approach to justice? Victim satisfaction effects on third-party punishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromet, Dena M; Okimoto, Tyler G; Wenzel, Michael; Darley, John M

    2012-10-01

    Three studies investigated whether victims' satisfaction with a restorative justice process influenced third-party assignments of punishment. Participants evaluated criminal offenses and victims' reactions to an initial restorative justice conference, and were later asked to indicate their support for additional punishment of the offender. Across the three studies, we found that victim satisfaction (relative to dissatisfaction) attenuates people's desire to seek offender punishment, regardless of offense severity (Study 2) or conflicting reports from a third-party observer (Study 3). This relationship was explained by the informational value of victim satisfaction: Participants inferred that victims felt closure and that offenders experienced value reform, both of which elevated participants' satisfaction with the restorative justice outcome. The informational value communicated by victim satisfaction, and its criminal justice implications, are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Cyber Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Sexual Minority College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…

  8. Mental health in violent crime victims: Does sexual orientation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J; McNiel, Dale E; Holley, Sarah R; Shumway, Martha; Boccellari, Alicia

    2012-04-01

    The present study investigates victim sexual orientation in a sample of 641 violent crime victims seeking emergency medical treatment at a public-sector hospital. Victim sexual orientation was examined as it: (a) varies by type of violent crime and demographic characteristics, (b) directly relates to psychological symptoms, and (c) moderates the relationship between victim and crime characteristics (i.e., victim gender, victim trauma history, and type of crime) and psychological symptoms (i.e., symptoms of acute stress, depression, panic, and general anxiety). Results showed that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) victims were more likely to be victims of sexual assault. Heterosexual victims were more likely to be victims of general assault and shootings. LGBT victims demonstrated significantly higher levels of acute stress and general anxiety. Moreover, victim sexual orientation moderated the association of type of crime with experience of panic symptoms. Also, victim sexual orientation moderated the relation of victim trauma history and general anxiety symptoms. Results are discussed in relation to victimization prevalence rates, sexual prejudice theory, and assessment and treatment of violent crime victims.

  9. Predictors and protective factors for adolescent Internet victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Schütt, Nina; Larsen, Helmer Bøving

    2012-01-01

    To examine the rate of Internet victimization in a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 14-17 and to analyze predictors and protective factors for victimization.......To examine the rate of Internet victimization in a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 14-17 and to analyze predictors and protective factors for victimization....

  10. The Dimensionality of Social Victimization: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Jamilia J.; Kim, Eun Sook; Sohn McCormick, Anita L.; Hayes, DeMarquis

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the dimensionality of social victimization and to assess the relation between social victimization and classmate social support in a sample of 260 students. Confirmatory factor analyses yielded four dimensions of peer victimization: overt, verbal social, and nonverbal social victimization and peer…

  11. Perspectives in organ preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maathuis, Mark-Hugo J.; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; Ploeg, Rutger J.

    2007-01-01

    Maintaining organ viability after donation until transplantation is critically important for optimal graft function and survival. To date, static cold storage is the most widely used form of preservation in every day clinical practice. Although simple and effective, it is questionable whether this

  12. Preserving Southwest Virginia's Folklore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgin, Ramond

    1997-01-01

    Describes Southwest Virginia's rich tradition of folklore and culture and the need for its preservation. Summarizes the author's time-consuming process of preparing an inventory and indexing the vast archival collections gathered by students in American Folklore classes at Mountain Empire Community College and by the Southwest Virginia Folklore…

  13. Preservation in New Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kitching

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In the United Kingdom (as in many other countries increasing attention is being paid to the importance of each library and archive having a written preservation strategy endorsed by its governing body. So increasingly we are asking: where does „preservation“ begin and what are its top priorities? Some would say preservation begins with the definition of collecting policies to ensure that only relevant items are acquired in the first place, and therefore that no unnecessary costs are incurred on the long-term care of unwanted and unconsulted items. Others might argue that the first priority must be the careful appraisal of existing holdings to determine their preservation and conservation requirements and to prioritise their treatment. Or should preservation begin with damage-limitation: restricting the physical handling of books and documents, on the one hand by providing whenever possible surrogate copies in digital formats or microform, and on the other hand by offering at least basic protection through appropriate boxing and packaging? This, surely, goes hand-in-hand with the education of staff and readers about the importance of treating rare or unique materials with proper respect.

  14. NIGERIAN CULTURAL HERITAGE: PRESERVATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    Ecological or natural heritages emanate from nature and environment. Ecological heritages can be defined as the relatively undisturbed or uncontaminated natural areas with its wild plants ... architecture/buildings, defensive walls and ditches, crafts, tools, .... influence of traditional rulers and their role in preserving Nigerian.

  15. Mutual aid fund commission

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The composition of the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund for 2011 is as follows: President: Pascal Droux Vice-president: Connie Potter Treasurer: Louis Pereira Deputy treasurer: Barbara Brugger Secretary: Sonia Casenove Deputy secretary: Isabelle Mardirossian Members: Christopher David Thomas   Jean-Claude Vialis (GAC member)   Marie-Luce Falipou   Gunilla Santiard (Jean-Claude Vialis’s alternate) The role of the Fund is to provide financial help to members of personnel and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund who are in need of exceptional financial assistance. All requests are treated in the strictest confidence. Should you wish to apply for aid from the Fund, kindly contact any member of the Board as given above or Social Services, tel.74479 – 73867.

  16. Funding Ammunition Ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    access private capital markets (e.g., borrow money or issue new equity to increase capacity). So, although DWCF providers have some of the...Army depots were almost entirely funded by working capital fund revenue derived from sales to customers. Some “Indicator 1” appropriations paid for... CRM D0020940.A2/Final, December 2009. Brauner, Marygail K., Ellen M. Pint, John R. Bondanella, Daniel A. Relles, and Paul Steinberg, Dollars and Sense

  17. Persistent versus periodic experiences of social victimization: predictors of adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Lisa H; Underwood, Marion K; Beron, Kurt J; Gentsch, Joanna K; Wharton, Michelle E; Rahdar, Ahrareh

    2009-07-01

    This study examined self-reports of social victimization and parent reports of adjustment for a sample followed from fourth through seventh grades. Different patterns of social victimization experiences were identified; of the 153 students (79 girls) with complete data, 24% reported chronic social victimization, 23% reported transient experiences of social victimization, and 53% reported being socially victimized at no more than one time point. We examined whether students who experienced persistent and periodic social victimization were at greater risk for internalizing problems than nonvictims. Persistently victimized children demonstrated continuously elevated levels of internalizing problems. Children who were not originally victimized by social aggression but became victimized with time did not demonstrate higher levels of internalizing problems than did nonvictims. Findings were mixed for those who escaped social victimization during this period.

  18. Fear of property crime: examining the effects of victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Carrie L; Fox, Kathleen A

    2011-01-01

    Fear of crime research has primarily focused on fear of crime in general or on fear of specific types of violent crimes. This study builds from this line of research by focusing exclusively on the night fear of six types of property crimes, including fear of burglary while away from home, vehicle theft, bicycle theft, property theft, vandalism, and vehicle burglary. This study examines the effects of victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk on fear of property crime. Survey data from college students reveal that victimization and vicarious victimization were not significant predictors of fear of property crime, whereas perceived risk was a consistent and significant predictor of fear of all property crimes.

  19. La victime, acteur de la sécurité ? / The victim, a security actor ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieu François

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available What is the position of the victim in security policy? Only recently has the victim been the object, in France and elsewhere, of considerable attention by the social system, which has taken into account the different aspects of victimization. However, the victim is only partially associated to actions led in this domain, either as a source of data on the state of delinquency through public meetings and victimization surveys, or as an auxiliary to prevention with measure of community and situational prevention.Quelle est la place de la victime dans les politiques de sécurité ? Ce n’est que très récemment que la victime a fait l’objet, en France comma ailleurs, d’une attention plus soutenue de la part du système social, avec le développement d’une meilleure prise en charge des différents aspects de la victimisation. Pour autant, la victime n’est associée que très partiellement aux actions conduites en ce domaine, soit comme source de données sur l’état de la délinquance au moyen de réunions publiques et d’enquête de victimation, soit comme auxiliaire de la prévention avec les dispositifs de prévention communautaire et situationnelle.

  20. PENSION FUND - ELECTIONS

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund.   Candidate: Name: RANJARD First Name: Florence Having been a member of the Governing Board of the Pension Fund since 1983 as Guy Maurin’s alternate, I am standing for a further 3-year term of office. Over the past few years work has concentrated essentially on following items: Monitoring of the work of the fund managers and their performances. The three-yearly study of the Fund’s actuarial situation. The pension guarantees ­ second phase. The Fund is approaching its maturity: the level of benefits exceeds contributions. In this context it has to strike a suitable balance between management of the risk from a dynamic investment policy, while by a prudent policy avoiding any significant loss of its capital. These will be my concerns within the Governing Board of the Pension Fund if you give me your support.

  1. Drawings by Child Victims of Incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Alayne; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Child victims of incest were judged to have more poorly developed impulse controls, a defensive structure which emphasizes repression, and were significantly more variable in the degree to which they expressed sexual features in the drawings. (Author/CL)

  2. Treatment of Child Victims of Incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatman, Bonny; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Reviews three treatment methods (individual, group, and family therapy) used over a five-year period for child incest victims. Presents common themes, issues, and pitfalls that arose during therapy. Stresses potential benefits of psychotherapy to this population. (Author)

  3. Decreases in the Proportion of Bullying Victims in the Classroom: Effects on the Adjustment of Remaining Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garandeau, Claire F.; Lee, Ihno A.; Salmivalli, Christina

    2018-01-01

    Sharing a classroom environment with other victimized peers has been shown to mitigate the adverse effects of peer victimization on children's social and psychological adjustment. By extension, this study hypothesized that classroom reductions in the proportion of victims would be harmful for children who remain victimized. Data were collected at…

  4. Simulating Peer Support for Victims of Cyberbullying

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Zwaan, J.M.; Dignum, M.V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a design for an Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) that empowers victims of cyberbullying by simulating peer support. The anti-cyberbullying buddy helps a child to cope with negative emotions due to a cyberbullying incident and it shows the child how to deal with future incidents of cyberbullying. The buddy interacts with the victim in three stages: first the child communicates her emotional state, next the buddy gathers information about the situation at hand, then the b...

  5. Psychodynamics and treatment of sexual assualt victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuker, E

    1979-10-01

    This paper discusses (1) how my own interest in the treatment of sexual assualt victims developed and how I view the scope of this problem; (2) myths and facts about sexual assault; (3) common reactions of those who work with rape victims; (4) the rape trauma syndrome; (5) an approach to immediate and short-term treatment; and (6) the long-term effects of sexual assault and related treatment issues.

  6. Peer Victimization in British Columbia Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Van Blyderveen, Sherry Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Peer victimization is an issue which has recently received considerable attention from the media, the school system, and academic literature. The present study examines a number of expected correlates, both risk factors and outcomes, of peer victimization through the use of the Adolescent Health Survey - II conducted by the McCreary Centre Society in the province of British Columbia. Approximately 25,800 youth, from grades 7 through 12, from various regions of the province completed the quest...

  7. Types of aggressive victims in bullying situations at secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Del Moral, Gonzalo; Suárez, Cristian; Villareal, Mª Elena; Musitu Ochoa, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    El artículo está en inglés y en castellano The distinction between subtypes of passive and aggressive victims in studies of bullying has been a cornerstone of research in recent decades. However, some aspects of victimization still need further elaboration, such as the differentiation of subtypes of aggressive victims of bullying, the dynamics of the process of victimization, and the perceptions that participants have of their victimized classmates. The objective of this qualitative resear...

  8. Victims and contemporary tendencies in crime control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soković Snežana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Victimological dimension of new criminality forms is a specific challenge for contemporary criminal law systems; new time brings new forms of criminality, new victims, but also new ways and opportunities for more efficient protection of victims. At the same time with review and improvement of existing standards of victims` protection, contemporary criminality control systems show strong tendency toward compromising the general position of the victim. Victim’s interests are being instrumentalized because of the justification of changes in criminality control in the direction of significant strengthening of criminal law repression. The crime which is emotionalized with the affective media presentation of the victim justifies stricter penal policy and provides the populist support for repressive criminality control strategies and criminal law expansionism. The aim of the paper is the analysis of the mechanisms of victim “use“ in contemporary criminality control and the examination of its consequences, with special review on domestic circumstances through analysis of the Code on special measures for prevention of crimes against sexual freedom towards juveniles (Marija`s Code.

  9. [The elderly as victims of violent crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlf, E H

    1994-01-01

    Up to now, victimology has only dealt with partial aspects of the situation of the elderly as victims of violent crime. Nevertheless, the Police Crime Statistics enable us to make the following three basic statements: In general, old people are less likely to become victims of violent crime (than young people). The acts of violence committed against the elderly are mainly ones in which there was a relationship between offender and victim before the offense. Elderly women are disproportionately more often victims of purse snatching. The increasing social isolation of old people constitutes not only a specific form of victimization, it probably also increases their susceptibility to become victims. The theory that old people have "a particularly pronounced fear of crime" cannot be generally proven. This question must be considered from differing points of view and depends largely on the individual vulnerability of the old people. In Germany, there has hardly been any empirical study of violence towards the elderly in institutions and in family households (so-called domestic violence). It is believed that more violence takes place in both than in generally assumed.

  10. Schizophrenia—A Victim's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpa, K.

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on my own personal experience of having undergone “coma treatment” and being given approximately 37 coma injections between the period 1983–1993 despite the fact that I was not psychotic and was normal in every way. The experiences I had following the injections and the forcible administration of innumerable antipsychotics and drugs have shaped my perspective of what it is to be a victim of “iatrogenic” psychiatric treatment—iatrogenic because it induced symptoms of schizophrenia or at the least schizoidism in a normal person like me—an inability to think, feel, and reason, over time. I have also with my own eyes seen at least 7 or 8 women who look me (my clones) that has reinforced my belief that the injections split me. The British psychiatrist, Richard David Laing (Encyclopedia Britannica 2004 DVD [DVD]) also theorized that it is the division of the self that leads to the symptoms of schizophrenia such as splitting and fragmentation of the mind. PMID:18775845

  11. Schizophrenia--a victim's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpa, K

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on my own personal experience of having undergone "coma treatment" and being given approximately 37 coma injections between the period 1983-1993 despite the fact that I was not psychotic and was normal in every way. The experiences I had following the injections and the forcible administration of innumerable antipsychotics and drugs have shaped my perspective of what it is to be a victim of "iatrogenic" psychiatric treatment-iatrogenic because it induced symptoms of schizophrenia or at the least schizoidism in a normal person like me-an inability to think, feel, and reason, over time. I have also with my own eyes seen at least 7 or 8 women who look me (my clones) that has reinforced my belief that the injections split me. The British psychiatrist, Richard David Laing (Encyclopedia Britannica 2004 DVD [DVD]) also theorized that it is the division of the self that leads to the symptoms of schizophrenia such as splitting and fragmentation of the mind.

  12. Incendiari e vittime / Arsonists and Victims / Incendiaires et victimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Bisi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Human beings need fire !Contrary to other living beings, mankind could not live without fire so it is quite astonishing to observe that most of the fires which burn on the earth are caused by man.Many fires spread all over the North Mediterranean area, from Portugal to Turkey, during the summer 2007.Human beings and fire: associated to the sacrifice of Titan Prometheus which was meant to be a sort of pattern to be followed by men to honour the gods.Fire is alive like water and air but it is difficult to capture it with the eyes: we can look at it for a long time before we discover that it never looks like itself.Fire has brought about important changes to human life, giving it much more security and comfort.However, the destructive power of fire is a real threat which not only takes many victims and results in wounded, intoxicated and homeless people but its force also wipes out and destroys places recognized as the heritage of mankind.Les hommes ont besoin du feu! Contrairement à tous les autres êtres vivants, les hommes ne pourraient pas vivre comme ils le font sans le feu; d'autre part, le fait que la plupart des feux qui brûlent sur la planète sont causés par l’homme, représente un aspect inquiétant.Pendant l’été 2007, beaucoup d’incendies ont frappé toute la zone du Nord de la Méditerranée, du Portugal à la Turquie. Hommes et feu : un binôme lié à la création du sacrifice du Titan Prométhée et qui aurait ainsi établi le modèle suivi par les hommes afin d'honorer les dieux.Le feu est vivant, comme l’eau et l'air, mais il est insaisissable au regard, c’est à dire que nous pouvons passer beaucoup de temps à le regarder mais il ne sera jamais égal à lui même. L’usage du feu a rendu la vie de l’homme plus sûre et plus confortable et il a modifié, au cours du temps, la face de la terre.Toutefois, la force déstructrice du feu représente une menace réelle qui fait des victimes, des blessés, des intoxiqu

  13. On Distribution Preserving Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Minyue; Kleijn, W Bastiaan

    2011-01-01

    Upon compressing perceptually relevant signals, conventional quantization generally results in unnatural outcomes at low rates. We propose distribution preserving quantization (DPQ) to solve this problem. DPQ is a new quantization concept that confines the probability space of the reconstruction to be identical to that of the source. A distinctive feature of DPQ is that it facilitates a seamless transition between signal synthesis and quantization. A theoretical analysis of DPQ leads to a distribution preserving rate-distortion function (DP-RDF), which serves as a lower bound on the rate of any DPQ scheme, under a constraint on distortion. In general situations, the DP-RDF approaches the classic rate-distortion function for the same source and distortion measure, in the limit of an increasing rate. A practical DPQ scheme based on a multivariate transformation is also proposed. This scheme asymptotically achieves the DP-RDF for i.i.d. Gaussian sources and the mean squared error.

  14. Patch test with preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Sumit

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the 705 patients patch tested between March 88 to March 91, 317 were tested for sensitivity to preservatives with antigens obtained from Chemo technique AB, Sweden. Paraben was the commonest sensitizer (22.4% followed by Groton B K (8.1% and Triclosan (6.5%. We stress the need to consider these allergens as source of dermatitis and advocate complete labelling of topical preparations marketed.

  15. Enterocins in food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haider; Flint, Steve; Yu, Pak-Lam

    2010-06-30

    The Enterococcus genus, a member of the Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) is found in various environments, but more particularly in the intestines of humans and other animals. Although sometimes associated with pathogenicity these bacteria have many benefits. They have been found in traditional artisanal fermented products, are used as probiotic cultures and nowadays extensively studied for the production of bacteriocins--the enterocins. Many of these enterocins have been found to be active against Listeria monocytogenes, and a few have also been reported to be active even against Gram negative bacteria, an unusual property for the bacteriocins produced by LAB. These properties have resulted in many studies describing the use of enterocins as preservatives in foods of animal and vegetable origin. This review covers the most recent information on the use of enterocins as food preservatives, either produced in-situ by the addition of enterocin producing strains or as external preservatives in the form of purified or semi-purified extracts, to prevent the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Memoir of fertility preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosden, Roger G

    2013-01-01

    Fertility preservation has been practiced for at least 50 years using semen banking, pelvic surgery, and radiation shields, but in the past 20 years it has emerged as a rapidly growing subspecialty of reproductive medicine. A dramatic rise in survivorship of young cancer patients and the widespread postponement of family building to the later years of the female reproductive lifespan have been major driving forces. Throughout the history of fertility preservation, low temperature banking has played a pivotal role, first for gametes and later for embryos and immature germ cells, while ovarian transplantation recently began to contribute and spermatogonial stem cell transfer holds future promise for men and prepubertal boys. But there are significant risks with some diseases from reimplanting residual disease, which hopefully can be eliminated by new methods for purging the tissue and germ cell culture. Since all technologies are interim, cryopreservation as a mainstay in this field will likely be swept aside eventually by a stream of progress aimed at managing fertility preservation in vivo.

  17. ELECTIONS - Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CERN - EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH PENSION FUND ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate: First name: Michel Name: Goossens The CERN/ESO Pension Fund represents, for most staff, the sole source of income when they retire. The health of our Pension Fund is thus of the utmost importance to ensure the payment of pensions up to the death of the last beneficiary. The 2003 actuarial review showed a large deficit and several corrective measures have already been taken. The next months will see the results of the 2006 actuarial review. We hope they will show that the measures taken last year are going in the right direction. However, we must remain proactive since further measures will no doubt be necessary. New and imaginative proposals must be prepared and discussed in the widest possible forum, by regular direct contact with staff...

  18. ELECTIONS - Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CERN - EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH PENSION FUND ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate: First name: Michel Name: Goossens The CERN/ESO Pension Fund represents, for most staff, the sole source of income when they retire. The health of our Pension Fund is thus of the utmost importance to ensure the payment of pensions up to the death of the last beneficiary. The 2003 actuarial review showed a large deficit and several corrective measures have already been taken. The next months will see the results of the 2006 actuarial review. We hope they will show that the measures taken last year are going in the right direction. However, we must remain proactive since further measures will no doubt be necessary. New and imaginative proposals must be prepared and discussed in the widest possible forum, by regular direct contact ...

  19. ELECTIONS - Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CERN - EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH PENSION FUND ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate: First name: Michel Name: Goossens The CERN/ESO Pension Fund represents, for most staff, the sole source of income when they retire. The health of our Pension Fund is thus of the utmost importance to ensure the payment of pensions up to the death of the last beneficiary. The 2003 actuarial review showed a large deficit and several corrective measures have already been taken. The next months will see the results of the 2006 actuarial review. We hope they will show that the measures taken last year are going in the right direction. However, we must remain proactive since further measures will no doubt be necessary. New and imaginative proposals must be prepared and discussed in the widest possible forum, by regular direct contact with staf...

  20. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : CHIAVERI First Name : Enrico I have been a CERN staff member since 1973 and have always been interested in our working conditions. As a member of the Executive Committee of the Staff Association I participated from 1980 to 1984 in the Working Group on Pensions mandated by the CERN Council. This commitment led to my becoming a member of the Governing Board of the Pension Fund in 1983, since when I have taken an active part in various commissions and working groups (Real Estate Asset Management Committee, Working Group on Actuarial Matters etc.); in so doing I have gained a thorough knowledge of different areas of the Pension Fund. Since ...

  1. Innovative funding solution for special projects: Crowd funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sentot Imam Wahjono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the influence of crowd funding knowledge, applica-tion, platform, and project initiator toward successful crowd funding. This study conducted by quantitative approach, data have been collected with web-based ques-tionnaires via Kickstarter.com direct message and e-mail to 200 successful crowd funding project initiators as a sample and as much 152 sets questionnaire returned by a complete answer and should be analyzed further. Deployment and data collection take 3 month from October to December 2013. This study found evidence that crowd funding knowledge, crowd funding application, crowd funding platform, and project initiator has positive and significant relationship toward the success of crowd funding. The implication from this research is crowd funding can be a source of capital to finance the projects, not just rely on traditional sources of financing just like banking and capital markets. Crowd funding can be innovative funding solution.

  2. Blame Attributions of Victims and Perpetrators: Effects of Victim Gender, Perpetrator Gender, and Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Erin E; Kotary, Brandy; Hetz, Maria

    2015-08-11

    Although research has been conducted on rape myth acceptance (RMA) and other factors associated with attribution formation, researchers have not yet determined how the combination of such factors simultaneously affects levels of victim blame and perpetrator blame. The current investigation recruited 221 students from an all-women's college to examine differences in blame attributions across RMA, victim gender, and perpetrator gender, and the relationship between the two parties (i.e., stranger vs. acquaintance). Results suggested that RMA, victim gender, and perpetrator gender account for a significant amount of variance in blame attributions for both victims and perpetrators. In sum, victim blame with female perpetrators was relatively consistent across levels of RMA, but increased substantially for male perpetrators as individuals endorsed higher levels of RMA. Perpetrator blame, however, was highest with male perpetrators when individuals endorsed low levels of RMA and lowest for male perpetrators when individuals endorsed relatively higher levels of RMA. Findings demonstrate the continued influence of RMA on blame attributions for both victims and perpetrators, and the stigma faced by male victims. More research is needed on the differing attributions of male and female victims and perpetrators, as well as differing attributions based on type of relationship. Such research will lead to a better and more thorough understanding of sexual assault and rape. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Determining Police Response to Domestic Violence Victims. The Role of Victim Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzawa, Eve S.; Austin, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study of 110 Detroit (Michigan) domestic assault cases to determine whether victim preference about arrest of the assailant had an impact on police behavior and the recurrence of violence. Finds that mandatory arrest policies reduces police discretion and ignores victim preference. (CFR)

  4. Bystander Involvement in Peer Victimization: The Value of Looking beyond Aggressors and Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Brenda A.; Dempsey, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Peer victimization has been a focus of both research and prevention program development. This construct is typically measured from the victim and aggressor perspectives. However, prevention programming often includes an additional bystander perspective. The present study evaluated whether questions regarding witnessing peer victimization…

  5. Help-Seeking in a National Sample of Victimized Latino Women: The Influence of Victimization Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Schally, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine formal and informal help-seeking responses to interpersonal victimization among a national sample of Latino women. In addition, an examination of help-seeking by victimization type was undertaken. Data came from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas (SALAS) study that obtained help-seeking rates among a victimized…

  6. Pension Fund Governing Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Note The CERN pension scheme is based on the principle of defined benefits, so beneficiaries continue to receive the benefits to which they are entitled in accordance with the Rules of the Pension Fund. This means that pension entitlements under the Rules are not directly affected by the financial crisis and the current economic situation. However, the adjustment of pensions to the cost of living is not automatic and, under the method applied since 2006, must take into account the Fund’s financial position. Meeting of the Pension Fund Governing Board The Pension Fund Governing Board held its eighth meeting at ESO in Garching, Germany (near Munich) on 24 October 2008. Before starting its work, the Governing Board had the privilege of hearing an opening address by Professor Tim de Zeeuw, the Director General of ESO. Professor de Zeeuw described the mission of ESO and the ambitious projects of his organisation, which performs astronomy observations using telescopes located in...

  7. Pension Fund governing board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    On 16 March and 7 May, the Pension Fund Governing Board (PFGB) held its fourth and fifth meetings The first of these meetings was primarily dedicated to the examination of the strategic asset allocation. The PFGB reaffirmed the main goal of the new strategic asset allocation: to improve the Pension Fund’s position with regard to risk by lowering overall portfolio volatility through suitable investments in less volatile asset classes such as real estate and absolute return strategies, where the return does not depend on market trends and negative growth is extremely unlikely. The finalised document will be presented to the Finance Committee and the Council at their June meetings for approval, in accordance with the provisions of the Levaux report. The PFGB also took note of the Internal Audit’s report on Pension Fund operations and decided to refer it to Working Group I as a working document for establishing a control and internal monitoring system for Pension Fund oper...

  8. Victimization experiences of adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Wan-Yuen; Dunne, Michael P; Marret, Mary J; Fleming, Marylou; Wong, Yut-Lin

    2011-12-01

    There has been little community-based research regarding multiple-type victimization experiences of young people in Asia, and none in Malaysia. This study aimed to estimate prevalence, explore gender differences, as well as describe typical perpetrators and family and social risk factors among Malaysian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey of 1,870 students was conducted in 20 randomly selected secondary schools in Selangor state (mean age: 16 years; 58.8% female). The questionnaire included items on individual, family, and social background and different types of victimization experiences in childhood. Emotional and physical types of victimization were most common. A significant proportion of adolescents (22.1%) were exposed to more than one type, with 3% reporting all four types. Compared with females, males reported more physical, emotional, and sexual victimization. The excess of sexual victimization among boys was due to higher exposure to noncontact events, whereas prevalence of forced intercourse was equal for both genders (3.0%). Although adult male perpetrators predominate, female adults and peers of both genders also contribute substantially. Low quality of parent-child relationships and poor school and neighborhood environments had the strongest associations with victimization. Family structure (parental divorce, presence of step-parent or single parent, or household size), parental drug use, and rural/urban location were not influential in this sample. This study extends the analysis of multiple-type victimization to a Malaysian population. Although some personal, familial, and social factors correlate with those found in western nations, there are cross-cultural differences, especially with regard to the nature of sexual violence based on gender and the influence of family structure. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Victims’ relation towards the offence and victim-offender mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrnčić Jasna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyse relation of victims toward the offence and their readiness for victim-offender mediation (VOM. Aims were analysis of feelings, behaviours and needs of victims regarding the offence, as well as and analysis of readiness of victims for VOM. 17 mediators assessed 41 victims and 42 offenders, participants of 41 VOM by Assessment Visit Check List (Quill, Wynne, 1993. Victims showed strong feelings of bitterness, anger and grievance more frequently than offenders, while offenders showed feeling of guilt more frequently than victims. Victims had higher defensive attitude and self-confidence then offenders. Almost all victims and offenders needed reparation and agreement with the other party. Most of them wanted to know more about the other party in conflict and were opened to contacts with him. The results were discussed in relation to current knowledge. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47011: Kriminal u Srbiji: fenomenologija, rizici i mogućnosti socijalne intervencije

  10. Teachers' victimization-related beliefs and strategies: associations with students' aggressive behavior and peer victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Ladd, Gary W

    2015-01-01

    Although teachers are often called upon to reduce children's bullying and aggression, little is known regarding teachers' responses to students' harassment of peers or the beliefs which may inform their response strategies. To address this limitation, data were collected from 170 6th- and 7th-grade teachers (33 men; 137 women) and 2,938 (1,413 girls; 1,525 boys) of their students. Teachers beliefs regarding peer victimization were predictive of their efforts to advice victims how to cope with peer harassment. In particular, teachers who held more normative views of peer victimization were less likely to report reprimanding aggressive students and were more likely to utilize passive response strategies. Specific links emerged between teachers' beliefs and strategies and classroom-levels of aggression and peer victimization in the fall and in the spring, as well as changes in students' aggressive behavior and victimization over the course of the school year. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  11. Childhood Victimization, Attachment, Coping, and Substance Use Among Victimized Women on Probation and Parole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishon-Brown, Amanda; Golder, Seana; Renn, Tanya; Winham, Katherine; Higgins, George E; Logan, T K

    2017-06-01

    Justice-involved women report high rates of victimization across their life span, and these experiences contribute to their involvement in the criminal justice (CJ) system. Within this population, research has identified an overlap among victimization and substance use, a high-risk coping mechanism. Furthermore, research indicates attachment style is related to coping and high-risk behaviors. Research is needed to understand the relationship among these mechanisms as they relate to intimate partner violence (IPV). To address this gap, this study investigated the relationship between attachment, coping, childhood victimization, substance use, and IPV among 406 victimized women on probation/parole. Results of 6 multivariate regression analyses were statistically significant, accounting for 8%-13% of the variance in IPV. Particularly, childhood sexual victimization and negative coping were significant in all analyses. Findings provide practitioners, administrators, and policymakers information about the specific needs of justice-involved women.

  12. Child sexual abuse and psychological impairment in victims: results of an online study initiated by victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Gerard A; Mundt, Ingrid A; Ahlers, Christoph J; Bahls, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of children has been a topic of scientific investigation for the past few decades. Research in this area, however, is rarely initiated, conceptualized, and conducted by victims themselves. Apart from possibly having painted a one-sided picture of sexual abuse, this presumed dominance of nonvictims might also have marginalized victims in a research area central to their lives. This study was conducted by a victims interest group as an effort to meet the need to add victims' perspectives to our current understanding of this topic. The online survey focused on investigating victims' psychosocial impairment, which was found to be extensive. Results indicated that an intact social support system facilitates better health, especially when offered early on.

  13. Funding Research Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momcheva, Ivelina G.

    2017-01-01

    Astronomical software is used by each and every member of our scientific community. Purpose-build software is becoming ever more critical as we enter the regime of large datasets and simulations of increasing complexity. However, financial investments in building, maintaining and renovating the software infrastructure have been uneven. In this talk I will summarize past and current funding sources for astronomical software development, discuss other models of funding and introduce a new initiative for supporting community software at STScI. The purpose of this talk is to prompt discussion about how we allocate resources to this vital infrastructure.

  14. Funding strategies for wilderness management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Alkire

    2000-01-01

    Funding wilderness protection will continue to be a challenge for public land managers. With continuing competition for federal funds and balanced budget goals, other sources of funds may be necessary to supplement annual federal appropriations. This paper identifies and evaluates five potential funding strategies and provides examples of each that are currently in use...

  15. Psychosocial profile of bullies, victims, and bully-victims: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie eLeiner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While adverse conditions in a child’s life do not excuse inappropriate behavior, they may cause emotional and behavioral problems that require treatment as a preventive measure to reduce the likelihood of bullying. We aimed to identify differences in the psychosocial profiles of adolescents who classified themselves as bullies, victims, or bully-victims. We performed a cross-sectional study in which data were collected between January 2009 and January 2010 from seven university-based clinics in a large metropolitan area with a predominantly Mexican-American population. We collected data on physical aggression among adolescents who self-categorized into the following groups: uninvolved, bullies, victims, and bully-victims. We determined the psychosocial profiles of the adolescents based on responses to the Youth Self Report (YSR and parent’s responses to the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. A one-way analysis of variance and multivariate regression analyses were performed to compare the various components of the psychosocial profiles among the groups. Our analysis of the CBCL and the YSR assessments identified differences between the uninvolved group and one or more of the other groups. No significant differences were observed among the bully, victim, and bully-victim groups based on the CBCL. We did find significant differences among those groups based on the YSR, however. Our results suggest that emotional and behavioral problems exist among bullies, victims, and bully-victims. Therefore, treatment should not focus only on the victims of bullying; treatment is equally important for the other groups (bullies and bully-victims. Failure to adequately treat the underlying problems experienced by all three groups of individuals could allow the problems of bullying to continue.

  16. The displacement of archaeological structures in Spain. Relocate to preserve, preserve to present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel López-Menchero Bendicho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Clearly it is not always feasible to conserve and exhibit the archaeological remains in situ, either for lack of funds in some cases, or for manifest incompatibility with the new land uses in others. This second case mix, ie the need to "free" land for new uses, sentences, in most cases, the archaeological remains to suffer a partial destruction since only movable materials are extracted, preserved and in some cases presented to the public, while the unmovable archaeological heritage, ie fixed archaeological structures, is destroyed, once it has been "properly" documented. However, in this field there is a kind of third way in which archaeological remains, including structures, are preserved and on display, while clearing the ground originally occupied. It is the displacement of archaeological structures. This article discusses the long history of such interventions in the Spanish case, making a typological classification proposal and finally a critical appraisal.

  17. Violent victimization among state prison inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldredge, John; Steiner, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Violent victimization in prison may enhance inmates' cynicism toward legal authority and the risk of subsequent criminality. Both micro- and macro-level effects on the prevalence and incidence of inmate-on-inmate physical assault during a 6-month period were examined for random samples of inmates (n1 = 5,640) from all state prisons in Ohio and Kentucky (n2 = 46). Findings revealed that nonprovoked assaults were more common among inmates with lifestyles that might have increased their vulnerability to victimization (less time spent in structured activities, committed violent acts themselves, etc.), and in prisons with larger populations and officers who practice lax rule enforcement. A supplementary analysis of violent offending also revealed that inmate offenders and victims may look less like each other compared to offenders and victims in the general population. Policies focused on increasing inmates' involvement in structured prison activities, enhancing professionalism among officers, and lowering prison populations may be most effective for minimizing the risk of violent victimization.

  18. An Introduction to Hedge Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Sovan Mitra

    2009-01-01

    This report was originally written as an industry white paper on Hedge Funds. This paper gives an overview to Hedge Funds, with a focus on risk management issues. We define and explain the general characteristics of Hedge Funds, their main investment strategies and the risk models employed. We address the problems in Hedge Fund modelling, survey current Hedge Funds available on the market and those that have been withdrawn. Finally, we summarise the supporting and opposing arguments for Hedge...

  19. Three Essays on Hedge Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Slavutskaya, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three stand-alone research papers on hedge funds. The research papers are organized into three chapters. The first chapter focuses on the role of social ties among hedge fund managers in the managers’ investment decisions. The second chapter utilizes biographical information on hedge fund managers to disentangle abnormal performance tied to the hedge fund and the individual hedge fund manager. The third chapter studies the realized performance of different types ...

  20. Nonlinear relationship between income, age and criminal victimization in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sant’Anna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was mainly intended to investigate the effects of the income and age of individuals on their risk of becoming victims of physical assault, theft, robbery and attempted theft or robbery. Specifically, we were looking for evidence for a nonlinear relationship between these variables and victimization risk. Data from a national victimization survey were used to estimate victimization probability models. We found that, except for robbery and physical assault, the relationship between personal income and victimization risk has an inverted-U shape. We also found an inverted U-shape relationship between the age of individuals and victimization risk for the four types of crimes analyzed.

  1. Developing support service for victims of hate crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunn Peter

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the nature and development of Victim Support’s services to victims of hate crime in England and Wales. It provides definitions of hate crime, information about its extent, and considers why services for victims of some forms of hate crime have developed faster than others. It concludes with a summary of points made during a discussion at the 2004 European Forum for Victim Services conference about whether or not services to victims of hate crime should be provided by mainstream victim services or specialist agencies.

  2. ATLAS Data Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Roger; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Complementary to parallel open access and analysis preservation initiatives, ATLAS is taking steps to ensure that the data taken by the experiment during run-1 remain accessible and available for future analysis by the collaboration. An evaluation of what is required to achieve this is underway, examining the ATLAS data production chain to establish the effort required and potential problems. Several alternatives are explored, but the favoured solution is to bring the run 1 data and software in line with the equivalent to that which will be used for run 2. This will result in a coherent ATLAS dataset for the data already taken and that to come in the future.

  3. Employment funding under review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In February 1998, the Vietnam Women's Union (VWU) hosted a conference to review experience with the National Employment Program (NEP) that was instituted in 1993 to fund projects that create jobs. The 1.5 billion VND in funding distributed by the VWU that year has increased to 21 billion VND in 1997 and has supported 559 projects in 61 provinces and cities, creating 139,162 jobs. The 14 mountainous provinces have benefitted from 140 projects implemented with 4 billion VND in loans to ethnic minorities. In one case, a revolving loan fund of 100 million VND recovered most of the principle loaned as well as 54 million VND in interest. In another, investment of 70 million VND generated 48 million VND in income in a single year. The availability of the loans has allowed families to rise from chronic poverty as women have generated employment and income for their families. In order to expand, however, the program needs more funding and more cooperation from the State Treasury, and VWU members need training in order to be able to manage large projects.

  4. PCT funding. Beggars belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacking, John

    2003-04-10

    At the pace of change set for implementing the new PCT funding formula over the next three years, it will take more than 20 years to achieve equity. If the minimum increases were set lower it would largely be achieved within five years. The current state of affairs perpetuates the north-south health divide.

  5. To protect or to publish: confidentiality and the fate of the mentally ill victims of Nazi euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strous, R D

    2009-06-01

    In Nazi Germany, approximately 200 000 mentally ill people were murdered under the guise of euthanasia. Relatively little is known regarding the fate of the Jewish mentally ill patients targeted in this process, long before the Holocaust officially began. For the Nazis, Jewish mentally ill patients were doubly cursed since they embodied both "precarious genes" and "racial toxin". To preserve the memory of the victims, Yad Vashem, the leading institution dedicated to documentation of the Holocaust, actively collects information and documents the fate of victims in an open online database. Recently, a list of approximately 1200 names of Jewish mentally ill euthanasia victims has been compiled from hospital archives. Their fate remains unknown to surviving family members. Given the duty to preserve medical confidentiality, can this list be publicised for public interest and for notifying families-publicising names and death circumstances, including where "killed" would immediately indicate that the person had had a mental illness? Does the right to medical confidentiality lapse upon death? Is time elapsed since death a factor? Can opposing obligations of preserving victims' memory over-ride medical confidentiality? What if a family member objects to a grandparent's name being exposed on the list of mentally ill patients? This article considers these issues as well as the "rational" and "non-rational" factors in ethical decisional making surrounding this unique dilemma. Several possible solutions are proposed including preserving the list in a locked database for access by families and researchers, publicising in the media that such a list exists, publishing the information online without any identifiers and submitting the information to historians, allowing them to process the data as they see fit.

  6. Transforming Care for Victims of Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatright, Anne C

    2017-06-01

    In this month's Magnet® Perspectives column, Anne Boatright, MSN, RN, SANE, describes her efforts to develop a comprehensive forensic nursing program at Methodist Hospital in Omaha. Ms Boatright transformed a sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) program into one that provides 24/7 coverage at Methodist's 2 SANE locations and cares not only for victims of sexual assault but also for the victims domestic violence, sex trafficking, strangulation, elder abuse, and neglect. Her work extends beyond the walls of Methodist to the community, where she serves as a core member of the Nebraska Human Trafficking Task Force. She works collaboratively with the Federal Bureau of Investigation and helped Nebraska state senators draft legislation to create a sexual assault payment program. In recognition of her determination to make a difference for victims of violence, she received the 2016 National Magnet Nurse of the Year Award for Transformational Leadership.

  7. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims...... shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD diagnosis based solely on the three core symptom clusters was best identified by a subclinical ASD diagnosis based on all ASD criteria except dissociation. However, a full PTSD diagnosis including the A2 and F criteria was best identified by classifying...... victims according to a full ASD diagnosis. Regardless of whether cases were classified according to full PTSD status or according to meeting the criteria for the three PTSD core symptom clusters, the classification was correct only in approximately two thirds of the cases. A regression analysis based...

  8. Brief report: Identifying defenders of peer victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meter, Diana J; Card, Noel A

    2016-06-01

    Betweenness centrality quantifies the amount of network flow that a network member controls as hypothetical traffic passes between network members. Those with high betweenness centrality within the peer social network based on nominations of liking may be especially important connectors between individuals who do not like each other. This study tested the hypothesis that individuals' betweenness centrality would predict their defending of victimized peers. After controlling for popularity, perception of being liked, and defenders' victimization, betweenness centrality predicted defending. Those found to be connectors within the peer group were more likely to be those who defend peer victims. This investigation showed that analysis of betweenness centrality is a viable way to identify potential defenders in research and also those who could potentially act as mediators. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pension fund regulation: Unintended consequences of foreign investment restrictions in an emerging market economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coert Frederik Erasmus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Retirement savings allow investors to earn income after retirement by saving while being part of the workforce. Retirement savings comprise the largest portion of retirement savings and should be safeguarded by effective regulation. To safeguard retirement savings, exposure to foreign asset investments is limited. However, in an emerging economy, limiting foreign asset investments, especially investment in developed markets, could hamper the potential investment returns due to the translation risk. To assess the effect of translation risk, a preservation provident fund was used in the present study to determine whether the returns of this preservation provident fund would be adversely affected by investment allocation regulation. The findings indicated how the translation effect affected the preservation provident fund, illustrating the adverse unintended consequences of investment regulation in emerging market economies. Consequently, regulators should reconsider the maximum allowed foreign asset investment in pension fund regulations to enhance investment returns from foreign asset investments

  10. Evaluation of a Victim-Centered, Trauma-Informed Victim Notification Protocol for Untested Sexual Assault Kits (SAKs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca; Shaw, Jessica; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina

    2018-03-01

    Throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing, which raises complex issues regarding how victims ought to be notified about what happened to their kits. In this project, we evaluated a victim-centered, trauma-informed victim notification protocol that was implemented in Detroit, Michigan. Most victims (84%) did not have a strong negative emotional reaction to notification, and most (57%) decided to reengage with the criminal justice system. Victims of nonstranger sexual assaults were less likely to reengage postnotification compared with victims of stranger rape.

  11. Sexually assaulted victims are getting younger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherer, Susanne; Hansen, Steen Holger; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: From the clinical forensic examination reports produced by the Department of Forensic Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in 2007 concerning rape, attempted rape and sexual assault (RAS), circumstances were.......5% were under 30 years of age. 53% knew the perpetrator. More than one perpetrator was reported in 11%. 46% of the assaulted victims had a total number of 1-5 observed lesions and these were observed in all types of perpetrator relationship. Eight victims with more than 20 lesions were assaulted...

  12. Identification of victims in extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talipova, Yu.; Polukhina, O.

    2009-04-01

    Catastrophic natural disasters including tsunami events are increased the frequency in last years. One of very important problems here is the identification of personality of the victims. Due to difficult identification of the dead bodies lied into water for a long time the analysis of tooth-jaw system is proposed to apply because teeth are extremely stable to the destructive actions of environment. The method of identification of the age, sex and race of victims based on the mathematic model of pattern recognition and collected database is described. Some examples from extreme sea wave events are analyzed.

  13. DNA analysis in Disaster Victim Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelius, Kerstin; Lindblom, Bertil

    2012-06-01

    DNA profiling and matching is one of the primary methods to identify missing persons in a disaster, as defined by the Interpol Disaster Victim Identification Guide. The process to identify a victim by DNA includes: the collection of the best possible ante-mortem (AM) samples, the choice of post-mortem (PM) samples, DNA-analysis, matching and statistical weighting of the genetic relationship or match. Each disaster has its own scenario, and each scenario defines its own methods for identification of the deceased.

  14. Bullying and victimization in elementary schools : A comparison of bullies, victims, bully/victims, and uninvolved preadolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, René; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Winter, Andrea F. de; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    Research on bullying and victimization largely rests on univariate analyses and on reports from a single informant. Researchers may thus know too little about the simultaneous effects of various independent and dependent variables, and their research may be biased by shared method variance. The

  15. Identifying victims of violence using register-based data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Sørensen, Jan; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    nationwide registers to identify victims of violence: The National Patient Register, the Victim Statistics, and the Causes of Death Register. We merged these data and assessed the degree of overlap between data sources. We identified a reference population by selecting all individuals in Denmark over 15....... RESULTS: In 2006, 22,000 individuals were registered as having been exposed to violence. About 70% of these victims were men. Most victims were identified from emergency room contacts and police records, and few from the Causes of Death Register. There was some overlap between the two large data sources....... We found significant differences between victims and non-victims according to socio-economic status, education, marital status, and ethnic origin, and also between victims by source of identification. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a study population consisting of individual victims of violence...

  16. Categorization of crime victims: comparing theory and legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifi Besa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the categorization of victims by several victimological schools and to compare that to the categorization in the Criminal Procedure Code of Macedonia (CPC. The first part of this article analyzes different theoretical categories of victims, taking into consideration approaches of representatives of positivist, conservative, radical and critical victimology. A parallel is drawn between theoretical and legislative categorization of victims. Many countries have reformed their criminal legislation providing certain rights to the victim of crime. The second part of the article discusses the categorization of the victims within the CPC of Macedonia. Categorization of the victims is linked to their separate rights guaranteed by law. The article draws certain conclusions and recommendations regarding the categorization of victims and their specific rights. The importance of effective implementation of the guaranteed rights for the victim is especially emphasized.

  17. Peer victimization among children and adolescents with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jeremy S; Kendall, Philip C

    2015-06-01

    This study examined peer victimization among a sample of youth who were seeking treatment at an outpatient anxiety disorders clinic. The study examined the association between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms and looked at whether frequent victimization was more common among youth with Social Phobia (SoP) as compared to youth with other anxiety disorders The study also examined the relation between SoP and peer victimization dimensionally. Participants were 90 youth (47 boys; M age = 11.06 years) and their parents. Results showed that peer victimization was associated with social anxiety symptoms, and relational victimization, in particular, was associated with internalizing problems among youth with anxiety disorders. Negative beliefs about the peer group accounted for some of this relation. Victimization was associated with symptomatology rather than diagnosis. Peer victimization is important to assess and consider in the treatment of anxiety disorders in youth.

  18. Peer Victimization in Extremely Low Birth Weight Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Kimberly L; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Schmidt, Louis A

    2015-12-01

    Extremely low birth weight (ELBW; peer victimization. We examined retrospectively reported peer victimization in ELBW and control children in the oldest known, prospectively followed, population-based birth cohort of ELBW survivors. We compared levels of verbal and physical peer victimization in ELBW and control children. We also predicted peer victimization in the ELBW sample from child characteristics. ELBW children, especially girls, were at an increased risk for verbal, but not physical victimization. In addition, ELBW children with a higher IQ reported higher levels of verbal victimization, although ELBW females who had a lower body mass index in childhood reported higher levels of physical victimization. Findings highlight the need for parents and clinicians to be aware that ELBW girls, especially those with a lower body mass index in childhood, may be at increased risk of peer victimization, as are ELBW children with a higher IQ. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Preserving reptiles for research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.; Zug, George R.; Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    What are voucher specimens and why do we collect them? Voucher specimens are animals and/or their parts that are deposited in a research museum to document the occurrence of a taxon at a specific location in space and time (Pleijel et al., 2008; Reynolds and McDiarmid, 2012). For field biologists, vouchers are the repeatable element of a field study as they allow other biologists, now and in the future, to confirm the identity of species that were studied. The scientific importance of a voucher specimen or series of specimens is that other people are afforded the opportunity to examine the entire animal and confirm or correct identifications. A photographic record is somewhat useful for recording the occurrence of a species, but such records can be insufficient for reliable confirmation of specific identity. Even if a photo shows diagnostic characters of currently recognized taxa, it may not show characters that separate taxa that may be described in the future. Substantial cryptic biodiversity is being found in even relatively well-known herpetofaunas (Crawford et al., 2010), and specimens allow researchers to retroactively evaluate the true diversity in a study as understanding of taxonomy evolves. They enable biologists to study the systematic relationships of populations by quantifying variation in different traits. Specimens are also a source of biological data such as behaviour, ecology, epidemiology, and reproduction through examination of their anatomy, reproductive and digestive tracts, and parasites (Suarez and Tsutsui, 2004). Preserving reptiles as vouchers is not difficult, although doing it properly requires care, effort, and time. Poorly preserved vouchers can invalidate the results and conclusions of your study because of the inability to confirm the identity of your study animals. Good science requires repeatability of observations, and the absence of vouchers or poorly preserved ones prevents such confirmation. Due to space restrictions, we are

  20. A latent class analysis of bullies, victims and aggressive victims in Chinese adolescence: relations with social and school adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Aihui; Liang, Lichan; Yuan, Chunyong; Bian, Yufang

    2014-01-01

    This study used the latent class analysis (LCA) to identify and classify Chinese adolescent children's aggressive behaviors. It was found that (1) Adolescent children could be divided into four categories: general children, aggressive children, victimized children and aggressive victimized children. (2) There were significant gender differences among the aggressive victimized children, the aggressive children and the general children. Specifically, aggressive victimized children and aggressive children had greater probabilities of being boys; victimized children had equal probabilities of being boys or girls. (3) Significant differences in loneliness, depression, anxiety and academic achievement existed among the aggressive victims, the aggressor, the victims and the general children, in which the aggressive victims scored the worst in all questionnaires. (4) As protective factors, peer and teacher supports had important influences on children's aggressive and victimized behaviors. Relative to general children, aggressive victims, aggressive children and victimized children had lower probabilities of receiving peer supports. On the other hand, compared to general children, aggressive victims had lower probabilities of receiving teacher supports; while significant differences in the probability of receiving teacher supports did not exist between aggressive children and victimized children.

  1. A latent class analysis of bullies, victims and aggressive victims in Chinese adolescence: relations with social and school adjustments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihui Shao

    Full Text Available This study used the latent class analysis (LCA to identify and classify Chinese adolescent children's aggressive behaviors. It was found that (1 Adolescent children could be divided into four categories: general children, aggressive children, victimized children and aggressive victimized children. (2 There were significant gender differences among the aggressive victimized children, the aggressive children and the general children. Specifically, aggressive victimized children and aggressive children had greater probabilities of being boys; victimized children had equal probabilities of being boys or girls. (3 Significant differences in loneliness, depression, anxiety and academic achievement existed among the aggressive victims, the aggressor, the victims and the general children, in which the aggressive victims scored the worst in all questionnaires. (4 As protective factors, peer and teacher supports had important influences on children's aggressive and victimized behaviors. Relative to general children, aggressive victims, aggressive children and victimized children had lower probabilities of receiving peer supports. On the other hand, compared to general children, aggressive victims had lower probabilities of receiving teacher supports; while significant differences in the probability of receiving teacher supports did not exist between aggressive children and victimized children.

  2. Pension Fund award

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Pension Fund won the Investments & Pensions Europe (IPE) 2013 Gold Award in the Medium Real-Estate Investor category. IPE is the leading European publication on the subject of pensions. The awards were judged by a panel of 22 members, which included leading European investment consultants and pension fund executives.     Théodore Economou (left), the CERN Pension Fund’s Chief Executive Officer, receives the IPE 2013 Gold Award.   The award recognised the “fresh thinking” behind the CERN Pension Fund’s updated real-estate strategy, which has brought it “focus” on “high-quality assets and diversification.” The jury also noted the Fund’s “streamlined and cost-efficient” management, and noted that CERN is “running a tight ship”. While the awards are given by a European institution, they have a worldwide scope, and winners in ot...

  3. Kryolize - KT Fund Project

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Safety standards and best practices do exist in the field of cryogenics but, as in most domains, they are generally inserted in a few ‘envelope’ cases commonly used in the industry, whereas applicability to the particularity of research facilities are not fully tailored to its needs. The main objective in these cases is to find a harmonised approach, based on lessons learnt and scientific knowledge. The Kryolize Project was created in order to produce tools with a harmonized approach to size pressure relief devices for cryogenic applications. In view of disseminating such tools to other institutes and industrial partners, the project was submitted to CERN’s KT Fund committee. This talk will focus on the process and deliverables of the KT-Funded Kryolize project, including the method on how to cope with the sizing of pressure relief devices and the R&D collaboration agreement between CERN and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology for an experimental programme.

  4. A cause worth funding

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Germany is considering giving a fully functioning synchrotron radiation source for use by scientists in the Middle East. It will be the focus of a broader centre for research excellence for scientists from that region and the rest of the world. The proposal however needs substantial funding, potential backers include the EU, the US government as well as states within the Middle East. The issue will be discussed at the World Conference on Science in Budapest (1/2 page).

  5. Preservation of Built Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    When built environments and recently also cultural environments are to be preserved, the historic and architectural values are identified as the key motivations. In Denmark the SAVE system is used as a tool to identify architectural values, but in recent years it has been criticized for having...... a too narrow aesthetic goal, especially when it comes to the evaluation of built environments as a whole. Architectural value has therefore been perceived as a different concept than aesthetic value, primarily related to a static and unchanging expression. This fact creates problems in relation...... to current conservation tasks, which today include more and more untraditionally built environments, including cultural environments. Architectural value must in this case rather be associated with development, ongoing processes, and allow room for future change. The Danish architect Johannes Exner, defines...

  6. Pension Fund Governing Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Note The CERN pension scheme is based on the principle of defined benefits, so beneficiaries continue to receive the benefits to which they are entitled in accordance with the Rules of the Pension Fund. This means that pension entitlements under the Rules are not directly affected by the financial crisis and the current economic situation. However, the adjustment of pensions to the cost of living is not automatic and, under the method applied since 2006, must take into account the Fund’s financial position. Meeting of the Pension Fund Governing Board The Pension Fund Governing Board held its eighth meeting at ESO in Garching (near Munich), Germany on 24 October 2008. Before starting its work, the Governing Board had the privilege of hearing an opening address by Professor Tim de Zeeuw, the Director General of ESO. Professor de Zeeuw described the mission of ESO and the ambitious projects of his organisation, which performs astronomy observations using telescopes located in Chile. The Director-General receiv...

  7. PENSION FUND - ELECTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund.   Candidate: Name: MAURIN First Name: Guy I have been a member of the personnel since 1967 and as early as 1972 I was involved, in my capacity as President of the Staff Association, in the improvement of the Pension Fund benefits. As for most of us the Pension Fund is the only social provident scheme to which we belong, it is important to ensure that it is well managed and in balance. As a member of the Governing Board since 1974 and Vice-Chairman of this Board since 1977, I have continued to pursue these objectives. One of the main responsibilities of the Governing Board is our asset investment policy. The Investment Committee, of which I am Chairman, must have an overall view of the management of our 4 billion Swiss francs and seek the best yield with minimum risk. The investment structure must continuously be adapted i...

  8. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ...

  9. Psychological Adjustment in Bullies and Victims of School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, Estefania; Murgui, Sergio; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined psychosocial adjustment in the following four groups of students: victims, bullies, bully/victims and a control group of adolescents not involved in bullying or victimization problems. Psychosocial adjustment was measured considering as indicators: level of self-esteem, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress,…

  10. 76 FR 19909 - International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... of Justice Programs 28 CFR Part 94 RIN 1121-AA78 International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement... Victims of Crime (OVC) is promulgating this interim-final rule for its International Terrorism Victim... as an incident of international terrorism. DATES: Effective date: This interim-final rule is...

  11. From Victim to Taking Control: Support Group for Bullied Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Aabø, Liv Sandnes; Saeteren, Berit

    2016-01-01

    School bullying is a serious problem affecting the victims in their daily lives at school. The aim of this study was to investigate whether support groups were able to help the victims of bullying to overcome their victim status and to explore what it means to be a member of a support group. An exploratory qualitative design, with individual and…

  12. 28 CFR 9.8 - Provisions applicable to victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Provisions applicable to victims. 9.8... MITIGATION OF CIVIL AND CRIMINAL FORFEITURES § 9.8 Provisions applicable to victims. The provisions of this section apply to victims of an offense underlying the forfeiture of property, or of a related offense, who...

  13. Children's Tendency to Defend Victims of School Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, James R.; Smith-Adcock, Sondra

    2017-01-01

    Defenders, or children who help victims, are studied less often than children who bully or are victims of bullying. In this study, the authors examined middle schools students' perceived normative pressure from significant others to help victims. Findings suggest that normative pressure from best friends mediated gender and defending, and the…

  14. Students' Perceptions of Their Own Victimization: A Youth Voice Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corby, Emma-Kate; Campbell, Marilyn; Spears, Barbara; Slee, Phillip; Butler, Des; Kift, Sally

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the perceptions of 156 students who were victims of both traditional and cyberbullying (117 female, 45 male), ages 10 to 17 years, as to which form of bullying was more hurtful. Overall, students perceived traditional victimization to be more hurtful than cyber victimization. Reasons identified in the data to explain the…

  15. Social Information Processing Mechanisms and Victimization: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Reemst, Lisa; Fischer, Tamar F C; Zwirs, Barbara W C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current literature review, which is based on 64 empirical studies, was to assess to what extent mechanisms of the Social Information Processing (SIP) model of Crick and Dodge (1994) are related to victimization. The reviewed studies have provided support for the relation between victimization and several social information processing mechanisms, especially the interpretation of cues and self-efficacy (as part of the response decision). The relationship between victimization and other mechanisms, such as the response generation, was only studied in a few articles. Until now research has often focused on just one step of the model, instead of attempting to measure the associations between multiple mechanisms and victimization in multivariate analyses. Such analyses would be interesting to gain more insight into the SIP model and its relationship with victimization. The few available longitudinal studies show that mechanisms both predict victimization (internal locus of control, negative self-evaluations and less assertive response selection) and are predicted by victimization (hostile attribution of intent and negative evaluations of others). Associations between victimization and SIP mechanisms vary across different types and severity of victimization (stronger in personal and severe victimization), and different populations (stronger among young victims). Practice could focus on these stronger associations and the interpretation of cues. More research is needed however, to investigate whether intervention programs that address SIP mechanisms are suitable for victimization and all relevant populations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Sexual Abuse Victimization and Psychological Distress among Adolescent Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Debra L.; Kingree, J. B.

    2001-01-01

    This study focused on sexual abuse victimization and psychological distress among 272 adolescent offenders. Female respondents reported more sexual abuse victimization and psychological distress than did their male counterparts. Furthermore, church attendance moderated the association between sexual abuse victimization and psychological distress…

  17. Factors that Influence Children's Responses to Peer Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Children's responses to peer victimization are associated with whether the victimization continues, and its impact on adjustment. Yet little longitudinal research has examined the factors influencing children's responses to peer victimization. In a sample of 140 late elementary school children (n = 140, Mean age = 10 years, 2 months, 55% female,…

  18. History of Peer Victimization and Children's Response to School Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, L. Christian; Cavell, Timothy A.; Ogle, Nick T.; Malcolm, Kenya T.; Newgent, Rebecca A.; Faith, Melissa A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the degree to which children with and without a history of stable peer victimization differentially endorse strategies for dealing with school bullies. Participants were 323 children, 58 of whom met criteria for chronic peer victimization. Children with a history of stable peer victimization differed from comparison children in how…

  19. 77 FR 25345 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... April 27, 2012 Part V The President Proclamation 8804--National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2012 #0; #0... Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation For..., services, and support for victims of crime. Our Nation stands stronger for their efforts. Today, thousands...

  20. 28 CFR 0.91 - Office for Victims of Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office for Victims of Crime. 0.91 Section...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.91 Office for Victims of Crime. The Office for Victims of Crime is headed by a Director appointed by the Assistant Attorney General, Office of Justice...

  1. Occurrence of Stalking Victimization among Female and Male Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Rachel K.; Nelson, Deborah B.; Forke, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the occurrence of stalking victimization among female and male undergraduate students attending three urban colleges. Specifically, we explored the proportion of students who experienced only stalking victimization and the relationship to the perpetrator identified by victims of stalking. Our findings suggest that stalking…

  2. Safe Harbor Legislation for Juvenile Victims of Sex Trafficking: A Myopic View of Improvements in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Mehlman-Orozco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Current social and political realties have focused attention on human trafficking in the United States. Although new mechanisms for criminalizing offenders and protecting victims are increasingly funded and implemented across the country, empirical exploration into the efficacy of these interventions is lacking. This article uses yearly count data on juvenile prostitution arrests aggregated at the state level to explore the criminalization of commercial sexually exploited children post safe harbor policy implementation. Preliminary data from four states suggests that the passage of safe harbor laws may not reduce the number of juveniles arrested for prostitution crimes. Implications for future research are discussed.

  3. Contamination versus preservation of cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Moesby, Lise; Zachariae, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Cosmetics with high water content are at a risk of being contaminated by micro-organisms that can alter the composition of the product or pose a health risk to the consumer. Pathogenic micro-organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are frequently found in contaminated...... cosmetics. In order to avoid contamination of cosmetics, the manufacturers add preservatives to their products. In the EU and the USA, cosmetics are under legislation and all preservatives must be safety evaluated by committees. There are several different preservatives available but the cosmetic market...... is dominated by a few preservatives: parabens, formaldehyde, formaldehyde releasers, and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone. Allergy to preservatives is one of the main reasons for contact eczema caused by cosmetics. Concentration of the same preservative in similar products varies greatly...

  4. [Minor Victims of Violent Acts in the Context of the Victim Reparation Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Katharina; Kröger, Christoph; Franke, Stefanie; Wehrmeyer, Matthias; Heinrichs, Nina

    2017-02-06

    A descriptive analysis of victim compensation applications for children and adolescents as well as sociodemographic and trauma-specific information concerning victims and perpetrators. We did analysis of 100 victim-compensation application files based on a self-developed category System. The files included solely interpersonal trauma, 59 % of which are type II trauma. The most frequent form is sexual violence. The perpetrators stem mostly from children’s homes or peripherals. 79 % of the victims received a diagnosis of a mental disorder, most often posttraumatic stress disorder. Sexually abused children and adolescents make up the majority of the target population in OEG-related trauma outpatient units. Such outpatient units should therefore offer a specific expertise in treating sexually abused children and adolescents.

  5. Lifetime Assessment of Poly-Victimization in a National Sample of Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To use a lifetime assessment of victimization experiences to identify children and youth with high cumulative levels of victimization (poly-victims). Also to compare such children to other victims and non-victims, and assess the contribution of cumulative victimization to levels of psychological distress. Design: A national sample of…

  6. Violence Exposure and Victimization among Rural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykota, David B.; Laye, Adele

    2015-01-01

    Violence exposure is a serious public health concern for adolescents in schools today. Violence exposure can be quite severe and frequent with multiple acts of indirect and direct victimization having lasting effects on the physical, emotional, and intellectual well-being of adolescents. The purpose of the present study is to examine the rates of…

  7. Bullying Victims' Perceptions of Classroom Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havik, Trude

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated bullying victims' perceptions of their teachers' support and monitoring when controlling for level of mental health problems, peer relationships, gender, and grade level. Given the nested structure of the data, multilevel analyses were employed to examine these associations. The quality of classroom interaction is highly…

  8. The Perception of Cyberbullying in Adolescent Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcikova, Anna; Smahel, David; Otavova, Mlada

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore how victims of cyberbullying perceive online aggressive attacks and when they see them as harmful. Interviews were carried out with 16 cybervictimised participants aged 15-17 years. The findings showed differences in the perception of online victimisation when perpetrated by an anonymous Internet user versus…

  9. Internet piracy and consequences for victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Miljan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After the evolution of technology made it possible to perform actions via the Internet that constitute copyright violations, the analysis of the effects of internet piracy on social welfare became the subject of academic polemics. The main and the biggest victims of Internet piracy are the holders of copyright and related rights, however, the damage that piracy causes them comes from multiple sources, is difficult to quantify and is only a part of the total social cost of piracy. However, there are other categories of victims, such as those whose honor was besmirched as a result of piracy, and who suffer the consequences in the form of negative emotional reactions, loss of job as well as those who subsequently commit suicide. The object of this paper is to describe the effects of internet piracy on the victims of this phenomenon, and the goal is the analysis of the various direct and indirect effects of piracy on victims and their motivation for future creation, as well as analysis of prevention measures, with special emphasis on the Republic of Serbia.

  10. Connections to Rescue Our Victims of Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on the Washington, D.C. school system and Antonio, a child victim of violence, to discuss the background problems that affect the school performance of children from troubled neighborhoods. People who work in schools know that children--even kindergarten and preschool children--don't come to them as blank slates…

  11. Student Victimization by Educational Staff in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury-Kassabri, Mona

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: This study examines the relationships between physical, emotional, and sexual victimization of school students by educational staff with a number of variables describing the student (gender, age, and relationship with teachers) and the school (the socioeconomic status (SES) of the students' families and school's neighborhood, school…

  12. Always the victim : Israel's present wars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, T.

    2006-01-01

    In the Israeli discourse, Israel has always been the innocent victim of vicious aggression from its neighbors. This perception of reality has only intensified with its two recent wars - against the Palestinians in Gaza and against Lebanon. On this view, in both cases Israel has manifested its good

  13. Psychological characteristics of victims of trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larin A.N.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main causes of falling into slavery, forms of slave labour, as well as moral-psychological properties and characteristics of potential victims of trafficking. Noted risk factors leading to victimization of the person and increase the possibility of becoming an object for criminal groups specializing in this kind of crime. The number of victims of international trafficking ranges from 600 to 800 thousand people a year, and when you consider human trafficking within the individual countries, the total number of victims ranges from 2 to 4 million people. 80% of trafficked people are women and children, of which 70% are sold to other countries for sexual exploitation. According to the International organization for migration (International Organization of Migration annually only in the European markets of prostitution sold is not less than 500 thousand women. Among the personal factors that affect the increase in the number of such crimes, it is necessary to indicate family trouble, which manifests itself, primarily, to neglect, loss of relationships with family and parents, or in the absence of moral and material support from existing family and friends.

  14. Sexual Coercion among Adolescents: Victims and Perpetrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasse, Anne; Mendelson, Morton J.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional period when the pressure to engage in romantic and sexual relationships can leave teenagers feeling confused and at risk for sexual coercion. Our studies investigated characteristics of male and female perpetrators and victims of peer sexual coercion, focusing on self-esteem, sexist attitudes, and involvement in…

  15. Simulating Peer Support for Victims of Cyberbullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zwaan, J.M.; Dignum, M.V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a design for an Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) that empowers victims of cyberbullying by simulating peer support. The anti-cyberbullying buddy helps a child to cope with negative emotions due to a cyberbullying incident and it shows the child how to deal with future

  16. Children's Peer Victimization, Empathy, and Emotional Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Perren, Sonja; Buchmann, Marlis

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the concurrent and longitudinal relations among children's peer victimization, empathy, and emotional symptoms. The sample consisted of 175 children (85 girls, mean age = 6.1 years) recruited from kindergartens in Switzerland and followed for 1 year (Time 2). Parents and teachers reported on the children's emotional…

  17. Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes and Bullying Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A.; Williams, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem within the U.S. school system. Prior research suggests that victimization is stratified by race and ethnicity. However, few studies consider factors that may moderate this relationship. This article extends research on this topic by considering whether stereotypes moderate bullying among racial and ethnic youth. Youth…

  18. Prioritizing Child Pornography Notifications: Predicting Direct Victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, W.; Schepers, K.; Kamphuis, J.H.; van Linden, S.; Bartling, S.

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of notifications for child pornography (CP) possession constitutes a capacity problem for police forces entrusted with the investigation of these offenses. Notifications of CP offenses in which the investigation reveals concurrent direct victimization, in the form of contact

  19. Global Human Trafficking and Child Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Jordan; Bodrick, Nia

    2017-12-01

    Trafficking of children for labor and sexual exploitation violates basic human rights and constitutes a major global public health problem. Pediatricians and other health care professionals may encounter victims who present with infections, injuries, posttraumatic stress disorder, suicidality, or a variety of other physical or behavioral health conditions. Preventing child trafficking, recognizing victimization, and intervening appropriately require a public health approach that incorporates rigorous research on the risk factors, health impact, and effective treatment options for child exploitation as well as implementation and evaluation of primary prevention programs. Health care professionals need training to recognize possible signs of exploitation and to intervene appropriately. They need to adopt a multidisciplinary, outward-focused approach to service provision, working with nonmedical professionals in the community to assist victims. Pediatricians also need to advocate for legislation and policies that promote child rights and victim services as well as those that address the social determinants of health, which influence the vulnerability to human trafficking. This policy statement outlines major issues regarding public policy, medical education, research, and collaboration in the area of child labor and sex trafficking and provides recommendations for future work. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Media-Cultivated Perceptions of Criminal Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogles, Robert M.

    Many television viewers construct their social reality from media content as well as from sensory and interpersonally communicated information. One aspect of this media-influenced social reality is television viewers' estimates of crime in society, or their fear of criminal victimization. Several media-effects studies have demonstrated the…

  1. Public Funding of Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortuno-Ortin, Ignacio; Schultz, Christian

    This paper concerns public funding of parties. Parteis receive public funds depending on their vote share. Funds finance electoral campaigns. Two cases are investigated. In the first, some voters are policy motivated and some are ?impressionable? ? their vote depends directly on campaign expendit......This paper concerns public funding of parties. Parteis receive public funds depending on their vote share. Funds finance electoral campaigns. Two cases are investigated. In the first, some voters are policy motivated and some are ?impressionable? ? their vote depends directly on campaign...... expenditures. In the second, campaigning is informative and all voters are policy motivated. Public funds increase policy convergence in both cases. The effect is larger, the more funding depends on vote shares. When campaigns are informative, there may be multiple euqilibria. Intuitively, a large party can...

  2. Namibia - Vocational Training Grant Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The impact evaluation of the Vocational Training Grant Fund (VTGF) subactivity in Namibia used a random assignment design to determine the effects of VTGF-funded...

  3. Namibia - Vocational Training Grant Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The impact evaluation of the Vocational Training Grant Fund (VTGF) subactivity in Namibia uses a random assignment design to determine the effects of VTGF-funded...

  4. Mutual Fund Performances of Polish Domestic Equity Fund Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ömer faruk tan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The main purpose of the paper is empirically evaluating selectivity skills and market timing ability of Polish fund managers during the period from January 2009 to November 2014. After the global financial crisis of 2008, in this period of quantitative easing (QE, thanks to an increase in the money supply, a capital flow from developed countries to developing countries was observed. In this study, we try to analyse that although the financial market in Poland made an incredible progress, whether fund managers show better or worse performance than the market. Methodology/Methods: In order to evaluate fund manager performances, Jensen alpha (1968 is computed, which depicts selectivity skills of fund managers. For determining market timing ability of fund managers, Treynor & Mazuy (1966 regression analysis and Henriksson & Merton (1981 regression analysis are applied. Fund performances are evaluated using Warsaw Stock Exchange Index as the benchmark index. Scientific aim: In this study, we have tried to evaluate selectivity skills and market timing ability of Polish fund managers. A total of 14 equity fund managers’ performances are analysed. The study can be guiding especially for investors who are interested in Polish equity fund performances in a period where emerging stock markets outperformed with quantitative easing. Findings: Jensen (1968 alphas indicate that over this period fund managers did not have selective ability, as none of the 14 funds had statistically significant positive alphas. Furthermore, Treynor & Mazuy (1966 and Henriksson & Merton (1981 regression analysis indicate that over the same period fund managers did not also have market timing ability, as again none of the 14 funds had statistically significant positive coefficients. Conclusions: In this work, we can detect that in the era of quantitative easing, although the financial market in Poland made an incredible progress, the fund returns were

  5. Management of digital preservation repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Márdero Arellano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The object of this work are the international experiences of implementation of digital preservation practices in repositories. It based on bibliographical survey about the beginning of digital preservation practices in digital repositories, identifying important aspects of how to manage the practices of digital preservation on repositories. Most repositories analyzed showed a double function of access and preservation, but few could be considered to be "dark archives" used only for preservation matters. The application of digital preservation standards showed that large institutions possessed detailed definitions of what stored materials could be filed and used. Repositories managers had some kind of operating budget to carry on preservation activities. Most repositories cited in the bibliography used a combination of commercial tools and free software. As a conclusion, the records analyzed reinforce the need today of the application of digital preservation strategies using the OAIS Reference Model and official audit certification actions  on the design of digital preservation repositories, to keep the integration flexibility of  functions and services that go beyond the repository.

  6. Property fund flows and returns

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Stephen L.

    2000-01-01

    This study is concerned with the impacts on property returns from property fund flows, and with the possibility of a reverse transmission from property fund flows to property returns. In other words this study investigates whether property returns “cause” fund flow changes, or whether fund flow changes “cause” property returns, or causality works in both directions.\\ud \\ud \\ud \\ud

  7. Investible benchmarks & hedge fund liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Freed, Marc S; McMillan, Ben

    2011-01-01

    A lack of commonly accepted benchmarks for hedge fund performance has permitted hedge fund managers to attribute to skill returns that may actually accrue from market risk factors and illiquidity. Recent innovations in hedge fund replication permits us to estimate the extent of this misattribution. Using an option-based model, we find evidence that the value of liquidity options that investors implicitly grant managers when they invest may account for part or even all hedge fund returns. C...

  8. Revictimization of Victims Sexually Abused by Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata H. Kowalczyk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Victims experiencing the sexual abuse are surviving not only physical injustice but above all deep traumas, which very often in different forms, are keeping them company through the entire life. Quite often at establishing different results a sex is underestimated for the perpetrator. Therefore knowing the problem of sexual abuses from a perspective of close as well as distant results is very important in the event that a woman was a perpetrator of these acts – mother, minder. In the present article based on analysis of literature, a problem of results of the sexual abuse was presented at victims which experienced these behaviours on the part of women. In order to draw up discussing the survived specificity by victims was both of sex of the trauma connected with the sexual application as well as close and distant consequences of these events in the form prime victimisation and revictimisation for figure being noticeable in the adult life of psychosexual disorders and social shortages. Amongst the consequence isolated traumatic factors are deserving the particular attention about dynamic character which are provoking the appearance of many symptoms characteristic of children which experienced the sexual violence. Recalled factors it: traumatic sexualisation of child, the betrayal, the stigmatization and the helplessness. The specificity of these factors results from the fact that they will leave distant “tracks” in the psyche and they can undergo the additional reinforcement if a woman is a perpetrator of the sexual violence. It results from frequent attitudes of “denying” towards the sexual violence applied by women. In the study they pointed also at one of possible consequences of the revictimisation process copying patterns of behaviour connected with the sexual exploitation of children in their more late life by victims is which. This process resulting from the alternating identification of the perpetrator and the victim is starting

  9. Victims' Influence on Intimate Partner Violence Revictimization: An Empirical Test of Dynamic Victim-Related Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, Karlijn F.; Van der Knaap, Leontien M.; Winkel, Frans Willem

    2012-01-01

    Research has reported that not only characteristics of the perpetrator but also characteristics of the victim influence risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). This would suggest that prevention of repeat abuse could benefit from a focus on both perpetrator and victim characteristics. Knowledge on factors that are within victims' sphere of…

  10. Decreases in the proportion of bullying victims in the classroom: Effects on the adjustment of remaining victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garandeau, C.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/380715066; Lee, Ihno A.; Salmivalli, Christina

    2018-01-01

    Sharing a classroom environment with other victimized peers has been shown to mitigate the adverse effects of peer victimization on children’s social and psychological adjustment. By extension, this study hypothesized that classroom reductions in the proportion of victims would be harmful for

  11. Associations between Peer Victimization, Fear of Future Victimization and Disrupted Concentration on Class Work among Junior School Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Michael J.; Trueman, Mark; Murray, Lindsay

    2008-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that peer victimization is associated with psychological maladjustment, and have implicated such maladjustment in disrupted ability to concentrate. Aims: To investigate the levels of, and associations between, physical, verbal, and social exclusion victimization, fear of future victimization, and disrupted classroom…

  12. Post-traumatic stress problems among poly-victimized Spanish youth: time effect of past vs. recent interpersonal victimizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Teresa; Forns, Maria; Soler, Laia; Planellas, Irina

    2014-08-01

    The cumulative effect of lifetime interpersonal victimization experiences (e.g., child maltreatment, sexual victimizations, conventional crime, witnessing indirect victimization, peer and sibling victimizations) on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms is an important topic in the scientific literature. The objectives of the present study were: (a) to analyze the relationship between lifetime interpersonal victimizations and PTS symptoms, (b) to determine the most prevalent specific PTS symptoms among poly-victimized adolescents, and (c) to establish the time-based effect of interpersonal victimization experiences that occurred in the last year versus those that occurred years before on current level of PTS symptoms. Gender differences were taken into account for each of these objectives. Participants were 823 Spanish adolescents (63% girls and 37% boys) between 14 and 18 years of age recruited from May 2010 to November 2011 from schools in Barcelona, Spain. The majority (87.6%) was of Spanish nationality. The results highlighted the cumulative effect of interpersonal victimizations on PTS symptoms. Among poly-victims adolescents, the most prevalent PTS symptom was intrusive thoughts, but some differences were observed according to gender. The time-based effect of interpersonal victimizations showed a different pattern for girls and boys. For girls, the victimizing events occurring in past years had more explanatory power of the current PTS symptoms than those that occurred more recently. In boys, the interpersonal victimizing events occurring in the last year had the greater explanatory power. These results may have clinical and therapeutic value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. SEXUAL VICTIMIZATION AND ASSOCIATED RISKS AMONG LESBIAN AND BISEXUAL WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hequembourg, Amy L.; Livingston, Jennifer A.; Parks, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines relationships among childhood sexual abuse (CSA), risky alcohol use, and adult sexual victimization among bisexual and lesbian women. Half (51.2%) of women reported CSA and 71.2% reported adult sexual victimization. Perpetrators were generally male, and 56.4% of women’s most recent adult sexual victimization incidents occurred after coming-out. Regression results indicated that adult sexual victimization severity was associated with a bisexual identity, more severe CSA history, more lifetime sexual partners, and higher alcohol severity scores. Compared to lesbians, bisexual women reported more severe adult sexual victimization experiences, greater revictimization, riskier drinking patterns, and more lifetime male sexual partners. PMID:23759663

  14. Sexual victimization and associated risks among lesbian and bisexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hequembourg, Amy L; Livingston, Jennifer A; Parks, Kathleen A

    2013-05-01

    This study examines relationships among childhood sexual abuse (CSA), risky alcohol use, and adult sexual victimization among bisexual and lesbian women. Half (51.2%) of women reported CSA and 71.2% reported adult sexual victimization. Perpetrators were generally male, and 56.4% of women's most recent adult sexual victimization incidents occurred after coming out. Regression results indicated that adult sexual victimization severity was associated with a bisexual identity, more severe CSA history, more lifetime sexual partners, and higher alcohol severity scores. Compared to lesbians, bisexual women reported more severe adult sexual victimization experiences, greater revictimization, riskier drinking patterns, and more lifetime male sexual partners.

  15. Gendered violence and restorative justice: the views of victim advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis-Fawley, Sarah; Daly, Kathleen

    2005-05-01

    The use of restorative justice for gendered violence has been debated in the feminist literature for some time. Critics warn that it is inappropriate because the process and outcomes are not sufficiently formal or stringent, and victims may be revictimized. Proponents assert that a restorative justice process may be better for victims than court because it holds offenders accountable and gives victims greater voice. This article presents what victim advocates in two Australian states think about using restorative justice for gendered violence. We find that although victim advocates have concerns and reservations about restorative justice, most saw positive elements.

  16. Sexual victimization and completed suicide among Danish female adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradus, Jaimie L; Qin, Ping; Lincoln, Alisa K; Miller, Matthew; Lawler, Elizabeth; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Lash, Timothy L

    2012-05-01

    Although sexual victimization has been associated with suicidal behaviors, its association with completed suicide has not been examined. We investigated this association among Danish women using longitudinal data and a conservative definition of victimization. This population-based case-control study included 476 suicide cases and 12,010 matched controls. Seven cases (1.5%) and 5 controls (0.04%) experienced sexual victimization that was reported to the police and resulted in a conviction. Sexual victimization was associated with a 14-fold increased rate of suicide, controlling for confounders and matching (95% CI: [3.4, 59]). Completed suicide is an important potential outcome of sexual victimization, warranting further examination.

  17. Preserving urban objects of historicaland architectural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal'zannikova Ekaterina Mikhailovna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large cities of central Russia were built under the influence of the factors that played an important role in protecting their population; natural resources and opportunities for trading were also essential. The industrial development and construction of large industrial facilities were significant for the formation of urban environment. As a result architectural monuments of great historical value that have a significant influence on the formation of the modern city image were preserved.Nowadays, a great number of buildings of historical and architectural heritage turned out to be in poor condition. Funding and its efficient use are rational means of saving the most valuable objects of historical and cultural heritage. In order to do this it is necessary to solve the problems of developing complex and effective measures for preserving these objectsThe existing method of preserving urban objects does not focus on urban architectural objects of historical and architectural value. It does not cover the study of urban development features in architectural and town-planning environment surrounding this object, it does not determine the historical and architectural value of the object and it does not identify the relationship of the object and the surrounding objects as well as architectural frame of the total area. That is why the existing method cannot be considered an appropriate system for preserving the objects of historical and architectural heritage.In order to avoid the disadvantages mentioned above and to increase tourist interest to the architecturally valuable buildings in urban areas, the author has proposed a complex approach to improve the method of reconstructing urban objects of great historical and architectural significance.The existing method of preserving historical objects includes the preparatory period of studying the degree of historical and architectural heritage wear and decay, developing the techniques for strengthening

  18. The role of forensic anthropology in Disaster Victim Identification (DVI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Soren; Briggs, Christopher A

    2011-02-25

    This paper briefly describes Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) and reviews the history of the use of forensic anthropology in the identification process. The potential contributions made by forensic anthropology are illustrated through the presentation of a case study. In February 2009 the state of Victoria in south-eastern Australia experienced the most devastating bushfires in its history, resulting in catastrophic loss of life and public and private property. Within 48h of the disaster, forensic teams including pathologists, odontologists and anthropologists assembled at the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine in Melbourne to begin the task of identifying the deceased. This paper reviews the part played by forensic anthropologists in the identification process and outlines the important contribution anthropologists can make to DVI, especially at the scene, in the mortuary and in the reconciliation process. The anthropologist's experience with differentially preserved human remains meant they played an important role identifying and recovering heavily fragmentary human skeletal remains, differentiating human from non-human remains, establishing basic biological information such as the sex and age of the individuals and confirming or denying the possibility of re-associating body parts for release to families. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Disaster victim identification: new applications for postmortem computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Soren; Robertson, Shelley; Johnstone, Marnie

    2008-07-01

    Mass fatalities can present the forensic anthropologist and forensic pathologist with a different set of challenges to those presented by a single fatality. To date radiography has played an important role in the disaster victim identification (DVI) process. The aim of this paper is to highlight the benefits of applying computed tomography (CT) technology to the DVI process. The paper begins by reviewing the extent to which sophisticated imaging techniques, specifically CT, have been increasingly used to assist in the analysis of deceased individuals. A small scale case study is then presented which describes aspects of the DVI process following a recent Australian aviation disaster involving two individuals. Having grided the scene of the disaster, a total of 41 bags of heavily disrupted human remains were collected. A postmortem examination was subsequently undertaken. Analysis of the CT images of all body parts (n = 162) made it possible not only to identify and side differentially preserved skeletal elements which were anatomically unrecognizable in the heavily disrupted body masses, but also to observe and record useful identifying features such as surgical implants. In this case the role of the forensic anthropologist and CT technology were paramount in facilitating a quick identification, and subsequently, an effective and timely reconciliation, of body parts. Although this case study is small scale, it illustrates the enormous potential for CT imaging to complement the existing DVI process.

  20. Suspect aggression and victim resistance in multiple perpetrator rapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhams, Jessica; Cooke, Claire

    2013-11-01

    Several research studies have reported an elevated level of aggression in rapes committed by multiple perpetrators compared to rapes committed by lone suspects. Several factors that have been linked to elevated aggression in generic samples of rape were examined for the first time with a sample of multiple perpetrator rapes. Factors that might be associated with victim resistance were also investigated. Victim and offender characteristics, as well as the behaviors displayed by victims and offenders, were extracted from the police files of 89 multiple perpetrator stranger rapes perpetrated against female victims in the United Kingdom. These behaviors were rated for their level of suspect (non-sexual) aggression and victim resistance, respectively. Degree of victim resistance was significantly and positively associated with suspect aggression. Older victims were the recipients of significantly higher levels of suspect aggression. Victims who were incapacitated from drugs and/or alcohol were less likely to be the recipients of suspect aggression. Group leaders displayed more aggression towards the victim than the followers in the groups. The number of perpetrators was significantly related to the degree of resistance displayed by the victim with offences perpetrated by fewer suspects being characterized by more victim resistance. Research regarding cognitive appraisal during criminal interactions and the respective roles of offenders is referred to in considering these relationships.

  1. Victims of crime, with special emphasis on victims of work abuse and domestic violence: Analysis of the service VDS info and victim support for 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radaković Danica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the work of the VDS info and victim support service for the period January 1st 2009 - December 31st 2009. It contains the data about victims, type and quality of assistance and support provided by the Service, and also about institutions and organizations the victims contacted before or after contacting the Service and their satisfaction with the help they received.

  2. Inequality, Opting-out and Public Education Funding

    OpenAIRE

    Arcalean, Calin; Schiopu, Ioana Cosmina

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between inequality and political support for public education funding in a model of endogenous fertility and school choice. Household income heterogeneity is consistent with the skewness of empirical income distributions. Inequality can drive education spending in opposite directions in poor and rich economies. A mean preserving spread increases tax rates and public school enrollment, but decreases public spending per student in low income economies, while it h...

  3. Beyond Advocacy: Mapping the Contours of Victim Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globokar, Julie L; Erez, Edna; Gregory, Carol R

    2016-05-25

    In contrast to works on victim advocacy in specific organizational contexts, this article introduces the term "victim work" to capture the vast array of victim-related roles and tasks that have proliferated in recent decades. Data are derived from in-depth interviews with 30 "victim workers" in public and private agencies in two Midwestern states. The interviews revealed diverse work experiences that spanned hotlines, crisis response, legal proceedings, and postconviction support. Three themes emerged that characterize "victim work": flexibility, emotions, and the challenge of "fit"-the multifaceted difficulties of interacting with victims and agents of the justice system. Based on the findings, we offer a revised model of criminal justice vis-à-vis victims and implications for practice and future research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Victim sensitivity and the accuracy of social judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollwitzer, Mario; Rothmund, Tobias; Alt, Bianca; Jekel, Marc

    2012-08-01

    Recent theorizing on the relation between victim sensitivity and unethical behavior predicts that victim sensitivity is related to an asymmetrical focus on cues associated with untrustworthiness compared to cues associated with trustworthiness. This hypothesis and its consequences for the accuracy of social predictions are investigated in this article. In Study 1, participants rated the trustworthiness of 35 computer-animated faces that differed in their emotional expression. People high in victim sensitivity rated neutral and hostile faces more untrustworthy than people low in victim sensitivity, whereas no such effect was found for friendly faces. In Study 2, participants predicted the cooperativeness of 56 targets on the basis of minimal information. The accuracy of predictions was negatively related to victim sensitivity, and people high in victim sensitivity systematically underestimated targets' cooperativeness. Thus, the asymmetrical focus on untrustworthiness cues among victim-sensitive individuals seems to impair rather than improve their social judgments.

  5. Workplace mobbing: How the victim's coping behavior influences bystander responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Roelie; Bos, Arjan E R; Pouwelse, Mieneke; van Dam, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Victims of workplace mobbing show diverse coping behavior. We investigated the impact of this behavior on bystander cognitions, emotions, and helping toward the victim, integrating coping literature with attribution theory. Adult part-time university students (N = 161) working at various organizations participated in a study with a 3(Coping: approach/avoidance/neutral) × 2(Gender Victim: male/female) × 2(Gender Bystander: male/female) design. Victims showing approach (vs. avoidance) coping were considered to be more self-reliant and less responsible for the continuation of the mobbing, and they elicited less anger. Continuation responsibility and self-reliance mediated the relationship between the victim's coping behavior and bystanders' helping intentions. Female (vs. male) participants reported more sympathy for the victim and greater willingness to help, and female (vs. male) victims elicited less anger. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  6. Trajectories of Peer Victimization: The Role of Multiple Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavis, Rachael D; Keane, Susan P; Calkins, Susan D

    2010-07-01

    This study examined early elementary school children's trajectories of peer victimization with a sample of 218 boys and girls. Peer victimization was assessed (via peer report) in kindergarten, 1(st), 2(nd), and 5(th) grades. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine multiple types of relationships (mother-child, student-teacher, friendship) as predictors of kindergarten levels of peer victimization and changes in peer victimization across time. Results indicated that the mother-child relationship predicted kindergarten levels of peer victimization, and that the student-teacher relationship did not provide additional information, once the mother-child relationship was accounted for in the analyses. Friendship predicted changes in peer victimization during the elementary school years. Results are discussed in a developmental psychopathology framework with special emphasis on the implication for understanding the etiology of peer victimization.

  7. User Experience and Heritage Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfield, Steven J.; Chapman, J. Wesley; Davis, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    In considering the heritage preservation of higher education campus buildings, much of the attention gravitates toward issues of selection, cost, accuracy, and value, but the model for most preservation projects does not have a clear method of achieving the best solutions for meeting these targets. Instead, it simply relies on the design team and…

  8. The Divine Library Function: Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Duane A.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the importance of preservation as a priority for all librarians and explains the basics of controlling environmental factors, disaster planning, book repair, educating students, selection and preservation, ephemera, and library binding in the context of school libraries. Specific examples in the school library environment are included.…

  9. A continuous improvement process for health providers of victims of domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson-Britt, E; Thornton, J E; Hoppe, S K; Brackley, M H

    2001-10-01

    Health care providers can play an important role in the prevention of domestic violence through established processes of identification, safety assessment, validation, documentation, and referral. In 1998 the Safe Family Project, funded by University Health System (UHS), affiliated with University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, provided for a clinical review of existing services for victims of domestic violence. A subsequent review of the health system's policy and clinical practice supported the need for resources and training and for an improved care process for victims of domestic violence. THE CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT PROCESS (CIP) MODEL: UHS adapted the Shewhart cycle of activities popularly referred to as PDSA (plan change, do change, study results, act on results), a systematic, process-focused approach to achieving continuous and measurable improvement, as its CIP model, and it formed a process improvement team. This process led to translation of research findings into best practice guidelines for treatment of domestic violence and staff education. Significant improvements were made in the overall qualitative chart reviews, although the diagnostic coding (using ICD-9 codes and e-codes) did improve. The CIP can be replicated in other settings to improve the care of victims of domestic violence. The CIP effort is being extended to outpatient facilities, and managers have requested that the training manual be replicated and placed throughout UHS as a resource manual. Other activities are intended to improve prevention of domestic violence and intervention when it occurs.

  10. Preserving Dignity in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    São José, José Manuel

    2016-09-01

    This article examines how elders who receive social care in the community experience loss of dignity and how they preserve their dignity. Qualitative research revealed that loss of dignity is a major concern for these elders and that they preserve their dignity differently, ranging from actively engaging with life to detaching themselves from life. We conclude that, in later life, preserving dignity while receiving social care differs from preserving dignity in the context of health care, especially health care provided in institutional settings. Furthermore, preserving dignity in later life, while receiving social care, is a complex process, depending not only on performing activities and individual action and responsibility, but also on other actions, some of them involving a certain inactivity/passivity, and interactions with others, especially caregivers. This article offers some insights to developing better policies and care practices for promoting dignity in the context of community-based social care.

  11. Victimization and its associations with peer rejection and fear of victimization: Moderating effects of individual-level and classroom-level characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollerová, Lenka; Smolík, Filip

    2016-12-01

    Past research has shown that peer victimization by bullying is associated with peer rejection and fear of victimization, but little is known about the interplay between victimization and other characteristics in the prediction of these experiences. We assume that the associations between victimization and peer rejection/fear of victimization are moderated by multiple characteristics, including aspects of peer ecology. The study tested whether the links between victimization and peer rejection/fear of victimization are moderated by gender, peer support, and two features of classroom peer ecology: classroom victimization rate and classroom hierarchy (the variability of popularity among students). The sample included 512 early adolescents attending sixth grade retrieved from 25 elementary school classrooms. Participants completed a set of self-report and peer nomination instruments in classroom settings. Multilevel linear modelling showed that higher levels of peer rejection were associated with higher victimization, male gender, and lower peer support. The association between victimization and peer rejection was attenuated for females and when the classroom victimization rate was higher. A higher fear of victimization was related to higher victimization, female gender, lower peer support, and a higher classroom victimization rate. The link between victimization and fear of victimization was strengthened by female gender and higher levels of classroom hierarchy. The results indicate the relevance of the interplay between victimization and gender and between victimization and classroom peer ecology in understanding peer rejection and fear of victimization. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  12. La victima, el victimario y la justicia restaurativa / La victime, le criminel et la justice réparatrice / The victim, the offender and the restorative justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villarreal Sotelo Karla

    2013-03-01

    sens, la recherche criminologique et victimologique a le devoir de développer des méthodes, des modèles et des instruments qui peuvent être appliqués aux pratiques restauratrices dans le but de permettre aux victimes et aux citoyens de jouer un rôle majeur au sein de la justice. In 2008, Mexico adopted a constitutional reform that creates a new paradigm of restorative justice aimed to preserve the dignity of the victims and introduce innovative legal and social norms in law enforcement, such as peace and forgiveness. The restorative process will enable the victim, the offender and affected members of the community to: 1 participate in remedying the damage arising from the crime, 2 consider the victim as a member of the community, 3 promote reconciliation and reintegration of offender into the community. Restorative programs have been integrated into criminological and victimological thinking, providing new areas of study of these social actors involved in the criminal conflict, encouraging research to achieve true restorative justice. In this sense, criminological and victimological research have the duty to develop methods, models and tools that can be applied successfully to restorative justice programs in order to enable victims and citizens to play a greater role in the justice process.

  13. Sex of victims in maternal filicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Line; Tzoumakis, Stacy; Marleau, Jacques D; Allaire, Jean-François

    2005-06-01

    In many societies, girls are more often killed by their parents than boys. However, not much of this is known in contemporary societies. This study had two main objectives. The first was to assess whether the number of boy and girl victims of maternal filicide differ in the literature from 1959 to 2000. Using two scientific databases, Medline and PsycINFO, 20 texts were pertinent. The second objective was to identify the variables that differentiate the mothers who killed a son and those who killed a daughter in a sample of 42 women from the province of Quebec (Canada). Analysis of the data for the first part indicate that the numbers of sons and daughters killed by their mothers are similar in the literature. For the second aim no significant differences were noted between the women who killed a son and those who killed a daughter for 30 variables studied, e.g., motivation, method of killing, age of the victims, etc.

  14. Correlates of the Third Victim Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Mark J

    2017-12-01

    The third victim phenomenon refers to a system-wide organizational response to a serious untoward event in health care settings. The objective of this report is to describe possible measurable correlates of this phenomenon. A serious incident on one unit in the hospital is described. Utilization of constant observation and rate of discharge in the aftermath throughout the hospital were assessed. There was a hospital-wide uptick in conservative decision making following the serious incident, exemplified by an increase in the utilization of constant observation and decreased rate of discharges. These findings lend support to the validity of the concept of the third victim phenomenon and underscore the imperative for a coherent leadership response to prevent damage to institutional core values, morale, and reputation. Systematic investigation of this phenomenon and its potential effects on clinical practice in the aftermath of serious incidents is warranted.

  15. Thai tsunami victim identification overview to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, H

    2005-06-01

    The boxing day tsunami of 26 December 2004 caused devastation and loss of life around the Indian ocean. International disaster victim identification efforts were centred in Thailand, with many odontologists from over 20 countries contributing to the examination of deceased, collection of antemortem information, comparison and reconciliation of data. The contribution of forensic odontology to the identification process conducted in Thailand in response to the tsunami devastation is presented in a composite of short reports focused on the five phases associated with disaster victim identification. To date 1,474 deceased have been identified. Dental comparison has been the primary identifier in 79% of cases and a contributor in another 8%, a total of 87%.

  16. Assessing digital preservation frameworks: the approach\\ud of the SHAMAN project

    OpenAIRE

    Perla Innocenti; Seamus Ross; Elena Maceviciute; Tom Wilson; Jens Ludwig; Wolfgang Pempe

    2009-01-01

    How can we deliver infrastructure capable of supporting the\\ud preservation of digital objects, as well as the services that can be applied to those digital objects, in ways that future unknown systems will understand? A critical problem in developing systems is the process of validating whether the delivered solution effectively reflects the validated requirements. This is a challenge also for the EU-funded SHAMAN project, which aims to develop an integrated preservation framework using grid...

  17. Parenting behavior and the risk of becoming a victim and a bully/victim: a meta-analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Samara, Muthanna; Wolke, Dieter

    2013-12-01

    Being bullied has adverse effects on children's health. Children's family experiences and parenting behavior before entering school help shape their capacity to adapt and cope at school and have an impact on children's peer relationship, hence it is important to identify how parenting styles and parent-child relationship are related to victimization in order to develop intervention programs to prevent or mitigate victimization in childhood and adolescence. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature on parenting behavior and peer victimization using MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Eric and EMBASE from 1970 through the end of December 2012. We included prospective cohort studies and cross-sectional studies that investigated the association between parenting behavior and peer victimization. Both victims and those who both bully and are victims (bully/victims) were more likely to be exposed to negative parenting behavior including abuse and neglect and maladaptive parenting. The effects were generally small to moderate for victims (Hedge's g range: 0.10-0.31) but moderate for bully/victims (0.13-0.68). Positive parenting behavior including good communication of parents with the child, warm and affectionate relationship, parental involvement and support, and parental supervision were protective against peer victimization. The protective effects were generally small to moderate for both victims (Hedge's g: range: -0.12 to -0.22) and bully/victims (-0.17 to -0.42). Negative parenting behavior is related to a moderate increase of risk for becoming a bully/victim and small to moderate effects on victim status at school. Intervention programs against bullying should extend their focus beyond schools to include families and start before children enter school. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Violence in European schools: victimization and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Ammermüller, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Violence at schools is a well-known problem in many societies. This paper assesses the degree of school violence in 11 European countries and analyzes the determinants of being a victim and its effect on student performance. The study draws on the international TIMSS 2003 and the British longitudinal NCDS data. The level of school violence is high in most countries but seems not to increase over time. Besides gender, social and migration background and the appearance of students determine bei...

  19. Victims of violence and the general practitioner.

    OpenAIRE

    Mezey, G; King, M.; MacClintock, T

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Violent crime is on the increase in Britain, with 17% of the 15 million incidents of crime reported in 1991 being of a violent nature. Although there is some information on the role of accident and emergency departments for victims who sustain physical injury, little is known about the role of the general practitioner (GP) in managing the acute and longer-term sequelae of violence. AIM: To examine the links between experiencing physical of sexual assault and seeking help from GPs ...

  20. The Disturbing Victims of Chuck Palahniuk

    OpenAIRE

    Westlie, Anders

    2012-01-01

    The writings of Chuck Palahniuk contain a large variety of strange and interesting characters. Many of them are victims of the choices they or others made, which is how their lives become interesting. I aim to see if there is any basis in reality for some of the situations and fears that happen. I also mean that Palahniuk thinks people are afraid of the wrong things, and afraid of too many things in general, and will approach this theory in my discussion.

  1. Risk analytics for hedge funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareek, Ankur

    2005-05-01

    The rapid growth of the hedge fund industry presents significant business opportunity for the institutional investors particularly in the form of portfolio diversification. To facilitate this, there is a need to develop a new set of risk analytics for investments consisting of hedge funds, with the ultimate aim to create transparency in risk measurement without compromising the proprietary investment strategies of hedge funds. As well documented in the literature, use of dynamic options like strategies by most of the hedge funds make their returns highly non-normal with fat tails and high kurtosis, thus rendering Value at Risk (VaR) and other mean-variance analysis methods unsuitable for hedge fund risk quantification. This paper looks at some unique concerns for hedge fund risk management and will particularly concentrate on two approaches from physical world to model the non-linearities and dynamic correlations in hedge fund portfolio returns: Self Organizing Criticality (SOC) and Random Matrix Theory (RMT).Random Matrix Theory analyzes correlation matrix between different hedge fund styles and filters random noise from genuine correlations arising from interactions within the system. As seen in the results of portfolio risk analysis, it leads to a better portfolio risk forecastability and thus to optimum allocation of resources to different hedge fund styles. The results also prove the efficacy of self-organized criticality and implied portfolio correlation as a tool for risk management and style selection for portfolios of hedge funds, being particularly effective during non-linear market crashes.

  2. Victim Impact Statements: How Victim Social Class Affects Juror Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Kimberly; Nuñez, Narina

    2017-06-01

    Although the Supreme Court has ruled that victim impact statements (VIS) should be allowed at trial, the concern voiced in Payne v. Tennessee (1991) and Furman v. Georgia (1972) was that VIS might enable jurors to make comparative judgments about the worth of the victim. This study examined the effect VIS and low and middle socioeconomic status (SES) victims have on jurors' decisions. Mock jurors listened to 1 of 3 audio recordings of the sentencing phase of a capital murder trial (no VIS, low SES VIS, or middle SES VIS) and were asked to sentence the defendant to either life in prison without parole or death. Results indicated VIS themselves did not significantly affect mock jurors' sentencing decisions. However, mock jurors who heard the middle SES victim VIS were significantly more likely to sentence the defendant to death compared to those who heard the low SES victim VIS. The results suggest that the concerns of the Supreme Court were valid. Mock jurors were impacted by SES information in the VIS and were more punitive toward the defendant when he killed a higher rather than a lower SES person.

  3. Exploring Bullying Perpetration and Victimization Among Adolescent Girls in the Child Welfare System: Bully-Only, Victim-Only, Bully-Victim, and Noninvolved Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzing, Paul R; Auslander, Wendy F; Ratliff, G Allen; Gerke, Donald R; Edmond, Tonya; Jonson-Reid, Melissa

    2017-03-01

    Childhood abuse is a common experience for youth in the child welfare system, increasing their risk of bullying perpetration and victimization. Little research exists that has examined the rates of bullying perpetration and victimization for child welfare-involved adolescent girls. The study addressed the following aims: (a) to generate frequency estimates of physical, nonphysical, and relational forms of bullying perpetration and victimization; (b) to identify the frequency of bully-only, victim-only, bully-victim, and noninvolved roles; and (c) to identify risk and protective factors that correlate with these bullying role types. Participants were 236 girls (12-19 years) in the child welfare system from a Midwestern urban area. Participants were referred to the study to join a trauma-focused group program. Seventy-five percent of the total sample were youth of color, with the remaining 25% identifying as White, non-Hispanic. Data were collected through baseline surveys that assessed childhood abuse, bullying perpetration and victimization, posttraumatic stress, substance misuse, aggression-related beliefs and self-efficacy, placement type, placement instability, and mental health service use. Child welfare-involved adolescent girls were found to assume all four major role types: bully-only (6.4%, n = 15), victim-only (20.3%, n = 48), bully-victim (44.1%, n = 104), and nonvictims (29.2%, n = 69). The bully-victim rate was approximately 7 times higher than the rate found in a nationally representative sample of non-child welfare-involved youth. The current study identified posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, anger self-efficacy, and alcohol use as significant correlates of bullying roles. The identification of a substantially higher rate of bully-victims has important practice implications, suggesting child welfare and school systems adopt trauma-informed systems of care. Bully-victims are very likely traumatized children who are in need of effective

  4. Identifying murder victims with endodontic radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rhonan Ferreira; Franco, Ademir; Mendes, Solon Diego Santos Carvalho; Picoli, Fernando Fortes; Nunes, Fernando Gomes; Estrela, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Endodontics is a special branch of dentistry constantly guided by imaging examinations. From a forensic scope, endodontics plays a valuable role providing solid antemortem (AM) radiographic evidence for comparison with postmortem findings in human identifications. This study illustrates the interface between endodontics and forensic odontology describing three cases of human identification based on radiographic endodontic records. From 2009 to 2012, three unknown male victims of murder were examined in a local Brazilian medico-legal institute to retrieve identity and potential cause of death. Specifically, when asked for AM data, a relative of the three victims provided periapical radiographs of endodontic treatments. Based on that, forensic dentists reproduced the same imaging acquisition techniques obtaining similar periapical radiographs, enabling a comparative dental identification. All the victims were positively identified based on patterns of dental morphology and treatment intervention. This study draws the attention of general and forensic dentists highlight the importance of properly recording dental treatments and searching for evidence in AM endodontic data, respectively. PMID:28123272

  5. A TODAY VICTIM OF SECOND WORLD WAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hăisan, Anca; Dumea, Mihaela; Ursaru, Manuela; Bulat, C; Cimpoeşu, Diana Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Emergency medicine as a medical specialty has to deal with all kind of emergency situations, from medical to post traumatic acute eyents and from new born to the elderly persons, but also with particular situations like explosions. In Romania nowadays these are accidental explosions and rare like frequency, but may be dramatic due to numbers of victims and multisystem injury that may occur. We present a case of a single victim of accidental detonated bomb, a projectile from the Second World War, which unfortunately still may be found in some areas. The management of the case from first call to 112 until the victim is discharge-involves high professional team work. We use these opportunity to make a brief review of the mechanism through the lesions may appear and also to renew the fact that the most impressive lesion may not be the most severe, and we have to examine carefully in order to find the real life threatening injury of the patient.

  6. Pension funds investments in hedge funds-a necessary regulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniela Gaftoniuc

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to investment strategies, generally, pension funds have proved to be conservative investors with a long term approach on investments and constant preoccupation for asset diversification...

  7. Hearing preservation after cochlear reimplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Silke; Rajan, Gunesh P; Stöver, Timo; Lockley, Morag; Kuthubutheen, Jafri; Green, Kevin M

    2013-01-01

    The combination of electrical and acoustical hearing (EAS) is the aim of successful hearing preservation in patients with low-frequency residual hearing who receive a cochlear implant. With adequate surgical treatment and electrode arrays designed for hearing preservation, partial hearing preservation can nowadays be achieved in the majority of patients. Over recent years, the number of patients with EAS has increased, and device failures within this group are a problem that will need to be addressed. It remains unclear how reliably hearing can be preserved during revision surgery. The outcome of 3 subjects requiring cochlear reimplantation after surgery for hearing preservation is presented and discussed. Our aim was to investigate the influence of electrode reinsertion on hearing preservation. Three patients with measurable residual hearing were implanted with a flexible, free-fitting electrode array in 3 different centers. Two subjects received a 31.5-mm array inserted 24 mm into the cochlea, whereas a third was treated with a 24-mm array, which was inserted 21 mm into the cochlea. In all cases, hearing was preserved at the initial operation. All of these subjects subsequently represented with device problems, and reimplantation was performed. Hearing preservation was measured using preoperative and postoperative pure tone audiograms. In addition, speech perception with the implant was evaluated before and after reimplantation surgery. Reimplantation was feasible in all subjects also in cases where a slightly deeper reinsertion was performed. Speech understanding scores after reimplantation were comparable to those seen after the first intervention. Revision surgery in patients with preserved hearing after cochlear implantation does not necessarily lead to loss of natural residual hearing, and patients can continue to benefit from the combination of electric and acoustic hearing. Even deeper insertion is possible without hearing loss within residual frequencies.

  8. Childhood victimization experiences of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogolyubova, Olga; Skochilov, Roman; Smykalo, Lyubov

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of childhood victimization experiences in a sample of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia. The study sample included 743 students aged 19 to 25 from 15 universities in St. Petersburg, Russia. All of the study participants completed a reliable questionnaire assessing the following types of childhood victimization: conventional crime, child maltreatment, peer victimization, sexual victimization, and witnessing violence. Participation in the study was anonymous. High rates of victimization and exposure to violence were reported by the study participants. The majority of the sample experienced at least one type of victimization during childhood or adolescence, and poly-victimization was reported frequently. The most common type of victimization reported was peer or sibling assault (66.94%), followed by witnessing an assault without weapon (63.91%), personal theft (56.19%), vandalism (56.06%), and emotional bullying (49.99%). Sexual assault by a known adult was reported by 1.45% males and 5.16% of females. This study provides new information on the scope of childhood victimization experiences in Russia. Further research is warranted, including epidemiological research with representative data across the country and studies of the impact of trauma and victimization on mental health and well-being of Russian adults and children. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Network exposure and homicide victimization in an African American community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristos, Andrew V; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    We estimated the association of an individual's exposure to homicide in a social network and the risk of individual homicide victimization across a high-crime African American community. Combining 5 years of homicide and police records, we analyzed a network of 3718 high-risk individuals that was created by instances of co-offending. We used logistic regression to model the odds of being a gunshot homicide victim by individual characteristics, network position, and indirect exposure to homicide. Forty-one percent of all gun homicides occurred within a network component containing less than 4% of the neighborhood's population. Network-level indicators reduced the association between individual risk factors and homicide victimization and improved the overall prediction of individual victimization. Network exposure to homicide was strongly associated with victimization: the closer one is to a homicide victim, the greater the risk of victimization. Regression models show that exposure diminished with social distance: each social tie removed from a homicide victim decreased one's odds of being a homicide victim by 57%. Risk of homicide in urban areas is even more highly concentrated than previously thought. We found that most of the risk of gun violence was concentrated in networks of identifiable individuals. Understanding these networks may improve prediction of individual homicide victimization within disadvantaged communities.

  10. Alcohol Involvement in Homicide Victimization in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Timothy S.; Xuan, Ziming; Cooper, Susanna E.; Coleman, Sharon M.; Hadland, Scott E.; Swahn, Monica H.; Heeren, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the association between alcohol and homicide is well documented, there has been no recent study of alcohol involvement in homicide victimization in U.S. states. The objective of this paper was to determine the prevalence of alcohol involvement in homicide victimization and identify socio-demographic and other factors associated with alcohol involvement in homicide victimization. Methods Data from homicide victims with a reported blood alcohol content (BAC) level were analyzed from 17 states from 2010–12 using the National Violent Death Reporting System. Logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with the odds of homicide victims having a BAC ≥0.08%. Results Among all homicide victims, 39.9% had a positive BAC including 13.7% with a BAC between 0.01%–0.79% and 26.2% of victims with a BAC ≥0.08%. Males were twice as likely as females to have a BAC ≥0.08% (29.1% vs. 15.2%; p homicide victims having a BAC ≥0.08 included male sex, American Indian/Alaska Native race, Hispanic ethnicity, history of intimate partner violence, and non-firearm homicides. Conclusions Alcohol is present in a substantial proportion of homicide victims in the U.S., with substantial variation by state, demographic and circumstantial characteristics. Future studies should explore the relationships between state-level alcohol policies and alcohol-involvement among perpetrators and victims of homicide. PMID:27676334

  11. Victim support services in England, Wales and Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, authors tried to present activities of one of the oldest European Victim Support Services - Victim Support for England, Wales and Northern Ireland. During 1970s, through practice and research projects, the need for recognizing the physical and psychological status of victims after the crime was committed, as well as the need of providing them with the (informal assistance and support were noticed. That has resulted in establishing numerous of local victim support services (schemes, which united in the National Association of the Victim Support Services in 1979. Significant support was given to the Service in 1980s through the recommendations of the Council of Europe on the assistance for victims of crime and prevention of victimization through direct support given to the victim immediately after the incident, including protection and safety, medical, mental, social and financial support, as well as providing the victim with information on his/her rights, support during the criminal proceeding, assistance in getting compensation etc. Organization and structure of the service, referral system, code of practice and two main programs: Victim Service and Witness Service are reviewed in the paper.

  12. The Association Between Familial Homelessness, Aggression, and Victimization Among Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetelina, Katelyn K; Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M; Cuccaro, Paula M; Peskin, Melissa F; Elliott, Marc N; Coker, Tumaini R; Mrug, Sylvie; Davies, Susan L; Schuster, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the number of periods children were exposed to familial homelessness and childhood aggression and victimization. Survey data were obtained from 4,297 fifth-grade children and their caregivers in three U.S. cities. Children and primary caregivers were surveyed longitudinally in 7th and 10th grades. Family homelessness, measured at each wave as unstable housing, was self-reported by the caregiver. Children were categorized into four mutually exclusive groups: victim only, aggressor only, victim-aggressor, and neither victim nor aggressor at each time point using validated measures. Multinomial, multilevel mixed models were used to evaluate the relationship among periods of homelessness and longitudinal victimization, aggression, and victim aggression compared to children who were nonvictims and nonaggressors. Results suggest that children who experienced family homelessness were more likely than domiciled children to report aggression and victim aggression but not victimization only. Multivariate analyses suggested that even brief periods of homelessness were positively associated with aggression and victim aggression (relative to neither) compared to children who were never homeless. Furthermore, childhood victimization and victim aggression significantly decreased from 5th grade to 10th grade while aggression significantly increased in 10th grade. Children who experienced family homelessness for brief periods of time were significantly more likely to be a victim-aggressor or aggressor compared to those who were never homeless. Prevention efforts should target housing security and other important factors that may reduce children's likelihood of aggression and associated victimization. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Venture Capital Funds: Theoretical Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Jurevičienė, Daiva; Martinkutė, Aistė

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the form of corporate financing, which is becoming more popular yet is still underused, i.e. venture capital funds as well as their peculiarities and the procedure for attracting investments into a company. The paper summarises the main advantages and disadvantages of venture capital funds as well as their relation with national economic development. It analyses venture capital funds operating in Lithuania, investment strategies and dynamics. Additionally, it overviews ...

  14. Vulnerability of pension fund balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ólafur Ísleifsson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the Icelandic general labour market pension funds are built on the proviso that pension schemes are fully funded these funds are still grappling with the devastating financial effects of the 2008 economic collapse that rendered most of them in a significant actuarial deficit. The public sector pension funds are based on an employer guarantee that makes up for any lack of funding that historically has been quite significant. We identify the relatively high actuarial discount rate and increasing longevity as two factors that add to the vulnerability of the Icelandic pension system. We present a stochastic model in order to obtain reasonably sound estimates of the effect of revising such key parameters of the actuarial assessments of the pension funds and thus obtain a view of the viability of the Icelandic pension system when confronted with the potential necessity of such parameter shifts. We present results of stochastic simulations of this models made to assess effects of changes in these major financial and demographic assumptions in actuarial evaluations of pension fund balances. Our results suggest that the Icelandic pension funds may be significantly less well funded than is generally perceived.

  15. Who Are the Victims and Who Are the Perpetrators in Dating Violence?: Sharing the Role of Victim and Perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sihyun; Kim, Sin-Hyang

    2017-01-01

    Dating violence (DV) is a serious problem with devastating consequences. Often, research on DV has focused on two distinct groups: victims and perpetrators. However, there is growing evidence for a victim-perpetrator overlap model, which posits that those involved in DV are more likely to take on both roles, rather than either role on its own. We investigated the patterns of involvement in DV among those who identified themselves as victims or perpetrators in previous studies. This was a systematic review and meta-analysis. A total of 371 variables related to participants' previous and concurrent experiences of DV victimization or perpetration (202 variables related to victimization and 169 related to perpetration) were identified in 25 studies, which were found by systematically searching three databases: PubMed, Web of Science, and SCOPUS. The majority of previous studies categorized study participants as either DV victims or perpetrators; however, those who identified themselves as either DV victims or DV perpetrators were more likely to assume the opposite role as well. Specifically, current DV perpetrators had a strong association with previous or concurrent victimization experiences, and current DV victims were similarly likely to have assumed the roles of both victim and perpetrator in their histories. Further efforts should be put into avoiding categorization of those involved in violence; rather, they should be regarded as a single group. Additionally, evidence-based interventions should be developed for this population to help break the cycle of violence.

  16. Novel Fluid Preservation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for a method to preserve blood and urine samples from astronauts collected during flight, Chromologic (CL) proposes to develop a novel Fluid...

  17. Novel Fluid Preservation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for a method to preserve human biological samples, mostly blood and urine, from astronauts collected during flight under ambient conditions,...

  18. Nuclear tests: the late indemnification of victims; Essais nucleaire: l'indemnisation tardive des victimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charbonneau, S. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 (France)

    2010-04-15

    The author briefly recalls the historical context of the creation of the CEA and outlines the silence and denial about the radioactive contamination of military personnel during the nuclear tests performed in the Algerian Sahara and in Polynesia. He also outlines the continuous action of the association of veterans and victims of these nuclear tests which gathered proofs of health consequences. He comments the content and scope of application of laws which have been lately adopted (in 2010) to acknowledge these facts and indemnify the victims

  19. Impact of sexual harassment victimization by peers on subsequent adolescent victimization and adjustment: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, Debbie; Wolfe, David A; Crooks, Claire; Hughes, Ray; Jaffe, Peter

    2009-09-01

    To examine gender differences in prevalence and types of sexual harassment victimization experienced in grade 9 and how it contributes to relationship victimization and psychological adjustment 2.5 years later. A total of 1734 students from 23 schools completed self-report surveys at entry to grade 9 and end of grade 11. Self-report data were collected on victimization experiences (sexual harassment, physical dating violence, peer violence, and relational victimization) and adjustment (emotional distress, problem substance use, self-harm, suicidal thoughts, maladaptive dieting, feeling unsafe at school, and perpetration of violent delinquency). Separate analyses by sex were prespecified. Sexual harassment victimization was common among boys (42.4%) and girls (44.1%) in grade 9, with girls reporting more sexual jokes, comments, and unwanted touch than among boys, and with boys reporting more homosexual slurs or receiving unwanted sexual content. For girls, sexual harassment victimization in grade 9 was associated with elevated risk of self-harm, suicidal thoughts, maladaptive dieting, early dating, substance use, and feeling unsafe at school. A similar pattern of risk was found for boys, with the exception of dieting and self-harm behaviors. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) indicated these students were significantly more likely than nonharassed students to report victimization by peers and dating partners 2.5 years later (AOR for boys and girls, respectively; all p < .01), including sexual harassment (AOR: 2.45; 2.9), physical dating violence (AOR: 2.02; 3.73), and physical peer violence (AOR: 2.75; 2.79). Gr 9 sexual harassment also contributed significantly to emotional distress (AOR: 2.09; 2.24), problem substance use (AOR: 1.79; 2.04), and violent delinquency perpetration (AOR: 2.1; 3.34) 2.5 years later (boys and girls, respectively; all p < .01). Sexual harassment at the beginning of high school is a strong predictor of future victimization by peers and dating

  20. Administration of Contracts Funded by the Development Fund for Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-30

    works and water • security and justice • transportation and communications Project Management Office . The CPA was the authority responsible for the...Administration of Development Fund for Iraq (DFI)-Funded Contracts” for the Director, Project Management Office on June 15, 2004. That memorandum is shown

  1. NONCONVEX REGULARIZATION FOR SHAPE PRESERVATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHARTRAND, RICK [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-16

    The authors show that using a nonconvex penalty term to regularize image reconstruction can substantially improve the preservation of object shapes. The commonly-used total-variation regularization, {integral}|{del}u|, penalizes the length of the object edges. They show that {integral}|{del}u|{sup p}, 0 < p < 1, only penalizes edges of dimension at least 2-p, and thus finite-length edges not at all. We give numerical examples showing the resulting improvement in shape preservation.

  2. Blogs as Objects of Preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stepanyan, Karen; Gkotsis, George; Kalb, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    challenge for the digital preservation community. While the methodological frameworks for selecting these properties provide a good foundation, a continued discussion is necessary for further clarifying and improving the available methods. This paper advances earlier work by building...... analysis) and, subsequently, improve the final reformulation of the properties. To demonstrate the applicability of the modified framework, the paper presents a use case of a blog preservation initiative that is informed by stakeholder interviews and evaluation of structural and technological foundations...

  3. CRIMINAL LEGAL PROTECTION OF CHILD VICTIMS AND WITNESSES OF CRIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Mushevska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The term victim indicates a natural person that underwent some kind of crime, including psychological and mental disorder, and emotional suffering or monetary loss, that were caused by accomplishing or not accomplishing a certain kind of activity that violates the law in one state. The term Victim also includes the close members of the victim’s family that depend on the victim. “Kids, victims and witnesses of crimes” indicates kids and adolescents under 18 years of age, which are victims of different kinds of crime or witnesses of different kinds of crime, in spite of the role that they have in the crime act. In all proceedings that directly or indirectly child victims involved it is important to act in a way that is the best and most appropriate for the child.

  4. Sexual Assault Victim Participation in Police Investigations and Prosecution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderden, Megan; Long, LaDonna

    This research seeks to examine why victim participation rates in police investigations and prosecution decline following reporting of sexual assault to police. It was hypothesized that several factors would impact victim participation, including whether the incident reflected stereotypical sexual assault scenarios, if the victim used alcohol or illicit drugs prior to the incident, and if the hospital staff initially reported the incident. The study coded victim participation following initial police reporting from police case investigation narratives. Based on the 544 cases of sexual assault reported to a Midwestern police department, it was found that victims were indeed more likely to continue participating after initial reports to police if their assaults reflected stereotypical sexual assault scenarios. Future research should include discussions with victims about their participation in the criminal justice system following initial reporting to further clarify the findings noted here.

  5. THE VICTIM HANDLING MODEL OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING THROUGH ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Nuraeny

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Human Trafficking is a modern trading of human slavery. Human Trafficking is also one of the worst forms of violation of human dignity that results in trauma to the victims. To that end, there should be a comprehensive treatment for victims. The problems that can be studied is whether a model that can be applied in the treatment of victims of trafficking in Cianjur and disseminating technical how models Handling of Victims of Human Trafficking in Cianjur. This study used normative juridical approach and specification of descriptive analysis. The results of this study are alternative models to handle victims of trafficking in Cianjur is a service model based on inter-institutional and economic empowerment through planting camelina sativa with socialization techniques involving local government, private sector, community leaders and students through legal counseling and advocacy. Keywords: human trafficking, the victim handling model, socialization

  6. Bullying among schoolchildren: differences between victims and aggressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Continente, Xavier; Pérez-Giménez, Anna; Espelt, Albert; Nebot Adell, Manel

    2013-01-01

    To identify the factors associated with bullying behaviors among adolescents by analyzing victims, aggressors and victims/aggressors separately. A cross-sectional study was performed in a representative sample of 3,089 secondary school students (13-18 years old) in Barcelona (Spain). To define bullying behaviors, we used three questions about different types of mistreatment (jeering, attacking, marginalizing). Compared with secondary school students not involved in bullying, victims, aggressors and victims/aggressors were more likely to be boys and to report negative mood states. Victims were younger, were more overweight or obese and were lighter cannabis users, while aggressors were also younger but reported more antisocial behaviors and more cannabis and alcohol use. Victims/aggressors reported more antisocial behaviors and were overweight. Being involved in bullying, independently of the role adopted, was associated with health-related problems, which can lead to psychological disorders in adulthood. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Peer Victimization and Adolescent Adjustment: Does School Belonging Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormington, Stephanie V; Anderson, Kristen G; Schneider, Ashley; Tomlinson, Kristin L; Brown, Sandra A

    Recent research highlights the role of peer victimization in students' adjustment across a variety of domains (e.g., academic, social), but less often identifies potential mediating variables. In the current study, we tested for direct effects from peer victimization to adolescents' academic behavior and alcohol use, as well as indirect effects through school belonging. Adolescents from two large samples (middle school: N = 2,808; high school: N = 6,821) self-reported on peer victimization, school belonging, academic outcomes (GPA, school truancy), and alcohol use (lifetime, past 30 days). Two-group structural equation models revealed (a) direct and indirect paths from peer victimization to academic functioning; (b) indirect, but not direct, effects through school belonging for lifetime drinking; and (c) direct and indirect effects from peer victimization to current drinking. Findings implicate school belonging as a mediator between peer victimization and important outcomes in adolescence.

  8. The relation between bullying, victimization, and adolescents' level of hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyahhan, Sinem; Aricak, O Tolga; Cayirdag-Acar, Nur

    2012-08-01

    In this study, 419 Turkish middle school students (203 girls, 216 boys) were surveyed on their exposure to and engagement in bullying, and their level of hopelessness. Our findings suggest that girls were victims of indirect (e.g. gossiping) bullying more than boys. Boys reported being victims of physical (e.g. damaging property) and verbal (e.g. teasing) bullying more than girls. While the level of hopelessness among victims of physical and verbal bullying was higher than non-victims, no difference was found between the victims of indirect bullying and non-victims. Students who never talked to their teachers and parents about bullying reported higher levels of hopelessness than others. The implications of the study for intervention and prevention programs are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The impact of criminal justice involvement on victims' mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Jim; Bergin, Tiffany

    2010-04-01

    The aftermath of violent crime can leave victims with persistent emotional and mental health problems. Although research has shown the potential benefits of prosecuting cases through the courts, there is also a substantial literature that suggests that common features of the criminal justice system can exacerbate the impact of the initial crime, leading to a secondary victimization. The authors present a review of the research on the positive and negative impact of criminal justice involvement, and common points of failure in the efforts of justice institutions to meet the needs of victims. They conclude with recommendations for future work, including the need for research on restorative justice, victim impact statements, court notification systems, victim services, and victim advocates.

  10. 78 FR 33800 - Notice of Funding Availability: Section 515 Multi-Family Housing Preservation Revolving Loan Fund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... status, race, familial status, color, religion, national origin, age, physical or mental disability...) 877-8339 (TDD) or (866) 377-8642 (English Federal-relay) or (800) 845- 6136 (Spanish Federal-relay..., national origin, age, disability, religion, sex, familial status, sexual orientation, and reprisal. (Not...

  11. 76 FR 52305 - Notice of Funding Availability: Section 515 Multi-Family Housing Preservation Revolving Loan Fund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... continuous need for the property in the community as affordable housing. Other Administrative Requirements (1... receive points the intermediary must submit a summary of how the DER was calculated. ] (5) Administrative... local community, particularly a plan prepared as part of a request for an Empowerment Zone/Enterprise...

  12. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... website. Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open ... Diagnosed with Cancer You are here Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation ...

  13. Hereditary History Preserving Bisimilarity Is Undecidable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurdzinski, Marcin; Nielsen, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    History preserving bisimilarity (hp-bisimilarity) and hereditary history preserving bisimilarity (hhp-bisimilarity) are behavioural equivalences taking into account causal relationships between events of concurrent systems. Their prominent feature is being preserved under action refinement...

  14. KT Fund: Five years of funding for impact

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    Cryogenic safety, ion beam therapy, event management for communities, emergency lighting… this year’s applications for funding through the Knowledge Transfer Fund demonstrate the breadth of possible applications of CERN technology beyond high-energy physics.     The use of high index glass spherical targets as retroreflectors for a 3D interferometer is the subject of one of the 2015 KT Fund Projects.   Following the 2015 selection committee held in January, the KT Fund has funded a total of seven new projects that aim to further develop CERN technologies to a level where they can be transferred and subsequently make a positive impact on society. “CERN’s ambitious scientific programme requires state-of-the-art technologies that are not always directly reusable by society because they were not designed with this purpose in mind,” explains David Mazur, Section Leader of the IP Dissemination Section. “Since 2011, the KT...

  15. Listening to victims: use of a Critical Incident Reporting System to enable adult victims of childhood sexual abuse to participate in a political reappraisal process in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassenhofer, Miriam; Spröber, Nina; Schneider, Thekla; Fegert, Jörg M

    2013-09-01

    Recent revelations about the scope and severity of past child sexual abuse in German institutions set off a broad public debate on this issue, and led to the establishment of a politically appointed Round Table committee and an Independent Commissioner whose mandates were to reappraise the issue and develop recommendations for future policies. A media campaign was launched to publicize the establishment of a Critical Incident Reporting System (CIRS) whereby now-adult victims of past abuse could anonymously provide testimonials and let policy makers know what issues were important to them. Respondents could either call a hotline number or communicate by mail or email. The information collected was documented and analyzed by a research team, and the results of interim reports were included in the recommendations of the Independent Commissioner and the Round Table committee. Most of the respondents described severe and repeated occurrences of childhood sexual abuse. For many, priorities were improvements in therapy and counseling services, the abolishment of the statute of limitations on prosecuting offenders, and financial compensation. Based on the recommendations of the Round Table and the Independent Commissioner, two new laws were adopted as well as an action plan and some guidelines. In addition to rules for recompensation of victims in an institutional context a fund for victims of sexual abuse in intrafamilial context was established by the Federal Government. Another effect of this process was raising societal sensitivity to the problem of child sexual abuse. The use of a CIRS enabled those directly affected by childhood sexual abuse to have some input into a political process designed to address this issue. Such an approach could have applicability in other countries or in other domains of public health and other forms of societal conflict as well. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cost Model for Digital Preservation: Cost of Digital Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Bøgvad Kejser

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Danish Ministry of Culture has funded a project to set up a model for costing preservation of digital materials held by national cultural heritage institutions. The overall objective of the project was to increase cost effectiveness of digital preservation activities and to provide a basis for comparing and estimating future cost requirements for digital preservation. In this study we describe an activity-based costing methodology for digital preservation based on the Open Archice Information System (OAIS Reference Model. Within this framework, which we denote the Cost Model for Digital Preservation (CMDP, the focus is on costing the functional entity Preservation Planning from the OAIS and digital migration activities. In order to estimate these costs we have identified cost-critical activities by analysing the functions in the OAIS model and the flows between them. The analysis has been supplemented with findings from the literature, and our own knowledge and experience. The identified cost-critical activities have subsequently been deconstructed into measurable components, cost dependencies have been examined, and the resulting equations expressed in a spreadsheet. Currently the model can calculate the cost of different migration scenarios for a series of preservation formats for text, images, sound, video, geodata, and spreadsheets. In order to verify the model it has been tested on cost data from two different migration projects at the Danish National Archives (DNA. The study found that the OAIS model provides a sound overall framework for the cost breakdown, but that some functions need additional detailing in order to cost activities accurately. Running the two sets of empirical data showed among other things that the model underestimates the cost of manpower-intensive migration projects, while it reinstates an often underestimated cost, which is the cost of developing migration software. The model has proven useful for estimating the

  17. Psychological processes in young bullies versus bully-victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Anouk; Poorthuis, Astrid M G; Malti, Tina

    2017-09-01

    Some children who bully others are also victimized themselves ("bully-victims") whereas others are not victimized themselves ("bullies"). These subgroups have been shown to differ in their social functioning as early as in kindergarten. What is less clear are the motives that underlie the bullying behavior of young bullies and bully-victims. The present study examined whether bullies have proactive motives for aggression and anticipate to feel happy after victimizing others, whereas bully-victims have reactive motives for aggression, poor theory of mind skills, and attribute hostile intent to others. This "distinct processes hypothesis" was contrasted with the "shared processes hypothesis," predicting that bullies and bully-victims do not differ on these psychological processes. Children (n = 283, age 4-9) were classified as bully, bully-victim, or noninvolved using peer-nominations. Theory of mind, hostile intent attributions, and happy victimizer emotions were assessed using standard vignettes and false-belief tasks; reactive and proactive motives were assessed using teacher-reports. We tested our hypotheses using Bayesian model selection, enabling us to directly compare the distinct processes model (predicting that bullies and bully-victims deviate from noninvolved children on different psychological processes) against the shared processes model (predicting that bullies and bully-victims deviate from noninvolved children on all psychological processes alike). Overall, the shared processes model received more support than the distinct processes model. These results suggest that in early childhood, bullies and bully-victims have shared, rather than distinct psychological processes underlying their bullying behavior. © 2016 The Authors. Aggressive Behavior Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effect of childhood victimization on occupational prestige and income trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Cristina A; Christ, Sharon L; LeBlanc, William G; Arheart, Kristopher L; Dietz, Noella A; McCollister, Kathyrn E; Fleming, Lora E; Muntaner, Carles; Muennig, Peter; Lee, David J

    2015-01-01

    Violence toward children (childhood victimization) is a major public health problem, with long-term consequences on economic well-being. The purpose of this study was to determine whether childhood victimization affects occupational prestige and income in young adulthood. We hypothesized that young adults who experienced more childhood victimizations would have less prestigious jobs and lower incomes relative to those with no victimization history. We also explored the pathways in which childhood victimization mediates the relationships between background variables, such as parent's educational impact on the socioeconomic transition into adulthood. A nationally representative sample of 8,901 young adults aged 18-28 surveyed between 1999-2009 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY) were analyzed. Covariate-adjusted multivariate linear regression and path models were used to estimate the effects of victimization and covariates on income and prestige levels and on income and prestige trajectories. After each participant turned 18, their annual 2002 Census job code was assigned a yearly prestige score based on the 1989 General Social Survey, and their annual income was calculated via self-reports. Occupational prestige and annual income are time-varying variables measured from 1999-2009. Victimization effects were tested for moderation by sex, race, and ethnicity in the multivariate models. Approximately half of our sample reported at least one instance of childhood victimization before the age of 18. Major findings include 1) childhood victimization resulted in slower income and prestige growth over time, and 2) mediation analyses suggested that this slower prestige and earnings arose because victims did not get the same amount of education as non-victims. Results indicated that the consequences of victimization negatively affected economic success throughout young adulthood, primarily by slowing the growth in prosperity due to lower education

  19. Domestic violence and the impact on its victims

    OpenAIRE

    Kirejevová, Iva

    2010-01-01

    Domestic violence is one of the essential problems of our society. Domestic violence is determined by high prevalence, enormous latency and great victimization impact. The aim of my thesis is to describe the psychological aspects of the victims of domestic violence. I presume that long-term psychological and physical violence has a crucial influence on the psycho-somatic health of the victim. I am aware of the fact that this problem does not concern only battered women. Nevertheless I want to...

  20. Stalking and violence victimization among Finnish university students

    OpenAIRE

    Björklund, Katja

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the nature and lifetime prevalence of two types of victimization among Finnish university students: stalking and violence victimization (i.e. general violence). This study was a cross-sectional study using two different datasets of Finnish university students. The stalking data was collected via an electronic questionnaire and the violence victimization data was collected via a postal questionnaire. There were 615 participants in the stalking study (I-III) and 905 particip...

  1. Victim countries of transnational terrorism: an empirical characteristics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbakidze, Levan; Jin, Yanhong

    2012-12-01

    This study empirically investigates the association between country-level socioeconomic characteristics and risk of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. We find that a country's annual financial contribution to the U.N. general operating budget has a positive association with the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. In addition, per capita GDP, political freedom, and openness to trade are nonlinearly related to the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Animosity towards Acid Attacks - Critical Study on Acid Victimization

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrashekar, S.V; Eldo Johny

    2017-01-01

    Animosity to acid attacks is deliberated as foulest acts, a form of gender terrorism within the feminist read. It’s a form of vicious violence outlined as acid throwing or Vitriolage. In India, there are component varied incident were reported, as most precarious victimization of individuals by deforming their body. The condition of victims of acid attacks is unit in serious frustrating their entire life. Acid victimization has deliberated globally and even several countries area unit sensiti...

  3. Towards a Methodology for Software Preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Brian; Shaon, Arif; Bicarregui, Juan; Jones, Catherine; Woodcock, Jim; Conway, Esther

    2009-01-01

    Only a small part of the research which has been carried out to date on the preservation of digital objects has looked specifically at the preservation of software. This is because the preservation of software has been seen as a less urgent problem than the preservation of other digital objects, and also the complexity of software artifacts makes the problem of preserving them a daunting one. Nevertheless, there are good reasons to want to preserve software. In this paper we consider some of ...

  4. Coping and Sexual Harassment: How Victims Cope across Multiple Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Sheff, Sarah E; Smith, Mathew

    2018-02-01

    The ways sexual harassment occurs both online and in face-to-face settings has become more complicated. Sexual harassment that occurs in cyberspace or online sexual harassment adds complexity to the experiences of victims, current research understandings, and the legal dimensions of this phenomenon. Social networking sites (SNS) are a type of social media that offer unique opportunities to users and sometimes the communication that occurs on SNS can cross the line from flirtation into online sexual harassment. Victims of sexual harassment employ communicative strategies such as coping to make sense of their experiences of sexual harassment. The current study qualitatively examined problem-focused, active emotion-focused, and passive emotion-focused coping strategies employed by sexual harassment victims across multiple settings. We conducted 26 in-depth interviews with victims that had experienced sexual harassment across multiple settings (e.g., face-to-face and SNS). The findings present 16 types of coping strategies-five problem-focused, five active emotion-focused, and six passive emotion-focused. The victims used an average of three types of coping strategies during their experiences. Theoretical implications extend research on passive emotion-focused coping strategies by discussing powerlessness and how victims blame other victims. Furthermore, theoretically the findings reveal that coping is a complex, cyclical process and that victims shift among types of coping strategies over the course of their experience. Practical implications are offered for victims and for SNS sites.

  5. The Polish Genetic Database of Victims of Totalitarianisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossowski, A; Kuś, M; Kupiec, T; Bykowska, M; Zielińska, G; Jasiński, M E; March, A L

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the creation of the Polish Genetic Database of Victims of Totalitarianism and the first research conducted under this project. On September 28th 2012, the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin and the Institute of National Remembrance-Commission for Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation agreed to support the creation of the Polish Genetic Database of Victims of Totalitarianism (PBGOT, www.pbgot.pl). The purpose was to employ state-of-the-art methods of forensic genetics to identify the remains of unidentified victims of Communist and Nazi totalitarian regimes. The database was designed to serve as a central repository of genetic information of the victim's DNA and that of the victim's nearest living relatives, with the goal of making a positive identification of the victim. Along the way, PGBOT encountered several challenges. First, extracting useable DNA samples from the remains of individuals who had been buried for over half a century required forensic geneticists to create special procedures and protocols. Second, obtaining genetic reference material and historical information from the victim's closest relatives was both problematic and urgent. The victim's nearest living relatives were part of a dying generation, and the opportunity to obtain the best genetic and historical information about the victims would soon die with them. For this undertaking, PGBOT assembled a team of historians, archaeologists, forensic anthropologists, and forensic geneticists from several European research institutions. The field work was divided into five broad categories: (1) exhumation of victim remains and storing their biological material for later genetic testing; (2) researching archives and historical data for a more complete profile of those killed or missing and the families that lost them; (3) locating the victim's nearest relatives to obtain genetic reference samples (swabs), (4) entering the genetic data from both victims and family

  6. Victims of educator-targeted bullying: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corene de Wet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I report on findings emanating from in-depth personal interviews with victims of educator-targeted bullying (ETB. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the narratives. The findings indicate that the victims of ETB were exposed repeatedly over time to verbal, non-verbal, psychological, and physical abuse during and after school hours. ETB had a negative influence on the victims' private lives, as well as on teaching and on learning. Lastly, I found that ETB may lead to a breakdown of relations between victims and the bullies' parents and the members of the community in which schools are situated.

  7. Muslim women and foreign prostitutes: victim discourse, subjectivity, and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Christine M; Stenvoll, Dag

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we juxtapose the ways “Muslim women” and “foreign prostitutes” are commonly constituted as victims in media and politics. We analyze the functions of these two prototypical female victims in terms of the role they play in epitomizing “the problems of globalization” and in reinforcing the existing social and political structures. Victim discourse, when tied to the transnational proliferation of the sex industry and of (radical) Islam, has depoliticizing effects because it places nonindividual causes of victimization outside of “our” polity and society and casts the state as protector and neutral arbiter of national and global inequalities, marginalization, and social conflict.

  8. Adolescent obesity, overt and relational peer victimization, and romantic relationships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pearce, Michelle J; Boergers, Julie; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2002-01-01

    To examine associations between obesity and peer relations in adolescents, specifically testing the hypotheses that obese adolescents are more frequent victims of peer aggression and are less likely...

  9. Peer Victimization, Depressive Symptoms, and Substance Use: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Elliott, Marc N; Reisner, Sari L; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael; Emery, Susan Tortolero; Peskin, Melissa F; Schuster, Mark A

    2017-06-01

    Peer victimization is common among youth and associated with substance use. Yet, few studies have examined these associations longitudinally or the psychological processes whereby peer victimization leads to substance use. The current study examined whether peer victimization in early adolescence is associated with alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco use in mid- to late adolescence, as well as the role of depressive symptoms in these associations. Longitudinal data were collected between 2004 and 2011 from 4297 youth in Birmingham, Alabama; Houston, Texas; and Los Angeles County, California. Data were analyzed by using structural equation modeling. The hypothesized model fit the data well (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation [RMSEA] = 0.02; Comparative Fit Index [CFI] = 0.95). More frequent experiences of peer victimization in the fifth grade were associated with greater depressive symptoms in the seventh grade (B[SE] = 0.03[0.01]; P peer victimization was indirectly associated with tenth-grade substance use via the mediator of seventh-grade depressive symptoms, including alcohol use (B[SE] = 0.01[0.01]; P = .006), marijuana use (B[SE] = 0.01[0.01]; P peer victimization in the fifth grade were more likely to use substances in the tenth grade, showing that experiences of peer victimization in early adolescence may have a lasting impact by affecting substance use behaviors during mid- to late adolescence. Interventions are needed to reduce peer victimization among youth and to support youth who have experienced victimization. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Peer Victimization and Adolescent Adjustment: The Moderating Role of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined multiple indices of sleep as moderators of the association between peer victimization and adjustment among typically developing adolescents. Participants included 252 adolescents (M = 15.79 years; 66 % European American, 34 % African American) and their parents. A multi-method, multi-informant design was employed to address the research questions. Sleep was assessed objectively with actigraphy (sleep minutes and sleep efficiency) and subjectively with self-reports. Adolescents reported on peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. Externalizing behaviors were examined with mother and father reports. Subjective sleep/wake problems moderated the associations between peer victimization and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. A stronger relation emerged between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms among adolescents who reported higher versus lower levels of sleep/wake problems. Adolescents with elevated sleep/wake problems had higher levels of externalizing symptoms across the range of peer victimization. However, for those with fewer sleep/wake problems, a positive relation between peer victimization and externalizing symptoms was observed. Actigraphy-based sleep minutes and sleep efficiency also moderated the relations between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. Although peer victimization was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms for all youth, those who reported the lowest levels of such symptoms had longer and more efficient sleep in conjunction with low levels of peer victimization. Findings are novel and highlight the importance of considering both bioregulatory processes and peer relations in the prediction of adolescents' adjustment.

  11. Commentary (Victim Participation in the International Criminal Court)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchuk, Iryna

    2014-01-01

    Victim participation is one of the most innovative aspects introduced in the legal framework of the International Criminal Court (hereinafter – ICC), which has not featured in the practices of other international criminal courts and tribunals. The approach of the ad hoc tribunals to victims...... was very ‘consumer like’ because victims were solely used as witnesses to testify about the crimes attributed to the accused, but they were not granted broad participatory rights in the proceedings. The drafters of the Rome Statute acknowledged wide-ranging interests of victims who, apart from seeking...

  12. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Ask Your Doctor Information for Patients Many adult ...

  13. How Safe Are Pension Funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jay

    1991-01-01

    Governors and legislators are looking for ways to help offset budget deficits, and the public pension funds that cover working and retired school employees are tempting targets. Discusses problems in a number of states, pros and cons of federal regulation, calculating retirement benefits, and how pension funds are controlled. (MLF)

  14. Drug Revolving Fund-Based

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Drug Revolving Fund (DRF) was instituted in 1996 in Oyo State to ensure sustainable drug availability at primary health care level with a seed stock of drugs supplied by the Petroleum Trust Fund. This was discontinued in 1999 and replaced in January 2000, with free health service, which involves ...

  15. The Crisis in Extramural Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Joel

    2011-01-01

    When "crisis" and "extramural funding" are mentioned, most academics think about problems such as the low percentage of proposals funded by federal agencies (now approaching single digits in many fields) or inadequate indirect-cost recovery rates that fail to reimburse universities for all costs of research. These are great problems draining…

  16. Latent classes of childhood poly-victimization and associations with suicidal behavior among adult trauma victims: Moderating role of anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charak, Ruby; Byllesby, Brianna M; Roley, Michelle E; Claycomb, Meredith A; Durham, Tory A; Ross, Jana; Armour, Cherie; Elhai, Jon D

    2016-12-01

    The aims of the present study were first to identify discrete patterns of childhood victimization experiences including crime, child maltreatment, peer/sibling victimization, sexual violence, and witnessing violence among adult trauma victims using latent class analysis; second, to examine the association between class-membership and suicidal behavior, and third to investigate the differential role of dispositional anger on the association between class-membership and suicidal behavior. We hypothesized that those classes with accumulating exposure to different types of childhood victimization (e.g., poly-victimization) would endorse higher suicidal behavior, than the other less severe classes, and those in the most severe class with higher anger trait would have stronger association with suicidal behavior. Respondents were 346 adults (N=346; Mage=35.0years; 55.9% female) who had experienced a lifetime traumatic event. Sixty four percent had experienced poly-victimization (four or more victimization experiences) and 38.8% met the cut-off score for suicidal behavior. Three distinct classes emerged namely, the Least victimization (Class 1), the Predominantly crime and sibling/peer victimization (Class 2), and the Poly-victimization (Class 3) classes. Regression analysis controlling for age and gender indicated that only the main effect of anger was significantly associated with suicidal behavior. The interaction term suggested that those in the Poly-victimization class were higher on suicidal behavior as a result of a stronger association between anger and suicidal behavior in contrast to the association found in Class 2. Clinical implications of findings entail imparting anger management skills to facilitate wellbeing among adult with childhood poly-victimization experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Random matrix theory and fund of funds portfolio optimisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, T.; Ruskin, H. J.; Crane, M.

    2007-08-01

    The proprietary nature of Hedge Fund investing means that it is common practise for managers to release minimal information about their returns. The construction of a fund of hedge funds portfolio requires a correlation matrix which often has to be estimated using a relatively small sample of monthly returns data which induces noise. In this paper, random matrix theory (RMT) is applied to a cross-correlation matrix C, constructed using hedge fund returns data. The analysis reveals a number of eigenvalues that deviate from the spectrum suggested by RMT. The components of the deviating eigenvectors are found to correspond to distinct groups of strategies that are applied by hedge fund managers. The inverse participation ratio is used to quantify the number of components that participate in each eigenvector. Finally, the correlation matrix is cleaned by separating the noisy part from the non-noisy part of C. This technique is found to greatly reduce the difference between the predicted and realised risk of a portfolio, leading to an improved risk profile for a fund of hedge funds.

  18. Child Sexual Abuse and Psychological Impairment in Victims: Results of an Online Study Initiated by Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Gerard A.; Mundt, Ingrid A.; Ahlers, Christoph J.; Bahls, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of children has been a topic of scientific investigation for the past few decades. Research in this area, however, is rarely initiated, conceptualized, and conducted by victims themselves. Apart from possibly having painted a one-sided picture of sexual abuse, this presumed dominance of nonvictims might also have marginalized victims…

  19. Demonising the Victim: Seeking the Answer for How a Group as the Violent Victim is Blamed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putra, I. E.; Mashuri, A.; Zaduqisti, E.

    ?2015 Department of Psychology, University of AllahabadThe current study aims to understand victim blaming of Ahmadiyya group by majority Sunni Islam in Indonesia. We included ingroup essentialisation, outgroup essentialisation, identity undermining and belief in conspiracy theory as predictors of

  20. Effectiveness of the KiVa Antibullying Programme on Bully-Victims, Bullies and Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, An; Salmivalli, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bullying is a widespread problem in schools. Although several effective school-based bullying intervention programmes have been developed to reduce bullying and victimisation, it has rarely been investigated whether intervention programmes are also effective in helping bully-victims. Purpose: This study investigates the effectiveness…

  1. An adolescent victimization immigrant paradox? School-based routines, lifestyles, and victimization across immigration generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A

    2013-11-01

    There is a growing body of research that suggests parallels between assimilation and increased adolescent violence, which is often referred to as the "immigrant paradox" in the United States. Few studies explore how theories, such as routine activity and lifestyle, could explain the relationship between assimilation and increased violence. This study explores whether and how the adolescent associations between routines, lifestyles, and adolescent school-based victimization vary across immigration generations. Data are drawn from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002, which is a nationally representative sample of tenth graders. This study focuses on a subsample consisting of 9,870 first (N = 1,170, 12%), second (N = 1,540, 16%), and third-plus (N = 1,117, 73%) generation public school students (N = 5,050; 51% female) in 580 public schools for this analysis of routine activity, lifestyle, and school-based victimization across immigration generations. Findings do indicate important nuances related to immigration in the conceptual links between routine activity, lifestyle, and adolescent victimization. For instance, engagement in school-based sport activities is a potential risk factor for first and second generation adolescents but is found to be a potential insulating factor against violent victimization for third-plus generation adolescents. The implications of the relationships between routines, lifestyles, and violence across immigration generations are discussed more generally.

  2. Are Peruvian victims being mocked?: Politicization of victimhood and victims' motivations for reparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waardt, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the (promised) effects of transitional justice efforts on victims of civil conflicts remains rare. This article seeks to advance the field of research in two ways. First, this article focuses on how Peruvian victimhood became politicized as a consequence of a promised transitional

  3. The Joint Development of Traditional Bullying and Victimization with Cyber Bullying and Victimization in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Paul E.; Kljakovic, Moja; Scheib, Emma; Notter, Olivia

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the stabilities of and interrelationships among traditional (i.e., face-to-face) bullying, traditional victimhood, cyber bullying, and cyber victimhood among adolescents over time. About 1,700 adolescents aged 11-16 years at Time 1 self-reported levels of both bullying and victimization in four contexts (in school,…

  4. Derecho victimal y victimodogmática

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Manzanera, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo fue preparado para el Encuentro Internacional en homenaje al Prof. Dr. Antonio Beristain Ipiña, celebrado en el Instituto Vasco de Criminología, en Donostia-San Sebastián, a princi- pios de noviembre de 2011. El tema general del encuentro fue “Hacia una Justicia Victimal” y, en una de sus partes se analizó el concepto de justicia victimal en el Derecho Penal. [ES] En la última década del siglo XX, proliferan en todo el mundo las disposiciones leg...

  5. Alcohol-Related Victim Behavior and Rape Myth Acceptance as Predictors of Victim Blame in Sexual Assault Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sánchez, Mónica; Krahé, Barbara; Moya, Miguel; Megías, Jesús L

    2017-10-01

    Two studies analyzed the influence of victim behavior, drink type, and observer rape myth acceptance (RMA) on attributions of blame to victims of sexual assault. In Study 1, people higher in RMA blamed the victim more when she accepted rather than rejected the aggressor's invitation to buy her a drink. In Study 2, we analyzed if the effects depended on who offered the invitation for a drink (a friend or aggressor). RMA was more closely related to victim blame when she accepted (vs. rejected) the offer of a drink from the aggressor. In both studies, drink type (alcoholic vs. nonalcoholic) did not interact with the other variables.

  6. Victimization and Violent Offending: An Assessment of the Victim-Offender Overlap Among Native American Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingle, Jennifer M.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the victim–offender overlap among a nationally representative sample of Native American adolescents and young adults. Data for this study were obtained from 338 Native American youth who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Waves I-IV. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to estimate trajectories of violence and victimization separately. Bivariate tests were used to assess the overlap between victimization and violent trajectory groups. Multinomial regression procedures were used to assess the predictors of victimization, offending, and the overlap category of both victimization and offending. Three trajectory groups were found for violence (nonviolent, escalators, and desistors) and victimization (nonvictim, decreasing victimization, and increasing victimization). We found substantial evidence of an overlap between victimization and offending among Native Americans, as 27.5% of the sample reported both victimization and offending. Those in the overlap group had greater number of risk factors present at baseline. These results suggest that the victim–offender overlap is present in Native American adolescents. Explanations and implications are discussed. PMID:24078778

  7. Fertility preservation in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynberg, Michaël; Bidet, Maud; Benard, Julie; Poulain, Marine; Sonigo, Charlotte; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Polak, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency is a relatively rare condition that can appear early in life. In a non-negligible number of cases the ovarian dysfunction results from genetic diseases. Turner syndrome (TS), the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, is associated with an inevitable premature exhaustion of the follicular stockpile. The possible or probable infertility is a major concern for TS patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The severely reduced follicle pool even during prepubertal life represents the major limit for fertility preservation and is the root of numerous questions regarding the competence of gametes or ovarian tissue crybanked. In addition, patients suffering from TS show higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, fetal anomaly, and maternal morbidity and mortality, which should be considered at the time of fertility preservation and before reutilization of the cryopreserved gametes. Apart from fulfillment of the desire of becoming genetic parents, TS patients may be potential candidates for egg donation, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The present review discusses the different options for preserving female fertility in TS and the ethical questions raised by these approaches. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Victimization and Its Associations with Peer Rejection and Fear of Victimization: Moderating Effects of Individual-Level and Classroom-Level Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollerová, Lenka; Smolík, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Background: Past research has shown that peer victimization by bullying is associated with peer rejection and fear of victimization, but little is known about the interplay between victimization and other characteristics in the prediction of these experiences. We assume that the associations between victimization and peer rejection/fear of…

  9. Restraining orders among victims of intimate partner homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittes, K A; Sorenson, S B

    2008-06-01

    Most intimate partner homicides (IPHs) follow a long history of violence and occur while the victim is ending the relationship. Restraining orders are a common legal recourse by which to seek protection from an abusive partner. This study expands on prior research by examining the restraining order history of IPH victims by characteristics of the victim, assailant, and homicide. State-wide databases containing information about restraining orders and homicides were linked, and bivariate and multivariate statistics were then calculated to identify differences between IPH victims who had and had not been issued a restraining order. About 11% of 231 women killed by male intimates had been issued a restraining order. About one-fifth of the female IPH victims who had a restraining order were killed within 2 days of the order being issued; about one-third were killed within a month. Nearly half of those with a restraining order had been protected by multiple orders. Victims killed in a shared residence (versus elsewhere) had lower odds of having a restraining order, whereas victims from rural (versus urban) counties, married (versus dating) victims, and Latino (versus non-Latino) victim-offender dyads had higher odds of having a restraining order. The type of weapon used was not associated with whether the victim had been under the protection of a restraining order. Most female IPH victims did not have a restraining order when they were killed. Further research is needed to determine whether restraining orders protect against IPH and, if they do, on how to increase their utilization.

  10. Predictors of Latent Trajectory Classes of Dating Violence Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Foshee, Vangie; Ennett, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study identified classes of developmental trajectories of physical dating violence victimization from grades 8 to 12 and examined theoretically-based risk factors that distinguished among trajectory classes. Data were from a multi-wave longitudinal study spanning 8th through 12th grade (n = 2,566; 51.9% female). Growth mixture models were used to identify trajectory classes of physical dating violence victimization separately for girls and boys. Logistic and multinomial logistic regressions were used to identify situational and target vulnerability factors associated with the trajectory classes. For girls, three trajectory classes were identified: a low/non-involved class; a moderate class where victimization increased slightly until the 10th grade and then decreased through the 12th grade; and a high class where victimization started at a higher level in the 8th grade, increased substantially until the 10th grade, and then decreased until the 12th grade. For males, two classes were identified: a low/non-involved class, and a victimized class where victimization increased slightly until the 9th grade, decreased until the 11th grade, and then increased again through the 12th grade. In bivariate analyses, almost all of the situational and target vulnerability risk factors distinguished the victimization classes from the non-involved classes. However, when all risk factors and control variables were in the model, alcohol use (a situational vulnerability) was the only factor that distinguished membership in the moderate trajectory class from the non-involved class for girls; anxiety and being victimized by peers (target vulnerability factors) were the factors that distinguished the high from the non-involved classes for the girls; and victimization by peers was the only factor distinguishing the victimized from the non-involved class for boys. These findings contribute to our understanding of the heterogeneity in physical dating violence victimization during

  11. Long-Term Preservation of Digital Information in China: Some Problems and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiazhen; Du, Peng

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper to describe the research work on the long-term preservation of Chinese digital information funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) since 2001. Design/methodology/approach: The paper provides an overview, in text and figures, of ways in which e-documents originating in China, in now obsolete…

  12. 25 CFR 101.9 - Preservation of historical and archeological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the loan and advise the Commissioner of compliance or the need to obtain compliance. ... Section 101.9 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LOANS TO INDIANS FROM THE REVOLVING LOAN FUND § 101.9 Preservation of historical and archeological data. (a) On...

  13. 75 FR 22401 - Petition from Pesticide Poisoning Victims United; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... AGENCY Petition from Pesticide Poisoning Victims United; Notice of Availability AGENCY: Environmental... petition from Pesticide Poisoning Victims United, a division of the Pitchfork Rebellion. The petitioners... the Agency Taking? EPA is announcing availability of a petition from Pesticide Poisoning Victims...

  14. Gender differences in acknowledgment of stalking victimization: results from the NCVS stalking supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englebrecht, Christine M; Reyns, Bradford W

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that a significant portion of victims of interpersonal violence do not acknowledge or label their experience as a criminal victimization. Studies exploring unacknowledged victimizations have found that individuals are more likely to acknowledge victimization when the experience meets certain, often stereotypical criteria. This study addressed this issue by integrating literature on victim acknowledgment and stalking victimization to identify correlates of victimization acknowledgment among stalking victims. Data were drawn from the 2006 stalking supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), and the sample included both female and male victims of stalking. Findings revealed support for a "classic stalking script," which included a reliance on stereotypical types of stalking behavior (i.e., being spied on) that were shown to increase acknowledgment for victims of stalking. Results also described gender based correlates of victimization acknowledgment.

  15. Women in alcoholic partnerships: Victimized and stigmatized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragišić-Labaš Slađana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we strived to examine and therefore gain a deeper insight into the stigmatization and victimization of women living with an alcoholic partner by taking into account various perspectives. The association between alcohol consumption and violence against women has long been recognized, but wider social and legal support and protection followed rather late. Especially in developing countries, this serious problem has become one of the biggest health issues that is nonetheless still insufficiently investigated. High rates of aggressive and violent behavior of men towards women in partnerships have deep cultural and social roots, and this is additionally enhanced by the use of alcohol. The use of alcohol enhances violence against women and is therefore often justified which is obviously unacceptable. Women are victimized regardless of the position in these type of partnerships, namely irrespective of whether they themselves or addicts or are partners of addicted partners or husbands, because they often suffer psychological, physical and sexual violence. Several case studies drawn from our practice and presented below will partly illuminate dark side of a violent alcoholic partnership. In order to better understand the link between alcohol and violence it seems necessary to consider both social and structural factors involved.

  16. Victims of violence and the general practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezey, G; King, M; MacClintock, T

    1998-01-01

    Violent crime is on the increase in Britain, with 17% of the 15 million incidents of crime reported in 1991 being of a violent nature. Although there is some information on the role of accident and emergency departments for victims who sustain physical injury, little is known about the role of the general practitioner (GP) in managing the acute and longer-term sequelae of violence. To examine the links between experiencing physical of sexual assault and seeking help from GPs in London. A cross-sectional survey of all adult attendees in one large group practice was carried out. The main outcome measures were prevalence of assault, reporting to the doctor and other people, and scores on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the Impact of Events scale. Of the 195 people who took part, 33 (17%) reported a physical or sexual assault in the previous year. Women were three times more likely than men to report any type of assault. Women rarely spontaneously disclosed these experiences to the GP and yet the experience of violence was associated with higher levels of distress, as measured on the GHQ and the Impact of Events Scale. Assault is a relatively common event in the lives of people who consult their GP. Doctors could help these patients through gaining an awareness of the problem and by fostering links with voluntary services, such as victim support schemes, which can provide support, practical assistance, and advice on compensation claims and legal procedures.

  17. Trajectories of Intimate Partner Violence Victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Swartout

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purposes of this study were to assess the extent to which latent trajectories of female intimate partner violence (IPV victimization exist; and, if so, use negative childhood experiences to predict trajectory membership.Methods: We collected data from 1,575 women at 5 time-points regarding experiences during adolescence and their 4 years of college. We used latent class growth analysis to fit a series of personcentered, longitudinal models ranging from 1 to 5 trajectories. Once the best-fitting model was selected, we used negative childhood experience variables—sexual abuse, physical abuse, and witnessing domestic violence—to predict most-likely trajectory membership via multinomial logistic regression.Results: A 5-trajectory model best fit the data both statistically and in terms of interpretability. The trajectories across time were interpreted as low or no IPV, low to moderate IPV, moderate to low IPV, high to moderate IPV, and high and increasing IPV, respectively. Negative childhood experiences differentiated trajectory membership, somewhat, with childhood sexual abuse as a consistent predictor of membership in elevated IPV trajectories.Conclusion: Our analyses show how IPV risk changes over time and in different ways. These differential patterns of IPV suggest the need for prevention strategies tailored for women that consider victimization experiences in childhood and early adulthood. [West J Emerg Med. 2012;13(3:272–277.

  18. Pension funds investments in hedge funds-a necessary regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gaftoniuc

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to investment strategies, generally, pension funds have proved to be conservative investors with a long term approach on investments and constant preoccupation for asset diversification as well as tendencies to secure their portfolios through investments in established financial products. Nevertheless, within this constant preoccupation for portfolio diversification as well as gain of notable profits, private pension funds have invested to a certain degree also in less cautious products respectively have conducted less stable investments. The financial turbulences that hit the US towards the end of 2007 and spread globally to become one of the most severe financial crisis witnessed, haven’t left pension funds immune to this phenomenon. Although, as previously stated, the special feature of pension funds is based on long term investments, which confers a certain degree of natural protection, there can not be the talk of absolute immunity either.

  19. Private pension funds: passivity at active fund prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Heitor Campani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT From 2005 to 2015, the total assets managed by open private pension funds increased more than six times in Brazil, where the Free Benefit Generating Plan (PGBL and the Free Benefit Generating Life (VGBL represent 90% of these assets. However, private pension institutions are characterized by the collection of high management fees, thus keeping for themselves much of the benefits offered by the government as incentive for investment in this modality. High management fees are justified only when there is active management of these funds, theoretically generating higher performance: this study indicates that this is not the case in this market segment. Similar problems have been faced in other countries, such as the United Kingdom, Denmark, and Sweden, which filed investigation concerning funds that charge high management fees for active management, while they actually provide management that may be regarded as passive. This demonstrates the scale and relevance of this issue, which has been surveyed and addressed by this study. To do this, dynamic style analysis was performed, through rolling regressions, followed by Kalman filter analysis in funds from the top-five private pension institutions in Brazil. Analyzing the exposure evolution of these funds to various asset classes and the R2 generated, passivity traces were found, mainly in composite variable income funds. Such funds are precisely those that should be more actively managed, as they charge the highest management fees. This article also demonstrates it is possible to build a passive portfolio, having a very similar style and returns without statistically significant differences, but at a lower management fee (and aligned with passive funds.

  20. Preservation of a National Resource and Preservation of Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laricheliere, Joyce

    Bilingualism and the cultural and linguistic pluralism that it involves should be preserved and encouraged within the national educational system. Statistics concerning bilinguals on a national scale would present a more accurate picture if based on John Macnamara's definition of bilinguals as "persons who possess at least one of the language…

  1. Polarization-preserving holey fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Mogilevtsev, Dmitri; Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2001-01-01

    In this work we suggest and discuss a microstructure of air capillaries with elliptical cross-section in a tread of glass that gives opportunity for Creation of polarization-preserving fiber with very small beat length between the fundamental modes of different polarization......In this work we suggest and discuss a microstructure of air capillaries with elliptical cross-section in a tread of glass that gives opportunity for Creation of polarization-preserving fiber with very small beat length between the fundamental modes of different polarization...

  2. Active preservation - otherwise no archives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norberg, E. [National Swedish Archives, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The role and history of national and regional archives in Sweden is discussed. It is noted that large portions of our cultural heritage can not be set aside for long-term preservation due to several facts: Some events are never documented, Important records are never set aside, Important information is stored on media that are not suitable for long-term preservation, Information can not be accessed due to inadequate search aids, Eliminations are made due to lack of space. Strategies for an action plan to save valuable material are briefly outlined, and the importance of international cooperation is stressed.

  3. Associating child sexual abuse with child victimization in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling; Yan, Elsie; Brownridge, Douglas A; Ip, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    To provide a comprehensive profile of the prevalence of child sexual abuse as well as other forms of child victimization in China and to examine the associations between child sexual abuse, demographic factors, and other forms of child victimization. Using a 2-staged stratified sampling procedure, we recruited a total of 18,341 students in grades 9-12 (girls 46.7%, mean age 15.86 years) from 150 randomly sampled schools during November 2009 through July 2010 in 6 Chinese cities. We assessed the students' demographic background and their experience of child sexual abuse and other forms of victimization. The independent effect on child sexual abuse of each demographic factor and form of child victimization was examined after controlling for other variables. The overall lifetime and preceding-year prevalence of child sexual abuse was 8.0% and 6.4%, respectively. Boys were more likely to report child sexual abuse than were girls. Apart from having experienced other forms of child victimization, several characteristics were associated with greater risk of child sexual abuse: being a boy; being older; having sibling(s); having divorced, separated, or widowed parents; or having an unemployed father. This study provides reliable estimates of child victimization to facilitate resource allocation in health care settings in China. The strong associations between child sexual abuse and other forms of child victimization warrant screening for additional forms of child victimization once any one of them has been identified. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The interrelation between victimization and bullying inside young offender institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häufle, Jenny; Wolter, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bullying and victimization are serious problems within prisons. Young Offender Institutions (YOIs), in particular, suffer from high rates of inmate-on-inmate violence. More recent theories about the development of bullying in closed custody institutions imply a relationship between the experience of victimization and the usage of bullying. In our study, we test this linkage using longitudinal survey data taken at two time-points from 473 inmates (aged 15-24) inside three YOIs in Germany. We first analyze the extent of bullying and victimization, and then used a longitudinal structural equation model to predict inmate bullying behavior at time 2 based on victimization that occurred at time 1. Age is used as a predictor variable to account for differences in the amount of victimization and bullying. Results suggest that bullying and victimization are high in the YOIs, which were subject to research. Most inmates reported being a bully and a victim at the same time. Younger inmates use more direct physical bullying but not psychological bullying. An increase in psychological bullying over time can significantly be explained by victimization at an earlier measurement time point. Our study therefore supports recent theoretical assumptions about the development of bullying behavior. Possible implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Highlight: The need for victim support services in India's Criminal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    Apr 15, 2016 ... Drawing from their body of work, Agnes reiterated that justice for victims depends largely on the lawyer's ability as well as sensitivity on part of the judicial system. She gave examples of many cases from start to the end and the hurdles encountered by victims at every stage. Addressing the challenges of ...

  6. A Longitudinal Investigation of Peer Sexual Harassment Victimization in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2009-01-01

    The current study describes longitudinal trends in sexual harassment by adolescent peers and highlights gender, pubertal status, attractiveness, and power as predictors of harassment victimization. At the end of 5th, 7th, and 9th grades, 242 adolescents completed questionnaires about sexual harassment victimization, pubertal status, and perceived…

  7. Victim Confidentiality on Sexual Assault Response Teams (SART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how professionals and paraprofessionals involved with a Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) understand and navigate different professional statutory requirements for victim confidentiality. Telephone surveys are conducted with 78 professionals: medical (27.8%), criminal justice (44.3%), and victim advocacy…

  8. Victim Migration: Dynamically Adapting Between Private and Shared CMP Caches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Michael; Asanovic, Krste

    2005-01-01

    .... Victim replication was previously introduced as a way of reducing the average hit latency of a shared cache by allowing a processor to make a replica of a primary cache victim in its local slice of the global L2 cache...

  9. Violent online games exposure and cyberbullying/victimization among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Lawrence T; Cheng, Zaohuo; Liu, Xinmin

    2013-03-01

    This population-based cross-sectional survey examined the association between exposure to violent online games and cyberbullying and victimization in adolescents recruited from two large cities utilizing a stratified two-stage random cluster sampling technique. Cyberbullying and victimization were assessed by the E-victimization and E-bullying scales validated in a previous study. Exposure to violent online games was measured by self-nomination of the degree of violent content in the games played. Results indicated that the majority (74.3 percent) of respondents did not experience any cyberbullying or victimization in the last 7 days before the survey, 14.4 percent reported to be victimized via cyberspace, 2.9 percent admitted that they had bullied others, and 8.4 percent reported to be both perpetrators- and- victims. One hundred and eighty seven (15.3 percent) considered games they were playing were of moderate to severe violence. Students who had been involved in cyberbullying as well as being victimized were two times as likely to have been exposed to violent online games, and nearly four times as likely for those involved in bullying others. Exposure to violent online games was associated with being a perpetrator as well as a perpetrator-and-victim of cyberbullying. Parents and clinicians need to be aware of the potential harm of these exposures. The policy implications of results were also discussed.

  10. Survivor-Victim Status, Attachment, and Sudden Death Bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Mark D.; Greenwald, Jason Y.

    1991-01-01

    Examined significance of survivor-victim relationship in understanding grief following sudden death bereavement by suicide or accident. Results showed that survivor-victim attachment was more important than survivor status (parent versus sibling/child) in explaining grief reactions. Compared to accident survivors, suicide survivors experienced…

  11. Grooming the Victim: An Analysis of a Perpetrator's Seduction Letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Mark I.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the sexual victimization of adolescent males, with emphasis on victim selection factors and strategies. A letter written by a middle-aged man to entice a teenage boy into sexual activity is then presented and analyzed. (DB)

  12. Children as Victims. 1999 National Report Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Howard N.; Sickmund, Melissa

    As part of a series that provides quick and focused access to findings from "Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1999 National Report" of the Office of Justice and Delinquency Prevention, this bulletin documents the impact of crime on society's most vulnerable victims, children. Homicide remains a leading cause of death for young people. In 1997, an…

  13. Siblings of Oedipus: Brothers and Sisters of Incest Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Young, Mary

    1981-01-01

    Investigates the roles and problems of siblings of incest victims, describes the dynamics of the incestuous family, and identifies some behavior problems of children whose siblings were incest victims. Data from two siblings' lives are presented to illustrate points. (Author/DB)

  14. A comparison of incest offenders based on victim age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Philip; Dixon, Kristopher L; Nunes, Kevin L; Bradford, John M

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare incest offenders (IOs) whose victims include infants or toddlers to IOs with adolescent victims on several variables commonly examined in the sexual offender literature. Participants were 48 men whose youngest victim was less than 6 years of age (younger-victim incest offenders; YVs); and 71 men whose youngest victim was 12 to 16 years of age (older-victim incest offenders (OVs). In general, YVs showed more emotional disturbance and pathology than OVs. Compared with OVs, YVs had a greater history of substance abuse and more current problems with alcohol. In addition, YVs reported significantly poorer sexual functioning and were significantly more psychiatrically disturbed. YVs were also more likely to have a male victim, to have victimized a nephew/niece or grandson/granddaughter, and to have denied their offense(s). It was evident that both the YVs and OVs demonstrated clinically significant difficulty with normal sexual functioning and exhibited deviant sexual arousal.

  15. Acculturation and Dating Violence Victimization among Filipino and Samoan Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Do, Jane J.; Goebert, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    Dating violence victimization is an important public health issue. Recent studies on minority youths have found higher risks of dating violence victimization compared to White youths. This study examined the influence of acculturation components on youths' experiences of dating violence by utilizing data from a survey of 193 Samoan and Filipino…

  16. The Reintegration of Child Victims of War in Northern Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the broad nature of rehabilitation and reintegration, the impacts on individuals is huge, especially on relatively little is known child victims of war, their time in service and their experience of reintegration. This article describes experiences of Acholi and Lango children who were/are victims of war within the Lord's ...

  17. Trauma admissions among victims of domestic violence at a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trauma admissions among victims of domestic violence at a tertiary care hospital in north-western Tanzania: an urgent call to action. ... Suspecting sexual partner being unfaithful was the most common reason given by victims for domestic violence in 63.4% of cases. Blunt and sharp objects (56.8%) were the most common ...

  18. The Relation between Bullying, Victimization, and Adolescents' Level of Hopelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyahhan, Sinem; Aricak, O. Tolga; Cayirdag-Acar, Nur

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 419 Turkish middle school students (203 girls, 216 boys) were surveyed on their exposure to and engagement in bullying, and their level of hopelessness. Our findings suggest that girls were victims of indirect (e.g. gossiping) bullying more than boys. Boys reported being victims of physical (e.g. damaging property) and verbal (e.g.…

  19. Cyberbullying perpetration and victimization among middle-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Eric; Petering, Robin; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Goldbach, Jeremy; Plant, Aaron; Montoya, Jorge; Kordic, Timothy

    2015-03-01

    We examined correlations between gender, race, sexual identity, and technology use, and patterns of cyberbullying experiences and behaviors among middle-school students. We collected a probability sample of 1285 students alongside the 2012 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Los Angeles Unified School District middle schools. We used logistic regressions to assess the correlates of being a cyberbully perpetrator, victim, and perpetrator-victim (i.e., bidirectional cyberbullying behavior). In this sample, 6.6% reported being a cyberbully victim, 5.0% reported being a perpetrator, and 4.3% reported being a perpetrator-victim. Cyberbullying behavior frequently occurred on Facebook or via text messaging. Cyberbully perpetrators, victims, and perpetrators-victims all were more likely to report using the Internet for at least 3 hours per day. Sexual-minority students and students who texted at least 50 times per day were more likely to report cyberbullying victimization. Girls were more likely to report being perpetrators-victims. Cyberbullying interventions should account for gender and sexual identity, as well as the possible benefits of educational interventions for intensive Internet users and frequent texters.

  20. Influence of Peer Victimization on School Attendance among Senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Key words: Peer victimization, Bullying, School Attendance, Students, Counselling. Introduction. Peer victimization or bullying is a conscious, deliberate and hostile activity intended to terrorized and harm others. ... On this note, parents have a lot to play as well as the community because a child who attends school regularly ...

  1. Tracking Offenders: The Child Victim. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Donald A.; Sedgwick, Jeffrey L., Ed.

    This research focused on the criminal justice system's handling of offenders against children, comparing it with the processing of offenders against all victims. Data were obtained from California, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Utah, and Virginia for offenses against children and against all victims in the areas of kidnapping, sexual assault,…

  2. Differences in Bullying Victimization between Students with and without Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, George G.; Mantz, Lindsey S.; Glutting, Joseph J.; Yang, Chunyan; Boyer, Deborah E.

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence rates for bullying victimization among children with disabilities have varied greatly in the research literature. Two reasons for such variability were the focus of this study: (a) rates vary as a function of disability type, and (b) rates vary based on the bullying measure and criteria used to classify students as bullying victims. The…

  3. The incongruity of workplace bullying victimization and inclusive excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurec, Laura Cox; Kennison, Monica; Gillen, Patricia

    Bullying occurs frequently-and with significant negative outcomes-in workplace settings. Once established, bullying endures in the workplace, requiring the interaction of a bully perpetrator and an intended target who takes on the role of victim. Not every target becomes a victim, however. The purpose of this study is to investigate the processes by which targets, intended objects of bullies' affronts, become victims, those individuals who experience ongoing emotional injury in response to bullies' affronts, and to clarify how bullying victimization impedes inclusive excellence in the workplace. The design for this study was pragmatic utility, an inductive research approach grounded in assumptions of hermeneutics. The pragmatic utility process involved the investigators' synthesis of descriptions from a broad, interdisciplinary published literature. Integrating knowledge from their previous research and practice experiences with the pragmatic utility process, they derived qualitative features of victims' experiences, differentiating target from victim in bullying encounters. For those targets who ultimately are victimized, response to bullies' affronts extends far beyond the immediate present. Redolence of personal, lived experience revives bygone vulnerabilities, and naïve communication and relationship expectations reinforce a long-standing, impoverished sense. That sense couples with workplace dynamics to augment a context of exclusion. Findings suggest that, as Heidegger contended, we are our histories. Personal history demonstrates a significance influence on the manifestation of bullying victimization, acting to distance them from their workplace peers and to impede inclusive excellence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Old Wine, New Bottle? Comparing Interpersonal Bullying and Cyberbullying Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Allison Ann; Hutzell, Kirsten L.

    2017-01-01

    This study uses a large nationally representative sample to compare and contrast interpersonal bullying and cyberbullying by asking the following questions: (a) How does the prevalence of cyberbullying victimization compare with the prevalence of interpersonal bullying victimization? (b) How does the relationship between demographic predictors and…

  5. Cyberbullying Perpetration and Victimization Among Middle-School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Goldbach, Jeremy; Plant, Aaron; Montoya, Jorge; Kordic, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined correlations between gender, race, sexual identity, and technology use, and patterns of cyberbullying experiences and behaviors among middle-school students. Methods. We collected a probability sample of 1285 students alongside the 2012 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Los Angeles Unified School District middle schools. We used logistic regressions to assess the correlates of being a cyberbully perpetrator, victim, and perpetrator–victim (i.e., bidirectional cyberbullying behavior). Results. In this sample, 6.6% reported being a cyberbully victim, 5.0% reported being a perpetrator, and 4.3% reported being a perpetrator–victim. Cyberbullying behavior frequently occurred on Facebook or via text messaging. Cyberbully perpetrators, victims, and perpetrators–victims all were more likely to report using the Internet for at least 3 hours per day. Sexual-minority students and students who texted at least 50 times per day were more likely to report cyberbullying victimization. Girls were more likely to report being perpetrators–victims. Conclusions. Cyberbullying interventions should account for gender and sexual identity, as well as the possible benefits of educational interventions for intensive Internet users and frequent texters. PMID:25602905

  6. Predicting Psychosocial Consequences of Homophobic Victimization in Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation examined the extent to which homophobic victimization predicted multiple indicators of psychological and social distress for middle school students (n = 143) during a 1-year assessment period. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that homophobic victimization significantly predicted increased anxiety and depression,…

  7. Peer Victimization and Adolescent Adjustment: Does School Belonging Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormington, Stephanie V.; Anderson, Kristen G.; Schneider, Ashley; Tomlinson, Kristin L.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research highlights the role of peer victimization in students' adjustment across a variety of domains (e.g., academic, social), but less often identifies potential mediating variables. In the current study, we tested for direct effects from peer victimization to adolescents' academic behavior and alcohol use, as well as indirect effects…

  8. Peer victimization and peer rejection during early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godleski, Stephanie A.; Kamper, Kimberly E.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Hart, Emily J.; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bi-directional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3- to 5- years-old) were investigated in an integrated model. Method The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the US. Using observations, research assistant report and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Results Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Conclusions Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress. PMID:25133659

  9. Acquaintance Rape on Campus: The Problem, the Victims, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Laurie

    1988-01-01

    Asserts that, although providing educational programs and materials on acquaintance rape and prevention strategies is important, attention must also be given to victims. Discusses recognition of stress response pattern of victims suffering from Rape Trauma Syndrome and provision of appropriate referral and support services. Includes selected list…

  10. Person-group dissimilarity in personality and peer victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bole, Savannah; Sijtsema, J; Klimstra, T.A.; Denissen, J.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    The present study examined the role of person–group dissimilarity in personality in peer victimization. It was hypothesized that adolescents who show more deviation from the classroom norm in personality experience more peer victimization. Data from 1108 adolescents (48% boys; Mage = 13.56 years, SD

  11. Trajectories of Peer Victimization: The Role of Multiple Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavis, Rachael D.; Keane, Susan P.; Calkins, Susan D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined early elementary school children's trajectories of peer victimization with a sample of 218 boys and girls. Peer victimization was assessed (via peer report) in kindergarten and first, second, and fifth grades. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine multiple types of relationships (mother-child, student-teacher,…

  12. Past Peer Victimization and Current Adult Attachment in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Heather E.; Nickerson, Amanda B.; DeLucia, Janice

    2017-01-01

    The authors examined the potential long-term effects of peer victimization experiences during childhood on attachment quality in current adult relationships in a sample of 386 university students attending 2 northeastern universities. Findings included (a) no significant gender differences regarding verbal or relational peer victimization; (b)…

  13. Person–group dissimilarity in personality and peer victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boele, S.; Sijtsema, J.J.; Klimstra, T.A.; Denissen, J.J.A.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the role of person–group dissimilarity in personality in peer victimization. It was hypothesized that adolescents who show more deviation from the classroom norm in personality experience more peer victimization. Data from 1108 adolescents (48% boys; Mage = 13.56 years, SD

  14. A Latent Class Approach to Examining Forms of Peer Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Waasdorp, Tracy E.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in gender differences in the experience of various forms of peer victimization; however, much of the work to date has used traditional variable-centered approaches by focusing on scales or individual forms of victimization in isolation. The current study explored whether there were discrete groups of adolescents who…

  15. Peer victimization and peer rejection during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godleski, Stephanie A; Kamper, Kimberly E; Ostrov, Jamie M; Hart, Emily J; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bidirectional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3 to 5 years old) were investigated in an integrated model. The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the United States. Using observations, research assistant report, and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress.

  16. Extrafamilial Sexual Abuse: Treatment for Child Victims and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosz, Candace A.; Kempe, Ruth S.; Kelly, Michele

    2000-01-01

    A study of 246 child victims of extrafamilial sexual abuse (ages 2-14) investigated effectiveness of family participation in crisis counseling, individual parent/child treatment, children's treatment groups, and parent support groups. A family approach and services for parents in addition to intervention for child victims were key components in…

  17. The Reasons behind Early Adolescents' Responses to Peer Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellmore, Amy; Chen, Wei-Ting; Rischall, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Victims of school-based peer harassment face a range of risks including psycho-social, physical, and academic harm. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavioral coping responses used by early adolescents when they face peer victimization. To meet this aim, 216 sixth grade students (55% girls) from two urban middle schools and 254…

  18. The criminal victimization of children and women in international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Jan; Kury, Helmut; Redo, Slawomir; Shea, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this article we will present an overview of the results of the national and international crime victims surveys regarding the distribution of victimization according to age and gender with a focus on violent crime. The results show a consistent inversed relationship between age and

  19. 75 FR 20889 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8499 of April 16, 2010 National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2010 By the.... This week, we renew our commitment to supporting crime victims and preventing crimes that threaten our.... Though crime rates have declined in recent years, crime and its devastating effects still require our...

  20. The Role of Cognitive Coping in Female Victims of Stalking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaij, Vivian; Arensman, Ella; Garnefski, Nadia; Kremers, Ismay

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the role of cognitive coping in a sample of 47 female victims of stalking. Stalking victims who blamed themselves more for the stalking report significantly higher symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Respondents who ruminated more about the stalking experience, or…

  1. Identifying Predictors of Negative Psychological Reactions to Stalking Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew C.; Kercher, Glen A.

    2009-01-01

    Victims of stalking often experience a number of negative psychological problems including such things as fear, symptoms of depression, and anger. However, research on factors that lead to these outcomes is limited. The goal of this study was to first identify distinct subgroups of stalking victims based on measures of psychological problems…

  2. Legal aid for victims in criminal proceedings in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Costa Ramos, Vânia

    2014-01-01

    The following article gives an overview of legal aid for victims in criminal cases in Portugal. It addresses the issues of a victim’s access to a lawyer, when and how the right is granted (right to legal assistance), and under what circumstances the victim has a right to financial legal aid (right to financial legal aid).

  3. Psychosocial Predictors Of Involvement Of Women As Victims Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated psychosocial predictors of involvement of women as victims of human trafficking using. This descriptive study had four independent variables- “coping strategies”, “self-esteem” “risk taking attitude” and “social support”. The dependent variable was involvement of women as victims of trafficking in ...

  4. Close Relationships and Attributions for Peer Victimization among Late Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaochen; Graham, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of close relationships (best friendship and romantic relationship) on late adolescents' casual attributions for peer victimization. A total of 1106 twelfth grade students completed self-report measures of perceived peer victimization, self-blame attribution, psychological maladjustment (loneliness and social…

  5. Funding School Infrastructure Needs across the States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielke, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    Compares state funding for school infrastructure needs between 1993-94 and 1998-99. Found 164 percent increase in state infrastructure funding. Examines state funding mechanisms such as flat grants, equalized grants, categorical grants, and full-state funding. Fourteen states provide no state infrastructure funding; most rely instead on…

  6. [Postraumatic mental disorders in traders victims of crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilli, Julián; Rodríguez, María C; Folino, Jorge O

    2014-01-01

    Crime consequences are not only a security problem; they are also a community health question. Because shop assistants are particularly exposed to crime victimization, they are at risk from suffering posttraumatic stress disorders. To describe posttraumatic symptomatology of crime victimized shop assistants and to explore the relationship between the symptoms and demographic, victim and situational factors. Self-reported information about mental symptomatology was gathered from 126 victimized shop assistants identified during cross-sectional study. Case and control groups were formed to explore association between symptomatology and crime and victim characteristics. The 20.6% of respondents reported information compatible with posttraumatic stress disorder; the 13 %, with moderate/severe depression and the 69.8% with adjustment disorder. The condition of being a case was associated with the violent characteristic of the crime, with the subtraction of goods and the economic value of the goods.

  7. Developing the Cyber Victimization Experiences and Cyberbullying Behaviors Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Lucy R; Spenser, Karin A

    2017-01-01

    The reported prevalence rates of cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors vary. Part of this variation is likely due to the diverse definitions and operationalizations of the constructs adopted in previous research and the lack of psychometrically robust measures. Through 2 studies, the authors developed (Study 1) and evaluated (Study 2) the cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors scales. Participants in Study 1 were 393 (122 boys, 171 girls) and in Study 2 were 345 (153 boys, 192 girls) 11-15-year-olds who completed measures of cyber victimization experiences, cyberbullying behaviors, face-to-face victimization experiences, face-to-face bullying behaviors, and social desirability. The 3-factor cyber victimization experiences scale comprised threat, shared images, and personal attack. The 3-factor cyberbullying behaviors scale comprised sharing images, gossip, and personal attack. Both scales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and convergent validity.

  8. Child human trafficking victims: challenges for the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Rowena; Berger Cardoso, Jodi

    2010-08-01

    Since the passing of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act in 2000 and its reauthorization by President George Bush in 2008, federal, state and community efforts in identifying and providing services for victims of human trafficking have significantly improved. However, most of the research and resources for trafficking victims have been directed towards adults rather than children. Researchers agree that there is a growing number of sexually exploited and trafficked children in the United States yet few programs emphasize the unique experiences and special needs of this population. This article examines commercial sexual exploitation of children; differentiates the needs and problems between child prostitution and victims of human trafficking; reviews and critiques current treatment practices; and summarizes challenges and successes in working with child victims of human trafficking, offering practice and policy recommendations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. How Does Survey Context Impact Self-reported Fraud Victimization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Michaela E; Carr, Dawn C; Mottola, Gary R; Deevy, Martha J; Carstensen, Laura L

    2017-04-01

    This study examines the effect of survey context on self-reported rates of personal fraud victimization, and explores if the effect is influenced by age and gender. Participants (3,000U.S. adults) were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 versions of a fraud victimization questionnaire: questions about fraud were identical across conditions, however, the context varies. One questionnaire asked about crime, one about consumer buying experiences, and a third focused only on fraud. Participants who were asked about fraud victimization in the context of crime reported significantly less victimization (p reports from those asked within the context of a consumer survey did not differ from the fraud-alone condition. The effect of the crime context interacted with age (p crime context on self-reported fraud victimization. These findings inform the production of new surveys and guide the development of effective social and health policies.

  10. Males as sexual assault victims: multiple levels of trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C L

    The definite and persistent phenomenon of sexual assault upon males is virtually ignored in the literature, although incidence data reported here suggest the greater scope of the problem. The avoidance of the subject of sexual assault on males creates a negative environment for victims. While the motivation of assailants is briefly discussed, the article focuses on the psychological aftermath for sexual assault victims. A paradigm is offered, consisting of "Set-up," "Attack," and "Aftermath" phases. Male victims suffer "Rape Trauma Syndrome" as described for females, as well as various forms of stigmatization and secondary trauma. Differences and similarities between male and female victims are identified. Victim responses are discussed as they proceed through several stages, with implications for appropriate interventions on both the clinical and community levels. The article concludes with an extensive bibliography.

  11. Preserving & Serving 150 years of KNMI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vegte, J.; Som de Cerff, W. J.

    2012-04-01

    The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) has over 150 years of knowledge and gathered information related to weather, Climate and Seismology. A huge part of this information is from numerical models, insitu sensor networks and remote sensing satellites. This digital collection is mostly internal only available and is a collection of non searchable , non standardized file formats, lacking documentation and has no references to scientific publications. With the Dutch funded KNMI Data Centre (KDC) project we aim to tackle al these issues. In the project a user driven development approach with SCRUM is chosen to get maximum user involvement in a relative short development timeframe. Building on open standards and proven opensource technology (which includes in-house developed software like ADAGUC WMS and Portal) should result in a solid first release in 2012-Q3. This presentation will focus on the aspects of developing the KDC relating to its technical challenges, the human factor and the development strategy to come to a future-proof centre that will preserve our data en make it usable for the community.

  12. Funding the Indigenous Rights Movement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael Johnson

    2016-01-01

    ... as a way to help inform funding partners about the realities in their communities. Foundation representatives and funders interested in human and Indigenous rights, mostly from the Americas, rounded out the audience...

  13. Drinking Water State Revolving Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) National Information Management System collects information that provide a record of progress and accountability for...

  14. Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Congress established the Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund (PCSRF) to monitor the restoration and conservation of Pacific salmon and steelhead populations and...

  15. A Translation Layer to Convey Preservation Metadata

    OpenAIRE

    Di Iorio, Angela

    2009-01-01

    The long term preservation is a responsibility to share with other organizations, even adopting different preservation methods and tools. The overcoming of the interoperability issues, by means of the achievement of a flawless exchange of digital assets to preserve, enables the feasibility of applying distributed digital preservation policies. The Archives Ready To AIP Transmission a PREMIS Based Project (ARTAT-PBP) aims to experiment with the adoption of a common preservation metadata standa...

  16. Implementing Metadata that Guide Digital Preservation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Dappert

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective digital preservation depends on a set of preservation services that work together to ensure that digital objects can be preserved for the long-term. These services need digital preservation metadata, in particular, descriptions of the properties that digital objects may have and descriptions of the requirements that guide digital preservation services. This paper analyzes how these services interact and use these metadata and develops a data dictionary to support them.

  17. Alcohol Involvement in Homicide Victimization in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Timothy S; Xuan, Ziming; Cooper, Susanna E; Coleman, Sharon M; Hadland, Scott E; Swahn, Monica H; Heeren, Timothy C

    2016-12-01

    Although the association between alcohol and homicide is well documented, there has been no recent study of alcohol involvement in homicide victimization in U.S. states. The objective of this article was to determine the prevalence of alcohol involvement in homicide victimization and to identify socio demographic and other factors associated with alcohol involvement in homicide victimization. Data from homicide victims with a reported blood alcohol content (BAC) level were analyzed from 17 states from 2010 to 2012 using the National Violent Death Reporting System. Logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with the odds of homicide victims having a BAC ≥ 0.08%. Among all homicide victims, 39.9% had a positive BAC including 13.7% with a BAC between 0.01% and 0.79% and 26.2% of victims with a BAC ≥ 0.08%. Males were twice as likely as females to have a BAC ≥ 0.08% (29.1% vs. 15.2%; p homicide victims having a BAC ≥ 0.08 included male sex, American Indian/Alaska Native race, Hispanic ethnicity, history of intimate partner violence, and nonfirearm homicides. Alcohol is present in a substantial proportion of homicide victims in the United States, with substantial variation by state, demographic, and circumstantial characteristics. Future studies should explore the relationships between state-level alcohol policies and alcohol involvement among perpetrators and victims of homicide. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. Yeasts preservation: alternatives for lyophilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyanga, L.K.; Nout, M.J.R.; Smid, E.J.; Boekhout, T.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two low-cost, low technology traditional methods for drying starter cultures with standard lyophilisation. Lyophilised yeast cultures and yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes and dry plant fibre strands were examined for viable cell counts

  19. Privacy-Preserving Trajectory Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Xuegang, Huang; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2008-01-01

    . To remedy this situation, this paper first formally defines novel location privacy requirements. Then, it briefly presents a system for privacy--preserving trajectory collection that meets these requirements. The system is composed of an untrusted server and clients communicating in a P2P network. Location...

  20. The bidirectional relationships between online victimization and psychosocial problems in adolescents: a comparison with real-life victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Eijnden, Regina; Vermulst, Ad; van Rooij, Antonius J; Scholte, Ron; van de Mheen, Dike

    2014-05-01

    Although peer victimization is of major concern and adolescents spend increasing amounts of time on the Internet, relatively little is known about the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online victimization. The main aim of this study was to compare the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online versus real-life victimization. More specifically, the bidirectional relationship between online and real-life victimization on the one hand and psychosocial problems (i.e., loneliness and social anxiety) on the other was examined. In addition, the moderating role of online aggression in the relationship between online victimization and subsequent psychosocial problems was studied. This prospective study, consisting of three annual measurements, was conducted among a sample of 831 adolescents (50.3 % girls) aged 11-15, of which most (80.2 %) had a Dutch ethnic background. The results indicate a unidirectional relationship whereby loneliness and social anxiety predict an increase in latter online victimization rather than the reverse. A bidirectional relationship was found for real-life victimization: loneliness (but not social anxiety) predicted an increase in latter real-life victimization, which in turn predicted an increase in subsequent social anxiety (but not loneliness). No moderating effects of online aggression were found. The findings of the present study suggest that negative online and in real life peer interactions have a differential meaning for, and impact on adolescents' well-being.