Madu, S N; Peltzer, K
An investigation into the prevalence and characteristics of child sexual abuse in the Northern Province (South Africa) was conducted. A total of 414 secondary school students in standard 9 and 10 in three representative secondary schools completed a retrospective self-rating questionnaire in a classroom setting. The questionnaire asked about childhood sexual abuse and the victim-perpetrator relationship. Results shows an overall (N = 414) child sexual abuse prevalence rate of 54.2%, 60% for males (N = 193), 53.2% for females (N = 216). Among them, 86.7% were kissed sexually, 60.9% were touched sexually, 28.9% were victims of oral/anal/vaginal intercourse. "Friend" was the highest indicated perpetrator in all patterns of sexual abuse. Many victims (86.7%) perceived themselves as not sexually abused as a child, and many (50.2%) rated their childhood as "very happy." A call is made for more research, publicity, and campaigns in the area of child sexual abuse in the Province.
Van Blyderveen, Sherry Lynn
Peer victimization is an issue which has recently received considerable attention from the media, the school system, and academic literature. The present study examines a number of expected correlates, both risk factors and outcomes, of peer victimization through the use of the Adolescent Health Survey - II conducted by the McCreary Centre Society in the province of British Columbia. Approximately 25,800 youth, from grades 7 through 12, from various regions of the province completed the quest...
McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz
The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…
Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn
This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show that the proba......This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show...... that the probability of being victimized is increasing in income, but at a diminishing rate. The effect of income is dependent on the type of crime, and poorer households are vulnerable. While less at risk of victimization, they suffer relatively greater losses when such shocks occur. Lower inequality and increased...
Barslund, Mikkel; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn
This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show that the proba......This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show...... that the probability of being victimized is increasing in income, but at a diminishing rate. The effect of income is dependent on the type of crime, and poorer households are vulnerable. While less at risk of victimization, they suffer relatively greater losses when such shocks occur. Lower inequality and increased...
Full Text Available Global social networks contributed to the creation of new, inconspicuous, technically perfect shape of criminality which is hard to suppress because of its intangible characteristics. The most common forms of virtual communications’ abuse are: cyberstalking and harassment, identity theft, online fraud, manipulation and misuse of personal information and personal photos, monitoring e-mail accounts and spamming, interception and recording of chat rooms. Cyberstalking is defined as persistent and targeted harassment of an individual by using electronic communication. The victim becomes insecure, frightened, intimidated and does not figure out the best reaction which will terminate the harassment. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance and necessity of studying cyberstalking and to point out its forms in order to find the best ways to prevent this negative social phenomenon. Basic topics that will be analyzed in this paper are the various definitions of cyberstalking, forms of cyberstalking, and the most important characteristics of victims and perpetators.
Johnson Oluwole Ayodele
Full Text Available Badagry is the first community to receive the Christian religion in Nigeria. For this, every good reason exists to suppose that its coming into early contact with the missionaries should have caused the Ogu people to acquire a healthier understanding of fair play in the context of widowhood practices. Regrettably, they seem to respond more slowly to change in their attitudes to widows. Thus, despite the overwhelming presence of Christian relics in the ancient town of Badagry, traditional customs such as wife inheritance and widowhood rites have continued to appear significantly associated with violence against which women are not well-protected. “Gender Victimization: A Study of Widowhood Practices” among Ogu People of Lagos is the focus of this study. Quantitative and qualitative methods were adopted for the study. Thus, five in-depth interviews and three focus group discussion instruments were used to collect primary data, which were used to complement quantitative data. Although quantitative data were subjected to univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses, qualitative data were cleaned, reorganized into themes and analyzed. The study found that much as the Ogu people of Lagos acknowledge the position of the scriptures on society’s non-criminal relation with widows, they still believe that their culture comfortably drives the greater proportion of their widow-friendly interactions. This study suggests that the adoption of cultural best practices in handling women and their peculiar issues will tone down violence in customary widowhood practices and enable women who lost their husbands in circumstances beyond their controls access community-based support.
Cyr, Katie; Chamberland, Claire; Clément, Marie-Ève; Wemmers, Jo-Anne; Collin-Vézina, Delphine; Lessard, Geneviève; Gagné, Marie-Hélène; Damant, Dominique
This study documents lifetime experiences of victimizations, polyvictimization, and trauma symptoms among 1,400 adolescents from the province of Québec. The vast majority (81%) of adolescents were victimized during their lifetime, with most victims (82%) being the target of more than one form of victimization. Polyvictimization accounted for most variability in scores of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anger/ aggression compared to individual victimization categories. Sexual victimization and maltreatment still made an independent contribution in predicting all trauma scores once polyvictimization was considered. Gender differences were found in the victimization experiences contributing to the prediction of mental health symptoms. Sexual victimization was a significant predictor of PTSD and anger/aggression symptoms for girls, whereas witnessing violence predicted anger and PTSD symptoms for boys, and assault predicted their anger. This study outlines the importance of assessing various types of victimization among adolescents. Systematic data and observation of trends on child victimization are needed in Canada and elsewhere.
Original title: Slachtoffers van criminaliteit. More than three million people in the Netherlands are victims of crime each year. Are all Dutch citizens equally at risk of becoming victims? And of those who become victims, which report the offence to the police, and what motivates them to do
Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Bak, Rikke; Elklit, Ask
Rape is often a very traumatic experience, which affects not only the primary victim (PV) but also his/her significant others. Studies on secondary victims of rape are few and have almost exclusively studied male partners of female rape victims. This study examined the impact of rape on 107...... secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels...... of social support for the respondent, and feeling let down by others. The respondents were generally interested in friend-, family-, and partner-focused interventions, particularly in receiving education about how best to support a rape victim...
Ceelen, Manon; van der Werf, Christian; Hendrix, Anneke; Naujocks, Tatjana; Woonink, Frits; de Vries, Philip; van der Wal, Allard; Das, Kees
The goal of this study was to ascertain accordance between cause of death established by the forensic physician and autopsy results in young sudden death victims in the Netherlands. Sudden death victims aged 1-45 years examined by forensic physicians operating in the participating regions which also
Full Text Available In this paper the findings of literature review and explorative empirical research of yoga application in the work with victims of various forms of sufferings is presented. The largest notion of victim is accepted, which encompasses victims of crime, victims of human rights violations (including convicted persons, as well as victims of war, natural disasters and other sufferings. After determination of the notion of victim and yoga, the review and analyses of research findings and direct experiences with the application of yoga in victim support and victimisation prevention worldwide and in Serbia, is done. The author’s research findings as well as personal experiences with the application of yoga in the work with prisoners in prison for women in Pozarevac (Serbia, within the workshops that Victimology Society of Serbia implemented during 2012/2013, are presented as well. In the conclusions, contribution of yoga to holistic approach to victim support as well as important role that yoga may have in prevention of victimisation and criminalisation, is stressed. The importance of yoga for support of prisoners as the part of preparation for re-entry and with the aim to prevent recidivism, as well as to enable their more successful reintegration into the society, is particularly emphasised. The paper is based on the research implemented by the author for the purpose of writing the final essey at the course for yoga instructors on International yoga academy, Yoga Allience of Serbia.
Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…
Laporte, Line; Tzoumakis, Stacy; Marleau, Jacques D; Allaire, Jean-François
In many societies, girls are more often killed by their parents than boys. However, not much of this is known in contemporary societies. This study had two main objectives. The first was to assess whether the number of boy and girl victims of maternal filicide differ in the literature from 1959 to 2000. Using two scientific databases, Medline and PsycINFO, 20 texts were pertinent. The second objective was to identify the variables that differentiate the mothers who killed a son and those who killed a daughter in a sample of 42 women from the province of Quebec (Canada). Analysis of the data for the first part indicate that the numbers of sons and daughters killed by their mothers are similar in the literature. For the second aim no significant differences were noted between the women who killed a son and those who killed a daughter for 30 variables studied, e.g., motivation, method of killing, age of the victims, etc.
Fattah, E A
The study concerned 50 cases occurring throughout Austria between 1950 and 1962 where murder was committed for the purpose of robbing the victim. Fifty-nine convicted killers and 61 victims were involved and 1950 was chosen as the starting point of the research in order to avoid undue influence from the extraordinary factors affecting criminality during and immediately following the Second World War. Cases were consecutive and unselected apart from a very small number excluded through unavailability of their files for legal reasons at the time when the data were collected. Unsuccessful murder attempts were not excluded since there is no difference between crimes actually carried out and those merely attempted as regards criminogenic factors, the pre-criminal situation, the choice of victim, the relationship and interaction between criminal and victim, and the recourse to homicide. However, the inquiry was confined to cases where guilt had been proven because of the aim to study not only the crime and the victim, but also the relationship of the criminal and victim. The latter is obviously not possible where the murderer remains unknown. Accordingly, since the material comprises a large number of cases over a fairly long period (more than a decade) from all over Austria, it is fair to claim that it provides an overview of the criminality of murder with intent to rob, and of the killers and the victims, for an entire country and over a significant epoch.
Kaitlyn N. Ryan
Full Text Available Bullying is a common topic in the media and academic settings. Teachers are regularly expected to provide curriculum and intervene regarding all forms of bullying, including cyber-bullying. Altering the behaviors of those who bully is often the focus of interventions, with less attention being placed on victim impact. The purpose of this article was to provide educators with a review of evidence regarding the occurrence, impact, and interventions for victims of cyber-bullying. Evidence reveals that cyber-bullying can have emotional, social, and academic impacts but that there are very few documented, and even fewer evidence-based, programs for victims of cyber-bullying. We conclude by proposing that school-wide programs and support be developed and provided to victims.
Full Text Available This paper presents facts on peer violence victims, committed by minor perpetrators against other minors. The author analyses four main characteristics of peer violence: imbalance of power between perpetrators and victims, identified intention to cause injuries, permanent treats of repeated violence and afraidness of the victims. Otherness and weakness (physical and social of the victims are identified as the main motives of the perpetrators who decide to attack, and these characteristics form the basis of the victim typology. Due to the fact that the research is phenomenologically based mostly on media report on peer violence cases in the period between September 2011 and the end of 2012, the author illustrates all main statements with the real cases which took place in the focused period. Measures to combat peer violence are presented, like the already established such as the school without violence program, and those recently proposed, such as the so called Aleksa’s class. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: Društvene transformacije u procesu evropskih integracija - multidisciplinarni pristup
Tyra, P A
Older female rape victims usually live alone, are raped by strangers, experience physical force and injury, and also are robbed. Rape trauma syndrome, a nursing diagnosis, consists of an acute phase of disorganization, and a long-term phase of reorganization of the victim's lifestyle. Rape victims experience emotional, physical, and cognitive reactions to the trauma of rape. Nursing actions can include providing specific interventions to victims during the acute phase, identifying victims during routine exams, referring victims for ongoing counseling, conducting community education programs on primary prevention and available services, and participating in longitudinal rape studies.
Małgorzata K. Szerla
Full Text Available Pain has several causes. It can be caused not only by operative trauma or cancer. Some patients suffer from pain as a result of being victims of violence. The aim of the study was to introduce diagnosis and treatment of pain problems in patients who are victims of violence, from a physician’s and a psychologist’s common perspective. Physical pain-related primary effects experienced by the victims of domestic violence go far beyond the results which are noticeable directly and confirmed visually in a forensic examination. In the present paper we introduce an ‘invisible’ group of secondary effects of violence. They appear in time, often after several years, in the form of a variety of psychosomatic disorders. The body is devastated insidiously and the secondary effects are visible as vegetative symptoms, a variety of psychosomatic disorders and pain, difficult to diagnose and treat.
Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.; Hamby, Sherry L.
Objective: Children who experience multiple victimizations (referred to in this paper as poly-victims) need to be identified because they are at particularly high risk of additional victimization and traumatic psychological effects. This paper compares alternative ways of identifying such children using questions from the Juvenile Victimization…
Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.
Objective: To assess the role of multiple victimization, or what is termed in this article "poly-victimization," in explaining trauma symptomatology. Method: In a nationally representative sample of 2,030 children ages 2-17, assessment was made of the past year's victimization experiences and recent trauma symptoms. Results: Children experiencing…
Sundaram, Vanita; Laursen, Bjarne; Helweg-Larsen, Karin
The present study investigates the prevalence of sexual victimization and correlations between sexual victimization and indicators of poor health in two representative samples of men and women in Denmark. Specifically, the authors explore the prevalence of self-reported victimization among...
Grayson, Joann, Ed.
The documented incidence of sexual abuse of boys is reported. Though prevalence rates varied from different sources, all sources agreed that reported cases reflect only a fraction of the actual prevalence. The paper also discusses characteristics of the abusers, risk factors of victims, the effects of abuse, and the coping styles of the young male…
Højbjerg, Christian K.
Victimization, autochthony and citizenship, power and nation-building constitute recurrent, interrelated themes in post-war Manding historical memory in the border area between Liberia and Guinea. While the perceived history of the Manding diverges from academic, historical knowledge as well...
This article is about the lives of Nigerian sex workers after deportation from Europe, as well as the institutions that intervene in their migration trajectories. In Europe, some of these women's situations fit the legal definitions of trafficking, and they were categorized as “victims of human...
Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Bruni, Luis Emilio; Khalil, Faysal Fuad
of violent interactive shooter experiences by allowing the participants to experience the feeling of being a victim of war. An evaluation of the implementation indicated that participants experienced free spatial interaction, while still being able to acquire an understanding of the theme being mediated....
Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P
at baseline and first time APSV during a 6-month period. Data analysis was a binary logistic regression analysis. Number of sexual partners and displaying sexual risk behaviors significantly predicted subsequent first time peer-on-peer sexual victimization, whereas a history of child sexual abuse, early...
In the aftermath of the devastating tsunami that hit South East Asia last December, a huge operation to try to identify thousands of victims got underway, with the help of many overseas medical and dental professionals. British dentist Gareth Pearson went to Thailand to try and help in this task and here recounts his experience.
Hugeux, P; Barouti, H
Just as the concept of war itself, the concept of the war victim is progressive, necessitating legal, economic, social, sanitary, ethical and political adaptations. In France, the laws of 1919, effective from 2nd August 1914, brought radical reform as laws of public solidarity, which guaranteed by the nation, the support of invalids of the most savage war in history. The collective nature of this new social risk obliged the state to replace a purely financial compensation by a solution of rehabilitation. The "Office National des Mutilés et Réformés", created in March 1916, was put in charge of the organisation of professional reeducation. The "war invalids" category was being transform a logic of assistance into one of social action. Later, the legislative structure made extensions, enlarging the beneficiaries in the "war victim" category. The "Service de Santé des Armées" in its basic mission of support to the armed forces covers many areas. The "Anciens Combattants et Victimes de Guerre" administration disposes of specific instruments, such as the "Institution Nationale des Invalides", the "Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur l'Appareillage des Handicapés", the "Office National des Anciens Combatants". These joint actions, added to the ones of very influential autonomous associations, contribute to give handicapped war victims an honourable citizenship.
Synovitz, L B; Byrne, T J
A sexual victimization survey was used to assess the factors that would discriminate between victims and nonvictims of sexual assault. The sample consisted of 241 female college students at a large midwestern university. Victimization status was ascertained from the 13-question Sexual Experiences Survey developed by Koss and Gidycz and Koss and Oros. Data eliciting information about possible associated factors (demographics, dating history, sexual history, personality characteristics and traits) and victimization status were obtained by adapting several scales and instruments into a single Dating and Relationship Survey. Of the 241 women, 102 reported they had been victimized. Discriminant function analysis was used to develop a set of variables that significantly identified victimization status. The variables found to be related to women's being sexually victimized were (a) number of different lifetime sexual partners, (b) provocative dress, and (c) alcohol use.
Lux, James P.; Haque, Salman
Testing of victim detection radars has traditionally used human subjects who volunteer to be buried in, or climb into a space within, a rubble pile. This is not only uncomfortable, but can be hazardous or impractical when typical disaster scenarios are considered, including fire, mud, or liquid waste. Human subjects are also inconsistent from day to day (i.e., they do not have the same radar properties), so quantitative performance testing is difficult. Finally, testing a multiple-victim scenario is difficult and expensive because of the need for multiple human subjects who must all be coordinated. The solution is an anthropomorphic dummy with dielectric properties that replicate those of a human, and that has motions comparable to human motions for breathing and heartbeat. Two airfilled bladders filled and drained by solenoid valves provide the underlying motion for vinyl bags filled with a dielectric gel with realistic properties. The entire assembly is contained within a neoprene wetsuit serving as a "skin." The solenoids are controlled by a microcontroller, which can generate a variety of heart and breathing patterns, as well as being reprogrammable for more complex activities. Previous electromagnetic simulators or RF phantoms have been oriented towards assessing RF safety, e.g., the measurement of specific absorption rate (SAR) from a cell phone signal, or to provide a calibration target for diagnostic techniques (e.g., MRI). They are optimized for precise dielectric performance, and are typically rigid and immovable. This device is movable and "positionable," and has motion that replicates the small-scale motion of humans. It is soft (much as human tissue is) and has programmable motions.
Magalhães, Teresa; Ribeiro, Catarina
The approach to victims of sexual crimes is of special complexity due to the nature of this kind of crime, the impact of victimization and the specificity of judicial investigation procedures. The absence of physical evidence and the secrecy that characterizes the majority of sexual victimization cases frequently lead the victim's story to be used as one of few proof elements. Given the importance of the information supplied by the victim in the criminal inquiry, it is essential to create strategies to optimise the interview process, not only to preserve evidence, but also to prevent a secondary victimization process. This review discusses in a brief manner the extent to which information given by victims can be considered relevant forensic evidence, and then presents the methodological guidelines for interview that should be used in this type of expertise.
Graham, Eleanor A M
In the event of any mass fatality incident, despite the cause, disaster victim identification must be undertaken; the humanitarian and legal responsibility for this falls on the forensic community. Mass fatality incidents can be natural (e.g., tsunamis, earthquakes, hurricanes), accidental (e.g., building collapse, ship sinking) or can occur as a result of a terrorist attack. Terrorism alone has been responsible for thousands of deaths in recent years and can be encountered in many forms (e.g., suicide bombings, airplane hijackings). In mass fatality situations, the experitise of many specialities are called on to assist in the identification efforts and to allow for the speedy return of recovered human remains to the relatives of the deceased. Today, DNA plays a vital but never solitary role in disaster victim identification.
Kaitlyn N. Ryan; Tracey Curwen
Bullying is a common topic in the media and academic settings. Teachers are regularly expected to provide curriculum and intervene regarding all forms of bullying, including cyber-bullying. Altering the behaviors of those who bully is often the focus of interventions, with less attention being placed on victim impact. The purpose of this article was to provide educators with a review of evidence regarding the occurrenc...
Harber, Kent D; Podolski, Peter; Williams, Christian H
Victim blaming occurs when people are unfairly held responsible for their misfortunes. According to just world theory, witnessing another's victimization threatens just world beliefs, which arouses distress. Victim blaming redeems just world beliefs, thereby reducing distress. However, negative emotions can also be resolved through emotional disclosure, suggesting that disclosure can prevent victim blaming. Two experiments confirmed this prediction. In Study 1 participants viewed a woman being victimized or a woman in a nonvictimizing conflict. Participants then disclosed or suppressed the emotions aroused by these scenes and 1 week later evaluated the woman they had viewed. Disclosure reduced blaming of the victim but did not affect blaming of the nonvictim. Further, the more distress participants disclosed, the less they blamed the victim. Study 2 replicated the primary results of Study 1 and also showed that (a) disclosure exclusively reduces blaming of victims; it does not moderate judgments of victimizers, and (b) the effects of disclosure on blaming applies across genders. These 2 studies confirm that victim blaming is a form of emotion management (per just world theory), and that emotional disclosure prevents blaming by supplying an alternative mode of emotion management. This research also suggests that emotional disclosure moderates social perception, in general. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
de Boer, Hans H; Kloosterman, Ate D; de Bruijn, Arie G; Maat, George J R
Identifying the victims of a disaster is important for the next of kin, to issue a death certificate and, if necessary, for forensic investigations. In the Netherlands victims are identified by the Dutch disaster victim identification team, which is part of the national forensic investigation team ('Landelijk Team Forensische Opsporing'). Ante-mortem data are collected during the identification process; these include the victim's specific medical characteristics and the DNA profile of the victim and their family members. The victim's own doctor can play an important role in the ante-mortem investigation because of his or her knowledge of their personal medical details, and of the possible availability of samples for establishing a DNA profile. The ante-mortem data are then compared with post-mortem data. For a definitive identification at least 1 primary identification characteristic has to be established from the physical remains - dermatoglyphics, the DNA profile or the dental status.
Papalia, Nina L; Luebbers, Stefan; Ogloff, James R P; Cutajar, Margaret; Mullen, Paul E; Mann, Emily
The association between child sexual abuse (CSA) and risk for re-victimization is well-documented; however, less is known about the temporal progression of re-victimization experiences over the early life-course among CSA survivors, and whether this differs from that of those without known sexual abuse histories. This study investigated whether there are distinct temporal pathways of interpersonal re-victimization between the ages of 10-25 years among medically confirmed CSA cases, and considered whether abuse variables, re-victimization variables, and the presence of other adverse outcomes, were associated with heterogeneity in re-victimization pathways. The data were collected as part of a large-scale data-linkage study in which the medical records of 2759 cases of contact-CSA between 1964 and 1995 were linked, between 13 and 44 years following abuse, to police and public psychiatric databases; cases were compared to a matched community sample (n=2677). Using a subsample of 510 (401 victims; 109 comparisons) individuals with an interpersonal (re)victimization history, we examined the aggregate 'age-(re)victimization' curves for CSA victims and comparisons, respectively. Further, we applied longitudinal latent class analysis to explore heterogeneity in re-victimization trajectories among abuse survivors across their early life-course. Four latent pathways were identified, labeled: Normative; Childhood-Limited; Emerging-Adulthood; and Chronic re-victimization trajectories. Older age at abuse, a criminal history, and mental health problems were uniquely predictive of membership to the more problematic and persistent re-victimization trajectories. Findings indicate that individuals exposed to CSA during adolescence may be particularly vulnerable to poorer re-victimization trajectories, characterized by multiple risk indices, and thus may warrant increased service provision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).
Heydari Seyed Taghi
Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To identify the main character-istics of victims of motorcycle accidents in Fars Province, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fars Province which has the fourth largest population of all 31 provinces in Iran from March 2009 to June 2010. We included data from all 542 recorded cases of fatalities due to motor vehicle accidents. Data were recorded from the foren-sic medicine registry consisting of demographic and acci-dent-related information. Demographic information con-sisted of name, age, sex, status of fatal victim (motorcycle driver vs passenger and educational level. Results: Of the 2 345 autopsy records from the foren-sic medicine archives, 542 (23.1% gave the cause of death as motor vehicle accidents. Mean age of these victims was (31.4±16.5 years, and the male to female ratio was 28. Head injury was the most common cause of death in these victims, and overall they tended to have a low level of education. Motorcycle accidents frequently involved younger age groups (15-35 years, and head trauma related with non-use of a helmet was the most common cause of death. Conclusions: Head injury is frequent among victims in the province we studied. This situation may be related to the victims’ low socioeconomic status and little education regarding traffic laws leading to speeding and disregard of these laws along with their weak enforcement. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Motorcycles; Iran
This article provides an overview of current research on bullying (peer victimization, peer harassment) in school, with a focus on victims of such bullying. The 1st section provides a working definition of bullying and its many forms. The 2nd section describes some of the known consequences of being bullied for mental health, physical health, and…
Dorte Marie Søndergaard
Full Text Available This article centres on some of the dilemmas contained within victim positioning. Such dilemmas are often overlooked by the authorities involved with people subjected to relational aggression. 2 For example, when teachers rule out cases of bullying because the victim has 'participated in' or 'laughed at' some of the bullies' initiatives, or when a rape victim's status as a victim is questioned because, in the lead up to the assault, she was supposedly friendly to the rapist. In these cases, it could be useful to explore the reason for the bullying victim's apparent collusion or to better understand the premises for the rape victim's positioning options in relation to the perpetrator. In other words, it could be fruitful to explore the dynamics and dilemmas of the victim position. In this article, I aim to reflect on the motivational conditions of the victim phenomenon. These reflections are based on an analysis of qualitative data produced through interviews with school children as well as on relevant secondary literature.
Full Text Available With the rapid development of communication technology and its wide use by the adolescents, cyberspace became a new risky environment for bullying manifestation and victimization. The significance of the problem lies in the fact that, unlike the traditional bullying, the cyberbullying victimization occurs also out of the school surroundings, it’s characterized by the possible anonymity of the bully, it’s harder to discover it and it could have a much bigger audience. Results of numerous studies show that the prevalence of cyberbullying victimization is 10% to 40% during one school year and that it is related to different negative outcomes - from problems of lower self-esteem to severe psychological and behavioral problems. The aim of the paper is to present basic characteristics and negative outcomes of cyberbullying victimization and also to summarize possible factors which are associated with this form of bullying. Lastly, possible ways of preventive action and coping with cyberbullying victimization will be reviewed.
Hansen, Helle Rabøl
Paper 3: HAN091384 Victim, Perpetrator and Pupil - Teacher Perspectives on Peer Bullying Helle Rabøl Hansen, University of Aarhus This paper investigates the approaches and strategies taken up by two crucial actors in relation to bullying in schools: 1. documents indicating school policies...... on bullying, and 2. teacher strategies in relation to bullying practices among children. The paper analyses the relationship between policy documents and their implied discourses on the one hand and the discourses and understandings taken up by teaches in their everyday interaction with children...... and colleagues on the other hand. The paper is based on empirical data including surveys among 253 teachers from 10 schools, interview with 12 teachers, and observations among teachers in their respectively class and staff rooms. In the analyses punishment and sanctions appear to work as general strategies...
Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Bruni, Luis Emilio; Khalil, Faysal Fuad
in the “First Person Victim” experience to create awareness about the consequences of war for civilians. The paper will also explain how our “Interactive Dramatic Experience Model” organizes the various events of the experience and mediates an emergent narrative by the use of the first person shooter form......Scientific and psychological studies claim a variety of triggers in video games with violent content may promote aggression. To oppose the violent behavior of players in these games, this paper will describe how the sources of aggression and first person shooter conventions have been exploited....... The theme is communicated through the use of tragedy, and turns the roles around to let the participants encounter a realistic war-scenario while being confronted with ethical issues, by enacting the experience of being a victim of war. An evaluation of the implemented experience indicated...
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present research findings on prevalence and characteristics of cyberstalking in Serbia. A web-based questionnaire was used to collect data from a group of respondents who were recruited by snowball sampling via e-mail. A total of 237 respondents completed the online questionnaire. The aim of the first part of this paper is to determine the notion of cyberstalking as well as, to review research about the prevalence and the nature of stalking. The main results are the following: 39,6 % of respondents reported stalking; every fourth stalking victim is a victims of cyberstalking; mostly, cyberstalking victims were female and perpetrators were male. Victims were stalked by: persistent sending of unwanted e-mails and telephone calls, spreading rumors, abusive and negative comments and threats, encouraged other users to harass, threaten or insult, manipulating with victim's personal data, sending malicious programs and files, etc. In Serbia, cyberstalking is not criminalized yet and there are no organizations to whom victims may appeal and ask for help. We are hoping that this research will raise the awareness on cyberstalking and serve as a base for further research and legal reforms regarding cyberstalking victimization in Serbia.
This research is purposed to find out whether physical exercise needed to improve physical fitness of narcotics misuse victims in Social Rehabilitation Center Pamardi Putera West Java Province. Survey method and field test were applied in this research. Population is all members of rehabilitation in BRSPP and the sampling technique used in this research was purposive sampling. Indonesia Physical Fitness Test (TKJI) was used as the instrument. The result of the research showed that level of narcotics misuse victims’ physical fitness is in ‘low’ category so that regular and measurable physical activity is needed in developing their physical fitness.
Walle Vande Ilse
Full Text Available All too often, the victimization of children is automatically associated with child abuse and sexual abuse. However, children are also confronted, either directly or indirectly, with other kinds of criminality. In spite of that children usually do not get appropriate support and assistance. In this paper, the establishment and development of services for the support of children-victims of crime in Belgium, as well as European cooperation in this regard, are described.
Sainio, Miia; Veenstra, Rene; Huitsing, Gijs; Salmivalli, Christina
This study focused on the dyadic defending relationships of victimized children in grades 3, 4, and 5 (N = 7481 children from 356 school classes, mean ages 10-12 years). Most of the victims (72.3%) had at least one defender. Being defended was positively related to victims' adjustment and social status. Analyses on victim-defender dyads showed…
Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals.
Will, R; Hintz, E; Blättner, B
Life time prevalence of stalking is about 12-20%, while females are more often affected than male. Stalking is a statutory offense. However, it is not an assault of victims' law. For the purpose of health consequences for stalking victims, research in following database were conducted: EMBASE, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Social Science Index. English and German published studies of the years 2002-2010 were included. 17 primary studies and 2 meta-analyses were identified. Direct physiological consequences are relatively rare; however stalking victims report a poorer physiological health status. Almost every second stalking victim shows impairments on his/her psychical well-being. Impairments of social well-being are common, too. As a result, there is still a lot of research, especially in long-term studies, required. Socio-legal reassessment of stalking will probably benefit only a few of the affected people. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Konstantinović-Vilić, Slobodanka; Žunić, Natalija
Mass media seem to be playing the central role in our everyday life and the media impact is so overpowering nowadays that we live in a mediasaturated culture. Not only are mass media an inseparable part of our contemporary life but they also significantly define and shape our daily existence. In order to explain the cultural impact that the media coverage of crime and victimization has in our society, it is necessary to understand the relationship between crime, victimization and mass media. ...
Bullying among children is a significant public health problem world-wide. Bullying is most commonly defined as repeated, intentional aggression, perpetrated by a more powerful individual or group against a less powerful victim. Trends in victimization and moderate to frequent bullying may be decreasing slightly in the United States, but over 20% of children continue to be involved in bullying. Direct bullying consists of physical and verbal aggression, whereas indirect bullying involves rela...
Gollwitzer, Mario; Süssenbach, Philipp; Hannuschke, Marianne
People reliably differ in the extent to which they are sensitive to being victimized by others. Importantly, "victim sensitivity" predicts how people behave in social dilemma situations: Victim-sensitive individuals are less likely to trust others and more likely to behave uncooperatively-especially in socially uncertain situations. This pattern can be explained with the sensitivity to mean intentions (SeMI) model, according to which victim sensitivity entails a specific and asymmetric sensitivity to contextual cues that are associated with untrustworthiness. Recent research is largely in line with the model's prediction, but some issues have remained conceptually unresolved so far. For instance, it is unclear why and how victim sensitivity becomes a stable trait and which developmental and cognitive processes are involved in such stabilization. In the present article, we will discuss the psychological processes that contribute to a stabilization of victim sensitivity within persons, both across the life span ("ontogenetic stabilization") and across social situations ("actual-genetic stabilization"). Our theoretical framework starts from the assumption that experiences of being exploited threaten a basic need, the need to trust. This need is so fundamental that experiences that threaten it receive a considerable amount of attention and trigger strong affective reactions. Associative learning processes can then explain (a) how certain contextual cues (e.g., facial expressions) become conditioned stimuli that elicit equally strong responses, (b) why these contextual untrustworthiness cues receive much more attention than, for instance, trustworthiness cues, and (c) how these cues shape spontaneous social expectations (regarding other people's intentions). Finally, avoidance learning can explain why these cognitive processes gradually stabilize and become a trait: the trait which is referred to as victim sensitivity.
Full Text Available People reliably differ in the extent to which they are sensitive to being victimized by others. Importantly, victim sensitivity predicts how people behave in social dilemma situations: Victim-sensitive individuals are less likely to trust others and more likely to behave uncooperatively - especially in socially uncertain situations. This pattern can be explained with the Sensitivity to Mean Intentions (SeMI model, according to which victim sensitivity entails a specific and asymmetric sensitivity to contextual cues that are associated with untrustworthiness. Recent research is largely in line with the model’s prediction, but some issues have remained conceptually unresolved so far. For instance, it is unclear why and how victim sensitivity becomes a stable trait and which developmental and cognitive processes are involved in such stabilization. In the present article, we will discuss the psychological processes that contribute to a stabilization of victim sensitivity within persons, both across the life span (ontogenetic stabilization and across social situations (actual-genetic stabilization. Our theoretical framework starts from the assumption that experiences of being exploited threaten a basic need, the need to trust. This need is so fundamental that experiences that threaten it receive a considerable amount of attention and trigger strong affective reactions. Associative learning processes can then explain (a how certain contextual cues (e.g., facial expressions become conditioned stimuli that elicit equally strong responses, (b why these contextual untrustworthiness cues receive much more attention than, for instance, trustworthiness cues, and (c how these cues shape spontaneous social expectations (regarding other people’s intentions. Finally, avoidance learning can explain why these cognitive processes gradually stabilize and become a trait: the trait which is referred to as victim sensitivity.
This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Geological Survey Division, to describe the statewide hydrologic variations in Michigan's water resources. Twelve hydrologic provinces, which are based on similarities in aquifer lithology, yield, recharge, and ground-water- and surface-water-quality data, are described. The definition of statewide hydrologic characteristics and the delineation of hydrologic provinces improves the understanding of Michigan's water resources and provides a firm basis for realistic water-manangement decisions. The 12 provinces identified areas where bedrock aquifers provide most of the potable ground water (five provinces), where glacial-deposit aquifers provide most of the potable ground water (three provinces), and where problems with water quantity and (or) quality have limited the use of ground water as a water supply (four provinces). Subprovinces are defined on the basis of regional surface-water flow directions toward each of the Great Lakes.
Coughlan, B; Powell, D; Higgins, M F
Amongst the lay and media population there is a perception that pregnancy, labour and delivery is always physiological, morbidity and mortality should be "never events" and that error is the only cause of adverse events. Those working in maternity care know that it is an imperfect art, where adverse outcomes and errors will occur. When errors do occur, there is a domino effect with three groups being involved - the patient (first victim), the staff (second victims) and the organization (third victims). If the perceived expectation of patients on all clinicians is that of perfection, then clinicians may suffer the consequences of adverse outcomes in isolation and silence. More recently identification and discussion on the phenomenon of the second victim has become a popular research topic. This review aimed to study not only the phenomenon of second victim in general medical care but to also concentrate on maternity care where the expectation of perfection may be argued to be greater. Risk factors, prevalence and effect of second victims were identified from a thorough search of the literature on the topic. The review focuses on the recent research of the effect on maternity staff of adverse outcomes and discusses topical issues of resilience, disclosure, support systems as well as Learning from Excellence. It is now well documented that when staff members are supported in their disclosure of errors this domino effect is less traumatic. It is the responsibility of everyone working in healthcare to support all the victims of an error, as an ethical duty and to have a supportive culture of disclosure. In addition, balance can be provided by developing a culture of learning from excellence as well as from errors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Focus of attention in the criminal justice system so far has always been to the perpetrator, whereas parties related to a process of criminal justice encompasses the perpetrator, the victim, and the community. A crime victim, in particular, would suffer more since he/she could experience secondary victimization in the criminal justice system. The law concerning victim and witness protection only states the limitation for the criminal victim to ask for compensation to criminal justice system, either as a victim of direct criminal or a victim of abuse power done by law enforcement officers. Child victims are treated the same way as to adult victims, whilst they have a greater dimension of the problem and effects to be dealt with Mechanism and procedures to be followed are ius constituendum (intended/desirable law, as they only share expectation of indemnity, compensation, and rehabilitation which have not been empirically tested in a real situation.
.... Two statistical methods were used to investigate these hypotheses, logistical regression for victimization prevalence, and negative binomial regression for victimization incidence and concentration...
Walker, L E; Browne, A
Recent data demonstrate that, although gender has an impact upon the experience of being a victim of an intimate's violence, there is no particular personality pattern that leads one to become a victim. Rather, women--who are socialized to adapt and submit, and who are likely to become victims of men's sexual violence or physical abuse--may not develop adequate self-protection skills as children, especially if they come from childhood homes in which females are victimized, leading to a later vulnerability to physical and sexual abuse. Men, however, socialized to express anger and aggression in an outward manner, learn to model the abuse witnessed or experienced in childhood and often learn that women are the "appropriate" recipients of this violence. Social learning theories of modeling and aggression are used to explain how such personality patterns develop, and the theory of learned helplessness is used to explain battered women's coping responses to their partners' abusive behavior. The extreme situation, in which a battered woman kills her partner in self-defense, is analyzed in order to understand women victims' sense of desperation and entrapment in severely abusive relationships and the extent to which their behaviors are in reaction to the abuse perpetrated by the mate.
Meloy, J Reid; Boyd, Cynthia
Demographic, clinical, and forensic data were gathered in an archival study of 82 female stalkers from the United States, Canada, and Australia. Female stalkers were predominantly single, heterosexual, educated individuals in their mid 30s who had pursued their victims for more than a year. Major mental disorder and personality disorder were suggested, especially borderline personality disorder. They usually threatened violence, and if they did threaten, were more likely to be violent. Frequency of interpersonal violence was 25 percent, but there was limited use of weapons, and injuries were minor. Stalking victims were most likely to be slightly older male acquaintances; but if the victim was a prior sexual intimate of the female stalker, her risk of being violent toward him exceeded 50 percent. Unlike male stalkers who often pursue their victims to restore intimacy, these female stalkers often pursued their victims to establish intimacy. Common emotions and motivations included anger, obsessional thoughts, rage at abandonment, loneliness, dependency, jealousy, and perceived betrayal. Results are interpreted from a clinical and risk management perspective.
Bullying among children is a significant public health problem world-wide. Bullying is most commonly defined as repeated, intentional aggression, perpetrated by a more powerful individual or group against a less powerful victim. Trends in victimization and moderate to frequent bullying may be decreasing slightly in the United States, but over 20% of children continue to be involved in bullying. Direct bullying consists of physical and verbal aggression, whereas indirect bullying involves relational aggression. Cyber bullying is an emerging problem which may be more difficult to identify and intervene with than traditional bullying. Bullies, victims, and bully-victims are at risk for negative short and long-term consequences such as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and delinquency. Various individual, parental, and peer factors increase the risk for involvement in bullying. Anti-bullying interventions are predominantly school-based and demonstrate variable results. Healthcare providers can intervene in bullying by identifying potential bullies or victims, screening them for co-morbidities, providing counseling and resources, and advocating for bullying prevention. PMID:24007839
Theories of victimization developed independently of theories of offending, in spite of consistent findings of similarities between offenders and victims of crime. This study examines whether Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) general theory of crime, typically used to predict offending, also has relevance in understanding juvenile victimization. The data for this project are drawn from a sample of over 1,200 middle and high school students. Using structural equation models, the findings suggest that higher self-control does directly decrease victimization and that self-control also affects victimization indirectly though opportunities (peer deviance). Implications for the studies of victimization as well as the general theory of crime are discussed.
Oba, Nongnut; Suntayakorn, Chanjar; Sangkaewsri, Roongsri; Longchupol, Chaowanee; Lohitpintu, Itsareat; Kumsri, Tongbai
To explore the needs of potential enhancement for adaptation and to examine the effectiveness of the potential enhancement program for adaptation and psychological well-being among victims of flooding and landslide in Lublae district Uttaradit Province, Thailand. 3 step of research and development; the needs of potential enhancement for adaptation among victims of flooding and landslide were analyzed by focus group discussion, the potential enhancement program (PEP) was designed by brainstorming of three groups of stakeholder; victims, health volunteers and health personnel and the effectiveness of PEP was tested by the difference of adaptation and psychological well-being perception among victims of flooding and landslide between before and after intervention. Thumbun Maepou, Lublae district, Uttaradit Province, Thailand. The needs of potential enhancement among victims of flooding and landslide were set up warning network along the risk canal and mountain, first aid training for health volunteer, and program of psychological health promotion. The PEP composed of community flooding and landslide rehearsal training, health education and dissemination and knowledge management. Total adaptation and psychological wellbeing of samples after intervention were significantly higher than that of before intervention at 0.05 and 0.001, respectively. The restoration of adaptation and psychological well-being among victims of flooding and landslide were essential to maintained holistic health.
Kelsay, James D; Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Tillyer, Rob; Ward, Jeffrey T
This study explores the nature and outcome of violent incidents experienced by child, adolescent, adult, and elderly victims. Data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) are used to determine whether there are differences in the situational characteristics-including location, time of day, weapons, and the victim-offender relationship-of violent victimization experiences across the 4 age groups, including whether situational characteristics influence the likelihood of victim injury. Results indicate that victim injury is most prevalent among adult victims and that the situational characteristics of violent incidents vary by victim age, as do the correlates of victim injury. These findings suggest that of the nature of violent victimization should be examined within the context of victim age, and supports research by scholars who have proposed a model of developmental victimology to identify age-specific victimization patterns.
Various theories have been advanced to explain the well-known uneven distribution of metals and ore-deposit types in space and time. Primordial differences in the mantle, preferential concentration of elements in the crust, the prevalence of ore-forming processes at certain times and (or) places, and combinations of one or several of these factors have all been called upon to account for the "metallogenic provinces," which can be defined loosely as regions containing similar deposits of one or a group of metals or minerals. Because many, perhaps most, provinces have complex, multistage origins, the relative importance of inheritance vs. process is still controversial. In recent years the geographic relationship of many geologically young provinces to present-day plate-tectonic positions (accreting or consuming margins, intraplate structures, etc.) has been widely recognized, and the presumption is strong that older provinces had similar relationships to former plates. As most ore deposits resulted from a favorable conjunction of geological processes that are no longer operative, elucidation of their genesis requires reconstruction of the geologic history of the province, with particular emphasis on events coeval with mineralization. Tectonic analysis is an important aspect of this reconstruction; data from orbiting satellites have contributed greatly to this analysis, as the voluminous literature of the past decade testifies. Both the synoptic view of large areas and the ability to emphasize faint contrasts have revealed linear, curvilinear, and circular features not previously recognized from field studies. Some of these undoubtedly reflect basement structures that have contributed to the development, or limit the extent, of metallogenic provinces. Their recognition and delineation will be increasingly valuable to the assessment of resources available and as guides to exploration for the ores needed by future generations. ?? 1983.
The impact and meanings of homophobic violence on gay men's identities are explored with a particular focus on their identities as men and as gay men. Homosexuality can pose a challenge to conventional masculinities, and for some gay men, being victimized on account of sexual orientation reawakens conflicts about their masculinity that they…
The reasons why boys who are victims of incest remain silent are explored in terms of the special meaning of victimization to males. Males' inability to express helplessness and vulnerability is identified as a major contributing factor. (CM)
Full Text Available Hye-Jin Seo,1 Young-Eun Jung,2 Moon-Doo Kim,2 Won-Myong Bahk3 1Department of Psychiatry, Ansan Shinwoo Hospital, Ansan, 2Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, 3Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea Objectives: The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of bullying victimization among Korean adolescents by sex and age and to investigate the correlates of this phenomenon. Methods: Of 3,200 eligible subjects, 2,936 (91.8% adolescents were recruited from four elementary schools (6th grade, age range: 10–12 years, five middle schools (8th grade, age range: 13–14 years, and three high schools (10th grade, age range: 15–17 years located in the Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, Republic of Korea. This study used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics and experiences of bullying victimization and employed the Korean form of the Children’s Depression Inventory to evaluate depressive symptoms. Results: Of the total sample of 2,936 students, 1,689 were boys (57.5% and 1,247 were girls (42.5%. The prevalence of bullying victimization by age group was as follows: 10–12 years, 9.5%; 13–14 years, 8.3%; and 15–17 years, 6.4%. A significant difference in the prevalence of bullying victimization was observed by sex (boys: 45.0%, girls: 55.0%. Overall, the prevalence decreased with age. After adjusting for age and sex, bullying victimization was significantly associated with lower socioeconomic status (odds ratio [OR] =1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–2.67, lower than average academic achievement (OR =1.77; 95% CI 1.25–2.50, more depressive symptoms (OR =1.88; 95% CI 1.38–2.55, and poorer perceived relationship with parents (OR =1.46; 95% CI 1.00–2.14. Conclusion: Our findings will provide researchers and public health practitioners with data on the prevalence of
This article explores and offers a qualified defence of the claim that the entitlement to forgive a wrongdoer belongs to the victim of the wrong. A summary account of forgiveness is given, followed by arguments in favor of the victim's prerogative to forgive. Primary, or direct victims are then distinguished from secondary and ...
Pedersen, Bodil Maria; Sidenius, Katrine
Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen is a centre for interdisciplinary research and practice. Goals of the centre are to contribute to the documentation of victimization and to prevent further victimization. Research at the centre aims at the examination of the diversity of conditions...
This paper examines the relationship sexual victimization (both childhood sexual victimization and adult sexual victimization), aggression and alcohol consumption. The data for this research is from the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: an International Study (GENACIS). A random sample of 2070 adults (53.8% males and ...
Sainio, Miia; Veenstra, René; Huitsing, Gijs; Salmivalli, Christina
This study focused on the dyadic defending relationships of victimized children in grades 3, 4, and 5 (N = 7481 children from 356 school classes, mean ages 10-12 years). Most of the victims (72.3%) had at least one defender. Being defended was positively related to victims' adjustment and social
Chan, John H. F.
Using a new non-anonymous questionnaire and a nomination method by which victims were asked to name their aggressors, Chan (2002) collated the responses from individual victims to produce name-clusters that were studied for systemic patterns of bullying and victimization within the whole-school community. Three such patterns emerged: serial…
Holt, Melissa K.; Finkelhor, David; Kantor, Glenda Kaufman
This study explored the possibility that bullies, victims of bullying, and bully-victims (i.e., youth who both perpetrate and are victims of bullying) are at increased risk for victimization in four other domains: conventional crime, child maltreatment, sexual victimization, and witnessing or indirect victimization. It also evaluated the extent to…
Katzer, C.; Fetchenhauer, D.; Belschak, F.
Bullying is not a phenomenon exclusive to the school environment. Pupils also become victims of verbal aggression (teasing, threats, insults, or harassment) in the context of internet chatrooms. The present study addresses the following questions: (1) How often does bullying occur in internet
Petju, M; Suteerayongprasert, A; Thongpud, R; Hassiri, K
To determine the usefulness of dental records for victim identification following the Indian Ocean tsunami disaster in Thailand, and to evaluate the dental identification system in Thailand, the homeland of a large number of the victims. A descriptive study conducted at the Thai Tsunami Repatriation Centre in Phangnga Province one year after the tsunami hit Thailand on the 26th December 2004. The dental records of 3750 dead bodies and 3547 missing persons in the Thai Tsunami Victim Identification (TTVI) database, updated on 12th December 2005, were analysed. The identification rate of missing persons with dental records was significantly higher than that of those without (Pvictims identified by dental records were returned home within the first four months after the disaster. Dental records were the primary identifier in 46.2% of those identified. However, among the Thai citizens reported missing, only 2.0% used dental identification, 18.1% had dental charts and 0.8% had dental X-rays. In addition, only 7.4% of Thai dental records could be used for dental identification and one-third of Thai victims remained the majority of those unidentified. Based on this study, the usefulness of dental records for victim identification in a disaster was confirmed. The dental identification system for nationals of Thailand could not work efficiently due to lack of dental records and insufficient recorded detail.
This article examines victims' purported complicity in the judicial failures of domestic violence law to protect them in Cambodia. It is based on 3 years (2012-2014) of research in Siem Reap and Pursat Provinces on the everyday politics of the 2005 "Law on the Prevention of Domestic Violence and the Protection of the Victims" (DV Law). The project questioned why investments in DV Law are faltering and took a multi-stakeholder approach to do so. In addition to 40 interviews with female domestic violence victims, the research included 50 interviews with legal and health professionals, NGO workers, low- and high-ranking police officers, religious figures, and local government authority leaders who each have an occupational investment in the implementation and enforcement of DV Law. Forming the backbone of the article, the findings from this latter sample reveal how women are construed not only as barriers "clouding the judgment of law" but also as actors denying the agency of institutional stakeholders (and law itself) to bring perpetrators to account. The findings suggest that DV Law has the potential to entrench, rather than diminish, an environment of victim blaming. In turn, the article signals the importance of research on, and better professional support of, intermediaries who (discursively) administrate the relationship between DV Law and the victims/citizens it seeks to protect. © The Author(s) 2015.
Søndergaard, Dorte Marie
Based on a conceptualization of bullying and relational aggression in groups as an effect of social dynamics rather than individual deficits – this article reflects upon some of the intricate mechanisms and dilemmas involved in victim positioning. Victims of bullying and relational aggression often....... The hopes of (eventual) social belonging may in that sense work paradoxically as a strong agent in the denial of oppression and marginalization. The article is theoretically informed by poststructuralist conceptualizations and grounded in cases of bullying and marginalization (one of them involving rape......). One case is taken from the empirical data produced by the author and a research project on bullying among children (eXbus: Exploring Bullying in School). Two other cases are borrowed from publications of respectively B. Davies from Australia and A. Evaldsson from Shweden. The article opens insights...
McGovern, Theresa M
This author has found through professional and personal experience that throughout the world, women directly affected by injustice have led demands for accountability. The purpose of this article is to challenge mainstream human rights groups to create a different type of partnership between themselves and the people for whom they advocate by seeking the involvement of "victims", including leaders of successful "victim-led" initiatives. This approach will result in more appropriate policy recommendations and will enhance both entities' capacity for outreach. Moreover, it will bring mainstream human rights organizations into greater compliance with their own stated values, as well as exemplifying the same respect, flexibility, and accommodation that these groups often recommend to governmental, political, and institutional entities.
Grosse, Alexandra B.; Grosse, Claudia A.; Anderson, Suzanne [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Diagnostic, Pediatric and Interventional Radiology, Berne (Switzerland); Steinbach, Lynne S. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Zimmermann, Heinz [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Trauma and Emergency Medicine, Berne (Switzerland)
Skiing and hiking outside the boundaries remains an attractive wilderness activity despite the danger of avalanches. Avalanches occur on a relatively frequent basis and may be devastating. Musculoskeletal radiologists should be acquainted with these injuries. Fourteen avalanche victims (11 men and 3 women; age range 17-59 years, mean age 37.4 years) were air transported to a high-grade trauma centre over a period of 2 years. Radiographs, CT and MR images were prospectively evaluated by two observers in consensus. Musculoskeletal findings (61%) were more frequent than extraskeletal findings (39%). Fractures were most commonly seen (36.6%), involving the spine (14.6%) more frequently than the extremities (9.8%). Blunt abdominal and thoracic trauma were the most frequent extraskeletal findings. A wide spectrum of injuries can be found in avalanche victims, ranging from extremity fractures to massive polytrauma. Asphyxia remains the main cause of death along with hypoxic brain injury and hypothermia. (orig.)
Maier, Shana L
Despite efforts to educate and create community awareness, rape myths and victim-blaming attitudes persist in society. This research explores whether advocates express victim-questioning attitudes or questions, negative judgment, or frustration regarding victims' behavior or choices. Data from interviews with 58 advocates reveal that the majority (76%) of advocates never expressed any victim-questioning attitudes during the interview. However, responses from 14 advocates (24%) show that victim-questioning has evolved into a much more complex, subtle form than historical victim blaming or acceptance of rape myths.
van de Weijer, Steve G A; Leukfeldt, E Rutger
The prevalence of cybercrime has increased rapidly over the last decades and has become part of the everyday life of citizens. It is, therefore, of great importance to gain more knowledge on the factors related to an increased or decreased likelihood of becoming a cybercrime victim. The current study adds to the existing body of knowledge using a large representative sample of Dutch individuals (N = 3,648) to study the relationship between cybercrime victimization and the key traits from the Big Five model of personality (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience). First, multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between the personality traits and three victim groups, that is, cybercrime victims versus nonvictims, traditional crime victims versus nonvictims, and cybercrime victims versus traditional crime victims. Next, logistic regression analyses were performed to predict victimization of cyber-dependent crimes (i.e., hacking and virus infection) and cyber-enabled crimes (i.e., online intimidation, online consumer fraud, and theft from bank account). The analyses show that personality traits are not specifically associated with cybercrime victimization, but rather with victimization in general. Only those with higher scores on emotional stability were less likely to become a victim of cybercrime than traditional crime. Furthermore, the results indicate that there are little differences between personality traits related to victimization of cyber-enabled and cyber-dependent crimes. Only individuals with higher scores on openness to experience have higher odds of becoming a victim of cyber-enabled crimes.
Bridges, F Stephen; Tankersley, William B
Using Riedel and Zahn's 1994 reformatted version of an FBI database, the mean age of homicide victims in 2,175 homicide-suicides (4,350 deaths) was compared with that of all other victims of homicides reported for the USA from 1968 to 1975. The overall mean age of homicide victims in homicide-suicides was 1 yr. greater than for victims of homicides not followed by suicides, whereas the mean age for both male and female homicide-suicide victims was, respectively, 3 yr. less and greater than the other homicide victims. The mean age of Black homicide victims of homicide-suicides was 2.4 yr. less than that for Black victims of other homicides, whereas the means for Black and White male homicide victims in homicide-suicides were, respectively, about 4 and 5 yr. less than for victims of other homicides. Also, the mean age of White female homicide victims in homicide-suicides was more than two years greater than for female victims of homicides not followed by suicides. When both sex and race were considered, the mean age for those killed in homicide-suicides relative to those killed in homicides not followed by suicides may represent subpopulations with different mean ages of victims.
Farzaneh, Esmaeil; Fouladi, Nasrin; Shafaee, Yousef; Mirzamohammadi, Zahra; Naslseraji, Farnaz; Mehrpour, Omid
Average annual incidence of snakebite worldwide is between 5.5 to 1.2 million, and at least 125,000 of them are fatal. In Iran, around 4,500-11,000 snakebites occur annually, and a small number of them are fatal. Snake bites can cause intoxity and immediate death in patients, and the aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological study of snakebites in Ardabil Province. This study was a cross-sectional that has been done on 67 snakebite patients who were admitted to the Imam Khomeini Hospital of Ardabil during 2008-2013. Information included: age and sex of victims, region of incidence, site of bite, hospitalized duration and symptoms. Data analyzed by descriptive statistical methods using SPSS version 19. There was significant difference between the two sexes (p=0.001). There was no significant difference between the mean age of male and female victims (p=0.68). Most of the victims were in the age group of 20-29 years (34.3%). All snakebites happened in rural areas. There was no significant relation between gender of victims and the residential location of victims (p=0.32). Most snakebites happened during 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. (32.8%). Most of the snakebites occurred in spring and summer seasons. Results showed that most of the bites in yearly months was seen in the summer season and the difference between seasons is significant. (p=0001). Most snakebites, with 38 cases (56.7%), were observed on lower limbs and among them right limbs with 20 cases (52.6%) had the greatest number. There was significant difference between organs of bites in victims because the most organs were in the right lower limb (p=0.002). Of all cases, 66 (98.5%) were injured by a species of viper snake. All patients, showed symptoms of pain, swelling, erythema and ecchymosis bite. Twenty-seven (40.3%) of all cases, suffered fainting. Nausea and vomiting were two other common symptoms. The antidote used in patients was 5.1±1.3 vials. The mean incidence rate of snakebite was an estimated
Full Text Available Usually is talking about offender rights and rarely about victim's rights. This study aims to analyse victim's rights especially in Romanian legislation from all points of view. Having involuntary fallen victim to crime, the person is often unaware of what information is available. It is therefore important that the onus is not put on the victim to request a certain piece of information. Victims of crimes need to have their important role in the criminal proceedings and he or she has to know about the extension of them rights. Not least, the study is focus on the right of the victim to receive information, not to be made responsible for the practicalities surrounding its delivery.
Davies, Michelle; Pollard, Paul; Archer, John
Most researchers who have investigated attributions of blame toward victims in sexual-assault depictions have considered only female victims of male perpetrators. Few researchers have investigated the effects of perpetrator gender or victim sexual orientation on blame attributions toward male victims. The present authors investigated those two variables. Participants were 161 undergraduates at a British university in social science courses, each of whom read one scenario of a set in which perpetrator gender and victim sexual orientation were varied between subjects, and who completed a questionnaire measuring their blame toward the victim and the perpetrator. The present results showed that male participants blamed the victim more if a person of the gender that he was normally attracted to assaulted him. Male participants also regarded the female perpetrator in more favorable terms than they did the male perpetrator regardless of the victim's sexual orientation. The authors discussed the present results in relation to gender role stereotypes.
Full Text Available Nikolas Aho, Marie Proczkowska Björklund, Carl Göran Svedin Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden Abstract: The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16–20 years, standard deviation =0.652, of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV] proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization. Keywords: victimization, childhood trauma, psychological symptoms, JVQ, TSCC
Oldenburg, Beau; Barrera, Davide; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits; van der Meulen, Matty; Vermande, Marjolijn; Aleva, Elisabeth; Sentse, Miranda; Veenstra, René
Using data from 2413 Dutch first-year secondary school students (M age=13.27, SD age=0.51, 49.0% boys), this study investigated as to what extent students who according to their self-reports had not been victimized (referred to as reporters) gave victimization nominations to classmates who according to their self-reports had been victimized (referred to as receivers). Using a dyadic approach, characteristics of the reporter-receiver dyad (i.e., gender similarity) and of the reporter (i.e., reporters' behavior during bullying episodes) that were possibly associated with reporter-receiver agreement were investigated. Descriptive analyses suggested that numerous students who were self-reported victims were not perceived as victimized by their non-victimized classmates. Three-level logistic regression models (reporter-receiver dyads nested in reporters within classrooms) demonstrated greater reporter-receiver agreement in same-gender dyads, especially when the reporter and the receiver were boys. Furthermore, reporters who behaved as outsiders during bullying episodes (i.e., reporters who actively shied away from the bullying) were less likely to agree on the receiver's self-reported victimization, and in contrast, reporters who behaved as defenders (i.e., reporters who helped and supported victims) were more likely to agree on the victimization. Moreover, the results demonstrated that reporters gave fewer victimization nominations to receivers who reported they had been victimized sometimes than to receivers who reported they had been victimized often/very often. Finally, this study suggested that reporter-receiver agreement may not only depend on characteristics of the reporter-receiver dyad and of the reporter, but on classroom characteristics as well (e.g., the number of students in the classroom). Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.
This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…
Perren, Sonja; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline; Malti, Tina; Hymel, Shelley
This study investigated different facets of moral development in bullies, victims, and bully-victims among Swiss adolescents. Extending previous research, we focused on both bullying and victimization in relation to adolescents' morally disengaged and morally responsible reasoning as well as moral emotion attributions. A total of 516 adolescents…
Jiang Rui M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Work-related burns are common among occupational injuries. Zhejiang Province is an industrial area with a high incidence of chemical burns. We aimed to survey epidemiological features of chemical burns in Zhejiang province to determine associated factors and acquire data for developing a strategy to prevent and treat chemical burns. Methods Questionnaires were developed, reviewed and validated by experts, and sent to 25 hospitals in Zhejiang province to prospectively collect data of 492 chemical burn patients admitted during one year from Sept. 1, 2008 to Aug. 31, 2009. Questions included victims' characteristics and general condition, injury location, causes of accident, causative chemicals, total body surface area burn, concomitant injuries, employee safety training, and awareness level of protective measures. Surveys were completed for each of burn patients by burn department personnel who interviewed the hospitalized patients. Results In this study, 417 victims (87.61% got chemical burn at work, of which 355 victims (74.58% worked in private or individual enterprises. Most frequent chemicals involved were hydrofluoric acid and sulfuric acid. Main causes of chemical injury accidents were inappropriate operation of equipment or handling of chemicals and absence of or failure to use effective individual protection. Conclusions Most chemical burns are preventable occupational injuries that can be attributed to inappropriate operation of equipment or handling of chemicals, lack of employee awareness about appropriate action and lack of effective protective equipment and training. Emphasis on safety education and protection for workers may help protect workers and prevent chemical burns.
Zhang, Yuan H; Han, Chun M; Chen, Guo X; Ye, Chun J; Jiang, Rui M; Liu, Li P; Ni, Liang F
Work-related burns are common among occupational injuries. Zhejiang Province is an industrial area with a high incidence of chemical burns. We aimed to survey epidemiological features of chemical burns in Zhejiang province to determine associated factors and acquire data for developing a strategy to prevent and treat chemical burns. Questionnaires were developed, reviewed and validated by experts, and sent to 25 hospitals in Zhejiang province to prospectively collect data of 492 chemical burn patients admitted during one year from Sept. 1, 2008 to Aug. 31, 2009. Questions included victims' characteristics and general condition, injury location, causes of accident, causative chemicals, total body surface area burn, concomitant injuries, employee safety training, and awareness level of protective measures. Surveys were completed for each of burn patients by burn department personnel who interviewed the hospitalized patients. In this study, 417 victims (87.61%) got chemical burn at work, of which 355 victims (74.58%) worked in private or individual enterprises. Most frequent chemicals involved were hydrofluoric acid and sulfuric acid. Main causes of chemical injury accidents were inappropriate operation of equipment or handling of chemicals and absence of or failure to use effective individual protection. Most chemical burns are preventable occupational injuries that can be attributed to inappropriate operation of equipment or handling of chemicals, lack of employee awareness about appropriate action and lack of effective protective equipment and training. Emphasis on safety education and protection for workers may help protect workers and prevent chemical burns.
Ranapurwala, Shabbar I; Berg, Mark T; Casteel, Carri
Law enforcement depends on cooperation from the public and crime victims to protect citizens and maintain public safety; however, many crimes are not reported to police because of fear of repercussions or because the crime is considered trivial. It is unclear how police reporting affects the incidence of future victimization. To evaluate the association between reporting victimization to police and incident future victimization. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using National Crime Victimization Survey 2008-2012 data. Participants were 12+ years old household members who may or may not be victimized, were followed biannually for 3 years, and who completed at least one follow-up survey after their first reported victimization between 2008 and 2012. Crude and adjusted generalized linear mixed regression for survey data with Poisson link were used to compare rates of future victimization. Out of 18,657 eligible participants, 41% participants reported to their initial victimization to police and had a future victimization rate of 42.8/100 person-years (PY) (95% CI: 40.7, 44.8). The future victimization rate of those who did not report to the police (59%) was 55.0/100 PY (95% CI: 53.0, 57.0). The adjusted rate ratio comparing police reporting to not reporting was 0.78 (95%CI: 0.72, 0.84) for all future victimizations, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.90) for interpersonal violence, 0.73 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.78) for thefts, and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.07) for burglaries. Reporting victimization to police is associated with fewer future victimization, underscoring the importance of police reporting in crime prevention. This association may be attributed to police action and victim services provisions resulting from reporting.
Gao, Qiang; Leung, Aaron; Liang, Qiu; Yang, Xiaotian; Li, Cheng; Yang, Lin; Linda Lindorff, Chengqi He
To investigate the functional status of fracture victims 4 years after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. A total of 374 fracture victims who were admitted to the rehabilitation department of 5 municipal hospitals in the hardest hit areas in 2008 were interviewed face to face in 2012. Functional assessments, including muscle strength, range of motion, pain, activities of daily living and working status, were conducted. Approximately one-third (33.2%) of the fracture victims had decreased muscle strength and 29.4% had limited range of motion. Among the 55.3% of subjects who still experienced pain, the proportions of mild, moderate and severe pain were 65.7%, 28.5% and 5.8%, respectively. The majority (83.4%) of fracture victims were independent in caring for themselves. However, 1.6% of subjects were highly dependent or totally dependent. Single-fracture victims had better muscle strength, range of motion, pain and independence than those with multiple fractures. The degrees of pain, muscle strength and dependency were worse in the older age group, and better in those with a higher level of education. In addition 17.1% were jobless and 22.2% received economic support mainly from family members. The mean unemployment rate was significantly higher and the annual household income (USD 3,086 (standard deviation 1,985) was lower than in the general population in rural Sichuan province. The prevalence of functional disorders, including pain, limited range of motion, decreased muscle strength and dependency in activities of daily living, remained high among fracture victims 4 years after the Wenchuan earthquake. Unemployment rate was high and annual household income was low in this population.
Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne M.; Turner, Heather
Objective: The goal of this study was to document the prevalence and correlates of any past year sibling victimization, including physical, property, and psychological victimization, by a co-residing juvenile sibling across the spectrum of childhood from one month to 17 years of age. Methods: The National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence…
Georgiou, Stelios N.; Fanti, Kostas A.
The purpose of the current study was to develop and test a transactional model, based on longitudinal data, capable to describe the existing interrelation between maternal behavior and child bullying and victimization experiences over time. The results confirmed the existence of such a model for bullying, but not for victimization in terms of…
Becker-Blease, Kathryn A.; Turner, Heather A.; Finkelhor, David
In a representative sample of 2,030 U.S. children aged 2-17, 13.9% report lifetime exposure to disaster, and 4.1% report experiencing a disaster in the past year. Disaster exposure was associated with some forms of victimization and adversity. Victimization was associated with depression among 2- to 9-year-old disaster survivors, and with…
valid at the lower end of the IQ range. The assessment of rape victims is a sensitive matter and poses a number of challenges to the clinician. Rape victims are often traumatised by their experience, and this can make them reluctant to talk about the incident. In a study done by Elklit et al., it was found that ~70% of sexual ...
Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M.
In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD…
Frenken, Jos; Van Stolk, Bram
Interviews with 130 Dutch professionals helping incest victims and 50 adult women who were incest victims as children found that assistance was hampered by institutional distrust, inability of professionals to stop ongoing incest, frequent breaking off of contact by the young girls, professionals' shortcomings in knowledge and skills, and…
Espelage, Dorothy L.; Hong, Jun Sung; Rao, Mrinalini A.; Low, Sabina
This article reviews the extant literature on the links between peer victimization and academic performance and engagement among children and adolescents. Although most of the research on this association is based on cross-sectional investigations, research using longitudinal designs is starting to point to the fact that peer victimization does…
The Author makes a 'tour d'horizon', albeit summarized, of the problems brought about by the victim "from crime" in the exclusive picture of criminology. After defining the dogmatic relations between criminology and victimology, stating that such a (new) discipline highlights the entirety of the criminal event centering upon the dyad criminal-victim, the latest classifications of the victim viewed individually and also in his manifold relationships with the acting subject, are reviewed, in the attempt of identifying, on the basis of the various situations of victimization as they occur, if not some causal laws proper, at least some constants and some emerging lines susceptible of an in-depth analysis. After hinting to the problems brought about by the victim in the supranational prospect, and by the crimes so-called without a victim, the importance of the victim from the criminalistics and criminal execution angle, is outlined, and the Author closes up, by way of conclusion, and at the operational level, broadly hinting to the most suitable methods for the prevention and repairing in regard of the victims of crime.
Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray
One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…
Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy
For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…
Walker, Robert; Shannon, Lisa; Logan, T. K.
Intimate partner violence victimization has been associated with serious health problems among women, including many disorders that involve sleep disturbances. However, there has been only limited examination of sleep duration among women with victimization experiences. A total of 756 women with a domestic violence order (DVO) against a male…
... child abuse. In addition, the definition clarifies that child pornography related offenses are a form of... used terms, including ``crime victim'', ``State administering agency'', ``victim of child abuse'', and... Guidelines. OVC proposes a new definition of the undefined statutory term ``child abuse'' that is intended to...
Ballard, Carol N.
Describes emergency care of snakebite victims, including noting signs and symptoms of venomous snakebites, keeping the victim calm, and seeking immediate medical attention. Provides information on variables that affect the amount of injected venom and how to distinguish nonpoisonous from poisonous snakes. (LP)
Oldenburg, Beau; Barrera, Davide; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits; van der Meulen, Matty; Vermande, Marjolijn; Aleva, Elisabeth; Sentse, Miranda; Veenstra, Rene
Using data from 2413 Dutch first-year secondary school students (M age = 13.27, SD age = 0.51, 49.0% boys), this study investigated as to what extent students who according to their self-reports had not been victimized (referred to as reporters) gave victimization nominations to classmates who
Oldenburg, Beau; Barrera, Davide; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits; van der Meulen, Matty; Vermande, Marjolijn; Aleva, Liesbeth; Sentse, Miranda; Veenstra, René
Using data from 2413 Dutch first-year secondary school students (M age. = 13.27, SD age. = 0.51, 49.0% boys), this study investigated as to what extent students who according to their self-reports had not been victimized (referred to as reporters) gave victimization nominations to classmates who
Owens, Jennifer Gatewood
This study examines the impact of methodological features of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) on respondent willingness to report violent, serious violent, and property victimizations to the NCVS. Bounded and unbounded data from the 1999-2005 NCVS are used to create a longitudinal file of respondents, and survey-weighted logistic regression models are used to assess the factors associated with the reporting of victimization. Net of sociodemographic control variables, unbounded interviews produced higher estimates of serious violence (72%), violence (66%), and property victimization (67%). Mobile respondents reported higher estimates than nonmobile respondents of serious violence (48%), violence (35%), and property victimization (15%). Compared with in-person interviews, interviewing by telephone increased reporting for serious violence (7%), violence (12%), and property victimization (17%). This study highlights the importance of controlling for these factors in both longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses to estimate victimization risk.
Button, Deeanna M; O'Connell, Daniel J; Gealt, Roberta
In comparison to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth are more likely to experience victimization. Multiple studies have connected anti-gay prejudice and anti-gay victimization to negative outcomes. Research shows that social support may protect sexual minorities from the harmful effects of anti-gay victimization. However, rates of victimization and the negative outcomes linked to sexual identity within the sexual minority community have been relatively unexplored. Using data from three years of statewide data from heterosexual and sexual minority adolescents in grades 9-12, this study examines victimization, substance use, suicidality, and access to social support by sexuality. Results indicate that sexual minority youth are at increased risk for victimization, substance use, suicidality, and social isolation compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Results also indicate that there is very little bivariate difference within the sexual minority community. Multivariate results indicate differences among sexual minorities' experiences with victimization and substance use.
Ménard, Kim S; Cox, Amanda K
Using the National Crime Victimization Survey 2006 Stalking Victimization Supplement (NCVS-SVS) and guided by Greenberg and Ruback's social influence model, this study examines the effects of individual (e.g., severity, sex, victim-offender relationship) and contextual (e.g., location) factors on stalking victimization risk, victim labeling and help seeking, and victim and third-party police contacts. Logistic regression results suggest individual and contextual characteristics matter. Consistent with prior research and the theoretical model, the positive effects of severity and sex (female) were significant across all dependent variables, whereas the interaction effect of victim-offender relationship and location held only for third-party police contacts. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Hannah Arendt is against the idea that Jews were only the victims of history. Starting from the idea that the Age of Enlightenment and the Jewish emancipation put the Jewish tradition and history in crisis, she is adamant that this same history is not only full of suffering, but includes a hidden tradition of activism that is important to uncover and to claim. The aim of these pages is to analyse the Arendtian thinking of the 30s and 40s in order to show some elements that can help us to understand what the loss of humanity means today and to indicate the possibilities of claiming and recovering it.
Levinson, Jay; Domb, Abraham J
Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) is a triangle, the components of which are secular law, religious law and custom and professional methods. In cases of single non-criminal deaths, identification often rests with a hospital or a medical authority. When dealing with criminal or mass death incidents, the law, in many jurisdictions, assigns identification to the coroner/medical examiner, who typically uses professional methods and only answers the religious requirements of the deceased's next-of-kin according to his personal judgment. This article discusses religious considerations regarding scientific methods and their limitations, as well as the ethical issues involved in the government coroner/medical examiner's becoming involved in clarifying and answering the next-of-kin's religious requirements.
Niemi, Laura; Young, Liane
Why do victims sometimes receive sympathy for their suffering and at other times scorn and blame? Here we show a powerful role for moral values in attitudes toward victims. We measured moral values associated with unconditionally prohibiting harm ("individualizing values") versus moral values associated with prohibiting behavior that destabilizes groups and relationships ("binding values": loyalty, obedience to authority, and purity). Increased endorsement of binding values predicted increased ratings of victims as contaminated (Studies 1-4); increased blame and responsibility attributed to victims, increased perceptions of victims' (versus perpetrators') behaviors as contributing to the outcome, and decreased focus on perpetrators (Studies 2-3). Patterns persisted controlling for politics, just world beliefs, and right-wing authoritarianism. Experimentally manipulating linguistic focus off of victims and onto perpetrators reduced victim blame. Both binding values and focus modulated victim blame through victim responsibility attributions. Findings indicate the important role of ideology in attitudes toward victims via effects on responsibility attribution. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Ćopić Sanja M.
Full Text Available Negative social reaction and inadequate reaction of the agencies of the formal control on the primary victimization is leading to the so called secondary victimization that can be a source of trauma and frustration as much as the primary victimization. Due to that, relation of the police and the judiciary towards the crime victims is of a great importance regarding victims’ willingness to report the victimization, their confidence in these agencies, and cooperation during clearing up the crime. In order to realize the victim’s position in the criminal justice system, this paper contains an overview of how the police, prosecutor’s office and courts are functioning. The paper is based on the interviews made with the representatives of these state agencies, as well as on the previous knowledge and realized surveys concerning this topic. The aim of the paper is to emphasize the position and the role of the victim support service in the system of the state intervention, based upon the obtained data, as well as to give some basic information on how victims could report the crime, what are their rights and duties, what can they expect from the competent agencies.
Smid, Wineke; Schepers, Klaartje; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; van Linden, Sabine; Bartling, Sarah
The growing number of notifications for child pornography (CP) possession constitutes a capacity problem for police forces entrusted with the investigation of these offenses. Notifications of CP offenses in which the investigation reveals concurrent direct victimization, in the form of contact offenses, grooming, online offending, or the production of CP material, form a potential target group for prioritization. The first of the twofold aims of this study was to validate the occurring distinction between mixed suspects (i.e., CP possession suspects who were also ever associated with direct victimization) and CP-only suspects (i.e., CP possession suspects who were never associated with direct victimization) to predict an outcome of the investigation including direct victimization. The second aim was to explore variables related to direct victimization among CP-only suspects. A total of 150 files of police investigations into notifications for CP offenses were studied. Findings confirmed significantly greater prevalence of direct victimization as an outcome of the investigation among mixed suspects than CP-only suspects (90% vs. 10%). Among CP-only suspects, direct victimization was predicted by (a) prior police contacts, charges, or convictions concerning noncontact sexual offending, (b) the confiscation of more than two computers during the house search, and (c) a more serious nature of the CP material that formed the basis for the notification in terms of younger victims and more extreme content. These variables may point to a small subgroup of heavily invested CP offenders who are at a higher risk to cross the line to direct victimization. Cross-validation of these preliminary findings is indicated. © The Author(s) 2014.
This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.
Gromet, Dena M; Okimoto, Tyler G; Wenzel, Michael; Darley, John M
Three studies investigated whether victims' satisfaction with a restorative justice process influenced third-party assignments of punishment. Participants evaluated criminal offenses and victims' reactions to an initial restorative justice conference, and were later asked to indicate their support for additional punishment of the offender. Across the three studies, we found that victim satisfaction (relative to dissatisfaction) attenuates people's desire to seek offender punishment, regardless of offense severity (Study 2) or conflicting reports from a third-party observer (Study 3). This relationship was explained by the informational value of victim satisfaction: Participants inferred that victims felt closure and that offenders experienced value reform, both of which elevated participants' satisfaction with the restorative justice outcome. The informational value communicated by victim satisfaction, and its criminal justice implications, are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.
This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…
Cramer, Robert J; McNiel, Dale E; Holley, Sarah R; Shumway, Martha; Boccellari, Alicia
The present study investigates victim sexual orientation in a sample of 641 violent crime victims seeking emergency medical treatment at a public-sector hospital. Victim sexual orientation was examined as it: (a) varies by type of violent crime and demographic characteristics, (b) directly relates to psychological symptoms, and (c) moderates the relationship between victim and crime characteristics (i.e., victim gender, victim trauma history, and type of crime) and psychological symptoms (i.e., symptoms of acute stress, depression, panic, and general anxiety). Results showed that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) victims were more likely to be victims of sexual assault. Heterosexual victims were more likely to be victims of general assault and shootings. LGBT victims demonstrated significantly higher levels of acute stress and general anxiety. Moreover, victim sexual orientation moderated the association of type of crime with experience of panic symptoms. Also, victim sexual orientation moderated the relation of victim trauma history and general anxiety symptoms. Results are discussed in relation to victimization prevalence rates, sexual prejudice theory, and assessment and treatment of violent crime victims.
Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Schütt, Nina; Larsen, Helmer Bøving
To examine the rate of Internet victimization in a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 14-17 and to analyze predictors and protective factors for victimization.......To examine the rate of Internet victimization in a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 14-17 and to analyze predictors and protective factors for victimization....
Blake, Jamilia J.; Kim, Eun Sook; Sohn McCormick, Anita L.; Hayes, DeMarquis
The purpose of the current study was to examine the dimensionality of social victimization and to assess the relation between social victimization and classmate social support in a sample of 260 students. Confirmatory factor analyses yielded four dimensions of peer victimization: overt, verbal social, and nonverbal social victimization and peer…
Rosen, Lisa H; Underwood, Marion K; Beron, Kurt J; Gentsch, Joanna K; Wharton, Michelle E; Rahdar, Ahrareh
This study examined self-reports of social victimization and parent reports of adjustment for a sample followed from fourth through seventh grades. Different patterns of social victimization experiences were identified; of the 153 students (79 girls) with complete data, 24% reported chronic social victimization, 23% reported transient experiences of social victimization, and 53% reported being socially victimized at no more than one time point. We examined whether students who experienced persistent and periodic social victimization were at greater risk for internalizing problems than nonvictims. Persistently victimized children demonstrated continuously elevated levels of internalizing problems. Children who were not originally victimized by social aggression but became victimized with time did not demonstrate higher levels of internalizing problems than did nonvictims. Findings were mixed for those who escaped social victimization during this period.
Cook, Carrie L; Fox, Kathleen A
Fear of crime research has primarily focused on fear of crime in general or on fear of specific types of violent crimes. This study builds from this line of research by focusing exclusively on the night fear of six types of property crimes, including fear of burglary while away from home, vehicle theft, bicycle theft, property theft, vandalism, and vehicle burglary. This study examines the effects of victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk on fear of property crime. Survey data from college students reveal that victimization and vicarious victimization were not significant predictors of fear of property crime, whereas perceived risk was a consistent and significant predictor of fear of all property crimes.
Full Text Available What is the position of the victim in security policy? Only recently has the victim been the object, in France and elsewhere, of considerable attention by the social system, which has taken into account the different aspects of victimization. However, the victim is only partially associated to actions led in this domain, either as a source of data on the state of delinquency through public meetings and victimization surveys, or as an auxiliary to prevention with measure of community and situational prevention.Quelle est la place de la victime dans les politiques de sécurité ? Ce n’est que très récemment que la victime a fait l’objet, en France comma ailleurs, d’une attention plus soutenue de la part du système social, avec le développement d’une meilleure prise en charge des différents aspects de la victimisation. Pour autant, la victime n’est associée que très partiellement aux actions conduites en ce domaine, soit comme source de données sur l’état de la délinquance au moyen de réunions publiques et d’enquête de victimation, soit comme auxiliaire de la prévention avec les dispositifs de prévention communautaire et situationnelle.
Yates, Alayne; And Others
Child victims of incest were judged to have more poorly developed impulse controls, a defensive structure which emphasizes repression, and were significantly more variable in the degree to which they expressed sexual features in the drawings. (Author/CL)
Boatman, Bonny; And Others
Reviews three treatment methods (individual, group, and family therapy) used over a five-year period for child incest victims. Presents common themes, issues, and pitfalls that arose during therapy. Stresses potential benefits of psychotherapy to this population. (Author)
Garandeau, Claire F.; Lee, Ihno A.; Salmivalli, Christina
Sharing a classroom environment with other victimized peers has been shown to mitigate the adverse effects of peer victimization on children's social and psychological adjustment. By extension, this study hypothesized that classroom reductions in the proportion of victims would be harmful for children who remain victimized. Data were collected at…
Van der Zwaan, J.M.; Dignum, M.V.; Jonker, C.M.
This paper proposes a design for an Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) that empowers victims of cyberbullying by simulating peer support. The anti-cyberbullying buddy helps a child to cope with negative emotions due to a cyberbullying incident and it shows the child how to deal with future incidents of cyberbullying. The buddy interacts with the victim in three stages: first the child communicates her emotional state, next the buddy gathers information about the situation at hand, then the b...
This paper discusses (1) how my own interest in the treatment of sexual assualt victims developed and how I view the scope of this problem; (2) myths and facts about sexual assault; (3) common reactions of those who work with rape victims; (4) the rape trauma syndrome; (5) an approach to immediate and short-term treatment; and (6) the long-term effects of sexual assault and related treatment issues.
Del Moral, Gonzalo; Suárez, Cristian; Villareal, Mª Elena; Musitu Ochoa, Gonzalo
El artículo está en inglés y en castellano The distinction between subtypes of passive and aggressive victims in studies of bullying has been a cornerstone of research in recent decades. However, some aspects of victimization still need further elaboration, such as the differentiation of subtypes of aggressive victims of bullying, the dynamics of the process of victimization, and the perceptions that participants have of their victimized classmates. The objective of this qualitative resear...
Full Text Available Victimological dimension of new criminality forms is a specific challenge for contemporary criminal law systems; new time brings new forms of criminality, new victims, but also new ways and opportunities for more efficient protection of victims. At the same time with review and improvement of existing standards of victims` protection, contemporary criminality control systems show strong tendency toward compromising the general position of the victim. Victim’s interests are being instrumentalized because of the justification of changes in criminality control in the direction of significant strengthening of criminal law repression. The crime which is emotionalized with the affective media presentation of the victim justifies stricter penal policy and provides the populist support for repressive criminality control strategies and criminal law expansionism. The aim of the paper is the analysis of the mechanisms of victim “use“ in contemporary criminality control and the examination of its consequences, with special review on domestic circumstances through analysis of the Code on special measures for prevention of crimes against sexual freedom towards juveniles (Marija`s Code.
Ahlf, E H
Up to now, victimology has only dealt with partial aspects of the situation of the elderly as victims of violent crime. Nevertheless, the Police Crime Statistics enable us to make the following three basic statements: In general, old people are less likely to become victims of violent crime (than young people). The acts of violence committed against the elderly are mainly ones in which there was a relationship between offender and victim before the offense. Elderly women are disproportionately more often victims of purse snatching. The increasing social isolation of old people constitutes not only a specific form of victimization, it probably also increases their susceptibility to become victims. The theory that old people have "a particularly pronounced fear of crime" cannot be generally proven. This question must be considered from differing points of view and depends largely on the individual vulnerability of the old people. In Germany, there has hardly been any empirical study of violence towards the elderly in institutions and in family households (so-called domestic violence). It is believed that more violence takes place in both than in generally assumed.
This article is based on my own personal experience of having undergone “coma treatment” and being given approximately 37 coma injections between the period 1983–1993 despite the fact that I was not psychotic and was normal in every way. The experiences I had following the injections and the forcible administration of innumerable antipsychotics and drugs have shaped my perspective of what it is to be a victim of “iatrogenic” psychiatric treatment—iatrogenic because it induced symptoms of schizophrenia or at the least schizoidism in a normal person like me—an inability to think, feel, and reason, over time. I have also with my own eyes seen at least 7 or 8 women who look me (my clones) that has reinforced my belief that the injections split me. The British psychiatrist, Richard David Laing (Encyclopedia Britannica 2004 DVD [DVD]) also theorized that it is the division of the self that leads to the symptoms of schizophrenia such as splitting and fragmentation of the mind. PMID:18775845
This article is based on my own personal experience of having undergone "coma treatment" and being given approximately 37 coma injections between the period 1983-1993 despite the fact that I was not psychotic and was normal in every way. The experiences I had following the injections and the forcible administration of innumerable antipsychotics and drugs have shaped my perspective of what it is to be a victim of "iatrogenic" psychiatric treatment-iatrogenic because it induced symptoms of schizophrenia or at the least schizoidism in a normal person like me-an inability to think, feel, and reason, over time. I have also with my own eyes seen at least 7 or 8 women who look me (my clones) that has reinforced my belief that the injections split me. The British psychiatrist, Richard David Laing (Encyclopedia Britannica 2004 DVD [DVD]) also theorized that it is the division of the self that leads to the symptoms of schizophrenia such as splitting and fragmentation of the mind.
Full Text Available Human beings need fire !Contrary to other living beings, mankind could not live without fire so it is quite astonishing to observe that most of the fires which burn on the earth are caused by man.Many fires spread all over the North Mediterranean area, from Portugal to Turkey, during the summer 2007.Human beings and fire: associated to the sacrifice of Titan Prometheus which was meant to be a sort of pattern to be followed by men to honour the gods.Fire is alive like water and air but it is difficult to capture it with the eyes: we can look at it for a long time before we discover that it never looks like itself.Fire has brought about important changes to human life, giving it much more security and comfort.However, the destructive power of fire is a real threat which not only takes many victims and results in wounded, intoxicated and homeless people but its force also wipes out and destroys places recognized as the heritage of mankind.Les hommes ont besoin du feu! Contrairement à tous les autres êtres vivants, les hommes ne pourraient pas vivre comme ils le font sans le feu; d'autre part, le fait que la plupart des feux qui brûlent sur la planète sont causés par l’homme, représente un aspect inquiétant.Pendant l’été 2007, beaucoup d’incendies ont frappé toute la zone du Nord de la Méditerranée, du Portugal à la Turquie. Hommes et feu : un binôme lié à la création du sacrifice du Titan Prométhée et qui aurait ainsi établi le modèle suivi par les hommes afin d'honorer les dieux.Le feu est vivant, comme l’eau et l'air, mais il est insaisissable au regard, c’est à dire que nous pouvons passer beaucoup de temps à le regarder mais il ne sera jamais égal à lui même. L’usage du feu a rendu la vie de l’homme plus sûre et plus confortable et il a modifié, au cours du temps, la face de la terre.Toutefois, la force déstructrice du feu représente une menace réelle qui fait des victimes, des blessés, des intoxiqu
Dünser Martin W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1998, the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo has been torn by a military conflict. A particular atrocity of the war is widespread sexual violence. Methods In this combined retrospective analysis and prospective survey, we sought to identify hospital facilities and resources available to treat victims of sexual violence in Goma, the capital city of the North Kivu province. Results Of twenty-three acute care hospitals registered in the area of Goma, four (17% regularly cared for victims of sexual violence. One hospital had all resources always available to appropriately care for victims of sexual violence. From Jan 2009 until Oct 2010, 7,048 females sought medical care because of physical or psychological sequelae from sexual violence in the four hospitals of Goma. Only half of the hospitals had physicians specialized in gynaecology or gynaecological surgery available. Similarly, anaesthetists and psychiatrists/psychologists were available in two (50% and one (25% hospital, respectively. Post-discharge care facilities, material resources, such as surgical and anaesthesiological equipment and drugs, were inconsistently available in the hospitals caring for sexually abused females. At one selected hospital, acyclovir and/or antibiotics were administered to 1,202 sexually abused females (89.5%, whereas post-exposure HIV prophylaxis and surgery because of vesico-vaginal fistula was provided to only 75 (5.6% and 121 (9% patients, respectively. Conclusions This study provides data that only few hospitals in Goma care for victims of sexual violence. In addition, these hospitals suffer from a relevant shortage of human and material resources to provide adequate care for sexually abused females. Aside from establishment of adequate protection strategies, steps must be taken to increase the availability of trained health care professionals and resources to provide adequate care for victims of sexual violence in Goma and the
Ayala, Erin E; Kotary, Brandy; Hetz, Maria
Although research has been conducted on rape myth acceptance (RMA) and other factors associated with attribution formation, researchers have not yet determined how the combination of such factors simultaneously affects levels of victim blame and perpetrator blame. The current investigation recruited 221 students from an all-women's college to examine differences in blame attributions across RMA, victim gender, and perpetrator gender, and the relationship between the two parties (i.e., stranger vs. acquaintance). Results suggested that RMA, victim gender, and perpetrator gender account for a significant amount of variance in blame attributions for both victims and perpetrators. In sum, victim blame with female perpetrators was relatively consistent across levels of RMA, but increased substantially for male perpetrators as individuals endorsed higher levels of RMA. Perpetrator blame, however, was highest with male perpetrators when individuals endorsed low levels of RMA and lowest for male perpetrators when individuals endorsed relatively higher levels of RMA. Findings demonstrate the continued influence of RMA on blame attributions for both victims and perpetrators, and the stigma faced by male victims. More research is needed on the differing attributions of male and female victims and perpetrators, as well as differing attributions based on type of relationship. Such research will lead to a better and more thorough understanding of sexual assault and rape. © The Author(s) 2015.
Buzawa, Eve S.; Austin, Thomas
Reports on a study of 110 Detroit (Michigan) domestic assault cases to determine whether victim preference about arrest of the assailant had an impact on police behavior and the recurrence of violence. Finds that mandatory arrest policies reduces police discretion and ignores victim preference. (CFR)
Wiens, Brenda A.; Dempsey, Allison
Peer victimization has been a focus of both research and prevention program development. This construct is typically measured from the victim and aggressor perspectives. However, prevention programming often includes an additional bystander perspective. The present study evaluated whether questions regarding witnessing peer victimization…
Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Schally, Jennifer L.
The current study aimed to examine formal and informal help-seeking responses to interpersonal victimization among a national sample of Latino women. In addition, an examination of help-seeking by victimization type was undertaken. Data came from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas (SALAS) study that obtained help-seeking rates among a victimized…
Choo, Wan-Yuen; Dunne, Michael P; Marret, Mary J; Fleming, Marylou; Wong, Yut-Lin
There has been little community-based research regarding multiple-type victimization experiences of young people in Asia, and none in Malaysia. This study aimed to estimate prevalence, explore gender differences, as well as describe typical perpetrators and family and social risk factors among Malaysian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey of 1,870 students was conducted in 20 randomly selected secondary schools in Selangor state (mean age: 16 years; 58.8% female). The questionnaire included items on individual, family, and social background and different types of victimization experiences in childhood. Emotional and physical types of victimization were most common. A significant proportion of adolescents (22.1%) were exposed to more than one type, with 3% reporting all four types. Compared with females, males reported more physical, emotional, and sexual victimization. The excess of sexual victimization among boys was due to higher exposure to noncontact events, whereas prevalence of forced intercourse was equal for both genders (3.0%). Although adult male perpetrators predominate, female adults and peers of both genders also contribute substantially. Low quality of parent-child relationships and poor school and neighborhood environments had the strongest associations with victimization. Family structure (parental divorce, presence of step-parent or single parent, or household size), parental drug use, and rural/urban location were not influential in this sample. This study extends the analysis of multiple-type victimization to a Malaysian population. Although some personal, familial, and social factors correlate with those found in western nations, there are cross-cultural differences, especially with regard to the nature of sexual violence based on gender and the influence of family structure. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The paper analyse relation of victims toward the offence and their readiness for victim-offender mediation (VOM. Aims were analysis of feelings, behaviours and needs of victims regarding the offence, as well as and analysis of readiness of victims for VOM. 17 mediators assessed 41 victims and 42 offenders, participants of 41 VOM by Assessment Visit Check List (Quill, Wynne, 1993. Victims showed strong feelings of bitterness, anger and grievance more frequently than offenders, while offenders showed feeling of guilt more frequently than victims. Victims had higher defensive attitude and self-confidence then offenders. Almost all victims and offenders needed reparation and agreement with the other party. Most of them wanted to know more about the other party in conflict and were opened to contacts with him. The results were discussed in relation to current knowledge. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47011: Kriminal u Srbiji: fenomenologija, rizici i mogućnosti socijalne intervencije
Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Ladd, Gary W
Although teachers are often called upon to reduce children's bullying and aggression, little is known regarding teachers' responses to students' harassment of peers or the beliefs which may inform their response strategies. To address this limitation, data were collected from 170 6th- and 7th-grade teachers (33 men; 137 women) and 2,938 (1,413 girls; 1,525 boys) of their students. Teachers beliefs regarding peer victimization were predictive of their efforts to advice victims how to cope with peer harassment. In particular, teachers who held more normative views of peer victimization were less likely to report reprimanding aggressive students and were more likely to utilize passive response strategies. Specific links emerged between teachers' beliefs and strategies and classroom-levels of aggression and peer victimization in the fall and in the spring, as well as changes in students' aggressive behavior and victimization over the course of the school year. Implications for intervention are discussed.
Dishon-Brown, Amanda; Golder, Seana; Renn, Tanya; Winham, Katherine; Higgins, George E; Logan, T K
Justice-involved women report high rates of victimization across their life span, and these experiences contribute to their involvement in the criminal justice (CJ) system. Within this population, research has identified an overlap among victimization and substance use, a high-risk coping mechanism. Furthermore, research indicates attachment style is related to coping and high-risk behaviors. Research is needed to understand the relationship among these mechanisms as they relate to intimate partner violence (IPV). To address this gap, this study investigated the relationship between attachment, coping, childhood victimization, substance use, and IPV among 406 victimized women on probation/parole. Results of 6 multivariate regression analyses were statistically significant, accounting for 8%-13% of the variance in IPV. Particularly, childhood sexual victimization and negative coping were significant in all analyses. Findings provide practitioners, administrators, and policymakers information about the specific needs of justice-involved women.
Schaefer, Gerard A; Mundt, Ingrid A; Ahlers, Christoph J; Bahls, Christian
Sexual abuse of children has been a topic of scientific investigation for the past few decades. Research in this area, however, is rarely initiated, conceptualized, and conducted by victims themselves. Apart from possibly having painted a one-sided picture of sexual abuse, this presumed dominance of nonvictims might also have marginalized victims in a research area central to their lives. This study was conducted by a victims interest group as an effort to meet the need to add victims' perspectives to our current understanding of this topic. The online survey focused on investigating victims' psychosocial impairment, which was found to be extensive. Results indicated that an intact social support system facilitates better health, especially when offered early on.
Full Text Available While adverse conditions in a child’s life do not excuse inappropriate behavior, they may cause emotional and behavioral problems that require treatment as a preventive measure to reduce the likelihood of bullying. We aimed to identify differences in the psychosocial profiles of adolescents who classified themselves as bullies, victims, or bully-victims. We performed a cross-sectional study in which data were collected between January 2009 and January 2010 from seven university-based clinics in a large metropolitan area with a predominantly Mexican-American population. We collected data on physical aggression among adolescents who self-categorized into the following groups: uninvolved, bullies, victims, and bully-victims. We determined the psychosocial profiles of the adolescents based on responses to the Youth Self Report (YSR and parent’s responses to the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. A one-way analysis of variance and multivariate regression analyses were performed to compare the various components of the psychosocial profiles among the groups. Our analysis of the CBCL and the YSR assessments identified differences between the uninvolved group and one or more of the other groups. No significant differences were observed among the bully, victim, and bully-victim groups based on the CBCL. We did find significant differences among those groups based on the YSR, however. Our results suggest that emotional and behavioral problems exist among bullies, victims, and bully-victims. Therefore, treatment should not focus only on the victims of bullying; treatment is equally important for the other groups (bullies and bully-victims. Failure to adequately treat the underlying problems experienced by all three groups of individuals could allow the problems of bullying to continue.
This article examines victims’ purported complicity in the judicial failures of domestic violence law to protect them in Cambodia. It is based on 3 years (2012-2014) of research in Siem Reap and Pursat Provinces on the everyday politics of the 2005 “Law on the Prevention of Domestic Violence and the Protection of the Victims” (DV Law). The project questioned why investments in DV Law are faltering and took a multi-stakeholder approach to do so. In addition to 40 interviews with female domestic violence victims, the research included 50 interviews with legal and health professionals, NGO workers, low- and high-ranking police officers, religious figures, and local government authority leaders who each have an occupational investment in the implementation and enforcement of DV Law. Forming the backbone of the article, the findings from this latter sample reveal how women are construed not only as barriers “clouding the judgment of law” but also as actors denying the agency of institutional stakeholders (and law itself) to bring perpetrators to account. The findings suggest that DV Law has the potential to entrench, rather than diminish, an environment of victim blaming. In turn, the article signals the importance of research on, and better professional support of, intermediaries who (discursively) administrate the relationship between DV Law and the victims/citizens it seeks to protect. PMID:26076978
Wooldredge, John; Steiner, Benjamin
Violent victimization in prison may enhance inmates' cynicism toward legal authority and the risk of subsequent criminality. Both micro- and macro-level effects on the prevalence and incidence of inmate-on-inmate physical assault during a 6-month period were examined for random samples of inmates (n1 = 5,640) from all state prisons in Ohio and Kentucky (n2 = 46). Findings revealed that nonprovoked assaults were more common among inmates with lifestyles that might have increased their vulnerability to victimization (less time spent in structured activities, committed violent acts themselves, etc.), and in prisons with larger populations and officers who practice lax rule enforcement. A supplementary analysis of violent offending also revealed that inmate offenders and victims may look less like each other compared to offenders and victims in the general population. Policies focused on increasing inmates' involvement in structured prison activities, enhancing professionalism among officers, and lowering prison populations may be most effective for minimizing the risk of violent victimization.
Full Text Available This study was mainly intended to investigate the effects of the income and age of individuals on their risk of becoming victims of physical assault, theft, robbery and attempted theft or robbery. Specifically, we were looking for evidence for a nonlinear relationship between these variables and victimization risk. Data from a national victimization survey were used to estimate victimization probability models. We found that, except for robbery and physical assault, the relationship between personal income and victimization risk has an inverted-U shape. We also found an inverted U-shape relationship between the age of individuals and victimization risk for the four types of crimes analyzed.
Full Text Available This article describes the nature and development of Victim Support’s services to victims of hate crime in England and Wales. It provides definitions of hate crime, information about its extent, and considers why services for victims of some forms of hate crime have developed faster than others. It concludes with a summary of points made during a discussion at the 2004 European Forum for Victim Services conference about whether or not services to victims of hate crime should be provided by mainstream victim services or specialist agencies.
Full Text Available The principal aim of this study was to provide a current description of the child and teenager maltreatment phenomenon in the Buenos Aires Province. The sample was composed by 5341 cases of children and teenagers from 0 to 20 years old, whose were treated in 2010 for having been victims of maltreatment. Physical maltreatment was the most frequent one. The girls presented major proportion of sexual abuse, whereas boys registered major proportions of negligence, physical maltreatment and desertion situation. An increase of the sexual abuse frequency in teenagers from 12 years was observed. As a whole, the information demonstrates that sex and age of victims are differentially associated with different types of maltreatment, and these are pertinent variables to have into account by future investigations, and prevention and protection organisms.
Boatright, Anne C
In this month's Magnet® Perspectives column, Anne Boatright, MSN, RN, SANE, describes her efforts to develop a comprehensive forensic nursing program at Methodist Hospital in Omaha. Ms Boatright transformed a sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) program into one that provides 24/7 coverage at Methodist's 2 SANE locations and cares not only for victims of sexual assault but also for the victims domestic violence, sex trafficking, strangulation, elder abuse, and neglect. Her work extends beyond the walls of Methodist to the community, where she serves as a core member of the Nebraska Human Trafficking Task Force. She works collaboratively with the Federal Bureau of Investigation and helped Nebraska state senators draft legislation to create a sexual assault payment program. In recognition of her determination to make a difference for victims of violence, she received the 2016 National Magnet Nurse of the Year Award for Transformational Leadership.
Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M
In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims...... shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD diagnosis based solely on the three core symptom clusters was best identified by a subclinical ASD diagnosis based on all ASD criteria except dissociation. However, a full PTSD diagnosis including the A2 and F criteria was best identified by classifying...... victims according to a full ASD diagnosis. Regardless of whether cases were classified according to full PTSD status or according to meeting the criteria for the three PTSD core symptom clusters, the classification was correct only in approximately two thirds of the cases. A regression analysis based...
Meter, Diana J; Card, Noel A
Betweenness centrality quantifies the amount of network flow that a network member controls as hypothetical traffic passes between network members. Those with high betweenness centrality within the peer social network based on nominations of liking may be especially important connectors between individuals who do not like each other. This study tested the hypothesis that individuals' betweenness centrality would predict their defending of victimized peers. After controlling for popularity, perception of being liked, and defenders' victimization, betweenness centrality predicted defending. Those found to be connectors within the peer group were more likely to be those who defend peer victims. This investigation showed that analysis of betweenness centrality is a viable way to identify potential defenders in research and also those who could potentially act as mediators. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Campbell, Rebecca; Shaw, Jessica; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina
Throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing, which raises complex issues regarding how victims ought to be notified about what happened to their kits. In this project, we evaluated a victim-centered, trauma-informed victim notification protocol that was implemented in Detroit, Michigan. Most victims (84%) did not have a strong negative emotional reaction to notification, and most (57%) decided to reengage with the criminal justice system. Victims of nonstranger sexual assaults were less likely to reengage postnotification compared with victims of stranger rape.
Full Text Available Victims of disasters are disproportionately drawn from the marginalized segments of society. Disaster victims are marginalized geographically because they live in hazardous places, socially because they are members of minority groups, economically because they are poor, and marginalized politically because their voice is disregarded by those with political power. #e victims of the July 2000 Payatas trash slide in the Philippines show all these characteristics. Most of the victims of the disaster were urban migrants who came all the way from their poor provinces to settle on the lower slopes of the largest dumpsite of the country. #ey scavenged recyclable materials to sell as a way to make a living, but their limited incomes did not allow them to a$ord safer locations for their homes, farther removed from the slopes of the dumpsite. On the morning of 10 July 2000, 300 of them lost their lives when a large section of the dumpsite collapsed in a massive debris %ow which buried their houses. In the aftermath of the disaster, the survivors who used to live on the dumpsite, and who were the poorest victims, were also those who were relocated by the Philippine government. In the present case, the most vulnerable families in the face of the trash slide were eventually those who had to su#er again from life-disrupting relocation while being the less able to recover quickly from the disaster. Daily incomes of relocated families are today much lower than those who remained in the vicinity of the dumpsite. For the victims of the July 2000 Payatas tragedy, poverty thus acted as a vicious, worsening circle which ranged from vulnerability to poor recovery, or from marginality to further marginalization.
Scherer, Susanne; Hansen, Steen Holger; Lynnerup, Niels
INTRODUCTION: From the clinical forensic examination reports produced by the Department of Forensic Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in 2007 concerning rape, attempted rape and sexual assault (RAS), circumstances were.......5% were under 30 years of age. 53% knew the perpetrator. More than one perpetrator was reported in 11%. 46% of the assaulted victims had a total number of 1-5 observed lesions and these were observed in all types of perpetrator relationship. Eight victims with more than 20 lesions were assaulted...
Talipova, Yu.; Polukhina, O.
Catastrophic natural disasters including tsunami events are increased the frequency in last years. One of very important problems here is the identification of personality of the victims. Due to difficult identification of the dead bodies lied into water for a long time the analysis of tooth-jaw system is proposed to apply because teeth are extremely stable to the destructive actions of environment. The method of identification of the age, sex and race of victims based on the mathematic model of pattern recognition and collected database is described. Some examples from extreme sea wave events are analyzed.
Montelius, Kerstin; Lindblom, Bertil
DNA profiling and matching is one of the primary methods to identify missing persons in a disaster, as defined by the Interpol Disaster Victim Identification Guide. The process to identify a victim by DNA includes: the collection of the best possible ante-mortem (AM) samples, the choice of post-mortem (PM) samples, DNA-analysis, matching and statistical weighting of the genetic relationship or match. Each disaster has its own scenario, and each scenario defines its own methods for identification of the deceased.
Veenstra, René; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Winter, Andrea F. de; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan
Research on bullying and victimization largely rests on univariate analyses and on reports from a single informant. Researchers may thus know too little about the simultaneous effects of various independent and dependent variables, and their research may be biased by shared method variance. The
Kruse, Marie; Sørensen, Jan; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
nationwide registers to identify victims of violence: The National Patient Register, the Victim Statistics, and the Causes of Death Register. We merged these data and assessed the degree of overlap between data sources. We identified a reference population by selecting all individuals in Denmark over 15....... RESULTS: In 2006, 22,000 individuals were registered as having been exposed to violence. About 70% of these victims were men. Most victims were identified from emergency room contacts and police records, and few from the Causes of Death Register. There was some overlap between the two large data sources....... We found significant differences between victims and non-victims according to socio-economic status, education, marital status, and ethnic origin, and also between victims by source of identification. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a study population consisting of individual victims of violence...
Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the categorization of victims by several victimological schools and to compare that to the categorization in the Criminal Procedure Code of Macedonia (CPC. The first part of this article analyzes different theoretical categories of victims, taking into consideration approaches of representatives of positivist, conservative, radical and critical victimology. A parallel is drawn between theoretical and legislative categorization of victims. Many countries have reformed their criminal legislation providing certain rights to the victim of crime. The second part of the article discusses the categorization of the victims within the CPC of Macedonia. Categorization of the victims is linked to their separate rights guaranteed by law. The article draws certain conclusions and recommendations regarding the categorization of victims and their specific rights. The importance of effective implementation of the guaranteed rights for the victim is especially emphasized.
Cohen, Jeremy S; Kendall, Philip C
This study examined peer victimization among a sample of youth who were seeking treatment at an outpatient anxiety disorders clinic. The study examined the association between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms and looked at whether frequent victimization was more common among youth with Social Phobia (SoP) as compared to youth with other anxiety disorders The study also examined the relation between SoP and peer victimization dimensionally. Participants were 90 youth (47 boys; M age = 11.06 years) and their parents. Results showed that peer victimization was associated with social anxiety symptoms, and relational victimization, in particular, was associated with internalizing problems among youth with anxiety disorders. Negative beliefs about the peer group accounted for some of this relation. Victimization was associated with symptomatology rather than diagnosis. Peer victimization is important to assess and consider in the treatment of anxiety disorders in youth.
Day, Kimberly L; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Schmidt, Louis A
Extremely low birth weight (ELBW; peer victimization. We examined retrospectively reported peer victimization in ELBW and control children in the oldest known, prospectively followed, population-based birth cohort of ELBW survivors. We compared levels of verbal and physical peer victimization in ELBW and control children. We also predicted peer victimization in the ELBW sample from child characteristics. ELBW children, especially girls, were at an increased risk for verbal, but not physical victimization. In addition, ELBW children with a higher IQ reported higher levels of verbal victimization, although ELBW females who had a lower body mass index in childhood reported higher levels of physical victimization. Findings highlight the need for parents and clinicians to be aware that ELBW girls, especially those with a lower body mass index in childhood, may be at increased risk of peer victimization, as are ELBW children with a higher IQ. © The Author(s) 2015.
Shao, Aihui; Liang, Lichan; Yuan, Chunyong; Bian, Yufang
This study used the latent class analysis (LCA) to identify and classify Chinese adolescent children's aggressive behaviors. It was found that (1) Adolescent children could be divided into four categories: general children, aggressive children, victimized children and aggressive victimized children. (2) There were significant gender differences among the aggressive victimized children, the aggressive children and the general children. Specifically, aggressive victimized children and aggressive children had greater probabilities of being boys; victimized children had equal probabilities of being boys or girls. (3) Significant differences in loneliness, depression, anxiety and academic achievement existed among the aggressive victims, the aggressor, the victims and the general children, in which the aggressive victims scored the worst in all questionnaires. (4) As protective factors, peer and teacher supports had important influences on children's aggressive and victimized behaviors. Relative to general children, aggressive victims, aggressive children and victimized children had lower probabilities of receiving peer supports. On the other hand, compared to general children, aggressive victims had lower probabilities of receiving teacher supports; while significant differences in the probability of receiving teacher supports did not exist between aggressive children and victimized children.
Full Text Available This study used the latent class analysis (LCA to identify and classify Chinese adolescent children's aggressive behaviors. It was found that (1 Adolescent children could be divided into four categories: general children, aggressive children, victimized children and aggressive victimized children. (2 There were significant gender differences among the aggressive victimized children, the aggressive children and the general children. Specifically, aggressive victimized children and aggressive children had greater probabilities of being boys; victimized children had equal probabilities of being boys or girls. (3 Significant differences in loneliness, depression, anxiety and academic achievement existed among the aggressive victims, the aggressor, the victims and the general children, in which the aggressive victims scored the worst in all questionnaires. (4 As protective factors, peer and teacher supports had important influences on children's aggressive and victimized behaviors. Relative to general children, aggressive victims, aggressive children and victimized children had lower probabilities of receiving peer supports. On the other hand, compared to general children, aggressive victims had lower probabilities of receiving teacher supports; while significant differences in the probability of receiving teacher supports did not exist between aggressive children and victimized children.
Estevez, Estefania; Murgui, Sergio; Musitu, Gonzalo
The present study examined psychosocial adjustment in the following four groups of students: victims, bullies, bully/victims and a control group of adolescents not involved in bullying or victimization problems. Psychosocial adjustment was measured considering as indicators: level of self-esteem, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress,…
... of Justice Programs 28 CFR Part 94 RIN 1121-AA78 International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement... Victims of Crime (OVC) is promulgating this interim-final rule for its International Terrorism Victim... as an incident of international terrorism. DATES: Effective date: This interim-final rule is...
Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Aabø, Liv Sandnes; Saeteren, Berit
School bullying is a serious problem affecting the victims in their daily lives at school. The aim of this study was to investigate whether support groups were able to help the victims of bullying to overcome their victim status and to explore what it means to be a member of a support group. An exploratory qualitative design, with individual and…
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Provisions applicable to victims. 9.8... MITIGATION OF CIVIL AND CRIMINAL FORFEITURES § 9.8 Provisions applicable to victims. The provisions of this section apply to victims of an offense underlying the forfeiture of property, or of a related offense, who...
Porter, James R.; Smith-Adcock, Sondra
Defenders, or children who help victims, are studied less often than children who bully or are victims of bullying. In this study, the authors examined middle schools students' perceived normative pressure from significant others to help victims. Findings suggest that normative pressure from best friends mediated gender and defending, and the…
Corby, Emma-Kate; Campbell, Marilyn; Spears, Barbara; Slee, Phillip; Butler, Des; Kift, Sally
This article investigates the perceptions of 156 students who were victims of both traditional and cyberbullying (117 female, 45 male), ages 10 to 17 years, as to which form of bullying was more hurtful. Overall, students perceived traditional victimization to be more hurtful than cyber victimization. Reasons identified in the data to explain the…
van Reemst, Lisa; Fischer, Tamar F C; Zwirs, Barbara W C
The aim of the current literature review, which is based on 64 empirical studies, was to assess to what extent mechanisms of the Social Information Processing (SIP) model of Crick and Dodge (1994) are related to victimization. The reviewed studies have provided support for the relation between victimization and several social information processing mechanisms, especially the interpretation of cues and self-efficacy (as part of the response decision). The relationship between victimization and other mechanisms, such as the response generation, was only studied in a few articles. Until now research has often focused on just one step of the model, instead of attempting to measure the associations between multiple mechanisms and victimization in multivariate analyses. Such analyses would be interesting to gain more insight into the SIP model and its relationship with victimization. The few available longitudinal studies show that mechanisms both predict victimization (internal locus of control, negative self-evaluations and less assertive response selection) and are predicted by victimization (hostile attribution of intent and negative evaluations of others). Associations between victimization and SIP mechanisms vary across different types and severity of victimization (stronger in personal and severe victimization), and different populations (stronger among young victims). Practice could focus on these stronger associations and the interpretation of cues. More research is needed however, to investigate whether intervention programs that address SIP mechanisms are suitable for victimization and all relevant populations. © The Author(s) 2014.
Phan, Debra L.; Kingree, J. B.
This study focused on sexual abuse victimization and psychological distress among 272 adolescent offenders. Female respondents reported more sexual abuse victimization and psychological distress than did their male counterparts. Furthermore, church attendance moderated the association between sexual abuse victimization and psychological distress…
Terranova, Andrew M.
Children's responses to peer victimization are associated with whether the victimization continues, and its impact on adjustment. Yet little longitudinal research has examined the factors influencing children's responses to peer victimization. In a sample of 140 late elementary school children (n = 140, Mean age = 10 years, 2 months, 55% female,…
Elledge, L. Christian; Cavell, Timothy A.; Ogle, Nick T.; Malcolm, Kenya T.; Newgent, Rebecca A.; Faith, Melissa A.
We examined the degree to which children with and without a history of stable peer victimization differentially endorse strategies for dealing with school bullies. Participants were 323 children, 58 of whom met criteria for chronic peer victimization. Children with a history of stable peer victimization differed from comparison children in how…
... April 27, 2012 Part V The President Proclamation 8804--National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2012 #0; #0... Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation For..., services, and support for victims of crime. Our Nation stands stronger for their efforts. Today, thousands...
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office for Victims of Crime. 0.91 Section...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.91 Office for Victims of Crime. The Office for Victims of Crime is headed by a Director appointed by the Assistant Attorney General, Office of Justice...
Myers, Rachel K.; Nelson, Deborah B.; Forke, Christine M.
We examined the occurrence of stalking victimization among female and male undergraduate students attending three urban colleges. Specifically, we explored the proportion of students who experienced only stalking victimization and the relationship to the perpetrator identified by victims of stalking. Our findings suggest that stalking…
Hellwig, Katharina; Kröger, Christoph; Franke, Stefanie; Wehrmeyer, Matthias; Heinrichs, Nina
A descriptive analysis of victim compensation applications for children and adolescents as well as sociodemographic and trauma-specific information concerning victims and perpetrators. We did analysis of 100 victim-compensation application files based on a self-developed category System. The files included solely interpersonal trauma, 59 % of which are type II trauma. The most frequent form is sexual violence. The perpetrators stem mostly from children’s homes or peripherals. 79 % of the victims received a diagnosis of a mental disorder, most often posttraumatic stress disorder. Sexually abused children and adolescents make up the majority of the target population in OEG-related trauma outpatient units. Such outpatient units should therefore offer a specific expertise in treating sexually abused children and adolescents.
Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.
Objective: To use a lifetime assessment of victimization experiences to identify children and youth with high cumulative levels of victimization (poly-victims). Also to compare such children to other victims and non-victims, and assess the contribution of cumulative victimization to levels of psychological distress. Design: A national sample of…
Mykota, David B.; Laye, Adele
Violence exposure is a serious public health concern for adolescents in schools today. Violence exposure can be quite severe and frequent with multiple acts of indirect and direct victimization having lasting effects on the physical, emotional, and intellectual well-being of adolescents. The purpose of the present study is to examine the rates of…
This study investigated bullying victims' perceptions of their teachers' support and monitoring when controlling for level of mental health problems, peer relationships, gender, and grade level. Given the nested structure of the data, multilevel analyses were employed to examine these associations. The quality of classroom interaction is highly…
Sevcikova, Anna; Smahel, David; Otavova, Mlada
The goal of this study was to explore how victims of cyberbullying perceive online aggressive attacks and when they see them as harmful. Interviews were carried out with 16 cybervictimised participants aged 15-17 years. The findings showed differences in the perception of online victimisation when perpetrated by an anonymous Internet user versus…
Full Text Available After the evolution of technology made it possible to perform actions via the Internet that constitute copyright violations, the analysis of the effects of internet piracy on social welfare became the subject of academic polemics. The main and the biggest victims of Internet piracy are the holders of copyright and related rights, however, the damage that piracy causes them comes from multiple sources, is difficult to quantify and is only a part of the total social cost of piracy. However, there are other categories of victims, such as those whose honor was besmirched as a result of piracy, and who suffer the consequences in the form of negative emotional reactions, loss of job as well as those who subsequently commit suicide. The object of this paper is to describe the effects of internet piracy on the victims of this phenomenon, and the goal is the analysis of the various direct and indirect effects of piracy on victims and their motivation for future creation, as well as analysis of prevention measures, with special emphasis on the Republic of Serbia.
In this article, the author focuses on the Washington, D.C. school system and Antonio, a child victim of violence, to discuss the background problems that affect the school performance of children from troubled neighborhoods. People who work in schools know that children--even kindergarten and preschool children--don't come to them as blank slates…
Objectives: This study examines the relationships between physical, emotional, and sexual victimization of school students by educational staff with a number of variables describing the student (gender, age, and relationship with teachers) and the school (the socioeconomic status (SES) of the students' families and school's neighborhood, school…
In the Israeli discourse, Israel has always been the innocent victim of vicious aggression from its neighbors. This perception of reality has only intensified with its two recent wars - against the Palestinians in Gaza and against Lebanon. On this view, in both cases Israel has manifested its good
Full Text Available The article describes the main causes of falling into slavery, forms of slave labour, as well as moral-psychological properties and characteristics of potential victims of trafficking. Noted risk factors leading to victimization of the person and increase the possibility of becoming an object for criminal groups specializing in this kind of crime. The number of victims of international trafficking ranges from 600 to 800 thousand people a year, and when you consider human trafficking within the individual countries, the total number of victims ranges from 2 to 4 million people. 80% of trafficked people are women and children, of which 70% are sold to other countries for sexual exploitation. According to the International organization for migration (International Organization of Migration annually only in the European markets of prostitution sold is not less than 500 thousand women. Among the personal factors that affect the increase in the number of such crimes, it is necessary to indicate family trouble, which manifests itself, primarily, to neglect, loss of relationships with family and parents, or in the absence of moral and material support from existing family and friends.
Lacasse, Anne; Mendelson, Morton J.
Adolescence is a transitional period when the pressure to engage in romantic and sexual relationships can leave teenagers feeling confused and at risk for sexual coercion. Our studies investigated characteristics of male and female perpetrators and victims of peer sexual coercion, focusing on self-esteem, sexist attitudes, and involvement in…
Van der Zwaan, J.M.; Dignum, M.V.; Jonker, C.M.
This paper proposes a design for an Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) that empowers victims of cyberbullying by simulating peer support. The anti-cyberbullying buddy helps a child to cope with negative emotions due to a cyberbullying incident and it shows the child how to deal with future
Malti, Tina; Perren, Sonja; Buchmann, Marlis
This study investigated the concurrent and longitudinal relations among children's peer victimization, empathy, and emotional symptoms. The sample consisted of 175 children (85 girls, mean age = 6.1 years) recruited from kindergartens in Switzerland and followed for 1 year (Time 2). Parents and teachers reported on the children's emotional…
Peguero, Anthony A.; Williams, Lisa M.
Bullying is a serious problem within the U.S. school system. Prior research suggests that victimization is stratified by race and ethnicity. However, few studies consider factors that may moderate this relationship. This article extends research on this topic by considering whether stereotypes moderate bullying among racial and ethnic youth. Youth…
Smid, W.; Schepers, K.; Kamphuis, J.H.; van Linden, S.; Bartling, S.
The growing number of notifications for child pornography (CP) possession constitutes a capacity problem for police forces entrusted with the investigation of these offenses. Notifications of CP offenses in which the investigation reveals concurrent direct victimization, in the form of contact
Greenbaum, Jordan; Bodrick, Nia
Trafficking of children for labor and sexual exploitation violates basic human rights and constitutes a major global public health problem. Pediatricians and other health care professionals may encounter victims who present with infections, injuries, posttraumatic stress disorder, suicidality, or a variety of other physical or behavioral health conditions. Preventing child trafficking, recognizing victimization, and intervening appropriately require a public health approach that incorporates rigorous research on the risk factors, health impact, and effective treatment options for child exploitation as well as implementation and evaluation of primary prevention programs. Health care professionals need training to recognize possible signs of exploitation and to intervene appropriately. They need to adopt a multidisciplinary, outward-focused approach to service provision, working with nonmedical professionals in the community to assist victims. Pediatricians also need to advocate for legislation and policies that promote child rights and victim services as well as those that address the social determinants of health, which influence the vulnerability to human trafficking. This policy statement outlines major issues regarding public policy, medical education, research, and collaboration in the area of child labor and sex trafficking and provides recommendations for future work. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Ogles, Robert M.
Many television viewers construct their social reality from media content as well as from sensory and interpersonally communicated information. One aspect of this media-influenced social reality is television viewers' estimates of crime in society, or their fear of criminal victimization. Several media-effects studies have demonstrated the…
Małgorzata H. Kowalczyk
Full Text Available Victims experiencing the sexual abuse are surviving not only physical injustice but above all deep traumas, which very often in different forms, are keeping them company through the entire life. Quite often at establishing different results a sex is underestimated for the perpetrator. Therefore knowing the problem of sexual abuses from a perspective of close as well as distant results is very important in the event that a woman was a perpetrator of these acts – mother, minder. In the present article based on analysis of literature, a problem of results of the sexual abuse was presented at victims which experienced these behaviours on the part of women. In order to draw up discussing the survived specificity by victims was both of sex of the trauma connected with the sexual application as well as close and distant consequences of these events in the form prime victimisation and revictimisation for figure being noticeable in the adult life of psychosexual disorders and social shortages. Amongst the consequence isolated traumatic factors are deserving the particular attention about dynamic character which are provoking the appearance of many symptoms characteristic of children which experienced the sexual violence. Recalled factors it: traumatic sexualisation of child, the betrayal, the stigmatization and the helplessness. The specificity of these factors results from the fact that they will leave distant “tracks” in the psyche and they can undergo the additional reinforcement if a woman is a perpetrator of the sexual violence. It results from frequent attitudes of “denying” towards the sexual violence applied by women. In the study they pointed also at one of possible consequences of the revictimisation process copying patterns of behaviour connected with the sexual exploitation of children in their more late life by victims is which. This process resulting from the alternating identification of the perpetrator and the victim is starting
Kuijpers, Karlijn F.; Van der Knaap, Leontien M.; Winkel, Frans Willem
Research has reported that not only characteristics of the perpetrator but also characteristics of the victim influence risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). This would suggest that prevention of repeat abuse could benefit from a focus on both perpetrator and victim characteristics. Knowledge on factors that are within victims' sphere of…
Garandeau, C.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/380715066; Lee, Ihno A.; Salmivalli, Christina
Sharing a classroom environment with other victimized peers has been shown to mitigate the adverse effects of peer victimization on children’s social and psychological adjustment. By extension, this study hypothesized that classroom reductions in the proportion of victims would be harmful for
Boulton, Michael J.; Trueman, Mark; Murray, Lindsay
Background: Studies have shown that peer victimization is associated with psychological maladjustment, and have implicated such maladjustment in disrupted ability to concentrate. Aims: To investigate the levels of, and associations between, physical, verbal, and social exclusion victimization, fear of future victimization, and disrupted classroom…
Kirchner, Teresa; Forns, Maria; Soler, Laia; Planellas, Irina
The cumulative effect of lifetime interpersonal victimization experiences (e.g., child maltreatment, sexual victimizations, conventional crime, witnessing indirect victimization, peer and sibling victimizations) on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms is an important topic in the scientific literature. The objectives of the present study were: (a) to analyze the relationship between lifetime interpersonal victimizations and PTS symptoms, (b) to determine the most prevalent specific PTS symptoms among poly-victimized adolescents, and (c) to establish the time-based effect of interpersonal victimization experiences that occurred in the last year versus those that occurred years before on current level of PTS symptoms. Gender differences were taken into account for each of these objectives. Participants were 823 Spanish adolescents (63% girls and 37% boys) between 14 and 18 years of age recruited from May 2010 to November 2011 from schools in Barcelona, Spain. The majority (87.6%) was of Spanish nationality. The results highlighted the cumulative effect of interpersonal victimizations on PTS symptoms. Among poly-victims adolescents, the most prevalent PTS symptom was intrusive thoughts, but some differences were observed according to gender. The time-based effect of interpersonal victimizations showed a different pattern for girls and boys. For girls, the victimizing events occurring in past years had more explanatory power of the current PTS symptoms than those that occurred more recently. In boys, the interpersonal victimizing events occurring in the last year had the greater explanatory power. These results may have clinical and therapeutic value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hequembourg, Amy L.; Livingston, Jennifer A.; Parks, Kathleen A.
This study examines relationships among childhood sexual abuse (CSA), risky alcohol use, and adult sexual victimization among bisexual and lesbian women. Half (51.2%) of women reported CSA and 71.2% reported adult sexual victimization. Perpetrators were generally male, and 56.4% of women’s most recent adult sexual victimization incidents occurred after coming-out. Regression results indicated that adult sexual victimization severity was associated with a bisexual identity, more severe CSA history, more lifetime sexual partners, and higher alcohol severity scores. Compared to lesbians, bisexual women reported more severe adult sexual victimization experiences, greater revictimization, riskier drinking patterns, and more lifetime male sexual partners. PMID:23759663
Hequembourg, Amy L; Livingston, Jennifer A; Parks, Kathleen A
This study examines relationships among childhood sexual abuse (CSA), risky alcohol use, and adult sexual victimization among bisexual and lesbian women. Half (51.2%) of women reported CSA and 71.2% reported adult sexual victimization. Perpetrators were generally male, and 56.4% of women's most recent adult sexual victimization incidents occurred after coming out. Regression results indicated that adult sexual victimization severity was associated with a bisexual identity, more severe CSA history, more lifetime sexual partners, and higher alcohol severity scores. Compared to lesbians, bisexual women reported more severe adult sexual victimization experiences, greater revictimization, riskier drinking patterns, and more lifetime male sexual partners.
Curtis-Fawley, Sarah; Daly, Kathleen
The use of restorative justice for gendered violence has been debated in the feminist literature for some time. Critics warn that it is inappropriate because the process and outcomes are not sufficiently formal or stringent, and victims may be revictimized. Proponents assert that a restorative justice process may be better for victims than court because it holds offenders accountable and gives victims greater voice. This article presents what victim advocates in two Australian states think about using restorative justice for gendered violence. We find that although victim advocates have concerns and reservations about restorative justice, most saw positive elements.
Gradus, Jaimie L; Qin, Ping; Lincoln, Alisa K; Miller, Matthew; Lawler, Elizabeth; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Lash, Timothy L
Although sexual victimization has been associated with suicidal behaviors, its association with completed suicide has not been examined. We investigated this association among Danish women using longitudinal data and a conservative definition of victimization. This population-based case-control study included 476 suicide cases and 12,010 matched controls. Seven cases (1.5%) and 5 controls (0.04%) experienced sexual victimization that was reported to the police and resulted in a conviction. Sexual victimization was associated with a 14-fold increased rate of suicide, controlling for confounders and matching (95% CI: [3.4, 59]). Completed suicide is an important potential outcome of sexual victimization, warranting further examination.
Woodhams, Jessica; Cooke, Claire
Several research studies have reported an elevated level of aggression in rapes committed by multiple perpetrators compared to rapes committed by lone suspects. Several factors that have been linked to elevated aggression in generic samples of rape were examined for the first time with a sample of multiple perpetrator rapes. Factors that might be associated with victim resistance were also investigated. Victim and offender characteristics, as well as the behaviors displayed by victims and offenders, were extracted from the police files of 89 multiple perpetrator stranger rapes perpetrated against female victims in the United Kingdom. These behaviors were rated for their level of suspect (non-sexual) aggression and victim resistance, respectively. Degree of victim resistance was significantly and positively associated with suspect aggression. Older victims were the recipients of significantly higher levels of suspect aggression. Victims who were incapacitated from drugs and/or alcohol were less likely to be the recipients of suspect aggression. Group leaders displayed more aggression towards the victim than the followers in the groups. The number of perpetrators was significantly related to the degree of resistance displayed by the victim with offences perpetrated by fewer suspects being characterized by more victim resistance. Research regarding cognitive appraisal during criminal interactions and the respective roles of offenders is referred to in considering these relationships.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the work of the VDS info and victim support service for the period January 1st 2009 - December 31st 2009. It contains the data about victims, type and quality of assistance and support provided by the Service, and also about institutions and organizations the victims contacted before or after contacting the Service and their satisfaction with the help they received.
Globokar, Julie L; Erez, Edna; Gregory, Carol R
In contrast to works on victim advocacy in specific organizational contexts, this article introduces the term "victim work" to capture the vast array of victim-related roles and tasks that have proliferated in recent decades. Data are derived from in-depth interviews with 30 "victim workers" in public and private agencies in two Midwestern states. The interviews revealed diverse work experiences that spanned hotlines, crisis response, legal proceedings, and postconviction support. Three themes emerged that characterize "victim work": flexibility, emotions, and the challenge of "fit"-the multifaceted difficulties of interacting with victims and agents of the justice system. Based on the findings, we offer a revised model of criminal justice vis-à-vis victims and implications for practice and future research. © The Author(s) 2016.
Gollwitzer, Mario; Rothmund, Tobias; Alt, Bianca; Jekel, Marc
Recent theorizing on the relation between victim sensitivity and unethical behavior predicts that victim sensitivity is related to an asymmetrical focus on cues associated with untrustworthiness compared to cues associated with trustworthiness. This hypothesis and its consequences for the accuracy of social predictions are investigated in this article. In Study 1, participants rated the trustworthiness of 35 computer-animated faces that differed in their emotional expression. People high in victim sensitivity rated neutral and hostile faces more untrustworthy than people low in victim sensitivity, whereas no such effect was found for friendly faces. In Study 2, participants predicted the cooperativeness of 56 targets on the basis of minimal information. The accuracy of predictions was negatively related to victim sensitivity, and people high in victim sensitivity systematically underestimated targets' cooperativeness. Thus, the asymmetrical focus on untrustworthiness cues among victim-sensitive individuals seems to impair rather than improve their social judgments.
Mulder, Roelie; Bos, Arjan E R; Pouwelse, Mieneke; van Dam, Karen
Victims of workplace mobbing show diverse coping behavior. We investigated the impact of this behavior on bystander cognitions, emotions, and helping toward the victim, integrating coping literature with attribution theory. Adult part-time university students (N = 161) working at various organizations participated in a study with a 3(Coping: approach/avoidance/neutral) × 2(Gender Victim: male/female) × 2(Gender Bystander: male/female) design. Victims showing approach (vs. avoidance) coping were considered to be more self-reliant and less responsible for the continuation of the mobbing, and they elicited less anger. Continuation responsibility and self-reliance mediated the relationship between the victim's coping behavior and bystanders' helping intentions. Female (vs. male) participants reported more sympathy for the victim and greater willingness to help, and female (vs. male) victims elicited less anger. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
Reavis, Rachael D; Keane, Susan P; Calkins, Susan D
This study examined early elementary school children's trajectories of peer victimization with a sample of 218 boys and girls. Peer victimization was assessed (via peer report) in kindergarten, 1(st), 2(nd), and 5(th) grades. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine multiple types of relationships (mother-child, student-teacher, friendship) as predictors of kindergarten levels of peer victimization and changes in peer victimization across time. Results indicated that the mother-child relationship predicted kindergarten levels of peer victimization, and that the student-teacher relationship did not provide additional information, once the mother-child relationship was accounted for in the analyses. Friendship predicted changes in peer victimization during the elementary school years. Results are discussed in a developmental psychopathology framework with special emphasis on the implication for understanding the etiology of peer victimization.
Kollerová, Lenka; Smolík, Filip
Past research has shown that peer victimization by bullying is associated with peer rejection and fear of victimization, but little is known about the interplay between victimization and other characteristics in the prediction of these experiences. We assume that the associations between victimization and peer rejection/fear of victimization are moderated by multiple characteristics, including aspects of peer ecology. The study tested whether the links between victimization and peer rejection/fear of victimization are moderated by gender, peer support, and two features of classroom peer ecology: classroom victimization rate and classroom hierarchy (the variability of popularity among students). The sample included 512 early adolescents attending sixth grade retrieved from 25 elementary school classrooms. Participants completed a set of self-report and peer nomination instruments in classroom settings. Multilevel linear modelling showed that higher levels of peer rejection were associated with higher victimization, male gender, and lower peer support. The association between victimization and peer rejection was attenuated for females and when the classroom victimization rate was higher. A higher fear of victimization was related to higher victimization, female gender, lower peer support, and a higher classroom victimization rate. The link between victimization and fear of victimization was strengthened by female gender and higher levels of classroom hierarchy. The results indicate the relevance of the interplay between victimization and gender and between victimization and classroom peer ecology in understanding peer rejection and fear of victimization. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Russ, Mark J
The third victim phenomenon refers to a system-wide organizational response to a serious untoward event in health care settings. The objective of this report is to describe possible measurable correlates of this phenomenon. A serious incident on one unit in the hospital is described. Utilization of constant observation and rate of discharge in the aftermath throughout the hospital were assessed. There was a hospital-wide uptick in conservative decision making following the serious incident, exemplified by an increase in the utilization of constant observation and decreased rate of discharges. These findings lend support to the validity of the concept of the third victim phenomenon and underscore the imperative for a coherent leadership response to prevent damage to institutional core values, morale, and reputation. Systematic investigation of this phenomenon and its potential effects on clinical practice in the aftermath of serious incidents is warranted.
Berketa, John William; James, Helen; Lake, Anthony W
Forensic odontology is one of three primary identifiers designated by Interpol to identify victims of mass casualty events. Forensic odontology is involved in all five phases-Scene, Postmortem, Antemortem, Reconciliation and Debrief. Forward planning, adequate funding, international cooperation and standardization are essential to guarantee an effective response. A Standard Operation Procedure should be utilized to maximize quality, facilitate occupation and health issues, maintain security and form a structure to the relief program. Issues that must be considered in the management of the forensic odontology component of disaster victim identification are given in "Appendix 1". Each stage of the disaster, from initial notification to debrief, is analyzed and a comprehensive checklist of actions suggested.
The boxing day tsunami of 26 December 2004 caused devastation and loss of life around the Indian ocean. International disaster victim identification efforts were centred in Thailand, with many odontologists from over 20 countries contributing to the examination of deceased, collection of antemortem information, comparison and reconciliation of data. The contribution of forensic odontology to the identification process conducted in Thailand in response to the tsunami devastation is presented in a composite of short reports focused on the five phases associated with disaster victim identification. To date 1,474 deceased have been identified. Dental comparison has been the primary identifier in 79% of cases and a contributor in another 8%, a total of 87%.
Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Samara, Muthanna; Wolke, Dieter
Being bullied has adverse effects on children's health. Children's family experiences and parenting behavior before entering school help shape their capacity to adapt and cope at school and have an impact on children's peer relationship, hence it is important to identify how parenting styles and parent-child relationship are related to victimization in order to develop intervention programs to prevent or mitigate victimization in childhood and adolescence. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature on parenting behavior and peer victimization using MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Eric and EMBASE from 1970 through the end of December 2012. We included prospective cohort studies and cross-sectional studies that investigated the association between parenting behavior and peer victimization. Both victims and those who both bully and are victims (bully/victims) were more likely to be exposed to negative parenting behavior including abuse and neglect and maladaptive parenting. The effects were generally small to moderate for victims (Hedge's g range: 0.10-0.31) but moderate for bully/victims (0.13-0.68). Positive parenting behavior including good communication of parents with the child, warm and affectionate relationship, parental involvement and support, and parental supervision were protective against peer victimization. The protective effects were generally small to moderate for both victims (Hedge's g: range: -0.12 to -0.22) and bully/victims (-0.17 to -0.42). Negative parenting behavior is related to a moderate increase of risk for becoming a bully/victim and small to moderate effects on victim status at school. Intervention programs against bullying should extend their focus beyond schools to include families and start before children enter school. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Violence at schools is a well-known problem in many societies. This paper assesses the degree of school violence in 11 European countries and analyzes the determinants of being a victim and its effect on student performance. The study draws on the international TIMSS 2003 and the British longitudinal NCDS data. The level of school violence is high in most countries but seems not to increase over time. Besides gender, social and migration background and the appearance of students determine bei...
Mezey, G; King, M.; MacClintock, T
BACKGROUND: Violent crime is on the increase in Britain, with 17% of the 15 million incidents of crime reported in 1991 being of a violent nature. Although there is some information on the role of accident and emergency departments for victims who sustain physical injury, little is known about the role of the general practitioner (GP) in managing the acute and longer-term sequelae of violence. AIM: To examine the links between experiencing physical of sexual assault and seeking help from GPs ...
The writings of Chuck Palahniuk contain a large variety of strange and interesting characters. Many of them are victims of the choices they or others made, which is how their lives become interesting. I aim to see if there is any basis in reality for some of the situations and fears that happen. I also mean that Palahniuk thinks people are afraid of the wrong things, and afraid of too many things in general, and will approach this theory in my discussion.
Schweitzer, Kimberly; Nuñez, Narina
Although the Supreme Court has ruled that victim impact statements (VIS) should be allowed at trial, the concern voiced in Payne v. Tennessee (1991) and Furman v. Georgia (1972) was that VIS might enable jurors to make comparative judgments about the worth of the victim. This study examined the effect VIS and low and middle socioeconomic status (SES) victims have on jurors' decisions. Mock jurors listened to 1 of 3 audio recordings of the sentencing phase of a capital murder trial (no VIS, low SES VIS, or middle SES VIS) and were asked to sentence the defendant to either life in prison without parole or death. Results indicated VIS themselves did not significantly affect mock jurors' sentencing decisions. However, mock jurors who heard the middle SES victim VIS were significantly more likely to sentence the defendant to death compared to those who heard the low SES victim VIS. The results suggest that the concerns of the Supreme Court were valid. Mock jurors were impacted by SES information in the VIS and were more punitive toward the defendant when he killed a higher rather than a lower SES person.
Sterzing, Paul R; Auslander, Wendy F; Ratliff, G Allen; Gerke, Donald R; Edmond, Tonya; Jonson-Reid, Melissa
Childhood abuse is a common experience for youth in the child welfare system, increasing their risk of bullying perpetration and victimization. Little research exists that has examined the rates of bullying perpetration and victimization for child welfare-involved adolescent girls. The study addressed the following aims: (a) to generate frequency estimates of physical, nonphysical, and relational forms of bullying perpetration and victimization; (b) to identify the frequency of bully-only, victim-only, bully-victim, and noninvolved roles; and (c) to identify risk and protective factors that correlate with these bullying role types. Participants were 236 girls (12-19 years) in the child welfare system from a Midwestern urban area. Participants were referred to the study to join a trauma-focused group program. Seventy-five percent of the total sample were youth of color, with the remaining 25% identifying as White, non-Hispanic. Data were collected through baseline surveys that assessed childhood abuse, bullying perpetration and victimization, posttraumatic stress, substance misuse, aggression-related beliefs and self-efficacy, placement type, placement instability, and mental health service use. Child welfare-involved adolescent girls were found to assume all four major role types: bully-only (6.4%, n = 15), victim-only (20.3%, n = 48), bully-victim (44.1%, n = 104), and nonvictims (29.2%, n = 69). The bully-victim rate was approximately 7 times higher than the rate found in a nationally representative sample of non-child welfare-involved youth. The current study identified posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, anger self-efficacy, and alcohol use as significant correlates of bullying roles. The identification of a substantially higher rate of bully-victims has important practice implications, suggesting child welfare and school systems adopt trauma-informed systems of care. Bully-victims are very likely traumatized children who are in need of effective
Wang, Gengfu; Fang, Yu; Jiang, Liu; Zhou, Guiyang; Yuan, Shanshan; Wang, Xiuxiu; Su, Puyu
To examine the prevalence rate of cyberbullying in middle and high school students in Anhui Province and explore the relationship between cyberbullying and suicide related psychological behavior. A total of 5726 middle and high school students from the 7th to the 12th grades in three regular middle schools and three regular high schools recruited from three cities in the Anhui Province (Tongling, Chuzhou, and Fuyang). Tongling, Chuzhou, and Fuyang are in the south, middle and north of Anhui, respectively. Each city was selected one regular middle school and one regular high school, and 8 classes were selected form each grade from each school. A stratified cluster random sampling method was used to randomly select 5726 participants among the six schools. Self-reports on cyberbullying and suicide related psychological behavior were collected. Among these 5726 adolescents, 46.8% of them involved in cyberbullying. Among them, 3.2% were bullies, 23.8% were victims, and 19.8% were both. Prevalence rates of suicide idea, suicide plan, suicide preparation, suicide implementation were 19.3%, 6.9%, 4.7% and 1.8%, respectively. Cyberbullying involvement, as victims, bullies or bully-victims, increased the risk of four kinds of suicide related psychological behavior (suicide idea, suicide plan, suicide preparation, suicide implementation) (P Cyberbullying has become a common occurrence in middle and high school students. Additionally, cyberbullying is closely related to suicide related psychological behavior among middle and high school students.
Silva, Rhonan Ferreira; Franco, Ademir; Mendes, Solon Diego Santos Carvalho; Picoli, Fernando Fortes; Nunes, Fernando Gomes; Estrela, Carlos
Endodontics is a special branch of dentistry constantly guided by imaging examinations. From a forensic scope, endodontics plays a valuable role providing solid antemortem (AM) radiographic evidence for comparison with postmortem findings in human identifications. This study illustrates the interface between endodontics and forensic odontology describing three cases of human identification based on radiographic endodontic records. From 2009 to 2012, three unknown male victims of murder were examined in a local Brazilian medico-legal institute to retrieve identity and potential cause of death. Specifically, when asked for AM data, a relative of the three victims provided periapical radiographs of endodontic treatments. Based on that, forensic dentists reproduced the same imaging acquisition techniques obtaining similar periapical radiographs, enabling a comparative dental identification. All the victims were positively identified based on patterns of dental morphology and treatment intervention. This study draws the attention of general and forensic dentists highlight the importance of properly recording dental treatments and searching for evidence in AM endodontic data, respectively. PMID:28123272
Hăisan, Anca; Dumea, Mihaela; Ursaru, Manuela; Bulat, C; Cimpoeşu, Diana Carmen
Emergency medicine as a medical specialty has to deal with all kind of emergency situations, from medical to post traumatic acute eyents and from new born to the elderly persons, but also with particular situations like explosions. In Romania nowadays these are accidental explosions and rare like frequency, but may be dramatic due to numbers of victims and multisystem injury that may occur. We present a case of a single victim of accidental detonated bomb, a projectile from the Second World War, which unfortunately still may be found in some areas. The management of the case from first call to 112 until the victim is discharge-involves high professional team work. We use these opportunity to make a brief review of the mechanism through the lesions may appear and also to renew the fact that the most impressive lesion may not be the most severe, and we have to examine carefully in order to find the real life threatening injury of the patient.
Bogolyubova, Olga; Skochilov, Roman; Smykalo, Lyubov
The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of childhood victimization experiences in a sample of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia. The study sample included 743 students aged 19 to 25 from 15 universities in St. Petersburg, Russia. All of the study participants completed a reliable questionnaire assessing the following types of childhood victimization: conventional crime, child maltreatment, peer victimization, sexual victimization, and witnessing violence. Participation in the study was anonymous. High rates of victimization and exposure to violence were reported by the study participants. The majority of the sample experienced at least one type of victimization during childhood or adolescence, and poly-victimization was reported frequently. The most common type of victimization reported was peer or sibling assault (66.94%), followed by witnessing an assault without weapon (63.91%), personal theft (56.19%), vandalism (56.06%), and emotional bullying (49.99%). Sexual assault by a known adult was reported by 1.45% males and 5.16% of females. This study provides new information on the scope of childhood victimization experiences in Russia. Further research is warranted, including epidemiological research with representative data across the country and studies of the impact of trauma and victimization on mental health and well-being of Russian adults and children. © The Author(s) 2014.
Papachristos, Andrew V; Wildeman, Christopher
We estimated the association of an individual's exposure to homicide in a social network and the risk of individual homicide victimization across a high-crime African American community. Combining 5 years of homicide and police records, we analyzed a network of 3718 high-risk individuals that was created by instances of co-offending. We used logistic regression to model the odds of being a gunshot homicide victim by individual characteristics, network position, and indirect exposure to homicide. Forty-one percent of all gun homicides occurred within a network component containing less than 4% of the neighborhood's population. Network-level indicators reduced the association between individual risk factors and homicide victimization and improved the overall prediction of individual victimization. Network exposure to homicide was strongly associated with victimization: the closer one is to a homicide victim, the greater the risk of victimization. Regression models show that exposure diminished with social distance: each social tie removed from a homicide victim decreased one's odds of being a homicide victim by 57%. Risk of homicide in urban areas is even more highly concentrated than previously thought. We found that most of the risk of gun violence was concentrated in networks of identifiable individuals. Understanding these networks may improve prediction of individual homicide victimization within disadvantaged communities.
Naimi, Timothy S.; Xuan, Ziming; Cooper, Susanna E.; Coleman, Sharon M.; Hadland, Scott E.; Swahn, Monica H.; Heeren, Timothy C.
Background Although the association between alcohol and homicide is well documented, there has been no recent study of alcohol involvement in homicide victimization in U.S. states. The objective of this paper was to determine the prevalence of alcohol involvement in homicide victimization and identify socio-demographic and other factors associated with alcohol involvement in homicide victimization. Methods Data from homicide victims with a reported blood alcohol content (BAC) level were analyzed from 17 states from 2010–12 using the National Violent Death Reporting System. Logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with the odds of homicide victims having a BAC ≥0.08%. Results Among all homicide victims, 39.9% had a positive BAC including 13.7% with a BAC between 0.01%–0.79% and 26.2% of victims with a BAC ≥0.08%. Males were twice as likely as females to have a BAC ≥0.08% (29.1% vs. 15.2%; p homicide victims having a BAC ≥0.08 included male sex, American Indian/Alaska Native race, Hispanic ethnicity, history of intimate partner violence, and non-firearm homicides. Conclusions Alcohol is present in a substantial proportion of homicide victims in the U.S., with substantial variation by state, demographic and circumstantial characteristics. Future studies should explore the relationships between state-level alcohol policies and alcohol-involvement among perpetrators and victims of homicide. PMID:27676334
Ćopić Sanja M.
Full Text Available In the paper, authors tried to present activities of one of the oldest European Victim Support Services - Victim Support for England, Wales and Northern Ireland. During 1970s, through practice and research projects, the need for recognizing the physical and psychological status of victims after the crime was committed, as well as the need of providing them with the (informal assistance and support were noticed. That has resulted in establishing numerous of local victim support services (schemes, which united in the National Association of the Victim Support Services in 1979. Significant support was given to the Service in 1980s through the recommendations of the Council of Europe on the assistance for victims of crime and prevention of victimization through direct support given to the victim immediately after the incident, including protection and safety, medical, mental, social and financial support, as well as providing the victim with information on his/her rights, support during the criminal proceeding, assistance in getting compensation etc. Organization and structure of the service, referral system, code of practice and two main programs: Victim Service and Witness Service are reviewed in the paper.
Jetelina, Katelyn K; Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M; Cuccaro, Paula M; Peskin, Melissa F; Elliott, Marc N; Coker, Tumaini R; Mrug, Sylvie; Davies, Susan L; Schuster, Mark A
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the number of periods children were exposed to familial homelessness and childhood aggression and victimization. Survey data were obtained from 4,297 fifth-grade children and their caregivers in three U.S. cities. Children and primary caregivers were surveyed longitudinally in 7th and 10th grades. Family homelessness, measured at each wave as unstable housing, was self-reported by the caregiver. Children were categorized into four mutually exclusive groups: victim only, aggressor only, victim-aggressor, and neither victim nor aggressor at each time point using validated measures. Multinomial, multilevel mixed models were used to evaluate the relationship among periods of homelessness and longitudinal victimization, aggression, and victim aggression compared to children who were nonvictims and nonaggressors. Results suggest that children who experienced family homelessness were more likely than domiciled children to report aggression and victim aggression but not victimization only. Multivariate analyses suggested that even brief periods of homelessness were positively associated with aggression and victim aggression (relative to neither) compared to children who were never homeless. Furthermore, childhood victimization and victim aggression significantly decreased from 5th grade to 10th grade while aggression significantly increased in 10th grade. Children who experienced family homelessness for brief periods of time were significantly more likely to be a victim-aggressor or aggressor compared to those who were never homeless. Prevention efforts should target housing security and other important factors that may reduce children's likelihood of aggression and associated victimization. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Park, Sihyun; Kim, Sin-Hyang
Dating violence (DV) is a serious problem with devastating consequences. Often, research on DV has focused on two distinct groups: victims and perpetrators. However, there is growing evidence for a victim-perpetrator overlap model, which posits that those involved in DV are more likely to take on both roles, rather than either role on its own. We investigated the patterns of involvement in DV among those who identified themselves as victims or perpetrators in previous studies. This was a systematic review and meta-analysis. A total of 371 variables related to participants' previous and concurrent experiences of DV victimization or perpetration (202 variables related to victimization and 169 related to perpetration) were identified in 25 studies, which were found by systematically searching three databases: PubMed, Web of Science, and SCOPUS. The majority of previous studies categorized study participants as either DV victims or perpetrators; however, those who identified themselves as either DV victims or DV perpetrators were more likely to assume the opposite role as well. Specifically, current DV perpetrators had a strong association with previous or concurrent victimization experiences, and current DV victims were similarly likely to have assumed the roles of both victim and perpetrator in their histories. Further efforts should be put into avoiding categorization of those involved in violence; rather, they should be regarded as a single group. Additionally, evidence-based interventions should be developed for this population to help break the cycle of violence.
Charbonneau, S. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 (France)
The author briefly recalls the historical context of the creation of the CEA and outlines the silence and denial about the radioactive contamination of military personnel during the nuclear tests performed in the Algerian Sahara and in Polynesia. He also outlines the continuous action of the association of veterans and victims of these nuclear tests which gathered proofs of health consequences. He comments the content and scope of application of laws which have been lately adopted (in 2010) to acknowledge these facts and indemnify the victims
Chiodo, Debbie; Wolfe, David A; Crooks, Claire; Hughes, Ray; Jaffe, Peter
To examine gender differences in prevalence and types of sexual harassment victimization experienced in grade 9 and how it contributes to relationship victimization and psychological adjustment 2.5 years later. A total of 1734 students from 23 schools completed self-report surveys at entry to grade 9 and end of grade 11. Self-report data were collected on victimization experiences (sexual harassment, physical dating violence, peer violence, and relational victimization) and adjustment (emotional distress, problem substance use, self-harm, suicidal thoughts, maladaptive dieting, feeling unsafe at school, and perpetration of violent delinquency). Separate analyses by sex were prespecified. Sexual harassment victimization was common among boys (42.4%) and girls (44.1%) in grade 9, with girls reporting more sexual jokes, comments, and unwanted touch than among boys, and with boys reporting more homosexual slurs or receiving unwanted sexual content. For girls, sexual harassment victimization in grade 9 was associated with elevated risk of self-harm, suicidal thoughts, maladaptive dieting, early dating, substance use, and feeling unsafe at school. A similar pattern of risk was found for boys, with the exception of dieting and self-harm behaviors. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) indicated these students were significantly more likely than nonharassed students to report victimization by peers and dating partners 2.5 years later (AOR for boys and girls, respectively; all p < .01), including sexual harassment (AOR: 2.45; 2.9), physical dating violence (AOR: 2.02; 3.73), and physical peer violence (AOR: 2.75; 2.79). Gr 9 sexual harassment also contributed significantly to emotional distress (AOR: 2.09; 2.24), problem substance use (AOR: 1.79; 2.04), and violent delinquency perpetration (AOR: 2.1; 3.34) 2.5 years later (boys and girls, respectively; all p < .01). Sexual harassment at the beginning of high school is a strong predictor of future victimization by peers and dating
Full Text Available The term victim indicates a natural person that underwent some kind of crime, including psychological and mental disorder, and emotional suffering or monetary loss, that were caused by accomplishing or not accomplishing a certain kind of activity that violates the law in one state. The term Victim also includes the close members of the victim’s family that depend on the victim. “Kids, victims and witnesses of crimes” indicates kids and adolescents under 18 years of age, which are victims of different kinds of crime or witnesses of different kinds of crime, in spite of the role that they have in the crime act. In all proceedings that directly or indirectly child victims involved it is important to act in a way that is the best and most appropriate for the child.
Alderden, Megan; Long, LaDonna
This research seeks to examine why victim participation rates in police investigations and prosecution decline following reporting of sexual assault to police. It was hypothesized that several factors would impact victim participation, including whether the incident reflected stereotypical sexual assault scenarios, if the victim used alcohol or illicit drugs prior to the incident, and if the hospital staff initially reported the incident. The study coded victim participation following initial police reporting from police case investigation narratives. Based on the 544 cases of sexual assault reported to a Midwestern police department, it was found that victims were indeed more likely to continue participating after initial reports to police if their assaults reflected stereotypical sexual assault scenarios. Future research should include discussions with victims about their participation in the criminal justice system following initial reporting to further clarify the findings noted here.
Full Text Available Human Trafficking is a modern trading of human slavery. Human Trafficking is also one of the worst forms of violation of human dignity that results in trauma to the victims. To that end, there should be a comprehensive treatment for victims. The problems that can be studied is whether a model that can be applied in the treatment of victims of trafficking in Cianjur and disseminating technical how models Handling of Victims of Human Trafficking in Cianjur. This study used normative juridical approach and specification of descriptive analysis. The results of this study are alternative models to handle victims of trafficking in Cianjur is a service model based on inter-institutional and economic empowerment through planting camelina sativa with socialization techniques involving local government, private sector, community leaders and students through legal counseling and advocacy. Keywords: human trafficking, the victim handling model, socialization
Garcia-Continente, Xavier; Pérez-Giménez, Anna; Espelt, Albert; Nebot Adell, Manel
To identify the factors associated with bullying behaviors among adolescents by analyzing victims, aggressors and victims/aggressors separately. A cross-sectional study was performed in a representative sample of 3,089 secondary school students (13-18 years old) in Barcelona (Spain). To define bullying behaviors, we used three questions about different types of mistreatment (jeering, attacking, marginalizing). Compared with secondary school students not involved in bullying, victims, aggressors and victims/aggressors were more likely to be boys and to report negative mood states. Victims were younger, were more overweight or obese and were lighter cannabis users, while aggressors were also younger but reported more antisocial behaviors and more cannabis and alcohol use. Victims/aggressors reported more antisocial behaviors and were overweight. Being involved in bullying, independently of the role adopted, was associated with health-related problems, which can lead to psychological disorders in adulthood. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Wormington, Stephanie V; Anderson, Kristen G; Schneider, Ashley; Tomlinson, Kristin L; Brown, Sandra A
Recent research highlights the role of peer victimization in students' adjustment across a variety of domains (e.g., academic, social), but less often identifies potential mediating variables. In the current study, we tested for direct effects from peer victimization to adolescents' academic behavior and alcohol use, as well as indirect effects through school belonging. Adolescents from two large samples (middle school: N = 2,808; high school: N = 6,821) self-reported on peer victimization, school belonging, academic outcomes (GPA, school truancy), and alcohol use (lifetime, past 30 days). Two-group structural equation models revealed (a) direct and indirect paths from peer victimization to academic functioning; (b) indirect, but not direct, effects through school belonging for lifetime drinking; and (c) direct and indirect effects from peer victimization to current drinking. Findings implicate school belonging as a mediator between peer victimization and important outcomes in adolescence.
Siyahhan, Sinem; Aricak, O Tolga; Cayirdag-Acar, Nur
In this study, 419 Turkish middle school students (203 girls, 216 boys) were surveyed on their exposure to and engagement in bullying, and their level of hopelessness. Our findings suggest that girls were victims of indirect (e.g. gossiping) bullying more than boys. Boys reported being victims of physical (e.g. damaging property) and verbal (e.g. teasing) bullying more than girls. While the level of hopelessness among victims of physical and verbal bullying was higher than non-victims, no difference was found between the victims of indirect bullying and non-victims. Students who never talked to their teachers and parents about bullying reported higher levels of hopelessness than others. The implications of the study for intervention and prevention programs are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Parsons, Jim; Bergin, Tiffany
The aftermath of violent crime can leave victims with persistent emotional and mental health problems. Although research has shown the potential benefits of prosecuting cases through the courts, there is also a substantial literature that suggests that common features of the criminal justice system can exacerbate the impact of the initial crime, leading to a secondary victimization. The authors present a review of the research on the positive and negative impact of criminal justice involvement, and common points of failure in the efforts of justice institutions to meet the needs of victims. They conclude with recommendations for future work, including the need for research on restorative justice, victim impact statements, court notification systems, victim services, and victim advocates.
van Dijk, Anouk; Poorthuis, Astrid M G; Malti, Tina
Some children who bully others are also victimized themselves ("bully-victims") whereas others are not victimized themselves ("bullies"). These subgroups have been shown to differ in their social functioning as early as in kindergarten. What is less clear are the motives that underlie the bullying behavior of young bullies and bully-victims. The present study examined whether bullies have proactive motives for aggression and anticipate to feel happy after victimizing others, whereas bully-victims have reactive motives for aggression, poor theory of mind skills, and attribute hostile intent to others. This "distinct processes hypothesis" was contrasted with the "shared processes hypothesis," predicting that bullies and bully-victims do not differ on these psychological processes. Children (n = 283, age 4-9) were classified as bully, bully-victim, or noninvolved using peer-nominations. Theory of mind, hostile intent attributions, and happy victimizer emotions were assessed using standard vignettes and false-belief tasks; reactive and proactive motives were assessed using teacher-reports. We tested our hypotheses using Bayesian model selection, enabling us to directly compare the distinct processes model (predicting that bullies and bully-victims deviate from noninvolved children on different psychological processes) against the shared processes model (predicting that bullies and bully-victims deviate from noninvolved children on all psychological processes alike). Overall, the shared processes model received more support than the distinct processes model. These results suggest that in early childhood, bullies and bully-victims have shared, rather than distinct psychological processes underlying their bullying behavior. © 2016 The Authors. Aggressive Behavior Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fernandez, Cristina A; Christ, Sharon L; LeBlanc, William G; Arheart, Kristopher L; Dietz, Noella A; McCollister, Kathyrn E; Fleming, Lora E; Muntaner, Carles; Muennig, Peter; Lee, David J
Violence toward children (childhood victimization) is a major public health problem, with long-term consequences on economic well-being. The purpose of this study was to determine whether childhood victimization affects occupational prestige and income in young adulthood. We hypothesized that young adults who experienced more childhood victimizations would have less prestigious jobs and lower incomes relative to those with no victimization history. We also explored the pathways in which childhood victimization mediates the relationships between background variables, such as parent's educational impact on the socioeconomic transition into adulthood. A nationally representative sample of 8,901 young adults aged 18-28 surveyed between 1999-2009 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY) were analyzed. Covariate-adjusted multivariate linear regression and path models were used to estimate the effects of victimization and covariates on income and prestige levels and on income and prestige trajectories. After each participant turned 18, their annual 2002 Census job code was assigned a yearly prestige score based on the 1989 General Social Survey, and their annual income was calculated via self-reports. Occupational prestige and annual income are time-varying variables measured from 1999-2009. Victimization effects were tested for moderation by sex, race, and ethnicity in the multivariate models. Approximately half of our sample reported at least one instance of childhood victimization before the age of 18. Major findings include 1) childhood victimization resulted in slower income and prestige growth over time, and 2) mediation analyses suggested that this slower prestige and earnings arose because victims did not get the same amount of education as non-victims. Results indicated that the consequences of victimization negatively affected economic success throughout young adulthood, primarily by slowing the growth in prosperity due to lower education
Domestic violence is one of the essential problems of our society. Domestic violence is determined by high prevalence, enormous latency and great victimization impact. The aim of my thesis is to describe the psychological aspects of the victims of domestic violence. I presume that long-term psychological and physical violence has a crucial influence on the psycho-somatic health of the victim. I am aware of the fact that this problem does not concern only battered women. Nevertheless I want to...
This study examined the nature and lifetime prevalence of two types of victimization among Finnish university students: stalking and violence victimization (i.e. general violence). This study was a cross-sectional study using two different datasets of Finnish university students. The stalking data was collected via an electronic questionnaire and the violence victimization data was collected via a postal questionnaire. There were 615 participants in the stalking study (I-III) and 905 particip...
Elbakidze, Levan; Jin, Yanhong
This study empirically investigates the association between country-level socioeconomic characteristics and risk of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. We find that a country's annual financial contribution to the U.N. general operating budget has a positive association with the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. In addition, per capita GDP, political freedom, and openness to trade are nonlinearly related to the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.
Chandrashekar, S.V; Eldo Johny
Animosity to acid attacks is deliberated as foulest acts, a form of gender terrorism within the feminist read. It’s a form of vicious violence outlined as acid throwing or Vitriolage. In India, there are component varied incident were reported, as most precarious victimization of individuals by deforming their body. The condition of victims of acid attacks is unit in serious frustrating their entire life. Acid victimization has deliberated globally and even several countries area unit sensiti...
Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Sheff, Sarah E; Smith, Mathew
The ways sexual harassment occurs both online and in face-to-face settings has become more complicated. Sexual harassment that occurs in cyberspace or online sexual harassment adds complexity to the experiences of victims, current research understandings, and the legal dimensions of this phenomenon. Social networking sites (SNS) are a type of social media that offer unique opportunities to users and sometimes the communication that occurs on SNS can cross the line from flirtation into online sexual harassment. Victims of sexual harassment employ communicative strategies such as coping to make sense of their experiences of sexual harassment. The current study qualitatively examined problem-focused, active emotion-focused, and passive emotion-focused coping strategies employed by sexual harassment victims across multiple settings. We conducted 26 in-depth interviews with victims that had experienced sexual harassment across multiple settings (e.g., face-to-face and SNS). The findings present 16 types of coping strategies-five problem-focused, five active emotion-focused, and six passive emotion-focused. The victims used an average of three types of coping strategies during their experiences. Theoretical implications extend research on passive emotion-focused coping strategies by discussing powerlessness and how victims blame other victims. Furthermore, theoretically the findings reveal that coping is a complex, cyclical process and that victims shift among types of coping strategies over the course of their experience. Practical implications are offered for victims and for SNS sites.
Ossowski, A; Kuś, M; Kupiec, T; Bykowska, M; Zielińska, G; Jasiński, M E; March, A L
This paper describes the creation of the Polish Genetic Database of Victims of Totalitarianism and the first research conducted under this project. On September 28th 2012, the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin and the Institute of National Remembrance-Commission for Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation agreed to support the creation of the Polish Genetic Database of Victims of Totalitarianism (PBGOT, www.pbgot.pl). The purpose was to employ state-of-the-art methods of forensic genetics to identify the remains of unidentified victims of Communist and Nazi totalitarian regimes. The database was designed to serve as a central repository of genetic information of the victim's DNA and that of the victim's nearest living relatives, with the goal of making a positive identification of the victim. Along the way, PGBOT encountered several challenges. First, extracting useable DNA samples from the remains of individuals who had been buried for over half a century required forensic geneticists to create special procedures and protocols. Second, obtaining genetic reference material and historical information from the victim's closest relatives was both problematic and urgent. The victim's nearest living relatives were part of a dying generation, and the opportunity to obtain the best genetic and historical information about the victims would soon die with them. For this undertaking, PGBOT assembled a team of historians, archaeologists, forensic anthropologists, and forensic geneticists from several European research institutions. The field work was divided into five broad categories: (1) exhumation of victim remains and storing their biological material for later genetic testing; (2) researching archives and historical data for a more complete profile of those killed or missing and the families that lost them; (3) locating the victim's nearest relatives to obtain genetic reference samples (swabs), (4) entering the genetic data from both victims and family
Corene de Wet
Full Text Available I report on findings emanating from in-depth personal interviews with victims of educator-targeted bullying (ETB. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the narratives. The findings indicate that the victims of ETB were exposed repeatedly over time to verbal, non-verbal, psychological, and physical abuse during and after school hours. ETB had a negative influence on the victims' private lives, as well as on teaching and on learning. Lastly, I found that ETB may lead to a breakdown of relations between victims and the bullies' parents and the members of the community in which schools are situated.
Jacobsen, Christine M; Stenvoll, Dag
In this article, we juxtapose the ways “Muslim women” and “foreign prostitutes” are commonly constituted as victims in media and politics. We analyze the functions of these two prototypical female victims in terms of the role they play in epitomizing “the problems of globalization” and in reinforcing the existing social and political structures. Victim discourse, when tied to the transnational proliferation of the sex industry and of (radical) Islam, has depoliticizing effects because it places nonindividual causes of victimization outside of “our” polity and society and casts the state as protector and neutral arbiter of national and global inequalities, marginalization, and social conflict.
Pearce, Michelle J; Boergers, Julie; Prinstein, Mitchell J
To examine associations between obesity and peer relations in adolescents, specifically testing the hypotheses that obese adolescents are more frequent victims of peer aggression and are less likely...
Earnshaw, Valerie A; Elliott, Marc N; Reisner, Sari L; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael; Emery, Susan Tortolero; Peskin, Melissa F; Schuster, Mark A
Peer victimization is common among youth and associated with substance use. Yet, few studies have examined these associations longitudinally or the psychological processes whereby peer victimization leads to substance use. The current study examined whether peer victimization in early adolescence is associated with alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco use in mid- to late adolescence, as well as the role of depressive symptoms in these associations. Longitudinal data were collected between 2004 and 2011 from 4297 youth in Birmingham, Alabama; Houston, Texas; and Los Angeles County, California. Data were analyzed by using structural equation modeling. The hypothesized model fit the data well (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation [RMSEA] = 0.02; Comparative Fit Index [CFI] = 0.95). More frequent experiences of peer victimization in the fifth grade were associated with greater depressive symptoms in the seventh grade (B[SE] = 0.03[0.01]; P peer victimization was indirectly associated with tenth-grade substance use via the mediator of seventh-grade depressive symptoms, including alcohol use (B[SE] = 0.01[0.01]; P = .006), marijuana use (B[SE] = 0.01[0.01]; P peer victimization in the fifth grade were more likely to use substances in the tenth grade, showing that experiences of peer victimization in early adolescence may have a lasting impact by affecting substance use behaviors during mid- to late adolescence. Interventions are needed to reduce peer victimization among youth and to support youth who have experienced victimization. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; El-Sheikh, Mona
The present study examined multiple indices of sleep as moderators of the association between peer victimization and adjustment among typically developing adolescents. Participants included 252 adolescents (M = 15.79 years; 66 % European American, 34 % African American) and their parents. A multi-method, multi-informant design was employed to address the research questions. Sleep was assessed objectively with actigraphy (sleep minutes and sleep efficiency) and subjectively with self-reports. Adolescents reported on peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. Externalizing behaviors were examined with mother and father reports. Subjective sleep/wake problems moderated the associations between peer victimization and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. A stronger relation emerged between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms among adolescents who reported higher versus lower levels of sleep/wake problems. Adolescents with elevated sleep/wake problems had higher levels of externalizing symptoms across the range of peer victimization. However, for those with fewer sleep/wake problems, a positive relation between peer victimization and externalizing symptoms was observed. Actigraphy-based sleep minutes and sleep efficiency also moderated the relations between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. Although peer victimization was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms for all youth, those who reported the lowest levels of such symptoms had longer and more efficient sleep in conjunction with low levels of peer victimization. Findings are novel and highlight the importance of considering both bioregulatory processes and peer relations in the prediction of adolescents' adjustment.
Victim participation is one of the most innovative aspects introduced in the legal framework of the International Criminal Court (hereinafter – ICC), which has not featured in the practices of other international criminal courts and tribunals. The approach of the ad hoc tribunals to victims...... was very ‘consumer like’ because victims were solely used as witnesses to testify about the crimes attributed to the accused, but they were not granted broad participatory rights in the proceedings. The drafters of the Rome Statute acknowledged wide-ranging interests of victims who, apart from seeking...
Charak, Ruby; Byllesby, Brianna M; Roley, Michelle E; Claycomb, Meredith A; Durham, Tory A; Ross, Jana; Armour, Cherie; Elhai, Jon D
The aims of the present study were first to identify discrete patterns of childhood victimization experiences including crime, child maltreatment, peer/sibling victimization, sexual violence, and witnessing violence among adult trauma victims using latent class analysis; second, to examine the association between class-membership and suicidal behavior, and third to investigate the differential role of dispositional anger on the association between class-membership and suicidal behavior. We hypothesized that those classes with accumulating exposure to different types of childhood victimization (e.g., poly-victimization) would endorse higher suicidal behavior, than the other less severe classes, and those in the most severe class with higher anger trait would have stronger association with suicidal behavior. Respondents were 346 adults (N=346; Mage=35.0years; 55.9% female) who had experienced a lifetime traumatic event. Sixty four percent had experienced poly-victimization (four or more victimization experiences) and 38.8% met the cut-off score for suicidal behavior. Three distinct classes emerged namely, the Least victimization (Class 1), the Predominantly crime and sibling/peer victimization (Class 2), and the Poly-victimization (Class 3) classes. Regression analysis controlling for age and gender indicated that only the main effect of anger was significantly associated with suicidal behavior. The interaction term suggested that those in the Poly-victimization class were higher on suicidal behavior as a result of a stronger association between anger and suicidal behavior in contrast to the association found in Class 2. Clinical implications of findings entail imparting anger management skills to facilitate wellbeing among adult with childhood poly-victimization experiences. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We report our inventories of birds observed and collected at three field sites from the province of Guizhou,southeastern China. Our findings detailed herein complement our previous ornithological surveys from Guangxiprovince, as part of a comprehensive biotic survey of the region. Of 153 total bird species recorded, 17 were new for theprovince, among which several taxa of conservational importance, such as: Golden Pheasant Crysolophus pictus,Tawny Fish-Owl Ketupa flavipes, Black-breasted Thrush Turdus dissimilis, Fujian Flycatcher Niltava davidii, RedtailedLaughingthrush Garrulax milnei, and Slaty Bunting Latoucheornis siemsseni. These records provide the mostrecent insight into the current status of the habitats and the avian biodiversity of an important, yet sparsely surveyed andreported biogeographic region.
Schaefer, Gerard A.; Mundt, Ingrid A.; Ahlers, Christoph J.; Bahls, Christian
Sexual abuse of children has been a topic of scientific investigation for the past few decades. Research in this area, however, is rarely initiated, conceptualized, and conducted by victims themselves. Apart from possibly having painted a one-sided picture of sexual abuse, this presumed dominance of nonvictims might also have marginalized victims…
Putra, I. E.; Mashuri, A.; Zaduqisti, E.
?2015 Department of Psychology, University of AllahabadThe current study aims to understand victim blaming of Ahmadiyya group by majority Sunni Islam in Indonesia. We included ingroup essentialisation, outgroup essentialisation, identity undermining and belief in conspiracy theory as predictors of
Yang, An; Salmivalli, Christina
Background: Bullying is a widespread problem in schools. Although several effective school-based bullying intervention programmes have been developed to reduce bullying and victimisation, it has rarely been investigated whether intervention programmes are also effective in helping bully-victims. Purpose: This study investigates the effectiveness…
Peguero, Anthony A
There is a growing body of research that suggests parallels between assimilation and increased adolescent violence, which is often referred to as the "immigrant paradox" in the United States. Few studies explore how theories, such as routine activity and lifestyle, could explain the relationship between assimilation and increased violence. This study explores whether and how the adolescent associations between routines, lifestyles, and adolescent school-based victimization vary across immigration generations. Data are drawn from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002, which is a nationally representative sample of tenth graders. This study focuses on a subsample consisting of 9,870 first (N = 1,170, 12%), second (N = 1,540, 16%), and third-plus (N = 1,117, 73%) generation public school students (N = 5,050; 51% female) in 580 public schools for this analysis of routine activity, lifestyle, and school-based victimization across immigration generations. Findings do indicate important nuances related to immigration in the conceptual links between routine activity, lifestyle, and adolescent victimization. For instance, engagement in school-based sport activities is a potential risk factor for first and second generation adolescents but is found to be a potential insulating factor against violent victimization for third-plus generation adolescents. The implications of the relationships between routines, lifestyles, and violence across immigration generations are discussed more generally.
de Waardt, M.F.
Research on the (promised) effects of transitional justice efforts on victims of civil conflicts remains rare. This article seeks to advance the field of research in two ways. First, this article focuses on how Peruvian victimhood became politicized as a consequence of a promised transitional
Jose, Paul E.; Kljakovic, Moja; Scheib, Emma; Notter, Olivia
The present study investigated the stabilities of and interrelationships among traditional (i.e., face-to-face) bullying, traditional victimhood, cyber bullying, and cyber victimhood among adolescents over time. About 1,700 adolescents aged 11-16 years at Time 1 self-reported levels of both bullying and victimization in four contexts (in school,…
Rodríguez Manzanera, Luis
Este artículo fue preparado para el Encuentro Internacional en homenaje al Prof. Dr. Antonio Beristain Ipiña, celebrado en el Instituto Vasco de Criminología, en Donostia-San Sebastián, a princi- pios de noviembre de 2011. El tema general del encuentro fue “Hacia una Justicia Victimal” y, en una de sus partes se analizó el concepto de justicia victimal en el Derecho Penal. [ES] En la última década del siglo XX, proliferan en todo el mundo las disposiciones leg...
Romero-Sánchez, Mónica; Krahé, Barbara; Moya, Miguel; Megías, Jesús L
Two studies analyzed the influence of victim behavior, drink type, and observer rape myth acceptance (RMA) on attributions of blame to victims of sexual assault. In Study 1, people higher in RMA blamed the victim more when she accepted rather than rejected the aggressor's invitation to buy her a drink. In Study 2, we analyzed if the effects depended on who offered the invitation for a drink (a friend or aggressor). RMA was more closely related to victim blame when she accepted (vs. rejected) the offer of a drink from the aggressor. In both studies, drink type (alcoholic vs. nonalcoholic) did not interact with the other variables.
Reingle, Jennifer M.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.
The purpose of this article is to evaluate the victim–offender overlap among a nationally representative sample of Native American adolescents and young adults. Data for this study were obtained from 338 Native American youth who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Waves I-IV. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to estimate trajectories of violence and victimization separately. Bivariate tests were used to assess the overlap between victimization and violent trajectory groups. Multinomial regression procedures were used to assess the predictors of victimization, offending, and the overlap category of both victimization and offending. Three trajectory groups were found for violence (nonviolent, escalators, and desistors) and victimization (nonvictim, decreasing victimization, and increasing victimization). We found substantial evidence of an overlap between victimization and offending among Native Americans, as 27.5% of the sample reported both victimization and offending. Those in the overlap group had greater number of risk factors present at baseline. These results suggest that the victim–offender overlap is present in Native American adolescents. Explanations and implications are discussed. PMID:24078778
Kollerová, Lenka; Smolík, Filip
Background: Past research has shown that peer victimization by bullying is associated with peer rejection and fear of victimization, but little is known about the interplay between victimization and other characteristics in the prediction of these experiences. We assume that the associations between victimization and peer rejection/fear of…
Vittes, K A; Sorenson, S B
Most intimate partner homicides (IPHs) follow a long history of violence and occur while the victim is ending the relationship. Restraining orders are a common legal recourse by which to seek protection from an abusive partner. This study expands on prior research by examining the restraining order history of IPH victims by characteristics of the victim, assailant, and homicide. State-wide databases containing information about restraining orders and homicides were linked, and bivariate and multivariate statistics were then calculated to identify differences between IPH victims who had and had not been issued a restraining order. About 11% of 231 women killed by male intimates had been issued a restraining order. About one-fifth of the female IPH victims who had a restraining order were killed within 2 days of the order being issued; about one-third were killed within a month. Nearly half of those with a restraining order had been protected by multiple orders. Victims killed in a shared residence (versus elsewhere) had lower odds of having a restraining order, whereas victims from rural (versus urban) counties, married (versus dating) victims, and Latino (versus non-Latino) victim-offender dyads had higher odds of having a restraining order. The type of weapon used was not associated with whether the victim had been under the protection of a restraining order. Most female IPH victims did not have a restraining order when they were killed. Further research is needed to determine whether restraining orders protect against IPH and, if they do, on how to increase their utilization.
Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Foshee, Vangie; Ennett, Susan
This study identified classes of developmental trajectories of physical dating violence victimization from grades 8 to 12 and examined theoretically-based risk factors that distinguished among trajectory classes. Data were from a multi-wave longitudinal study spanning 8th through 12th grade (n = 2,566; 51.9% female). Growth mixture models were used to identify trajectory classes of physical dating violence victimization separately for girls and boys. Logistic and multinomial logistic regressions were used to identify situational and target vulnerability factors associated with the trajectory classes. For girls, three trajectory classes were identified: a low/non-involved class; a moderate class where victimization increased slightly until the 10th grade and then decreased through the 12th grade; and a high class where victimization started at a higher level in the 8th grade, increased substantially until the 10th grade, and then decreased until the 12th grade. For males, two classes were identified: a low/non-involved class, and a victimized class where victimization increased slightly until the 9th grade, decreased until the 11th grade, and then increased again through the 12th grade. In bivariate analyses, almost all of the situational and target vulnerability risk factors distinguished the victimization classes from the non-involved classes. However, when all risk factors and control variables were in the model, alcohol use (a situational vulnerability) was the only factor that distinguished membership in the moderate trajectory class from the non-involved class for girls; anxiety and being victimized by peers (target vulnerability factors) were the factors that distinguished the high from the non-involved classes for the girls; and victimization by peers was the only factor distinguishing the victimized from the non-involved class for boys. These findings contribute to our understanding of the heterogeneity in physical dating violence victimization during
... AGENCY Petition from Pesticide Poisoning Victims United; Notice of Availability AGENCY: Environmental... petition from Pesticide Poisoning Victims United, a division of the Pitchfork Rebellion. The petitioners... the Agency Taking? EPA is announcing availability of a petition from Pesticide Poisoning Victims...
Englebrecht, Christine M; Reyns, Bradford W
Research suggests that a significant portion of victims of interpersonal violence do not acknowledge or label their experience as a criminal victimization. Studies exploring unacknowledged victimizations have found that individuals are more likely to acknowledge victimization when the experience meets certain, often stereotypical criteria. This study addressed this issue by integrating literature on victim acknowledgment and stalking victimization to identify correlates of victimization acknowledgment among stalking victims. Data were drawn from the 2006 stalking supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), and the sample included both female and male victims of stalking. Findings revealed support for a "classic stalking script," which included a reliance on stereotypical types of stalking behavior (i.e., being spied on) that were shown to increase acknowledgment for victims of stalking. Results also described gender based correlates of victimization acknowledgment.
Full Text Available In this paper we strived to examine and therefore gain a deeper insight into the stigmatization and victimization of women living with an alcoholic partner by taking into account various perspectives. The association between alcohol consumption and violence against women has long been recognized, but wider social and legal support and protection followed rather late. Especially in developing countries, this serious problem has become one of the biggest health issues that is nonetheless still insufficiently investigated. High rates of aggressive and violent behavior of men towards women in partnerships have deep cultural and social roots, and this is additionally enhanced by the use of alcohol. The use of alcohol enhances violence against women and is therefore often justified which is obviously unacceptable. Women are victimized regardless of the position in these type of partnerships, namely irrespective of whether they themselves or addicts or are partners of addicted partners or husbands, because they often suffer psychological, physical and sexual violence. Several case studies drawn from our practice and presented below will partly illuminate dark side of a violent alcoholic partnership. In order to better understand the link between alcohol and violence it seems necessary to consider both social and structural factors involved.
Mezey, G; King, M; MacClintock, T
Violent crime is on the increase in Britain, with 17% of the 15 million incidents of crime reported in 1991 being of a violent nature. Although there is some information on the role of accident and emergency departments for victims who sustain physical injury, little is known about the role of the general practitioner (GP) in managing the acute and longer-term sequelae of violence. To examine the links between experiencing physical of sexual assault and seeking help from GPs in London. A cross-sectional survey of all adult attendees in one large group practice was carried out. The main outcome measures were prevalence of assault, reporting to the doctor and other people, and scores on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the Impact of Events scale. Of the 195 people who took part, 33 (17%) reported a physical or sexual assault in the previous year. Women were three times more likely than men to report any type of assault. Women rarely spontaneously disclosed these experiences to the GP and yet the experience of violence was associated with higher levels of distress, as measured on the GHQ and the Impact of Events Scale. Assault is a relatively common event in the lives of people who consult their GP. Doctors could help these patients through gaining an awareness of the problem and by fostering links with voluntary services, such as victim support schemes, which can provide support, practical assistance, and advice on compensation claims and legal procedures.
Kevin M. Swartout
Full Text Available Introduction: The purposes of this study were to assess the extent to which latent trajectories of female intimate partner violence (IPV victimization exist; and, if so, use negative childhood experiences to predict trajectory membership.Methods: We collected data from 1,575 women at 5 time-points regarding experiences during adolescence and their 4 years of college. We used latent class growth analysis to fit a series of personcentered, longitudinal models ranging from 1 to 5 trajectories. Once the best-fitting model was selected, we used negative childhood experience variables—sexual abuse, physical abuse, and witnessing domestic violence—to predict most-likely trajectory membership via multinomial logistic regression.Results: A 5-trajectory model best fit the data both statistically and in terms of interpretability. The trajectories across time were interpreted as low or no IPV, low to moderate IPV, moderate to low IPV, high to moderate IPV, and high and increasing IPV, respectively. Negative childhood experiences differentiated trajectory membership, somewhat, with childhood sexual abuse as a consistent predictor of membership in elevated IPV trajectories.Conclusion: Our analyses show how IPV risk changes over time and in different ways. These differential patterns of IPV suggest the need for prevention strategies tailored for women that consider victimization experiences in childhood and early adulthood. [West J Emerg Med. 2012;13(3:272–277.
Chan, Ko Ling; Yan, Elsie; Brownridge, Douglas A; Ip, Patrick
To provide a comprehensive profile of the prevalence of child sexual abuse as well as other forms of child victimization in China and to examine the associations between child sexual abuse, demographic factors, and other forms of child victimization. Using a 2-staged stratified sampling procedure, we recruited a total of 18,341 students in grades 9-12 (girls 46.7%, mean age 15.86 years) from 150 randomly sampled schools during November 2009 through July 2010 in 6 Chinese cities. We assessed the students' demographic background and their experience of child sexual abuse and other forms of victimization. The independent effect on child sexual abuse of each demographic factor and form of child victimization was examined after controlling for other variables. The overall lifetime and preceding-year prevalence of child sexual abuse was 8.0% and 6.4%, respectively. Boys were more likely to report child sexual abuse than were girls. Apart from having experienced other forms of child victimization, several characteristics were associated with greater risk of child sexual abuse: being a boy; being older; having sibling(s); having divorced, separated, or widowed parents; or having an unemployed father. This study provides reliable estimates of child victimization to facilitate resource allocation in health care settings in China. The strong associations between child sexual abuse and other forms of child victimization warrant screening for additional forms of child victimization once any one of them has been identified. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Häufle, Jenny; Wolter, Daniel
Bullying and victimization are serious problems within prisons. Young Offender Institutions (YOIs), in particular, suffer from high rates of inmate-on-inmate violence. More recent theories about the development of bullying in closed custody institutions imply a relationship between the experience of victimization and the usage of bullying. In our study, we test this linkage using longitudinal survey data taken at two time-points from 473 inmates (aged 15-24) inside three YOIs in Germany. We first analyze the extent of bullying and victimization, and then used a longitudinal structural equation model to predict inmate bullying behavior at time 2 based on victimization that occurred at time 1. Age is used as a predictor variable to account for differences in the amount of victimization and bullying. Results suggest that bullying and victimization are high in the YOIs, which were subject to research. Most inmates reported being a bully and a victim at the same time. Younger inmates use more direct physical bullying but not psychological bullying. An increase in psychological bullying over time can significantly be explained by victimization at an earlier measurement time point. Our study therefore supports recent theoretical assumptions about the development of bullying behavior. Possible implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Apr 15, 2016 ... Drawing from their body of work, Agnes reiterated that justice for victims depends largely on the lawyer's ability as well as sensitivity on part of the judicial system. She gave examples of many cases from start to the end and the hurdles encountered by victims at every stage. Addressing the challenges of ...
Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley
The current study describes longitudinal trends in sexual harassment by adolescent peers and highlights gender, pubertal status, attractiveness, and power as predictors of harassment victimization. At the end of 5th, 7th, and 9th grades, 242 adolescents completed questionnaires about sexual harassment victimization, pubertal status, and perceived…
The purpose of this study is to examine how professionals and paraprofessionals involved with a Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) understand and navigate different professional statutory requirements for victim confidentiality. Telephone surveys are conducted with 78 professionals: medical (27.8%), criminal justice (44.3%), and victim advocacy…
Zhang, Michael; Asanovic, Krste
.... Victim replication was previously introduced as a way of reducing the average hit latency of a shared cache by allowing a processor to make a replica of a primary cache victim in its local slice of the global L2 cache...
Lam, Lawrence T; Cheng, Zaohuo; Liu, Xinmin
This population-based cross-sectional survey examined the association between exposure to violent online games and cyberbullying and victimization in adolescents recruited from two large cities utilizing a stratified two-stage random cluster sampling technique. Cyberbullying and victimization were assessed by the E-victimization and E-bullying scales validated in a previous study. Exposure to violent online games was measured by self-nomination of the degree of violent content in the games played. Results indicated that the majority (74.3 percent) of respondents did not experience any cyberbullying or victimization in the last 7 days before the survey, 14.4 percent reported to be victimized via cyberspace, 2.9 percent admitted that they had bullied others, and 8.4 percent reported to be both perpetrators- and- victims. One hundred and eighty seven (15.3 percent) considered games they were playing were of moderate to severe violence. Students who had been involved in cyberbullying as well as being victimized were two times as likely to have been exposed to violent online games, and nearly four times as likely for those involved in bullying others. Exposure to violent online games was associated with being a perpetrator as well as a perpetrator-and-victim of cyberbullying. Parents and clinicians need to be aware of the potential harm of these exposures. The policy implications of results were also discussed.
Reed, Mark D.; Greenwald, Jason Y.
Examined significance of survivor-victim relationship in understanding grief following sudden death bereavement by suicide or accident. Results showed that survivor-victim attachment was more important than survivor status (parent versus sibling/child) in explaining grief reactions. Compared to accident survivors, suicide survivors experienced…
Singer, Mark I.; And Others
This paper reviews the literature on the sexual victimization of adolescent males, with emphasis on victim selection factors and strategies. A letter written by a middle-aged man to entice a teenage boy into sexual activity is then presented and analyzed. (DB)
Snyder, Howard N.; Sickmund, Melissa
As part of a series that provides quick and focused access to findings from "Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1999 National Report" of the Office of Justice and Delinquency Prevention, this bulletin documents the impact of crime on society's most vulnerable victims, children. Homicide remains a leading cause of death for young people. In 1997, an…
de Young, Mary
Investigates the roles and problems of siblings of incest victims, describes the dynamics of the incestuous family, and identifies some behavior problems of children whose siblings were incest victims. Data from two siblings' lives are presented to illustrate points. (Author/DB)
Firestone, Philip; Dixon, Kristopher L; Nunes, Kevin L; Bradford, John M
The purpose of the present study was to compare incest offenders (IOs) whose victims include infants or toddlers to IOs with adolescent victims on several variables commonly examined in the sexual offender literature. Participants were 48 men whose youngest victim was less than 6 years of age (younger-victim incest offenders; YVs); and 71 men whose youngest victim was 12 to 16 years of age (older-victim incest offenders (OVs). In general, YVs showed more emotional disturbance and pathology than OVs. Compared with OVs, YVs had a greater history of substance abuse and more current problems with alcohol. In addition, YVs reported significantly poorer sexual functioning and were significantly more psychiatrically disturbed. YVs were also more likely to have a male victim, to have victimized a nephew/niece or grandson/granddaughter, and to have denied their offense(s). It was evident that both the YVs and OVs demonstrated clinically significant difficulty with normal sexual functioning and exhibited deviant sexual arousal.
Chung-Do, Jane J.; Goebert, Deborah A.
Dating violence victimization is an important public health issue. Recent studies on minority youths have found higher risks of dating violence victimization compared to White youths. This study examined the influence of acculturation components on youths' experiences of dating violence by utilizing data from a survey of 193 Samoan and Filipino…
Despite the broad nature of rehabilitation and reintegration, the impacts on individuals is huge, especially on relatively little is known child victims of war, their time in service and their experience of reintegration. This article describes experiences of Acholi and Lango children who were/are victims of war within the Lord's ...
Trauma admissions among victims of domestic violence at a tertiary care hospital in north-western Tanzania: an urgent call to action. ... Suspecting sexual partner being unfaithful was the most common reason given by victims for domestic violence in 63.4% of cases. Blunt and sharp objects (56.8%) were the most common ...
Siyahhan, Sinem; Aricak, O. Tolga; Cayirdag-Acar, Nur
In this study, 419 Turkish middle school students (203 girls, 216 boys) were surveyed on their exposure to and engagement in bullying, and their level of hopelessness. Our findings suggest that girls were victims of indirect (e.g. gossiping) bullying more than boys. Boys reported being victims of physical (e.g. damaging property) and verbal (e.g.…
Rice, Eric; Petering, Robin; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Goldbach, Jeremy; Plant, Aaron; Montoya, Jorge; Kordic, Timothy
We examined correlations between gender, race, sexual identity, and technology use, and patterns of cyberbullying experiences and behaviors among middle-school students. We collected a probability sample of 1285 students alongside the 2012 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Los Angeles Unified School District middle schools. We used logistic regressions to assess the correlates of being a cyberbully perpetrator, victim, and perpetrator-victim (i.e., bidirectional cyberbullying behavior). In this sample, 6.6% reported being a cyberbully victim, 5.0% reported being a perpetrator, and 4.3% reported being a perpetrator-victim. Cyberbullying behavior frequently occurred on Facebook or via text messaging. Cyberbully perpetrators, victims, and perpetrators-victims all were more likely to report using the Internet for at least 3 hours per day. Sexual-minority students and students who texted at least 50 times per day were more likely to report cyberbullying victimization. Girls were more likely to report being perpetrators-victims. Cyberbullying interventions should account for gender and sexual identity, as well as the possible benefits of educational interventions for intensive Internet users and frequent texters.
Key words: Peer victimization, Bullying, School Attendance, Students, Counselling. Introduction. Peer victimization or bullying is a conscious, deliberate and hostile activity intended to terrorized and harm others. ... On this note, parents have a lot to play as well as the community because a child who attends school regularly ...
Manson, Donald A.; Sedgwick, Jeffrey L., Ed.
This research focused on the criminal justice system's handling of offenders against children, comparing it with the processing of offenders against all victims. Data were obtained from California, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Utah, and Virginia for offenses against children and against all victims in the areas of kidnapping, sexual assault,…
Bear, George G.; Mantz, Lindsey S.; Glutting, Joseph J.; Yang, Chunyan; Boyer, Deborah E.
Prevalence rates for bullying victimization among children with disabilities have varied greatly in the research literature. Two reasons for such variability were the focus of this study: (a) rates vary as a function of disability type, and (b) rates vary based on the bullying measure and criteria used to classify students as bullying victims. The…
Dzurec, Laura Cox; Kennison, Monica; Gillen, Patricia
Bullying occurs frequently-and with significant negative outcomes-in workplace settings. Once established, bullying endures in the workplace, requiring the interaction of a bully perpetrator and an intended target who takes on the role of victim. Not every target becomes a victim, however. The purpose of this study is to investigate the processes by which targets, intended objects of bullies' affronts, become victims, those individuals who experience ongoing emotional injury in response to bullies' affronts, and to clarify how bullying victimization impedes inclusive excellence in the workplace. The design for this study was pragmatic utility, an inductive research approach grounded in assumptions of hermeneutics. The pragmatic utility process involved the investigators' synthesis of descriptions from a broad, interdisciplinary published literature. Integrating knowledge from their previous research and practice experiences with the pragmatic utility process, they derived qualitative features of victims' experiences, differentiating target from victim in bullying encounters. For those targets who ultimately are victimized, response to bullies' affronts extends far beyond the immediate present. Redolence of personal, lived experience revives bygone vulnerabilities, and naïve communication and relationship expectations reinforce a long-standing, impoverished sense. That sense couples with workplace dynamics to augment a context of exclusion. Findings suggest that, as Heidegger contended, we are our histories. Personal history demonstrates a significance influence on the manifestation of bullying victimization, acting to distance them from their workplace peers and to impede inclusive excellence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Payne, Allison Ann; Hutzell, Kirsten L.
This study uses a large nationally representative sample to compare and contrast interpersonal bullying and cyberbullying by asking the following questions: (a) How does the prevalence of cyberbullying victimization compare with the prevalence of interpersonal bullying victimization? (b) How does the relationship between demographic predictors and…
Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Goldbach, Jeremy; Plant, Aaron; Montoya, Jorge; Kordic, Timothy
Objectives. We examined correlations between gender, race, sexual identity, and technology use, and patterns of cyberbullying experiences and behaviors among middle-school students. Methods. We collected a probability sample of 1285 students alongside the 2012 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Los Angeles Unified School District middle schools. We used logistic regressions to assess the correlates of being a cyberbully perpetrator, victim, and perpetrator–victim (i.e., bidirectional cyberbullying behavior). Results. In this sample, 6.6% reported being a cyberbully victim, 5.0% reported being a perpetrator, and 4.3% reported being a perpetrator–victim. Cyberbullying behavior frequently occurred on Facebook or via text messaging. Cyberbully perpetrators, victims, and perpetrators–victims all were more likely to report using the Internet for at least 3 hours per day. Sexual-minority students and students who texted at least 50 times per day were more likely to report cyberbullying victimization. Girls were more likely to report being perpetrators–victims. Conclusions. Cyberbullying interventions should account for gender and sexual identity, as well as the possible benefits of educational interventions for intensive Internet users and frequent texters. PMID:25602905
Poteat, V. Paul; Espelage, Dorothy L.
This investigation examined the extent to which homophobic victimization predicted multiple indicators of psychological and social distress for middle school students (n = 143) during a 1-year assessment period. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that homophobic victimization significantly predicted increased anxiety and depression,…
Wormington, Stephanie V.; Anderson, Kristen G.; Schneider, Ashley; Tomlinson, Kristin L.; Brown, Sandra A.
Recent research highlights the role of peer victimization in students' adjustment across a variety of domains (e.g., academic, social), but less often identifies potential mediating variables. In the current study, we tested for direct effects from peer victimization to adolescents' academic behavior and alcohol use, as well as indirect effects…
Godleski, Stephanie A.; Kamper, Kimberly E.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Hart, Emily J.; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J.
Objective The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bi-directional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3- to 5- years-old) were investigated in an integrated model. Method The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the US. Using observations, research assistant report and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Results Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Conclusions Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress. PMID:25133659
Asserts that, although providing educational programs and materials on acquaintance rape and prevention strategies is important, attention must also be given to victims. Discusses recognition of stress response pattern of victims suffering from Rape Trauma Syndrome and provision of appropriate referral and support services. Includes selected list…
Bole, Savannah; Sijtsema, J; Klimstra, T.A.; Denissen, J.; Meeus, W.H.J.
The present study examined the role of person–group dissimilarity in personality in peer victimization. It was hypothesized that adolescents who show more deviation from the classroom norm in personality experience more peer victimization. Data from 1108 adolescents (48% boys; Mage = 13.56 years, SD
Reavis, Rachael D.; Keane, Susan P.; Calkins, Susan D.
This study examined early elementary school children's trajectories of peer victimization with a sample of 218 boys and girls. Peer victimization was assessed (via peer report) in kindergarten and first, second, and fifth grades. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine multiple types of relationships (mother-child, student-teacher,…
Cosgrove, Heather E.; Nickerson, Amanda B.; DeLucia, Janice
The authors examined the potential long-term effects of peer victimization experiences during childhood on attachment quality in current adult relationships in a sample of 386 university students attending 2 northeastern universities. Findings included (a) no significant gender differences regarding verbal or relational peer victimization; (b)…
Boele, S.; Sijtsema, J.J.; Klimstra, T.A.; Denissen, J.J.A.; Meeus, W.H.J.
The present study examined the role of person–group dissimilarity in personality in peer victimization. It was hypothesized that adolescents who show more deviation from the classroom norm in personality experience more peer victimization. Data from 1108 adolescents (48% boys; Mage = 13.56 years, SD
Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Waasdorp, Tracy E.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.
There is growing interest in gender differences in the experience of various forms of peer victimization; however, much of the work to date has used traditional variable-centered approaches by focusing on scales or individual forms of victimization in isolation. The current study explored whether there were discrete groups of adolescents who…
Godleski, Stephanie A; Kamper, Kimberly E; Ostrov, Jamie M; Hart, Emily J; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J
The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bidirectional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3 to 5 years old) were investigated in an integrated model. The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the United States. Using observations, research assistant report, and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress.
Grosz, Candace A.; Kempe, Ruth S.; Kelly, Michele
A study of 246 child victims of extrafamilial sexual abuse (ages 2-14) investigated effectiveness of family participation in crisis counseling, individual parent/child treatment, children's treatment groups, and parent support groups. A family approach and services for parents in addition to intervention for child victims were key components in…
Bellmore, Amy; Chen, Wei-Ting; Rischall, Emily
Victims of school-based peer harassment face a range of risks including psycho-social, physical, and academic harm. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavioral coping responses used by early adolescents when they face peer victimization. To meet this aim, 216 sixth grade students (55% girls) from two urban middle schools and 254…
van Dijk, Jan; Kury, Helmut; Redo, Slawomir; Shea, Evelyn
Abstract In this article we will present an overview of the results of the national and international crime victims surveys regarding the distribution of victimization according to age and gender with a focus on violent crime. The results show a consistent inversed relationship between age and
... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8499 of April 16, 2010 National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2010 By the.... This week, we renew our commitment to supporting crime victims and preventing crimes that threaten our.... Though crime rates have declined in recent years, crime and its devastating effects still require our...
Kraaij, Vivian; Arensman, Ella; Garnefski, Nadia; Kremers, Ismay
The aim of the study is to examine the role of cognitive coping in a sample of 47 female victims of stalking. Stalking victims who blamed themselves more for the stalking report significantly higher symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Respondents who ruminated more about the stalking experience, or…
Johnson, Matthew C.; Kercher, Glen A.
Victims of stalking often experience a number of negative psychological problems including such things as fear, symptoms of depression, and anger. However, research on factors that lead to these outcomes is limited. The goal of this study was to first identify distinct subgroups of stalking victims based on measures of psychological problems…
Costa Ramos, Vânia
The following article gives an overview of legal aid for victims in criminal cases in Portugal. It addresses the issues of a victim’s access to a lawyer, when and how the right is granted (right to legal assistance), and under what circumstances the victim has a right to financial legal aid (right to financial legal aid).
This study investigated psychosocial predictors of involvement of women as victims of human trafficking using. This descriptive study had four independent variables- “coping strategies”, “self-esteem” “risk taking attitude” and “social support”. The dependent variable was involvement of women as victims of trafficking in ...
Chen, Xiaochen; Graham, Sandra
This study examined the effect of close relationships (best friendship and romantic relationship) on late adolescents' casual attributions for peer victimization. A total of 1106 twelfth grade students completed self-report measures of perceived peer victimization, self-blame attribution, psychological maladjustment (loneliness and social…
Achilli, Julián; Rodríguez, María C; Folino, Jorge O
Crime consequences are not only a security problem; they are also a community health question. Because shop assistants are particularly exposed to crime victimization, they are at risk from suffering posttraumatic stress disorders. To describe posttraumatic symptomatology of crime victimized shop assistants and to explore the relationship between the symptoms and demographic, victim and situational factors. Self-reported information about mental symptomatology was gathered from 126 victimized shop assistants identified during cross-sectional study. Case and control groups were formed to explore association between symptomatology and crime and victim characteristics. The 20.6% of respondents reported information compatible with posttraumatic stress disorder; the 13 %, with moderate/severe depression and the 69.8% with adjustment disorder. The condition of being a case was associated with the violent characteristic of the crime, with the subtraction of goods and the economic value of the goods.
Betts, Lucy R; Spenser, Karin A
The reported prevalence rates of cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors vary. Part of this variation is likely due to the diverse definitions and operationalizations of the constructs adopted in previous research and the lack of psychometrically robust measures. Through 2 studies, the authors developed (Study 1) and evaluated (Study 2) the cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors scales. Participants in Study 1 were 393 (122 boys, 171 girls) and in Study 2 were 345 (153 boys, 192 girls) 11-15-year-olds who completed measures of cyber victimization experiences, cyberbullying behaviors, face-to-face victimization experiences, face-to-face bullying behaviors, and social desirability. The 3-factor cyber victimization experiences scale comprised threat, shared images, and personal attack. The 3-factor cyberbullying behaviors scale comprised sharing images, gossip, and personal attack. Both scales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and convergent validity.
Fong, Rowena; Berger Cardoso, Jodi
Since the passing of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act in 2000 and its reauthorization by President George Bush in 2008, federal, state and community efforts in identifying and providing services for victims of human trafficking have significantly improved. However, most of the research and resources for trafficking victims have been directed towards adults rather than children. Researchers agree that there is a growing number of sexually exploited and trafficked children in the United States yet few programs emphasize the unique experiences and special needs of this population. This article examines commercial sexual exploitation of children; differentiates the needs and problems between child prostitution and victims of human trafficking; reviews and critiques current treatment practices; and summarizes challenges and successes in working with child victims of human trafficking, offering practice and policy recommendations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Beals, Michaela E; Carr, Dawn C; Mottola, Gary R; Deevy, Martha J; Carstensen, Laura L
This study examines the effect of survey context on self-reported rates of personal fraud victimization, and explores if the effect is influenced by age and gender. Participants (3,000U.S. adults) were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 versions of a fraud victimization questionnaire: questions about fraud were identical across conditions, however, the context varies. One questionnaire asked about crime, one about consumer buying experiences, and a third focused only on fraud. Participants who were asked about fraud victimization in the context of crime reported significantly less victimization (p reports from those asked within the context of a consumer survey did not differ from the fraud-alone condition. The effect of the crime context interacted with age (p crime context on self-reported fraud victimization. These findings inform the production of new surveys and guide the development of effective social and health policies.
Anderson, C L
The definite and persistent phenomenon of sexual assault upon males is virtually ignored in the literature, although incidence data reported here suggest the greater scope of the problem. The avoidance of the subject of sexual assault on males creates a negative environment for victims. While the motivation of assailants is briefly discussed, the article focuses on the psychological aftermath for sexual assault victims. A paradigm is offered, consisting of "Set-up," "Attack," and "Aftermath" phases. Male victims suffer "Rape Trauma Syndrome" as described for females, as well as various forms of stigmatization and secondary trauma. Differences and similarities between male and female victims are identified. Victim responses are discussed as they proceed through several stages, with implications for appropriate interventions on both the clinical and community levels. The article concludes with an extensive bibliography.
Naimi, Timothy S; Xuan, Ziming; Cooper, Susanna E; Coleman, Sharon M; Hadland, Scott E; Swahn, Monica H; Heeren, Timothy C
Although the association between alcohol and homicide is well documented, there has been no recent study of alcohol involvement in homicide victimization in U.S. states. The objective of this article was to determine the prevalence of alcohol involvement in homicide victimization and to identify socio demographic and other factors associated with alcohol involvement in homicide victimization. Data from homicide victims with a reported blood alcohol content (BAC) level were analyzed from 17 states from 2010 to 2012 using the National Violent Death Reporting System. Logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with the odds of homicide victims having a BAC ≥ 0.08%. Among all homicide victims, 39.9% had a positive BAC including 13.7% with a BAC between 0.01% and 0.79% and 26.2% of victims with a BAC ≥ 0.08%. Males were twice as likely as females to have a BAC ≥ 0.08% (29.1% vs. 15.2%; p homicide victims having a BAC ≥ 0.08 included male sex, American Indian/Alaska Native race, Hispanic ethnicity, history of intimate partner violence, and nonfirearm homicides. Alcohol is present in a substantial proportion of homicide victims in the United States, with substantial variation by state, demographic, and circumstantial characteristics. Future studies should explore the relationships between state-level alcohol policies and alcohol involvement among perpetrators and victims of homicide. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
van den Eijnden, Regina; Vermulst, Ad; van Rooij, Antonius J; Scholte, Ron; van de Mheen, Dike
Although peer victimization is of major concern and adolescents spend increasing amounts of time on the Internet, relatively little is known about the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online victimization. The main aim of this study was to compare the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online versus real-life victimization. More specifically, the bidirectional relationship between online and real-life victimization on the one hand and psychosocial problems (i.e., loneliness and social anxiety) on the other was examined. In addition, the moderating role of online aggression in the relationship between online victimization and subsequent psychosocial problems was studied. This prospective study, consisting of three annual measurements, was conducted among a sample of 831 adolescents (50.3 % girls) aged 11-15, of which most (80.2 %) had a Dutch ethnic background. The results indicate a unidirectional relationship whereby loneliness and social anxiety predict an increase in latter online victimization rather than the reverse. A bidirectional relationship was found for real-life victimization: loneliness (but not social anxiety) predicted an increase in latter real-life victimization, which in turn predicted an increase in subsequent social anxiety (but not loneliness). No moderating effects of online aggression were found. The findings of the present study suggest that negative online and in real life peer interactions have a differential meaning for, and impact on adolescents' well-being.
Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Vermulst, A.A.; Rooij, A.J. van; Scholte, R.H.J.; Mheen, H. van de
Although peer victimization is of major concern and adolescents spend increasing amounts of time on the Internet, relatively little is known about the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online victimization. The main aim of this study was to compare the psychosocial antecedents and
van den Eijnden, Regina; Vermulst, Ad; van Rooij, Antonius J.; Scholte, Ron; van de Mheen, Dike
Although peer victimization is of major concern and adolescents spend increasing amounts of time on the Internet, relatively little is known about the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online victimization. The main aim of this study was to compare the psychosocial antecedents and
Sachs, Nicole M; Veysey, Bonita M; Rivera, Luis M
Past research on victimization has relied predominantly on individuals' awareness of and willingness to self-report a victimization experience and its effect on self and identity processes. The present research adopts theoretical and methodological innovations in implicit social cognition research to provide a new perspective on how a violent victimization experience might influence identity processes outside of conscious awareness. Our main goal was to test whether individuals who have victimization experience implicitly associate the self with victims (implicit victim identity) and their stereotypes (implicit victim self-stereotyping), and the relation of these associations to explicit victim identity and self-stereotyping. Two pretests with undergraduate student participants ( Ns = 122 and 72) identified victim-related word stimuli for two Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT) measures of implicit victim identity and self-stereotyping. In Pretest Study A, participants read crime vignettes and listed words that described a victim, then in Pretest Study B, participants rated these words on victim relatedness and valence. The Main Study recruited undergraduate student participants ( N = 101) who completed the SC-IATs, self-report measures of explicit victim identity and self-stereotyping, and victimization experiences. Three of our five hypotheses were supported. Individuals with past victimization experience exhibited strong explicit victim identity and self-stereotyping, but not implicit victim identity and self-stereotyping, relative to those with no victimization experience. Explicit and implicit victim identity and self-stereotyping were unrelated. Finally, among individuals with victimization experience, a strong implicit victim identity was associated with strong implicit victim self-stereotyping. This research has implications for understanding the processes underlying revictimization and for preventing further victimization.
Hong, Lingyao; Guo, Lan; Wu, Hong; Li, Pengsheng; Xu, Yan; Gao, Xue; Deng, Jianxiong; Huang, Guoliang; Huang, Jinghui; Lu, Ciyong
The relationship of bullying with suicidal ideation among adolescents is controversial. Although depression has been related to bullying and suicidal ideation, little is known about the combined impacts of depression and bullying on suicidal ideation.A sample of 20,509 high school students from Fujian Province were selected randomly by multistage stratified sampling. All participants completed an adolescent health status questionnaire. Three categories of bullying were assessed: perpetration, victimization, and both (victimization and perpetration). The associations of these 3 categories of bullying with depression and their interaction with suicidal ideation were examined in logistic models.After adjustment for potential confounders, all 3 categories of bullying (perpetration, victimization, and both) were related to increased risk of suicidal ideation with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-2.30), 2.74 (95% CI 2.29-3.29), and 2.83 (95% CI 2.27-3.52), respectively. There was an interaction between depression and bullying (P = 0.001). Subgroup analyses showed a stronger association between perpetration and suicidal ideation in students with depression (odds ratio [OR] 2.97; 95% CI 1.44-6.09) than in those without depression (OR 1.65; 95% CI 1.19-2.28). The association between victimization and suicidal ideation was weaker in students with depression (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.07-2.07) than in those without (OR 2.69; 95% CI 2.24-3.23). The association of both victimization and perpetration with suicidal ideation was weaker in students with depression (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.43-3.47) than those without (OR 2.78; 95% CI 2.23-3.47).We observed an independent association of bullying with increased risk of suicidal ideation among adolescent students, and this association was affected by depression. Prospective studies should be conducted to confirm these findings.
Full Text Available The purpose of international human rights law is to protect basic individual rights and provide to the victims of violations legal remedies against the authors of the abuses. One major difficulty faced in this context originates in the limiting clauses that states insert in international conventions. This paper looks at their compatibility with human rights agreements, in the view of strengthening the legal avenues open to the victims and the possibility for them to obtain redress. The crucial position of human rights at the core of the notion of international public order conditions the approach to adopt in relation to most issues that touch upon the scope and substance of protected rights, including withdrawal from treaties, reservations, implied limitations, overtly broad or inappropriate restrictions, misguided interpretations and failure to apply the relevant provisions. It is put forward that limiting clauses should be narrowly construed and most restrictions discarded altogether.
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons and polygon labels that describe Arctic portion of the U.S. Geological Survey defined geologic provinces of the World in 2000.
Van Allen, James A.
On November 1, three distinguished faculty members of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Iowa were among the victims of a murderous assault.Each of these individuals was at the height of his professional career. Each was devoted to teaching and advising students at all academic levels ranging from undergraduate freshmen to doctoral candidates and postdoctoral associates. Each was of national and international stature. All were specializing in the study of complex properties of ionized gases or plasma, the so-called fourth state of matter. This field is known technically as theoretical plasma physics. It is estimated that over 99% of matter in the universe is in the form of plasma—hence its central importance in the upper atmospheres and magnetospheres of planets, the Sun, the interplanetary medium, and in almost all large astrophysical systems.
Zohn, Harry K; Dashkow, Sheila; Aschheim, Kenneth W; Dobrin, Lawrence A; Glazer, Howard S; Kirschbaum, Mitchell; Levitt, Daniel; Feldman, Cecile A
Mass fatality identification efforts involving forensic odontology can involve hundreds of dental volunteers. A literature review was conducted and forensic odontologists and dental educators consulted to identify lessons learned from past mass fatality identification efforts. As a result, the authors propose a skill assessment system, the Odontology Victim Identification Skill Assessment System (OVID-SAS), which details qualifications required to participate on the Antemortem, Postmortem, Ante/Postmortem Comparison, Field, and Shift Leader/Initial Response Teams. For each qualification, specific skills have been identified along with suggested educational pedagogy and skill assessment methods. Courses and assessments can be developed by dental schools, professional associations, or forensic organizations to teach and test for the skills required for dental volunteers to participate on each team. By implementing a system, such as OVID-SAS, forensic odontologists responsible for organizing and managing a forensic odontology mass fatality identification effort will be able to optimally utilize individuals presenting with proven skills.
Pecujlija, M; Cosic, I; Nesic-Grubic, L; Drobnjak, S
This study was conducted in Serbian companies on licensed engineers and in its first part included a total of 336 licensed engineers who voluntarily completed the questionnaires about their ethical orientation and attitudes toward corruption and in the second part 214 engineers who participated in the first survey, who voluntarily evaluated their company's business operations characteristics. This study has clearly shown that there is a direct significant influence of the engineer's ethical orientations and attitudes toward corruption on their evaluation of the characteristics of their respective companies regarding business operations. This research also clearly shows that only engineers with a strong deontological orientation, low ethical subjectivity, and strong readiness to fight corruption, low corruption acceptance and high awareness of corruption can successfully fight corruption, improve the business operations of their companies and make beneficial changes to society. Otherwise, they should be considered as corruption perpetrators, not just as its victims.
Habashy Hussein, Mohamed
This study examined whether bullies, victims, bully-victims (who are both bullies and victims), and students who reported no or low levels of bullying and victimization differed in their levels of social and emotional skills. Data were collected from 623 children in fifth and sixth grades from four Egyptian elementary schools; their ages ranged from 10 to 12 years. K-means cluster analysis revealed four groups: bullies (n = 138), victims (n = 178), bully-victims (n = 59), and children who were not involved in bullying behaviour (n = 248). Data were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. The findings indicated that boys were more involved in bullying behaviour than girls, and both bullies and bully-victims were less likely to adhere to social rules and politeness than children who were not involved in bullying. Both bullies and victims were less aware of the physiological reactions of their emotions than uninvolved children, and were less able to apply social rules in social interaction. Both victims and bully-victims reported less likeability than children not involved in bullying. Verbal sharing, attending to others' emotions, and analysis of emotions did not have a statistically significant relationship with the probabilities of classifying children to any bullying group versus children not involved in bullying. Social skills were more important than emotional awareness in predicting the likelihood of classifying children in one of the three bullying groups versus children who not involved in bullying. The main conclusion is that social and emotional skills together may provide an effective means of intervention for bullying problems.
HUANG, Huide; Zhang, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu
This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...
Hassan Ghahari; Enzo Colonnelli
The 195 species of Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) thus far indicated from Golestan province (northern Iran) according to both literature and original records are listed in this paper. New data for 61 species belonging to 18 genera collected during this research are also given. Besides the 42 species newly reported for the Golestan province, the following additional 15 species are newly recorded from Iran: Brachypera lunata, Ceutorhynchus anatolicus, Datonychus urticae, Hypera contaminata, Hypera...
Fegadel, Averi R; Heide, Kathleen M
The majority of studies examining the killing of parents and step-parents by biological and stepchildren involve a single victim and single offender. Little is known when parricide incidents involve multiple victims or multiple offenders. Using the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), this study examined double parricide incidents involving single or multiple offenders over the 20-year period 1991-2010 with the aim of investigating juvenile and adult involvement. Forty-five incidents of double parricide were identified and verified; in 35 of these cases, the offenders acted alone. Frequencies reported include offender, victim, and incident characteristics. The results indicated that the typical double parricide offender who acted alone was a White male approximately 30 years of age. When multiple offenders were involved, the offenders tended to be younger and were more likely to include a female accomplice. Newspapers were utilized to augment available case information. Study limitations, implications, and directions for future research are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage.Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases.Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.
Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Jang, Hyesue; Jo, Minkyung
We examined the risk factors for and psychological problems associated with violence victimization in a nationwide representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2016 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey was used. Participants were asked about their experience of being a victim of violence that required medical treatment during the past 12 months, as well as their perceived health, happiness, sleep satisfaction, stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The 12-month prevalence of violence victimization requiring medical treatment was 2.4%. The results indicated that adolescents were at an increased risk for violence victimization if they were male, older, had parents of a foreign nationality, did not reside with their family, worked part time, resided in small cities or rural areas, were high or low in socioeconomic status (SES), exhibited high or low levels of academic performance, used alcohol or tobacco, and were sexually active. In addition, while violence victimization was negatively associated with perceived health and happiness, it was positively associated with perceived stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The results indicate that a social disadvantage, involvement in risky behavior, and psychological problems are associated with violence victimization. Effective violence prevention efforts should thus target high-risk groups, and clinical attention is needed to address the psychological costs associated with violence victimization.
Veldkamp, Sabine A M; van Bergen, Elsje; de Zeeuw, Eveline L; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bartels, Meike
Peer bullying and victimization are a widespread phenomenon among school-age children and can have detrimental effects on the development of children. To examine whether having a close companion during childhood increases or decreases risk of victimization and bullying, this study compared twins to singleton children. A large group of twins (n = 9,909) were included who were compared to their related non-twin siblings (n = 1,534) aged 7-12 from the Netherlands Twin Register, thus creating optimal matching between twins and non-twins. Bullying and victimization were each based on a four-item scale filled out by their teachers. Prevalence rates for either bullying or victimization did not differ between twins and singletons. In total, in the past couple of months, 36% of children bullied peers moderately to severely, and 35% suffered moderately to severely from victimization. Boys were more likely to bully and were more prone to becoming a victim than girls. The most notable finding is that female twin pairs placed together in the same classroom did not bully more often, but were victimized less often, thus pointing to a protective effect of having a close companion in the classroom.
Plumm, Karyn M; Terrance, Cheryl A; Henderson, Vanessa R; Ellingson, Heather
A jury simulation paradigm was employed for two studies exploring levels of victim blame in a case of bias-motivated assault based on sexual orientation. In the first study, participants were grouped according to their score on the Index of Homophobia (IHP) scale as either reporting high or low support for gay and lesbian community members. The label of the crime (i.e., bias-motivated assault versus first-degree assault) as well as the gender of the victim were systematically varied. Results indicated that attributions of blame against the victim varied as a function of participants' attitudes toward minority sexual orientation. As extra-legal factors likely contribute to victim blame in these cases, the second study explored such factors as location and "provocation." Jurors in the second study read a transcript depicting an attack on a gay man by a man in either a local bar (i.e., not a gay bar) or a gay bar. Within location conditions, jurors were presented with either "provocation" by the victim (i.e., asking the perpetrator to dance and putting his arm around him) or alternatively no provocation was presented. Results revealed significant differences of victim blame depending on condition. Participants in both the local bar and provocation present conditions were more likely to blame the victim for the attack than those in the gay bar or provocation-absent conditions. Implications for hate crime law and attribution theory within the courtroom are discussed.
Larizgoitia, Itziar; Fernández, Itziar; Markez, Iñaki; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Larizgoitia, Arantza; Moreno, Florentino; Páez, Darío; Beristain, Carlos Martín
Despite the significant influence of collective violence on the health status of its victims, there are still many gaps in our understanding of the nature of the functional limitations this violence produces and its impact on victims' wellbeing and quality of life. The ISAVIC study was carried out in the autonomous region of the Basque Country from 2005-2008 to estimate the effects of collective violence on health. The assessment included victims' perceptions of these sequelae and their impact on health. A purposive sample of 36 primary victims was selected through contact networks and mediators. The victims' perceptions were collected through semi-structured in-depth interviews, which were later analyzed according to the study's conceptual framework. The victims' testimony suggests that they were profoundly traumatized by the collective violence experienced, which was often not yet completely overcome and significantly impaired their quality of life. The main functional, physical, emotional and social limitations described by the victims were identified. The qualitative results of this study are coherent with those obtained through the parametric phase of the ISAVIC study and provide a more complete overview of the nature of the sequelae of collective violence and its impact on quality of life. These results should be verified in larger studies and the influence of the social context on the relationship between collective violence and health should be analyzed in greater depth. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We examined the risk factors for and psychological problems associated with violence victimization in a nationwide representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2016 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey was used. Participants were asked about their experience of being a victim of violence that required medical treatment during the past 12 months, as well as their perceived health, happiness, sleep satisfaction, stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The 12-month prevalence of violence victimization requiring medical treatment was 2.4%. The results indicated that adolescents were at an increased risk for violence victimization if they were male, older, had parents of a foreign nationality, did not reside with their family, worked part time, resided in small cities or rural areas, were high or low in socioeconomic status (SES, exhibited high or low levels of academic performance, used alcohol or tobacco, and were sexually active. In addition, while violence victimization was negatively associated with perceived health and happiness, it was positively associated with perceived stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The results indicate that a social disadvantage, involvement in risky behavior, and psychological problems are associated with violence victimization. Effective violence prevention efforts should thus target high-risk groups, and clinical attention is needed to address the psychological costs associated with violence victimization.
Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather; Shattuck, Anne M
This study examined how victimizations by either a sibling or peer are linked to each other and to mental health in childhood and adolescence. The data were from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence which includes a sample of children aged 3-9 (N=1,536) and adolescents aged 10-17 (N=1,523) gathered through telephone interviews. An adult caregiver (usually a parent) provided the information for children while self-reports were employed for adolescents. Fifteen percent of each age group reported victimization by both a sibling and peer. Victimization by a sibling alone was more common in childhood than adolescence. Victimization by a sibling was predictive of peer victimization. Children and adolescents victimized by both a sibling and peer reported the greatest mental distress. This work establishes that for some children and adolescents, victimization at the hands of other juveniles happens both at home and school. Programs should consider the role of siblings and target parents and siblings to encourage the development and maintenance of constructive sibling interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sugimura, Niwako; Rudolph, Karen D.
Objective This research examined the hypothesis that temperament and sex moderate the contribution of peer victimization to children’s subsequent adjustment (aggression and depressive symptoms). Method Children (125 boys, 158 girls; M age = 7.95 years, SD = 0.32; 77.7% White, 22.3% minority) and teachers reported on overt and relational victimization. Parents rated children’s temperament (inhibitory control and negative emotionality) and depressive symptoms, and teachers reported on children’s overt and relational aggression. Results Across a one-year time period, (a) overt victimization predicted overt aggression in girls with poor inhibitory control; (b) overt and relational victimization predicted depressive symptoms in girls with high negative emotionality; and (c) relational victimization predicted depressive symptoms in boys with low negative emotionality. Conclusions This research helps to explain individual variation in children’s reactions to peer victimization, and has implications for person-by-environment models of development. Moreover, this research informs the development of targeted intervention programs for victimized youth that bolster specific resources depending on their temperament. PMID:22420650
Full Text Available The author talks about improving victim rights in Japan and his important role in it. A period of Victims’ Renaissance in Japan began in the 1990s when the Japanese Association of Victimology and Mito Victim Assistance Cener, first non-governmental community-based integrated victim support center in Japan were established. Since May 1999 to May 2004, four laws such as “Crime Victim Protection Law”, “Child Abuse Prevention Law”, “Law for Proscribing Stalking Behavior” and so on were enacted and six laws were reformed. The word “rights of victim”, did not appear in any laws. After 2000, the National Association of Crime Victims and Surviving Families (NAVS played an important role. This Association achieved a great success in securing victims a position as the subject of rights. In June 2007, Japan changed the Criminal Procedure Law. This new law will be effective on six months after the day of promulgation. Japanese Government will promulgate it till the end of 2007. Under this new law, crime victims will be allowed to take part in criminal trials, and also make statements during trials.
Owens, Jennifer Gatewood
Although there is a growing understanding of stalking victimization, it remains difficult to define, and characterizations of the phenomenon vary within the literature. As such, research is needed to understand how variations in the definition of stalking may change who is defined as a victim and thereby limit the generalizability of findings across previous studies. The focus of this study is the inclusion or exclusion of subjective and reasonable measures of fear for 1,430 victims identified by the 2006 Supplemental Victimization Survey. Results suggest that the definition of stalking is important, and prior research has potentially excluded stalking victims due to restrictive operationalizations. Victims who report different types of fear appear to be similar to each other in some respects but differ in others, particularly with regard for gender representation, suggesting some definitions of stalking may be gendered and under-represent male stalking victims. Finally, using complex stratified survey weights, the impact of these varying operationalizations is examined. Using the same data but different definitions resulted in estimates of just over 1 to 5.3 million persons who are stalked in the United States each year. © The Author(s) 2015.
Forster, Myriam; Gower, Amy L; McMorris, Barbara J; Borowsky, Iris W
Retrospective studies using adult self-report data have demonstrated that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increase risk of violence perpetration and victimization. However, research examining the associations between adolescent reports of ACE and school violence involvement is sparse. The present study examines the relationship between adolescent reported ACE and multiple types of on-campus violence (bringing a weapon to campus, being threatened with a weapon, bullying, fighting, vandalism) for boys and girls as well as the risk of membership in victim, perpetrator, and victim-perpetrator groups. The analytic sample was comprised of ninth graders who participated in the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey ( n ~ 37,000). Multinomial logistic regression models calculated the risk of membership for victim only, perpetrator only, and victim-perpetrator subgroups, relative to no violence involvement, for students with ACE as compared with those with no ACE. Separate logistic regression models assessed the association between cumulative ACE and school-based violence, adjusting for age, ethnicity, family structure, poverty status, internalizing symptoms, and school district size. Nearly 30% of students were exposed to at least one ACE. Students with ACE represent 19% of no violence, 38% of victim only, 40% of perpetrator only, and 63% of victim-perpetrator groups. There was a strong, graded relationship between ACE and the probability of school-based victimization: physical bullying for boys but not girls, being threatened with a weapon, and theft or property destruction ( ps bullying and bringing a weapon to campus ( ps effects of cumulative ACE. We recommend that schools systematically screen for ACE, particularly among younger adolescents involved in victimization and perpetration, and develop the infrastructure to increase access to trauma-informed intervention services. Future research priorities and implications are discussed.
Hong, Lingyao; Guo, Lan; Wu, Hong; Li, Pengsheng; Xu, Yan; Gao, Xue; Deng, Jianxiong; Huang, Guoliang; Huang, Jinghui; Lu, Ciyong
Abstract The relationship of bullying with suicidal ideation among adolescents is controversial. Although depression has been related to bullying and suicidal ideation, little is known about the combined impacts of depression and bullying on suicidal ideation. A sample of 20,509 high school students from Fujian Province were selected randomly by multistage stratified sampling. All participants completed an adolescent health status questionnaire. Three categories of bullying were assessed: perpetration, victimization, and both (victimization and perpetration). The associations of these 3 categories of bullying with depression and their interaction with suicidal ideation were examined in logistic models. After adjustment for potential confounders, all 3 categories of bullying (perpetration, victimization, and both) were related to increased risk of suicidal ideation with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–2.30), 2.74 (95% CI 2.29–3.29), and 2.83 (95% CI 2.27–3.52), respectively. There was an interaction between depression and bullying (P = 0.001). Subgroup analyses showed a stronger association between perpetration and suicidal ideation in students with depression (odds ratio [OR] 2.97; 95% CI 1.44–6.09) than in those without depression (OR 1.65; 95% CI 1.19–2.28). The association between victimization and suicidal ideation was weaker in students with depression (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.07–2.07) than in those without (OR 2.69; 95% CI 2.24–3.23). The association of both victimization and perpetration with suicidal ideation was weaker in students with depression (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.43–3.47) than those without (OR 2.78; 95% CI 2.23–3.47). We observed an independent association of bullying with increased risk of suicidal ideation among adolescent students, and this association was affected by depression. Prospective studies should be conducted to confirm these findings. PMID:26844460
Full Text Available Mobbing - psychological abuse at workplace is a phenomenon perpetually existing in the work organizations. Exceedingly important is to detect mobbing in the work organizations before it educe wide and severe effects not only on the victim, but also on the work organization itself. In this article, the mobbing prevention at the level of work organization, health and legal system is discussed. The types of victim assistance are also addressed. Moreover, the author’s experience in working with mobbing victims at the Work Clinic in Milan, i.e. in the ‘Center for prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of occupational maladjustment, is briefly described. .
Full Text Available This study analyzes the effect of income on repeat criminal victimization in Brazil using data from the 2009 National Household Sample Survey and its special supplement on victimization and access to justice. Two count-data models were estimated for four types of crime: theft, robbery, attempted theft/robbery, and physical assault. A positive nonlinear effect of income on repeat victimization for the three types of property crimes and a negative nonlinear effect of income on physical assault were observed.
To support the victims of the fires which devastated the Peloponnese at the end of August, the Permanent Mission of Greece in Geneva has informed us that the Greek government has opened an account into which donations may be paid. The funds collected will be used to assist the many victims of these fires. Bank of Greece Account name: Logariasmos Arogis Pyropathon (Hellenic Republic) (account reserved for aid for the victims of the forest fires) SWIFT : BNGRGRAA IBAN : GR 98 0100 0230 0000 0234 1103 053
Doak, J.; Henham, R; Mitchell, B.
Recent years have seen a number of developments pertaining to the notion that victims should be afforded a ‘voice’ in the criminal justice system. The theoretical and structural parameters of the adversarial system are not, however, conducive to exercising such a role. For many, conferring procedural rights on victims jeopardises the due process rights of the accused, as well as the public nature of the criminal justice system. In light of the recent decision to roll out the ‘Victims' Focus S...
Font, Sarah A
This study synthesizes results of vignette-based studies on lay perceptions of juvenile sexual victimization. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify factors affecting perceptions of juvenile sexual abuse victims. Then meta-analytic techniques were utilized to calculate average effects of victim age and respondent gender on perceived victim credibility and culpability. The average effects of victim age and respondent gender were modest. Results from moderation tests suggest that some of the variation in effect size estimates across studies can be explained by vignette and sample characteristics. Findings suggest that prior research may be misstating the effects of victim age and respondent gender by failing to account for vignette content.
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Terrorism Victim Expense... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Pt. 94, Subpt. A, App. Appendix to Subpart A—International Terrorism Victim Expense...
Ruggieri, Sabrina; Bendixen, Mons; Gabriel, Ute; Alsaker, Françoise
Based on the notion that the history of victimization has an impact on the sensitivity to current victimization situations this study investigated whether victims of bullying show more pronounced responses to single episodes of social exclusion. We examined whether victimization experiences in school are associated with responses to ostracism in a…
Sumter, S.R.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Baumgartner, S.E.; Peter, J.; van der Hof, S.
Peer victimization can seriously impair one’s well-being. As youth spend more time on the Internet, a new form of peer victimization has emerged, namely, online peer victimization. To fully comprehend peer victimization among today’s youth, there is a need for a psychometrically sound measure that
Beckman, Linda; Stenbeck, Magnus; Hagquist, Curt
The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between disability, victims, perpetrators, and so-called "bully-victims" (someone reporting being both a victim and a perpetrator) of traditional, cyber, or combined victimization or perpetration and psychosomatic health among adolescents. Authors analyzed cross-sectional data…
Herba, Catherine M.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Stijnen, Theo; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.
Background: Scientific studies have provided some support for a link between being a victim of bullying and suicide ideation. We examine whether (1) parental psychopathology and (2) feelings of rejection (at home and at school) exacerbate vulnerability to suicide ideation in victims of bullying (pure victims and bully-victims). Method: Data were…
Bullying and risky behavior are two common problems among adolescents and can strongly affect a youth's overall functioning when both coexist. Some studies suggest that bullying in adolescence may promote risky behavior as a coping strategy to deal with victimization related stress. Other studies consider bullying as an outcome of high-risk behavior. Despite the association between the two is well-established, no study has examined the risk-taking patterns among bullying groups (i.e., bully, victim, and bully victim). This study attempted to elucidate the potential relationships between bullying and risk-taking by addressing the two models: a cognitive-focused model and an emotion-focused model of risk taking, and to clarify how adolescents' characteristics in risk taking associate with bullying outcomes. Method: 136 Chinese adolescents (Mean Age = 14.5, M = 65, F = 71) were recruited and grouped according to bullying identity: Bully (n = 27), Victim (n = 20), Bully victim (n = 37) and Control (n = 52). Cognitive Appraisal of Risky Events (CARE) questionnaire was used to measure participants' expectancies about the risks, benefits and involvement associated with risky activities. Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT) was administered to capture the emotion-laden process in risk taking. Results: Cognitively, Bully was associated with an overestimation of risk while Victim was associated with an underestimation of risk and overrated benefit. Bully victim exhibited a unique pattern with an overestimation of benefit and risk. All study groups projected higher involvement in risky behavior. Behaviorally, both Bully and Bully victim were associated with high risk modulation whereas Victim was associated with impulsive decision-making. Interestingly, compared with bully, bully victim had significantly higher bullying scores, suggesting a wider range and more frequent bullying activities. In conclusion, Bully maybe a group of adolescents that is vigilant in situational
Full Text Available Bullying and risky behavior are two common problems among adolescents and can strongly affect a youth’s overall functioning when both coexist. Some studies suggest that bullying in adolescence may promote risky behavior as a coping strategy to deal with victimization related stress. Other studies consider bullying as an outcome of high-risk behavior. Despite the association between the two is well-established, no study has examined the risk-taking patterns among bullying groups (i.e., bully, victim, and bully-victim. This study attempted to elucidate the potential relationships between bullying and risk-taking by addressing the two models: a cognitive-focused model and a emotion-focused model of risk taking, and to clarify how adolescents’ characteristics in risk taking associate with bullying outcomes. Method: 136 Chinese adolescents (Mean Age =14.5, M= 65, F =71 were recruited and grouped according to bullying identity: Bully (n =27, Victim (n =20, Bully-victim (n =37 and Control (n =52. Cognitive Appraisal of Risky Events (CARE questionnaire was used to measure participants’ expectancies about the risks, benefits and involvement associated with risky activities. Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT was administered to capture the emotion-laden process in risk taking. Results: Cognitively, Bully was associated with an overestimation of risk while Victim was associated with an underestimation of risk and overrated benefit. Bully-victim exhibited a unique pattern with an overestimation of benefit and risk. All study groups projected higher involvement in risky behavior. Behaviorally, both Bully and Bully-victim were associated with high risk modulation whereas Victim was associated with impulsive decision-making. Interestingly, compared with bully, bully-victim had significantly higher bullying scores, suggesting a wider range and more frequent bullying activities. In conclusion, Bully maybe a group of adolescents that is vigilant in situational
Brennan, Laura K; Rubin, David; Christian, Cindy W; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Mirchandani, Haresh G; Rorke-Adams, Lucy B
In this study, the authors estimate the prevalence of injuries to the soft tissue of the neck, cervical vertebrae, and cervical spinal cord among victims of abusive head trauma to better understand these injuries and their relationship to other pathophysiological findings commonly found in children with fatal abusive head trauma. The population included all homicide victims 2 years of age and younger from the city of Philadelphia, Pennyslvania, who underwent a comprehensive postmortem examination at the Office of the Medical Examiner between 1995 and 2003. A retrospective review of all available postmortem records was performed, and data regarding numerous pathological findings, as well as the patient's clinical history and demographic information, were abstracted. Data were described using means and standard deviations for continuous variables, and frequency and ranges for categorical variables. Chi-square analyses were used to test for the association of neck injuries with different types of brain injury. The sample included 52 children, 41 (79%) of whom died of abusive head trauma. Of these, 29 (71%) had primary cervical cord injuries: in 21 there were parenchymal injuries, in 24 meningeal hemorrhages, and in 16, nerve root avulsion/dorsal root ganglion hemorrhage were evident. Six children with abusive head trauma had no evidence of an impact to the head, and all 6 had primary cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). No child had a spinal fracture. Six of 29 children (21%) with primary cervical SCIs had soft-tissue (ligamentous or muscular) injuries to the neck, and 14 (48%) had brainstem injuries. There was a significant association of primary cervical SCI with cerebral edema (p = 0.036) but not with hypoxia-ischemia, infarction, or herniation. Cervical SCI is a frequent but not universal finding in young children with fatal abusive head trauma. In the present study, parenchymal and/or root injury usually occurred without evidence of muscular or ligamentous damage
Bennett, Diana C; Guran, Elyse L; Ramos, Michelle C; Margolin, Gayla
This study investigated college students' reports of electronic victimization in friendships and dating relationships. We examined 22 items representing four categories of electronic victimization: hostility, humiliation, exclusion, and intrusiveness. Nearly all participants (92%) reported some electronic victimization in the past year, with males reporting more victimization and females anticipating more distress. Both females and males anticipated more distress from electronic victimization in dating relationships than friendships. More actual experience with electronic victimization related to lower anticipated distress. Electronic victimization was associated with females' alcohol use, even after controlling for other victimization experiences. Discussion focuses on the contextualized nature of electronic victimization, and on the importance of understanding what makes electronic victimization highly distressing for some individuals.
Crane, Cory A; Hawes, Samuel W; Weinberger, Andrea H
The current meta-analytic review represents the first comprehensive empirical evaluation of the strength of the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and cigarette smoking. Thirty-nine effect sizes, drawn from 31 peer-reviewed publications, determined the existence of a small to medium composite effect size for the victimization-smoking relationship (d = .41, 95% confidence interval = [.35, .47]). Results indicate that victims of IPV are at greater smoking risk than nonvictims. Subsequent moderator analyses indicated that the association between victimization and smoking is moderately stronger among pregnant compared to nonpregnant victims. The strength of the victimization-smoking relationship did not differ by relationship type or ethnicity. More research is needed on the smoking behavior of male victims, victims of psychological violence, and victims who identify as Latino/Latina. It would be useful for professionals working with IPV victims to assess for smoking and incorporate smoking prevention and cessation skills in intervention settings.
Wu, Jie; He, Yuan; Lu, Ciyong; Deng, Xueqing; Gao, Xue; Guo, Lan; Wu, Hong; Chan, Fanfan; Zhou, Ying
Bullying among school-aged youth is a common issue worldwide and is increasingly being recognized as an important problem affecting both victims and perpetrators. Most of the bullying studies have been conducted in western countries, and their implications in other regions are limited due to different cultural contexts. The goal of our study is to identify the prevalence of bullying and its correlates school-aged youth in Guangdong province. In total, 1098 (7.1%) students reported having bullied other students, 744 (4.8%) students reported having been bullied by other students and 396 (2.6%) students reported having both bullied other students and been bullied by other students. There was a strong association between bullying others as well as being bullied and suicidal ideations, suicidal attempts, and self-harm behaviors. The prevalence of bullying and its associations with delinquent behaviors warrant the importance of school facility based preventive intervention taking into account both victims and perpetrators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
England, Lynn W.; Thompson, Charles L.
Attempts to create awareness among counselors about nature and prevalence of child sexual abuse. Identifies six myths about sexual abuse and discusses both myths and realities about the topic. Presents recommendations for interviewing suspected victims of child sexual abuse. (Author)
Yavuz Akbulut; Yusuf Levent Sahin; Bahadir Eristi
.... Borderless cyberspace transforms the nature of bullying and serves as a risky territory where more and more bullies are at large, which in turn, increases the extent of victimization in cyber-space...
Balsam, Kimberly F
SUMMARY This paper takes a contextual approach to understanding traumatic victimization experiences of lesbian and bisexual women over the life span. Expanding on feminist perspectives on violence against women, the concept of "cultural victimization" is used to explore the role of societal homophobia in shaping the experience of victimization for lesbian and bisexual women. An overview of the existing literature on the prevalence and impact of childhood abuse, domestic violence, sexual assault, and hate crimes among this population is provided. The relationship between sexual identity development and trauma is discussed. This article provides a framework for understanding lesbian and bisexual women's victimization, lends insight to clinicians working with lesbian/bisexual survivors, and provides direction for future research.
Pearce, Michelle J; Boergers, Julie; Prinstein, Mitchell J
... to develop romantic relationships. Measures of overt and relational victimization, as well as dating status and satisfaction, were collected for a group of 416 ninth- through twelfth-grade students (51.7% girls...
Full Text Available The article examines the personality characteristics of victims of illegal attacks on the Internet. We used methods as follow: 16 factors Cattell personality questionnaire, subjective control level, life-style index, Buss-Perry questionnaire, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, a COPE inventory. 78 internet users were divided into two groups of 38 persons: the main group included people falling victim to illegal attacks on the Internet, the control group participants were not attacked on the internet. We identified specific aggregated symptoms of individual psychological characteristics of internet attack victims and show that victims of "non-forced" and "forced" offenses have different levels of situational and personal anxiety, aggression and locus of control.
Keywords: Domestic violence, physical trauma, injury characteristics, treatment, outcome, Tanzania .... Disrespect to husband' in laws. 103. 41.9 ..... commonly injured reflecting the tendency of victims to defend themselves with their hands.
Pham, Tammy; Adesman, Andrew
In recent years, there has been increased recognition that the experiences of youth who have endured bullying cannot be ignored or dismissed as harmless acts by 'kids being kids'. The present article reviews several key risks and consequences of bullying for adolescent victims. Bullying victimization has been linked with a number of adverse health and social outcomes, including mental health issues, weapon-carrying, substance abuse, academic problems, and other adverse consequences - some of which may persist into adulthood. Recent findings on cyberbullying, in particular, highlight the real-life consequences of virtual victimization. Pediatricians play a critical role in identifying and supporting victims of bullying and counseling parents about surveillance and intervention strategies.
To define the profile of female victims of conjugal violence examined in the Legal Medicine emergency unit of the Hotel-Dieu hospital in Paris. A self-administered questionnaire with 15 questions was distributed to 100 victims. The 100 victims replied: 86 cases of violence took place usually in the home, 78 episodes of violence were multiple and complaints were rarely lodged after the first episodes. Mental and sexual violence were severe and unrecognized. Eighty women interviewed suffered from mental violence. In 43 cases, alcohol played a determining role in the onset of such violence. Female victims of conjugal violence do not have a specific profile. The law of silence persists, but the increase in the number of complaints from North African and African women is encouraging for the future.
María Jesús Cava
Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to analyse the differences in psychological adjustment in victims of bullying as a function of the quality of their relationships with parents, teachers, and peers. More specifically, it was compared four psychological adjustment indicators (self-esteem, depressive mood, loneliness, and stress perception in victims with good or bad communication with his/her mother, good or bad communication with his/her father, high or low perception of teacher´s help, and high or low identification with their peer group. The initial sample was composed of 1795 adolescents aged from 11 to 18 years old (M = 14.2, SD = 1.68. Results indicated better psychological adjustment in victims with better relationships with their parents, teachers, and peers than in victims with worse quality relationships. These results are discussed, and their implications in the development of intervention programmes on school violence are pointed out.
Teresa H. Young
Full Text Available Child advocacy centers across the United States intervened in more than 250,000 child abuse cases in 2011(National Children's Alliance, 2012. Understanding the work of family victim advocates is imperative to helping children and families in child abuse cases. In this exploratory study, we surveyed advocates and program directors from child advocacy centers (CACs across the United States to compare their perceptions of the critical job duties of family victim advocates. Data analysis revealed that CAC directors rated the importance of these duties significantly higher than family victim advocates. Results suggest the need for additional training to ensure that family victim advocates understand the importance of critical job duties to meet the needs of children and families in child abuse cases.
Rosen, Lisa H.; Beron, Kurt J.; Underwood, Marion K.
An upward extension of the Revised Social Experience Questionnaire (Paquette & Underwood, 1999) was tested in a sample of adolescents followed longitudinally from seventh through tenth grade. We hypothesized that a two-factor model with overt and social victimization factors would fit the data better than would a unidimensional model (a single general victimization factor) or a three-factor model (separately examining verbal, physical, and social victimization). The two-factor model best represented the data, and we found support for longitudinal invariance of this model across seventh through tenth grades for both boys and girls. Such findings of temporal invariance are important for further longitudinal comparisons, and we suggest future directions for using the Revised Adolescent Social Experience Questionnaire to examine stability and change in victimization as well as evaluating the effectiveness of intervention programs. PMID:22708574
Hartman, C R
Vicarious traumatization is a phenomenon that recognizes that the exposure of persons, other than the victim, to the specifics of trauma material or the reenactment of traumatic experiences transmits the emotionally laden aspects of the original violence and thus is a source of emotional arousal and distress for the nurse working with victims of violence. This source of emotional arousal shapes the underlying approach--avoidance dynamic of countertransference responses that strain the empathic connection necessary for a safe and constructive nurse-patient relationship. Case consultation and supervision are necessary to protect the integrity of the nurse-patient relationship. The current isolating changes in the work setting cut the nurse off from needed support and guidance in working with victims of violence. The emotional risks inherent in working with victims of violence require that the nurse seek professional support for the interpersonal aspects of practice.
Full Text Available Borders are productive sites where knowledge is gathered and migrant populations are formed. The knowledge gathered from victims of trafficking reinforces a victim narrative that represents a perceived threat to society by highlighting violence, criminality, coercion, and naivety. Using Albania as a case in point, the article looks at trafficked people and the narratives of victimhood that surround them. In the case of trafficked people, the border projected out towards other states produces a discursively defined victim of trafficking. When projected back within the national territory, the border essentially produces a criminalised sex worker. To argue this point, the article discusses the role victims of trafficking play in the EU and looks at how international norms espoused by the OSCE and IOM have prepped the Albanian border for EU ascension and created the means for governable populations within Albania.
Becker, Heather J; Bechtel, Kirsten
Human trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery that is rapidly expanding in the United States and throughout the world. It is a crime under both the United States and international law. The child and adult victims of human trafficking are denied their basic human rights and subjected to unspeakable physical and emotional harm. Traffickers exert complete control over their victims and are proficient at hiding their condition from authorities. Healthcare practitioners may be the only professionals who come into contact with victims if they present for medical care. This article will describe human trafficking and its potential victims, as well as guide medical management and access to services that will ensure their safety and restore their freedom.
Full Text Available Background: The blastocyst implantation in any place other than uterus cavity endometrium is called ectopic pregnancy. The prevalence of ectopic pregnancy is different in various countries. This study has been conducted to investigate the epidemiology of ectopic pregnancy in Hamadan province during 2000-2010.Materials and Methods: The present study is a retrospective descriptive study. The data on 872 ectopic pregnancies were extracted by questionnaires from the files in the records department of hospitals and delivery centers in Hamadan province during 2000-2010. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the obtained data were analyzed using SPSS-16 software.Results: The frequency of ectopic pregnancy in Hamadan province during 2000-2010 was averagely 2.6 per 1000 pregnancies. Tubal pregnancy with 95.2% is the most prevalent type of ectopic pregnancy most of which had occurred in the right tube (52.4%. Most ectopic pregnancies (52.2% were in the age group of 25-34.Conclusion: The prevalence of ectopic pregnancy in Hamadan province during the mentioned years has been 2.6 in 1000 pregnancies, which is lower compared to many existing data. However, the prevalence of ectopic pregnancy in this province has increased over time, so that it has become 3.3 times as much from 2000-2010.
Domestic violence often just reproduces the repeated violence suffered as a child. The treatment of a female victim depends a lot on her traumatic past, and the care is designed in coordination with various partners. By improving the identification and care of children who are so-called witnesses to family violence, but who are really co-victims, in other words abused, it is possible to avoid violence in all its forms being reproduced across the generations.
Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard; Engmark, Mikael
Snakebite is a major public health burden for low-income countries in tropical parts of the world. There are around 5 million bites and 150,000 deaths every year. And about 400,000 victims become permanently disabled annually.......Snakebite is a major public health burden for low-income countries in tropical parts of the world. There are around 5 million bites and 150,000 deaths every year. And about 400,000 victims become permanently disabled annually....
Mobbing - psychological abuse at workplace is a phenomenon perpetually existing in the work organizations. Exceedingly important is to detect mobbing in the work organizations before it educe wide and severe effects not only on the victim, but also on the work organization itself. In this article, the mobbing prevention at the level of work organization, health and legal system is discussed. The types of victim assistance are also addressed. Moreover, the author’s experience in working with m...
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of different types of cyber bullying, the ways in which cyber bullying occurred, whether the identity of cyber bullies were known, and reaction to being cyber bullied among pre-service teachers. Relationships between gender and likelihood of being a cyber bully/victim were also investigated. Using a questionnaire based on the Cyber Bully and Victim Scale developed by , males were found to engage in cyber bullying more than females. Cybe...
Glover-Graf, N M; Janikowski, T P
Counselors delivering substance abuse treatment from within 39 treatment facilities throughout the United States were surveyed using the Substance Abuse Counselor Survey on Clients with Incest Histories (SACSCIH). The sample of 114 participants reported upon experiences and perceptions related to their incest-related training, identification of incest victims, prevalence of incest victims on their caseloads, and referral and treatment practices. Additionally, group comparisons provided information on differences based upon participants' gender, educational degree, recovery status, and experience with incest counseling.
Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Foshee, Vangie; Ennett, Susan
This study identified classes of developmental trajectories of physical dating violence victimization from grades 8 to 12 and examined theoretically-based risk factors that distinguished among trajectory classes. Data were from a multi-wave longitudinal study spanning 8th through 12th grade (n = 2,566; 51.9% female). Growth mixture models were used to identify trajectory classes of physical dating violence victimization separately for girls and boys. Logistic and multinomial logistic regressi...
Avdibegovic, Esmina; Brkic, Maja; Sinanovic, Osman
Research indicates that women victims of domestic violence show significant cognitive changes, emotional numbing, and avoidance of interpersonal relationships. The aim of this research was to analyze emotional profile of women victims of domestic violence, and to determine the relationship between dimensions of emotions and frequency of women exposure to domestic violence. The research was conducted on the sample of 169 women, 111 were victims of domestic violence and 58 were women who did not experience domestic violence. Plutchik's Emotions Profile Index (EPI) was used for measuring of the emotion profile, and the Modified Inventory of Domestic Violence for measuring experiences of different types of violence. Basic socio-demographic data were also collected. Significant differences between women victims of domestic violence and women who did not experience domestic violence were found in a few dimensions of emotional profile. Women victims of domestic violence had higher results in the dimensions of deprivation/depression and aggression/destruction, while women who did not experience domestic violence had higher results in dimensions of reproduction and incorporation. Aggression was in significant negative correlation with reproduction, incorporation and self protection, whereas it was significant positive correlation with deprivation and opposition. There were significant and positive correlation between the dimensions of aggression and deprivation and frequency of all three forms of domestic violence and age of women. According to results obtained in this research, it can be concluded that women victims of domestic violence have significantly more intensive negative emotional dimensions in comparison to women who were not abused. Women victims of domestic violence with higher frequency of abuse describe themselves as more sad, apathetic, lonely, angry, quarrelsome and less sociable. Prominence of negative emotions, deprivation and aggression, can be factor of
Hanley, Andrea J.; Gibb, Brandon E.
Hopelessness is a known risk factor for a number of negative outcomes including suicide attempts and deaths. However, little is known about how hopelessness may develop. The goal of this study was to examine the impact of verbal victimization on changes in children’s levels of hopelessness. Participants were four hundred forty-eight 4th and 5th grade children who were assessed twice, six months apart. As hypothesized, reports of verbal victimization occurring during the follow-up period predi...
Huseynova E.A.,; Yenikolopov S. N.
In a study involving 150 adolescents aged 15 to 18 years the emphasis was placed on the connection of the bullying victim position and level of aggressiveness. The following methods were used: a questionnaire, a method of sociometry, Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Bass-Perry aggressive behavior diagnosis questionnaire. We tested the assumption that the people occupying the bullying victim position, have a high level of aggression. Analysis of the results showed that the greatest number of subje...
Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Copeland, William E; Zammit, Stanley; Wolke, Dieter
It has been suggested that those who both bully and are victims of bullying (bully/victims) are at the highest risk of adverse mental health outcomes. However, unknown is whether most bully/victims were bullies or victims first and whether being a bully/victim is more detrimental to mental health than being a victim. A total of 4101 children were prospectively studied from birth, and structured interviews and questionnaires were used to assess bullying involvement at 10 years (elementary school) and 13 years of age (secondary school). Mental health (anxiety, depression, psychotic experiences) was assessed at 18 years. Most bully/victims at age 13 (n = 233) had already been victims at primary school (pure victims: n = 97, 41.6 % or bully/victims: n = 47, 20.2 %). Very few of the bully/victims at 13 years had been pure bullies previously (n = 7, 3 %). After adjusting for a wide range of confounders, both bully/victims and pure victims, whether stable or not from primary to secondary school, were at increased risk of mental health problems at 18 years of age. In conclusion, children who are bully/victims at secondary school were most likely to have been already bully/victims or victims at primary school. Children who are involved in bullying behaviour as either bully/victims or victims at either primary or secondary school are at increased risk of mental health problems in late adolescence regardless of the stability of victimization. Clinicians should consider any victimization as a risk factor for mental health problems.
de Waal, Marleen Maria; Dekker, Jacobus Johannes Maria; Goudriaan, Anna Emma
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of victimization in patients with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders (dual diagnosis) and compare them to the general population. In this cross-sectional survey study conducted in the Netherlands, 9 different types of victimization (e.g., physical assault) were assessed with the Safety Monitor in patients with dual diagnosis (n = 243) and a sample of the general population (n = 10,865). Chi-square tests were used to compare patients with a weighted sample of the general population. Compared to the general population, patients with dual diagnosis were more likely to have been a victim of violence (60% vs. 11%), property crime (58% vs. 30%), and vandalism (21% vs. 14%) in the year preceding the assessment. Threats, sexual assault, physical assault, robbery, bicycle theft, other theft, and vandalism were more prevalent in patients with dual diagnosis compared to the general population. Car theft was more prevalent in the general population. The risk of burglary did not differ significantly between groups. Patients with dual diagnosis are highly prone to victimization. In patients with severe mental illness, victimization is associated with psychopathology, substance use, homelessness, and engagement in criminal activity. Future research is necessary to explore underlying mechanisms in patients with dual diagnosis and develop interventions to reduce their vulnerability for victimization.
Full Text Available The two most prominent developments in criminal justice in the last twenty to thirty years are the rise of restorative justice and the recognition and improvement of the position of the victim. The first part of the paper discusses a theoretical model for victims within restorative justice that the researchers at the InterVICT research institute authors of this paper are developing at this moment. This model incorporates current knowledge from social psychology and studies surrounding traumatic stress and provides a number of hypotheses that will be subsequently evaluated in practice with participants in restorative justice procedures. On the other hand, international legal protocols for restorative justice also lack a consistent victim-oriented perspective. To this end the European Forum for Victim Services has recently published a statement concerning the position of the victim within mediation. The second part of the paper addresses the central issues in this statement. Taken together the paper moves beyond criticism of restorative justice, as it hopes to redirect theory and implementation of restorative justice toward a stronger victim-orientation.
Full Text Available Objective: The general aim of this study was to explore the victimization process of the so-called “pyramid scheme fraud”. Specifically the causal agents of this fraud and the consequent damage were analyzed as well as the victims’ different responses. Method: The sample comprised 14 victims of the fraud (12 direct victims and 2 indirect victims aged 47-87 years old. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in depth, comprising a total of 36 questions. Results: The factors involved in the fraud appear simultaneously, these factors being economic and trust elements. Considering the reactions to this type of scam, the bipolar factor of earning vs. losing money seems to play a basic role in those victims who decide to invest. This way two different behaviors may emerge: on the one hand, the legitimation of this “business” and, on the other hand, the rejection of it. Conclusions: There were no significant differences between the factors that influence people to invest and maintain their investment in the pyramid scheme fraud. However, some differences have been observed with respect to the reactions against the scam. Future studies should be based on bigger samples, which could lead to the acquisition of a personality profile of the victims. In addition, two subgroups might be considered: Those who make money and those who lose money.
Grasso, Damion J; Saunders, Benjamin E; Williams, Linda M; Hanson, Rochelle; Smith, Daniel W; Fitzgerald, Monica M
The current study examined the cumulative risk associated with children's exposure to multiple types of parent-inflicted victimization. The sample was comprised of 195 children who were 7 to 17 years old (64.1% female and 48.2% non-White) at the time of referral to the United States Navy's Family Advocacy Program due to allegations of sexual abuse, physical abuse, or parental intimate partner violence. We conducted an exploratory latent class analysis to identify distinct subgroups of children based on lifetime victimization. We hypothesized that at least 2 classes or subgroups would be identified, with 1 characterized by greater victimization and poorer outcomes. Results indicated that 3 classes of children best fit the data: (a) high victimization across all 3 categories, (b) high rates of physical abuse and witnessing intimate partner violence, and (c) high rates of physical abuse only. Findings indicated that the high victimization class was at greatest risk for alcohol and substance use, delinquent behavior, and meeting criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or depression 1 year later (odds ratio = 4.53). These findings highlight the serious mental health needs of a small but significantly high-risk portion of multiply victimized children entering the child welfare system. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Chen, Xiaochen; Graham, Sandra
This study examined the effect of close relationships (best friendship and romantic relationship) on late adolescents' casual attributions for peer victimization. A total of 1106 twelfth grade students completed self-report measures of perceived peer victimization, self-blame attribution, psychological maladjustment (loneliness and social anxiety), and quality of close peer relationships. Results indicated that self-blame partly mediated the link between peer victimization and psychological maladjustment. Relationship quality moderated the victimization-self-blame relation. Participants were more likely to endorse self-blame attributions for peer victimization when they had a negative relationship with a best friend or romantic partner. The moderated effect of negative best friendship quality was only significant for girls, whereas the moderated effect of negative romantic relationship quality was only significant for boys. Implications of these findings for future research on close relations during adolescence and for interventions to reduce the effects of peer victimization were discussed. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Semsarian, Christopher; Ingles, Jodie
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a rare but devastating complication of a number of underlying cardiovascular diseases. While coronary artery disease and acute myocardial infarction are the most common causes of SCD in older populations, inherited cardiac disorders comprise a substantial proportion of SCD cases aged less than 40 years. Inherited cardiac disorders include primary inherited arrhythmogenic disorders such as familial long QT syndrome (LQTS), Brugada syndrome (BrS), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), and inherited cardiomyopathies, most commonly hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). In up to 40% of young SCD victims (defined as 1-40 years old, excluding sudden unexplained death in infancy from 0 to 1 years, referred to as SIDS), no cause of death is identified at postmortem [so-called "autopsy negative" or "sudden arrhythmic death syndrome" (SADS)]. Management of families following a SCD includes the identification of the cause of death, based either on premorbid clinical details or the pathological findings at the postmortem. When no cause of death is identified, genetic testing of DNA extracted from postmortem tissue (the molecular autopsy) may identify a cause of death in up to 30% of SADS cases. Targeted clinical testing in a specialized multidisciplinary clinic in surviving family members combined with the results from genetic testing, provide the optimal setting for the identification of relatives who may be at risk of having the same inherited heart disease and are therefore also predisposed to an increased risk of SCD.
Nazim, Muhammad H; Gupta, Sanjay; Hashmi, Syed; Zuberi, Jamshed; Wilson, Alison; Roberts, Lawrence; Karimi, Kamran
Venomous snakebites are a rare but dangerous and potentially deadly condition in the U.S.. Most bites in the U. S. result from envenomation with snakes of the family Viperidae, subfamily Crotalinae, which includes rattlesnakes and copperheads. Treatment includes a comprehensive work-up to look for possible hematologic, neurologic, renal, and cardiovascular abnormalities, local wound care, systemic antivenom administration, tetanus prophylaxis, antibiotics in the presence of infection and surgical treatment if needed, which may include debridement, fasciotomy and rarely amputation. All these patients should be observed for a minimum of 8 hours. Any evidence of envenomation mandates a minimum of 24 hours of in-hospital observation. A grading system to classify the severity of envenomation is described. The most commonly used antivenom in the U.S. is CroFab, which has a much lower incidence of acute or delayed allergic reactions compared to the older antivenoms. When allergic reactions do occur, they are usually of mild to moderate severity. With the improved risk-benefit ratio of CroFab, antivenom is indicated with any grade of envenomation. In this a retrospective study, we will review our experience with 25 snakebite victims admitted to the West Virginia University over a five years period.
Allana M. Krolikowski
Full Text Available Sexual assault is a topic of importance worldwide to health professionals that provide emergency care. Victims of sexual assault include adult men, adult women, and children. The prevalence of sexual assault is likely under-reported. These patients should be offered comprehensive medical care upon arrival to the emergency centre. This includes assessment for acute injuries; medical history; physical examination; and possible collection of evidence. Depending on the patient's situation, he or she may be offered prophylactic and therapeutic management, which includes pregnancy testing and emergency contraception, prophylaxis for sexually transmitted infections, and HIV post-exposure prophylaxis. This article addresses the most up-to-date information on this management. Patients should also be offered mental health counselling on-site if appropriate health professionals are available. A number of countries have national protocols for care of the sexual assault patient. Implementing these protocols can be strengthened through such interventions as hiring sexual assault nurse examiners or creating a sexual assault centre within the emergency centre. The patient's immediate and future safety and emotional needs should be evaluated and a plan formulated for safety when the patient is discharged. Medical follow up is recommended and should be strongly encouraged.
Mundorff, Amy Z
This paper will provide mass fatality emergency planners, police, medical examiners, coroners and other Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) personnel ways to integrate forensic anthropologists into DVI operations and demonstrate how anthropological contributions have improved DVI projects. In mass disaster situations, anthropologists have traditionally been limited to developing biological profiles from skeletal remains. Over the past decade, however, anthropologists' involvement in DVI has extended well beyond this traditional role as they have taken on increasingly diverse tasks and responsibilities. Anthropological involvement in DVI operations is often dictated by an incident's specific characteristics, particularly events involving extensive fragmentation, commingling, or other forms of compromised remains. This paper will provide examples from recent DVI incidents to illustrate the operational utility of anthropologists in the DVI context. The points where it is most beneficial to integrate anthropologists into the DVI process include: (1) during recovery at the disaster scene; (2) at the triage station as remains are brought into the mortuary; and (3) in conducting the reconciliation process. Particular attention will be paid to quality control and quality assurance measures anthropologists have developed and implemented for DVI projects. Overall, this paper will explain how anthropological expertise can be used to increase accuracy in DVI while reducing the project's cost and duration.
Full Text Available Children’s attribution of emotions to a moral transgressor is an important research topic in the psychology of moral and emotional development. This is especially because of the so-called Happy Victimizer Phenomenon (HVP where younger children attribute positive emotions to a moral transgressor described in a story. In the two studies that we have conducted (children aged 5, 7 and 9, 20 of each age; 10 of each age in the second study we have tested the possible influence of the fear of sanctions and the type of transgression (stealing and inflicting body injuries on the attribution of emotions. Children were presented with stories that described transgressions and they were asked to answer how the transgressor felt. The fear of sanctions did not make a significant difference in attribution but the type of transgression did - more negative emotions were attributed for inflicting body injuries than for stealing. Positive emotions were explained with situational-instrumental explanations in 84% of cases while negative emotions were explained with moral explanations in 63,5%. Girls attributed more positive emotions (61% than boys (39%. However, our main finding was that, for the aforementioned age groups, we did not find the HVP effect although it has regularly been registered in foreign studies. This finding denies the generalizability of the phenomenon and points to the significance of disciplining styles and, even more so, culture for children’s attribution of emotions to moral transgressors.
Christopher Semsarian, MBBS, PhD, MPH
Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death (SCD is a rare but devastating complication of a number of underlying cardiovascular diseases. While coronary artery disease and acute myocardial infarction are the most common causes of SCD in older populations, inherited cardiac disorders comprise a substantial proportion of SCD cases aged less than 40 years. Inherited cardiac disorders include primary inherited arrhythmogenic disorders such as familial long QT syndrome (LQTS, Brugada syndrome (BrS, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT, and inherited cardiomyopathies, most commonly hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM. In up to 40% of young SCD victims (defined as 1–40 years old, excluding sudden unexplained death in infancy from 0 to 1 years, referred to as SIDS, no cause of death is identified at postmortem [so-called “autopsy negative” or “sudden arrhythmic death syndrome” (SADS]. Management of families following a SCD includes the identification of the cause of death, based either on premorbid clinical details or the pathological findings at the postmortem. When no cause of death is identified, genetic testing of DNA extracted from postmortem tissue (the molecular autopsy may identify a cause of death in up to 30% of SADS cases. Targeted clinical testing in a specialized multidisciplinary clinic in surviving family members combined with the results from genetic testing, provide the optimal setting for the identification of relatives who may be at risk of having the same inherited heart disease and are therefore also predisposed to an increased risk of SCD.
Herge, Whitney M; La Greca, Annette M; Chan, Sherilynn F
Peer victimization (PV) is a key interpersonal stressor that can be traumatizing for youth. This study evaluated the relationships between overt, relational, reputational, and cyber PV and adolescents' somatic complaints and sleep problems. Symptoms of depression and social anxiety were examined as potential mediators. Adolescents (N = 1,162; M age = 15.80 years; 57% female; 80% Hispanic) were assessed at three time points, 6 weeks apart, using standardized measures of PV, depression, social anxiety, sleep problems, and somatic complaints. Structural equation modeling evaluated key study aims. Relational, reputational, and cyber PV, but not overt PV, were directly or indirectly associated with subsequent somatic complaints and/or sleep problems. Depression and social anxiety mediated relationships between relational PV and health outcomes, whereas reputational PV was indirectly associated with somatic complaints via depression only. The stress of PV may contribute to adolescents' sleep problems and somatic complaints and has implications for pediatric psychologists. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Hébert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Blais, Martin
This analysis examined the contribution of personal, family (maternal and paternal support; sibling support) and extra-familiar (peer support; other adults) resilience to the prediction of clinical levels of PTSD symptoms in adolescents reporting sexual abuse. Controls were established for abuse-related variables (type of abuse, severity and multiple abuse) in a representative sample of high schools students in the province of Quebec. A total of 15.2% of adolescent females and 4.4% adolescent males in high school reported a history of sexual abuse in childhood. Sexually abused adolescent females (27.8%) were more likely than adolescent males (14.9%) to achieve scores with high clinical levels of PTSD. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed that over and above the characteristics of the sexual abuse experienced, resilience factors (maternal and peer support) contributed to the prediction of symptoms of PTSD attaining the clinical threshold. Alternative intervention and prevention practices geared to adolescent victims of sexual assault are discussed.
Full Text Available In contrast to many European jurisdictions, the victim of an alleged crime in England, Wales and Northern Ireland is denied any form of meaningful participation at the trial stage of the criminal justice process. This is by reason of the unyielding structure of the Anglo-American adversarial system, which facilitates a dispute between two parties only - the prosecution, acting on behalf of the collective public interest and the defence. In recent years, however, the victims’ movement has gained momentum as advocates of victims’ rights have been engaged in an impassioned campaign to enhance the participatory rights of victims in the criminal justice process. Fervent arguments have been articulated pertaining to the value of various forms of victim input. This paper cogitates some of these arguments and critically evaluates how enhanced victim participation in the criminal justice process has the potential to undercut the integrity of the Anglo- American adversarial system; a system with objective adjudication at its core.
Ferreira, Fátima Abreu; Martins, Paula Cristina; Gonçalves, Rui Abrunhosa
The main objective of this research is to examine the national prevalence and scale of cyberbullying, how it takes place and the core characteristics (behaviors, frequency, and duration) of cyberbullying victimization. We also intend to analyze the existence of an overlap between the roles of victims and aggressors concerning this risk. In order to accomplish our goals we have made a cross cultural comparison between Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom and developed a questionnaire (Online...
Full Text Available The 195 species of Curculionoidea (Coleoptera thus far indicated from Golestan province (northern Iran according to both literature and original records are listed in this paper. New data for 61 species belonging to 18 genera collected during this research are also given. Besides the 42 species newly reported for the Golestan province, the following additional 15 species are newly recorded from Iran: Brachypera lunata, Ceutorhynchus anatolicus, Datonychus urticae, Hypera contaminata, Hypera viciae, Larinus canescens, L. adspersus, Lixus ascanii, Microplontus rugulosus, Neoglocianus smyrnensis, Otiorhynchus tetrarchus, O. scitus, Tychius cuprifer, T. picirostris, T. thoracicus.
Full Text Available Background: Leishmaniasis, a parasitic disease, is caused by the Leishmania genus, a protozoan parasite transmitted by sand fly arthropods. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in old world is usually caused by L. major, L. tropica, and L. aethiopica complexes. One of the most important hyper endemic areas of CL in Iran is Isfahan province. Varzaneh is a city in the eastern part of Isfahan province. Due to different biological patterns of parasite strains which are distributed in the region, this study was design to identify Leishmania species from human victims using Kinetoplastid DNA as templates in a molecular PCR method. Materials and Methods: Among 186 suspected cases, 50 cases were confirmed positive by direct microscopy after Giemsa staining. Species characterization of the isolates was done using Nested- PCR as a very effective and sensitive tool to reproduce mini circle strands. Results: After Nested-PCR from all 50 cases, 560 bp bands were produced which according to products of reference strains indicate that the infection etiologic agent has been L. major. 22 (44% of patients were females and 28 (56% of them were males. Their age ranges were between 7 months and 60 years. Conclusion: According to the results of the study and the particular pattern of infection prevalent in the region, genetic studies and identification of Leishmania parasites are very important in the disease control and improvement of regional strategy of therapy protocols.
Full Text Available Victimization is associated with negative developmental outcomes in childhood and adolescence. However, previous studies have provided mixed results regarding the association between offline and online victimization and indicators of social, psychological, and somatic well-being. In this study, we investigated 1,906 German children and adolescents (grades 5 to 10, mean age = 13.9; SD = 2.1 with and without offline or online victimization experiences who participated in a social online network (SNS. Online questionnaires were used to assess previous victimization (offline, online, combined, and without, somatic and psychological symptoms, self-esteem, and social self-concept (social competence, resistance to peer influence, esteem by others. In total, 1,362 (71.4% children and adolescents reported being a member of at least one social online network, and 377 students (28.8% reported previous victimization. Most children and adolescents had offline victimization experiences (17.5%, whereas 2.7% reported online victimization, and 8.6% reported combined experiences. Girls reported more online and combined victimization, and boys reported more offline victimization. The type of victimization (offline, online, combined was associated with increased reports of psychological and somatic symptoms, lower self-esteem and esteem by others, and lower resistance to peer influences. The effects were comparable for the groups with offline and online victimization. They were, however, increased in the combined group in comparison to victims with offline experiences alone.
Part II: Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers and Delinquent Youth--Further Group Comparisons of Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Challenges
Leibowitz, George S.; Burton, David L.; Howard, Alan
In a recent paper published in the "Journal of Child Sexual Abuse," we assessed the differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers (Burton, Duty, & Leibowitz, 2011). We found that the sexually victimized group had more severe developmental antecedents (e.g., trauma and early exposure to…
Morrow, Michael T.; Hubbard, Julie A.; Swift, Lauren E.
This study examined the relations between multiple types of peer victimization, affective reactivity to victimization, and academic achievement. Participants (179 fifth-grade boys and girls) completed repeated daily measures of peer victimization and negative affect; a standardized measure of achievement was collected concurrently. The daily…
Mitchell, Kimberly J; Segura, Anna; Jones, Lisa M; Turner, Heather A
This article explores the ways poly-victimized youth (those experiencing multiple different types of victimization over the course of 1 year) use technology to interact with peers. Particular attention is given to the peer harassment victimization and perpetration experiences of poly-victimized youth compared with less victimized and non-victimized youth-both overall and through technology. Data were collected as part of the Technology Harassment Victimization (THV) study; a national survey of 791 youth, ages 10 to 20 across the United States. Study results document the heightened risks that poly-victimized youth experience when interacting with peers. Low and high poly-victimized youth were both at significantly greater risk of being dual victims and perpetrators of peer harassment when compared with non-victimized youth even after taking into account other potentially explanatory factors. This was not found to be the case for less victimized youth. This was true for high poly-victims and technology-involved harassment risk as well. There were indications that poly-victimized youth were interacting with peers in more intense and risky ways in general using new technology. The increase in attention to poly-victimization in recent years has importantly identified the detrimental role that experiencing different forms of victimization have on youth. This study not only adds to that literature but suggests that there is an opportunity to interrupt additional victimization by understanding how poly-victimized youth interact with peers before and during adolescence. Although preliminary, the differences in technology use by poly-victimized youth versus others suggest that more information is needed to understand how they are relating to peers in both positive and risky ways in this environment.
Full Text Available The attribution of emotions to transgressors has received considerable attention of researchers since the end of the1980s. A common research finding in the Western countries (the USA, Germany, and Portugal is that children younger than 8 years attribute positive emotions to transgressors (which is called “the happy victimizer phenomenon”, HVP. On the other hand, a research study conducted in Belgrade, Serbia, did not find the HVP even among 5-year-old children. It was established that children from Belgrade focused more on the moral side of the transgression than on the instrumental side (i.e. the things that the transgressor achieved by the transgression. The goal of our research was to evaluate whether Serbian children actually reason in this way or simply repeat what they have learned. In order to verify this hypothesis, Piaget’s method of “a pair of stories” (instead of presenting the stories one by one was used in two studies. In the first study, the degree of injury inflicted to the other child was varied (as one aspect of the moral side of the transgression. In the second study, the type of intention (good or bad was varied (as another aspect of the moral side of the transgression. In both studies, the sample consisted of 40 children, with two age groups (5- and 7-year-old children that included 20 children each (10 boys and 10 girls. The conclusion of both studies was that subjects attributed negative emotions to transgressors in accordance with the moral instead of instrumental understanding of the transgression. These findings imply that children’s responses do not represent moral knowledge, but reflect authentic moral reasoning.
Gabriel Costa Serrão de Araújo
Full Text Available Gunshot wounds require surgeons to decide whether to remove or leave bullet fragments in the body. Surgeons also decide how to follow up with patients who have lead fragments retained in their body. Current literature recommends to remove only intra-articular fragments without the need for a follow-up for patients with the metal retained. Therefore, this study investigates chronic lead toxicity for gunshot wounds.The study was performed in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil, between 2013 and 2015. It was a case-control study that included 45 victims of gunshot lesions with metallic fragments retained for more than 6 months. The 45 controls were matched for gender, age, and race. We compared the lead blood levels and frequency of symptoms.The control group had average blood lead levels of 2.17 μg/dL (95% Confidence Interval [CI]; 1.71-2.63 and median 2.1 μg/dL. The case group had average values of 9.01 μg/dL (CI; 6.07-11.96 and median values of 6.5 μg/dL with p-values < = 0.001. The case group reported the following more frequently: irritancy, bad mood, headache, memory losses, daylight drowsiness, myalgia, weakness, abdominal pain, joint pain, trembling, tingling limbs. There was statistical significance for the differences of symptoms frequencies and for odds ratio between groups.Although the mean lead levels found were lower than the current laboratory references, low levels have been associated with both rising morbidity and mortality. The WHO stated: "There is no known level of lead exposure that is considered safe". In conclusion, this work showed that bullets retained in the body are not innocuous. There are impacts in the blood lead levels and symptoms related to it, even with few fragments, extra-articular located or existing with low blood lead levels.
Shenoi, Rohit P; Nassif, Anriada; Camp, Elizabeth A; Pereira, Faria A
The medical diagnoses and frequency of emergency department visits made by children who are later given a diagnosis of maltreatment do not differ much from those of nonabused children. However, the type of medical complaints and frequency of emergency medical services (EMS) use by child homicide victims before their death are not known. We compared EMS use between child homicide victims and children who died from natural causes before their death. This was a retrospective case-control study of children 0 to 5 years old who died in Houston, Texas, from 2005 to 2010. Cases were child homicide victims. Controls were children who died from natural causes. We reviewed death data and EMS and child protective services (CPS) encounter information before the victim's death. The association between death type (natural vs homicide) and EMS use was assessed using Poisson regression with EMS count adjusted for exposure time. There were 89 child homicides and 183 natural deaths. Age at death was significantly higher for homicides than natural deaths (1.1 vs 0.2 y, P Homicide victims used EMS services (39% vs 14%, P homicide group had more EMS calls than the natural death group (β = 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.04-1.07; P = 0.03). However, the EMS use frequency and working assessments were not helpful in identifying maltreatment victims. Child homicide victims use EMS more often and have a higher number of CPS investigations before their death than children who die from natural causes. However, the frequency and nature of EMS medical complaints are not helpful in identifying maltreatment.
Gothwal, Vijaya K; Sumalini, Rebecca; Irfan, Shaik Mohammad; Giridhar, Avula; Bharani, Seelam
To explore the psychometric properties of the revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (OBVQ) in children with visual impairment (VI) using Rasch analysis. One hundred fifty Indian children with VI between 8 and 16 years (mean age, 11.6 years; 69% male; mean acuity in the better eye of 0.80 logMAR [Snellen, 20/126]) were administered the revised OBVQ. The 40-item revised OBVQ was developed to assess victimization (i.e., being bullied) and bullying (bullying others) in normally sighted schoolchildren. Only 16 items are used for Rasch analysis and are divided into two parts: I (victimization, eight items) and II (bullying others, eight items). Separate Rasch analysis was conducted for both parts, and the psychometric properties investigated included behavior of rating scale, extent to which the items measured a single construct (unidimensionality by fit statistics and principal component analysis [PCA] of residuals); ability to discriminate among participants' victimization and bullying behaviors (measurement precision as assessed by person separation reliability [PSR] minimum recommended value, 0.80); and targeting of items to participants' victimization and bullying. Response categories were misused for both parts I and II, which required repair before further analysis. Measurement precision was inadequate for both parts (PSR, 0.64 for part I and 0.19 for part II), indicating poor discriminatory ability. All items fit the Rasch model well in part I, indicating unidimensionality that was further confirmed using PCA of residuals. However, an item misfit in part II that required deletion following which the remaining items fit and PCA of residuals also supported unidimensionality. Targeting was -0.58 logits for part I, indicating that the items were matched well with the participants' victimization. By comparison, targeting was suboptimal for part II (-1.97 logits). In its current state, the revised OBVQ is not a valid psychometric instrument to assess victimization
Stephens, Skye; Seto, Michael C; Goodwill, Alasdair M; Cantor, James M
Victim choice polymorphism refers to victim inconsistency in a series of offenses by the same perpetrator, such as in the domains of victim age, victim gender, and victim-offender relationship. Past studies have found that victim age polymorphic offenders have higher rates of sexual recidivism than offenders against adults only and offenders against children only. Few studies, however, have examined gender and relationship polymorphism, or accounted for the impact of the number of past victims. The present study analyzed the relationship between polymorphism and sexual recidivism, while controlling for the number of victims. The sample consisted of 751 male adult sexual offenders followed for an average of 10 years, 311 of whom were polymorphic (41% of the total sample). The main finding suggested that there was an association between sexual recidivism and age and relationship polymorphism; however, these associations were no longer significant after controlling for the number of victims.
Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E; Pérusse, Daniel; Boivin, Michel
This study examined whether (a) a genetic disposition for physical health problems increases the risk of peer victimization and (b) peer victimization interacts with genetic vulnerability in explaining physical health problems. Participants were 167 monozygotic and 119 dizyogtic twin pairs. Physical symptoms were assessed in early childhood and early adolescence. Peer victimization was assessed in middle childhood. Genetic vulnerability for physical health problems in early childhood was unrelated to later peer victimization, but genetic vulnerability for physical health problems during early adolescence increased the risk of victimization. Victimization did not interact with genetic factors in predicting physical symptoms. Environmental, not genetic, factors had the greatest influence on the development of physical symptoms in victims. Genetic vulnerability for physical health problems in early adolescence increases the risk of peer victimization. Whether victims suffer a further increase in physical symptoms depends on the presence of protective environmental factors.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The war in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has been the subject of numerous studies related to the problem of sexual violence. Historically, such violence is known to be part of strategic war plans to conquer and destroy communities, but it is now unfortunately prevalent in times of relative calm. Methods We describe the characteristics and consequences of sexual violence in Ituri province of Democratic Republic of Congo through the retrospective analysis of 2,565 patients who received medical care in the Médecins Sans Frontières sexual violence clinic in the capital of Ituri province, Bunia, between September 2005 and December 2006. Using a standardised questionnaire, we report patients' demographics, number and status of aggressor(s, forced detention and violent threats among other variables for all patients presenting for medical consultation after a sexually violent event during this period. Results Ninety-six percent of our cohort were female and 29.3% minors, 18-29 years was the most represented age group. Acts of sexual violence (n = 2,565 were reported to be mainly perpetrated by men with military affiliations (73%, although civilians were implicated in 21% of crimes. The attack was perpetrated by two or more persons in over 74% of cases and most commonly perpetrators were unknown armed males, (87.2%. Male victims accounted for 4% (n = 103 of our cohort. Forty-eight percent of our patients reported being attacked whilst performing daily domestic duties outside the home and 18% of victims being detained by their perpetrators, the majority of whom were held for less than 2 weeks (61.6%. Conclusions The characteristics of sexually violent acts in Ituri province during this period cannot be simply explained as a 'weapon of war' as described in the literature, meaning the use of sexual violence within a military strategy where it is employed under the orders of a commander to harm a particular community. Whilst the
Weber, Mathias; Ziegele, Marc; Schnauber, Anna
Cyberbullying victims' success in coping with bullying largely depends on schoolmates and other bystanders' social support. However, factors influencing the degree of social support have as yet not been investigated. In this article, the concept of victim blaming is applied to cyberbullying incidents. It is assumed that a cyberbullying victim receives less social support when the victim's behavior is perceived as very overt. It is further assumed that this effect's underlying process is the partial attribution of responsibility for the incident to the victim and not to the bully. The hypotheses are tested with a 2×2 online experiment. In this experiment, varying online self-presentations of a fictitious female cyberbullying victim were presented to 586 Germans aged 16-22. The victim's public Facebook profile was manipulated in terms of the victim's extraversion and the amount of personal information disclosed. The results support the hypotheses. Participants attributed more responsibility for the bullying incident to the victim when the victim was presented as extraverted and very open in revealing personal information. This diminished social support for the victim. The effect was partially mediated by the victim's perceived attractiveness. The study implies that concepts from victimization research can enhance our understanding of cyberbullying incidents. Among other factors, the victim's specific personal characteristics deserve more consideration--not only with regard to the incident itself but also regarding subsequent social dynamics and coping mechanisms.
Full Text Available In the paper, the authors deal with the victim"s position in the criminal procedure, on the one hand side, and the possibilities of implementing restorative justice and its importance for the improvement of victim"s position in Serbia, on the other one. In the first part of the paper, the authors point out victim"s position within the criminal procedure and the noticed gaps, which are particularly reflected in insufficient paying attention to the victim and neglecting of his/her rights and needs. This is opposite to the strengthening of the rights of the accused party that characterizes societies, which are, as our society, on the way of democratization and improvement of human rights. In the second part of the paper, the authors analyze some solutions that introduce elements of restorative justice into our system of criminal response to crime, but from the victim"s point of view. Finally, the authors also point out some further steps that should be undertaken in order to improve the victim"s position, particularly emphasizing the place and role of victim support service, witness service and special facilities in the courts for victims/witnesses, possibilities of using victim-offender mediation before reporting the crime, or staring the prosecution, or as a part of the treatment in the prison etc.
Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra; Dastgiri, Saeed; Davoudi-kiakalyeh, Ali; Imani, Ali; Mollarahimi, Keyvan
Objective: To determine the epidemiological characteristics of the road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Guilan province, northern Iran. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study which included all of RTIs admitted to medical centers of Guilan province (northern Iran) during 2012. ICD-10 was used as diagnostic criteria. Demographic variables also injury circumstance and in hospital variables such as length of stay, time of admission, type of surgery, ICU admission, final outcome and mechanism of injury, anatomical part of injury according to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) classification were derives from records by trained research team. Descriptive data is reported. The predictors of mortality were also determined. Results: The prevalence of road traffic injuries in Guilan province was 31 in 10,000 populations. Of total 7671 accidents, 5976 (77.9%) were men and 1695 (22.1%) were women. Mean age of these victims was 33.3 ± 17.289 years (32.64±16.939 for men, 35.62±18.312 for women). Most of them (32.5%) were 20-29 years old. Motorcycle-car accidents had the highest frequency followed by car-car crashes and car accidents involving pedestrians. Most of the patients (85.9%) were hospitalized and 280 injured died (3.7%). Upper extremities were the most sites of injuries. Male sex, length of hospital stay, multiple injuries and increased age were associated with road traffic accident associated mortality. Conclusion: RTIs cause enormous death and disability in this area and more road traffic preventive programs should be enforcement in these areas to reduce incidences RTI. PMID:27878129
Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra; Dastgiri, Saeed; Davoudi-Kiakalyeh, Ali; Imani, Ali; Mollarahimi, Keyvan
To determine the epidemiological characteristics of the road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Guilan province, northern Iran. This study was a cross-sectional study which included all of RTIs admitted to medical centers of Guilan province (northern Iran) during 2012. ICD-10 was used as diagnostic criteria. Demographic variables also injury circumstance and in hospital variables such as length of stay, time of admission, type of surgery, ICU admission, final outcome and mechanism of injury, anatomical part of injury according to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) classification were derives from records by trained research team. Descriptive data is reported. The predictors of mortality were also determined. The prevalence of road traffic injuries in Guilan province was 31 in 10,000 populations. Of total 7671 accidents, 5976 (77.9%) were men and 1695 (22.1%) were women. Mean age of these victims was 33.3 ± 17.289 years (32.64±16.939 for men, 35.62±18.312 for women). Most of them (32.5%) were 20-29 years old. Motorcycle-car accidents had the highest frequency followed by car-car crashes and car accidents involving pedestrians. Most of the patients (85.9%) were hospitalized and 280 injured died (3.7%). Upper extremities were the most sites of injuries. Male sex, length of hospital stay, multiple injuries and increased age were associated with road traffic accident associated mortality. RTIs cause enormous death and disability in this area and more road traffic preventive programs should be enforcement in these areas to reduce incidences RTI.
Conclusions: The majority of rabies cases occurred among 40–65-year-old male residents of northern, mid-west, and southeast Zhejiang Province. Further health education is needed to increase the coverage of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP in people exposed to possible rabid animals and rabies vaccine use in household animals.
Castell-florit Serrate, P; Portuondo Dustet, N; Suarez Rosas, L; Ovies Garcia, A; Alvarez Fernandez, R; Lima Perez, M T
Questionnaires intended to determine the factors involved in deaths in infants under 1 year have been completed in the province of Havana, Cuba, since 1980. The questionnaires are completed by obstetricians and pediatricians of the municipal health areas and analyzed at the secondary care level. This work examines the factors present in the 133 infant deaths occurring in Havana Province in 1983. The infant mortality rate in the province in 1983 was 14.1/1000 live births, the lowest ever recorded in the province. 74 of the deaths occurred in the early neonatal period, 13 in the late neonatal, and 46 in the postneonatal period. 22 of the early neonatal deaths were due to intrapartum anoxia, 15 to hyaline membrane disease, 10 to prematurity, 7 to bronchoaspiration, 3 to sepsis, 1 to bronchial pneumonia, and 13 to malformations. In the late neonatal and postneonatal periods, 11 deaths were attributed to acute diarrheal disease, 6 to meningitis, and 5 to accidents. 8 of the mothers were under 17 years old, 30 were 18-20, 57 were 21-30, and 16 were 31 or over. Maternal age was unknown for 22. 22 of the mothers were overweight, 29 were malnourished, 55 were of normal nutritional status, and the status of 27 was unknown. 67.7% of the early neonatal deaths were in low birth weight babies. Low educational level and rural residence were social factors in infant mortality.
Classic examples of folded mountain ranges and wind erosion of geologic structures abound in the Flinders Mountain Range (30.5S, 139.0E), South Australia province, Australia. Winds from the deserts to the west gain speed as they blow across the barren surface and create interesting patterns as they funnel through the gullies and valleys.
Jun 21, 2010 ... Habitat destruction and indiscriminate hunting as well as agricultural pesticides are among the most crucial factors threatening the populations of these birds in Khouzestan Province, southwestern Iran. Using plot sampling, this study aims to investigate different vegetative factors including plant species,.
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes a modified subset of polygon features that describe U.S. Geological Survey's defined geologic provinces of the World. Each province has a set...
Sumter, Sindy R; Baumgartner, Susanne E; Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen
This study investigated the development and consequences of off-line and online victimization during adolescence. We examined the number and shapes of off-line and online victimization trajectories, the relationship between trajectories of off-line and online victimization, and their effect on life satisfaction. A four-wave panel study with 6-month time intervals was conducted among a representative sample of Dutch adolescents aged 12-17 years (N = 1,762). We used group-based modeling to investigate the victimization trajectories. Three off-line victimization trajectories could be distinguished. One group followed a trajectory of low to no victimization experiences across adolescence. A second group followed a pathway of moderate and decreasing victimization. A third group followed a pathway of high and decreasing victimization. Two groups in online victimization could be distinguished. One group followed a trajectory of low to no victimization experiences. A second group followed a pathway of moderate victimization that peaked at age 14. Dual-trajectory analyses revealed a substantial overlap between off-line and online victimization trajectories. Finally, victimization and life satisfaction were longitudinally related; moderate and high victimization trajectories resulted in lower levels of life satisfaction during wave 4. The overlap between the off-line and online victimization trajectories and their negative consequences on life satisfaction suggests that prevention of victimization should focus on both types of victimization. The results suggest that peer victimization should not be studied without considering adolescent peer relationships on the Internet. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Klettke, Bianca; Mellor, David
This study investigated perceptions of victim culpability in sexual assaults against girls and women according to victim age, perceiver gender, and perceiver parental status. Overall, 420 jury-eligible participants completed an online survey recording their attributions of guilt, responsibility, and blame toward 10-, 15-, and 20-year-old girls and women in relation to sexual assault. Attributions of culpability were affected by whether the victim physically or verbally resisted the abuse, wore sexually revealing clothes, or was described as having acted promiscuously. Fifteen-year-old victims were perceived as more culpable for the abuse than 10-year-old victims. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Obafunwa, John Oladapo; Ogunbanjo, Victor Olabode; Ogunbanjo, Ogunbiyi Babatunde; Soyemi, Sunday Sokunle; Faduyile, Francis Adedayo
Forensic odontology or forensic dentistry is that aspect of forensic science that uses the application of dental science for the identification of unknown human remains and bite marks. Deaths resulting from mass disasters such as plane crash or fire incidence have always been given mass burial in Nigeria. This was obviously due to the fact that Forensic Pathologists whose roles involve disaster victim identification were not available at that time. However, in the DANA air crash in Lagos in 2012, the Forensic pathologist and dental teams were invited for the first time to identify the victims. The objectives of this paper are to identify the extent of victims' identification using Forensic odontology alone and its combination with DNA analysis. It also presents the pattern of fractures seen in the mandible and maxilla of the victims. The bodies were dissected using following the standard protocol dissection. Prior to this all the victims had Dental Radiological Examination. The oral cavities were exposed after which the Odontology team was invited for photographing first, followed by dental charting. Fractures of the mandible, maxilla including the anatomical regions were all recorded and photographed. Dental prosthesis, restorations, crowns and bridge and other findings were also noted, recorded and compared with ante mortem records where available. A total of 152 bodies were recovered from the crash site while 148 victims were eventually identified through a combination of DNA analysis and forensic odontology. This represented 97.4%. Forensic odontology was the primary identifier in 10%. There were no fingerprinting information in this country at present therefore, it could not be used. A total of 89 (60%) were males while females accounted for 59(40%). This gives a ratio of 1.5:1. Most of the victims were in the age group 30-49 years; this represented 52% of the victims while the least involved age groups were victims above 60 years of age which accounted for
Baldwin, Susie B; Eisenman, David P; Sayles, Jennifer N; Ryan, Gery; Chuang, Kenneth S
An estimated 18,000 individuals are trafficked into the United States each year from all over the world, and are forced into hard labor or commercial sex work. Despite their invisibility, some victims are known to have received medical care while under traffickers' control. Our project aimed to characterize trafficking victims' encounters in US health care settings. The study consisted of semi-structured interviews with six Key Informants who work closely with trafficking victims (Phase I) and 12 female trafficking survivors (Phase II). All survivors were recruited through the Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking, an NGO in Los Angeles, and all were trafficked into Los Angeles. Interviews were conducted in English and six other languages, with the assistance of professional interpreters. Using a framework analysis approach that focused on victims' encounters in health care settings, we assessed interview transcript content and coded for themes. We used an exploratory pile-sorting technique to aggregate similar ideas and identify overarching domains. The survivors came from 10 countries. Eight had experienced domestic servitude, three had survived sex trafficking, and one had experienced both. Half the survivors reported that they had visited a physician while in their traffickers' control, and another worked in a health care facility. All Key Informants described other victims who had received medical care. For domestic servants, medical visits were triggered by injury and respiratory or systemic illness, while sex trafficking victims were seen by health professionals for sexually transmitted infections and abortion. Trafficking victims were prevented from disclosing their status to health care providers by fear, shame, language barriers, and limited interaction with medical personnel, among other obstacles. This exploration of survivors' experiences in health care settings supports anecdotal reports that US health care providers may unwittingly encounter
Griese, Emily R; Buhs, Eric S
A majority of peer victimization research focuses on its associations with negative outcomes, yet efforts to understand possible protective factors that may mitigate these negative outcomes also require attention. The present study was an investigation of the potential moderating effect of prosocial behaviors on loneliness for youth who are peer victimized. Participants were fourth and fifth grade students (511 total; 49 % boys) who were primarily European American (43.4 %) and Hispanic (48.2 %). Structural Equation Modeling was used to test the interaction of prosocial behavior and peer victimization (relational and overt forms) on loneliness 1 year later. The results indicated that prosocial behavior significantly moderated the relationship between peer victimization (for the relational form only) and loneliness while controlling for levels of perceived peer support. A multi-group comparison by gender further indicated the moderation was significant for boys only. Potential implications for intervention/prevention efforts focused on developing children's prosocial skills as a possible protective factor for relationally victimized youth are discussed.
Park, Yeong O.; Park, Sang H.
We hypothesized that observing social exclusion would influence observers’ judgments of the humanness of its victims and perpetrators. Specifically, we speculated that people would attribute victims and perpetrators to lower and higher mental capacities, respectively. Participants observed a simulated computer-based ball tossing game in which one of the players was either ostracized or not. They then rated the game players on traits associated with two dimensions of humanness, namely Human Nature (HN) and Human Uniqueness (HU). Overall, participants who witnessed an exclusion game judged the victim as less human on both domains compared to one of the perpetrators as well as to a player in the control condition. The perpetrator was attributed higher HN, but not significantly higher HU, compared to the control player. In addition, the less HN attributes a target was assigned, the more she was expected to be vulnerable to exploitation. On most of the other measures of target impression, however, the victim was rated more favorably than the perpetrator. The findings imply that social exclusion victims are often subtly derogated compared to the perpetrators, even while they are also more positively evaluated otherwise. PMID:26635705
Berg, Mark T; Mulford, Carrie F
The strong positive association between offending and victimization, or the victim-offender overlap, has received considerable amount of research attention in recent years. Empirical research has made important strides in unpacking the sources of the phenomenon, but important questions remain unanswered. Ambiguity surrounds the utility of certain theoretical explanations for the overlap, the nature of the phenomenon, and the methodological tools used to examine its etiology. Owing to these knowledge gaps, the scientific meaning of the victim-offender overlap is unclear. Moreover, a number of potentially important theoretical arguments are rarely subject to empirical testing in this line of research. The purpose of this article is to use a narrative review methodology to provide a critical reappraisal of the theoretical, empirical, and methodological research on the victim-offender overlap and offer directions for ways forward to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon. This review includes critical analysis of 78 academic publications, along with a table that summarizes the key findings and conclusions from 18 critical empirical studies that have contributed to our understanding of the victim-offender overlap. We offer recommendations for the continued development of theoretical and methodological tools to better understand this complex phenomenon.
Hiss, J; Kahana, T
The postmortem examination and identification procedures performed by medical and law enforcement personnel involved in mass disaster management in Israel are reported. The Israel National Police, the Israel Defense Forces, and the L. Greenberg Institute of Forensic Medicine's experts examined 171 victims who died in 21 incidents of suicidal terrorism. The trauma sustained by the victims and perpetrators of suicidal bombings included complete body disruption and explosive, flying missile, and blast injuries. The modus operandi of the perpetrators, reconstructed from the distribution and type of injury of the victims, is discussed. Fifty-five victims perished in open space bombings and 91 inside buses. All perpetrators of these bombings died at the time of the incident regardless of their location. Identification of the victims was achieved using fingerprints, dental records, medical intervention signs, anatomic variation, genetic profile, and personal recognition. Prompt identification of the perpetrators allowed speedy apprehension of the accomplices and prevention of similar attacks. Collaboration between the different forensic, military, and law enforcement teams increased the efficiency of disaster management efforts.
Moura, Danilo Rolim de; Cruz, Ana Catarina Nova; Quevedo, Luciana de Ávila
To describe the prevalence of bullying victims, the characteristics of those victims and their associated symptoms in the domains of emotion, behavior, hyperactivity and peer relationships. This was a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort that assesses disorders of reading, writing and arithmetic in 1,075 students enrolled in the first to eighth grades of two public schools in a lower-middle-class neighborhood of the city of Pelotas, RS, Brazil. The KIDSCAPE questionnaire was used to evaluate the prevalence of bullying and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to assess victims' behavioral characteristics. The prevalence of bullying was 17.6%. The most prevalent type of intimidation was verbal, followed by physical, emotional, racial and sexual. After adjustment for confounding factors, bullying was still associated with male sex (PR 1.49 95%CI 1.14-1.96), hyperactivity (PR 1.89 95%CI 1.25-2.87) and peer relationship problems (PR 1.85 95%CI 1.24-2.76). Among the victims of bullying, 47.1% had also initiated bullying. This study has identified the behavioral characteristics of bullying victims which may prove useful for local policies designed to protect the targets of bullying.
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study about peer intimidation and victimization with 1167 school students from 6th, 7th, and 8th grade from the Valparaiso Region of Valparaíso, Chile. The instrument used was the Insebull Battery (Avilés & Elices, 2007. Results show that approximately 9% of students have been victim of peer victimization many times or almost every day during the school year. Psychological victimization was more frequent thanphysical aggression, particularly through virtual communication such as cell-phone messages and e-mails. Participants tend to be groups of male students. Although male students participate more in physical aggression, they also receive more physical and psychological aggression. The most frequent places were inside the classroom and the school yard, when the teacher is not present. Most students inform not knowing, or vaguely knowing, thereasons underlying these aggressions, and do not do anything to deal with them. These results coincide with international studies and allow a better understanding of the characteristics of peer victimization in specific educational contexts within the Chilean school system.
Blair, K A
Although hardly a recent phenomenon, the battered woman has still not been a clearly recognizable presence to primary caregivers. Unawareness of actual victims stems from an incomplete understanding of the reality of the "battered wife syndrome," lack of knowledge about the various forms of abuse and the silence of the victims themselves. The victim rarely reports abuse to the primary care provider without being asked. She does, however, present with common psychosomatic complaints, such as choking, gastrointestinal disorders or nervousness. Her injuries may range from bruises to fractures, and the explanation of these injuries is usually inappropriate. Characteristically, the victim of abuse has low self-esteem and anger that has been internalized. These lead to self-destructive behaviors such as alcohol or drug abuse. Many of the victim's behaviors are predictable and best understood in the contexts of learned helplessness, a cycle of violence or anticipatory fear. Recognizing that child abuse and spouse abuse often occur within the same family, the nurse practitioner can play a vital role in halting the cycle of family violence. Early recognition, knowledge of the forms of legal recourse in the community and intervention by the nurse practitioner will have an impact on the morbidity and mortality of this social problem.
Turner, Heather A; Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne; Hamby, Sherry; Mitchell, Kimberly
This study sought to identify features of peer victimization that aggravate negative outcomes in children. The features that were assessed include "power imbalance," a commonly used criterion in defining bullying, and 5 other characteristics: injury, weapon involvement, Internet involvement, sexual content, and bias content. Three outcomes were assessed: level of fear, missing school, and trauma symptoms. A nationally representative sample of 3,164 children and youth ages 6-17 (51.8% male; 68.4% white, 12.5% black, 13.5% Hispanic, 5.7% other race) was obtained through Random Digit Dial and supplemented with an address-based sample to capture cell-phone-only households. One child was randomly selected from each household. Interviews were conducted with parents of children age 6-9 and with the youths themselves if they were age 10-17. Peer victimization was assessed with the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ). Almost half (48.4%) of the entire sample of school-age children experienced at least 1 form of peer victimization in the past year. Injury and power imbalance independently increased the impact on children for all 3 outcomes. Additionally, weapon involvement and sexual content were associated with trauma symptoms, with sexual content having the strongest effect (B = .23, p peer victimization along with more research to identify the aggravating features that signal the greatest need for intervention. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Loewenau, Aleksandra; Weindling, Paul J
Issues relating to the euthanasia killings of the mentally ill, the medical research conducted on collected body parts, and the clinical investigations on living victims under National Socialism are among the best-known abuses in medical history. But to date, there have been no statistics compiled regarding the extent and number of the victims and perpetrators, or regarding their identities in terms of age, nationality, and gender. "Victims of Unethical Human Experiments and Coerced Research under National Socialism," a research project based at Oxford Brookes University, has established an evidence-based documentation of the overall numbers of victims and perpetrators through specific record linkages of the evidence from the period of National Socialism, as well as from post-WWII trials and other records. This article examines the level and extent of these unethical medical procedures as they relate to the field of neuroscience. It presents statistical information regarding the victims, as well as detailing the involvement of the perpetrators and Nazi physicians with respect to their post-war activities and subsequent court trials.
Full Text Available In general, most studies that examined the relationship immigrants – criminal behavior focused on the immigrants’ involvement in criminal activities as offenders and/or the effects of immigration on crime rates. Only limited research looked at the levels of victimization and perceived safety experienced by immigrants in their receiving countries. Using the most recent available data from the European Social Survey (Round 5/2010, the present quantitative analysis conducted on a representative sample of residents in United Kingdom (N=2422 tries to determine the levels of criminal victimization and fear of violent crime associated with foreign nationals living in a European country, where immigration is generally unpopular. Although foreign-born persons living in United Kingdom appear to have a higher degree of victimization (vicarious and direct than natives, the inter-group difference is not sufficiently large to be significant at p< .05.Nevertheless, compared to natives, first-generation immigrants manifest a significantly higher level of fear of violent victimization. Results also show that in addition to inter-group differences in the levels of perceived unsafety and experiences with victimization, the effects of fear-of-crime correlates vary in intensity among respondents differentiated by their country of birth. In addition, one’s level of acculturation contributes to differences in fear of crime among immigrants.
Full Text Available The possibility of identifying the scope, prevalence and incidence of violence against children, at the national and international level, is determined by the way of measurement and the kind of information available on this type of crime. The starting point for successful preventive and combative measures of victimization of children is an efficient system of recording and presenting the data on violence to which they are exposed to, based on the information from the incident, the family, the perpetrator and the victim. This paper aims to identify and analyze ways of recording and the type of available data on violence against children, as well as the place of child victim in the officially presented data at the global and national level. In doing so, the paper was based on the research of relevant international and national literature in the field of judicial and social protection statistics, publications based on data from the judiciary, those based on the use of victimization surveys and other prospective or retrospective research of violent victimization experiences in childhood. At the very least an analysis of the Serbian approach to this area is given. [PR Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179044: Razvoj metodologije evidentiranja kriminaliteta kao osnova kreiranja efikasnih mera za njegovo suzbijanje i br. 47011: Kriminal u Srbiji - fenomenologija, rizici i mogućnosti socijalne intervencije
C. de Wet
Full Text Available There has never been a stronger demand from the South African public to reduce school violence than at present. The demand for safe schools cannot be achieved unless the issue of bullying is adequately addressed. However, it appears from newspaper reports that some of the role players are not willing to listen to the victims of bullying. The aim of this article is to give a voice to some of the victims, as well as those witnessing school bullying. This article reports on findings from an investigation of the experiences of a group of Free State learners who were witnesses and victims of bullying. The research instrument was the Delaware Bullying Questionnaire. The first important conclusion from this study was that bullying was a serious problem in some Free State schools. Secondly, it was found that the respondents were more often the victims of male than of female bullies. Thirdly, the quantitative data indicated that the majority of victims were bullied by learners who were in the same grade as they were. The qualitative data, however, revealed that the bullying of Grade 8 learners by Grade 12 learners seems to be a fairly common occurrence. Finally, some comments and recommendations are made.
Research has documented that few reported rapes are prosecuted by the legal system. The purpose of this study is to explain how the interactions between victims and detectives can strengthen or weaken the investigation itself. Twenty rape victims were interviewed to examine how law enforcement detectives' manner of questioning affects rape victims' level of disclosure. Using qualitative methodology, the results show that the detectives' manner of questioning can play a role in victims' disclosure. Detectives using a gentle manner of questioning with victims can help produce stronger victim statements and thus build stronger cases for prosecution.
Hockett, Jericho M; Smith, Sara J; Klausing, Cathleen D; Saucier, Donald A
An overview discusses feminist analyses of oppression, attitudes toward rape victims, and previously studied predictors of individuals' attitudes toward rape victims. To better understand such attitudes, this meta-analysis examines the moderating influences of various rape victim, perpetrator, and crime characteristics' rape myth consistency on gender differences in individuals' perceptions of rape victims (i.e., victim responsibility and blame attributions and rape minimizing attitudes). Consistent with feminist theoretical predictions, results indicated that, overall, men perceived rape victims more negatively than women did. However, this sex difference was moderated by the rape myth consistency within the rape vignettes. Implications for research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Rodkin, Philip C; Hanish, Laura D; Wang, Shuai; Logis, Handrea A
The bully/victim relationship was studied in a sample of elementary school children (N = 1,289 in first, third, and fifth grades). Three questions were tested. Does bullying involve a power differential between bully and victim? Are bully/victim dyads participants in a relationship, whether mutual liking or disliking? Does the gender composition of the bully/victim dyad moderate power differential and relational context patterns? Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze predictors of the reputational strength of bully/victim ties. The findings revealed that the bully/victim dyads most frequently nominated by peers were characterized by asymmetries in social status, where bullies were increasingly more popular than their victims, and by asymmetries in aggression, where bullies were increasingly less aggressive than their victims. Bullies and victims were likely to select one another as among the children that they least like. Most effects with respect to aggression, popularity, and relationships were moderated by the gender composition of the bully/victim dyad. Implications for a developmental psychopathology perspective on peer bullying and victimization are highlighted.
Untied, Amy S; Orchowski, Lindsay M; Mastroleo, Nadine; Gidycz, Christine A
College students' responses to a hypothetical sexual assault scenario involving alcohol use by the victim and/or perpetrator were examined (N = 295). Participants reported on victim/perpetrator responsibility, the extent to which the scenario would be considered rape, and their likelihood of providing positive or negative responses to the victim. Compared to women, men indicated that they would provide more negative and less positive social reactions to the victim, were less likely to identify the scenario as rape, and endorsed less perpetrator responsibility. When the victim was drinking, participants endorsed greater victim responsibility and lower perpetrator responsibility for the assault. Participants indicated that they would provide the victim with less emotional support when only the perpetrator was drinking, compared to when both the individuals were drinking.
Rogers, Paul; Lowe, Michelle; Reddington, Katie
Three-hundred and seven members of the UK public read a hypothetical child sexual abuse case in which the victim's chronological age (12 versus 15 years old) and dress style (sexualized versus nonsexualized) were experimentally manipulated before completing 22 assault severity and blame attribution items. It was predicted that the 15-year-old and the sexually dressed victim would be blamed more for her own abuse. In addition, males were expected to be more blaming generally, but especially of the older and/or sexually dressed victim. Results were generally in line with predictions, highlighting the role seemingly controllable victim characteristics play in blaming child sexual abuse victims. Findings are discussed in relation to defensive attributions, gender stereotyping and the newly suggested victim pseudomaturity effect. Criminal justice, victim welfare, and rape myth implications together with methodological issues and ideas for future research work are also considered.
Ward, Tony; Moreton, Gill
In this article, the authors examine the relevance of the concept of moral repair for sex offenders who have been victims of sexual or physical abuse. First, they briefly review the literature on victimization rates and effects in sexual offenders. Second, the notion of moral repair and its constituent tasks is examined with particular emphasis given to Margaret Walker's recent analysis of the concept. Third, the concept of moral repair is applied to offenders and its implications and possible constraints discussed. Fourth, the authors outline a normative framework for addressing victimization issues with sexual offenders, drawing on the resources of human rights theory and strength-based treatment approaches. Finally, they conclude with a brief consideration of the ethical and clinical implications of their normative model.
Full Text Available Objective. To examines the influence of victimization, perceived insecurity and restrictions on daily routines in life satisfaction. Materials and methods. Participants were 7 535 (50.2% men aged between 12 and 60, selected from a proportional stratified sampling. MANOVA and polyto- mous logistic regression model were calculated. Results. We found significant differences in victimization, perceived insecurity and restrictions on daily routines in relation with life satisfaction levels. Also, physical protective measures, control of personal information, perception of insecurity in public areas and restrictions on daily routines were related to lower levels of satisfaction with life. Conclusions. Lowest levels of satisfaction with life were associated with victimization, perception of insecurity in public areas, and restrictions on daily routines
Silver, Eric; Arseneault, Louise; Langley, John; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.
Objective. We examined the association between mental disorder and violent victimization in a general population sample. Methods. We performed a multivariate analysis of violent victimization in a 12-month period on a total birth cohort with follow-up data that assessed, during their 21st year, males and females born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in the early 1970s. Results. Compared with people with no mental disorder, (1) people with anxiety disorders experienced more sexual assaults, (2) people with schizophreniform disorders experienced more threatened and completed physical assaults, (3) people with alcohol dependence disorders experienced more completed physical assaults, and (4) people with marijuana dependence disorders experienced more attempted physical assaults. These results held after control for psychiatric comorbidity, demographic characteristics, and the study participants’ own violent behavior. Conclusion. Mentally disordered young adults tend to experience more violent victimization in the community than those without a mental disorder. PMID:16254233
The medical identification of victims of major catastrophes is based upon a strict methodological approach at the actual site of the catastrophe when victims are found and in mortuaries. In the majority of cases, police identification can be pronounced. It is only in much more difficult cases where there are calcination or putrefaction processes that medicolegal identification is requested. This identification is based upon the results of medicolegal autopsy itself and on examination of the dental system which remains of capital importance. In the absence of data which can be used to compare the dental system of the victim with this of missing it is possible using single teeth to assess dental age and determine blood group, thereby providing the legal authorities with a group of additional arguments which can be used for presumptive identification.
Whitty, Monica T
The online dating romance scam is an Advance Fee Fraud, typically conducted by international criminal groups via online dating sites and social networking sites. This type of mass-marketing fraud (MMF) is the most frequently reported type of MMF in most Western countries. This study examined the psychological characteristics of romance scam victims by comparing romance scam victims with those who had never been scammed by MMFs. Romance scam victims tend to be middle-aged, well-educated women. Moreover, they tend to be more impulsive (scoring high on urgency and sensation seeking), less kind, more trustworthy, and have an addictive disposition. It is argued here that these findings might be useful for those developing prevention programs and awareness campaigns.
The toxicology of homicide offenders and victims, and homicide as a cause of death among psychoactive substance users. Review of the toxicology of homicide, and homicide as a cause of death among psychoactive substance users. A half or more of offenders are intoxicated by a psychoactive substance at the time of the homicide, with alcohol the most commonly reported substance. Levels of substances among victims are comparable with those seen among perpetrators. Among both offenders and victims, levels of substances far exceed population use. Among substance users, homicide specific mortality rates of substance users far exceed population rates. Reducing rates of alcohol and other drug consumption, at national and individual levels, can be expected to substantially reduce rates of, and risk for, homicide. Psychoactive substances are strongly associated with homicide. One of the major societal benefits that can be derived from active attempts to reduce alcohol and other drug use are reductions in homicide rates.
Rayburn, Nadine Recker; Earleywine, Mitchell; Davison, Gerald C
This study uses the unmatched count technique (UCT) to estimate base rates for hate crime victimization in college students and compares the results with estimates found using conventional methods. Hate crimes, criminal acts perpetrated against individuals or members of specific stigmatized groups, intend to express condemnation, hate, disapproval, dislike, or distrust for a group. The UCT is a promising tool in the investigation of hate crime because it does not require participants to directly answer sensitive questions. This may provide more accurate responses than other methods. The UCT revealed higher estimates for a variety of serious hate crimes, including physical and sexual assault. These higher estimates provide a better feel for the level of hate crime victimization and point to the increased need for hate crime victims' assistance programs on college campuses.
LEONARDO ALBERTO RODRÍGUEZ CELY
Full Text Available This study intends to make a descriptive analysis of the interaction strategies used by the kidnapper withthe victim during captivity, based on information taken from selected documents containing the victim testimonies.Information was supplemented with data from bibliographic references, profound interviews to GAULAgroup members. Document content was analyzed by confronting the three information sources. The findingswere that there is not a single but a multiple type of kidnappers: kidnappers, persons taking care, commanders,negotiators and suppliers. Likewise, it was evident that the type of relationship that the kidnapper establisheswith the victim varies depending on his/her hierarchy in the group, the roll played, age, education, ideal-drivingmotivations and the empathy with the person kidnapped. Other important variables of the study were: kidnappingstage, location, duration and releasing aspects.
Melissa M. Gomes
Methods. Grounded theory techniques were used to gain an understanding of the victimization experience and the coping responses used. Findings. A theory of coping after experiencing peer relational aggression victimization was generated. Girls voiced feelings of hurt and anger after the experience and expressed the following ways of coping as a result: distancing from others, retaliation against the aggressor, discussing their feelings with friends and family, writing their feelings down, and/or confronting the aggressor. Clinical Implications. Nurses should be aware of the phenomenon and asses, for incidences of relational aggression victimization so that they may provide strategies to assist the adolescent and her family with positive coping mechanisms in order to prevent maladaptive responses.
Pouwels, J Loes; Scholte, Ron H J; van Noorden, Tirza H J; Cillessen, Antonius H N
According to the Social Information Processing Model of children's adjustment, children develop general interpretation styles for future social events based on past social experiences. Previous research has shown associations between interpretations of social situations and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. This study investigated whether bullies, victims, bully-victims, and uninvolved children interpreted ambiguous human interactions differently in terms of bullying and whether these interpretations generalized to abstract non-human interactions. Participants were 390 children (49% girls, Mage = 10.3 years) who completed self-report measures of bullying and victimization. In addition, they indicated whether video fragments of positive, negative, or ambiguous interactions between humans, animals, and abstract figures depicted bullying situations. Bully-victims reported more bullying than victims and uninvolved children in ambiguous abstract figure, animal, and human fragments and in positive animal fragments. Children who bully did not differ from the other groups. These findings indicate that interpretations of bullying generalized from ambiguous human interactions to more abstract ambiguous animal and abstract figure interactions. Implications for further research and practice were discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE AND DEPARTMENT OF STATE TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS Victims of Severe Forms of... benefits and services (victims who are minors and adult victims who are certified by the United States...
van der Ploeg, Rozemarijn; Steglich, Christian; Salmivalli, Christina; Veenstra, René
The association between experienced victimization and students' psychological and social adjustment depends on the intensity of victimization. We examined how frequency and multiplicity of victimization, and the number of bullies involved, account for differences in students' psychosocial well-being
van der Ploeg, Rozemarijn; Steglich, Christian; Salmivalli, Christina; Veenstra, René
The association between experienced victimization and students' psychological and social adjustment depends on the intensity of victimization. We examined how frequency and multiplicity of victimization, and the number of bullies involved, account for differences in students’ psychosocial well-being
Rosen, Paul J; Milich, Richard; Harris, Monica J
This study examined the relations of dysregulated negative emotional reactivity, emotional distress, and chronic peer victimization in childhood. A model was proposed whereby dysregulated reactivity was directly and indirectly related to concurrent peer victimization through victimization-related emotional distress. The model further proposed that dysregulated reactivity directly incrementally predicted longitudinal peer victimization above and beyond the effect of concurrent victimization. Two hundred thirteen 9- to 13-year-old children and their parents completed measures of dysregulated reactivity and victimization experiences at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Children also related narratives of personal victimization experiences at baseline that were coded to assess victimization-related emotional distress. Model testing strongly supported the direct association of dysregulated reactivity with concurrent victimization and incremental predictive effects of dysregulated reactivity on peer victimization over time. Model testing also provided support for an indirect effect of dysregulated reactivity on concurrent peer victimization through victimization-related emotional distress. This study demonstrated the powerful role that dysregulated negative emotional reactivity plays in the development of chronic peer victimization over time. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Podaná, Zuzana; Imríšková, Romana
Fear for the stalking victim's own safety or the safety of people close to them is of primary research interest due to the fact that fear is often required as a necessary condition for repetitive intrusive behavior to be defined as stalking. This study examines factors that increase levels of fear in stalking victims and analyzes their coping strategies, making use of data from a victimization survey among citizens of the Czech Republic (N = 2,503). Overall, 147 stalking victims were identified in the sample. Results show that female victims, those stalked by male offenders, and victims pursued over a long period of time, are most fearful. Higher levels of fear are elicited by strangers as opposed to partners or acquaintances. Among stalking practices, only direct aggression is significantly associated with fear, whereas monitoring the victim (comprising typical stalking behavior such as following the victim) increases the perception of the seriousness of stalking, but does not influence the victim's fear. In addition, three behavioral coping strategies have been identified: proactive behavior (47% of victims), avoidance (30%), and passivity (23%). The examination of the association between these coping strategies and victims' fear reveals that female victims, whose behavior is proactive, express higher levels of fear than male victims and than those choosing avoidance or passivity strategies. Overall, the study confirms gender differences in both the level of fear and coping strategies, and lends further support to appeals for eliminating the fear requirement from the stalking definition. © The Author(s) 2014.
Fernanda Soares Simoneti
Full Text Available Introduction: In Brazil, at least one in nine hospitalized patients was a traffic accident victim. The impact of these numbers implies economic, social and administrative repercussions. Objectives: To raise epidemiological data on victims of traumatic events with motorcycles forwarded to a tertiary level hospital (Conjunto Hospitalar de Sorocaba to describe the injuries and discuss the impact on quality of life of these victims. Method: Prospective study that included trauma victims from accidents with motorcycles, between April and September, 2013, referenced to a tertiary level hospital. For data collection, standardized form was drawn up with trauma scores, mechanism of trauma and description of injuries. Results: A total of 143 patients were analyzed: 83.2% men and 16.8% women, with the predominance of the age group between 20–29 years (49.6%. The use of helmets was reported in 98.5% of cases. The male gender accounted for about 86% in the category of the motorcycle driver. The main mechanisms of trauma were collisions (72.7%, followed by drop of motorcycle (15.4%. The most frequent injuries were bruises (72.9% and cut- blunt injuries (13.8%. The most affected anatomical segments were the arms and legs, representing 83% of the cases. All patients were assessed for Revised Trauma Score (RTS; victims with RTS=12 amounted to 97.9%, suggesting relatively light gravity of most patients. Conclusions: The findings of this study, as the standard majority of victims of accidents involving motorcycles are compatible with the literature. The dominance of the economically active population of the country in as costly and disabling events such as motorcycle accidents implies the need for new strategies in traffic management and public health.
Whitton, Sarah W; Newcomb, Michael E; Messinger, Adam M; Byck, Gayle; Mustanski, Brian
Although intimate partner violence (IPV) is highly prevalent among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth, little is known regarding its developmental patterns, risk factors, or health-related consequences. We examined IPV victimization in an ethnically diverse community-based convenience sample of 248 LGBT youth (aged 16-20 at study outset) who provided six waves of data across a 5-year period. Results from multilevel models indicated high, stable rates of IPV victimization across this developmental period (ages 16-25 years) that differed between demographic groups. Overall, 45.2% of LGBT youth were physically abused and 16.9% were sexually victimized by a dating partner during the study. Odds of physical victimization were 76% higher for female than for male LGBT youth, 2.46 times higher for transgender than for cisgender youth, and 2 to 4 times higher for racial-ethnic minorities than for White youth. The prevalence of physical IPV declined with age for White youth but remained stable for racial-ethnic minorities. Odds of sexual victimization were 3.42 times higher for transgender than for cisgender youth, 75% higher for bisexual or questioning than for gay or lesbian youth, and increased more with age for male than female participants. Within-person analyses indicated that odds of physical IPV were higher at times when youth reported more sexual partners, more marijuana use, and lower social support; odds of sexual IPV were higher at times when youth reported more sexual partners and more LGBT-related victimization. In prospective analyses, sexual IPV predicted increased psychological distress; both IPV types marginally predicted increased marijuana use. © The Author(s) 2016.
The paper analyzes the development and structure of inbound tourism in Fujian Province by Excel software and conducts the cluster analysis on the inbound tourism market by SPSS 23.0 software based on the inbound tourism data of Fujian Province from 2006 to 2015. The results show: the rapid development of inbound tourism in Fujian Province and the diversified inbound tourist source countries indicate the stability of inbound tourism market; the inbound tourist source market in Fujian Province can be divided into four categories according to the cluster analysis, and tourists from the United States, Japan, Malaysia, and Singapore are the key of inbound tourism in Fujian Province.
Rospenda, Kathleen M; Richman, Judith A; Wolff, Jennifer M; Burke, Larisa A
This study reports the prevalence of bullying victimization at school and work among college freshmen and the relationships between victimization and changes in alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. Web survey data at 2 time points from a sample of 2118 freshmen from 8 colleges and universities in the Midwestern United States indicated that 43% of students experienced bullying at school and that 33% of students experienced bullying at work. Bullying, particularly at school, consistently predicted alcohol consumption and problematic drinking, after controlling for baseline drinking and other school and work stressors.
Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Richman, Judith A.; Wolff, Jennifer M.; Burke, Larisa A.
This study reports on the prevalence of bullying victimization at school and work among college freshmen, and the relationships between victimization and changes in alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. Web survey data at two points in time from a sample of 2118 freshmen from eight colleges and universities in the Midwestern United States indicated that 43% of students experienced bullying at school, and 33% of students experienced bullying at work. Bullying, particularly at school, consistently predicted alcohol consumption and problematic drinking, controlling for baseline drinking and other school and work stressors. PMID:24325767
Mysyuk, Yuliya; Westendorp, Rudi Gerardus Johannes; Lindenberg, Jolanda
with the perpetrator. Coping strategies mentioned by victims were seeking informal or professional help and using self-help strategies. CONCLUSION: older victims perceive abuse differently depending on the expected acceptability of the type(s) of abuse experienced and the anticipated stigma associated...... with the perpetrator involved. The effects and chosen coping strategies are influenced by these considerations and therewith also influence their help-seeking behaviour. Healthcare professionals are encouraged to use these findings in practice to prevent, detect and intervene in elder abuse....
Mundy, Lisa K; Canterford, Louise; Kosola, Silja; Degenhardt, Louisa; Allen, Nicholas B; Patton, George C
Peer victimization is a common antecedent of poor social and emotional adjustment. Its relationship with objectively measured academic performance is unclear. In this study we aimed to quantify the cross-sectional associations between peer victimization and academic performance in a large population sample of children. Eight- to 9-year-old children were recruited from a stratified random sample of primary schools in Australia. Academic performance was measured on a national achievement test (1 year of learning equals 40 points). Physical and verbal victimization were measured according to child self-report. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression analyses were conducted. For female children, verbal victimization was associated with poorer academic performance on writing (β = 17.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], -28.2 to -6.2) and grammar/punctuation (β = -20.8; 95% CI, -40.1 to -1.6). Physical victimization was associated with poorer performance on numeracy (male children: β = -29.0; 95% CI, -53.8 to -4.1; female children: β = -30.1; 95% CI, -56.6 to -3.5), and writing (female children: β = -21.5; 95% CI, -40.4 to -2.7). Verbal and physical victimization were associated with poorer performance on reading (male children: β = -31.5; 95% CI, -59.9 to -3.1; female children: β = -30.2; 95% CI, -58.6 to -1.8), writing (female children: β = -25.5; 95% CI, -42.8 to -8.2), spelling (female children: β = -32.3; 95% CI, -59.6 to -4.9), and grammar/punctuation (female children: β = -32.2; 95% CI, -62.4 to -2.0). Children who were physically victimized were 6 to 9 months behind their non-victimized peers on measures of academic performance. There are growing reasons for education systems to invest in the prevention of bullying and promotion of positive peer relationships from the earliest years of school. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Buelga, Sofía; Cava, María Jesús; Musitu, Gonzalo
The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of victimization through mobile phone and internet. The differences of gender and academic year in the type of electronic aggression were also examined. The sample comprised 2001 adolescents of both genders and ages between 11 and 17 years. Results indicated that 24.6% of the adolescents had been bullied by mobile phone during the last year, and 29% through internet. In most of the electronic aggressions, girls were more bullied than boys. It was also observed that students attending the first two years of secondary education tended to be more victimized.
Costa, Daniella Harth da; Njaine, Kathie; Schenker, Miriam
This study aimed to perform a integrative literature review on the repercussion of homicide on victims' families from 1990 to June 2015. It was noted that the majority of studies on the subject has been conducted in the United States. Fewer studies carried out in Brazil and in other countries have been located. Four main themes have been identified: impact on health, the family system in the post-homicide period, re-victimization factors and post-homicide facilitating aspects. Findings of this study point to the importance of interdisciplinary care focused on this public, considering their health, social, financial and legal needs.
José Luis González1
Full Text Available Prerecorded evidence is a legal form which has basic two purposes in especially vulnerable victims: on one hand, protecting the victim’s testimony (cognitive evidence from deterioration derived from many different, inadequate approaches, and on the other, avoiding revictimization by the police and justice system. Aware of the assistance that forensic psychology can provide in carrying out these proceedings, this article describes a proposal for prerecording evidence based on knowledge of the psychology of testimony and of psychology of criminal victimization, in addition to the practical experience of criminal psychologists and forensic psychologists.
Wolak, Janis; Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly; Finkelhor, David
We review current knowledge about adolescent Internet-mediated victimization, including Internet-initiated sex crimes in which offenders use the Internet to meet victims, unwanted online sexual solicitations, Internet harassment, and unwanted and wanted exposure to online pornography. Internet-initiated sex crimes have received considerable publicity, but the media stories have contributed to stereotypes that do not accurately portray adolescent Internet experience. Adults' concerns are valid but need to be supported with information that illuminates the real safety issues and targets the specific population of youth impacted.
Golder, Seana; Hall, Martin T; Logan, T K; Higgins, George E; Dishon, Amanda; Renn, Tanya; Winham, Katherine M
Victimized women within the criminal justice system are an important group and understanding their substance use is critical. Substance use was examined among 406 victimized women on probation and parole in an urban community from 2010 to 2013. Ninety-three percent reported lifetime use of an illicit substance, whereas 58% and 45% reported use of at least one illicit substance in the past 2 years and 12 months, respectively. Among probationers, having been in a controlled environment was associated with a higher prevalence of illicit substance use as compared to parolees. Implications for practice, policy, and future research are discussed.
Full Text Available Violence against children is often designated as the worst form of domestic violence, and violence in general. Such a conclusion is a result of multiple factors: children's age and vulnerability, the distinctive features in their physical and mental development which makes them inferior to adults, the kinship (blood relations] and emotional bonds between parents and children, etc. The positive trend in the evolution of the social response to violence against children is reflected in the effort to discover and prevent the abuse, to punish the offenders and to protect the child/victim from secondary victimization during the criminal proceedings. In the Republic of Serbia, the procedural measures governing the protection of juvenile victims/witnesses are set out in Part III of the Juvenile Justice Act (Act on the Juvenile Offenders and Criminal Law Protection of Minors]. However, it was soon evident that there was a need to provide a better legislative framework than the one envisaged in this Act, particularly in terms of ensuring a better protection of minors in the course of criminal proceedings involving children who are victims of abuse and neglect. For this purpose, in 2004, the legislator adopted the National Action Plan on Children in Adversity. This document envisaged the adoption of the General Protocol on the protection of children from abuse and negligence, as well as the adoption of subject-specific protocols which would further regulate the specific procedures for the protection of children-victims in particular social circumstances (health, education, justice] by different social institutions (police, social services]. In this paper, the author analyses the legal framework governing the procedural protection of juvenile victims in the course of criminal proceedings. In addition, the author also explores the statutory provisions (by-laws] adopted in order to establish specific standards and ensure a higher level of protection of
Albdour, Maha; Krouse, Helene J
Bullying among African American adolescents. This article reviews the current literature on bullying and victimization among African American adolescents. It highlights bullying and violence disparity among African American adolescents, associated risk and protective factors, and effects of bullying on adolescent health. Twenty-three English language peer-reviewed articles from CINAHL, Pubmed, and Psyc-INFO databases. African American adolescents have higher rates of bullying and victimization compared to other adolescent populations. This review found strong associations among bullying involvement, substance abuse, and family factors. Bullying also had a significant impact on adolescent health, particularly psychological symptoms and school performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the experience of abuse by a person with intellectual disability. For this purpose, a semi-structured interview was recorded, transcribed and analyzed according to the existing scientific literature. The results show the emotional impact of the abuse experience on the victim. It also identifies false myths in relation to the emotional experience of people with intellectual disabilities and provides psychological explanations for the actions of the different people involved in the aggressions. The plurality of abuse situations which the victim may face, as well as the permanence of abuse over the years, define a common characteristic in the maltreatment of individuals with intellectual disabilities. Understanding all the dynamics that can lead to abuse in people with intellectual disabilities provides a new perspective in the assessment and intervention with these victims.
Rothmund, Tobias; Gollwitzer, Mario; Klimmt, Christoph
Two experimental studies were used to investigate how interacting with aggressive virtual characters in video games affects trust and cooperation of players. Study 1 demonstrates that experiencing virtual aggression from a victim's perspective can impair players' investments in a subsequent common goods dilemma situation. This effect is mediated by reduced expectations of trust in the cooperativeness of interaction partners. In Study 2 the same effect was replicated by using a different cooperation task and by investigating the moderating role of justice sensitivity from a victim's perspective as a dispositional factor. Participants transferred less money to an unknown partner in a trust game after exposure to aggressive nonplayer characters in a video game. This effect was stronger for people high in victim sensitivity. Results of both studies can be interpreted in line with the sensitivity to mean intentions model and add to the body of research on violent media effects.
Mann, Ruth E; Barnett, Georgia D
A sexual offender is thought to have victim empathy when he has a cognitive and emotional understanding of the experience of the victim of his sexual offense. Most sex offender treatment programs devote significant time to developing victim empathy. The authors examine three meta-analytic studies and some individual studies that suggest victim empathy work is unnecessary, or even harmful. Service user studies, however, report positive reactions to victim empathy work. The authors conclude that the enthusiasm for victim empathy work as a rehabilitative endeavor is disproportionate given the weak evidence base and the lack of a coherent theoretical model of change. However, because the research is inconclusive, it is not possible to conclude that victim empathy work is "correctional quackery." We suggest a research program to clarify whether or not victim empathy intervention for sexual offenders has value.
Lansu, T.A.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Sandstrom, M.J.
This study examined whether early adolescents' classroom aggression predicted their aggression in a one-on-one dyadic setting, and whether early adolescents' classroom victimization predicted their victimization in the dyadic setting. After completing peer nominations for aggression and
Crookston, Benjamin T; Merrill, Ray M; Hedges, Stephanie; Lister, Cameron; West, Joshua H; Hall, P Cougar
.... This study focused on bullying victimization in Peru. It explored the relationship between the caregiver's perception of child victimization and the child's view of selected negative experiences occurring with other children their age...
Sentse, Miranda; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Salmivalli, Christina; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.
This study investigated the development of relational and physical victimization in adolescent friendship networks over time. Using longitudinal social network analysis (SIENA) it was simultaneously tested whether similarity in victimization contributed to friendship formation (selection effects)
... protection for victims of domestic violence. 960.103 Section 960.103 Housing and Urban Development... requirements and protection for victims of domestic violence. (a) Applicable requirements. The PHA must..., domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking. ...
Sentse, M.; Dijkstra, J.K.; Salmivalli, C.; Cillessen, A.H.N.
This study investigated the development of relational and physical victimization in adolescent friendship networks over time. Using longitudinal social network analysis (SIENA) it was simultaneously tested whether similarity in victimization contributed to friendship formation (selection effects)
Shorey, Ryan C.; Zucosky, Heather; Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Stuart, Gregory L.
Childhood abuse and dating violence victimization are prevalent and devastating problems. While there has been an abundance of research on these topics in recent years, researchers and Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) often struggle with determining whether asking respondents questions on previous violence will result in increased emotional distress or other negative research outcomes. Empirical data is therefore needed that examines the research reactions of individuals who participate in research on childhood abuse and dating violence. The current study examined this topic among a sample of male college students (N = 193). Results showed that victims of childhood sexual abuse had more negative emotional reactions and victims of physical dating violence had more negative perceived drawbacks to research participation than non-victims. However, victims and non-victims did not differ on positive research reactions. These findings suggest that there are few differences between victims and non-victims on research reactions. PMID:23741174
Shorey, Ryan C; Zucosky, Heather; Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Stuart, Gregory L
Childhood abuse and dating violence victimization are prevalent and devastating problems. While there has been an abundance of research on these topics in recent years, researchers and Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) often struggle with determining whether asking respondents questions on previous violence will result in increased emotional distress or other negative research outcomes. Empirical data is therefore needed that examines the research reactions of individuals who participate in research on childhood abuse and dating violence. The current study examined this topic among a sample of male college students (N = 193). Results showed that victims of childhood sexual abuse had more negative emotional reactions and victims of physical dating violence had more negative perceived drawbacks to research participation than non-victims. However, victims and non-victims did not differ on positive research reactions. These findings suggest that there are few differences between victims and non-victims on research reactions.
RTA) victims managed at a referral hospital in Ogun State, Nigeria. Materials and Method: All RTA victims who presented at. Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital (OOUTH) between July 2004 and June 2005; their eyes were examined.
Pronk, J.; Goossens, F.A.; Olthof, T.; de Mey, J.R.P.B.; Willemen, A.M.
This study examined the social cognitions of outsiders and defenders about intervening in situations of victimization by bullying. Do outsiders and defenders behave differently in victimization situations because of differences in competence beliefs, or because of a selectivity effect in
Kretschmer, Tina; Barker, Edward D.; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Veenstra, Rene
Peer victimization is a common and pervasive experience in childhood and adolescence and is associated with various maladjustment symptoms, including internalizing, externalizing, and somatic problems. This variety suggests that peer victimization is multifinal where exposure to the same risk leads
Sokol, Nicole; Bussey, Kay; Rapee, Ronald M
This study investigated the impact of victims' responses to overt bullying on peer bystanders' attitudes and reactions. Fifth- and seventh-grade students (N = 206; M(age) = 11.13 and 13.18 years, respectively) completed online questionnaires about gender-consistent videotaped hypothetical bullying scenarios in which the victims' responses (angry, sad, confident, ignoring) were experimentally manipulated. Victims' responses significantly influenced bystanders' attitudes towards the victim, perceptions of the victimization, emotional reactions, and behavioral intentions. In general, angry victims elicited more negative reactions, sad victims elicited greater intentions to act, while incidents involving confident victims were perceived as less serious. Several variations depending on the bullying type and students' grade, gender, and personal experiences with bullying were evident. Implications for individual-level and peer-level anti-bullying interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leahy, S.; Francis, Brian J.; Miller, N.
This study aims to assist those working on homicide investigations with gay victims, by considering the relationship between the characteristics of the offender, the victim and the circumstances of the offence.
Boyes, Mark E; Cluver, Lucie D
South African children and adolescents living in HIV/AIDS-affected families are at elevated risk of both symptoms of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Poverty and HIV/AIDS-related stigma are additional risk factors for these negative mental health outcomes. Community level factors, such as poverty and stigma, are difficult to change in the short term and identifying additional potentially malleable mechanisms linking familial HIV/AIDS with mental health is important from an intervention perspective. HIV/AIDS-affected children are also at increased risk of bullying victimization. This longitudinal study aimed to determine whether prospective relationships between familial HIV/AIDS and both anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms operate indirectly via bullying victimization. Adolescents (M = 13.45 years, 56.67 % female, n = 3,515) from high HIV-prevalent (>30 %) communities in South Africa were interviewed and followed-up one year later (n = 3,401, 96.70 % retention). Census enumeration areas were randomly selected from urban and rural sites in two provinces, and door-to-door sampling included all households with a resident child/adolescent. Familial HIV/AIDS at baseline assessment was not directly associated with mental health outcomes 1 year later. However, significant indirect effects operating via bullying victimization were obtained for both anxiety and depression scores. Importantly, these effects were independent of poverty, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, and baseline mental health, which highlight bullying victimization as a potential target for future intervention efforts. The implementation and rigorous evaluation of bullying prevention programs in South African communities may improve mental health outcomes for HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents and this should be a focus of future research and intervention.
Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life.Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.
security and stability. This is much harder than it sounds in a fragmented rural population such as Helmand province. The demands placed on leaders in...AH-1 “ Cobra ” and UH-1”Huey” helicopters to support ground operations commanders were able to deliver precision fires while retaining visible...them. Much will be asked of leaders in COIN operations in the future, but with a flexible organization, sound intelligence, the will to fight when
In today's globalized economy, we cannot live without imported products. Most people do not realize how thin the safety net of regulation and inspection really is. Less than three percent of imported products receive any form of government inspection prior to sale. Avoid flea markets, street vendors and deep discount stores. The sellers of counterfeit wares know where to market their products. They look for individuals who are hungry for a brand name item but do not want to pay a brand name price for it. The internet provides anonymity to the sellers of counterfeit products. Unlike Europe, U.S. law does not hold internet-marketing organizations, responsible for the quality of the products sold on their websites. These organizations will remove an individual vendor when a sufficient number of complaints are lodged, but they will not take responsibility for the counterfeit products you may have purchased. EBay has a number of counterfeit product guides to help you avoid being a victim of the sellers of these products. Ten percent of all medications taken worldwide are counterfeit. If you do buy medications on-line, be sure that the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites (VIPPS) recommends the pharmacy you choose to use. Inspect all medication purchases and report any change in color, shape, imprinting or odor to your pharmacist. If you take generic medications these attributes may change from one manufacturer to another. Your pharmacist should inform you of any changes when you refill your prescription. If they do not, get clarification prior to taking the medication. Please note that the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate supplements. The FDA only steps in when a specific supplement proves to cause physical harm or contains a regulated ingredient. Due to counterfeiting, Underwriters Laboratories (UL) changed their label design three times since 1996. The new gold label should be attached to the cord
Schloenhardt, Andreas; Bowcock, Hannah
Analysis of judicial treatment of victim consent in cases of trafficking in persons in Australia - understanding victim consent - international law - Australian criminal law examples of legal cases...
[Fatal traffic accidents vs. alcohol consumption in the victims in the archival material collected by the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University in Cracow, in the years 2000- 2003].
Kłys, Małgorzata; Grzeszczuk, Sabina; Majchrzak, Tomasz
The report presents the issue of fatal traffic accidents, emphasizing in particular blood alcohol levels in victims involved in such fatalities. According to data provided by the Central Police Headquarters, in recent years, the annual number of traffic accidents in Poland has been in excess of 50000; of this number, more than 10% have resulted in fatalities. The number of traffic accidents in the Małopolska province has amounted to 5000, and more than 7% of these accidents have been fatal. In the years 2000-2003, at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, a total of 884 victims of fatal traffic accidents that occurred in the Cracow region were autopsied. In the group, car drivers accounted for 26%, passengers - for 16%, while the most numerous subgroup, represented by more than 57% of victims, included pedestrians hit by moving vehicles. In the autopsied car drivers, individuals being under the influence of alcohol and intoxicated accounted for 40-42% in the years 2000-2002 (as compared to the total number of investigated subjects); in 2003, the percentage decreased reaching 31%. Among the passengers, the mean percentage of those being under the influence of alcohol and in drunk was slightly higher in this period, ranging between 27 and 57%. However, the highest percentage of victims included individuals under the influence of alcohol, and especially alcohol intoxicated pedestrians hit by moving vehicles, whose number exceeded 50% of the total group of the autopsied corpses.
Childhood victimization experiences are common among intimate partner violence (IPV) victims. This study examines the link between childhood physical and sexual victimization experiences and adulthood IPV among Korean immigrant women in the USA. As Korean immigrants often use physical punishment to discipline their children, and reporting sexual abuse is discouraged due to stigmatization in this community, cultural factors (e.g. patriarchal values) related to childhood victimization and IPV were also examined. Survey data from Korean immigrant women in the USA were collected. Using a case-control design, we compared 64 Korean immigrant women who have experienced IPV in the past year with 63 Korean immigrant women who have never experienced IPV in their lifetime. The findings of this study reveal that IPV victims, compared with non-victims, experienced higher childhood victimization rates. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that childhood victimization and patriarchal gender ideology strongly predict IPV victimization among Korean immigrants. However, patriarchal values did not moderate the relationship between childhood victimization and IPV. To prevent IPV among Korean immigrant population, we need to make special efforts to prevent childhood abuse and change ingrained cultural attitudes about child physical and sexual abuse among immigrant communities through culturally sensitive programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peer- and self-reported victimization: Do non-victimized students give victimization nominations to classmates who are slef-reported victims.A comparison of peer reports and self reports (Agreement between Peer- and Self-reported victimization: A dyadic approach)
Oldenburg, B.; Barrera, D.; Olthof, T.; Goossens, F.A.; Van der Meulen, M.; Vermande, M.M.; Aleva, A.E.; Sentse, M.; Veenstra, D.R.
Using data from 2413 Dutch first-year secondary school students (M age. = 13.27, SD age. = 0.51, 49.0% boys), this study investigated as to what extent students who according to their self-reports had not been victimized (referred to as reporters) gave victimization nominations to classmates who
Pereda, Noemí; Abad, Judit; Guilera, Georgina
The purpose of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence and characteristics of self-reported child sexual victimization and associations between sexual victimization and sociodemographic characteristics and victimological profiles in community adolescents in Spain. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (Finkelhor, Hamby, Ormrod, & Turner, 2005) was applied to a sample of 1,105 community adolescents (M = 14.52 years, SD = 1.76). Experience of sexual victimization (with or without physical contact) was reported by 8.8% of the sample, at a mean age of 13 years old. Sexual victimization was more prevalent in girls (14.2%) and in older adolescents (10.6%). Offenders were mainly male (87.6%) and were mostly friends, neighbors, or schoolmates (52.6%). No injuries resulted from victimization (4.3%), although the percentage of penetration or attempted penetration was very high (30.6%). Only 9.3% of victims reported the incident to the police or the justice system. In regard to victimological profiles, sexual victims also experienced other forms of victimization (M = 7.16; SD = 3.39): boys reported more conventional crimes, peer and sibling victimization, and witnessing community violence than other victims, whereas sexually victimized girls reported more caregiver victimization and property crimes. Sexually victimized youth present a distinctive sociodemographic and victimological profile. Professionals need to be aware of these characteristics in order to conduct adequate prevention programs. We also need to assess a wide range of victimization experiences when treating sexual abuse victims in order to make adolescents less vulnerable to violence.