WorldWideScience

Sample records for victimized young children

  1. Peer Victimization among Young Children with Disabilities: Early Risk and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Esther; Peterson, N. Andrew; Pottick, Kathleen J.; Zippay, Allison; Parish, Susan L.; Lohrmann, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the risk and protective factors of peer victimization among young children with disabilities. This study analyzed data from the Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study (n =1,130) to test a path model that included child, family, and school characteristics at Year 1 and peer-relation difficulties and…

  2. The relationship between parents' verbal aggression and young adult children's intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzolo, Kellie E; Roberto, Anthony J; Babin, Elizabeth A

    2010-06-01

    This study examines the relationships between perceived and self-reported parent verbal aggression and their young adult children's intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration. Two hundred undergraduate students completed an in-person self-administered survey measuring IPV victimization and perpetration, as well as perceived parent verbal aggression. Three-hundred and eighty-six mail surveys were also sent to their parents; 79% of parents returned the surveys. Results indicate that perceived mother and father verbal aggression was related to higher levels of victimization and perpetration across several forms of IPV for both daughters and sons. The data appear to support theory that suggests parents of the same sex as their children are stronger models for aggressive behavior (Bandura, 1986). In addition, there were some differences in perceived and self-reported data for ratings of parent verbal aggression. Results of this investigation indicate that perceived parent communication has a significant impact on young adult children's victimization and perpetration of violence in intimate partner relationships. The findings also suggest that interventions aimed at developing and enhancing parent communication skills can help prevent or reduce the risk of young adult children becoming involved in violent relationships, as well as reducing risk factors for other adverse health problems.

  3. Peer Victimization and DRD4 Genotype Influence Problem Behaviors in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLalla, Lisabeth Fisher; Bersted, Kyle; John, Sufna Gheyara

    2015-08-01

    Decades of research supports the presence of significant genetic influences on children's internalizing (emotional), externalizing (acting out), and social difficulties, including victimization. Additionally, being victimized has been shown to relate to further behavioral problems. The current study assessed the nature of the gene-environment relationships between the DRD4 gene, peer victimization, and externalizing and internalizing difficulties in 6- to 10-year-old children. 174 children (56 % girls; 88.6 % Caucasian, 3.4 % African American, 8 % mixed race or Mayan) and their parents were administered victimization and problem behavior questionnaires, and DRD4 was genotyped for the children. An interaction between genes (DRD4) and environment (victimization) was significant and supported the differential susceptibility model for verbal victimization and child-reported externalizing behaviors. Children with the DRD4 7-repeat allele were differentially responsive to the verbal victimization environment, such that those experiencing little to no victimization reported significantly lower levels of externalizing behaviors, but if they experienced high amounts of victimization, they reported the highest levels of externalizing behaviors. Thus, consideration of how genes and environment affect children's experiences of victimization prior to adolescence is essential for understanding the trajectory of both externalizing and internalizing behaviors during adolescent development.

  4. The Nature and Frequency of Cyber Bullying Behaviors and Victimization Experiences in Young Canadian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holfeld, Brett; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.

    2015-01-01

    As access to technology is increasing in children and adolescents, there are growing concerns over the dangers of cyber bullying. It remains unclear what cyber bullying looks like among young Canadian children and how common these experiences are. In this study, we examine the psychometric properties of a measure of cyber bullying behaviors and…

  5. Bullying and Victimization Among Young Elementary School Children : The Role of Child Ethnicity and Ethnic School Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Pauline W.; Mieloo, Cathelijne L.; Dommisse-van Berkel, Anke; Verlinden, Marina; van der Ende, Jan; Stevens, Gonneke; Verhulst, Frank C.; Jansen, Wilma; Tiemeier, Henning

    2016-01-01

    School-aged children with an ethnic minority background are relatively often involved in bullying and victimization, but the role of ethnic composition of schools in this context remains unclear. This study examined the relation between ethnic minority background, ethnic school composition, and

  6. Psychological processes in young bullies versus bully-victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Anouk; Poorthuis, Astrid M G; Malti, Tina

    2017-09-01

    Some children who bully others are also victimized themselves ("bully-victims") whereas others are not victimized themselves ("bullies"). These subgroups have been shown to differ in their social functioning as early as in kindergarten. What is less clear are the motives that underlie the bullying behavior of young bullies and bully-victims. The present study examined whether bullies have proactive motives for aggression and anticipate to feel happy after victimizing others, whereas bully-victims have reactive motives for aggression, poor theory of mind skills, and attribute hostile intent to others. This "distinct processes hypothesis" was contrasted with the "shared processes hypothesis," predicting that bullies and bully-victims do not differ on these psychological processes. Children (n = 283, age 4-9) were classified as bully, bully-victim, or noninvolved using peer-nominations. Theory of mind, hostile intent attributions, and happy victimizer emotions were assessed using standard vignettes and false-belief tasks; reactive and proactive motives were assessed using teacher-reports. We tested our hypotheses using Bayesian model selection, enabling us to directly compare the distinct processes model (predicting that bullies and bully-victims deviate from noninvolved children on different psychological processes) against the shared processes model (predicting that bullies and bully-victims deviate from noninvolved children on all psychological processes alike). Overall, the shared processes model received more support than the distinct processes model. These results suggest that in early childhood, bullies and bully-victims have shared, rather than distinct psychological processes underlying their bullying behavior. © 2016 The Authors. Aggressive Behavior Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Childhood victimization experiences of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogolyubova, Olga; Skochilov, Roman; Smykalo, Lyubov

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of childhood victimization experiences in a sample of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia. The study sample included 743 students aged 19 to 25 from 15 universities in St. Petersburg, Russia. All of the study participants completed a reliable questionnaire assessing the following types of childhood victimization: conventional crime, child maltreatment, peer victimization, sexual victimization, and witnessing violence. Participation in the study was anonymous. High rates of victimization and exposure to violence were reported by the study participants. The majority of the sample experienced at least one type of victimization during childhood or adolescence, and poly-victimization was reported frequently. The most common type of victimization reported was peer or sibling assault (66.94%), followed by witnessing an assault without weapon (63.91%), personal theft (56.19%), vandalism (56.06%), and emotional bullying (49.99%). Sexual assault by a known adult was reported by 1.45% males and 5.16% of females. This study provides new information on the scope of childhood victimization experiences in Russia. Further research is warranted, including epidemiological research with representative data across the country and studies of the impact of trauma and victimization on mental health and well-being of Russian adults and children. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Bullying and Victimization Among Children

    OpenAIRE

    Shetgiri, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Bullying among children is a significant public health problem world-wide. Bullying is most commonly defined as repeated, intentional aggression, perpetrated by a more powerful individual or group against a less powerful victim. Trends in victimization and moderate to frequent bullying may be decreasing slightly in the United States, but over 20% of children continue to be involved in bullying. Direct bullying consists of physical and verbal aggression, whereas indirect bullying involves rela...

  9. Participant roles in peer-victimization among young\\ud children in South Korea: peer-, self-, and teacher nominations

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-ha; Smith, Peter K.; Monks, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This study explored participant roles in aggressive behavior among 95 children aged five to seven years, in a collectivistic culture, South Korea. Using a short-term longitudinal design, three types of nomination (peer, self, and teacher) were obtained for four participant roles (aggressor, victim, defender-stop, and defender-tell) and for four types of aggression (physical, verbal, social exclusion and rumor spreading). Assessments were made of stability of participant roles over time; inter...

  10. Children as Victims. 1999 National Report Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Howard N.; Sickmund, Melissa

    As part of a series that provides quick and focused access to findings from "Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1999 National Report" of the Office of Justice and Delinquency Prevention, this bulletin documents the impact of crime on society's most vulnerable victims, children. Homicide remains a leading cause of death for young people. In 1997, an…

  11. Participant roles in peer-victimization among young children in South Korea: Peer-, self-, and teacher-nominations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Ha; Smith, Peter K; Monks, Claire P

    2016-01-01

    This study explored participant roles in aggressive behavior among 95 children aged five to seven years, in a collectivistic culture, South Korea. Using a short-term longitudinal design, three types of nomination (peer, self, and teacher) were obtained for four participant roles (aggressor, victim, defender-stop, and defender-tell) and for four types of aggression (physical, verbal, social exclusion and rumor spreading). Assessments were made of stability of participant roles over time; inter-rater concordance among informants; discriminability; and relationships with sex, and likeability. Children tended to report themselves as victim and their peers as aggressors, especially for social exclusion. Nominations for aggressor showed highest stability over time and inter-rater concordance. Social exclusion showed different characteristics from other types of aggressive behavior in terms of its frequency and inter-rater concordance of role nominations. The type of defender (defender-stop or defender-tell) had different correlates with likeability. Findings are discussed in relation to different perspectives on social exclusion, and the defender role. Some different findings related specifically to social exclusion may be related to the particular nature of aggression or wang-ta in South Korea. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Neck injuries in young pediatric homicide victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Laura K; Rubin, David; Christian, Cindy W; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Mirchandani, Haresh G; Rorke-Adams, Lucy B

    2009-03-01

    In this study, the authors estimate the prevalence of injuries to the soft tissue of the neck, cervical vertebrae, and cervical spinal cord among victims of abusive head trauma to better understand these injuries and their relationship to other pathophysiological findings commonly found in children with fatal abusive head trauma. The population included all homicide victims 2 years of age and younger from the city of Philadelphia, Pennyslvania, who underwent a comprehensive postmortem examination at the Office of the Medical Examiner between 1995 and 2003. A retrospective review of all available postmortem records was performed, and data regarding numerous pathological findings, as well as the patient's clinical history and demographic information, were abstracted. Data were described using means and standard deviations for continuous variables, and frequency and ranges for categorical variables. Chi-square analyses were used to test for the association of neck injuries with different types of brain injury. The sample included 52 children, 41 (79%) of whom died of abusive head trauma. Of these, 29 (71%) had primary cervical cord injuries: in 21 there were parenchymal injuries, in 24 meningeal hemorrhages, and in 16, nerve root avulsion/dorsal root ganglion hemorrhage were evident. Six children with abusive head trauma had no evidence of an impact to the head, and all 6 had primary cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). No child had a spinal fracture. Six of 29 children (21%) with primary cervical SCIs had soft-tissue (ligamentous or muscular) injuries to the neck, and 14 (48%) had brainstem injuries. There was a significant association of primary cervical SCI with cerebral edema (p = 0.036) but not with hypoxia-ischemia, infarction, or herniation. Cervical SCI is a frequent but not universal finding in young children with fatal abusive head trauma. In the present study, parenchymal and/or root injury usually occurred without evidence of muscular or ligamentous damage

  13. Supporting children: Victims of crime, within victim support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walle Vande Ilse

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available All too often, the victimization of children is automatically associated with child abuse and sexual abuse. However, children are also confronted, either directly or indirectly, with other kinds of criminality. In spite of that children usually do not get appropriate support and assistance. In this paper, the establishment and development of services for the support of children-victims of crime in Belgium, as well as European cooperation in this regard, are described.

  14. Bullying and Victimization Among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetgiri, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Bullying among children is a significant public health problem world-wide. Bullying is most commonly defined as repeated, intentional aggression, perpetrated by a more powerful individual or group against a less powerful victim. Trends in victimization and moderate to frequent bullying may be decreasing slightly in the United States, but over 20% of children continue to be involved in bullying. Direct bullying consists of physical and verbal aggression, whereas indirect bullying involves relational aggression. Cyber bullying is an emerging problem which may be more difficult to identify and intervene with than traditional bullying. Bullies, victims, and bully-victims are at risk for negative short and long-term consequences such as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and delinquency. Various individual, parental, and peer factors increase the risk for involvement in bullying. Anti-bullying interventions are predominantly school-based and demonstrate variable results. Healthcare providers can intervene in bullying by identifying potential bullies or victims, screening them for co-morbidities, providing counseling and resources, and advocating for bullying prevention. PMID:24007839

  15. Bullying Victimization, Parenting Stress, and Anxiety among Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan A; Cappadocia, M Catherine; Tint, Ami; Pepler, Debra

    2015-12-01

    Bullying victimization is commonly associated with anxiety among individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and both bullying victimization and anxiety are more prevalent among youth with ASD than in the general population. We explored individual and contextual factors that relate to anxiety in adolescents and young adults with ASD who also experience bullying victimization. Participants included 101 mothers of adolescents and young adults diagnosed with ASD. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship between bullying victimization and anxiety in children with ASD, as well as parenting stress as a potential moderator of that relationship. Findings indicate that parenting stress moderates the association between bullying victimization and anxiety. The severity of anxiety was most strongly associated with bullying victimization when mothers reported high levels of stress. Implications for interventions that assist parents with coping and address bullying victimization are discussed. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. So Young and Already Victims of Stereotype Threat: Socio-Economic Status and Performance of 6 to 9 Years Old Children on Raven's Progressive Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desert, Michel; Preaux, Marie; Jund, Robin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether children from low socio-economic status (SES) are victims of stereotype threat. Children in first grade (6 to 7 years old) and third grade (8 to 9 years old) performed Raven's progressive matrices, an intellectual ability test commonly used by psychologists. The test was presented either with the…

  17. Disasters, Victimization, and Children's Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Blease, Kathryn A.; Turner, Heather A.; Finkelhor, David

    2010-01-01

    In a representative sample of 2,030 U.S. children aged 2-17, 13.9% report lifetime exposure to disaster, and 4.1% report experiencing a disaster in the past year. Disaster exposure was associated with some forms of victimization and adversity. Victimization was associated with depression among 2- to 9-year-old disaster survivors, and with…

  18. Victimization of Peruvian adolescents and health risk behaviors: Young Lives cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookston, Benjamin T; Merrill, Ray M; Hedges, Stephanie; Lister, Cameron; West, Joshua H; Hall, P Cougar

    2014-01-28

    While extensive research has been conducted on bullying and victimization in western countries, research is lacking in low- and middle-income settings. This study focused on bullying victimization in Peru. It explored the relationship between the caregiver's perception of child victimization and the child's view of selected negative experiences occurring with other children their age. Also, the study examined the association between victimization and adolescent health risk behaviors. This study used data from 675 children participating in the Peru cohort of the Young Lives study. Children and caregivers were interviewed in 2002 when children were 8 years of age and again in 2009 when children were 15 years of age. Measures of victimization included perceptions from children and caregivers while measures of health risk behaviors included cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and sexual relations among adolescents. Caregivers identified 85 (12.6%) children bullied at ages 8 and 15, 235 (34.8%) bullied at age 8 only, 61 (9.0%) bullied at age 15 only, and 294 (43.6%) not bullied at either age. Children who were bullied at both ages compared with all other children were 1.58 (95% CI 1.00-2.50) times more likely to smoke cigarettes, 1.57 (1.04-2.38) times more likely to drink alcohol, and 2.17 (1.41-3.33) times more likely to have ever had a sexual relationship, after adjusting for gender. The caregiver's assessment of child victimization was significantly associated with child reported bullying from other children their age. Child reported victimization was significantly associated with increased risky behaviors in some cases. Long-term victimization from bullying is more strongly associated than less frequent victimization with increased risk of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and sexual relations at age 15. Hence, programs focused on helping children learn how to mitigate and prevent bullying consistently over time may also help reduce risky adolescent health

  19. Children's Peer Victimization, Empathy, and Emotional Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Perren, Sonja; Buchmann, Marlis

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the concurrent and longitudinal relations among children's peer victimization, empathy, and emotional symptoms. The sample consisted of 175 children (85 girls, mean age = 6.1 years) recruited from kindergartens in Switzerland and followed for 1 year (Time 2). Parents and teachers reported on the children's emotional…

  20. Peer victimization experienced by children and adolescents who are deaf or hard of hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouwenberg, Maartje; Rieffe, Carolien; Theunissen, Stephanie C P M; de Rooij, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Victimization is a relatively common, yet serious problem, with potentially severe consequences for children's psychosocial and academic functioning. Children who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (DHH) may be at a higher risk for victimization than hearing children. The aims of the present study were to compare DHH and hearing children on i) self-reported experiences of victimization and ii) associations between victimization, parental- and child variables. In total 188 children (mean age 11;11 years) from the Netherlands and Dutch-speaking part of Belgium participated in the study. No difference between DHH and hearing children were found on general experiences of victimization. However, differences between the groups were found on specific forms of experienced victimization and on the associations between victimization and parental variables. For DHH children, parental sensitivity and parents who challenge their DHH children to become competent in the practical, emotional, cognitive and social domain is associated with them being less victimized. For hearing children at this age these relations were reversed, absent or more complex. Finally, DHH children in special schools were more victimized than DHH children in regular schools. It can be concluded that parents can play an important role in reducing social problems experienced by DHH children and young adolescents.

  1. Peer victimization experienced by children and adolescents who are deaf or hard of hearing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje Kouwenberg

    Full Text Available Victimization is a relatively common, yet serious problem, with potentially severe consequences for children's psychosocial and academic functioning. Children who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (DHH may be at a higher risk for victimization than hearing children. The aims of the present study were to compare DHH and hearing children on i self-reported experiences of victimization and ii associations between victimization, parental- and child variables. In total 188 children (mean age 11;11 years from the Netherlands and Dutch-speaking part of Belgium participated in the study. No difference between DHH and hearing children were found on general experiences of victimization. However, differences between the groups were found on specific forms of experienced victimization and on the associations between victimization and parental variables. For DHH children, parental sensitivity and parents who challenge their DHH children to become competent in the practical, emotional, cognitive and social domain is associated with them being less victimized. For hearing children at this age these relations were reversed, absent or more complex. Finally, DHH children in special schools were more victimized than DHH children in regular schools. It can be concluded that parents can play an important role in reducing social problems experienced by DHH children and young adolescents.

  2. Young Children's Explorations: Young Children's Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jane

    2012-01-01

    "Exploration" is recognised as research behaviour; anecdotally, as an early years' teacher, I witnessed many young children exploring. However, young children's self-initiated explorations are rarely regarded as research by adult researchers and policy-makers. The exclusion of young children's autonomous explorations from recognition as…

  3. Bullying: Young Children's Roles, Social Status, and Prevention Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2017-01-01

    Bullying in schools has been identified as a serious and complex worldwide problem associated with young children's victimization. Research studies indicate the frequency and effects of bullying among young children. The effects seem to be across-the-board for both bullies and victims, who are at risk of experiencing emotional, social, and…

  4. The Longitudinal Effects of Peer Victimization on Physical Health From Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Alanna D; Leadbeater, Bonnie J

    2016-03-01

    Extensive research with children and adolescents documents the deleterious mental health outcomes associated with peer victimization, and recent research suggests that peer victimization is also associated with physical health problems in these age groups. The present study examines the concurrent and prospective links between physical and relational victimization and physical health problems (physical symptoms and physical self-concept) from adolescence to young adulthood (age 12-29 years). Data were collected from the Victoria Healthy Youth Survey, a six-wave multicohort study conducted biennially between 2003 and 2014 (N = 662). As expected, both relational and physical victimization were associated with greater physical symptoms and poorer physical self-concept concurrently and with physical self-concept over time. Relational victimization, which occurred more frequently, also predicted physical symptoms across young adulthood. Peer victimization puts adolescents at risk for immediate and long-term physical health difficulties. This study highlights the unique effects of physical and relational victimization and shows that victimized youth continue to experience poorer physical health for years after high school. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. History of Peer Victimization and Children's Response to School Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, L. Christian; Cavell, Timothy A.; Ogle, Nick T.; Malcolm, Kenya T.; Newgent, Rebecca A.; Faith, Melissa A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the degree to which children with and without a history of stable peer victimization differentially endorse strategies for dealing with school bullies. Participants were 323 children, 58 of whom met criteria for chronic peer victimization. Children with a history of stable peer victimization differed from comparison children in how…

  6. Feeling like a group after a natural disaster: Common ingroup identity and relations with outgroup victims among majority and minority young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzali, Loris; Cadamuro, Alessia; Versari, Annalisa; Giovannini, Dino; Trifiletti, Elena

    2015-09-01

    We conducted a field study to test whether the common ingroup identity model (Gaertner & Dovidio, 2000, reducing intergroup bias: The common ingroup identity model. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press) could be a useful tool to improve intergroup relations in the aftermath of a natural disaster. Participants were majority (Italian) and minority (immigrant) elementary school children (N = 517) living in the area struck by powerful earthquakes in May 2012. Results revealed that, among majority children, the perceived external threat represented by the earthquake was associated with greater perceptions of belonging to a common ingroup including both ingroup and outgroup. In turn, heightened one-group perceptions were associated with greater willingness to meet and help outgroup victims, both directly and indirectly via more positive outgroup attitudes. Among immigrant children, perceived disaster threat was not associated with any of the dependent variables; one-group perceptions were positively associated with outgroup attitudes, helping and contact intentions towards outgroup victims. Thus, one-group perceptions after a natural disaster may promote more positive and supporting relations between the majority and the minority group. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of the findings. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Victim or Troublemaker? Young People in Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Young people who live in residential care are caught between discourses of being a victim of abuse and inadequate care or being a troublemaker by their own conduct. Both discourses are rooted in the reasons for placement, and they will offer subject positions that are experienced as troubled. Repeated interviews with young people living in…

  8. [Forensic procedures for interview physical exam and evidence collection in children and young people victims of physical and/or sexual abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Teresa; Ribeiro, Cristina Silveira; Jardim, Patrícia; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2011-01-01

    The public nature of child abuse crime (domestic violence, maltreatment and sexual crimes) implies the opening of a criminal enquiry as soon as facts likely to be considered as such are known. Professionals who suspect of these cases are considered mandatory reporters as is the case of health care professionals. The work with abused children and youth involves several courses of action between institutions, namely as to the starting procedures to follow in case triage, reporting of suspicion, diagnosis and preservation of evidence for penal purposes, as well as to the protection of the victim(s), all of which still lack a clear definition in Portugal. Several professionals often take part simultaneously in these early procedures and it is crucial that their own personal intervention be articulated with one another's. With the aim of promoting that adequate articulation between the professionals and the acting services, technical orientations to be followed have to be established, namely as far as the articulation between the medicolegal services and the health care services are concerned. These orientations should aim at: ruling the reporting of the occurrence in good time; guarantee an appropriate collection of evidence; guarantee good medical procedures in medical exams and evidence collection; avoid repetition of exams of the victims, preventing secondary victimisation and cross-contamination of child report. Based on the internationally accepted rules for the matter and taking into consideration the Portuguese reality, namely in legal terms, the authors made a proposition concerning the procedures for the intervention in such cases that are herewith presented and were approved as General Recommendations for the Examination in Cases of Suspicion of Domestic Violence, Maltreatment or Sexual Crime Against Children by the National Institute of Legal Medicine, in January 2010. These were later confirmed by the Specialty College of Legal Medicine of the Medical Board

  9. Factors that Influence Children's Responses to Peer Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Children's responses to peer victimization are associated with whether the victimization continues, and its impact on adjustment. Yet little longitudinal research has examined the factors influencing children's responses to peer victimization. In a sample of 140 late elementary school children (n = 140, Mean age = 10 years, 2 months, 55% female,…

  10. The interrelation between victimization and bullying inside young offender institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häufle, Jenny; Wolter, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bullying and victimization are serious problems within prisons. Young Offender Institutions (YOIs), in particular, suffer from high rates of inmate-on-inmate violence. More recent theories about the development of bullying in closed custody institutions imply a relationship between the experience of victimization and the usage of bullying. In our study, we test this linkage using longitudinal survey data taken at two time-points from 473 inmates (aged 15-24) inside three YOIs in Germany. We first analyze the extent of bullying and victimization, and then used a longitudinal structural equation model to predict inmate bullying behavior at time 2 based on victimization that occurred at time 1. Age is used as a predictor variable to account for differences in the amount of victimization and bullying. Results suggest that bullying and victimization are high in the YOIs, which were subject to research. Most inmates reported being a bully and a victim at the same time. Younger inmates use more direct physical bullying but not psychological bullying. An increase in psychological bullying over time can significantly be explained by victimization at an earlier measurement time point. Our study therefore supports recent theoretical assumptions about the development of bullying behavior. Possible implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. ADHD in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips ADHD in Young Children Use recommended treatment first Language: ... The recommended first treatment for young children with ADHD is underused. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends ...

  12. Children's Tendency to Defend Victims of School Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, James R.; Smith-Adcock, Sondra

    2017-01-01

    Defenders, or children who help victims, are studied less often than children who bully or are victims of bullying. In this study, the authors examined middle schools students' perceived normative pressure from significant others to help victims. Findings suggest that normative pressure from best friends mediated gender and defending, and the…

  13. Emotions and Young Offenders' Suitability for Victim-Offender Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Tracey A.

    Although evidence indicates that Victim-Offender Mediation (VOM) provides an effective alternative to traditional sanctioning for young offenders, research investigating suitable candidates for VOM is lacking. Reintegrative shaming is theorized to be the mechanism underlying successful mediation; however, it is difficult to determine whether shame…

  14. Childhood victimization and inflammation in young adulthood: A genetically sensitive cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jessie R; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Fisher, Helen L; Moffitt, Terrie E; Odgers, Candice L; Pariante, Carmine; Ambler, Antony; Dove, Rosamund; Kepa, Agnieszka; Matthews, Timothy; Menard, Anne; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Danese, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Childhood victimization is an important risk factor for later immune-related disorders. Previous evidence has demonstrated that childhood victimization is associated with elevated levels of inflammation biomarkers measured decades after exposure. However, it is unclear whether this association is (1) already detectable in young people, (2) different in males and females, and (3) confounded by genetic liability to inflammation. Here we sought to address these questions. Participants were 2232 children followed from birth to age 18years as part of the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study. Childhood victimization was measured prospectively from birth to age 12years. Inflammation was measured through C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in dried blood spots at age 18years. Latent genetic liability for high inflammation levels was assessed through a twin-based method. Greater exposure to childhood victimization was associated with higher CRP levels at age 18 (serum-equivalent means were 0.65 in non-victimized Study members, 0.74 in those exposed to one victimization type, and 0.81 in those exposed to poly-victimization; p=0.018). However, this association was driven by a significant association in females (serum-equivalent means were 0.75 in non-victimized females, 0.87 in those exposed to one type of victimization, and 1.19 in those exposed to poly-victimization; p=0.010), while no significant association was observed in males (p=0.19). Victimized females showed elevated CRP levels independent of latent genetic influence, as well as childhood socioeconomic status, and waist-hip ratio and body temperature at the time of CRP assessment. Childhood victimization is associated with elevated CRP levels in young women, independent of latent genetic influences and other key risk factors. These results strengthen causal inference about the effects of childhood victimization on inflammation levels in females by accounting for potential genetic confounding. Copyright

  15. Substantiated Childhood Maltreatment and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization in Young Adulthood: A Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Kisely, Steve; Williams, Gail Marilyn; Clavarino, Alexandra Marie; Najman, Jackob Moses

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the associations between various types of childhood maltreatment and multiple forms of intimate partner violence victimization in early adulthood. This study examines the extent to which childhood experiences of maltreatment increase the risk for intimate partner violence victimization in early adulthood. Data for the present study are from 3322 young adults (55 % female) of the Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy with the mean age of 20.6 years. The Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy is a prospective Australian pre-birth cohort study of mothers consecutively recruited during their first antenatal clinic visit at Brisbane's Mater Hospital from 1981 through to 1983. Participants completed the Composite Abuse Scale at 21-year follow-up and linked this dataset to agency recorded substantiated cases of childhood maltreatment. In adjusted models, the odds of reporting emotional intimate partner violence victimization were 1.84, 2.64 and 3.19 times higher in physically abused, neglected and emotionally abused children, respectively. Similarly, the odds of physical intimate partner violence victimization were 1.76, 2.31, 2.74 and 2.76 times higher in those children who had experienced physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect and emotional abuse, respectively. Harassment was 1.63 times higher in emotionally abused children. The odds of severe combined abuse were 3.97 and 4.62 times greater for emotionally abused and neglected children, respectively. The strongest associations involved reports of child emotional abuse and neglect and multiple forms of intimate partner violence victimization in young adulthood. Childhood maltreatment is a chronic adversity that is associated with specific and multiple forms of intimate partner violence victimization in adulthood.

  16. The Association Between Familial Homelessness, Aggression, and Victimization Among Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetelina, Katelyn K; Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M; Cuccaro, Paula M; Peskin, Melissa F; Elliott, Marc N; Coker, Tumaini R; Mrug, Sylvie; Davies, Susan L; Schuster, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the number of periods children were exposed to familial homelessness and childhood aggression and victimization. Survey data were obtained from 4,297 fifth-grade children and their caregivers in three U.S. cities. Children and primary caregivers were surveyed longitudinally in 7th and 10th grades. Family homelessness, measured at each wave as unstable housing, was self-reported by the caregiver. Children were categorized into four mutually exclusive groups: victim only, aggressor only, victim-aggressor, and neither victim nor aggressor at each time point using validated measures. Multinomial, multilevel mixed models were used to evaluate the relationship among periods of homelessness and longitudinal victimization, aggression, and victim aggression compared to children who were nonvictims and nonaggressors. Results suggest that children who experienced family homelessness were more likely than domiciled children to report aggression and victim aggression but not victimization only. Multivariate analyses suggested that even brief periods of homelessness were positively associated with aggression and victim aggression (relative to neither) compared to children who were never homeless. Furthermore, childhood victimization and victim aggression significantly decreased from 5th grade to 10th grade while aggression significantly increased in 10th grade. Children who experienced family homelessness for brief periods of time were significantly more likely to be a victim-aggressor or aggressor compared to those who were never homeless. Prevention efforts should target housing security and other important factors that may reduce children's likelihood of aggression and associated victimization. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Concerts for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthers, Louie

    2008-01-01

    Concerts designed to introduce young children to music and live performance are staged by a variety of organisations and ensembles across Australia. Shows featuring a wide range of performers are advertised for young children. Such concerts include Babies' Proms, Family Concerts by symphony orchestras, Play School Concerts, performances by…

  18. CHILDHOOD BULLYING VICTIMIZATION AND SUBSEQUENT OVERWEIGHT IN YOUNG ADULTHOOD: A COHORT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jessie R.; Arseneault, Louise; Odgers, Candice; Belsky, Daniel W.; Matthews, Timothy; Ambler, Antony; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Danese, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test whether bullied children have an elevated risk of being overweight in young adulthood, and whether this association is: (1) consistent with a dose-response relationship - namely its strength increases with the chronicity of victimization; (2) consistent across different measures of overweight; (3) specific to bullying and not explained by co-occurring maltreatment; (4) independent of key potential confounders; and (5) consistent with the temporal sequence of bullying preceding overweight. Method A representative birth cohort of 2,232 children was followed to age 18 years as part of the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study. Childhood bullying victimization was reported by mothers and children during primary school and early secondary school. At age 18, we assessed a categorical measure of overweight, body mass index (BMI), and waist-hip ratio. Indicators of overweight were also collected at ages 10 and 12. Co-twin body-mass and birth weight were used to index genetic and fetal liability to overweight, respectively. Results Bullied children were more likely to be overweight than non-bullied children at age 18, and this association was: (1) strongest in chronically bullied children (OR=1.69, 95% CI=1.21–2.35); (2) consistent across measures of overweight (BMI: b=1.12, 95% CI=0.37–1.87; waist-hip ratio: b=1.76, 95% CI=0.84–2.69); (3) specific to bullying and not explained by co-occurring maltreatment; (4) independent of socio-economic status, food insecurity, child mental health/cognition, and pubertal development; and (5) not present at the time of bullying victimization, and independent of childhood weight and genetic and fetal liability. Conclusion Childhood bullying victimization predicts overweight in young adulthood. PMID:27814340

  19. Lifetime Assessment of Poly-Victimization in a National Sample of Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To use a lifetime assessment of victimization experiences to identify children and youth with high cumulative levels of victimization (poly-victims). Also to compare such children to other victims and non-victims, and assess the contribution of cumulative victimization to levels of psychological distress. Design: A national sample of…

  20. Predictors of peer victimization among Peruvian adolescents in the young lives cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Cameron; Merrill, Ray M; Vance, David; West, Joshua H; Hall, P Cougar; Crookston, Benjamin T

    2015-02-01

    Bully-victimization is a widespread public health issue with significant negative effects on both social function and psychological well-being. Existing research in Peru shows high prevalence of bullying. However, researchers have yet to fully understand the phenomenon of victimization in developing regions. The purpose of this study was to characterize victimization patterns over time, along with the predictors of victimization from a cohort of Peruvian adolescents enrolled in the young lives (YL) study. This study examined data from YL, a longitudinal study of poverty, health, and development, which examined data from the older cohort of children in Peru across three rounds (ages 8, 12, and 15 years). The sample consisted of 714 children from 74 communities that represent 20 districts in Peru. After adjusting for urban/rural setting, there remained a significantly lower wealth index for children who were bullied at ages 8 and 12 years. Exploratory analysis showed that although those in the lowest quartile of body mass index (BMI) were significantly more likely to be bullied at age 8 years, this association waned over time. A worse caregiver assessment of child's health compared with others was associated with a significantly greater risk of bully-victimization. At age 8 years, caregiver education was significantly lower among those bullied compared with those who were not bullied. This study showed several factors as the predictors of victimization in the early years, including being male and having low BMI, low socioeconomic status, and low parental/caregiver education. Further longitudinal studies should be conducted to determine the extent to which these predictors vary in significance over time.

  1. The violence of poverty victimizes children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jailer, T

    1999-01-01

    While war, torture, and sexual violence threaten children's health, poverty is the most dangerous and widespread threat to children. However, while societies may react strongly to the most apparent forms and instances of violence against children, they fail to take the measures needed to effectively reduce the prevailing levels of poverty afflicting the world's children. For example, in 1998, the global starvation rate among children reached its 600-year peak; in Africa, 15% of children die before reaching age 5 years; and 200 million children under age 5 years are malnourished, with half of all deaths in that age group due to malnutrition. Lack of water, clothing, shelter, food, or medicine causes about 16.5 million deaths annually. Furthermore, current global military spending has reached $781 billion/year, more than the total income of the poorest 45% of the global population, while current annual world spending on education is only $80 billion. The world is becoming an increasingly hostile place for most people, but especially for children. Yet, as global economic and political conditions increasingly endanger children and their families, young people seem to be noticed only as certain kinds of problems.

  2. Peer victimization as reported by children, teachers, and parents in relation to children's health symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mæhle Magne

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Victims of bullying in school may experience health problems later in life. We have assessed the prevalence of children's health symptoms according to whether peer victimization was reported by the children, by their teachers, or by their parents. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 419 children in grades 1-10 the frequency of peer victimization was reported by children, teachers and parents. Emotional and somatic symptoms (sadness, anxiety, stomach ache, and headache were reported by the children. Frequencies of victimization reported by different informants were compared by the marginal homogeneity test for paired ordinal data, concordance between informants by cross-tables and Spearman's rho, and associations of victimization with health symptoms were estimated by logistic regression. Results The concordance of peer victimization reported by children, teachers, and parents varied from complete agreement to complete discordance also for the highest frequency (weekly/daily of victimization. Children's self-reported frequency of victimization was strongly and positively associated with their reports of emotional and somatic symptoms. Frequency of victimization reported by teachers or parents showed similar but weaker associations with the children's health symptoms. Conclusion The agreement between children and significant adults in reporting peer victimization was low to moderate, and the associations of reported victimization with the children's self-reported health symptoms varied substantially between informants. It may be useful to assess prospectively the effects of employing different sources of information related to peer victimization.

  3. Peer victimization as reported by children, teachers, and parents in relation to children's health symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løhre, Audhild; Lydersen, Stian; Paulsen, Bård; Mæhle, Magne; Vatten, Lars J

    2011-05-06

    Victims of bullying in school may experience health problems later in life. We have assessed the prevalence of children's health symptoms according to whether peer victimization was reported by the children, by their teachers, or by their parents. In a cross-sectional study of 419 children in grades 1-10 the frequency of peer victimization was reported by children, teachers and parents. Emotional and somatic symptoms (sadness, anxiety, stomach ache, and headache) were reported by the children.Frequencies of victimization reported by different informants were compared by the marginal homogeneity test for paired ordinal data, concordance between informants by cross-tables and Spearman's rho, and associations of victimization with health symptoms were estimated by logistic regression. The concordance of peer victimization reported by children, teachers, and parents varied from complete agreement to complete discordance also for the highest frequency (weekly/daily) of victimization. Children's self-reported frequency of victimization was strongly and positively associated with their reports of emotional and somatic symptoms. Frequency of victimization reported by teachers or parents showed similar but weaker associations with the children's health symptoms. The agreement between children and significant adults in reporting peer victimization was low to moderate, and the associations of reported victimization with the children's self-reported health symptoms varied substantially between informants. It may be useful to assess prospectively the effects of employing different sources of information related to peer victimization.

  4. Victimization of Peruvian adolescents and health risk behaviors: Young Lives cohort

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crookston, Benjamin T; Merrill, Ray M; Hedges, Stephanie; Lister, Cameron; West, Joshua H; Hall, P Cougar

    2014-01-01

    .... This study focused on bullying victimization in Peru. It explored the relationship between the caregiver's perception of child victimization and the child's view of selected negative experiences occurring with other children their age...

  5. Victimization and Violent Offending: An Assessment of the Victim-Offender Overlap Among Native American Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingle, Jennifer M.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the victim–offender overlap among a nationally representative sample of Native American adolescents and young adults. Data for this study were obtained from 338 Native American youth who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Waves I-IV. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to estimate trajectories of violence and victimization separately. Bivariate tests were used to assess the overlap between victimization and violent trajectory groups. Multinomial regression procedures were used to assess the predictors of victimization, offending, and the overlap category of both victimization and offending. Three trajectory groups were found for violence (nonviolent, escalators, and desistors) and victimization (nonvictim, decreasing victimization, and increasing victimization). We found substantial evidence of an overlap between victimization and offending among Native Americans, as 27.5% of the sample reported both victimization and offending. Those in the overlap group had greater number of risk factors present at baseline. These results suggest that the victim–offender overlap is present in Native American adolescents. Explanations and implications are discussed. PMID:24078778

  6. Young victims of violence, tattooed faces and erasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Cerbino

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to rethink the diverse modalities of gang violence, and proposes a set of causes that explain them. It explores the spiral of violence, and the opposition between victims and perpetrators. Specifically, the paper looks at the case of the Central American maras and offers an interpretation of the act of tattooing the face, as a practice that shows paradoxically how young people suffer violence in exercising of violence. Furthermore, we analyze the practice of erasing tattoos from the skin as sign of a much more intense institutional violence. The interpretation of these practices emphasizes some of the aspects related to the meanings of positions of subjectivation.

  7. Patterns of multiple victimization among maltreated children in Navy families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Damion J; Saunders, Benjamin E; Williams, Linda M; Hanson, Rochelle; Smith, Daniel W; Fitzgerald, Monica M

    2013-10-01

    The current study examined the cumulative risk associated with children's exposure to multiple types of parent-inflicted victimization. The sample was comprised of 195 children who were 7 to 17 years old (64.1% female and 48.2% non-White) at the time of referral to the United States Navy's Family Advocacy Program due to allegations of sexual abuse, physical abuse, or parental intimate partner violence. We conducted an exploratory latent class analysis to identify distinct subgroups of children based on lifetime victimization. We hypothesized that at least 2 classes or subgroups would be identified, with 1 characterized by greater victimization and poorer outcomes. Results indicated that 3 classes of children best fit the data: (a) high victimization across all 3 categories, (b) high rates of physical abuse and witnessing intimate partner violence, and (c) high rates of physical abuse only. Findings indicated that the high victimization class was at greatest risk for alcohol and substance use, delinquent behavior, and meeting criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or depression 1 year later (odds ratio = 4.53). These findings highlight the serious mental health needs of a small but significantly high-risk portion of multiply victimized children entering the child welfare system. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  8. Young children's harmonic perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2003-11-01

    Harmony and tonality are two of the most difficult elements for young children to perceive and manipulate and are seldom taught in the schools until the end of early childhood. Children's gradual harmonic and tonal development has been attributed to their cumulative exposure to Western tonal music and their increasing experiential knowledge of its rules and principles. Two questions that are relevant to this problem are: (1) Can focused and systematic teaching accelerate the learning of the harmonic/tonal principles that seem to occur in an implicit way throughout childhood? (2) Are there cognitive constraints that make it difficult for young children to perceive and/or manipulate certain harmonic and tonal principles? A series of studies specifically addressed the first question and suggested some possible answers to the second one. Results showed that harmonic instruction has limited effects on children's perception of harmony and indicated that the drastic improvement in the perception of implied harmony noted approximately at age 9 is due to development rather than instruction. I propose that young children's difficulty in perceiving implied harmony stems from their attention behaviors. Older children have less memory constraints and more strategies to direct their attention to the relevant cues of the stimulus. Younger children focus their attention on the melody, if present in the stimulus, and specifically on its concrete elements such as rhythm, pitch, and contour rather than its abstract elements such as harmony and key. The inference of the abstract harmonic organization of a melody required in the perception of implied harmony is thus an elusive task for the young child.

  9. Verbal Victimization and Changes in Hopelessness Among Elementary School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Hanley, Andrea J.; Gibb, Brandon E.

    2011-01-01

    Hopelessness is a known risk factor for a number of negative outcomes including suicide attempts and deaths. However, little is known about how hopelessness may develop. The goal of this study was to examine the impact of verbal victimization on changes in children’s levels of hopelessness. Participants were four hundred forty-eight 4th and 5th grade children who were assessed twice, six months apart. As hypothesized, reports of verbal victimization occurring during the follow-up period predi...

  10. Peer Victimization and Academic Performance in Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Lisa K; Canterford, Louise; Kosola, Silja; Degenhardt, Louisa; Allen, Nicholas B; Patton, George C

    Peer victimization is a common antecedent of poor social and emotional adjustment. Its relationship with objectively measured academic performance is unclear. In this study we aimed to quantify the cross-sectional associations between peer victimization and academic performance in a large population sample of children. Eight- to 9-year-old children were recruited from a stratified random sample of primary schools in Australia. Academic performance was measured on a national achievement test (1 year of learning equals 40 points). Physical and verbal victimization were measured according to child self-report. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression analyses were conducted. For female children, verbal victimization was associated with poorer academic performance on writing (β = 17.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], -28.2 to -6.2) and grammar/punctuation (β = -20.8; 95% CI, -40.1 to -1.6). Physical victimization was associated with poorer performance on numeracy (male children: β = -29.0; 95% CI, -53.8 to -4.1; female children: β = -30.1; 95% CI, -56.6 to -3.5), and writing (female children: β = -21.5; 95% CI, -40.4 to -2.7). Verbal and physical victimization were associated with poorer performance on reading (male children: β = -31.5; 95% CI, -59.9 to -3.1; female children: β = -30.2; 95% CI, -58.6 to -1.8), writing (female children: β = -25.5; 95% CI, -42.8 to -8.2), spelling (female children: β = -32.3; 95% CI, -59.6 to -4.9), and grammar/punctuation (female children: β = -32.2; 95% CI, -62.4 to -2.0). Children who were physically victimized were 6 to 9 months behind their non-victimized peers on measures of academic performance. There are growing reasons for education systems to invest in the prevention of bullying and promotion of positive peer relationships from the earliest years of school. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychopathic Traits, Victim Distress and Aggression in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baardewijk, Yoast; Stegge, Hedy; Bushman, Brad J.; Vermeiren, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background: The relationship between psychopathic traits and aggression in children may be explained by their reduced sensitivity to signs of distress in others. Emotional cues such as fear and sadness function to make the perpetrator aware of the victim's distress and supposedly inhibit aggression. As children high in psychopathic traits show a…

  12. Environmental Design for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Mary, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    The special issue of the journal, Children in Contemporary Society, contains 17 brief articles on environmental design for young handicapped and normal children. Articles have the following titles: "Introduction", "Environmental Design and Architecture", "Why Is Environmental Design Important to Young Children", "Children's Hospital National…

  13. Victimization among Peruvian Adolescents: Insights into Mental/Emotional Health from the Young Lives Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Cameron E.; Merrill, Ray M.; Vance, David L.; West, Joshua H.; Hall, Parley C.; Crookston, Benjamin T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bullying is a global problem among children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to explore bully victimization in Peru and to identify potential adverse mental health and social outcomes resulting from bully victimization. Methods: This study analyzed data from an ongoing prospective cohort of children taking part in the…

  14. Testing Reciprocal Longitudinal Relations between Peer Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Cong V.; Cole, David A.; Weiss, Bahr

    2012-01-01

    A 2-wave longitudinal study of young adolescents was used to test whether peer victimization predicts depressive symptoms, depressive symptoms predict peer victimization, or the 2 constructs show reciprocal relations. Participants were 598 youths in Grades 3 through 6, ages 8 to 14 (M = 10.9, SD = 1.2) at Wave 1. The sample was 50.7% female and…

  15. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adolescent School Victimization: Implications for Young Adult Health and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T.; Ryan, Caitlin; Toomey, Russell B.; Diaz, Rafael M.; Sanchez, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adolescent school victimization due to lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) status is commonplace, and is associated with compromised health and adjustment. Few studies have examined the long-term implications of LGBT school victimization for young adult adjustment. We examine the association between reports of LGBT school…

  16. Experiences, considerations and emotions relating to cardiogenetic evaluation in relatives of young sudden cardiac death victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, Christian; Onderwater, Astrid T.; van Langen, Irene M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Relatives of young sudden cardiac death (SCD) victims are at increased risk of carrying a potentially fatal inherited cardiac disease. Hence, it is recommended to perform an autopsy on the victim and to refer his or her relatives to a cardiogenetics clinic for a full evaluation to identify those at

  17. Victimization and restricted participation among young people with disabilities in the US child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Kristin L; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Msall, Michael E; Acharya, Kruti

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of disability and victimization in young people's participation in developmentally salient activities by analyzing a nationally representative group of young people from the child welfare system (CWS). Data were obtained from interviews with young people and their parents, recorded by the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW II). The sample group consisted of 405 females and 270 males, ranging in age from 11 to 17 years (mean age 13y 6mo), and residing with families throughout the USA. The relationships among disability status, victimization, and participation were explored using weighted logistic regression analysis. Controlling for demographical and family-related factors, the probability of young people with disabilities (YWD), involved with the CWS, reporting two or more victimizations was 120% higher (p<0.01) than that of young people without disabilities. YWD in the CWS were almost twice as likely as young people without disabilities to report participation in only one or no developmentally salient activities. Controlling for all other variables, the odds of restricted participation were 6.8-fold higher (p<0.05) for victimized YWD in the CWS. Young people with disabilities who report victimization are significantly less likely than their typically developing peers to participate in developmentally salient activities. Without coordinated efforts to prevent victimization of YWD in the CWS, there will be significant barriers to their participation, well-being, and independent living outcomes. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  18. Place of the victim in records of violence against children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevković Ljiljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of identifying the scope, prevalence and incidence of violence against children, at the national and international level, is determined by the way of measurement and the kind of information available on this type of crime. The starting point for successful preventive and combative measures of victimization of children is an efficient system of recording and presenting the data on violence to which they are exposed to, based on the information from the incident, the family, the perpetrator and the victim. This paper aims to identify and analyze ways of recording and the type of available data on violence against children, as well as the place of child victim in the officially presented data at the global and national level. In doing so, the paper was based on the research of relevant international and national literature in the field of judicial and social protection statistics, publications based on data from the judiciary, those based on the use of victimization surveys and other prospective or retrospective research of violent victimization experiences in childhood. At the very least an analysis of the Serbian approach to this area is given. [PR Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179044: Razvoj metodologije evidentiranja kriminaliteta kao osnova kreiranja efikasnih mera za njegovo suzbijanje i br. 47011: Kriminal u Srbiji - fenomenologija, rizici i mogućnosti socijalne intervencije

  19. Adolescent predictors of young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization among Australian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Heerde, Jessica A

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the current article was to examine the adolescent risk and protective factors (at the individual, peer group, and family level) for young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. Data from 2006 (Grade 9) to 2010 (young adulthood) were analyzed from a community sample of 927 Victorian students originally recruited as a statewide representative sample in Grade 5 (age, 10-11 years) in 2002 and followed-up to age 18-19 years in 2010 (N = 809). Participants completed a self-report survey on adolescent risk and protective factors and traditional and cyberbullying perpetration and victimization and young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. As young adults, 5.1% self-reported cyberbullying perpetration only, 5.0% reported cyberbullying victimization only, and 9.5% reported both cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. In fully adjusted logistic regression analyses, the adolescent predictors of cyberbullying perpetration only were traditional bullying perpetration, traditional bullying perpetration and victimization, and poor family management. For young adulthood cyberbullying victimization only, the adolescent predictor was emotion control. The adolescent predictors for young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization were traditional bullying perpetration and cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. Based on the results of this study, possible targets for prevention and early intervention are reducing adolescent involvement in (traditional or cyber) bullying through the development of social skills and conflict resolution skills. In addition, another important prevention target is to support families with adolescents to ensure that they set clear rules and monitor adolescents' behavior. Universal programs that assist adolescents to develop skills in emotion control are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Adolescent predictors of young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization among Australian youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current paper was to examine the adolescent risk and protective factors (at the individual, peer group, and family level) for young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Methods Data from 2006 (Grade 9) to 2010 (young adulthood) were analyzed from a community sample of 927 Victorian students originally recruited as a state-wide representative sample in Grade 5 (age 10–11 years) in 2002 and followed up to age 18–19 years in 2010 (N = 809). Participants completed a self-report survey on adolescent risk and protective factors and traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, and young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Results As young adults, 5.1% self-reported cyber-bullying perpetration only, 5.0% cyber-bullying victimization only, and 9.5% reported both cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. In fully adjusted logistic regression analyses, the adolescent predictors of cyber-bullying perpetration only were traditional bullying perpetration, traditional bullying perpetration and victimization, and poor family management. For young adulthood cyber-bullying victimization only, the adolescent predictor was emotion control. The adolescent predictors for young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization were traditional bullying perpetration and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, possible targets for prevention and early intervention are reducing adolescent involvement in (traditional or cyber-) bullying through the development of social skills and conflict resolution skills. In addition, another important prevention target is to support families with adolescents to ensure they set clear rules and monitor adolescent’s behavior. Universal programs that assist adolescents to develop skills in emotion control are warranted. PMID:24939014

  1. The social and emotional skills of bullies, victims, and bully-victims of Egyptian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habashy Hussein, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether bullies, victims, bully-victims (who are both bullies and victims), and students who reported no or low levels of bullying and victimization differed in their levels of social and emotional skills. Data were collected from 623 children in fifth and sixth grades from four Egyptian elementary schools; their ages ranged from 10 to 12 years. K-means cluster analysis revealed four groups: bullies (n = 138), victims (n = 178), bully-victims (n = 59), and children who were not involved in bullying behaviour (n = 248). Data were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. The findings indicated that boys were more involved in bullying behaviour than girls, and both bullies and bully-victims were less likely to adhere to social rules and politeness than children who were not involved in bullying. Both bullies and victims were less aware of the physiological reactions of their emotions than uninvolved children, and were less able to apply social rules in social interaction. Both victims and bully-victims reported less likeability than children not involved in bullying. Verbal sharing, attending to others' emotions, and analysis of emotions did not have a statistically significant relationship with the probabilities of classifying children to any bullying group versus children not involved in bullying. Social skills were more important than emotional awareness in predicting the likelihood of classifying children in one of the three bullying groups versus children who not involved in bullying. The main conclusion is that social and emotional skills together may provide an effective means of intervention for bullying problems.

  2. Coping with Peer Victimization: The Role of Children's Attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Kari Jeanne; Sechler, Casey M.; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky

    2013-01-01

    A social-cognitive framework was used to generate and test hypotheses regarding the role of children's causal attributions for peer victimization in predicting how they cope with such experiences. It was hypothesized that attributions would be differentially associated with coping as a function of the direction (i.e., upward, horizontal, or…

  3. Psychopathic traits, victim distress and aggression in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baardewijk, Y.; Stegge, G.T.M.; Bushman, B.J.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The relationship between psychopathic traits and aggression in children may be explained by their reduced sensitivity to signs of distress in others. Emotional cues such as fear and sadness function to make the perpetrator aware of the victim's distress and supposedly inhibit aggression.

  4. Verbal Victimization and Changes in Hopelessness among Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Andrea J.; Gibb, Brandon E.

    2011-01-01

    Hopelessness is a known risk factor for a number of negative outcomes including suicide attempts and deaths. However, little is known about how hopelessness may develop. The goal of this study was to examine the impact of verbal victimization on changes in children's levels of hopelessness. Participants were 448 fourth- and fifth-grade children…

  5. Rates of peer victimization in young adolescents with ADHD and associations with internalizing symptoms and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Mehari, Krista R; Langberg, Joshua M; Evans, Steven W

    2017-02-01

    The purposes of the present study were to: (1) describe rates of peer victimization in young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, (2) evaluate the association between types of peer victimization (i.e., physical, relational, and reputational) and internalizing problems (i.e., anxiety, depression, and self-esteem), and (3) examine whether associations between victimization and internalizing problems differ for males or females. Participants were 131 middle-school students (ages 11-15 years, 73 % male, 76 % White) diagnosed with ADHD who completed ratings of victimization, anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. Over half of the participants (57 %) reported experiencing at least one victimization behavior at a rate of once per week or more, with higher rates of relational victimization (51 %) than reputational victimization (17 %) or physical victimization (14 %). Males reported experiencing more physical victimization than females, but males and females did not differ in rates of relational or reputational victimization. Whereas relational and physical victimization were both uniquely associated with greater anxiety for both males and females, relational victimization was associated with greater depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem for males but not females. These findings indicate that young adolescents with ADHD frequently experience peer victimization and that the association between victimization and internalizing problems among young adolescents with ADHD differs as a result of victimization type, internalizing domain, and sex.

  6. Bullying victimization among 13 til 15 year old school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2008-01-01

    AIM: to examine the prevalence of bullying victimization in 66 countries and territories from five continents based on data from two large international surveys: the 2001/2 Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey (HBSC) and the Global School-based Students Health Survey (GSHS). The surveys...... provide nationally representative, cross-sectional information on 13-15-year-old school children (N = 218,104). OUTCOME MEASURES: Bullying victimization, once or more within the past 2 months (HBSC)/30 days (GSHS). RESULTS: On average, 32.1% of the children were bullied at school at least once within...... the past 2 months in countries involved in the HBSC study and 37.4% of children were bullied at least one day within the past 30 days in countries involved in the GSHS study. In both surveys, a large variation in prevalence was found across countries. The lowest prevalence in the GSHS survey was observed...

  7. Psychopathic traits, victim distress and aggression in children

    OpenAIRE

    van Baardewijk, Y.; Stegge, G.T.M.; Bushman, B.J.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The relationship between psychopathic traits and aggression in children may be explained by their reduced sensitivity to signs of distress in others. Emotional cues such as fear and sadness function to make the perpetrator aware of the victim's distress and supposedly inhibit aggression. As children high in psychopathic traits show a reduced sensitivity to others' distress, these important interpersonal signals cannot perform their aggression inhibiting function. The present exper...

  8. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: Do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. Methods The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5–6 years. Results One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17%) or bully-victims (13%), and less as pure victims (4%). All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Conclusions Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs. PMID:22747880

  9. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Pauline W; Verlinden, Marina; Dommisse-van Berkel, Anke; Mieloo, Cathelijne; van der Ende, Jan; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, Frank C; Jansen, Wilma; Tiemeier, Henning

    2012-07-02

    Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5-6 years. One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17%) or bully-victims (13%), and less as pure victims (4%). All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs.

  10. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: Do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Pauline W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. Methods The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5–6 years. Results One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17% or bully-victims (13%, and less as pure victims (4%. All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Conclusions Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs.

  11. It gets better or does it? Peer victimization and internalizing problems in the transition to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Thompson, Kara; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena

    2014-08-01

    Consistent research shows that peer victimization predicts internalizing symptoms in childhood and adolescence, but the extent to which peer victimization and its harmful effects on mental health persists into young adulthood is unclear. The current study describes patterns of physical and relational victimization during and after high school, and examines concurrent and prospective associations between internalizing symptoms (depressive and anxious symptoms) and peer victimization (physical and relational) from adolescence to young adulthood (ages 12-27). Data were collected from the Victoria Healthy Youth Survey, a five-wave multicohort study conducted biennially between 2003 and 2011 (N = 662). Physical victimization was consistently low and stable over time. Relational victimization increased for males after high school. Both types of victimization were associated concurrently with internalizing symptoms across young adulthood for males and for females. Although sex differences were important, victimization in high school also predicted increases in internalizing problems over time.

  12. School Belonging, School Victimization, and the Mental Health of LGBT Young Adults: Implications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Nicholas C.; Lindquist, Lauri M.; Machek, Greg R.; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the mediating role of school victimization in the relationship between lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) young adults' feelings of high school belonging and current mental health (both depression and general psychological distress) outcomes. A total of 145 LGBT young adults were recruited from college LGBT…

  13. Prosocial behavior as a protective factor for children's peer victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griese, Emily R; Buhs, Eric S

    2014-07-01

    A majority of peer victimization research focuses on its associations with negative outcomes, yet efforts to understand possible protective factors that may mitigate these negative outcomes also require attention. The present study was an investigation of the potential moderating effect of prosocial behaviors on loneliness for youth who are peer victimized. Participants were fourth and fifth grade students (511 total; 49 % boys) who were primarily European American (43.4 %) and Hispanic (48.2 %). Structural Equation Modeling was used to test the interaction of prosocial behavior and peer victimization (relational and overt forms) on loneliness 1 year later. The results indicated that prosocial behavior significantly moderated the relationship between peer victimization (for the relational form only) and loneliness while controlling for levels of perceived peer support. A multi-group comparison by gender further indicated the moderation was significant for boys only. Potential implications for intervention/prevention efforts focused on developing children's prosocial skills as a possible protective factor for relationally victimized youth are discussed.

  14. Homicidal abuse of young children: A historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Rudy J Castellani; Joyce L deJong; Carl J Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    The past 50 years has seen a heightened awareness of abusive injury patterns and increased concern for the plight of children victimized by their caregivers. Murder of the young, however, has been embedded in society since the beginning of recorded time. Indeed, nature provides abundant examples of infanticide in lower animals, raising the question of whether exploitation, apathy, and violence toward children are on some level evolutionarily conserved. In human antiquity, selective killing of...

  15. Parents' and Children's Beliefs about Peer Victimization: Attributions, Coping Responses, and Child Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Bridgette D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how parents' and children's beliefs about peer victimization are related to children's adjustment. A mediational model was proposed that addressed how adjustment is predicted by degree of victimization, as well as causal attributions of and coping responses to victimization. The participants were 100 fifth- or sixth-grade…

  16. The Violent Victimization of Children, Adolescents, Adults, and the Elderly: Situational Characteristics and Victim Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsay, James D; Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Tillyer, Rob; Ward, Jeffrey T

    2017-04-01

    This study explores the nature and outcome of violent incidents experienced by child, adolescent, adult, and elderly victims. Data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) are used to determine whether there are differences in the situational characteristics-including location, time of day, weapons, and the victim-offender relationship-of violent victimization experiences across the 4 age groups, including whether situational characteristics influence the likelihood of victim injury. Results indicate that victim injury is most prevalent among adult victims and that the situational characteristics of violent incidents vary by victim age, as do the correlates of victim injury. These findings suggest that of the nature of violent victimization should be examined within the context of victim age, and supports research by scholars who have proposed a model of developmental victimology to identify age-specific victimization patterns.

  17. Violence Victimization, Social Support, and Papanicolaou Smear Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study from Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Heinze, Justin E; Lang, Ian; Mistry, Ritesh; Buu, Anne; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2017-12-01

    African American youth are among those at greatest risk for experiencing violence victimization. Notably, the mortality rate of cervical cancer for African American women is also twice that of white women. To date, we know of no literature using longitudinal data to examine how violence victimization relates to Papanicolaou (Pap) smear results or cervical cancer in this population. Our study examines how violence victimization during adolescence (age 15 to 18) influences psychological distress, perceived social support, heavy substance abuse, and sexual risk behaviors during emerging adulthood (age 20 to 23), and subsequent Pap smear outcomes during young adulthood (age 29 to 32). This study is based on 12 waves of data collected in a longitudinal study of 360 African American women from mid-adolescence (ninth grade, mean age = 14.8 years) to young adulthood (mean age = 32.0 years). We used structural equation modeling analysis to examine the hypothesized model. Violence victimization during adolescence had a direct effect on decreased social support, increased psychological distress, and increased heavy cigarette use during emerging adulthood. Better social support was also associated with fewer sexual partners during emerging adulthood and lower odds of abnormal Pap smear results during young adulthood. The effect of violence victimization on abnormal Pap smear was mediated by social support. Our results show that violence victimization during adolescence has long-term negative effects through multiple pathways that persist into adulthood. Our findings also suggest that social support may help to compensate against other risk factors. Interventions designed to address the perceived support may help victims cope with their experience.

  18. Violent Victimization in the Community and Children's Subsequent Peer Rejection: The Mediating Role of Emotion Dysregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brynn M.; Schwartz, David; Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer; Nakamoto, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a short-term longitudinal study of the relation between violent victimization in the community and peer rejection among 199 children (mean age = 9.02 years) attending two urban Los Angeles area elementary schools. We used a multi-informant approach to assess victimization by community violence, peer group victimization, peer…

  19. Peer Victimization Partially Mediates the Schizotypy-Aggression Relationship in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian; Fung, Annis Lai-chu; Lam, Bess Yin Hung

    2011-01-01

    While persuasive evidence has accumulated over the past 15 years documenting an association between schizophrenia and violence, there are 3 unresolved issues. First, does a downward extension of this relationship exist at the nonclinical level with respect to schizotypal personality and aggression in children? Second, is aggression more associated with impulsive reactive aggression or with more planned proactive aggression. Third and importantly, does peer victimization mediate the relationship between schizotypy and aggression? A further aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the utility of a new child self-report measure of schizotypal personality. These issues were examined in a sample of 3804 schoolchildren assessed on schizotypy using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Child (SPQ-C), reactive-proactive aggression, and peer victimization. A confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the 3-factor structure (cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal, and disorganized) of the SPQ-C. Schizotypy was positively associated with total aggression and reactive aggression but not with proactive aggression. Peer victimization was found to significantly mediate the schizotypy-aggression relationship, accounting for 58.9% of the association. Results are broadly consistent with the hypothesis that schizotypal features elicit victimization from other children, which in turn predisposes to reactive retaliatory aggression. Findings are to the authors’ knowledge the first to document any mediator of the schizotypy-aggression relationship and have potential treatment implications for violence reduction in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. This study also provides initial evidence for the factorial and discriminant validity of a brief and simple measure of schizotypal personality in children as young as 8 years. PMID:21795613

  20. Poor Parenting and Antisocial Behavior among Homeless Young Adults: Links to Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Though research has examined risk factors associated with street victimization among homeless young people, little is known about dating violence experiences among this group. Given homeless youths' elevated rates of child maltreatment, it is likely that they are at high risk for dating violence. As such, the current study examined the association…

  1. Gender-Nonconforming Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth: School Victimization and Young Adult Psychosocial Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Russell B.; Ryan, Caitlin; Diaz, Rafael M.; Card, Noel A.; Russell, Stephen T.

    2010-01-01

    Past research documents that both adolescent gender nonconformity and the experience of school victimization are associated with high rates of negative psychosocial adjustment. Using data from the Family Acceptance Project's young adult survey, we examined associations among retrospective reports of adolescent gender nonconformity and adolescent…

  2. Language disorders in victims of domestic violence in children's homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos-Cali, Martha; Ladera, Valentina; Perea, María Victoria; García, Ricardo

    2017-03-07

    Studies that deal with child maltreatment have become relevant during these past years. One important aspect to consider is the impact of maltreatment on the cognitive functioning and more precisely on language. Our objective is to analyze the different components in the comprehension and production of language in children victims of domestic abuse in Childreńs Homes. The sample consists of 104 participants divided in two groups. A group of children who have just been institutionalized due to domestic abuse (VG) (Age: 8 years 2 months with a standard deviation of 1, 5 years) without previous treatment; a group of comparison (CG) made up by children who have not been victim of domestic violence (Age: 8 years 6 months with a standard deviation of 2 years and a month), with similar characteristics of gender, age and schooling. The Child Neuropsychological Assessment by Matute, Rosselli, Ardila and Ostrosky (2007) was applied. This test includes metalinguistic, oral and written comprehension and expression skills. The VG group showed low scores in all components of the analyzed language with exception to the discourse, syllable and non-word dictation compared to the CG children. The alterations of the language observed in these children semantic suggest a lack of consolidation of phonological coding and a low use of code. From our findings an early language evaluation in these children can be of especial interest to apply timely intervention programs with the aim of diminishing the impact caused by domestic violence on school failure which is a frequent trait in these children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Parenting Young Gifted Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Linda Kreger

    1986-01-01

    Provides information on the following for parents and care-givers of gifted children: (1) recognizing giftedness; (2) dealing with nongifted children in the family; (3) effect of chronic early ear infection on IQ; (4) introversion; (5) "normalizing" gifted children; (6) need for gifted peers; and (7) responsive parenting. A list of guidelines for…

  4. The impact of loneliness on self-rated health symptoms among victimized school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Løhre Audhild

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loneliness is associated with peer victimization, and the two adverse experiences are both related to ill health in childhood and adolescence. There is, however, a lack of knowledge on the importance of loneliness among victimized children. Therefore, possible modifying effects of loneliness on victimized school children’s self-rated health were assessed. Methods A population based cross-section study included 419 children in grades 1–10 from five schools. The prevalence of loneliness and victimization across grades was analyzed by linear test for trend, and associations of the adverse experiences with four health symptoms (sadness, anxiety, stomach ache, and headache were estimated by logistic regression. Results In crude regression analysis, both victimization and loneliness showed positive associations with all the four health symptoms. However, in multivariable analysis, the associations of victimization with health symptoms were fully attenuated except for headache. In contrast, loneliness retained about the same strength of associations in the multivariable analysis as in the crude analysis. More detailed analyses demonstrated that children who reported both victimization and loneliness had three to seven times higher prevalence of health symptoms compared to children who reported neither victimization nor loneliness (the reference group. Rather surprisingly, victimized children who reported no loneliness did not have any higher prevalence of health symptoms than the reference group, whereas lonely children without experiences of victimization had almost the same prevalence of health symptoms (except for stomach ache as children who were both victimized and lonely. Conclusions Adverse effects of loneliness need to be highlighted, and for victimized children, experiences of loneliness may be an especially harsh risk factor related to ill health.

  5. Children's effortful control and academic achievement: do relational peer victimization and classroom participation operate as mediators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Carlos; Swanson, Jodi; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Berger, Rebecca H

    2014-08-01

    Given that early academic achievement is related to numerous developmental outcomes, understanding processes that promote early success in school is important. This study was designed to clarify how students' (N=291; M age in fall of kindergarten=5.66 years, SD=0.39 year) effortful control, relational peer victimization, and classroom participation relate to achievement, as students progress from kindergarten to first grade. Effortful control and achievement were assessed in kindergarten, classroom participation and relational peer victimization were assessed in the fall of first grade, and achievement was reassessed in the spring of first grade. Classroom participation, but not relational peer victimization, mediated relations between effortful control and first grade standardized and teacher-rated achievement, controlling for kindergarten achievement. Findings suggest that aspects of classroom participation, such as the ability to work independently, may be useful targets of intervention for enhancing academic achievement in young children. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sexuality and Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2000-01-01

    Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…

  7. Re-Victimization Patterns in a National Longitudinal Sample of Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To understand to the degree to which a broad variety of victimizations, including child maltreatment, conventional crime, peer, and sexual victimizations, persist for children from 1 year to the next. Design: A national sample of 1467 children aged 2-17 recruited through random digit dialing and assessed via telephone interviews (with…

  8. Physically Abused Women's Experiences of Sexual Victimization and their Children's Disruptive Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Laura C; Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Skopp, Nancy A

    2012-10-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the substantial co-occurrence of women's experiences of physical and sexual violence, very little is known about their separate and combined effects on child functioning. The present study examines whether sexual victimization experienced by physically abused women is associated with their children's disruptive behavior problems, after controlling for mothers' physical victimization and parent to child aggression. It also tests the hypothesis that maternal distress mediates the association between women's sexual victimization and their children's disruptive behavior problems. METHOD: The sample includes 449 mothers and their children (4-8 years) who were recruited while residing in domestic violence shelters. Mothers reported on their experiences of physical and sexual victimization over the past year and their current symptoms of psychological distress. Trained diagnosticians interviewed mothers about their children's disruptive behavior problems. RESULTS: Approximately 75% of the women reported experiences of sexual victimization. Physically abused women's experiences of sexual victimization correlated positively with their children's disruptive behavior problems and their own psychological distress. The results of path analyses indicated that maternal psychological distress mediates the relation between women's experiences of sexual victimization and their children's disruptive behavior problems. CONCLUSIONS: This research suggests that physically abused women's experiences of sexual victimization are important for understanding their children's disruptive behavior problems. Additionally, this research provides further evidence that maternal psychological distress is important for understanding how intimate partner violence might influence children.

  9. Parents' Beliefs about Peer Victimization and Children's Socio-Emotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Gerardy, Haeli

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that interpersonal risks and resources can modulate the impact peer victimization has on children's socio-emotional adjustment. The current study contributes to this research by examining links between parents' victimization-related beliefs and children's psychosocial functioning. Data were collected on 190 3rd- and…

  10. Peer Victimization in Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Relations with Symptoms of Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Ledley, Deborah Roth; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Johns, Natalie B.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Geffken, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of peer victimization and psychological symptom correlates among youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The Schwartz Peer Victimization Scale, Children's Depression Inventory, and Asher Loneliness Scale were administered to 52 children and adolescents diagnosed with OCD. The child's parent or guardian…

  11. Frequency of victimization experiences and well-being among online, offline and combined victims on social online network sites of German children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eGlüer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Victimization is associated with negative developmental outcomes in childhood and adolescence. However, previous studies have provided mixed results regarding the association between offline and online victimization and indicators of social, psychological, and somatic well-being. In this study, we investigated 1,906 German children and adolescents (grades 5 to 10, mean age = 13.9; SD = 2.1 with and without offline or online victimization experiences who participated in a social online network (SNS. Online questionnaires were used to assess previous victimization (offline, online, combined, and without, somatic and psychological symptoms, self-esteem, and social self-concept (social competence, resistance to peer influence, esteem by others. In total, 1,362 (71.4% children and adolescents reported being a member of at least one social online network, and 377 students (28.8% reported previous victimization. Most children and adolescents had offline victimization experiences (17.5%, whereas 2.7% reported online victimization, and 8.6% reported combined experiences. Girls reported more online and combined victimization, and boys reported more offline victimization. The type of victimization (offline, online, combined was associated with increased reports of psychological and somatic symptoms, lower self-esteem and esteem by others, and lower resistance to peer influences. The effects were comparable for the groups with offline and online victimization. They were, however, increased in the combined group in comparison to victims with offline experiences alone.

  12. Post-mortem toxicology in young sudden cardiac death victims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjune, Thea; Risgaard, Bjarke; Kruckow, Line

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Several drugs increase the risk of ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death (SCD). We aimed to investigate in detail the toxicological findings of all young SCD throughout Denmark. Methods and results: Deaths in persons aged 1-49 years were included over a 10-year period. Death...... death with positive toxicology had higher rates of sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS), compared with SCD with negative toxicology (56% vs. 42%, P 

  13. Motor Proficiency in Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Fotini Venetsanou; Antonis Kambas

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine motor proficiency in young children, focusing on potential gender differences. For that purpose, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency–Long Form (BOTMP-LF) was administered to 540 children (272 boys), 4½ to 6 years old. First, the 2 (sex) × 4 (age groups) ANOVA computed on children’s total BOTMP-LF scores showed that age had a statistically significant effect, whereas gender did ...

  14. Protective Factors Against the Impact of School Bullying Perpetration and Victimization on Young Adult Externalizing and Internalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Tollit, Michelle; Herrenkohl, Todd I.

    2014-01-01

    School-based bullying perpetration and victimization is common worldwide and has profound impacts on student behavior and mental health. However, few studies have examined young adult outcomes of bullying perpetration or victimization. Research on factors that protect students who have bullied or been bullied is also lacking. This study examined…

  15. Avoidant Coping as a Mediator between Appearance-Related Victimization and Self-Esteem in Young Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, J.; Feldman, S. S.

    2007-01-01

    Peer victimization, especially appearance-related bullying, is a highly stressful experience for a young person and is associated with significant negative outcomes. Perhaps, the most common consequence of peer victimization in adolescence is lowered self-esteem. Evidence supports the role of low self-esteem as a non-specific risk factor and high…

  16. Sex Education with Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblinsky, Sally; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Discusses guidelines (developed by the Oregon State University Early Childhood Sex Education Project) for developing teacher-parent cooperation in providing sex education to young children. The guidelines concern how to talk about body differences and body functions; how to deal with masturbation, sex play and obscene language; and how to involve…

  17. Writing in Young Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cheri; Mayer, Connie

    2015-01-01

    The authors conducted an integrative review of the research literature on the writing development, writing instruction, and writing assessment of young deaf children ages 3 to 8 years (or preschool through third grade) published between 1990 and 2012. A total of 17 studies were identified that met inclusion criteria. The analysis examined research…

  18. Peer victimization among children and adolescents with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jeremy S; Kendall, Philip C

    2015-06-01

    This study examined peer victimization among a sample of youth who were seeking treatment at an outpatient anxiety disorders clinic. The study examined the association between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms and looked at whether frequent victimization was more common among youth with Social Phobia (SoP) as compared to youth with other anxiety disorders The study also examined the relation between SoP and peer victimization dimensionally. Participants were 90 youth (47 boys; M age = 11.06 years) and their parents. Results showed that peer victimization was associated with social anxiety symptoms, and relational victimization, in particular, was associated with internalizing problems among youth with anxiety disorders. Negative beliefs about the peer group accounted for some of this relation. Victimization was associated with symptomatology rather than diagnosis. Peer victimization is important to assess and consider in the treatment of anxiety disorders in youth.

  19. Pelvic floor muscle problems mediate sexual problems in young adult rape victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Riemke; Bicanic, Iva; van der Vaart, Huub; Laan, Ellen

    2013-08-01

    Prior studies have addressed sexual abuse and sexual function in adult women. No studies have focused on the effect of adolescence rape on sexual functioning. To investigate the effect of rape on sexual problems and on pelvic floor problems, as well as the mediating role of pelvic floor problems on sexual problems, in a homogenous group of victims of adolescence rape without a history of childhood sexual, physical, and/or emotional abuse. Sexual functioning and pelvic floor functioning were assessed using self-report questionnaires. In this cross-sectional study, a group of 89 young women aged 18-25 years who were victimized by rape in adolescence was compared with a group of 114 nonvictimized controls. The rape victims were treated for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 3 years prior to participation in the study. Three years posttreatment, rape victims were 2.4 times more likely to have a sexual dysfunction (lubrication problems and pain) and 2.7 times more likely to have pelvic floor dysfunction (symptoms of provoked vulvodynia, general stress, lower urinary tract, and irritable bowel syndrome) than nonvictimized controls. The relationship between rape and sexual problems was partially mediated by the presence of pelvic floor problems. Rape victims and controls did not differ with regard to sexual activities. Rape victims suffer significantly more from sexual dysfunction and pelvic floor dysfunction when compared with nontraumatized controls, despite the provision of treatment for PTSD. Possibly, physical manifestations of PTSD have been left unaddressed in treatment. Future treatment protocols should consider incorporating (physical or psychological) treatment strategies for sexual dysfunction and/or pelvic floor dysfunction into trauma exposure treatments. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. Parents as victims of rebellious children, and children who suffer from Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronelle Pretorius

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available Abused parents are the forgotten victims of family violence. This paper reports on the victimisation of 50 parents who are members of a lay support group, "Parents of Rebellious Children" (PORCH. Although it was not the aim of this study to investigate the role that TS could possibly play, it was a serendipity finding that TS may be a contributing factor in the rebelliousness exhibited by some children. These parents did not only experience severe verbal and physical abuse but also suffered serious damage to property at the hands of their violent children. They were often blamed if they spoke of their plight and received little moral support. Abused parents need to be recognized and treated as victims of violence. Eleven rebellious children who were treated for TS with psychotropic drugs, showed dramatic behavioural changes and the implications of such treatment are also indicated.

  1. Who Gets Protection? A National Study of Multiple Victimization and Child Protection Among Taiwanese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao; Feng, Joyce Yen; Feng, Jui-Ying; Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Hsieh, Yi-Ping; Huang, Soar Ching-Yu; Hwa, Hsiao-Lin

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to examine the prevalence of multiple types of child victimization and the effects of multiple types of victimization on children's mental health and behavior in Taiwan. The study also examines the child-protection rate and its correlates among children experiencing various types of victimization. This study collected data with a self-report questionnaire from a national proportionately stratified sample of 6,233 fourth-grade students covering every city and county in Taiwan in 2014. After calculating the 1-year prevalence of child victimization, the study found that bullying was the most prevalent (71%), followed by physical neglect (66%), psychological violence (43%), inter-parental violence (28%), community violence (22%), physical abuse (21%), and sexual violence (9%). As the number of victimization types increased, children were more likely to report greater posttraumatic symptoms, psychiatric symptoms, suicide ideation, self-harm thoughts, and violent behaviors. Gender, neonatal status, parental marital status, and other family risks were significantly associated with elevated incidences of the victimization types. Only 20.6% of the children who had experienced all seven types of victimization had received child protective services. A child was more likely to receive child protective services if he or she had experienced sexual violence, community violence, inter-parental violence exposure, higher family risks, higher suicidal ideation, or living in a single-parent or separated family. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the cumulative effects and the harmful effects that children's experience of multiple types of victimization can have on the children's mental health and behavior. The present findings also raise alarms regarding the severity of under-serving in child-victimization cases. These results underscore the importance of assessing, identifying, and helping children with multiple victimization experiences.

  2. Ear Reconstruction in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, John

    2015-12-01

    The use of a porous high-density polyethylene ear implant, rather than a costal cartilage framework, allows ear reconstruction in young children before they enter school. The fact that the growth of the normal ear matures early allows for good symmetry. If the implant is covered completely with a large, well-vascularized superficial parietal fascia flap and appropriately color-matched skin, an ear with excellent projection and definition can be obtained with minimal complications and long-term viability. Ear reconstruction in young children is preferred by the author because the necessary fascial flap coverage is thinner, easier to harvest than in older patients, and can be done in a single outpatient procedure with minimal discomfort or psychological trauma. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Peer Victimization, Depressive Symptoms, and High Salivary Cortisol Predict Poorer Memory in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Duku, Eric; Becker, Suzanna; Schmidt, Louis A.; Nicol, Jeffrey; Muir, Cameron; MacMillan, Harriet

    2011-01-01

    The predictive relations of peer victimization, depressive symptoms, and salivary cortisol on memory in 168 children aged 12 at Time 1 (T1) were examined using a longitudinal design in which data were collected on four occasions over a 2-year period. Results indicated that: (1) peer victimization, depressive symptoms, and evening cortisol were…

  4. Peer Victimization Trajectories from Kindergarten through High School: Differential Pathways for Children's School Engagement and Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Gary W.; Ettekal, Idean; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky

    2017-01-01

    This investigation's aims were to map prevalence, normative trends, and patterns of continuity or change in school-based peer victimization throughout formal schooling (i.e., Grades K-12), and determine whether specific victimization patterns (i.e., differential trajectories) were associated with children's academic performance. A sample of 383…

  5. Physical Conditions and Special Needs as Risk Factors of Peer Victimization among School Children in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Shen, April Chiung-Tao; Feng, Jui-Ying; Hsieh, Yi-Ping; Huang, Soar Ching-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Students with physical symptoms and diseases may be at an increased risk of peer victimization. This study examined the associations of several medical conditions (obesity, asthma, allergy, epilepsy, and diabetes) with experience of physical, verbal, and relational victimization among children. A sample of 6,233 fourth-grade students from 314…

  6. Explaining Differential Reporting of Victimization between Parents and Children: A Consideration of Social Biases

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    Sufna Gheyara John

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that children and parents provide different reports of children’s victimization, with children often reporting more victimization. However, the reason for this differential reporting is unclear. This study explored two types of social biases (emotion recognition and perceived impairment in parents and children as possible reasons underlying differential reporting. Six- to 10-year-old children and one of their parents were tested in a lab. Testing included subjective measures of parent alexithymic traits, child perceived impairment from victimization, and child- and parent-reported frequency of children’s peer victimization and internalizing and externalizing difficulties. Parents and children also completed an objective measure of emotion recognition. Both types of social bias significantly predicted reports of children’s peer victimization frequency as well as internalizing and externalizing difficulties, as rated by parents and children. Moreover, child perceived impairment bias, rather than parent emotion bias, best predicted differential reporting of peer victimization. Finally, a significant interaction demonstrated that the influence of child perceived impairment bias on differential reporting was most salient in the presence of parent emotion bias. This underscores the importance of expanding interventions for victimized youth to include the restructuring of social biases.

  7. Social Risk and Peer Victimization in Elementary School Children: The Protective Role of Teacher-Student Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, L Christian; Elledge, Allison R; Newgent, Rebecca A; Cavell, Timothy A

    2016-05-01

    Children not accepted or actively rejected by peers are at greater risk for peer victimization. We examined whether a positive teacher-student relationship can potentially buffer these children from the risk of peer victimization. Participants were 361 elementary school children in the 4th or 5th grade. Peer-report measures were used to assess teacher-student relationship quality (TSRQ), social preference, and rejected sociometric status; peer victimization was assessed via self-, peer-, and teacher-reports. As expected, social preference assessed in the fall semester was a significant negative predictor of self- and peer-reported victimization measured in the spring, controlling for prior levels of peer victimization. TSRQ in the fall was not a significant unique predictor of self-, peer-, or teacher-reported victimization the following spring, controlling for fall victimization and social preference scores. We found a significant interaction between social preference and TSRQ in predicting self-, peer-, and teacher-reported peer victimization: Social preference significantly predicted peer victimization, but only for those children with relatively poor student-teacher relationships. Subgroup analysis revealed that children actively rejected by peers in the fall reported significantly less peer victimization in the spring (controlling for fall victimization scores) when their fall TSRQ scores were at or above the sample mean compared to rejected children whose TSRQ scores were low (i.e., relationship quality can buffer children at social risk for continued peer victimization.

  8. Emergence of invasive group A streptococcal disease among young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, W; Faden, H; Mosovich, L

    1992-10-01

    Eight cases of invasive group A streptococcal disease in young children were reported over a three-month period, February to April 1990. The spectrum of clinical disease included: pneumonia with bacteremia (two patients), osteomyelitis/septic arthritis (three patients), epiglottitis/supraglottitis (two patients), and sepsis without a focus (one patient). Three cases followed chicken pox. Three children were in shock at the time of presentation, including one child who had a toxic shock-like appearance. Only four children had pharyngitis. Bacteremia was confirmed in three children and presumed in another three. All the subjects survived. Four isolates of group A streptococci were tested for exotoxin A, B, and C (A-0, B-4, C-1) production. These data confirm the reappearance of a highly invasive strain of group A streptococci capable of producing a variety of clinical diseases, including bacteremia and shock, in a significant proportion of victims.

  9. Peer Victimization of Children with Disabilities: Examining Prevalence and Early Risk and Protective Factors among a National Sample of Children Receiving Special Education Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Peer victimization is a serious social problem that can negatively affect a child's psychosocial development and school adjustment, and may have lasting effects for victims. Previous studies on peer victimization have suggested that children with disabilities (CWD) are likely to be more frequent targets of peer victimization. This longitudinal…

  10. Young Children and Families Experiencing Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Allison B.; Squires, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of homelessness among young children and families in the United States is described, as is the developmental impact on young children and cost to society. Although services are mandated for this population under the McKinney­-Vento Act, Education of Homeless Children and Youth Program, and the Individuals With…

  11. Educating Young Children for a Peaceful World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quisumbing, Lourdes R.

    2000-01-01

    Highlights the importance of preparing young children to become peacemakers and peace builders. Addresses the steps of moving toward a culture of peace, preparing children for peace, peace education, and values education for peace. Advocates early childhood educators teaching peace to young children. (SD)

  12. Word Walk: Vocabulary Instruction for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blarney, Katrin L.; Beauchat, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Storybook reading offers an ideal context for teaching young children new words. Text Talk is one method designed for teaching elementary students new words after reading. However, using the Text Talk vocabulary procedures with young children, the authors observed several challenges both for teachers' implementation and children's learning.…

  13. Seven Myths about Young Children and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowman, Lydia; McPake, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Parents and educators tend to have many questions about young children's play with computers and other technologies at home. They can find it difficult to know what is best for children because these toys and products were not around when they were young. Some will say that children have an affinity for technology that will be valuable in their…

  14. Adaptation Studies of the Aggression and Victimization Scales for Elementary School Children

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    Arzu KURNAZ

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: CSBS-SR and CSEQ-SR had acceptable validity and reliability properties. As relational aggression and victimization were found to be related with several mental health problems among school children, both scales could be utilized in the evaluation of overt and relational dimensions of both agression and victimization among Turkish elementary school children. (Journal of Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy and Research 2013, 2: 106-115 [JCBPR 2013; 2(2.000: 106-115

  15. Overweight in Young Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Hessol, Nancy A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Acculturation status is associated with overweight and obesity among Latino adults, but the relationship between maternal acculturation and overweight in Latino children is inconsistent and has not been adequately studied. Methods We analyzed 3-year follow-up data from 185 Latina mothers and children who were recruited at San Francisco General Hospital. Outcome measure was the child’s body mass index at age 3 years, adjusted for age and sex and categorized as healthy (<85%) or overweight (≥85%). Independent variables were maternal acculturation status, child health status, and child nutritional factors. Results At age 3 years, 43% of children were overweight. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, childhood overweight was associated with maternal acculturation status (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.99, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.07–3.69) and maternal obesity (OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.40–9.84). Childhood overweight was also more likely among children who were reported to eat well or very well (OR 3.33, 95% CI 1.46–7.58) and children whose weight was perceived as too high (OR 11.88, 95% CI 2.37–59.60), as compared to children who were reported to eat poorly/not well and children whose weight was perceived as normal, respectively. Conclusions Interventions to reduce the high rates of overweight among young Latino children should address the importance of maternal acculturation and obesity as well as maternal perceptions of children’s weight and eating habits. PMID:18514096

  16. The criminal victimization of children and women in international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Jan; Kury, Helmut; Redo, Slawomir; Shea, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this article we will present an overview of the results of the national and international crime victims surveys regarding the distribution of victimization according to age and gender with a focus on violent crime. The results show a consistent inversed relationship between age and

  17. Peer Victimization and Social-Psychological Adjustment in Hispanic and African-American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Nock, Matthew K.; Masia-Warner, Carrie; Barlas, Mitchell E.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the relation of overt and relational victimization to depressive symptoms, fear of negative evaluation (FNE), social avoidance, and loneliness in a sample of Hispanic and African-American children. The Social Experience Questionnaire, Children's Depression Inventory, Social Anxiety Scale for Children--Revised, and Asher Loneliness…

  18. Functions of Aggression and Peer Victimization in Elementary School Children: the Mediating Role of Social Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manring, Sam; Christian Elledge, L; Swails, Lisette W; Vernberg, Eric M

    2017-07-28

    This study examined whether social preference was a mechanism that explained the relation between proactive and reactive aggression and peer victimization. Participants were 494 children in grades 2-5. Proactive and reactive aggression was assessed via a self-report measure and indices of social preference and peer victimization were assessed via a peer nomination inventory. Data was collected during the fall and spring of two academic years. The relations among aggression, social preference, and peer victimization varied as a function of aggression and gender. For girls, reactive aggression was a significant negative predictor of social preference. Findings also revealed social preference mediated the relation between reactive aggression and peer victimization for girls. This pathway did not hold for boys. There was some evidence that proactive aggression was negatively associated with peer victimization, but only for girls. Findings from the current study suggest social preference may be a key mechanism through which reactive aggression is associated with future victimization for girls. Boys' aggression was not related to subsequent peer victimization. Future research and intervention efforts should consider gender differences and the function of aggression when investigating children's peer victimization experiences.

  19. Diagnosing young children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L; Goldin, Rachel L

    2014-12-01

    The starting point for any research on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) involves the identification of people who evince the condition. From this point follows research on symptom presentation, genetics, epidemiology, animal models, treatment efficacy, and many other important topics. Major advances have been made in differential diagnosis, particularly with young children. This fact is particularly important since ASD is a life long condition. This review documents recent advances and the current state of research on this topic. Copyright © 2014 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Measuring young children's language abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, I; Schaerlaekens, A

    2000-01-01

    This article deals with the new challenges put on language diagnosis, and the growing need for good diagnostic instruments for young children. Particularly for Dutch, the original English Reynell Developmental Language Scales were adapted not only to the Dutch idiom, but some general ameliorations and changes in the original scales resulted in a new instrument named the RTOS. The new instrument was standardized on a large population, and psychometrically evaluated. In communicating the experiences with such a language/cultural/psychometric adaptation, we hope that other language-minority groups will be encouraged to undertake similar adaptations.

  1. Children's intervention strategies in situations of victimization by bullying: social cognitions of outsiders versus defenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, Jeroen; Goossens, Frits A; Olthof, Tjeert; De Mey, Langha; Willemen, Agnes M

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the social cognitions of outsiders and defenders about intervening in situations of victimization by bullying. Do outsiders and defenders behave differently in victimization situations because of differences in competence beliefs, or because of a selectivity effect in intervening? These issues were examined in a sample of 102 outsiders and 107 defenders who were classified into these bullying roles through a peer-nomination procedure out of a total sample of 761 10- to 14-year-old Dutch children. These children were presented with imaginary victimization events. They answered questions about their cognitions and self-efficacy beliefs about intervening in victimization situations and about handling such situations. Outsiders, compared to defenders, claimed to intervene indirectly in victimization situations rather than directly. Defenders, compared to outsiders, claimed to intervene directly in victimization situations rather than indirectly. Both outsiders and defenders claimed to be more likely to intervene when a friend was being victimized than when a neutral classmate was being victimized. Outsiders and defenders did not differ in their self-efficacy for indirect intervention, but only defenders claimed a high self-efficacy for direct intervention. Both outsiders and defenders claimed to benefit from direct help when they themselves are victimized, but only outsiders also reported to need indirect help. The results suggest that outsiders and defenders behave differently in victimization situations because of differences in competence beliefs rather than because of a selectivity effect. More generally, the results suggest that not only defenders but also outsiders have the intention to help children who are being bullied. However, outsiders' anti-bullying attempts are likely to be indirect and less firm than those of defenders. © 2013.

  2. Transitions in sleep problems from late adolescence to young adulthood: A longitudinal analysis of the effects of peer victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ling-Yin; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Lin, Linen Nymphas; Wu, Chi-Chen; Yen, Lee-Lan

    2018-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period with high vulnerability to sleep problems. However, research identifying distinct patterns and underlying determinants of sleep problems is scarce. This study investigated discrete subgroups of, changes in, and stability of sleep problems. We also examined whether peer victimization influenced sleep problem subgroups and transitions in patterns of sleep problems from late adolescence to young adulthood. Sex differences in the effects of peer victimization were also explored. In total, 1,455 male and 1,399 female adolescents from northern Taiwan participated in this longitudinal study. Latent transition analysis was used to examine changes in patterns of sleep problems and the effects of peer victimization on these changes. We identified three subgroups of sleep problems in males and two in females, and found that there was a certain level of instability in patterns of sleep problems during the study period. For both sexes, those with greater increases in peer victimization over time were more likely to change from being a good sleeper to a poor sleeper. The effects of peer victimization on baseline status of sleep problems, however, was only significant for males, with those exposed to higher levels of peer victimization more likely to be poor sleepers at baseline. Our findings reveal an important role of peer victimization in predicting transitions in patterns of sleep problems. Intervention programs aimed at decreasing peer victimization may help reduce the development and escalation of sleep problems among adolescents, especially in males. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Universe Awareness For Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, C.; Miley, G.; Ödman, C.; Madsen, C.

    2006-08-01

    Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an international programme that will expose economically disadvantaged young children aged between 4 and 10 years to the inspirational aspects of modern astronomy. The programme is motivated by the premise that access to simple knowledge about the Universe is a basic birth right of everybody. These formative ages are crucial in the development of a human value system. This is also the age range in which children can learn to develop a 'feeling' for the vastness of the Universe. Exposing young children to such material is likely to broaden their minds and stimulate their world-view. The goals of Universe Awareness are in accordance with two of the United Nations Millennium goals, endorsed by all 191 UN member states, namely (i) the achievement of universal primary education and (ii) the promotion of gender equality in schools. We propose to commence Universe Awareness with a pilot project that will target disadvantaged regions in about 4 European countries (possibly Spain, France, Germany and The Netherlands) and several non-EU countries (possibly Chile, Colombia, India, Tunisia, South Africa and Venezuela). There will be two distinct elements in the development of the UNAWE program: (i) Creation and production of suitable UNAWE material and delivery techniques, (ii) Training of educators who will coordinate UNAWE in each of the target countries. In addition to the programme, an international network of astronomy outreach will be organised. We present the first results of a pilot project developed in Venezuela, where 670 children from different social environments, their teachers and members of an indigenous tribe called Ye´kuana from the Amazon region took part in a wonderful astronomical and cultural exchange that is now being promoted by the Venezuelan ministry of Education at the national level.

  4. Incest Victims: Inadequate Help by Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenken, Jos; Van Stolk, Bram

    1990-01-01

    Interviews with 130 Dutch professionals helping incest victims and 50 adult women who were incest victims as children found that assistance was hampered by institutional distrust, inability of professionals to stop ongoing incest, frequent breaking off of contact by the young girls, professionals' shortcomings in knowledge and skills, and…

  5. Experiences, considerations and emotions relating to cardiogenetic evaluation in relatives of young sudden cardiac death victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, Christian; Onderwater, Astrid T; van Langen, Irene M; Smets, Ellen M A

    2014-02-01

    Relatives of young sudden cardiac death (SCD) victims are at increased risk of carrying a potentially fatal inherited cardiac disease. Hence, it is recommended to perform an autopsy on the victim and to refer his or her relatives to a cardiogenetics clinic for a full evaluation to identify those at risk and allow preventive measures to be taken. However, at present, the number of families attending a cardiogenetics clinic after the SCD of a young relative is low in the Netherlands. We performed a qualitative study and report on the experiences and attitudes of first-degree relatives who attended a cardiogenetics clinic for evaluation. In total, we interviewed nine first-degree relatives and one spouse of seven SCD victims about their experiences, considerations and emotions before attendance and at the first stage of the cardiogenetic evaluation before DNA results were available. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed. Medical professionals did not have an important role in informing or referring relatives to a cardiogenetics clinic. Importantly, all participants indicated that they would have appreciated a more directive approach from medical professionals, because their mourning process hampered their own search for information and decision-making. A need to understand the cause of death and wanting to prevent another SCD event occurring in the family were the most important reasons for attending a clinic. There are possibilities to improve the information process and better support their decision-making. The multidisciplinary cardiogenetic evaluation was appreciated, but could be improved by minor changes in the way it is implemented.

  6. Young Children's Contact with the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Robert

    1978-01-01

    This research investigates frequency and type of contact young children have had with elderly persons. It also examines the relationship between this contact and children's frequency of contact with elderly persons and their ability to identify the elderly. (Author)

  7. Neighborhood Predictors of Dating Violence Victimization and Perpetration in Young Adulthood: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buka, Stephen L.; Subramanian, S. V.; Molnar, Beth E.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether social processes of neighborhoods, such as collective efficacy, during individual's adolescent years affect the likelihood of being involved in physical dating violence during young adulthood. Methods. Using longitudinal data on 633 urban youths aged 13 to 19 years at baseline and data from their neighborhoods (collected by the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods), we ran multilevel linear regression models separately by gender to assess the association between collective efficacy and physical dating violence victimization and perpetration, controlling for individual covariates, neighborhood poverty, and perceived neighborhood violence. Results. Females were significantly more likely than were males to be perpetrators of dating violence during young adulthood (38% vs 19%). Multilevel analyses revealed some variation in dating violence at the neighborhood level, partly accounted for by collective efficacy. Collective efficacy was predictive of victimization for males but not females after control for confounders; it was marginally associated with perpetration (P = .07). The effects of collective efficacy varied by neighborhood poverty. Finally, a significant proportion (intraclass correlation = 14%–21%) of the neighborhood-level variation in male perpetration remained unexplained after modeling. Conclusions. Community-level strategies may be useful in preventing dating violence. PMID:20634470

  8. The effect of victimization, mental health, and protective factors on crime and illicit drug use among homeless young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kimberly A; Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Swendener, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Although research has found high rates of child maltreatment, widespread victimization, and other negative outcomes among homeless youth and young adults, resiliency among this population has largely been understudied. Specifically, a gap remains in terms of how protective factors such as self-efficacy, low deviant beliefs, and religiosity operate among homeless youth and young adults. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between various forms of victimization, mental health, and protective factors with property and violent crime and illicit drug use among homeless young adults. Results from regression analyses indicate that running away from home more frequently, experiencing more physical victimization on the street, higher levels of self-efficacy, and more deviant beliefs were associated with greater property crime. Significant correlates of violent crime included being male, running away from home more frequently, greater sexual and physical victimization on the street, higher levels of self-efficacy, and more deviant beliefs. Finally, being male, running away more frequently from home, greater child physical abuse and partner victimization, and more deviant beliefs were all associated with greater illicit drug use. Self-efficacy was positively related to both property and violent crime, suggesting that it may not operate for homeless young adults in the same manner as it does for normative populations.

  9. Prospective study of peer victimization and social-psychological adjustment in children with endocrine disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Katie A; Storch, Eric A; Geffken, Gary R; Freddo, Marianna; Humphrey, Jamie L; Silverstein, Janet H

    2008-03-01

    This article evaluates the relations between peer victimization and child and parent reports of social-psychological variables 1.5 years later. Thirty-six children diagnosed with endocrine disorders and their parents completed questionnaires regarding social-psychological functioning. Peer victimization at time 2 was significantly related to concurrent depression, loneliness, externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Hierarchical linear regression equations indicated that peer victimization at baseline was not a significant predictor of time 2 social-psychological functioning when baseline levels of each variable were controlled. Significant correlations were found between baseline and time 2 levels of social anxiety, loneliness, externalizing and internalizing symptoms, with medium to large effect sizes. Peer victimization, social anxiety, loneliness, internalizing and externalizing behavior problems are relatively stable across time. Peer victimization is related to concurrent adjustment problems but may not contribute to the development of new problems. Early identification and intervention is imperative. Medical visits are an opportunity to assess and refer for treatment.

  10. Bullying and Victimization in Overweight and Obese Outpatient Children and Adolescents: An Italian Multicentric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrasi, Alessandra; Corciulo, Nicola; Driul, Daniela; Tanas, Rita; Fiumani, Perla Maria; Di Pietro, Elena; Pesce, Sabino; Crinò, Antonino; Maltoni, Giulio; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Sartorio, Alessandro; Deiana, Manuela; Lombardi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Objective Being overweight or obese is one of the most common reasons that children and adolescents are teased at school. We carried out a study in order to investigate: i) the relation between weight status and school bullying and ii) the relation between weight status categories and types of victimization and bullying in an outpatient sample of Italian children and adolescents with different degrees of overweight from minimal overweight up to severe obesity. Participants/Methods Nine-hundred-forty-seven outpatient children and adolescents (age range 6.0–14.0 years) were recruited in 14 hospitals distributed over the country of Italy. The participants were classified as normal-weight (N = 129), overweight (N = 126), moderately obese (N = 568), and severely obese (N = 124). The nature and extent of verbal, physical and relational bullying and victimization were assessed with an adapted version of the revised Olweus bully-victim questionnaire. Each participant was coded as bully, victim, bully-victim, or not involved. Results Normal-weight and overweight participants were less involved in bullying than obese participants; severely obese males were more involved in the double role of bully and victim. Severely obese children and adolescents suffered not only from verbal victimization but also from physical victimization and exclusion from group activities. Weight status categories were not directly related to bullying behaviour; however severely obese males perpetrated more bullying behaviour compared to severely obese females. Conclusions Obesity and bullying among children and adolescents are of ongoing concern worldwide and may be closely related. Common strategies of intervention are needed to cope with these two social health challenges. PMID:26606393

  11. Bullying and Victimization in Overweight and Obese Outpatient Children and Adolescents: An Italian Multicentric Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Bacchini

    Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is one of the most common reasons that children and adolescents are teased at school. We carried out a study in order to investigate: i the relation between weight status and school bullying and ii the relation between weight status categories and types of victimization and bullying in an outpatient sample of Italian children and adolescents with different degrees of overweight from minimal overweight up to severe obesity.Nine-hundred-forty-seven outpatient children and adolescents (age range 6.0-14.0 years were recruited in 14 hospitals distributed over the country of Italy. The participants were classified as normal-weight (N = 129, overweight (N = 126, moderately obese (N = 568, and severely obese (N = 124. The nature and extent of verbal, physical and relational bullying and victimization were assessed with an adapted version of the revised Olweus bully-victim questionnaire. Each participant was coded as bully, victim, bully-victim, or not involved.Normal-weight and overweight participants were less involved in bullying than obese participants; severely obese males were more involved in the double role of bully and victim. Severely obese children and adolescents suffered not only from verbal victimization but also from physical victimization and exclusion from group activities. Weight status categories were not directly related to bullying behaviour; however severely obese males perpetrated more bullying behaviour compared to severely obese females.Obesity and bullying among children and adolescents are of ongoing concern worldwide and may be closely related. Common strategies of intervention are needed to cope with these two social health challenges.

  12. Bullying and Victimization in Overweight and Obese Outpatient Children and Adolescents: An Italian Multicentric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchini, Dario; Licenziati, Maria Rosaria; Garrasi, Alessandra; Corciulo, Nicola; Driul, Daniela; Tanas, Rita; Fiumani, Perla Maria; Di Pietro, Elena; Pesce, Sabino; Crinò, Antonino; Maltoni, Giulio; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Sartorio, Alessandro; Deiana, Manuela; Lombardi, Francesca; Valerio, Giuliana

    2015-01-01

    Being overweight or obese is one of the most common reasons that children and adolescents are teased at school. We carried out a study in order to investigate: i) the relation between weight status and school bullying and ii) the relation between weight status categories and types of victimization and bullying in an outpatient sample of Italian children and adolescents with different degrees of overweight from minimal overweight up to severe obesity. Nine-hundred-forty-seven outpatient children and adolescents (age range 6.0-14.0 years) were recruited in 14 hospitals distributed over the country of Italy. The participants were classified as normal-weight (N = 129), overweight (N = 126), moderately obese (N = 568), and severely obese (N = 124). The nature and extent of verbal, physical and relational bullying and victimization were assessed with an adapted version of the revised Olweus bully-victim questionnaire. Each participant was coded as bully, victim, bully-victim, or not involved. Normal-weight and overweight participants were less involved in bullying than obese participants; severely obese males were more involved in the double role of bully and victim. Severely obese children and adolescents suffered not only from verbal victimization but also from physical victimization and exclusion from group activities. Weight status categories were not directly related to bullying behaviour; however severely obese males perpetrated more bullying behaviour compared to severely obese females. Obesity and bullying among children and adolescents are of ongoing concern worldwide and may be closely related. Common strategies of intervention are needed to cope with these two social health challenges.

  13. What Do Young Children Dream about?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Nealis, Arlene L.

    2012-01-01

    Young children's dreams can be a way for teachers and caregivers to share with children and an opportunity for children to describe and even draw dreams. In two different preschool settings, in two different geographical locales, 94 children, aged 3-5 years, shared 266 dreams with a trusted, familiar teacher. Dreams were coded anonymously. The…

  14. Fifth-grade children's daily experiences of peer victimization and negative emotions: moderating effects of sex and peer rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Michael T; Hubbard, Julie A; Barhight, Lydia J; Thomson, Amanda K

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the relations of fifth-grade children's (181 boys and girls) daily experiences of peer victimization with their daily negative emotions. Children completed daily reports of peer victimization and negative emotions (sadness, anger, embarrassment, and nervousness) on up to eight school days. The daily peer victimization checklist was best represented by five factors: physical victimization, verbal victimization, social manipulation, property attacks, and social rebuff. All five types were associated with increased negative daily emotions, and several types were independently linked to increased daily negative emotions, particularly physical victimization. Girls demonstrated greater emotional reactivity in sadness to social manipulation than did boys, and higher levels of peer rejection were linked to greater emotional reactivity to multiple types of victimization. Sex and peer rejection also interacted, such that greater rejection was a stronger indicator of emotional reactivity to victimization in boys than in girls.

  15. Relationship between peer victimization, cyberbullying, and suicide in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul; Tanilon, Jenny

    2014-05-01

    Peer victimization is related to an increased chance of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation or suicide attempts using meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were searched for articles from 1910 to 2013. The search terms were bully*, teas*, victim*, mobbing, ragging, and harassment in combination with the term suic*. Of the 491 studies identified, 34 reported on the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation, with a total of 284,375 participants. Nine studies reported on the relationship between peer victimization and suicide attempts, with a total of 70,102 participants. STUDY SELECTION Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported an effect size on the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation or suicide attempt in children or adolescents. Two observers independently coded the effect sizes from the articles. Data were pooled using a random effects model. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES This study focused on suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Peer victimization was hypothesized to be related to suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. RESULTS Peer victimization was found to be related to both suicidal ideation (odds ratio, 2.23 [95% CI, 2.10-2.37]) and suicide attempts (2.55 [1.95 -3.34]) among children and adolescents. Analyses indicated that these results were not attributable to publication bias. Results were not moderated by sex, age, or study quality. Cyberbullying was more strongly related to suicidal ideation compared with traditional bullying. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Peer victimization is a risk factor for child and adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. Schools should use evidence-based practices to reduce bullying.

  16. On imitation among young and blind children

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Rita Campello Rodrigues; Marcia Oliveira Moraes

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the imitation among young and blind children. The survey was conducted as a mosaic in the time since the field considerations were taken from two areas: a professional experience with early stimulation of blind babies and a workshop with blind and low vision young between 13-18 years. By statingthe situated trace of knowledge, theresearch indicates that imitation among blind young people can be one of the ways of creating a common world among young blind and sighted ...

  17. Repeated Interviews with Children Who Are the Alleged Victims of Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Carmit; Hershkowitz, Irit

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to test the effects of repeated retrievals in the course of forensic investigations with children who are the alleged victims of sexual abuse. Method: Using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development protocol, 56 children participated in a first free-recall interview that was followed by…

  18. The Association between Peer Victimization and Functioning at School among Urban Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Jonathan; Schwartz, David

    2011-01-01

    This study utilized a multi-informant approach to investigate the concurrent association between peer victimization and functioning at school in a predominantly Latino sample of 135 children (55 boys; 80 girls) in the third, fourth, and fifth grades. The children attended elementary schools in economically distressed urban neighborhoods.…

  19. The usefulness of dental and cervical maturation stages in New Zealand children for Disaster Victim Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Kimberley; Liversidge, Helen; Farella, Mauro; Herbison, Peter; Kieser, Jules

    2012-06-01

    Age estimation of young victims of natural and un-natural disasters remains a crucial and challenging task during the process of Disaster Victim Identification (DVI). The purpose of this study was to compare dental maturity using the Demirjian and Cameriere methods and to explore the relationship between dental age and cervical vertebral maturity (CVM) using the Hassel and Farman method for a group of New Zealand children. The study used lateral cephalometric and panoramic radiographs of 200 orthodontic patients aged 7-17 years. Dental age was calculated from mandibular tooth formation stages using the Demirjian and Cameriere methods by calculating the ratio of tooth length to apex width for these teeth. CVM was assessed using stages from Hassel and Farman. Reliability of maturity from reassessment of 20 radiographs showed good agreement for the three methods. Chronological and dental ages were compared using a mixed model. Descriptive statistics of dental ages by CVM stage were calculated. The results show that both dental methods were similar in assessing maturity. A disadvantage of using the Cameriere method was that all seven teeth reached maturity at 13.69 and 14.06 years in females and males respectively, compared to age 16 using the Dermijian method. Females reached CVM stages at earlier chronological and dental ages than males. Mean chronological age for CVM stages 2-5 is about 1 year earlier in females than males. The Demirjian and Cameriere methods of dental maturity and CVM are reliable and useful in assessing dental and skeletal maturity. Ideally in a DVI situation, both the methods of Demirjian and Cameriere, together with CVM, should be employed in the ageing of individuals suspected of being between 7 and 16 years.

  20. Intimate Partner Violence Victimization in LGBT Young Adults: Demographic Differences and Associations with Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Tyson R; Newcomb, Michael E; Whitton, Sarah W; Mustanski, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health problem with high prevalence and serious costs. Although literature has largely focused on IPV among heterosexuals, studies have recently begun examining IPV in LGBT samples, with mounting evidence suggesting IPV may be more common among LGBT individuals than heterosexuals. Less research has examined the specific health consequences of IPV in this population, particularly across time and among young people, and it remains unclear whether experiences of IPV differ between subgroups within the LGBT population (e.g. race, gender identity, and sexual orientation). An ethnically diverse sample of 172 LGBT young adults completed self-report measures of IPV, sexual behavior, mental health, and substance abuse at two time points (4- and 5-year follow-up) of an ongoing longitudinal study of LGBT youth. IPV was experienced non-uniformly across demographic groups. Specifically, female, male-to-female transgender, and Black/African-American young adults were at higher risk compared to those who identified as male, female-to-male transgender, and other races. Being a victim of IPV was associated with concurrent sexual risk taking and prospective mental health outcomes but was not associated with substance abuse. Demographic differences in IPV found in heterosexuals were replicated in this LGBT sample, though additional research is needed to clarify why traditional risk factors found in heterosexual young people may not translate to LGBT individuals. Studies examining the impact of IPV on negative outcomes and revictimization over time may guide our understanding of the immediate and delayed consequences of IPV for LGBT young people.

  1. Young traffic victims' long-term health-related quality of life : Child self-reports and parental reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturms, LM; van der Sluis, CK; Groothoff, JW; ten Duis, HJ; Eisma, WH

    Objectives: To describe the long-term health-related quality of life (HRQOL) reported by young traffic injury victims and to assess the child-parent agreement on the child's HRQOL. Design: Cohort study with a mean follow-up of 2.4 years. Setting: Traumatology department in a university hospital in

  2. Doing Masculinity in Narratives about Reporting Violent Crime: Young Male Victims Talk about Contacting and Encountering the Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcar, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    Reporting criminal victimization to the police is no obvious act. The decision to file a complaint varies depending on the specific situation. This article discusses 10 young Swedish men's narratives about contacting the police when mugged or assaulted. Although all of them have contacted the police it has not been self-obvious. Rather, they…

  3. Adaptation Studies of the Aggression and Victimization Scales for Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu KURNAZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Recent studies emphasize the importance of evaluation for relational /social behaviors (e.g., rejection, as wellas overt behaviors (e.g., hitting in the assessment of peer aggression and victimization among school children. For thisreason the present study aimed to evaluate the applicability of the two scales, namely Children’s Social Behavior Scale-Self Report -CSBS-SR (Crick & Grotpeter, 1995 and Children’s Self Experience Questionnaire-Self Report -CSEQ-SR(Crick & Grotpeter, 1996 for Turkish Elementary school children. CSBS-SR and CSEQ-SR include overt and relationaldimensions of peer aggression and victimization respectively.Methods: A representative sample consisting of a total of 422 (boys n=205; girls n=207 and 415 children (n=210; girlsn=205 attending public and private elementary schools in Ankara were recruited for the validity and reliability studies ofthe CSBS-SR and CSEQ-SR respectively. The Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (ROBVQ; Olweus, 1996 wereutilized for the criterion validity.Results: Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the five factor model suggested for the CSBS-SR and three factormodel for the CSEQ-SR met the criteria standards for adequacy of fit. A moderate correlation of the CSBS-SR withROBVQ-Bully Subscale (r=.47 and moderate to high correlation of the CSEQ-SR with ROBVQ-Victim Subscale (r=.70supported both scale’s criterion validitiy. CSBS-SR’s and CSEQ-SR’s test-retest reliability were found to be .64 and.80 and internal consistency assessed by Cronbach Alpha were found to be .84 and .90 respectively. T-test analysesfor independent groups demonstrated that boys had higher mean scores for overt aggression than girls (t(423=3.025,p<.05. On the other hand girls had higher mean scores for relational victimization than boys (t(413=3.213, p<.01. Therewere significant positive correlation of mean relational aggression scores with fathers’ education (r=.14 and family income(r=.15

  4. THE RELATION BETWEEN SCHOOL BULLYING AND VICTIMIZATION IN CHILDREN WITH ATTENTION DEFICIT/ HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija ŽIC RALIĆ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The ADHD symptoms put the children suffering from this disorder at a higher risk of being a victim of bulling as well as of behaving aggressively towards peers. Objectives: This study is conducted in order to identify the frequency of specific forms of victimization and bullying in children with ADHD, and to determine if there is any correlation between victimization and bullying, and between different forms of bullying in children with ADHD. Methods: Bullying was tested on a sample of 72 first-through-eighth graders with ADHD diagnosis by means of the School Bullying Questionnaire (UŠN-2003 designed in line with the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. Results: The results indicate a statistically significant correlation between being a victim and being a perpetrator of bullying. The study also shows statistically significant correlations between specific forms of bullying. Conclusion: The results of this study provide guidelines for further studies and prevention/ intervention programs concerning bullying which involves children with ADHD.

  5. Resiliency in Young Children. Beginnings Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCerva, Victor; Siegel, Daniel J.; Stephens, Karen; Zivkovic, Aleksandra Selak; Jacobson (Meyer), Tamar

    1999-01-01

    Workshop examines resilience in young children. Papers are: (1) "Adverse Effects of Witnessing Violence" (Victor LaCerva); (2) "Relationships and the Developing Mind" (Daniel Siegel); (3) "Support Resilience by Connecting Children with Nature" (Karen Stephens); (4) "Stories of Children in Croatia: Resilience and…

  6. Book Ownership and Young Children's Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Selamawit; Washington, Patsy

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that there are positive effects when young children read and explore books for pleasure, as such activities help build the skills and knowledge that are critical to schooling. Reading for pleasure is facilitated when children have access to books in their own homes. There are great variations in children's book ownership…

  7. Bullying Victimization Heightens Cortisol Response to Psychosocial Stress in Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanghui; Kong, Yanhong; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Zhang, Wenxin

    2017-12-02

    Childhood adverse experiences have been consistently documented to engender persistent changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity to chronic stress. However, there has been very little research examining whether this effect can be elicited among children when using a standardized laboratory stress test, or whether such effects are found in non-Western youth. In the current study, 80 10-year-old Chinese children (45% girls, 4-5th grades) were selected from 970 students based on the experience of being bullied, resulting in a sample of 59 victims (physical, verbal, and relational/social), and a group of 21 nonbullied children with distributions of age and gender that were comparable. We examined the association between bullying victimization and cortisol reactivity to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) at six time points using repeated-measures analyses of variance. The results showed that the TSST was a valid protocol among Chinese children for testing the functioning of HPA axis, based on two indicators: cortisol increase in response to stressor, and cortisol decrease after stressor removal. Based on the TSST, both cortisol reactivity and total cortisol concentration over the course of TSST were higher in bullied children relative to nonbullied children. Moreover, there were no differences in cortisol levels between victimization sub-types. Our study extended prior findings, by showing that cortisol dysregulation in response to stress may be related to bullying victimization.

  8. Social spaces for young children in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, V; Coad, J; Hicks, P; Glacken, M

    2014-03-01

    In the last number of years heightened interest has been attributed to the impact of hospital environments on children's psychosocial well-being. With policy largely built around adult assumptions, knowledge about what constitutes a child-friendly hospital environment from young children's perspectives has been lacking. If hospital environments are to aspire to being child friendly then the views of younger aged children must be taken into account. The current study investigated young children's perspectives of hospital social spaces to inform the design of the built environment of a new children's hospital. An exploratory qualitative participatory design was employed. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews (one-to-one and group workshops) which incorporated art-based activities to actively engage young children. Fifty-five young children aged 5 to 8 years with various acute and chronic illnesses were recruited from inpatient, outpatient and emergency departments of three children's hospitals. Young children want a diversity of readily available, independently accessible, age, gender and developmentally appropriate leisure and entertainment facilities seamlessly integrated throughout the hospital environment. Such activities were invaluable for creating a positive hospital experience for children by combating boredom, enriching choice and control and reducing a sense of isolation through enhanced socialization. When in hospital, young children want to feel socially connected to the internal hospital community as well as to the outside world. Technology can assist to broaden the spectrum of children's social connectivity when in hospital - to home, school and the wider outside world. While technology offers many opportunities to support children's psychosocial well-being when in confined healthcare spaces, the implementation and operation of such services and systems require much further research in the areas of ethics, facilitation, organizational

  9. Protecting Children Victims of Crimes of Human Trafficking in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora-Ioana Balan-Rusu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the paper there were examined the main provisions of the European legislative act framework in the domain of protecting children victims of human trafficking offenses, with some critical remarks. The paper can be useful to the European and Romanian legislator, practitioners and academics in the field. The novelty consists of analyzing the provisions of the European legislative act, focusing on the practical ways provided for the protection of children victims of this kind of crime, and the formulated critical remarks.

  10. Priorities for children and young people - opportunities and challenges for children and young people's nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fiona

    2016-05-09

    Across Europe children's nurses today face many challenges, including rising childhood obesity, the soaring incidence of issues with the mental health of children and young people, the effects of social media, child maltreatment and the impact of poverty, war and conflict on children and families. There are opportunities for children's nurses to undertake new roles and to influence both policy and practice to improve the health outcomes of children and young people, and thereby the future health of the population.

  11. Short-Term Longitudinal Relationships between Children's Peer Victimization/Bullying Experiences and Self-Perceptions: Evidence for Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Michael J.; Smith, Peter K.; Cowie, Helen

    2010-01-01

    This study tested transactional models to explain the short-term longitudinal links between self-perceptions and involvement in bullying and victimization among 115 9- to 10-year-old children. Self-perceptions were measured with Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Children (six sub-scales) and bullying/victimization by means of peer nominations.…

  12. Peer Victimization and Harsh Parenting Predict Cognitive Diatheses for Depression in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David A; Sinclair-McBride, Keneisha R; Zelkowitz, Rachel; Bilsk, Sarah A; Roeder, Kathryn; Spinelli, Tawny

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined peer victimization and harsh parenting as longitudinal predictors of broadband and narrowband cognitions associated with the etiology of depression in children and adolescents. The sample consisted of 214 elementary and middle school students. At the start of the study, their average age was 12.2 years (SD = 1.0). The sex ratio was 112 girls to 102 boys. The sample was ethnically diverse (58.9% Caucasian, 34.1% African American, 10.7% Hispanic, 3.3% Asian, and 5.2% other). Children and their parents completed measures of peer victimization and harsh parenting. At two waves 1 year apart, children also completed questionnaire measures of negative and positive broadband cognitive style (e.g., personal failure, global self-worth) and narrowband self-perceptions (e.g., perceived social threat, social acceptance). Every Wave 2 cognitive variable was predicted by peer victimization or harsh parenting or both, even after controlling for a Wave 1 measure of the same cognitive variable. Peer victimization more consistently predicted narrowband social/interpersonal cognitions, whereas harsh parenting more consistently predicted broadband positive and negative cognitions. Furthermore, controlling for positive and negative self-cognitions eliminated a statistically significant effect of harsh parenting and peer victimization on depressive symptoms. Support emerged for the social learning of negative self-cognitions. Support also emerged for negative self-cognitions as a mediator of depressive symptoms. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  13. Mother, Father, and Teacher Agreement on Victimization and Bullying in Children With Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L; Siddiqui, Farhat; Baweja, Raman; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Mattison, Richard E; Babinski, Dara E

    2017-06-01

    Bullying is a significant international problem, and parent-teacher agreement on identifying perpetrators and victims is poor in general population studies. The goal of our study is to assess informant discrepancies in children with mental health disorders. Parents and teachers completed the Pediatric Behavior Scale as part of a diagnostic evaluation for 1,723 children (ages 2-16 years) referred to a psychiatry clinic over the past 10 years. Mother and father bullying and victimization ratings on the Pediatric Behavior Scale were similar, but parent-teacher agreement was poor. Half of parents considered their child a victim, twice the percentage for teachers. Parents were 1.2 times more likely than teachers to perceive their child as a bully. Most parents reported their child was a victim or bully, whereas most teachers reported the children were neither. For both parents and teachers, victim and bully percentages for our psychiatric sample were twice as high as in general population studies. Clinicians should obtain information from multiple informants and consider that teacher report is likely to be lower than parent report.

  14. Peer Victimization and Harsh Parenting Predict Cognitive Diatheses for Depression in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David A.; Sinclair-McBride, Keneisha R.; Zelkowitz, Rachel; Bilsky, Sarah A.; Roeder, Kathryn; Spinelli, Tawny

    2015-01-01

    Objective The current study examined peer victimization and harsh parenting as longitudinal predictors of broadband and narrowband cognitions associated with the etiology of depression in children and adolescents. Method The sample consisted of 214 elementary and middle school students. At the start of the study, their average age was 12.2 years (SD = 1.0). The sex ratio was 112 girls to 102 boys. The sample was ethnically diverse (58.9% Caucasian, 34.1% African American, 10.7% Hispanic, 3.3% Asian, and 5.2% other). Children and their parents completed measures of peer victimization and harsh parenting. At two waves one year apart, children also completed questionnaire measures of negative and positive broadband cognitive style (e.g., personal failure, global self-worth) and narrowband self-perceptions (e.g., perceived social threat, social acceptance). Results Every wave 2 cognitive variable was predicted by peer victimization or harsh parenting or both, even after controlling for a wave 1 measure of the same cognitive variable. Peer victimization more consistently predicted narrowband social/interpersonal cognitions, whereas harsh parenting more consistently predicted broadband positive and negative cognitions. Furthermore, controlling for positive and negative self-cognitions eliminated a statistically significant effect of harsh parenting and peer victimization on depressive symptoms. Conclusions Support emerged for the social learning of negative self-cognitions. Support also emerged for negative self-cognitions as a mediator of depressive symptoms. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:25751612

  15. Young Children and War Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.

    1988-01-01

    In a recent survey of parents and early childhood professionals the prevalence of war play among children and an increase in the amount of violence in children's play was noted. Outlines how the deregulation of children's television during the Reagan administration has affected children's exposure to violence in children's television programming.…

  16. Trait Emotional Intelligence Related to Bullying in Elementary School Children and to Victimization in Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peachey, Andrew A; Wenos, Jeanne; Baller, Stephanie

    2017-10-01

    While Healthy People 2020 calls for a reduction of bullying among high school students as a public health priority, earlier intervention supported by Occupational Therapists may be warranted. The current study investigated the prevalence of bullying behaviors within an elementary school, compared the experiences of victims with those of perpetrators, and determined when and for whom Trait Emotional Intelligence is a predictor of bullying and victimization. Elementary school children ( n = 235) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the Forms of Bullying Scale-Victim, the Forms of Bullying Scale-Perpetrator, and the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Short Form. The prevalence of bully-only perpetration was 3.0%, of victimization-only was 48.5%, and of bully-victimization was 10.4%. Trait Emotional Intelligence was negatively associated with bullying. Trait Emotional Intelligence was negatively associated with victimization in boys, but not girls. The findings are discussed within the need to provide instruction and services to students at an early age.

  17. Sexual Aggression Experiences Among Male Victims of Physical Partner Violence: Prevalence, Severity, and Health Correlates for Male Victims and Their Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Denise A; Douglas, Emily M

    2016-07-01

    Although research has documented the prevalence and health correlates of sexual aggression among women who have experienced severe partner violence (PV), no research has documented the parallel issues among male victims of severe PV. Research also suggests that children of female victims of both physical and sexual PV have worse mental health than children of female victims of physical PV only, but no research has assessed the mental health of children whose fathers experienced both physical and sexual PV. We surveyed 611 men who experienced physical PV from their female partners and sought help. We assessed the types and extent of various forms of PV, the men's mental and physical health, and the mental health of their oldest child. Results showed that almost half of the men experienced sexual aggression in their relationship, and 28 % severe sexual aggression. Increasing levels of severity of sexual aggression victimization was associated with greater prevalence and types of other forms of PV. In addition, greater levels of severity of sexual aggression victimization among the men was significantly associated with depression symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, physical health symptoms, and poor health, and attention deficit and affective symptoms among their children. These associations held after controlling for demographics and other violence and trauma exposure. Discussion focused on the importance of broadening our conceptualization of PV against men by women to include sexual aggression as well.

  18. Psychosocial and Friendship Characteristics of Bully/Victim Subgroups in Korean Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoolim

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial and friendship characteristics of Korean children who engaged in bully/victim subgroups among their peer groups. The participants were 605 elementary school students in Bucheon City, Korea. The participants completed a peer nomination inventory as well as loneliness and social anxiety scales. Friendship quality…

  19. Vulnerable Children in Varying Classroom Contexts: Bystanders' Behaviors Moderate the Effects of Risk Factors on Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karna, Antti; Voeten, Marinus; Poskiparta, Elisa; Salmivalli, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether the bystanders' behaviors in bullying situations influence vulnerable students' risk for victimization. The sample consisted of 6,980 primary school children from Grades 3-5, who were nested within 378 classrooms in 77 schools. These students filled out Internet-based questionnaires in their schools' computer labs. The results…

  20. Serotonin Transporter Gene Moderates the Development of Emotional Problems among Children Following Bullying Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Karen; Arseneault, Louise; Harrington, HonaLee; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Williams, Benjamin; Caspi, Avshalom

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Bullying is the act of intentionally and repeatedly causing harm to someone who has difficulty defending him- or herself, and is a relatively widespread school-age phenomenon. Being the victim of bullying is associated with a broad spectrum of emotional problems; however, not all children who are bullied go on to develop such problems.…

  1. The Nature and Prevalence of Cyber Victimization among Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaolis, Kathryn; Williford, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite growing concern about the impact of cyberbullying on youth, few studies to date have investigated this phenomenon among elementary school samples. Consequently, little is known about cyber victimization exposure among younger children. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence and nature of cyber…

  2. Predictive Relations between Peer Victimization and Academic Achievement in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junsheng; Bullock, Amanda; Coplan, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore longitudinal associations between peer victimization and academic achievement in Chinese children. Participants were N = 805 3rd-grade students (486 boys, 319 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.5 years, SD = 3 months) attending primary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. At Time 1 and Time 2 (2 years…

  3. Vulnerable Children in Varying Classroom Contexts Bystanders' Behaviors Moderate the Effects of Risk Factors on Victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kärnä, A.; Voeten, M.J.M.; Poskiparta, E.H.; Salmivalli, C.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether the bystanders' behaviors in bullying situations influence vulnerable students' risk for victimization. The sample consisted of 6,980 primary school children from Grades 3-5, who were nested within 378 classrooms in 77 schools. These students filled out Internet-based

  4. Physical symptoms in very young children assessed for sexual abuse: a mixed method analysis from the ASAC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrolijk-Bosschaart, Thekla F.; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N.; Widdershoven, Guy A.; Teeuw, Arianne Rian H.; Verlinden, Eva; Voskes, Yolande; van Duin, Esther M.; Verhoeff, Arnoud P.; Benninga, Marc A.; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2017-01-01

    So far, a recognizable pattern of clinical symptoms for child sexual abuse (CSA), especially in young male children, is lacking. To improve early recognition of CSA, we reviewed physical complaints, physical examination, and tests on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in confirmed victims

  5. Prospective relations among victimization, rejection, friendlessness, and children's self- and peer-perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmivalli, Christina; Isaacs, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective links between three forms of peer adversities (i.e., victimization, rejection, and lack of reciprocated friendships) and children's perceptions of themselves and of their peers. The sample consisted of 212 children (107 boys and 105 girls, 11-13 years) recruited from four primary schools and followed up for a period of one year. The results showed that a negative self-perception was a risk factor for the development of all forms of peer adversities. Of the three forms of peer adversities assessed, victimization and rejection had an influence on children's peer perceptions. None of the peer adversities predicted changes in self-perceptions. The results partially support a transactional model between children and their environments.

  6. Teaching Young Children to Give Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Christy D.

    2012-01-01

    Young gifted children can become passionately interested in social justice. It makes sense that children who are astutely aware their own differences could and would become interested in the well-being of others. It seems that preschool programs have been slow to recognize the value of service-learning to their students, but Freeman and King…

  7. Why Young Children Need Alphabet Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Laverne; Weiss, Sara

    2005-01-01

    This article explains the importance of alphabet books in early reading development. Alphabet books encourage literacy development in the following ways: (1) unlock the symbols of language; (2) connect knowledge to other sources; (3) provide book usage knowledge to young children; (4) complement children's enjoyment of books; and (5) aid early…

  8. Young Children Category Learning: A Training Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverna, Andrea Sabina; Peralta, Olga Alicia

    2013-01-01

    From an integrative approach, this work focuses on the role of conceptual mechanisms, such as comparison and conceptual-based inference, and sociopragmatic support in young children's taxonomic categorization. "Experiment 1" assessed whether 3-, 4-, and 6-year-old children succeed in detecting taxonomic relations on their own. A…

  9. Artfulness in Young Children's Spoken Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn-Applegate, Katherine; Breit-Smith, Allison; Justice, Laura M.; Piasta, Shayne B.

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: Artfulness is rarely considered as an indicator of quality in young children's spoken narratives. Although some studies have examined artfulness in the narratives of children 5 and older, no studies to date have focused on the artfulness of preschoolers' oral narratives. This study examined the artfulness of fictional spoken…

  10. Zeroing in on Autism in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    This commentary reviews previous articles that discuss major educational approaches for young children with autism, including applied behavior analysis, pivotal response training, and the developmental, individual-difference, relationship-based model. It emphasizes the need for research on which children do better with which particular…

  11. FREQUENCY OF MOUTHING BEHAVIOR IN YOUNG CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young children, as compared to adults, are more likely to be exposed after a pesticide application due to potential hand- and object-to-mouth contacts in contaminated areas. However, relatively few studies have specifically evaluated mouthing behavior in children <60 months of...

  12. Cooperative Activities in Young Children and Chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneken, Felix; Chen, Frances; Tomasello, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Human children 18-24 months of age and 3 young chimpanzees interacted in 4 cooperative activities with a human adult partner. The human children successfully participated in cooperative problem-solving activities and social games, whereas the chimpanzees were uninterested in the social games. As an experimental manipulation, in each task the adult…

  13. More about Woodworking with Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosna, David

    2000-01-01

    Notes that woodworking can be a valuable learning tool for young children because it has both creative and structured sides. Recommends materials for a classroom toolbox, noting the importance of real woodworking tools as opposed to those made just for children. Suggests that teachers work directly with students for safety and to help guide them…

  14. Exploring Young Children's Conceptions about Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Angela K.; Lucas, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of evidence supports the importance of nurturing children's thinking. This article reports on an investigation of the influence of teachers' implementation of the Visible Thinking approach developed within the Harvard Graduate School of Education Project Zero on very young children's concepts of thinking, as measured by the…

  15. Teaching Young Children to Use Contact Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Judith R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Four young children were taught contact lens wear using a shaping procedure, which involved praise and tangibles for compliance and time-outs or restraint for noncompliance. At followup, levels of compliance were high for three children, while a subject with Down's syndrome showed low compliance with need for physical restraint throughout.…

  16. Young Children's Trust in Overtly Misleading Advice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Gail D.; Sritanyaratana, Lalida; Vanderbilt, Kimberly E.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of 3- and 4-year-old children to disregard advice from an overtly misleading informant was investigated across five studies (total "n" =212). Previous studies have documented limitations in young children's ability to reject misleading advice. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that these limitations are primarily…

  17. Emergence of Lying in Very Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Angela D.; Lee, Kang

    2013-01-01

    Lying is a pervasive human behavior. Evidence to date suggests that from the age of 42 months onward, children become increasingly capable of telling lies in various social situations. However, there is limited experimental evidence regarding whether very young children will tell lies spontaneously. The present study investigated the emergence of…

  18. Childhood Victimization and Crime Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…

  19. Dehumanization in children: the link with moral disengagement in bullying and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noorden, Tirza H J; Haselager, Gerbert J T; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Bukowski, William M

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored subtle dehumanization-the denial of full humanness-in children, using distinctions of forms (i.e., animalistic vs. mechanistic) and social targets (i.e., friends vs. non-friends). In addition, the link between dehumanization and moral disengagement in bullying and victimization was investigated. Participants were 800 children (7-12 years old) from third to fifth grade classrooms. Subtle animalistic and mechanistic dehumanization toward friends and non-friends were measured with the new Juvenile Dehumanization Measure. Results showed that animalistic dehumanization was more common than mechanistic dehumanization and that non-friends were dehumanized more than friends. The highest levels of dehumanization were found in animalistic form toward non-friends and the lowest levels in mechanistic form toward friends. Both moral disengagement and animalistic dehumanization toward friends were positively associated with bullying. However, moral disengagement was negatively associated with victimization, whereas both animalistic and mechanistic dehumanization toward non-friends were positively associated with victimization. The current findings indicate that children are able to distinguish different forms and targets of dehumanization and that dehumanization plays a distinct role from moral disengagement in bullying and victimization. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Healing the victim, the young offender, and the community via restorative justice: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, S

    2001-03-01

    The 1990s saw the enactment of much "get tough with young offenders" legislation in the United States. At the same, problems with our present punishment and treatment model, in which many youngsters cycle repeatedly through the justice and mental health systems, raised interest in restorative justice, a community-based alternative model emphasizing a balanced, negotiated approach to the needs of victims, offenders, and the community. After summarizing the philosophical bases underlying both models, this article describes the practice of restorative justice in New Zealand, where it was pioneered. Restorative justice has special relevance for Maori community in New Zealand and minority communities in the United States, where youth are consistently overrepresented in the courts, detention centers, and jails, and in which the juvenile justice system is seen as hostile and biased. Outcome data from New Zealand and early outcome research from the United States suggest that the restorative model, in which offenses are understood as a breakdown in social bonds, offers a hopeful alternative for offending youngsters, their families, and their communities.

  1. Domestic burns among children, adolescents and young adults: urgency and emergency cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackeline Gonçalves Brito

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze domestic burns caused by the exposure to electric current/radiation/temperature, smoke/fire/flames and contact with a source of heat/hot substances, in children, adolescents and young adults treated at an urgency/emergency service of reference. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted with victims (0 to 24 years of age of home burns treated at an urgency/emergency service of a capital city located in the center-west region of Brazil, in 2013. In total, 84 victims of home burns were studied, with prevalence of female victims (59.5% and age group of 1-4 years of age (27.4%. The most frequent burns were caused by contact with a source of heat/hot substances (82.1% and exposure to smoke/fire/flames (15.5%. The body areas most commonly affected by home burns were head, trunk, and upper and lower limbs (90.5%, with prevalence of second-degree burns (40.5%. Home burns significantly affect children, adolescents and young adults, particularly female subjects, highlighting the importance of providing preventive and educational activities to female victims.

  2. Counseling Young Children of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, Kathryn J.

    1988-01-01

    Provides a rationale for services to children of alcoholics and describes school-based interventions to help these children. Asserts that schools are the logical setting for providing knowledge, skills, and support to help children of alcoholics understand the dysfunctional effects of familial alcoholism. Offers suggestions for school counselors…

  3. Social Tie Strength and Online Victimization: An Analysis of Young People Aged 15–30 Years in Four Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teo Keipi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Online interaction through the use of social networking sites (SNS continues to be a significant component of the socialization of young people today, yet little research exists toward linking various relational forms to prevalent and much-studied online risks cross-nationally. This article provides a link between relational dynamics and online risks identified in previous research toward a new perspective on how social tie strength is related to experiences of hate victimization and harassment online. The analysis is based on survey data of Finnish (n = 555, American (n = 1033, German (n = 978, and British (n = 999 young people aged 15–30 years. Variables, including age, gender, main activity, SNS use, quantity, and extent of online and offline social networks including social tie strength and online community identification, were analyzed toward finding their associations with online hate victimization and harassment. Results showed that experiences of hate victimization and harassment were similar cross-nationally and that those who were personally harassed online also reported high SNS activity. Furthermore, no association was found between social network size and negative experiences. Notable cross-national differences were also detected in the results. Findings emphasize the importance of understanding variables fostering online risks for young people while providing a new perspective on what aspects of social life may help negate negative effects online.

  4. Behaviors of young children around microwave ovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Marla R; O'Connor, Annemarie; Wallace, Lindsay; Connell, Kristen; Tucker, Katherine; Strickland, Joseph; Taylor, Jennifer; Quinlan, Kyran P; Gottlieb, Lawrence J

    2011-11-01

    Scald burn injuries are the leading cause of burn-related emergency room visits and hospitalizations for young children. A portion of these injuries occur when children are removing items from microwave ovens. This study assessed the ability of typically developing children aged 15 months to 5 years to operate, open, and remove the contents from a microwave oven. The Denver Developmental Screening Test II was administered to confirm typical development of the 40 subjects recruited. All children recruited and enrolled in this study showed no developmental delays in any domain in the Denver Developmental Screening Test II. Children were observed for the ability to open both a push and pull microwave oven door, to start the microwave oven, and to remove a cup from the microwave oven. All children aged 4 years were able to open the microwaves, turn on the microwave, and remove the contents. Of the children aged 3 years, 87.5% were able to perform all study tasks. For children aged 2 years, 90% were able to open both microwaves, turn on the microwave, and remove the contents. In this study, children as young as 17 months could start a microwave oven, open the door, and remove the contents putting them at significant risk for scald burn injury. Prevention efforts to improve supervision and caregiver education have not lead to a significant reduction in scald injuries in young children. A redesign of microwave ovens might prevent young children from being able to open them thereby reducing risk of scald injury by this mechanism.

  5. The unique and interactive contributions of peer victimization and teacher-child relationships to children's school adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Kuntz, Kayla J

    2013-11-01

    The present study tested whether a close relationship with the teacher would reduce, or a conflictual relationship would amplify, links between peer victimization and school maladjustment. Data on 352 3rd- and 4th-grade children (166 boys; 186 girls) were collected over a two-year period. Teachers provided data on their relationships with students and students' academic performance. Children completed measures assessing peer victimization and school liking. Latent growth curve analyses revealed that at high levels of peer victimization declines in school liking were reduced when student shared a close, low conflict, relationship with their teacher. Furthermore, a combination of peer victimization and poor teacher-child relationship quality predicted trajectories of sustained, low academic performance. These findings highlight the benefits of a close relationship with the teacher for victimized children and the cumulative impact stress within peer- and teacher-relationships can have on students.

  6. A Comparison of the Effects of Witnessing Community Violence and Direct Victimization among Children in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Nancy; Nadasen, Kathy; Pierce, Lois

    2009-01-01

    This study is based on a sample of children from the Cape Town area in South Africa. The study compares the effects of witnessing school or neighborhood violence compared with being victimized in each context on psychological distress. The findings suggest that in the context of the school, victimization has a somewhat stronger effect on distress…

  7. The Role of Internet Use and Parental Mediation on Cyberbullying Victimization among Spanish Children from Rural Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Raúl; Serna, Cristina; Martínez, Verónica; Ruiz-Oliva, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying victimization research on individual and familial correlates is scarce in Spain. By building upon previous studies, this research examines the role of Internet usage and parental mediation in online victimization. Spanish children from rural public schools (10-12 years; n?=?1068) completed a self-report questionnaire which measured…

  8. Child and family-level correlates of direct and indirect peer victimization among children ages 6-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boel-Studt, Shamra; Renner, Lynette M

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and child and family-level correlates of direct and indirect victimization by peers among children ages 6-9. Four hundred and twenty-five children were included in the final sample. Data for this study were drawn from the first wave of the Developmental Victimization Survey. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between children's demographics, anxiety, depression, anger, parent-child relationship, and exposure to family violence and children's experience of direct or indirect victimization by peers. The results showed that increased depression scores and exposure to family violence were associated with increased risk for direct and indirect victimization by peers. Black children were more likely to experience direct victimization and less likely to experience indirect victimization compared to White children. Child's race significantly moderated the association between parental criticism and indirect victimization. Child's gender did not significantly moderate these associations. Implications for developmentally specific prevention and intervention approaches that are grounded in a social-ecological framework are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Internet Usage among Children and Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Karayagiz Muslu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Computers have occupied increasingly central roles in children’s world with the advance of technology. They have proved to be an ideal companion for children in developing and developed countries who spend most of their time at school or home with computers. As a measure of development and modernization, technology has made people’s lives easier and contributed positively to social well-being so far while it has also brought about some problems and threats stemming from irresponsible use of Internet. Unmonitored use of Internet may cause damages in children’s and young people’s physical, psychological, social and cognitive development. It seems imperative to assure that children and young people can benefit from computers and Internet resources effectively and productively while measures for appropriate and safe use of Internet are to be taken into serious consideration. Therefore, the government offices and institutions should lay stress upon the issue; education professionals and parents should be well-informed and regularly updated; and finally children and young people should be educated and monitored to achieve a better and efficient use of Internet. In this paper, has been mentioned to negative effect of internet usage on physical, psychosocial and cognitive health of children and young people. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(5.000: 445-450

  10. Young Children Surfing: Gender Differences in Computer Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmani, Mubina Hassanali; Davis, Marcia H.; Kalyanpur, Maya

    2009-01-01

    Computers have become an important part of young children's lives, both as a source of entertainment and education. The National Association for the Education of Young Children's (NAEYC) position statement on Technology and Young Children (2006) supports the need for equal access to technology for all children with attention to eliminating gender…

  11. Young Children's Development of Fairness Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Wen; Yu, Jing; Zhu, Liqi

    2016-01-01

    Fairness is one of the most important foundations of morality and may have played a key role in the evolution of cooperation in humans beings. As an important type of fairness concern, inequity aversion is the preference for fairness and the resistance to inequitable outcomes. To examine the early development of fairness preference in young children, sixty 2- and 3-year-old children were recruited to examine young children's preferences for fairness using a forced choice paradigm. We tested how toddlers acted when they took charge of distributing resources (two candies) to themselves and others and when they were the recipients of both other-advantageous distribution and self-advantageous distribution. Different alternative options were paired with the same fair option in the two conditions. In the other-advantageous condition, children had fewer resources in the alternative options than others, whereas their resources in the alternative options were greater than others' in the self-advantageous condition. The results showed that more children displayed fairness preferences when they distributed resources between two friends than when they distributed resources between a friend and themselves. In both scenarios, 3-year-old children were more likely to demonstrate fairness preference than 2-year-old children. The findings suggest that inequity aversion develops in young children and increases with age over the course of early childhood. When they were recipients, there was a trend in young children's preference for fairness in the other-advantageous condition compared with the self-advantageous condition. This suggests that children might tend to be more likely to display inequity aversion when they are in a disadvantageous position.

  12. Risk and Protective Factors for Bullying Victimization among AIDS-Affected and Vulnerable Children in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie; Bowes, Lucy; Gardner, Frances

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether bullying is a risk factor for psychological distress among children in poor, urban South Africa. To determine risk and protective factors for bullying victimization. Method: One thousand and fifty children were interviewed in deprived neighborhoods, including orphans, AIDS-affected children, street children, and…

  13. Child Rearing and Children's Prosocial Initiations toward Victims of Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the relation between maternal rearing behavior and the ways children aged 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 years cope with emotions of distress in others. Specifically examined children's reparation for transgression when they were the cause of distress and their altruism when they were bystanders. (JMB)

  14. 'Unrecognized victims': Sexual abuse against male street children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background- Sexual abuse and exploitation of male children is one of the emerging social problems affecting the physical, social and psychological wellbeing of children in Addis Ababa. The magnitude of the problem seems much worse among the street boys because of their precarious living conditions. However, very ...

  15. 'Unrecognized victims': Sexual abuse against male street children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    male street children participated in interviewer administered questionnaire. Overall, a total of 186 children aged from 9-18 years participated in the study and they represent diverse religious beliefs and family background. Five specific sites (the main cross-country bus terminal, Gojam. Berenda, Mesalemiya, Sebategna and ...

  16. Orthopedic assessment of young children: developmental variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killam, P E

    1989-07-01

    Parents often seek orthopedic evaluation of their young children because of apparent abnormalities. However, many of these are simply developmental variations that are part of normal growth and development. Pes planus, or flat foot, is one of the earliest and most common concerns. Torsional variations are also often seen; the presenting complaint may be intoeing (metatarsus adductus, tibial torsion and increased femoral anteversion) or out-toeing (pes calcaneovalgus and external rotation contractures of the hips). Angular variations (genu varum and genu valgum) are also seen frequently in young children. In assessing each finding, consideration must be given to the age at which the finding may be considered within normal limits, methods of examination and documentation, the expected course, findings that may signify abnormality, and appropriate follow-up and referral. An understanding of these common developmental variations in the orthopedic assessment of young children will enable the health care provider to respond to parents' concerns with accurate information and counseling.

  17. Child and Youth Victimization Known to Police, School, and Medical Authorities. National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard; Turner, Heather; Hamby, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been made during the last generation to encourage children and their families to report victimization to authorities. Nonetheless, concern persists that most childhood victimization remains hidden. The 2008 inventory of childhood victimization--the National Study of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV)--allowed an…

  18. Child Abuse, Street Victimization, and Substance Use among Homeless Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research documents high rates of child abuse, street victimization, and substance use among homeless youth, few studies have investigated these three constructs simultaneously, and thus little is known about how various forms of victimization are uniquely associated with substance use among this population. The purpose of this…

  19. Young children's overgeneralizations with fixed transitivity verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, P J; Tomasello, M; Dodson, K; Lewis, L B

    1999-01-01

    The present study examined English-speaking children's tendency to make argument structure overgeneralization errors (e.g., I disappeared it). Children were exposed to several English verbs of fixed transitivity (exclusively intransitive or exclusively transitive) and then asked questions that encouraged them to overgeneralize usage of the verbs. Seventy-two children (24 in each of three age groups: 3, 4/5, and 8 years of age) experienced four actions performed by puppets. Each action had two verbs of similar meaning associated with it in the context of the experimental action: one more familiar to young children and one less familiar. Children at all ages were more likely to overgeneralize usage of verbs that were less familiar to them, supporting the hypothesis that children's usage of verbs in particular construction types becomes entrenched over time. As children solidly learn the transitivity status of particular verbs, they become more reluctant to use those verbs in other argument structure constructions.

  20. Young children's grief: parents' understanding and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugge, Kari E; Darbyshire, Philip; Røkholt, Eline Grelland; Haugstvedt, Karen Therese Sulheim; Helseth, Solvi

    2014-01-01

    The grief experiences of young children and the interactional dynamics between parents and children leading to healthy grieving remain comparatively under researched. This article reports a qualitative evaluation of a Norwegian Bereavement Support Program where 8 parents described their young child's grief reactions and coping and how these intersected with their own grief. Successful parental coping with their child's grief involves understanding the child's genuine concerns following the death and an intricately holistic balance between shielding and including, between informing and frightening, and between creating a new life while cherishing the old.

  1. Teaching nutrition to young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'augostino, M; Chauliac, M; Masse-raimbault, A M

    1987-01-01

    A participative educational approach, in which children are actively involved in improving their own health, can provide a basis for developing healthful behavior patterns. The International Children's Center has organized an international workshop on the integration of health and diet in the overall development of children 3-6 years of age. This document describes the methodology of programs developed by participants in these workshops and suggests activities for programs related to nutrition, growth, and water. The steps involved are: to make an inventory of local problems related to the health subject selected, to define the educational objectives of the program, to define the criteria for program evaluation, and to establish a varied program of children's activities. The proposed activities should stimulate children to analyze real-life situations and find solutions for themselves, to formulate and check hypotheses, and to plan their actions. The activities, all of which are based on play, make use of locally available materials rather than expensive technology. For example, an activity related to the themes of water and nutrition could be a restaurant day, in which preschool children serve food to other children. The teacher uses this as an opportunity to teach the children to recognize local foods and to serve clean water with meals. Also a part of this activity are mathematical exercises to calculate the amounts of food needed, creative activities to imitate the atmosphere of a restaurant, and code-learning exercises for the preparation of the menu and understanding of recipes.

  2. Reciprocal associations between interpersonal and values dimensions of school climate and peer victimization in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeater, Bonnie; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena; Smith, David; Bowen, François

    2015-01-01

    We examine longitudinal relations among children's and parents' reports of peer victimization and their perceptions of school climate dimensions reflecting school interpersonal relationships (relationships among children and their teachers and peers, and of parents and principals) and values (fairness and equity of access to resources). Children were in Grades 3 and 4 at Time 1 (Mage = 9.32, SDage = .74; 49% boys). Bidirectional influences of school climate and reports of peer victimization were investigated in path models across grade (Time 1 to Time 2) and within a grade (Time 2 to Time 3). Child and parent reports of school climate dimensions showed considerable stability. Hypothesized reciprocal relationships between each of the school climate dimensions and peer victimization were significant. Child-reported frequency of parent involvement in school activities was associated with lower levels of peer victimization within a school year. Parent perceptions of involvement in school activities and the schools' connection with the community were unrelated to the children's reports of peer victimization. Children's negative cognitions or "worldviews" coupled with peer victimization may fuel problems with school connectedness, safety, and help seeking. Findings shed light on possible pathways for reducing peer victimization by leveraging specific aspects of the social climate within schools.

  3. Hiroshima, Chernobyl and Semipalatinsk - children as victims of nuclear disasters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, G.; Biermann, R. [Aerztliche Akademie fuer Psychotherapie von Kindern und Jugendlichen e.V., Puchheim b. Muenchen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    A short review of the fate of children exposed to radiations and radioisotopes due to the a-bomb in Hiroshima, nuclear weapons tests at the Semipalatinsk test site or the reactor accident of Chernobyl.

  4. Psychological aspects of institutionalized children victims od domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Grossi, Rute; CESUMAR; Partala, Luzia Ivonete Zampoli; CESUMAR; Kaminski, Cristiane Rocha; CESUMAR

    2007-01-01

    Violence against children is a theme that has been extensively discussed since the 90´s with passing of the Federal Law 8069 - Cgildren and Adolescent Statute (ECA). Up to that time, there was very little concern in relation to childrenn and adolescents, who were not yet seen as subjects to rights. Domestic violence brings seriours consequences to children development, and in more serious cases, the child is separated from the family and judiciously taken to a govemment shelter or another ass...

  5. When the Happy Victimizer Says Sorry: Children's Understanding of Apology and Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Craig E.; Chen, Diyu; Harris, Paul L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggests that children gradually understand the mitigating effects of apology on damage to a transgressor's reputation. However, little is known about young children's insights into the central emotional implications of apology. In two studies, children ages 4-9 heard stories about moral transgressions in which the wrongdoers…

  6. Sound localization ability of young children with bilateral cochlear implants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijen, J.W.; Snik, A.F.M.; Mylanus, E.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the benefit of bilateral cochlear implantation in young children. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical trial comparing a group of bilaterally implanted children with a group of unilaterally implanted children. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Five bilaterally implanted children

  7. Children, the Main Victims of Ethnic Violence in Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumeh Saeidi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human rights are the basic standards that people need to live in dignity. In addition to the rights that are available to all people, there are rights that apply only to children. Children need special rights because of their unique needs; they need additional protection that adults don’t. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child is an international document that sets out all of the rights that children have – a child is defined in the Convention as any person under the age of 18 (1. Children's rights are the human rights of children with particular attention to the rights of special protection and care afforded to minors (2, including their right to association with both parents, human identity as well as the basic needs for food, universal state-paid education, health care and criminal laws appropriate for the age and development of the child, equal protection of the child's civil rights, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of the child's race, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, religion, disability, color, ethnicity, or other characteristics (3-8.

  8. The cost of inaction for young children globally: workshop summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bogard, Kimber; Mellody, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    "The Cost of Inaction for Young Children Globally is the summary of a workshop hosted by the Institute of Medicine Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally in April 2014 to focus on investments...

  9. Logical Abilities of Young Children-Two Styles of Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knifong, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Data representing two styples of approach to the logical abilities of young children are analyzed. The result of this analysis is contrary to popular interpretations of Piaget's views concerning the logical abilities of young children. (ST)

  10. Children With Disability Are More at Risk of Violence Victimization: Evidence From a Study of School-Aged Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling; Emery, Clifton R; Ip, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Although research tends to focus on whether children with disability are more at risk of violence victimization, conclusive evidence on the association, especially in non-Western settings, is lacking. Using a large and representative sample of school-aged children in Hong Kong (N = 5,841, aged 9-18 years), this study aims to fill the research gap by providing reliable estimates of the prevalence of disability and the direct and indirect experiences of violence among children with disability. The study also compares the prevalence of child maltreatment, parental intimate partner violence (IPV), and in-law conflict to explore the factors related to the association between disability and violence victimization. The prevalence of disability among children was about 6%. Children with disability were more likely to report victimization than those without disability: 32% to 60% of the former had experienced child maltreatment, and 12% to 46% of them had witnessed IPV between parents or in-law conflict. The results of a logistic regression showed that disability increased the risk of lifetime physical maltreatment by 1.6 times. Furthermore, low levels of parental education and paternal unemployment were risk factors for lifetime child maltreatment. The risk of child maltreatment could have an almost sixfold increase when the child had also witnessed other types of family violence. Possible explanations and implications of the findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Coping strategies to stress about emotional intelligence in children 7 to 12 years of disaster victims

    OpenAIRE

    Echevarria R., Luis; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the relationship between stress coping strategies and emotional intelligence in a sample of 227 child victims of disaster, of both sexes, ages 7 to 12 years of age. To establish the relationship between these variables using correlational design, in both data collection was applied Coping Strategies Scale Stress in Children, the same that was created by the researcher, whose validity was established by the criterion of judges and reliability through internal analysis wh...

  12. A Developmental Approach to Woodworking for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Polly; Taylor, Michaell K.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a developmental approach to young children's woodworking. Discusses seven developmental stages of children's woodworking and woodworking activities appropriate to each developmental stage. (BB)

  13. The impact of peer victimization and psychological symptoms on quality of life in children and adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzuner, Selcuk; Sahin, Sezgin; Durcan, Gizem; Adrovic, Amra; Barut, Kenan; Kilicoglu, Ali Guven; Bilgic, Ayhan; Bahali, Kayhan; Kasapcopur, Ozgur

    2017-06-01

    There is no documentation about the association between peer victimization, psychological status, and quality of life (QOL) in children and adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between peer victimization, psychological symptoms, and QOL in a cohort of children and adolescents with SLE. Forty-one patients (aged 9-18 years) participated in this study. The control group (n = 49) was composed of healthy children and adolescents from local community. Questionnaires were used to evaluate the peer victimization, psychological status, and QOL of children and adolescents with and without SLE. No significant difference was found between the study and control groups for peer victimization, depression, state and trait anxiety, and QOL scores. The peer victimization, depression, anxiety, and self-esteem scores were negatively correlated with psychosocial and total subscale scores of QOL in the study group. According to regression analyses, trait anxiety had a negative predictive effect on the physical health domain scores of QOL, whereas trait anxiety and peer victimization had a negative effect on the psychosocial domain and total scores of QOL in the SLE patients. This study suggests that trait anxiety and peer victimization are risk factors for poor QOL in adolescents with SLE.

  14. Managing Difficult Behaviour in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slee, June

    2003-01-01

    Managing antisocial behavior is a critical issue facing those who work with young children, as the presence of early socialization problems is the single greatest predictor of adolescent and adult antisocial behavior. This booklet highlights the effectiveness of behavior management strategies that introduce and reinforce positive behaviors, rather…

  15. Coding & Robotics for Young Children? You Bet!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzikowski, Ann

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) revised its position statement regarding the appropriate use of technology in early childhood classrooms. The increased accessibility of touch screens on tablets and smart phones led to this revision, which moves the conversation from the question of "When shall we…

  16. Heavy Thinking: Young Children's Theorising about Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Amy

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an open-ended drawing task that was used to discover young children's experiences with, and understandings of, the concept of mass. Mass is defined as the amount of matter in an object, and, like time, it cannot be seen (NSW Department of Education and Training Professional Support and Curriculum Directorate…

  17. Young Blind Children: Towards Assessment for Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Iain F. W. K.; Simmons, Joyce Nesker

    1992-01-01

    This article addresses the unique assessment needs of young blind children and discourages dependence on standardized tests for this population. Principles of one assessment approach (involving observation; clinical examination of mobility, language, play, socioemotional development, and academic skills; and interviews with mother and social…

  18. Helping Young Children to Delay Gratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pai-Lin; Lan, William; Wang, Chiao-Li; Chiu, Hsiu-Yueh

    2008-01-01

    The ability to delay gratification (DG) in young children is vital to their later development. Such ability should be taught as early as possible. One hundred kindergartners (Mean age = 6.11), randomly assigned to three groups; (a) labeling: received the treatment of being labeled as "patient" kids; (b) story-telling: were read a story about the…

  19. Methodological Reflections on Working with Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides methodological reflections on an evolutionary and participatory software development process for designing interactive systems with children of very young age. The approach was put into practice for the design of a software environment for self-directed project management...

  20. Teaching STEM Outdoors: Activities for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selly, Patty Born

    2017-01-01

    Nurture young children's innate tendencies toward exploration, sensory stimulation, and STEM learning when you connect outdoor learning with STEM curriculum. Discover the developmental benefits of outdoor learning and how the rich diversity of settings and materials in nature gives rise to questions and inquiry for deeper learning. Full of…

  1. Young Children's Learning with Digital Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Debra A.; Bates, Cynthia H.; So, Jiyeon

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews a selection of studies on digital media and learning for young children ages 3 to 6. The range of digital media for this age group is growing and includes computer-delivered and online activities; console video games; handheld media, occasionally with GPS or an accelerometer, in cell phones and other wireless mobile devices;…

  2. Neighborhood Context and Immigrant Young Children's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Tama; Shuey, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored how neighborhood social processes and resources, relevant to immigrant families and immigrant neighborhoods, contribute to young children's behavioral functioning and achievement across diverse racial/ethnic groups. Data were drawn from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, a neighborhood-based,…

  3. Presenting Chamber Music to Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Terry Fonda

    2011-01-01

    The number of professional ensembles and organizations with dedicated outreach concerts has been steadily increasing over the past decade. More recently, educational concerts pairing chamber music with young children have been documented. The work presented in this article is a study in the efficacy and feasibility of this format. Various music…

  4. Teaching Young Children To Think about Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Alice P.

    2001-01-01

    Constructivist teachers are guided by three basic principles when teaching math to young children. They encourage students to think about their answers, conceptualize how they resolved the problem, and represent their thinking with words, pictures, or symbols. Demonstrating mathematical logic is more important than memorizing rules. (MLH)

  5. Nasometry normative data for young Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Heijden, P.; Hobbel, H. H. F.; Van der Laan, B. F. A. M.; Korsten-Meijer, A. G. W.; Goorhuis-Brouwer, S. M.

    Objective: Hypernasality is a common problem in cleft care. It should be treated before the age of six, because of the impact it can have on speech sound development in young children. An objective method of nasalance evaluation is nasometry. To decide whether a nasometer test result is normal or

  6. Emergent Biliteracy in Young Mexican Immigrant Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Iliana; Azuara, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between emergent biliteracy and growing up in a biliterate environment. The study focuses on two questions: (1) What knowledge of biliteracy do young bilingual preschool children develop in the early years? (2) How do context and specific language environments influence the development of biliteracy in young…

  7. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY AMONG CHILDREN AND YOUNG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kateee

    2003-06-06

    Jun 6, 2003 ... Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of psychiatric disorders among children and young persons appearing in .... by a computer using the Statistical Package for Social. Sciences (SPSS) Version 8.0 and a ..... for further psychiatric assessment and treatment as necessary. The Juvenile court ...

  8. Language Insights for Caregivers with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2017-01-01

    How to help babies and young children right from birth to become competent in talking as well as emergent literacy is illustrated by research findings as well as with specific clinical stories. Both kinds of knowledge can serve to galvanize parents and teachers to increase awareness of infant and preschool language development and the crucial role…

  9. Children and teenagers living in orphanages victims of violence: dilemmas and nursing perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Reschke Salomão

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to understand the nursing care provided to children/teenagers victims of violence living in orphanages and to identify the strategies used on the treatment of these individuals when they arrive at the institution. Qualitative, exploratory-descriptive study conducted from March to April 2012, at the headquarters of the Fundação de Proteção Especial do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul [Special Protection Foundation of the State of Rio Grande do Sul] in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The data were collected through focus group in three meetings with seven nurses from the mentioned institution. The analysis of the information followed the proposed theme, identifying three categories: violence conceptions and vulnerability factors, nursing care provided to children/teenagers victims of violence and violence prevention in orphanages. Conclusions point out that attendance protocols are fundamental for integral care and that recreational content may be a strategy for taking care of children/teenagers victims of violence.

  10. Peer Victimization and Depressive Symptoms Among Rural-to-Urban Migrant Children in China: The Protective Role of Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhi; Chen, Lihua; Harrison, Sayward E; Guo, Haiying; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua

    2016-01-01

    Peer victimization can have a profound effect on children's wellbeing and is a known risk factor for depression in childhood. Migrant children experience peer victimization at higher rates than non-migrant peers; however, limited research has examined psychological factors that may serve to reduce depression risk for this group. In particular, no studies have yet investigated whether resilience, including personal characteristics, and a strong social support network, may moderate the relationship between peer victimization and depressive symptoms for migrant children. This study utilized a latent interaction model to examine the effect of resilience on the relationship between peer victimization and depressive symptoms among 721 rural-to-urban migrant children in Beijing, China. Results indicated that peer victimization was positively associated with depressive symptoms. Resilience was found to be a protective factor for depressive symptoms and also mitigated the effects of peer victimization on depressive symptoms. Exploratory analyses suggest that enrollment in private migrant schools may be linked with poorer psychosocial outcomes for Chinese migrant children. Strengthening the internal resilience and social supports for all migrant children may be an effective strategy to lower their risk for depression. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  11. Doubly Disadvantaged? Bullying Experiences among Disabled Children and Young People in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzitheochari, Stella; Parsons, Samantha; Platt, Lucinda

    2015-01-01

    Bullying among school-aged children and adolescents is recognised as an important social problem, and the adverse consequences for victims are well established. However, despite growing interest in the socio-demographic profile of victims, there is limited evidence on the relationship between bullying victimisation and childhood disability. This article enhances our understanding of bullying experiences among disabled children in both early and later childhood, drawing on nationally representative longitudinal data from the Millennium Cohort Study and the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. We model the association of disability measured in two different ways with the probability of being bullied at ages seven and 15, controlling for a wide range of known risk factors that vary with childhood disability. Results reveal an independent association of disability with bullying victimisation, suggesting a potential pathway to cumulative disability-related disadvantage, and drawing attention to the school as a site of reproduction of social inequalities. PMID:27546915

  12. WOMEN AND CHILDRENS, THE MAIN VICTIMS OF FORCED DISPLACEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alonso Andrade Salazar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to shows the particular manner as in Colombia, women and children areparticularly vulnerable by armed groups that attack their dignity and privacy affect their family, ideological and sexual. The preparation of the article involved an extensive literature review. In Colombia and adolescent girls constitute 53% of the displaced population, of which at least 17% were mobilized as a result of harassment, assault and sexual violence. The vital risk factors and vulnerability are directly proportional to the armed conflict, therefore the war dissociates the family unit, and alters the elements of group cohesion. Often children carry their emotional state through aggressive or playful - in conflicting attitudes, and recharges in women full weight of family reconstitution, which hinders its adaptation process.

  13. [Children as victims of homicide 1972-2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Sanne; Rollmann, Dorte; Leth, Peter Mygind; Thomsen, Jørgen Lange

    2007-11-19

    Child homicides are rare but serious crimes. In this study the homicide rate and the development in the crime pattern will be investigated. The investigation is retrospective and comprises the 34 years during which the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Odense has existed. During this period 41 children under the age of 15 were killed in 30 episodes. The most frequent method of homicide was manual strangulation, and the second most frequent was blunt violence. It is demonstrated that the incidence of child homicide has decreased considerably compared to a previous investigation comprising all of Denmark. By far the largest decrease is in homicides committed by women against their own children, which have often been followed by suicide (family homicides). The decrease in family homicides committed by men is much less. Today men commit family homicides 8 times as frequently as women in the area under investigation. A possible explanation for the decreasing number of homicides committed by women against their own children is the decreased use of gas for cooking, whereby a frequent homicide method disappeared, and by improved socio-economic life conditions and gender balance. Men are now responsible for the majority of family homicides. Preventative measures for men in socially traumatic situations such as a divorce are recommended.

  14. Media and Young Children's Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkorian, Heather L.; Wartella, Ellen A.; Anderson, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic media, particularly television, have long been criticized for their potential impact on children. One area for concern is how early media exposure influences cognitive development and academic achievement. Heather Kirkorian, Ellen Wartella, and Daniel Anderson summarize the relevant research and provide suggestions for maximizing the…

  15. Eye tracking young children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Noah J; Elison, Jed T

    2012-03-27

    The rise of accessible commercial eye-tracking systems has fueled a rapid increase in their use in psychological and psychiatric research. By providing a direct, detailed and objective measure of gaze behavior, eye-tracking has become a valuable tool for examining abnormal perceptual strategies in clinical populations and has been used to identify disorder-specific characteristics, promote early identification, and inform treatment. In particular, investigators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have benefited from integrating eye-tracking into their research paradigms. Eye-tracking has largely been used in these studies to reveal mechanisms underlying impaired task performance and abnormal brain functioning, particularly during the processing of social information. While older children and adults with ASD comprise the preponderance of research in this area, eye-tracking may be especially useful for studying young children with the disorder as it offers a non-invasive tool for assessing and quantifying early-emerging developmental abnormalities. Implementing eye-tracking with young children with ASD, however, is associated with a number of unique challenges, including issues with compliant behavior resulting from specific task demands and disorder-related psychosocial considerations. In this protocol, we detail methodological considerations for optimizing research design, data acquisition and psychometric analysis while eye-tracking young children with ASD. The provided recommendations are also designed to be more broadly applicable for eye-tracking children with other developmental disabilities. By offering guidelines for best practices in these areas based upon lessons derived from our own work, we hope to help other investigators make sound research design and analysis choices while avoiding common pitfalls that can compromise data acquisition while eye-tracking young children with ASD or other developmental difficulties.

  16. Peer Victimization and Depressive Symptoms Among Rural-to-Urban Migrant Children in China: The Protective Role of Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Ye

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer victimization can have a profound effect on children’s wellbeing and is a known risk factor for depression in childhood. Migrant children experience peer victimization at higher rates than non-migrant peers; however, limited research has examined psychological factors that may serve to reduce depression risk for this group. In particular, no studies have yet investigated whether resilience, including personal characteristics and a strong social support network, may moderate the relationship between peer victimization and depressive symptoms for migrant children. This study utilized a latent interaction model to examine the effect of resilience on the relationship between peer victimization and depressive symptoms among 721 rural-to-urban migrant children in Beijing, China. Results indicated that peer victimization was positively associated with depressive symptoms. Resilience was found to be a protective factor for depressive symptoms and also mitigated the effects of peer victimization on depressive symptoms. Exploratory analyses suggest that enrollment in private migrant schools may be linked with poorer psychosocial outcomes for Chinese migrant children. Strengthening the internal resilience and social supports for all migrant children may be an effective strategy to lower their risk for depression. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  17. [EMOTIONAL DISORDERS IN CHILDREN VICTIMS OF NATURAL DISASTERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño García, Teresa; Vega Díaz, Carmen; Cernuda Martínez, José Antonio

    2016-06-01

    The effects of disasters on physical health tend to be well-known, with short, medium and long term sequelae. On the other hand, not always is have recognized in the same way the effects on mental health, despite having shown that, in situations of disaster or catastrophe there is a psychological signs of suffering increase and increases to a certain extent the psychiatric morbidity and other problem social. It is estimated that between a third and half of the exposed population, it suffers from some psychological manifestation. It has been erroneously thought that children and adolescents, not suffering with the same intensity of especially traumatic situations. In fact it was presumed, given their reactions so different from that of adults, had some protection. Currently, this has denied and minors are considered to be a group of high risk in cases of disasters and emergencies. Investigations carried out, demonstrate that in children and adolescents, the psychological sequels tend to be frequent and affect directly to the physical, mental and social development. Natural disasters are unexpected situations that will produce a serie of emotional reactions of diverse severity in their survivors, especially children, one of the most vulnerable groups due to a less understanding of what happened and difficulty expressing what they feel, having a personality still developing, and so directly affecting their physical, mental and social development. Therefore suffering the emotional scars, they will take longer to resolve and have a lifetime to live with them. These consequences should be treated by a corresponding community nurse and sometimes, depending on the severity and persistence (more than 3 months), a referral will be made to a qualified mental health professional, taking into account a number of recommendation and assesment canons. Parents or tutors with health professionals have an important role in the recovery of their children and their reactions will be

  18. Children and online risk: Powerless victims or resourceful participants?

    OpenAIRE

    Staksrud, Elisabeth; Livingstone, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Research on the risks associated with children’s use of the internet often aim to inform policies of risk prevention. Yet paralleling the effort to map the nature extent of online risk is a growing unease that the goal of risk prevention tends support an over-protective, risk-averse culture that restricts the freedom of online exploration that society encourages for children in other spheres. It is central to adolescence that teenagers learn to anticipate and cope with risk - in short, to res...

  19. Strokes In Young Adults And Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Iranmanesh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is in second place on a mortality list in the world. Also, stroke is a leading cause of disability. Approximately 20% of all strokes occur in Children and young adults. The etiology of stroke in Children and young adults is different from that in older patients, and has an influence on diagnostic evaluation and treatment, so knowledge about older patients cannot always be applied to these patients. The list of stroke etiologies among young adults and children is extensive. Ischemic stroke are more frequent than hemorrhagic strokes in both groups. Stroke in young adults had been thought to be associated with   risk factors, including arterial (such as dissection, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, inflammatory arteritis ,moyamoya ,migraine - induced stroke, genetic or inherted arteriopathy, premature atherosclerosis cardiac (such as patent foramen ovale, cardiomyopathy , congenital heart disease and   hematologic (such as  deficiencies of protein S,protein C,or antithrombin;factor V lieden mutation . Common risk factors for stroke in children include: Sickle-cell disease, diseases of the arteries, abnormal blood clotting, head or neck trauma. There are no specific recommendations or guidelines for primary or secondary stroke prevention in young adults. Primary prevention focused on identifying and managing known vascular risk factors, such as hypertension, disorders of lipid metabolism, and diabetes, and non-drug strategies and lifestyle changes, including smoking, reducing body weight, increasing regular aerobic physical activity, and adopting a healthy diet with more fruit and vegetables and less salt. For secondary stroke prevention, identification of the etiologic mechanism of the initial stroke and the presence of any additional risk factors is most important. It consists of optimal treatment of vascular risk factors administering antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy, and if indicated, invasive surgical or

  20. Lung function measurement in awake young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Klug, B

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate methods applicable in a clinical setting for monitoring of changes in lung function in awake young children. Impedance measurements by the impulse oscillation technique (ZIOS), respiratory resistance measurements by the interrupter technique (Rint) and transcu......The aim of the study was to evaluate methods applicable in a clinical setting for monitoring of changes in lung function in awake young children. Impedance measurements by the impulse oscillation technique (ZIOS), respiratory resistance measurements by the interrupter technique (Rint......) and transcutaneous measurements of oxygen tension (Ptc,O2) were compared with concomitant measurements of specific airway resistance (sRaw) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) by whole body plethysmography and spirometry, respectively, during methacholine challenge in 21 young children aged 4-6 yrs...... function was ZIOS > sRaw > Ptc,O2 > FEV1 > Rint. ZIOS was significantly more sensitive than all subsequent methods, and Ptc,O2 was significantly more sensitive than FEV1. ZIOS, sRaw and Rint, but not Ptc,O2 and FEV1, detected the subclinical increase in bronchial muscle tone in the children during baseline...

  1. Nasometry normative data for young Dutch children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heijden, P; Hobbel, H H F; Van der Laan, B F A M; Korsten-Meijer, A G W; Goorhuis-Brouwer, S M

    2011-03-01

    Hypernasality is a common problem in cleft care. It should be treated before the age of six, because of the impact it can have on speech sound development in young children. An objective method of nasalance evaluation is nasometry. To decide whether a nasometer test result is normal or abnormal, normative data and cut off points are needed. Normative data for children are not available for every language and age. For Dutch children two sets of Dutch speech stimuli, the Van Zundert sentences or the Moolenaar-Bijl, sentences, are often used in the diagnostic process for hypernasality. Primary goal of this study is to determine normative data and cut off points for two sets of Dutch speech stimuli for Dutch children from four to six years of age. Secondary is to compare those two sets of oral sentences. Children without clefts were recruited from schools. According to their teachers their speech was normal. They were tested with the nasometer with the two sets of speech stimuli. The set from Van Zundert has oral and oronasal sentences, the Moolenaar-Bijl set only has oral sentences. 118 children were recruited. Out of these children, 55 produced recording samples which were suitable for analysis. There were no significant differences between age groups or gender. The two different sets of speech stimuli used were significantly different, but the confidence intervals overlapped. Normal nasalance scores of the tested sentences are between 3 and 19% for oral sentences and between 17 and 37% for oronasal sentences. The Moolenaar-Bijl speech sentences are preferred to evaluate hypernasality in young Dutch children, because of the shortness and intelligibility. Normative nasalance scores are applicable to the whole group of children from four to six years of age. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Do Other People's Plights Matter? A Genetically Informed Twin Study of the Role of Social Context in the Link between Peer Victimization and Children's Aggression and Depression Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Girard, Alain; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Using a genetically informed design, this study examined the additive and interactive effects of genetic risk, personal peer victimization experiences, and peer victimization experienced by others on children's aggression and depression symptoms. Of major interest was whether these effects varied depending on whether or not the victimized others…

  3. Neighborhood context and immigrant young children's development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Tama; Shuey, Elizabeth A

    2014-06-01

    This study explored how neighborhood social processes and resources, relevant to immigrant families and immigrant neighborhoods, contribute to young children's behavioral functioning and achievement across diverse racial/ethnic groups. Data were drawn from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, a neighborhood-based, longitudinal study with cohorts of children first seen at birth, 3 years, and 6 years of age and followed over 6 years (N = 3,209; 37% Mexican American, 33% Black, 15% White, 9% Puerto Rican, 4% other Latino, and 2% other races/ethnicities; 44% immigrant). Results of multilevel models suggest that the immigrant status of children's families was a more consistent moderator of associations between neighborhood processes and children's development than the immigrant concentration of their neighborhoods, but the nature of these associations depended on the outcome and racial/ethnic group considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Pulmonary function testing in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Hugo; Carver, Terrence W

    2011-12-01

    Pulmonary function testing (PFT) is of great importance in the evaluation and treatment of respiratory diseases. Spirometry is simple, noninvasive, and has been the most commonly used technique in cooperative children, obtaining reliable data in only a few minutes. The development of commercially available equipment as well as the simplification of previous techniques that now require minimal patient cooperation applied during tidal breathing have significantly stimulated the use of PFT in younger children. Tidal breathing techniques such as impulse oscillometry, gas dilution, and plethysmography have permitted previously unobtainable PFT in children 2 to 5 years of age. The purpose of this review is to help clinicians become familiar with available PFT techniques used in young children by discussing their general principles, clinical applications, and limitations.

  5. Young children heed advice selectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Hannes; Ehrling, Christoph; Harris, Paul L; Schultze, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    A rational strategy to update and revise one's uncertain beliefs is to take advice by other agents who are better informed. Adults routinely engage in such advice taking in systematic and selective ways depending on relevant characteristics such as reliability of advisors. The current study merged research in social and developmental psychology to examine whether children also adjust their initial judgment to varying degrees depending on the characteristics of their advisors. Participants aged 3 to 6 years played a game in which they made initial judgments, received advice, and subsequently made final judgments. They systematically revised their judgments in light of the advice, and they did so selectively as a function of advisor expertise. They made greater adjustments to their initial judgment when advised by an apparently knowledgeable informant. This suggests that the pattern of advice taking studied in social psychology has its roots in early development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Interpersonal sensitivity, bullying victimization and paranoid ideation among help-seeking adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masillo, Alice; Valmaggia, Lucia R; Saba, Riccardo; Brandizzi, Martina; Lo Cascio, Nella; Telesforo, Ludovica; Venturini, Paola; Izzo, Aniello; Mattioli, M Teresa; D'Alema, Marco; Girardi, Paolo; Fiori Nastro, Paolo

    2017-05-30

    The effects of a negative interpersonal experience, such as bullying victimization in childhood and adolescence, can be strong and long lasting. Bullying victimization is associated with paranoid ideation and suspiciousness. Few studies have focused on personality traits of victims of bullying. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a particular personality trait called interpersonal sensitivity may be related to suspiciousness in those who experienced bullying victimization. The study sample consisted of 147 help-seeking adolescents (mean age 17 years) selected after a screening phase (Prodromal Questionnaire) and evaluated with the Structured Interview for Psychosis-risk Syndromes (SIPS). All participants were specifically asked if they had experienced either psychological bullying or physical bullying, and they completed the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM). Of the whole sample, 30 (20%) participants had experienced psychological bullying or physical bullying at least once in their life. Performing a multiple regression, bullying victimization was found to be an independent predictor of subtle paranoid ideation and suspiciousness. Interpersonal sensitivity was also found to be an independent predictor of subtle paranoid ideation; in particular, two IPSM subscales, fragile inner-self and separation anxiety, showed a significant correlation with subtle paranoid ideation. Our results confirmed that bullying victimization is a negative interpersonal experience associated with paranoid ideation and suspiciousness. However, being overly sensitive and having negative beliefs about the self as fragile and vulnerable to threat also lead to a tendency to attribute experiences as externally caused and, in turn, facilitate the formation and maintenance of paranoid ideation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Young Children as Media Users and Consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2008-01-01

    a very early age, also becoming consumers in their own right. Through media, children are exposed to a wide range of consumer goods,not only through traditional spot commercials, but especially through different kinds of merchandise related to program content. This process, the paper argues, takes place......This paper presents some main results from the PhD-project ‘Toddlers watching TV'1. Young children, aged 1½ to three, are in this project understood and examined as active participants in the process of becoming regular viewers of both public service and commercial television, and thereby, from...

  8. Homicidal abuse of young children: A historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy J Castellani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The past 50 years has seen a heightened awareness of abusive injury patterns and increased concern for the plight of children victimized by their caregivers. Murder of the young, however, has been embedded in society since the beginning of recorded time. Indeed, nature provides abundant examples of infanticide in lower animals, raising the question of whether exploitation, apathy, and violence toward children are on some level evolutionarily conserved. In human antiquity, selective killing of females, the illegitimate, and the malformed, killing by ritualistic sacrifice or to conserve resources was carried out with impunity. The middle ages and later saw a decline in these practices albeit limited. One hundred years into the industrial revolution, with harsh child labor in public view, legal remedies were sought to protect children but with little effect. The domestic abuse of children was not addressed until a pivotal 19th-century case, in which the rights of animals were invoked to intervene on behalf of a child. In the 20th century, physicians began to look closely at anatomical findings; patterns due to trauma, especially inflicted trauma, began to emerge. “Battered child syndrome” was followed by “shaken baby syndrome,” the latter prompted by the recurrent findings of subdural hematoma, retinal hemorrhages, and brain injury with the absence of impact injuries and no plausible accidental or natural disease explanation. In the 21st century, high-quality studies and an emphasis on evidenced-based medicine substantiated the existence of injury patterns resulting from homicidal violence. However, progress has been uneven. A case of child abuse that reached the US Supreme Court resulted in an ill-cited dissent that seems to have amplified an already toxic medicolegal environment, perhaps unjustifiably. The difficulties in balancing the welfare of society with that of caregivers in the aftermath of homicidal abuse will no doubt continue.

  9. Leisure Worlds: Situations, Motivations and Young People's Encounters with Offending and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Julian; Asbridge, Mark; Wortley, Scot

    2015-01-01

    With information supplied by a large (n = 3393) sample of high school students from Toronto, this paper tests the assumption that three forms of leisure activity--peer, risky, and self-improving leisure--have a relatively independent impact upon patterns of offending and victimization. Although we find significant support for this proposition, we…

  10. Risk of cardiovascular disease in family members of young sudden cardiac death victims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford

    2012-01-01

    AimsDescriptive and genetic studies suggest that relatives of sudden cardiac death (SCD) victims have an increased risk of several cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Given the severe consequences of undiagnosed CVD and the availability of effective treatment, the potential for prevention in this gro...

  11. Peer Victimization and Internalizing Symptoms from Adolescence into Young Adulthood: Building Strength through Emotional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Rachel S. Yeung; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated how changes in peer victimization were associated with changes in internalizing symptoms among 662 adolescents across a 4-year period. The moderating effects of initial levels of father, mother, and friend emotional support on this association were also examined. Gender and age group differences (early…

  12. Longitudinal Investigation of the Relationship among Maternal Victimization, Depressive Symptoms, Social Support, and Children's Behavior and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koverola, Catherine; Papas, Mia A.; Pitts, Steven; Murtaugh, Cristin; Black, Maureen M.; Dubowitz, Howard

    2005-01-01

    This article is a longitudinal investigation of the relationships between maternal victimization, maternal functioning, and children's behavior and development. Participants include 203 mother-child dyads from a low-income population recruited from pediatric primary care clinics. Data are collected when children are 4 and 8 years of age. Child…

  13. Victimization and Vilification of Romani Children in Media and Human Rights Organizations Discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Christianakis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Through an analysis of European newspapers, human rights organization reportage, and United Nations documents and websites, this article examines how public discourse regarding education, human rights, poverty, child rearing, and child labour manufactures a dangerous, implausible childhood for Romani children. These discourses, perpetrated by human rights organizations and news media, leverage the languages of intervention, cultural difference, nationalism, and social justice to simultaneously victimize and vilify Romani children, rendering them incapable of experiencing humane childhoods. Employing critical discourse analysis and systemic functional grammar analysis, the proposed article seeks to disentangle the discourses of human rights for Roman children from the assimilationist arguments aimed at compulsory schooling and Eurocentric family and labour practices rooted in access to middle class dominant labor markets.

  14. Employer supports for parents with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, D E

    2001-01-01

    The competing interests of employers, working parents, and very young children collide in decisions over work schedules, child care arrangements, promotions, children's sicknesses, and overtime hours. With the rising number of women in the labor force, more and more employers are concerned about how their workers balance work and family priorities. This article examines the supports that employers provide to help parents with young children juggle demands on their time and attention. It reviews the availability of traditional benefits, such as vacation and health insurance, and describes family-friendly initiatives. Exciting progress is being made in this arena by leading employers, but coverage remains uneven: Employers say they provide family-friendly policies and programs to improve staff recruitment and retention, reduce absenteeism, and increase job satisfaction and company loyalty. Evaluations demonstrate positive impacts on each of these valued outcomes. Employee benefits and work/family supports seldom reach all layers of the work force, and low-income workers who need assistance the most are the least likely to receive or take advantage of it. Understandably, employer policies seek to maximize productive work time. However, it is often in the best interests of children for a parent to be able to set work aside to address urgent family concerns. The author concludes that concrete work/family supports like on-site child care, paid leave, and flextime are important innovations. Ultimately, the most valuable aid to employees would be a family-friendly workplace culture, with supportive supervision and management practices.

  15. Iron status of young children in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Liandré F; Eussen, Simone R

    2017-12-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is common in young children aged 6-36 mo. Although the hazards associated with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are well known, concerns about risks associated with excess iron intake in young children are emerging. To characterize iron status in Europe, we describe the prevalence of ID, IDA, iron repletion, and excess stores with the use of published data from a systematic review on iron intake and deficiency rates, combined with other selected iron status data in young European children. Various definitions for ID and IDA were applied across studies. ID prevalence varied depending on socioeconomic status and type of milk fed (i.e., human or cow milk or formula). Without regard to these factors, ID was reported in 3-48% of children aged ≥12 mo across the countries. For 6- to 12-mo-old infants, based on studies that did not differentiate these factors, ID prevalence was 4-18%. IDA was Europe but was considerably higher in Eastern Europe (9-50%). According to current iron status data from a sample of healthy Western European children aged 12-36 mo, 69% were iron replete, and the 97.5th percentile for serum ferritin (SF) was 64.3 μg/L. In another sample, 79% of 24-mo-old children were iron replete, and the 97.5th percentile for SF was 57.3 μg/L. Average iron intake in most countries studied was close to or below the UK's Recommended Dietary Allowance. In conclusion, even in healthy European children aged 6-36 mo, ID is still common. In Western European populations for whom data were available, approximately three-quarters of children were found to be iron replete, and excess iron stores (SF >100 μg/L) did not appear to be a concern. Consensus on the definitions of iron repletion and excess stores, as well as on ID and IDA, is needed. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Differences between children and adolescents who commit suicide and their peers: A psychological autopsy of suicide victims compared to accident victims and a community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freuchen Anne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge about the circumstances related to suicide among children and adolescents 15 years and younger. Methods We conducted a psychological autopsy, collecting information from parents, hospital records and police reports on persons below the age of 16 who had committed suicide in Norway during a 12-year period (1993-2004 (n = 41. Those who committed suicide were compared with children and adolescents who were killed in accidents during the same time period (n = 43 and with a community sample. Results: Among the suicides 25% met the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis and 30% had depressive symptoms at the time of death. Furthermore, 60% of the parents of the suicide victims reported the child experienced some kind of stressful conflict prior to death, whereas only 12% of the parents of the accident victims reported such conflicts. Conclusion One in four suicide victims fulfilled the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis. The level of sub-threshold depression and of stressful conflict experienced by youths who committed suicide did not appear to differ substantially from that of their peers, and therefore did not raise sufficient concern for referral to professional help.

  17. Development of movement schema in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, H G; Werner, P

    1985-04-01

    To examine the development of movement schema in young school-age children, i.e., whether principles which govern fine eye-hand coordination skill learning as suggested by Schmidt's schema theory apply to the learning of gross motor skills Exp. 1 involved 48 right-handed first-grade children. On a modification of the Fitts Reciprocal Tapping task children moved a stylus (held in the hand or attached to a special shoe worn on the foot) between two metal targets separated by different distances. Children were randomly assigned to one of eight groups: two control or no-practice groups and six experimental or transfer groups. A one-way analysis of variance followed by appropriate Scheffé post hoc tests indicated that movements of the lower limbs were not organized into a movement schema, but a pattern of schema of movement for the upper limbs developed. That no movement schema developed for lower limb movements suggests development of movement schema is intricately linked to both the existing as well as the potential for developing precise movement in those limbs. Exp. 2 involved 40 first-grade children who were randomly assigned to perform a gross-motor agility task under one of three conditions: direct practice on the criterion task, constant practice on a modification of the criterion task, or variable practice on several different modifications of the criterion task. A groups X trials analysis of variance with appropriate post hoc tests indicated that there were no significant differences among direct, constant, or variable practice groups. Data suggest that the amount of practice may be as important as the type of practice in developing movement schema involved in gross motor skills in young children.

  18. Intimate partner violence victims as mothers: their messages and strategies for communicating with children to break the cycle of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insetta, Emily R; Akers, Aletha Y; Miller, Elizabeth; Yonas, Michael A; Burke, Jessica G; Hintz, Lindsay; Chang, Judy C

    2015-02-01

    Children whose mothers are victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) are at increased risk of adverse health and psychosocial consequences, including becoming victims or perpetrators of violence in their own relationships. This study aimed to understand the role mothers may play in preventing the perpetuation of violence in their children's lives. We performed semistructured interviews with 18 IPV victims who are mothers and were living at the Women's Center & Shelter of Greater Pittsburgh from July through November 2011. We sought to understand how they communicate with their children about IPV and relationships. These mothers described a desire to explain their IPV experience and offer advice about avoiding violence in relationships. As foundations for these discussions, they emphasized the importance of close relationships and open communication with their children. Although mothers are interested in talking about IPV and relationships and identify communication strategies for doing so, many have never discussed these topics with their children. These mothers need and want an intervention to help them learn how to communicate with their children to promote healthy relationships. Development of a program to facilitate communication between IPV victims and their children could create an important tool to empower mothers to break the cross-generational cycle of domestic violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Teaching Play Skills to Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunhwa; Sainato, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Play is critical for the development of young children and is an important part of their daily routine. However, children with autism often exhibit deficits in play skills and engage in stereotypic behaviour. We reviewed studies to identify effective instructional strategies for teaching play skills to young children with autism.…

  20. Science Concepts Young Children Learn through Water Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    Water is fascinating, fun, and multifaceted. Children can play with it endlessly. But play, for play's sake, is not water's only value (Crosser, 1994, Tovey, 1993). Indeed, water play is a compelling focus of study for young children (Chalufour & Worth, 2005). The concepts that young children learn from water play are essential for early childhood…

  1. I Am Safe and Secure: Promoting Resilience in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzolongo, Peter J.; Hunter, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Every day, young children--around the world and in the United States--experience stress or trauma. Some children are exposed to crises such as natural disasters, community violence, abuse, neglect, and separation from or death of loved ones. These events can cause young children to feel vulnerable, worried, fearful, sad, frustrated, or lonely.…

  2. Nonverbal Communication Skills in Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chung-Hsin; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Lin, Tzu-Ling; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The study was to examine nonverbal communication in young children with autism. Methods: The participants were 23 young children with autism (mean CA = 32.79 months), 23 CA and MA-matched children with developmental delay and 22 18-20-month-old, and 22 13-15-month-old typically developing toddlers and infants. The abbreviated Early…

  3. Multicomponent Programs for Reducing Peer Victimization in Early Elementary School: A Longitudinal Evaluation of the WITS Primary Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeater, Bonnie; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena

    2011-01-01

    Past research demonstrates the promise of multicomponent programs in reducing peer victimization and bullying in older elementary and middle school children, however little research focuses on young children. The current study examines the effectiveness of the WITS Primary program on trajectories of victimization and social responsibility in…

  4. Effect of childhood victimization on occupational prestige and income trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Cristina A; Christ, Sharon L; LeBlanc, William G; Arheart, Kristopher L; Dietz, Noella A; McCollister, Kathyrn E; Fleming, Lora E; Muntaner, Carles; Muennig, Peter; Lee, David J

    2015-01-01

    Violence toward children (childhood victimization) is a major public health problem, with long-term consequences on economic well-being. The purpose of this study was to determine whether childhood victimization affects occupational prestige and income in young adulthood. We hypothesized that young adults who experienced more childhood victimizations would have less prestigious jobs and lower incomes relative to those with no victimization history. We also explored the pathways in which childhood victimization mediates the relationships between background variables, such as parent's educational impact on the socioeconomic transition into adulthood. A nationally representative sample of 8,901 young adults aged 18-28 surveyed between 1999-2009 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY) were analyzed. Covariate-adjusted multivariate linear regression and path models were used to estimate the effects of victimization and covariates on income and prestige levels and on income and prestige trajectories. After each participant turned 18, their annual 2002 Census job code was assigned a yearly prestige score based on the 1989 General Social Survey, and their annual income was calculated via self-reports. Occupational prestige and annual income are time-varying variables measured from 1999-2009. Victimization effects were tested for moderation by sex, race, and ethnicity in the multivariate models. Approximately half of our sample reported at least one instance of childhood victimization before the age of 18. Major findings include 1) childhood victimization resulted in slower income and prestige growth over time, and 2) mediation analyses suggested that this slower prestige and earnings arose because victims did not get the same amount of education as non-victims. Results indicated that the consequences of victimization negatively affected economic success throughout young adulthood, primarily by slowing the growth in prosperity due to lower education

  5. Associations between maternal physical discipline and peer victimization among Hong Kong Chinese children: the moderating role of child aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Mylien T; Schwartz, David; Chang, Lei; Kelly, Brynn M; Tom, Shelley R

    2009-10-01

    This study examines the relation between maternal physical discipline and victimization by peers, as moderated by child aggression. The sample consisted of 211 Hong Kong Chinese children (98 boys, 113 girls; average age of 11.9). Physical discipline was assessed with a questionnaire completed by mothers, and victimization by peers and aggression were measured using a peer nomination inventory. Latent variable models revealed a moderately strong link between children's experiences with maternal physical discipline and peer victimization, but this effect held only for children who were also high on aggression. These results highlight the interplay between harsh home environments and child aggression and their contributions to the child's adjustment in the peer group.

  6. [And if it happened to children? Adapting medical care during terrorist attacks with multiple pediatric victims].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alix-Séguin, L; Lodé, N; Orliaguet, G; Chamorro, E; Kerroué, F; Lorge, C; Moreira, A

    2017-03-01

    In light of the recent terrorist attacks in Europe, we need to reconsider the organization of rescue and medical management and plan for an attack involving multiple pediatric victims. To ensure quick surgical management, but also to minimize risk for on-site teams (direct threats from secondary terrorist attacks targeting deployed emergency services), it is crucial to evacuate patients in a swift but orderly fashion. Children are vulnerable targets in terrorist attacks. Their anatomical and physiological characteristics make it likely that pediatric victims will suffer more brain injuries and require more, often advanced, airway management. Care of multiple pediatric victims would also prove to be a difficult emotional challenge. Civilian medical teams have adapted the military-medicine principles of damage control in their medical practice using the MARCHE algorithm (Massive hemorrhage, Airway, Respiration [breathing], Circulation, Head/Hypothermia, Evacuation). They have also learned to adapt the level of care to the level of safety at the scene. Prehospital damage control principles should now be tailored to the treatment of pediatric patients in extraordinary circumstances. Priorities are given to hemorrhage control and preventing the lethal triad (coagulopathy, hypothermia, and acidosis). Managing hemorrhagic shock involves quickly controlling external bleeding (tourniquets, hemostatic dressing), using small volumes for fluid resuscitation (10-20ml/kg of normal saline), quickly introducing a vasopressor (noradrenaline 0.1μg/kg/min then titrate) after one or two fluid boluses, and using tranexamic acid (15mg/kg over 10min for loading dose, maximum 1g over 10min). Prehospital resources specifically dedicated to children are limited, and it is therefore important that everyone be trained and prepared for a scene with multiple pediatric patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Peer Preference and Friendship Quantity in Children with Externalizing Behavior: Distinct Influences on Bully Status and Victim Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Mary; Mikami, Amori Yee

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the predictive relations between externalizing behavior, peer preference and friendship quantity, and bully status and victim status among children becoming acquainted with one another for the first time. Children ages 6.8-9.8 years (24 with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; 113 typically developing; 72 girls) attended a 2-week summer day camp grouped into same-age, same-sex classrooms with previously unacquainted peers. Externalizing behavior (via parent and teacher ratings) was measured before the start of camp; peer preference and friendship quantity (via peer nominations) were measured in the middle of camp, and bully status and victim status (via peer nominations) were measured at the end of camp. Low peer preference mediated the positive association between externalizing behavior and bully status. Both peer preference and friendship quantity moderated the relation between externalizing behavior and bully status as well as between externalizing behavior and victim status; whereas high peer preference protected against both bully status and victim status, friendship quantity protected against victim status but exacerbated bully status. Some gender differences were found within these pathways. Peer preference, compared to friendship quantity, appears to have a more consistently protective role in the relation between externalizing behavior and bully status as well as victim status.

  8. LEGAL PROTECTION AGAINST CHILDREN WHO ARE VICTIMS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN CIANJUR DISTRICT STUDIED BY HUMAN RIGHTS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Nuraeny

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Trafficking in persons is a modern form of slavery. The eradication of human trafficking has been on the agenda in law enforcement because of its effects can interfere with social welfare. One form of trafficking in persons who lately is rampant child trafficking. The problems that can be studied is how the perspective of Human Rights in providing protection to children who are victims of trafficking and whether the implementation of legal protection for child victims of trafficking in Cianjur is in line with the concept of human rights. This study uses normative juridical approach and specification of descriptive analysis. Results from this study is the protection of child victims of trafficking in persons has been referred to the concept of human rights which the regional government make policies on prevention of trafficking, rehabilitation, counseling and empowerment of victims of human trafficking.

  9. Parental Influence on Young Children's Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A. Zecevic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents influence on their young children's physical activity (PA behaviours was examined in a sample of 102 preschool-aged children (54 boys. Questionnaires regarding family sociodemographics and physical activity habits were completed. Results showed that children who received greater parental support for activity (B=.78, P<.10 and had parents who rated PA as highly enjoyable (B=.69, P<.05 were significantly more likely to engage in one hour or more of daily PA. Being an older child (B=−.08, P<.01, having older parents (B=−.26, P<.01, and watching more than one hour of television/videos per day (B=1.55, P<.01 reduced the likelihood that a child would be rated as highly active. Children who received greater parental support for PA were 6.3 times more likely to be highly active than inactive (B=1.44, P<.05. Thus, parents can promote PA among their preschoolers, not only by limiting TV time but also by being highly supportive of their children's active pursuits.

  10. Advice for families traveling to developing countries with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Sylvia; Steele, Russell W

    2013-09-01

    Young children are most likely to travel to developing countries with their parents to visit relatives. Preparation for such travel must include careful counseling and optimal use of preventive vaccines and chemoprophylaxis. For infants and very young children, data defining safety and efficacy of these agents are often limited. However, accumulated experience suggests that young travelers may be managed similarly to older children and adults.

  11. Simple tangible language elements for young children

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Adrew C

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Smith_d6_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 6539 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Smith_d6_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Simple Tangible Language Elements... for Young Children Andrew Cyrus Smith CSIR Meraka Institute PO Box 395 Pretoria, 0001, South Africa +27 12 8414626 acsmith@csir.co.za 3rd Author 3rd author's affiliation 1st line of address 2nd line of address Telephone number, incl. country code...

  12. Population-Based Studies of Bullying in Young Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Verlinden-Bondaruk (Maryna)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ School bullying is defined as repeated and intentional aggression toward the peers who have difficulty to stop or counteract such harassment.1,2 Bullying and victimization have serious negative effects on health and functioning of children.3-5 Detecting and

  13. Differences in prevalence of bullying victimization between native and immigrant children in the Nordic countries: a parent-reported serial cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjereld, Y; Daneback, K; Petzold, M

    2015-07-01

    Bullying among children is a problem with severe consequences for the victim. The present study examined parent-reported bullying victimization among children in the Nordic countries at two points in time, 1996 and 2011, and studied differences in prevalence of bullying victimization between immigrant and native children. Data came from the parent-reported NordChild, carried out in the Nordic countries in 1996 and 2011. NordChild is a serial cross-sectional comparative study. A total of 7107 children aged 7-13 were included in the analyses. The prevalence of bullying victimization in the total Nordic countries was lower in 2011 (19.2%) than 1996 (21.7%). Difference in prevalence of bullying victimization was found both between native and immigrant children, and between countries. The largest difference in prevalence of bullying victimization was measured in Sweden 2011, where 8.6% of the native children were bullied, to be compared with the 27.8% of the immigrant children. Immigrant children had higher odds to be bullied than native children in Norway, Sweden and in the total Nordic countries at both measurements, also when adjusted for potentially confounding factors. The higher prevalence of bullying victimization among immigrant children should be taken into consideration in the design and development of preventive work against bullying. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Social inequalities in young children's sports participation and outdoor play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijtzes, A.I.; Jansen, W.; Bouthoorn, S.H.; Pot, J.N.; Hofman, A.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Raat, H.

    2014-01-01

    Research on social inequalities in sports participation and unstructured physical activity among young children is scarce. This study aimed to assess the associations of family socioeconomic position (SEP) and ethnic background with children's sports participation and outdoor play. Methods: We

  15. Framing Young Childrens Oral Health: A Participatory Action Research Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collins, Chimere C; Villa-Torres, Laura; Sams, Lattice D; Zeldin, Leslie P; Divaris, Kimon

    2016-01-01

    .... We sought to understand what parents of young children consider important and potentially modifiable factors and resources influencing their children's oral health, within the contexts of the family and the community...

  16. Social inequalities in young children's sports participation and outdoor play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.I. Wijtzes (Anne); W. Jansen (Wilma); S.H. Bouthoorn (Selma); N. Pot (Niek); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H. Raat (Hein)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractResearch on social inequalities in sports participation and unstructured physical activity among young children is scarce. This study aimed to assess the associations of family socioeconomic position (SEP) and ethnic background with children's sports participation and outdoor play.

  17. Using Visual Images To Support Young Children's Number Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasoni, Ann

    1999-01-01

    Provides opportunities for children to develop visual images of the number situations they are exploring in order to develop powerful number sense. Illustrates two visual teaching aids to help young children develop number images. (ASK)

  18. The Butter Battle Book: Uses And Abuses With Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an approach designed to help explain war and the nuclear threat to young children, using a Dr. Seuss book as a springboard for discussion to help children expand their own concepts on the subject. (KS)

  19. Engaging young children in collective curriculum design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Maria Inês Mafra; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2010-09-01

    In this study we investigate how 5-year-old children in Brazil and their teachers collectively design science curriculum. More specifically, we develop an agency|structure dialectic as a framework to describe this collective praxis in which science curriculum may emerge as the result of children-teacher transactions rather than as a result of being predetermined and controlled by the latter. We draw on a cultural-historical approach and on the theory of structure and agency to analyze the events showing the complexity of the activity inside a classroom of very young children by science education standards. Data were collected in the context of a science unit in an early-childhood education program in Belo Horizonte. Our study suggests that (a) throughout the movement of agency|passivity || schema|resources one can observe participative thinking, a form of collective consciousness that arises in and from lived experience; (b) learning is a process in which a group is invested in searching for solutions while they create schemas and rearrange resources to evolve a new structure; and (c) the emergent curriculum is a powerful form of praxis that develops children's participation from early childhood on.

  20. Multidisciplinary Responses to the Sexual Victimization of Children: Use of Control Phone Calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavan, J William; Borowski, Christine; Essex, Stacy; Perkowski, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    This descriptive study addresses the question of the value of one-party consent phone calls regarding the sexual victimization of children. The authors reviewed 4 years of experience with children between the ages of 3 and 18 years selected for the control phone calls after a forensic interview by the New York State Police forensic interviewer. The forensic interviewer identified appropriate cases for control phone calls considering New York State law, the child's capacity to make the call, the presence of another person to make the call and a supportive residence. The control phone call process has been extremely effective forensically. Offenders choose to avoid trial by taking a plea bargain thereby dramatically speeding up the criminal judicial and family court processes. An additional outcome of the control phone call is the alleged offender's own words saved the child from the trauma of testifying in court. The control phone call reduced the need for children to repeat their stories to various interviewers. A successful control phone call gives the child a sense of vindication. This technique is the only technique that preserves the actual communication pattern between the alleged victim and the alleged offender. This can be of great value to the mental health professionals working with both the child and the alleged offender. Cautions must be considered regarding potential serious adverse effects on the child. The multidisciplinary team members must work together in the control phone call. The descriptive nature of this study did not allow the authors adequate demographic data, a subject that should be addressed in future prospective study.

  1. Developing a tripartite prevention program for impoverished young women transitioning to young adulthood: addressing substance use, HIV risk, and victimization by intimate partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Barnes, Dionne; Gilbert, Mary Lou; Ryan, Gery; Wenzel, Suzanne L

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the transition to adulthood for adolescent females and young women who are impoverished and homeless. Co-occurrence of drug use and abuse, HIV risk, and victimization is notable among homeless women, highlighting the need for comprehensive interventions. Unfortunately, evidence-based prevention approaches addressing these inter-related problems among impoverished women transitioning into adulthood are lacking. To address this gap, we designed an innovative prevention program by utilizing open- and closed-ended interview data from impoverished women (n = 20), focus groups with community experts and providers (2 groups; n = 9), and a theoretical framework to direct the research. Information provided by our focus groups and interviews with women supported our theoretical framework and highlighted the importance of addressing normative information, providing skills training, and utilizing a non-confrontational approach when discussing these sensitive issues.

  2. Perspectives of Young Children: How Do They Really Think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costley, Kevin C.

    2010-01-01

    In his monumental research, although Piaget primarily relayed information about children's developmental stages of cognitive growth, Marian Marion goes on to discuss not only the developmental stages, yet focuses on how children think. In her textbook, "Guidance of Young Children", Marion conveys how teachers need to understand children and help…

  3. The Early Years: Parents and Young Deaf Children Reading Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Research is just beginning to describe the role of reading in the lives of families with deaf children. While the time that deaf children spend reading or being read to represents only a small part of their lives at home, research highlights its importance for young children--hearing as well as deaf. Children whose parents read to them at home…

  4. Young Children's Color Preferences in the Interior Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Marilyn A.; Upington, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on children's color preferences in the interior environment. Previous studies highlight young children's preferences for the colors red and blue. The methods of this study used a rank ordering technique and a semi-structured interview process with 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. Findings reveal that children prefer the color…

  5. Maternal Directives to Young Children Who Are Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Julie

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of how mothers direct attention and play with their 18-month-old children found mothers of the four children with blindness were not more directive than mothers of the four sighted children, but they made some use of directives that were particular to the needs of young children with blindness. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  6. A Sense of Autonomy in Young Children's Special Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Carie

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood is a significant time when children begin to develop their place identity. As they discover their environment, young children claim special places in which to construct their own experiences. In exploring ways to connect children with place, particularly nature, caregivers need to consider children's place perspectives in the…

  7. Victim to abuser: mental health and behavioral sequels of child sexual abuse in a community survey of young adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, C; Wood, M; Young, L

    1994-08-01

    Respondents in a stratified random sample of 750 males aged 18 to 27 in Calgary, Canada were asked to recall unwanted sexual contacts occurring before their 17th birthday: 117 (15.6%) had experienced one or more unwanted sexual contacts. Those recalling multiple events of abuse (52 individuals, 6.9% of all respondents) were distinguished from other respondents at a statistically significant level on the following indicators: emotional abuse in childhood, higher rates of current or recent depression, anxiety, suicidal feelings and behavior, and current sexual interest in or actual behavior involving minors. The combination of emotional abuse in the respondent's childhood with multiple events of sexual abuse was a relatively good predictor of both poor mental health, and later sexual interest in or sexual contact with children. Eight apparently active pedophiles were identified, using a computer response system that assured anonymity. This study underscores the need for preventive measures, and the prompt identification and treatment of victims before they enter the victim-to-abuser cycle.

  8. Changes in Children's Peer Interactions Following a Natural Disaster: How Predisaster Bullying and Victimization Rates Changed Following Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Andrew M.; Boxer, Paul; Morris, Amanda Sheffield

    2009-01-01

    Youth exposed to disasters experience stress and adjustment difficulties, which likely influence their interactions with peers. In this study, we examined changes in bullying and peer victimization in two cohorts of children. Youth from an area affected by Hurricane Katrina were assessed pre- and postdisaster (n = 96, mean [M] = 10.9 years old,…

  9. Targeted Peer Victimization and the Construction of Positive and Negative Self-Cognitions: Connections to Depressive Symptoms in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David A.; Maxwell, Melissa A.; Dukewich, Tammy L.; Yosick, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The goal was to examine the relation of covert/relational and overt/physical targeted peer victimization (TPV) to each other, to positive and negative self-cognitions, and to symptoms of depression. In a sample of elementary and middle school children, TPV was assessed by self-report, peer-nomination, and parent report in a multitrait-multimethod…

  10. Co-Animation of and Resistance to the Construction of Witness, Victim, and Perpetrator Identities in Forensic Interviews with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, Sharon K.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how the interrelated identities of witness, victim, and perpetrator are co-constructed in forensic interviews occurring after allegations of child sexual abuse are made. Work related to issues of power in the area of forensic interviews with children tends to focus on coerciveness, and interviewers have power relative to…

  11. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school : Do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.W.; Verlinden, Marina; Dommisse-van Berkel, Anke; Mieloo, Cathelijne; van der Ende, J; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, F.C.; Jansen, Wilma; Tiemeier, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school neighbourhoods

  12. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: Do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. Jansen (Pauline); V.J.A. Verlinden (Vincent); A. Dommisse-Van Berkel (Anke); C.L. Mieloo (Cathelijne); J. van der Ende (Jan); R. Veenstra (René); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); W. Jansen (Wilma); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school

  13. The Relationship between Peer Conflict Resolution Knowledge and Peer Victimization in School-Age Children across the Language Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Wenonah N.; Skarakis-Doyle, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Peer victimization, or bullying, has been identified as a significant child health priority and children with language impairment (LI) are among those who are vulnerable. Given the mandate of educators to provide support for "all" students who are bullied regardless of language status, research is needed that integrates the study of risk factors…

  14. Predicting Change in Children's Aggression and Victimization Using Classroom-Level Descriptive Norms of aggression and Pro-Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Sterett H.; McMillen, Janey Sturtz; DeRosier, Melissa E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined aggressive and pro-social classroom descriptive norms as predictors of change in aggression and victimization during middle childhood. Participants included 948 children in third through fifth grade. Measures of teacher-reported aggressive and peer-reported pro-social descriptive norms were completed at the onset of the study.…

  15. Does supportive parenting mitigate the longitudinal effects of peer victimization on depressive thoughts and symptoms in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilsky, Sarah A; Cole, David A; Dukewich, Tammy L; Martin, Nina C; Sinclair, Keneisha R; Tran, Cong V; Roeder, Kathryn M; Felton, Julia W; Tilghman-Osborne, Carlos; Weitlauf, Amy S; Maxwell, Melissa A

    2013-05-01

    Cohen and Wills (Cohen, S., & Wills, T. A., 1985, Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 310-357) described two broad models whereby social support could mitigate the deleterious effects of stress on health: a main effect model and stress-buffering model. A specific application of these models was tested in a three-wave, multimethod study of 1888 children to assess ways parental support (social support) mitigates the effects of peer victimization (stress) on children's depressive symptoms and depression-related cognitions (health-related outcomes). Results revealed that (a) both supportive parenting and peer victimization had main effects on depressive symptoms and cognitions; (b) supportive parenting and peer victimization did not interact in the prediction of depressive thoughts and symptoms; (c) these results generalized across age and gender; and (d) increases in depressive symptoms were related to later reduction of supportive parenting and later increase in peer victimization. Although supportive parenting did not moderate the adverse outcomes associated with peer victimization, results show that its main effect can counterbalance or offset these effects to some degree. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  16. Early Childhood Teachers as Socializers of Young Children's Emotional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Zinsser, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Young children's emotional competence--regulation of emotional expressiveness and experience when necessary, and knowledge of their own and other's emotions--is crucial for social and academic (i.e., school) success. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms of how young children develop emotional competence. Both parents and teachers are…

  17. Young Children Experiencing Homelessness: The Overlooked Medium of Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlembach, Sue

    2017-01-01

    The number of mothers with young children experiencing homelessness and seeking shelter has increased in the USA over the past decade. Shelters are often characterized as environments offering few opportunities for appropriate play experiences. This article delineates the important role of play for young children experiencing homelessness and…

  18. Young Children's Enactments of Human Rights in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quennerstedt, Ann

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which human rights become part of and affect young children's everyday practices in early childhood education and, more particularly, how very young children enact human rights in the preschool setting. The study is conducted in a Swedish preschool through observations of the everyday practices of a group of children…

  19. Young Children and Disasters: Lessons Learned About Resilience and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Reuther, Erin T.

    2013-01-01

    For young children, consistency, nurturance, protection, and support are required for both resilience and full recovery. This article reviews relevant literature, developmental issues affecting young children, and factors that influence resilience and recovery including both promotive and protective influences. Focus is also placed on disaster…

  20. Exploring the Lived Experiences of Homeless Families with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Stephanie; Cassel, Darlinda

    2013-01-01

    This study researched the experiences of homeless families with young children between the ages of four and eight. Many families experience homelessness every year; therefore, it is important for early childhood educators to have an understanding of how homelessness affects families with young children so that educators can effectively serve the…

  1. Friendship in Young Children: Construction of a Behavioural Sociometric Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoogdalem, Anne-Greth; Singer, Elly; Eek, Anneloes; Heesbeen, Daniëlle

    2013-01-01

    We need methods to measure friendship among very young children to study the beginnings of friendship and the impact of experiences with friendship for later development. This article presents an overview of methods for measuring very young children's friendships. A behavioural sociometric method was constructed to study degrees of friendship…

  2. Children's intervention strategies in situations of victimization by bullying: Social cognitions of outsiders versus defenderd.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, J.; Goossens, F.A.; Olthof, T.; de Mey, J.R.P.B.; Willemen, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the social cognitions of outsiders and defenders about intervening in situations of victimization by bullying. Do outsiders and defenders behave differently in victimization situations because of differences in competence beliefs, or because of a selectivity effect in

  3. Impact of Physical and Relational Peer Victimization on Depressive Cognitions in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Keneisha R.; Cole, David A.; Dukewich, Tammy; Felton, Julia; Weitlauf, Amy S.; Maxwell, Melissa A.; Tilghman-Osborne, Carlos; Jacky, Amy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find longitudinal evidence of the effect of targeted peer victimization (TPV) on depressive cognitions as a function of victimization type and gender. Prospective relations of physical and relational peer victimization to positive and negative self-cognitions were examined in a 1-year, 2-wave longitudinal study.…

  4. Specifying Type and Location of Peer Victimization in a National Sample of Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Heather A.; Finkelhor, David; Hamby, Sherry L.; Shattuck, Anne; Ormrod, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    Much of the existing research on the prevalence and consequences of peer victimization focuses on "bullying" at school, often omitting from consideration non-bullying types of peer victimization as well as events that occur outside of school. The purpose of this study was to examine past-year exposure to peer-perpetrated victimization,…

  5. Psychiatric Diagnosis as a Risk Marker for Victimization in a National Sample of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Carlos A.; Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard; Turner, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Research examining childhood abuse has shown an association between victimization and psychiatric diagnoses (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder, depression). Historically, psychiatric diagnoses have been emphasized as a consequence of victimization, with less research examining if it also functions as a risk factor for further victimization,…

  6. Educating Future Planners about Working with Children and Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Rudner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Planning and urban design professionals should ensure they engage children/young people in their work so planning systems and strategic policy can be more inclusive of the needs and aspirations of children/young people. Yet practitioners do not necessarily view children/young people as legitimate stakeholders, and professionals do not necessarily have the skills to be inclusive. To shift current policy and practice, planners and designers need to be better educated so they can facilitate children’s/young people’s contributions as well as advocate effectively for systemic change. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and the UNICEF Child Friendly Cities provide legitimacy and direction for current and future professionals about why engagement with children/young people should be a fundamental part of professional practice. However, it’s important that students and practitioners learn how to engage with children/young people ethically. A key starting point is the way in which education is constituted as ethical practice when conducting research and engagement activities with children/young people. Lansdown’s (2011 requirements for ethical engagement are applied to reflexively evaluate the design and implementation of a university subject, delivered in Victoria, Australia, that trains future planners about how to work with children and young people.

  7. Does the gender of the bully/victim dyad and the type of bullying influence children's responses to a bullying incident?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Claire L; Jones, Siân E; Stiff, Chris E; Sayers, Jayde

    2014-01-01

    Children's responses to bullying are context related; they will vary depending on the specific bullying episode. The aim of the present study was to explore whether children's responses to bullying vary depending on the gender of the bully and victim and the type of bullying portrayed. In total, 437 children aged 9-11 years from four primary schools in the UK took part in the study. Each child read a story about one child bullying another. There were 12 different versions of the story, varying the type of bullying (verbal, physical, or relational/indirect) and the gender of the bully and victim (i.e., male bully-female victim, female bully-male victim, male bully-male victim, female bully-female victim). Each child was randomly allocated to one of the 12 stories. After reading the story the children then responded to a series of questions to assess their perceptions of the victim and bully and situation. Overall females liked the bully more than males; females also reported liking the female victim more than the male victim and females were more likely than males to intervene with a female victim. The bullying was viewed as more serious, more sympathy was shown to the victim, and there was a greater likelihood of intervention when the incident involved a female bully. There was less liking for the bully if the situation involved a female victim of physical bullying. The findings are explained in terms of social identity theory and social norms about typical male and female behavior. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Mechanisms and processes of relational and physical victimization, depressive symptoms, and children's relational-interdependent self-construals: implications for peer relationships and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Crick, Nicki R

    2014-08-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined the associations between relational and physical victimization and depressive symptoms, and the moderating role of school-aged children's relational-interdependent self-construals in these associations. The participants were 387 children (51.8% boys) who were in the fifth grade (M = 10.48 years, SD = 0.55) in Taiwan and followed at two time points (a 6-month interval) during a calendar year. A multiple-informant approach was used where forms of peer victimization, depressive symptoms, and relational-interdependent self-construals were assessed via peer nominations, teacher reports, and child reports, respectively. All measures had favorable psychometric properties. The results of a multigroup cross-lagged model demonstrated that relational victimization (not physical victimization) was positively predictive of subsequent depressive symptoms, and the effect was evidenced for highly interdependent children only. The opposite link was also significant, such that depressive symptoms predicted subsequent relational victimization (not physical victimization) for children who exhibited low and high levels of relational-interdependent self-construals. In contrast, physical victimization predated a lower level of depressive symptoms for highly interdependent children. These effects were unaffected by the gender of the child. The findings, especially the interactive effects of relational victimization (as a contextual factor) and relational-interdependent self-construals (as an individual vulnerability) on depressive symptoms, are discussed from a developmental psychopathology perspective.

  9. Bullying and victimization among 8-year-old children: a 16-year population-based time-trend study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilola, Anna-Marja; Sourander, Andre

    2013-06-01

    Bullying has been recognized as a major social and health problem among children. There are only few studies about changes in the prevalence of bullying behaviour, especially among younger children. To examine changes in the prevalence of bullying behaviour at three time-points, 1989, 1999 and 2005, among 8-year-old children living in south-western Finland. Three representative cross-sectional samples of 8-year-old children from south-western Finland were compared. All children born in 1981 (n = 1038), 1991 (n = 1035) and 1997 (n = 1030) and living in selected school districts were included in the study samples. The sampling, procedure and methods were similar at all three time-points. The participation rate varied from 84% to 96%. Children, parents and teachers filled in questionnaires asking about bullying and victimization. In 2005, statistically significantly fewer boys were victimized than in 1989. Among girls, there was a decreasing trend of victimization but this was statistically significant only in parental reports. More girls were frequent victims in 2005 than in 1989. Among boys, the number of bullies also decreased. However, teachers found more bullies among girls in 2005 than in 1989. There was a slight decrease in bullying behaviour among boys from 1989 to 2005. The main finding among girls was an almost twofold increase in teacher-reported bullies (from 5% to 9%). Bullying and its prevention are major challenges for educational and school health services. Peer relationships and a non-violent school environment are major challenges of children's lives; therefore, continuous monitoring of bullying behaviour is important.

  10. Measuring Poly-Victimization Using the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.; Hamby, Sherry L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Children who experience multiple victimizations (referred to in this paper as poly-victims) need to be identified because they are at particularly high risk of additional victimization and traumatic psychological effects. This paper compares alternative ways of identifying such children using questions from the Juvenile Victimization…

  11. Poly-Victimization: A Neglected Component in Child Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the role of multiple victimization, or what is termed in this article "poly-victimization," in explaining trauma symptomatology. Method: In a nationally representative sample of 2,030 children ages 2-17, assessment was made of the past year's victimization experiences and recent trauma symptoms. Results: Children experiencing…

  12. Young African-American Males: Continuing Victims of High Homicide Rates in Urban Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gareth G.; Muhlhausen, David B.

    To measure the extent of the progress that has been made in the fight against violent crime over the past decade and to get some perspective on the progress that must still be made, this analysis examines the data for one of the most vulnerable groups in the United States, young African American males who reside in eight of the largest U.S.…

  13. Sudden death victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceelen, Manon; van der Werf, Christian; Hendrix, Anneke; Naujocks, Tatjana; Woonink, Frits; de Vries, Philip; van der Wal, Allard; Das, Kees

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to ascertain accordance between cause of death established by the forensic physician and autopsy results in young sudden death victims in the Netherlands. Sudden death victims aged 1-45 years examined by forensic physicians operating in the participating regions which also

  14. Young children's tool innovation across culture: Affordance visibility matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neldner, Karri; Mushin, Ilana; Nielsen, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Young children typically demonstrate low rates of tool innovation. However, previous studies have limited children's performance by presenting tools with opaque affordances. In an attempt to scaffold children's understanding of what constitutes an appropriate tool within an innovation task we compared tools in which the focal affordance was visible to those in which it was opaque. To evaluate possible cultural specificity, data collection was undertaken in a Western urban population and a remote Indigenous community. As expected affordance visibility altered innovation rates: young children were more likely to innovate on a tool that had visible affordances than one with concealed affordances. Furthermore, innovation rates were higher than those reported in previous innovation studies. Cultural background did not affect children's rates of tool innovation. It is suggested that new methods for testing tool innovation in children must be developed in order to broaden our knowledge of young children's tool innovation capabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. How children's victimization relates to distorted versus sensitive social cognition: Perception, mood, and need fulfillment in response to Cyberball inclusion and exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansu, Tessa A M; van Noorden, Tirza H J; Deutz, Marike H F

    2017-02-01

    This study examined whether victimization is associated with negatively distorted social cognition (bias), or with a specific increased sensitivity to social negative cues, by assessing the perception of social exclusion and the consequences for psychological well-being (moods and fundamental needs). Both self-reported and peer-reported victimization of 564 participants (Mage=9.9years, SD=1.04; 49.1% girls) were measured, and social exclusion was manipulated through inclusion versus exclusion in a virtual ball-tossing game (Cyberball). Children's perceptions and psychological well-being were in general more negative after exclusion than after inclusion. Moreover, self-reported-but not peer-reported-victimization was associated with the perception of being excluded more and receiving the ball less, as well as more negative moods and less fulfillment of fundamental needs, regardless of being excluded or included during the Cyberball game. In contrast, peer-reported victimization was associated with more negative mood and lower need fulfillment in the exclusion condition only. Together, these results suggest that children who themselves indicate being victimized have negatively distorted social cognition, whereas children who are being victimized according to their peers experience increased sensitivity to negative social situations. The results stress the importance of distinguishing between self-reported and peer-reported victimization and have implications for interventions aimed at victimized children's social cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Physical symptoms in very young children assessed for sexual abuse: a mixed method analysis from the ASAC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrolijk-Bosschaart, Thekla F; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N; Widdershoven, Guy A; Teeuw, Arianne Rian H; Verlinden, Eva; Voskes, Yolande; van Duin, Esther M; Verhoeff, Arnoud P; Benninga, Marc A; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2017-10-01

    So far, a recognizable pattern of clinical symptoms for child sexual abuse (CSA), especially in young male children, is lacking. To improve early recognition of CSA, we reviewed physical complaints, physical examination, and tests on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in confirmed victims (predominantly preschool boys) of CSA from the Amsterdam sexual abuse case (ASAC). We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of the primary assessment using mixed methods: descriptive analysis of physical complaints, physical exams, and STI tests from medical files and a qualitative analysis on expert's interpretations of physical complaints and children's behavior during physical examination. We included 54 confirmed CSA victims, median age 3.2 (0-6) years, 43 boys (80%), and 11 girls (20%). Physical complaints were reported in 50%, of which gastrointestinal and anogenital complaints were most common. None of the children showed CSA-specific genital signs at physical examination. Most prominent finding during physical examination was a deviant behavioral response (anxiety, withdrawal, too outgoing) in 15 children (28%), especially in children who experienced anal/vaginal penetration. Testing for STIs was negative. Physical complaints and physical signs at examinations were non-specific for CSA. Deviant behavioral reactions during physical examination were the most prominent finding. Precise observation of a child's behavior during physical examination is needed. What is known • Child sexual abuse (CSA) affects many children on both the short and the long term but remains unrecognized in most cases. • So far, there is a lack of studies on symptom patterns of CSA in male, preschool children. What is new • None of the children showed CSA-specific findings at physical and anogenital examination; STIs were not found in the confirmed victims of CSA. • The most prominent finding was the deviant behavioral response of the children examined, especially in children who

  17. Trajectories of Cognitive Development among American Indian Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christina M.; Croy, Calvin; Spicer, Paul; Frankel, Karen; Emde, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    Children who begin kindergarten with stronger skills learn faster than do those who enter with lower skills. Minority children tend to enter kindergarten already at a disadvantage, and the gap widens across time. However, little is known about cognitive development among American Indian young children. In this study, 110 American Indian infants…

  18. Reading to young children : A head-start in life?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalb, G.; van Ours, J.C.

    This paper investigates the importance of parents reading to their young children. Using Australian data we find that parental reading to children at age 4–5 has positive and significant effects on reading skills and cognitive skills (including numeracy skills) of these children at least up to age

  19. Reading to Young Children : A Head-Start in Life?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalb, G.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper investigates the importance of parents reading to their young children. Using Australian data we find that parental reading to children at age 4 to 5 has positive and significant effects on reading skills and cognitive skills of these children at least up to age 10 or 11. Our

  20. Computer Habits and Behaviours among Young Children in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppiah, Nirmala

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory research project was aimed at developing baseline data on computer habits and behaviours among preschool children in Singapore. Three sets of data were collected from teachers, parents and children which are (1) why and how young children use computers; (2) what are the key physical, social and health habits and behaviours of…

  1. Using Photographs and Diagrams to Test Young Children's Mass Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseman, Jill; McDonough, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a pencil-and-paper test developed to assess young children's understanding of mass measurement. The innovative element of the test was its use of photographs. We found many children of the 295 6-8 year-old children tested could "read" the photographs and diagrams and recognise the images as…

  2. Narrative in Young Children's Digital Art-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, Mona; Connelly, Vince; Wild, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Digital technologies have material and social properties that have the potential to create new opportunities for children's expressive arts practices. The presence and development of oral narratives in young children's visual art-making on paper has been noted in previous research, but little is known about the narratives children create when they…

  3. Parents' Plans to Discuss Sexuality with Their Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shaieb, Muna; Wurtele, Sandy K.

    2009-01-01

    Two hundred and fourteen (214) parents of young children (M age = 6.75 years) were surveyed about their plans for sexuality discussions with their children. Parents were asked to indicate when they would first discuss sex education with their children for 15 specific topics, how effective they perceived themselves to be at discussing each topic,…

  4. Classroom Pets and Young Children: Supporting Early Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadan, Hedda; Jegatheesan, Brinda

    2010-01-01

    Many young children have a natural attraction to and curiosity about animals. They like to observe, touch, talk to, and ask questions about them. Teachers and parents both can use this broad interest to facilitate children's development and learning in a variety of domains. Research shows that children across ages find emotional comfort in their…

  5. Reading to Young Children: A Head-Start in Life?

    OpenAIRE

    Kalb, G.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper investigates the importance of parents reading to their young children. Using Australian data we find that parental reading to children at age 4 to 5 has positive and significant effects on reading skills and cognitive skills of these children at least up to age 10 or 11. Our findings are robust to a wide range of sensitivity analyses.

  6. Double diabetes: an emerging disease in children and young adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevention of childhood obesity by encouraging physical activities and dietary control would prevent double diabetes. Conclusion: Double diabetes is increasing in children and young adults. A high index of suspicion is required in obese children with diabetes. Keywords: Double diabetes, Emerging problem, Children, ...

  7. Acute Stress Symptoms in Young Children with Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Frederick J.; Saxe, Glenn; Ronfeldt, Heidi; Drake, Jennifer E.; Burns, Jennifer; Edgren, Christy; Sheridan, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms are a focus of much research with older children, but little research has been conducted with young children, who account for about 50% of all pediatric burn injuries. This is a 3-year study of 12- to 48-month-old acutely burned children to assess acute traumatic stress outcomes. The aims were to…

  8. The Trauma of Hurricane Katrina: Developmental Impact on Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Cross Hansel, Tonya; Moore, Michelle B.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Hughes, Jennifer B.; Dickson, Amy B.

    2016-01-01

    When expectant mothers are exposed to traumatic events such as natural disasters, their children are at increased risk for developmental and behavioral problems. Many people believe that young children will not be impacted by the traumatic experiences that occur during and following disasters. Therefore, planning for the youngest children at the…

  9. A Measure of Emerging Print Knowledge in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for more comprehensive assessments of young children's emerging print knowledge. Traditional letter and numeral identification assessments score children's responses as either correct or incorrect and this approach can underestimate what children know. The present study tested an assessment scale that scored three- and…

  10. The Influence of Media on Young Children's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartella, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Ellen Wartella, PhD, a leading scholar of the role of media in children's development, responds to questions about the role of media in the lives of very young children. She discusses how technology is having an impact on parents and children and provides some context for how parents and caregivers can make informed decisions about using media…

  11. Investigating the Role of Child Sexual Abuse in Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Perpetration in Young Adulthood From a Propensity Score Matching Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wesley G; Richards, Tara N; Tomsich, Elizabeth; Gover, Angela R

    2015-01-01

    The link between child sexual abuse and adult intimate partner violence surfaces throughout prior research. Nonetheless, methodologies investigating this cycle of violence predominantly involve descriptive, correlational, or traditional regression-based analyses that preclude more definitive statements about the empirical relationship between child sexual abuse and adult partner violence. In recognition of these limitations, the current study presents a quasi-experimental investigation into the relationship between sexual abuse in childhood and physical partner violence victimization and/or perpetration in young adulthood. Propensity score matching analysis of a national data set sampling over 4,000 young adults suggests that experiencing child sexual abuse influences adult intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration. Study implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  12. A Structural Analysis on Korean Young Children's Mathematical Ability and Its Related Children's and Mothers' Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Jung; Kim, Jihyun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the structural relationships among variables that predict the mathematical ability of young children, namely young children's mathematical attitude, exposure to private mathematical learning, mothers' view about their children's mathematical learning, and mothers' mathematical attitude. To this end, we…

  13. Children Explain the Rainbow: Using Young Children's Ideas to Guide Science Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siry, Christina; Kremer, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    This study examines young children's ideas about natural science phenomena and explores possibilities in starting investigations in kindergarten from their ideas. Given the possibilities inherent in how young children make sense of their experiences, we believe it is critical to take children's perspectives into consideration when designing any…

  14. How Does Homework "Work" for Young Children? Children's Accounts of Homework in Their Everyday Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Ann; Danby, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Homework is an increasing yet under-researched part of young children's everyday lives. Framed by the international agendas of starting strong and school accountability, homework in the lives of young children has been either overlooked or considered from the perspective of adults rather than from the perspective of children themselves. This paper…

  15. On being victimized by peers in the advent of adolescence: prospective relationships to objectified body consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunde, Carolina; Frisén, Ann

    2011-09-01

    Previous research indicates that peer victimization is tied to children's negative appearance evaluations. The current study examines whether early peer victimization is also prospectively related to objectified body consciousness. Six-hundred-and-two Swedish boys and girls answered questionnaires at age 10, and again at age 18. Main findings showed that being the target of peer victimization at age 10 was related to more habitual appearance monitoring and body shame at age 18. Gender moderated the relations between victimization and body shame, with victimized girls experiencing stronger body shame than victimized boys. Additionally, whereas boys experienced less body shame than girls, they were equally likely to monitor their appearance. In sum, this study provides preliminary support to the notion that peer victimization is involved in the processes by which young adolescents' self-objectify. Future studies are warranted to further validate these findings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Childhood abuse victimization, stress-related eating, and weight status in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Susan M; MacLehose, Richard F; Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Austin, S Bryn; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Harlow, Bernard L; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2015-10-01

    Abuse in childhood predicts stress-related overeating and excess weight gain in young women. We investigated whether two stress-related overeating behaviors--binge eating and coping-motivated eating--explain childhood abuse associations with weight status in young women. Analyses included 4377 women participating in the Growing Up Today Study, a longitudinal cohort of youth enrolled at age 9 to 14 years. We used marginal structural models to estimate the effects of abuse before age 11 years on weight status at age 22 to 29 years with and without adjustment for binge eating and coping-motivated eating. Women with severe physical, sexual, and emotional abuse had early adult body mass indexes (BMIs) that were 0.74 kg/m(2) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.15-1.33), 0.69 (95% CI: -0.46 to 1.83), and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.24-1.45) kg/m(2) higher, respectively, than those without abuse. Adjustment for coping-motivated eating attenuated the excess BMI associated with severe physical abuse, but no other important attenuations were found. Physical, sexual, and emotional abuse before age 11 years were associated with higher early adult weight status, although the sexual abuse estimate was not statistically significant. Evidence for a role of stress-related eating in abuse--BMI associations was limited and inconsistent across abuse types. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychometric properties of the Spanish-language child depression inventory with Hispanic children who are secondary victims of domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Carmen Soto; Gómez, José Rodriguez; Pastrana, Maria C Vélez

    2009-01-01

    The Child Depression Inventory (CDI), a self-report instrument that measures depressive symptomatology in children, has been shown to have adequate construct validity (Kovacs, 1983, 1992). However, limited research has been conducted with minority children and adolescents. In the present study, the construct validity of the Spanish-language version of the Child Depression Inventory (CDI-S) ages 8-12 years (N = 100). The CDI was developed by Maria Kovacs (1992) and has been a widely used instrument for screening depression in children. Fifty of the children had witnessed domestic violence (secondary victims of domestic violence) and received psychological services for victims of domestic violence, and fifty had not witnessed domestic violence. To identify the group of non-victims of domestic violence, their mothers completed the Conflict Tactic Scale (CIS). The CDI is a self-report instrument used to measure symptoms of depression. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed including the 27 items that make up the instrument, using principal component analysis as the extraction method and Varimax rotations. This analysis revealed that the CDI measures five dimensions of depression in the child. However, differences were found in the factor structure of the Spanish CDI when compared with the original version. Additionally, its internal consistency was documented.

  18. Developmental cascade models linking peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junsheng; Bullock, Amanda; Coplan, Robert J; Chen, Xinyin; Li, Dan; Zhou, Ying

    2017-10-04

    This study explored the longitudinal relations among peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement in Chinese primary school students. Participants were N = 945 fourth-grade students (485 boys, 460 girls; Mage  = 10.16 years, SD = 2 months) attending elementary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Three waves of data on peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement were collected from peer nominations, self-reports, and school records, respectively. The results indicated that peer victimization had both direct and indirect effects on later depression and academic achievement. Depression also had both direct and indirect negative effects on later academic achievement, but demonstrated only an indirect effect on later peer victimization. Finally, academic achievement had both direct and indirect negative effects on later peer victimization and depression. The findings show that there are cross-cultural similarities and differences in the various transactions that exist among peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Peer victimization directly and indirectly relates to depression and academic achievement. Depression directly and indirectly relates to academic achievement. Academic achievement directly and indirectly relates to depression. What the present study adds? A developmental cascade approach was used to assess the interrelations among peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement. Academic achievement mediates the relation between peer victimization and depression. Depression is related to peer victimization through academic achievement. Academic achievement directly and indirectly relates to peer victimization. Academic achievement is related to depression through peer victimization. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  19. The Origins of Cognitive Deficits in Victimized Children: Implications for Neuroscientists and Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Andrea; Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise; Bleiberg, Ben A; Dinardo, Perry B; Gandelman, Stephanie B; Houts, Renate; Ambler, Antony; Fisher, Helen L; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2017-04-01

    Individuals reporting a history of childhood violence victimization have impaired brain function. However, the clinical significance, reproducibility, and causality of these findings are disputed. The authors used data from two large cohort studies to address these research questions directly. The authors tested the association between prospectively collected measures of childhood violence victimization and cognitive functions in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood among 2,232 members of the U.K. E-Risk Study and 1,037 members of the New Zealand Dunedin Study who were followed up from birth until ages 18 and 38 years, respectively. Multiple measures of victimization and cognition were used, and comparisons were made of cognitive scores for twins discordant for victimization. Individuals exposed to childhood victimization had pervasive impairments in clinically relevant cognitive functions, including general intelligence, executive function, processing speed, memory, perceptual reasoning, and verbal comprehension in adolescence and adulthood. However, the observed cognitive deficits in victimized individuals were largely explained by cognitive deficits that predated childhood victimization and by confounding genetic and environmental risks. Findings from two population-representative birth cohorts totaling more than 3,000 individuals and born 20 years and 20,000 km apart suggest that the association between childhood violence victimization and later cognition is largely noncausal, in contrast to conventional interpretations. These findings support the adoption of a more circumspect approach to causal inference in the neuroscience of stress. Clinically, cognitive deficits should be conceptualized as individual risk factors for victimization as well as potential complicating features during treatment.

  20. Using Visual Supports with Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadan, Hedda; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Triplett, Brooke; Michna, Amanda; Fettig, Angel

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe important characteristics of visual supports and considerations when designing visual supports for young children with ASD. Guidelines for developing the visual supports are included. (Contains 5 figures.)

  1. Domestic cat allergen and allergic sensitisation in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Mei; Gehring, Ulrike; Wickman, Magnus; Hoek, Gerard; Giovannangelo, Mariella; Nordling, Emma; Wijga, Alet; de Jongste, Johan; Pershagen, Goeran; Almqvist, Catarina; Kerkhof, Marjan; Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim

    Studies have presented conflicting associations between cat allergen exposure and sensitisation and atopic disease. We therefore investigated the association between the observed domestic cat allergen level and cat sensitisation in young children in four study populations from three European

  2. Developmental delay of infants and young children with and without ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Developmental delay of infants and young children with and without fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa. L Davies, M Dunn, M Chersich, M Urban, C Chetty, L Olivier, D Viljoen ...

  3. Effects of fast food branding on young children's taste preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Thomas N; Borzekowski, Dina L G; Matheson, Donna M; Kraemer, Helena C

    2007-08-01

    To examine the effects of cumulative, real-world marketing and brand exposures on young children by testing the influence of branding from a heavily marketed source on taste preferences. Experimental study. Children tasted 5 pairs of identical foods and beverages in packaging from McDonald's and matched but unbranded packaging and were asked to indicate if they tasted the same or if one tasted better. Preschools for low-income children. Sixty-three children (mean +/- SD age, 4.6 +/- 0.5 years; range, 3.5-5.4 years). Branding of fast foods. A summary total taste preference score (ranging from -1 for the unbranded samples to 0 for no preference and +1 for McDonald's branded samples) was used to test the null hypothesis that children would express no preference. The mean +/- SD total taste preference score across all food comparisons was 0.37 +/- 0.45 (median, 0.20; interquartile range, 0.00-0.80) and significantly greater than zero (Pbranding among children with more television sets in their homes and children who ate food from McDonald's more often. Branding of foods and beverages influences young children's taste perceptions. The findings are consistent with recommendations to regulate marketing to young children and also suggest that branding may be a useful strategy for improving young children's eating behaviors.

  4. Friendship in young children: construction of a behavioural sociometric method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoogdalem, A.-G.; Singer, E.; Eek, A.; Heesbeen, D.

    2013-01-01

    We need methods to measure friendship among very young children to study the beginnings of friendship and the impact of experiences with friendship for later development. This article presents an overview of methods for measuring very young children’s friendships. A behavioural sociometric method

  5. A parental perspective on apps for young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekman, F.L.; Piotrowski, J.T.; Beentjes, H.W.J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Touchscreen applications (apps) for young children have seen increasingly high rates of growth with more than a hundred thousand now available apps. As with other media, parents play a key role in young children’s app selection and use. However, to date, we know very little about how parents select

  6. Literary education. Children and young adults’ literature. A multicultural proposal.

    OpenAIRE

    Rechou, Blanca-Ana Roig; Universidade de Santiago de Compostela

    2012-01-01

    It is adresses the consideration of literary education and its objectives; the importance of knowing each own country’s Children and Young Adults’ Histories, the canonized works from Universal Literature, repertoire and sectorial studies which educate mediators in order to create the convenient canons to promote reading. They are offered the commentaries on two Galician Children and Young Adults’ Literature works aimed towards multicultural education. Se aborda la importancia de conocer la...

  7. For geographies of children, young people and popular culture

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper calls for more direct, careful, sustained research on geographies of children, young people and popular culture. I present three sets of empirical and conceptual resources for researchers developing work in this area. Part 1 signposts classic work from cultural/media studies, marketing and sociology, which has been centrally concerned with meanings of popular culture designed for children and young people (e.g. via critiques of the gendered content of iconic popular cultural phenom...

  8. Circumstances and factors associated with accidental deaths among children, adolescents and young adults in Cuiaba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Baccarat de Godoy Martins

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Analysis on accidents from the perspective of population segments shows there is higher incidence among children, adolescents and young adults. Since the characteristics and circunstances of the event are closely related to educational, economic, social and cultural issues, identifying them may contribute towards minimizing the causes, which are often fatal. The aim here was to identify the environmental, chemical, biological and cultural factors associated with deaths due to accidents among children, adolescents and young adults in Cuiabá, in 2009. DESIGN AND SETTING This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. RESULTS Thirty-nine accidental deaths of individuals aged 0 to 24 years were examined: 56.4% due to traffic accidents; 25.6%, drowning; 10.3%, aspiration of milk; 5.1%, falls; and 2.6%, accidentally triggering a firearm. Male victims predominated (82.1%. The presence of chemical, environmental and biological risk factors was observed in almost all of the homes. Regarding cultural factors and habits, a large proportion of the families had no idea whether accidents were foreseeable events and others did not believe that the family's habits might favor their occurrence. Delegation of household chores or care of younger siblings to children under the age of 10 was common among the families studied. CONCLUSION The results point towards the need to have safe and healthy behavioral patterns and environments, and to monitor occurrences of accidents, thereby structuring and consolidating the attendance provided for victims.

  9. Effects of television exposure on developmental skills among young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ling-Yi; Cherng, Rong-Ju; Chen, Yung-Jung; Chen, Yi-Jen; Yang, Hei-Mei

    2015-02-01

    Literature addressing the effects of television exposure on developmental skills of young children less than 36 months of age is scarce. This study explored how much time young children spend viewing television and investigated its effects on cognitive, language, and motor developmental skills. Data were collected from the Pediatric Clinics at University Medical Center in Southern Taiwan. The participants comprised 75 children who were frequently exposed to television and 75 children who were not or infrequently exposed to television between 15 and 35 months old. The age and sex were matched in the two groups. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development-second edition and Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-second edition were used to identify developmental skills. Independent t-tests, χ(2) tests, and logistic regression models were conducted. Among 75 children who were frequently exposed to television, young children watched a daily average of 67.4 min of television before age 2, which was excessive according to the American Academy of Pediatrics. Viewing television increased the risk of delayed cognitive, language, and motor development in children who were frequently exposed to television. Cognitive, language, and motor delays in young children were significantly associated with how much time they spent viewing television. The type of care providers was critical in determining the television-viewing time of children. We recommend that pediatric practitioners explain the impacts of television exposure to parents and caregivers to ensure cognitive, language, and motor development in young children. Advocacy efforts must address the fact that allowing young children to spend excessive time viewing television can be developmentally detrimental. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Family ecology of young children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForme Fiss, A; Chiarello, L A; Bartlett, D; Palisano, R J; Jeffries, L; Almasri, N; Chang, H-J

    2014-07-01

    Family ecology in early childhood may influence children's activity and participation in daily life. The aim of this study was to describe family functioning, family expectations of their children, family support to their children, and supports for families of young children with cerebral palsy (CP) based on children's gross motor function level. Participants were 398 children with CP (mean age = 44.9 months) and their parents residing in the USA and Canada. Parents completed four measures of family ecology, the Family Environment Scale (FES), Family Expectations of Child (FEC), Family Support to Child (FSC) and Family Support Scale (FSS). The median scores on the FES indicated average to high family functioning and the median score on the FSS indicated that families had helpful family supports. On average, parents reported high expectations of their children on the FEC and strong support to their children on the FSC. On the FES, higher levels of achievement orientation were reported by parents of children in Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level II than parents of children in level I, and higher levels of control were reported by parents of children in level I than parents of children in level IV. On the FEC, parents of children with limited gross motor function (level V) reported lower expectations than parents of children at all other levels. Family ecology, including family strengths, expectations, interests, supports and resources, should be discussed when providing interventions and supports for young children with CP and their families. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Vulnerability to depression: A moderated mediation model of the roles of child maltreatment, peer victimization, and 5-HTTLPR genetic variation among children from low-SES backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banny, Adrienne M.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Crick, Nicki R.

    2014-01-01

    Child maltreatment, peer victimization, and a polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) were examined as predictors of depressive symptomatology. Children (M age = 11.26, SD = 1.65), including 156 maltreated and 145 nonmaltreated children from comparable low socioeconomic backgrounds, provided DNA samples and self-reports of relational peer victimization, overt peer victimization, and depressive symptoms. Path analysis showed that relational and overt victimization mediated the association between child maltreatment and depressive symptoms. Bootstrapping procedures were used to test moderated mediation and demonstrated that genotype moderated the indirect effects of relational and overt victimization on child depressive symptoms, such that victimized children with the l/l variation were at an increased risk for depressive symptoms compared to victimized children carrying an s allele. Results highlight the utility of examining process models that incorporate biological and psychological factors contributing to the development of depressive symptomatology, and provide direction toward understanding and promoting resilience among high risk youth from a multiple levels of analysis approach. PMID:23880379

  12. Psychological Distress as a Risk Factor for Re-Victimization in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Carlos A.; Finkelhor, David; Clifford, Cynthia; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study is to examine the role of psychological distress in predicting child re-victimization across various forms including conventional crime, peer/sibling violence, maltreatment, sexual violence, and witnessed violence. Methods: Longitudinal data from the Developmental Victimization Survey, which surveyed children…

  13. Suicidal Ideation among Adolescent School Children, Involvement in Bully-Victim Problems, and Perceived Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Ken; Slee, Phillip

    1999-01-01

    Results of self-reports and peer nomination procedures to identify bullies and victims indicated that involvement in bully-victim problems at school, especially for students with relatively little social support, was significantly related to degree of suicidal ideation. (Author/JDM)

  14. Peer Victimization and Internalizing Problems in Children: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijntjes, Albert; Kamphuis, Jan H.; Prinzie, Peter; Telch, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: A recent meta-analytic review of cross-sectional studies examining correlations between peer victimization and indices of internalizing problems indicates that victims of bullying are highly distressed. However, the reliance on cross-sectional studies precludes interpretation of the direction of effects. The present study was designed…

  15. Prospective linkages between peer victimization and externalizing problems in children: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijntjes, A.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Prinzie, P.; Boelen, P.A.; van der Schoot, M.; Telch, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous meta-analytic research has shown both concurrent and prospective linkages between peer victimization and internalizing problems in youth. However, the linkages between peer victimization and externalizing problems over time have not been systematically examined, and it is therefore unknown

  16. Peer victimization and internalizing problems in children: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijntjes, A.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Prinzie, P.; Telch, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: A recent meta-analytic review of cross-sectional studies examining correlations between peer victimization and indices of internalizing problems indicates that victims of bullying are highly distressed. However, the reliance on cross-sectional studies precludes interpretation of the

  17. Prospective Linkages between Peer Victimization and Externalizing Problems in Children: A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijntjes, A.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Prinzie, P.; Boelen, P.A.; van der Schoot, M.; Telch, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous meta-analytic research has shown both concurrent and prospective linkages between peer victimization and internalizing problems in youth. However, the linkages between peer victimization and externalizing problems over time have not been systematically examined, and it is therefore unknown

  18. Anti-equality: social comparison in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheskin, Mark; Bloom, Paul; Wynn, Karen

    2014-02-01

    Young children dislike getting less than others, which might suggest a general preference for equal outcomes. However, young children are typically not averse to others receiving less than themselves. These results are consistent with two alternatives: young children might not have any preferences about others receiving less than themselves, or they might have preferences for others receiving less than themselves. We test these alternatives with 5- to 10-year-old children. We replicate previous findings that children will take a cost to avoid being at a relative disadvantage, but also find that 5- and 6-year-olds will spitefully take a cost to ensure that another's welfare falls below their own. This result suggests that the development of fairness includes overcoming an initial social comparison preference for others to get less relative to oneself. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Profiling perpetrators of interpersonal violence against children in sport based on a victim survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertommen, Tine; Kampen, Jarl; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; Wouters, Kristien; Uzieblo, Kasia; Van Den Eede, Filip

    2017-01-01

    The current article reports on perpetrator characteristics gathered in the first large-scale prevalence study on interpersonal violence against children in sport in the Netherlands and Belgium. Using retrospective web survey design, 4043 adults answered questions on their experiences in youth sport. The study looks at the number of perpetrators as well as individual descriptive characteristics (sex, age, and role in the sport organization) of perpetrators of psychological, physical and sexual violence as reported retrospectively by victim-respondents. This information was then clustered to provide an overview of the most common perpetrator profiles. Results show that in all types of interpersonal violence in sport, perpetrators are predominantly male peer athletes who frequently operate together in (impromptu) groups. Several differences between the three types of interpersonal violence are highlighted. While incidents of physical violence perpetrated by coaches tend to be less severe compared to those by other perpetrators, acts of sexual violence committed by a coach are significantly more severe. The presented findings shed new light on perpetrators of interpersonal violence in sport, nuancing the predominant belief that the male coach is the main perpetrator while providing nuanced information that can be utilized to improve prevention and child protection measures and other safeguarding initiatives in sport. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Victims and Their Defenders: A Dyadic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainio, Miia; Veenstra, Rene; Huitsing, Gijs; Salmivalli, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on the dyadic defending relationships of victimized children in grades 3, 4, and 5 (N = 7481 children from 356 school classes, mean ages 10-12 years). Most of the victims (72.3%) had at least one defender. Being defended was positively related to victims' adjustment and social status. Analyses on victim-defender dyads showed…

  1. Physical activity in young children is reduced with increasing bronchial responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasholt, Martin; Baty, Florent; Bisgaard, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity is essential for young children to develop adequately and for quality of life. It can be lower in children with subclinical asthma, and therefore methods to reveal subclinical reduction in physical activity in young children are warranted....

  2. Television viewing by young Latino children: Evidence of heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A.; Sibinga, Erica M.S.; Jennings, Jacky M.; Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Christakis, Dimitri A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine if hours of daily television viewed by varying age groups of young children with Latina mothers differs by maternal language preference (English/Spanish) and to compare these differences to young children with non-Latina white mothers. Design Cross-sectional analysis of data collected in 2000 from the National Survey of Early Childhood Health. Setting Nationally representative sample. Participants 1,347 mothers of children 4-35 months. Main Exposure Subgroups of self-reported maternal race/ethnicity (non-Latina white (white), Latina) and within Latinas, stratification by maternal language preference (English/Spanish). Outcome Measure Hours of daily television viewed by the child. Results Bivariate analyses showed children of English- versus Spanish-speaking Latinas watch more daily television (1.88 versus 1.31 hours,ptelevision. However, among children 12-23 and 24-35 months, children of English-speaking Latinas watched more television than children of Spanish-speaking Latinas (IRR=1.61,CI=1.17-2.22; IRR=1.66,CI=1.10-2.51, respectively). Compared to children of white mothers, children of both Latina subgroups watched similar amounts among the 4-11 month olds. However, among 12-23 month olds, children of English-speaking Latinas watched more compared to children of white mothers (IRR=1.57,CI=1.18-2.11). Among 24-35 month olds, children of English-speaking Latinas watched similar amounts compared to children of white mothers, but children of Spanish-speaking Latinas watched less (IRR=0.69,CI=0.50-0.95). Conclusions Television viewing amounts among young children with Latina mothers vary by child age and maternal language preference supporting the need to explore sociocultural factors that influence viewing in Latino children. PMID:20124147

  3. Well-Being Narratives and Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estola, Eila; Farquhar, Sandy; Puroila, Anna-Maija

    2014-01-01

    Whereas research on children's well-being in education has largely focused on adult perspectives rather than on children's understandings, recent scholarship argues for a stronger focus on children's experience and perceptions of their own well-being. Adopting a narrative approach, this article puts children's stories centre stage as we explore a…

  4. Museum Superheroes: The Role of Play in Young Children's Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowski, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the role of play in an art museum. Reflecting upon a kindergarten field trip to the Warhol Museum in which children's play was the centerpiece of the museum experience, the author examines what early childhood theorists have written about the value of play in young children's lives. She shows how the Warhol's program for…

  5. Intersectional Identity Negotiation: The Case of Young Immigrant Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton-Lilly, Catherine; Papoi, Kristin; Venegas, Patricia; Hamman, Laura; Schwabenbauer, Briana

    2017-01-01

    We cast our lens on intersectional networks of identity negotiated by young children in immigrant families. Although some scholars discuss identity construction, we reference identity negotiation to capture the active, strategic, and agential work that we witnessed in our study. We begin by synthesizing relevant research on children's identity…

  6. Securing a Sustainable Future for Children and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renton, Zoe; Butcher, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines why sustainable development matters for children and young people, and explores the relevant policy context in England and the UK. It asks whether enough is being carried out by central government to secure a more sustainable future for, and with, today's children. More is needed at the national policy level to: embed…

  7. In the Beginning: Young Children and Arts Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiners, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the work in progress undertaken with young children, artists and early childhood education students in an innovative arts education partnership between Windmill Performing Arts, the national performing arts company for children and families, and the University of South Australia. The paper explains how the project was…

  8. Treatment Approach, Autism Severity and Intervention Outcomes in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachor, Ditza A.; Itzchak, Esther Ben

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the relation between autism severity at baseline, type of intervention employed and outcomes in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Seventy-eight children with ASD, aged 15-35 months (M=25.4, SD=4.2), received either applied behavioral analysis (ABA) or integration of several intervention approaches…

  9. Mathematics Anxiety in Young Children: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Rachel R.; Vukovic, Rose K.; Bailey, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the nature of mathematics anxiety in a sample of 106 ethnically and linguistically diverse first-grade students. Although much is known about mathematics anxiety in older children and adults, little is known about when mathematics anxiety first emerges or its characteristics in young children. Results from exploratory factor…

  10. Mazes and Maps: Can Young Children Find Their Way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirout, Jamie J.; Newcombe, Nora S.

    2014-01-01

    Games provide important informal learning activities for young children, and spatial game play (e.g., puzzles and blocks) has been found to relate to the development of spatial skills. This study investigates 4- and 5-year-old children's use of scaled and unscaled maps when solving mazes, asking whether an important aspect of spatial…

  11. Behavioural problems in young children with language problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keegstra, A.L.; Post, W.J.; Goorhuis-Brouwer, S.M.

    Objective: Analysis of behavioural problems in young children with language problems. Materials and methods: From 38 children diagnosed with a language problem, the opinion of the parents about the behaviour of their child, scored by the Child Behaviour Checklist 1.5-5 was compared with the

  12. Colorectal Carcinoma in Children and Young Adults in Ilorin, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Colorectal carcinoma is thought to be rare among children and young adults among whom presentation is usually at a late stage with poor prognosis. Objective: To review the demography, clinical presentation, morphology, and pathological stage of cases of colorectal carcinomas diagnosed in the children and ...

  13. Use of budesonide Turbuhaler in young children suspected of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, S; Nikander, K

    1994-01-01

    The question addressed in this study was the ability of young children to use a dry-powder inhaler, Turbuhaler. One hundred and sixty five children suspected of asthma, equally distributed in one year age-groups from 6 months to 8 yrs, inhaled from a Pulmicort Turbuhaler, 200 micrograms budesonid...

  14. Critical Thinking and Young Children's Exploration of Picturebook Artwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleo, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    The data featured in this article were gathered during a classroom-based research project with Grade 2 (six- and seven-year-old) children. The overall purposes of the study included exploration of how the development of young children's understanding of elements of visual art and design would affect their comprehension, interpretation, and…

  15. Bilateral versus unilateral cochlear implantation in young children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tait, M.; Nikolopoulos, T.P.; Raeve, L. De; Johnson, S.; Datta, G.; Karltorp, E.; Ostlund, E.; Johansson, U.; Knegsel, E. van; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Gulpen, P.M.H.; Beers, M. van; Frijns, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the preverbal communication skills of two groups of young implanted children: those with unilateral implantation and those with bilateral implantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study assessed 69 children: 42 unilaterally and 27 bilaterally implanted with age at implantation

  16. Young Children's Difficulty with Deception in a Conflict Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hajimu

    2017-01-01

    This study examined young children's deception in a conflict situation. A puppet show was prepared involving a protagonist who went into hiding, an enemy who wanted to catch the protagonist, and a friend who was looking for the protagonist. In the no-conflict condition, the enemy asked the children about the location of the protagonist. In the…

  17. Investigating Young Children's Perceptions of Body Size and Healthy Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Nerren, Jannah S.

    2017-01-01

    Attitudes and biases toward body size perceived as fat and body size perceived as thin are present in young children (Cramer and Steinwert in "J Appl Dev Psychol" 19(3):429-451, 1998; Worobey and Worobey in "Body Image" 11:171-174, 2014). However, the information children have regarding body size and ways to modify body size…

  18. Emotion Regulation in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovits, Lauren; Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan

    2017-01-01

    There has been little research connecting underlying emotion processes (e.g., emotion regulation) to frequent behavior problems in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined the stability of emotion regulation and its relationship with other aspects of child functioning. Participants included 108 children with ASD,…

  19. Early Sprouts: Cultivating Healthy Food Choices in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…

  20. Woodworking with Young Children: You Can Do It!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Linda K.

    1999-01-01

    Addresses major issues in teachers' reluctance to use woodworking centers with young children: (1) too noisy; (2) too dangerous; (3) just for boys; and (4) too expensive. Explains why woodworking can be beneficial to children and how to begin creating and using a woodworking center. (EV)

  1. Television Violence and Its Effect on Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Betty Jo; Stalsworth, Kelly; Wentzel, Heather

    1999-01-01

    Examines research on television violence and links violence to specific programs commonly watched by young children. Maintains that television violence is related to aggressive behavior, lessened sensitivity to the results of violence, and increased fear. Examines public reactions to children's educational television programs. (Author/KB)

  2. Longitudinal Relations Between Parenting and Child Adjustment in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadeyne, Els; Ghesquiere, Pol; Onghena, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    The authors studied the predictive relations between reports of parenting behavior on the one hand and academic achievement and reported behavior problems of young children on the other hand. Data were gathered for 352 children and their parents from kindergarten to 2nd grade. The results indicated that in the academic domain, low supportive and…

  3. Animals in the Lives of Young Maltese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Gatt, Suzanne; Agius, Catherine; Pizzuto, Sue Anne

    2008-01-01

    Young Maltese children have experience and knowledge of animals. We explored the range of animal with which they are familiar and the origin of this knowledge. The children interviewed were in Pre School, aged 4 years, and in the first year of compulsory education, aged 5 years Verb l questions and photographs were used as the probe to access…

  4. Social Stories[TM] and Young Children: Strategies for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Cori M.

    2012-01-01

    Social Stories are becoming a popular intervention used to improve the social skills of children with disabilities. This article examines the use of Social Stories with young children with disabilities. Social Stories are described, creation guidelines are recommended, and strategies for Social Story implementation in the classroom are discussed.…

  5. Young Children Manifest Spiritualities in Their Hip-Hop Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Nadjwa E. L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author combines multicultural feminist critical theories with the voices of Black and Latina/Latino young spiritual children to extend culturally responsive teaching. The author illuminates how children use their hip-hop writing to construct themselves as people who communicate with God, choose spiritual content for their…

  6. The Impact of User Interface on Young Children's Computational Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugnali, Alex; Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: Over the past few years, new approaches to introducing young children to computational thinking have grown in popularity. This paper examines the role that user interfaces have on children's mastery of computational thinking concepts and positive interpersonal behaviors. Background: There is a growing pressure to begin teaching…

  7. Young Children Help Others to Achieve Their Social Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Jonathan S.; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda

    2014-01-01

    From early in development, humans have strong prosocial tendencies. Much research has documented young children's propensity to help others achieve their unfulfilled goals toward physical objects. Yet many of our most common and important goals are social--directed toward other people. Here we demonstrate that children are also inclined, and able,…

  8. Young Children's Knowledge about the Moon: A Complex Dynamic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venville, Grady J.; Louisell, Robert D.; Wilhelm, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to use a multidimensional theoretical framework to examine young children's knowledge about the Moon. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and the design was a multiple case study of ten children between the ages of three and eight from the USA and Australia. A detailed, semi-structured interview…

  9. Increasing Social Reciprocity in Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Debra; LaRocque, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Research and education law support the use of routines-based interventions for young children with disabilities in the children's natural environments. However, systematic training and practice can provide individuals with the strategies and skills that can enhance these interventions. This article provides guidance for implementing intervention…

  10. The Factors Influencing Young Children's Social Interaction in Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eun Mee

    2015-01-01

    When technology integration is accomplished successfully in early childhood education settings, children tend to interact more with one another and exchange information related to computer tasks as well as the overall classroom on-going curriculum themes. Therefore, to explore how young children are interacting in computer areas when using…

  11. Games Graffiti: Language Arts Games to Make for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenberry, Mary Anne; And Others

    This document contains materials for games which are intended to give teachers and parents of young children ideas for making learning games which will provide experiences appropriate to their interests and abilities. While the games may be used by children in small groups, they were designed primarily for the child to explore alone. The games are…

  12. Combining Parent and Child Training for Young Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster-Stratton, Carolyn H.; Reid, M. Jamila; Beauchaine, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of the Incredible Years parent and child training programs is established in children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder but not among young children whose primary diagnosis is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a randomized control trial evaluating the combined parent and child program…

  13. Hypercholesterolaemia in children and young adults – current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypercholesterolaemia in children and young adults – current management. ... Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ... All children and adolescents with high-risk lipid disorders such as familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), those with diabetes mellitus or other cardiovascular disease risk factors ...

  14. Recording EEG In Young Children Without Sedation | Curuneaux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recording EEG In Young Children Without Sedation. ... African Journal of Neurological Sciences ... The aim of this work was to determine if it is possible to carry out EEG in children up to 4 years old without sedation and analyze the factors that could influence upon the possibility of performing EEG, in vigil or with sedation.

  15. Young children feeding and Zinc levels of complementary foods in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malnutrition among young children in Cameroon starts during complementary feeding or the transition period. Last nutritional surveys indicated high prevalence of protein energy malnutrition, iron deficiency anemia and Vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6 to 59 months. No data on appropriate feeding and zinc content in ...

  16. Knowledge of malaria amongst caregivers of young children in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To compare the awareness and treatment knowledge of malaria amongst caregivers of young children in urban and rural areas of Ado-Odo/Ota Local Government Area in Ogun State. Method: Structured questionnaires were administered to caregivers of children under the age of five years in 1472 households ...

  17. Early Childhood Dental Caries. Building Community Systems for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Laurence J.; Cabezas, Maritza C.

    As part of a series of reports designed to support the implementation of Proposition 10: The California Children and Families Act and to provide comprehensive and authoritative information on critical issues concerning young children and families in California, this report describes the scope and severity of early childhood caries (ECC), a…

  18. Parental smoking and pretend smoking in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, R.N.H. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether parental smoking was associated with smoking-related play behaviour in young children. Design Children were asked to pretend that they were grown-ups having dinner. They were invited to act out this situation in a play corner with a toy kitchen and a child-sized

  19. Discontinuation of tube feeding in young children by hunger provocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindermann, Angelika; Kneepkens, Corneille Marie Francois; Stok, Anita; van Dijk, Elisabeth Maria; Engels, Michelle; Douwes, Adriaan Cornelis

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Pathological food refusal (PFR) is not rare in young children with chronic conditions requiring prolonged tube feeding. We investigated whether these children could be weaned from tube feeding with a multidisciplinary hunger provocation program. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included

  20. Young Children's ICT Experiences in the Home: Some Parental Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This small-scale study focuses on young children's reported information and communication technology (ICT) experiences in the home and the role of parents in providing technological opportunities, recognition and support. The children of the parents involved were all enrolled in nursery and reception classes (4-5 years of age) in two settings…

  1. The Rights of Children and Young People in State Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This article highlights the lack of human rights recognition for arguably one of the most vulnerable groups in our society, children and young people in the care of the state. Currently under New Zealand legislation and policy frameworks these children do not have their rights upheld, as per New Zealand's obligations under the United Nations…

  2. Elephants and Their Young: Science and Math Activities for Young Children. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Jean C.; Kopp, Jaine; Blinderman, Ellen

    This book contains a series of playful activities in which young children actively learn about the African elephant's body structure, family life, and social behavior. Children make model elephants out of paper and cardboard, then devise elephant puppets with sock trunks as well as create models of elephant's ears, trunks, tusks, make elephant…

  3. Rejection and victimization among elementary school children: the buffering role of classroom-level predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdiouk, Marina; Rodkin, Philip; Madill, Rebecca; Logis, Handrea; Gest, Scott

    2015-01-01

    This study examined features of classroom peer ecologies and teaching practices that may attenuate the prevalence of victimization and its connection to peer rejection. Participants were 1020 elementary school students from 54 classrooms and their teachers followed for one academic year. In the majority of classrooms students who were rejected in fall tended to be victimized in spring, but the strength of this association varied across classrooms. The positive relationship between rejection in the fall and victimization in the spring was stronger in classrooms where victimization was strongly centralized around specific victims in the fall. In addition, victimization in the spring was higher in classrooms that had higher levels of peer rejection in the fall, where victimization was strongly centralized in the fall, and where teachers reported making fewer efforts to reduce social status inequality. This study contributes to a growing body of research into contextual factors that may attenuate negative outcomes associated with peer rejection and reduce levels of peer harassment in elementary school.

  4. Young Children Treat Robots as Informants

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Paul L.; DeSteno, David; Dickens, Leah; Breazeal, Cynthia L.; Kory Westlund, Jacqueline Marie; Jeong, Sooyeon

    2014-01-01

    Children ranging from 3 to 5 years were introduced to two anthropomorphic robots that provided them with information about unfamiliar animals. Children treated the robots as interlocutors. They supplied information to the robots and retained what the robots told them. Children also treated the robots as informants from whom they could seek information. Consistent with studies of children's early sensitivity to an interlocutor's non-verbal signals, children were especially attentive and recept...

  5. Postpartum Domestic Violence in Homes With Young Children: The Role of Maternal and Paternal Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Elizabeth A; Liu, Weiwei; Joseph, Hannah

    2016-11-23

    There has been limited investigation of mothers' drinking patterns and their experience of domestic abuse while parenting young children, especially in the context of co-resident fathers' drinking. Using data representative of the 2001 U.S. birth cohort, the authors conducted longitudinal latent class analyses of maternal drinking over four perinatal time points as predictors of maternal victimization at 2 years postpartum due to intimate partner violence. Women classified as higher risk drinkers over the study period faced significantly increased risk of physical abuse while parenting a 2-year-old child. Among non-drinking mothers, paternal binge drinking signaled additional risk, with clinical and programmatic implications. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Physical activity in young children is reduced with increasing bronchial responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasholt, Martin; Baty, Florent; Bisgaard, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity is essential for young children to develop adequately and for quality of life. It can be lower in children with subclinical asthma, and therefore methods to reveal subclinical reduction in physical activity in young children are warranted.......Physical activity is essential for young children to develop adequately and for quality of life. It can be lower in children with subclinical asthma, and therefore methods to reveal subclinical reduction in physical activity in young children are warranted....

  7. Cybercrime Victimization and Subjective Well-Being: An Examination of the Buffering Effect Hypothesis Among Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakinen, Markus; Keipi, Teo; Räsänen, Pekka; Oksanen, Atte

    2017-10-19

    The wealth of beneficial tools for online interaction, consumption, and access to others also bring new risks for harmful experiences online. This study examines the association between cybercrime victimization and subjective well-being (SWB) and, based on the buffering effect hypothesis, tests the assumption of the protective function of social belonging in cybercrime victimization. Cross-national data from the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, and Finland (N = 3,557; Internet users aged 15-30 years; 49.85 percent female) were analyzed using descriptive statistics and main and moderation effect models. Results show that cybercrime victimization has a negative association with SWB after adjusting for a number of confounding factors. This association concerns both general cybercrime victimization and subcategories such as victimization to offensive cybercrime and cyberfraud. In line with the buffering effect hypothesis, social belonging to offline groups was shown to moderate the negative association between SWB and cybercrime victimization. The same effect was not found in the social belonging to online groups. Overall, the study indicates that, analogously to crime victimization in the offline context, cybercrime is a harmful experience whose negative effects mainly concern those users who have weak social ties offline to aid in coping with such stressors.

  8. Gendered pathways from child sexual abuse to sexual aggression victimization and perpetration in adolescence and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Berger, Anja

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the pathways from child sexual abuse to sexual assault victimization and perpetration in adolescence and early adulthood, considering risky sexual behavior and lowered sexual self-esteem as mediator variables. In a two-wave longitudinal study with 2251 college students in Germany, male and female participants provided reports of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration since age 14 (T1) and again a year later (T2), covering the last 12 months. In addition, child sexual abuse (CSA; before the age of 14), risky sexual behavior, and sexual self-esteem were assessed at T1, and risky sexual behavior and sexual-self-esteem were assessed again at T2. Experience of CSA was significantly associated with greater likelihood of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration, lower sexual self-esteem, and more risky sexual behavior in both gender groups at T1 and was directly related to victimization at T2 among male participants. In both gender groups, CSA indirectly contributed to a higher probability of sexual victimization at T2 via its impact on victimization T1. In males, the indirect path from CSA to T2 perpetration via T1 perpetration was also significant. Through its negative impact on sexual self-esteem, CSA indirectly increased the probability of sexual victimization among women and the probability of sexual aggression perpetration among men. Risky sexual behavior mediated the pathway from CSA to sexual victimization at T2 for men and women and the pathway from CSA to sexual aggression perpetration for women. The findings contribute to the understanding of gendered effects of CSA on revictimization and the victim-to-perpetrator cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. From Scientific Object to Commemorated Victim: the Children of the Spiegelgrund

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindling, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The legacy of German medical research in the era of National Socialism remains contentious, as regards identification of victims, and the appropriate handling of scientific specimens. These questions are acutely posed by the scientific slides, brain sections, and other body parts of victims, who were killed for research. These slides continued to be held by Austrian and German scientific institutes in the second half of the twentieth century. That scientists continued research on these slides between 1945 and the late1980s suggests a disassociation of guilt and responsibility for the deaths of the victims by the German scientific community. PMID:24779110

  10. Sleep Disruption in Young Foster Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tininenko, Jennifer R.; Fisher, Philip A.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, sleep actigraphy and parent-report measures were used to investigate differences in sleeping behavior among four groups of 3- to 7-year-olds (N = 79): children in regular foster care (n = 15); children receiving a therapeutic intervention in foster care (n = 17); low income community children (n = 18); and upper middle income…

  11. Young Children's Conceptual Understanding of Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagli, Ümmühan Yesil; Halat, Erdogan

    2016-01-01

    This study explored 5-6 year-old children's conceptual understanding of one geometric shape, the triangle. It focused on whether children could draw a triangle from memory, and identify triangles of different types, sizes, and orientations. The data were collected from 82 children attending state preschool programs through a one-on-one interview,…

  12. Poor Self-Regulation in Young Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G.J. Basten (Maartje)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Child psychiatry continues to struggle how best to characterize children with severe psychopathology. It has long been recognized that a certain group of children has problems in multiple domains. These children show emotional problems, such as anxiety or

  13. Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Young Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jenny; Teeter, Larry D.; Katz, Dolly J.; Davidow, Amy L.; Miranda, Wilson; Wall, Kirsten; Ghosh, Smita; Stein-Hart, Trudy; Restrepo, Blanca I.; Reves, Randall; Graviss, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To estimate tuberculosis (TB) rates among young children in the United States by children’s and parents’ birth origins and describe the epidemiology of TB among young children who are foreign-born or have at least 1 foreign-born parent. METHODS Study subjects were children TB in 20 US jurisdictions during 2005–2006. TB rates were calculated from jurisdictions’ TB case counts and American Community Survey population estimates. An observational study collected demographics, immigration and travel histories, and clinical and source case details from parental interviews and health department and TB surveillance records. RESULTS Compared with TB rates among US-born children with US-born parents, rates were 32 times higher in foreign-born children and 6 times higher in US-born children with foreign-born parents. Most TB cases (53%) were among the 29% of children who were US born with foreign-born parents. In the observational study, US-born children with foreign-born parents were more likely than foreign-born children to be infants (30% vs 7%), Hispanic (73% vs 37%), diagnosed through contact tracing (40% vs 7%), and have an identified source case (61% vs 19%); two-thirds of children were exposed in the United States. CONCLUSIONS Young children who are US born of foreign-born parents have relatively high rates of TB and account for most cases in this age group. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of adult source cases, effective contact investigations prioritizing young contacts, and targeted testing and treatment of latent TB infection are necessary to reduce TB morbidity in this population. PMID:24515517

  14. The human traffickers and exploitation of children and young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Scala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the traffic of children, who are kidnapped, cheated and purchased by their families to be exploited in many ways. These victims have severe mental and physical traumas. Many of them, slaves of their exploiters, remain invisible and live their lifes without fundamental rights and without any kind of support or help. The traffic in human beings is a new kind of slavery, which acts in the dark, is criminal and involves different subjects of different ages, different nationalities and generations. The traffic in human beings is managed by transnational criminal organizations and is a disturbing and growing phenomena around the world.

  15. Mother-child interactions in young children with excessive physical aggression and in typically developing young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain-Gauthier, Nadine; Wendland, Jaqueline

    2017-07-01

    Among the multiple risk factors, the emergence of conduct problems in young children may be linked to harsh parenting and child's temperamental difficulties, leading to a reciprocal early discordant relationship. Little is known about the characteristics of early parent-child interactions in young children with physical aggression. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the characteristics of mother-child interactions in dyads referred for excessive physical aggression in young children under 5 years of age compared to mother-child interactions in typically developing young children. Mother-child interactions were assessed during a free-play session in both a clinical sample ( N = 70, child mean age  = 3.5 years) and a nonclinical sample ( N = 80, child mean age  = 3.5 years) by using the Rating Scale of Interaction Style (Clark and Seifer, adapted by Molitor and Mayes). Significant differences were found between several interactive features in clinical and nonclinical dyads. In clinical dyads, mothers' behaviors were often characterized by intrusiveness and criticism toward children, and poor facilitative positioning. Children with excessive aggressive behavior often displayed poor communication, initiation of bids, and poor responsiveness toward the mother. They displayed fewer sustained bouts of play than typically developing children did. In clinical dyads, strong positive correlations were found between child responsiveness and maternal interest in engagement ( r = .41, p children with excessive aggressive behavior develop disrupted mother-infant interactions from a very young age. Several negative interactive features and correlations between child behavior and maternal behavior were found in clinical samples. The effects of these features add up and probably strengthen each other, thus leading to interactive difficulties from a very young age. More attention should be paid to early parent-child interactions in case of

  16. Examining young children's social competence using functional ability profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Tara W; Snyder, Patricia A; Algina, James

    2017-08-13

    To explore the use of International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health for Children and Youth (ICF-CY) based profiles of children's functional abilities in relation to their social competence. Subgroups based on shared profiles of functional ability were investigated as an alternative or complement to subgroups defined by disability categories. Secondary analysis of a nationally representative data set of young children identified for special education services in the United States was used for the present study. Using five subgroups of children with shared profiles of functional ability, derived from latent class analysis in previous work, regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between social competence and functional abilities profile subgroup membership. Differences among the subgroups were examined using standardized effect sizes. R2 values were used to examine explained variance in social competence in relation to subgroup membership, disability category, and these variables in combination. Functional ability profile subgroup membership was moderately related to children's social competence outcomes: social skills and problem behaviors. Effect sizes showed significant differences between subgroups. Subgroup membership accounted for more variance in social competence outcomes than disability category. The results provide empirical support for the importance of functional ability profiles when examining social competence within a population of young children with disabilities. Implications for Rehabilitation The extent to which children with disabilities experience difficulty with social competence varies by their functional characteristics. Functional ability profiles can provide practitioners and researchers working young children with disabilities important tools to examine social competence and to inform interventions.

  17. Young Children Learning from Touch Screens: Taking a Wider View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lovato

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Touch screen devices such as smartphones and tablets are now ubiquitous in the lives of American children. These devices permit very young children to engage interactively in an intuitive fashion with actions as simple as touching, swiping and pinching. Yet, we know little about the role these devices play in very young children’s lives or their impact on early learning and development. Here we focus on two areas in which existing research sheds some light on these issues with children under three years of age. The first measures transfer of learning, or how well children use information learned from screens to reason about events off-screen, using object retrieval and word learning tasks. The second measures the impact of interactive screens on parent-child interactions and story comprehension during reading time. More research is required to clarify the pedagogical potential and pitfalls of touch screens for infants and very young children, especially research focused on capabilities unique to touch screens and on the social and cultural contexts in which young children use them.

  18. Hunger in young children of Mexican immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Margaret; Geppert, Joni; Cutts, Diana B

    2007-04-01

    To measure rates of hunger and food insecurity among young US-born Latino children with Mexican immigrant parents (Latinos) compared with a non-immigrant non-Latino population (non-Latinos) in a low-income clinic population. A repeated cross-sectional survey of 4278 caregivers of children parent born in Mexico. They were compared with a reference group comprised of non-Latino US-born participants (n = 1805). Child hunger and household food insecurity were determined with the US Household Food Security Scale. Young Latino children had much higher rates of child hunger than non-Latinos, 6.8 versus 0.5%. Latino families also had higher rates of household food insecurity than non-Latinos, 53.1 versus 15.6%. Latino children remained much more likely to be hungry (odds ratio (OR) = 13.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 5.9-28.7, P education level, single-headed household status, family size, young maternal age ( participation, TANF (Temporary Assistance to Needy Families, or 'welfare') programme participation and WIC (Women, Infants, and Children) usage, and reason for clinic visit (sick visit versus well-child). Young children in Mexican immigrant families are at especially high risk for hunger and household food insecurity compared with non-immigrant, non-Latino patients in a low-income paediatric clinic.

  19. Disability and Violent Victimization in a National Sample of Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ilhong; Jung, Sejong; Yoo, Jusung

    2015-01-01

    In the victimization literature, a significant association has been consistently observed between disability and the victimization of children and adolescents. It is largely unknown, however, whether individuals with disabilities continue to suffer from a heightened risk of violent victimization when they reach young adulthood and adulthood. In addition, despite the close nexus between victimization and perpetration, prior studies have generally failed to control for violent acts perpetrated by individuals with disabilities. This study addresses these issues by drawing on the panel design nature of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The results show that although physical disability is not linked to victimization risk, learning disability is significantly associated with an elevated risk of violent victimization.

  20. Preparation of Young Healthy Children for Possible Hospitalization: The Issues. Monograph No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarnoff, Pat, Ed.

    Ten authors' viewpoints about preparing healthy children for possible hospitalization are presented. Selected topics include (1) the fallacy of "preparing" young healthy children for possible hospitalization, (2) parents as the best preparers of young children, (3) preparing young children for unplanned hospital admissions, (4) anxiety…

  1. The Intensity of Victimization : Associations with Children's Psychosocial Well-Being and Social Standing in the Classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, Rozemarijn; Steglich, Christian; Salmivalli, Christina; Veenstra, René

    2015-01-01

    The association between experienced victimization and students' psychological and social adjustment depends on the intensity of victimization. We examined how frequency and multiplicity of victimization, and the number of bullies involved, account for differences in students' psychosocial well-being

  2. Social inequalities in young children's sports participation and outdoor play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtzes, Anne I; Jansen, Wilma; Bouthoorn, Selma H; Pot, Niek; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Raat, Hein

    2014-12-16

    Research on social inequalities in sports participation and unstructured physical activity among young children is scarce. This study aimed to assess the associations of family socioeconomic position (SEP) and ethnic background with children's sports participation and outdoor play. We analyzed data from 4726 ethnically diverse 6-year-old children participating in the Generation R Study. Variables were assessed by parent-reported questionnaires when the child was 6 years old. Low level of outdoor play was defined as outdoor play p p p p p research, including qualitative studies, is needed to explore more in detail the pathways relating family SEP and ethnic background to children's sports participation and outdoor play.

  3. The Experience of Friendship, Victimization and Bullying in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: Associations with Child Characteristics and School Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Emma; Chandler, Susie; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Loucas, Tom; Charman, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be vulnerable to social isolation and bullying. We measured the friendship, fighting/bullying and victimization experiences of 10-12-year-old children with an ASD (N = 100) using parent, teacher and child self-report. Parent and teacher reports were compared to an IQ-matched group of children…

  4. Nutritional value of milk drinks for young children

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2011-01-01

    Milk drinks for young children, i.e. toddlers, available on the market are referred to as toddler milk or children’s milk. The manufacturers of these products often advertise these to be – in contrast to cow milk – adjusted to serve the specific nutritional needs of young children. These products thus often contain less protein than cow milk, allegedly in order to counteract obesity later in life. Instead they contain more vitamins and minerals, which is then said to be necessary for the adeq...

  5. Aerobic capacity related to cardiac size in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Wollmer, P; Karlsson, M

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base.......Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base....

  6. Soft Stethoscope for Detecting Asthma Wheeze in Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic disease that is commonly suffered by children. Asthmatic children have a lower quality of life than other children. Physicians and pediatricians recommend that parents record the frequency of attacks and their symptoms to help manage their children’s asthma. However, the lack of a convenient device for monitoring the asthmatic condition leads to the difficulties in managing it, especially when it is suffered by young children. This work develops a wheeze detection system for use at home. A small and soft stethoscope was used to collect the respiratory sound. The wheeze detection algorithm was the Adaptive Respiratory Spectrum Correlation Coefficient (RSACC algorithm, which has the advantages of high sensitivity/specificity and a low computational requirement. Fifty-nine sound files from eight young children (one to seven years old were collected in the emergency room and analyzed. The results revealed that the system provided 88% sensitivity and 94% specificity in wheeze detection. In conclusion, this small soft stethoscope can be easily used on young children. A noisy environment does not affect the effectiveness of the system in detecting wheeze. Hence, the system can be used at home by parents who wish to evaluate and manage the asthmatic condition of their children.

  7. The Impact of Victimization and Neuroticism on Mental Health in Young Men who have Sex with Men: Internalized Homophobia as an Underlying Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Jae A; Newcomb, Michael E; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-09-01

    Sexual minorities experience greater mental health issues compared to heterosexuals due to minority stressors. This study focused on the impact of victimization and neuroticism on mental health in young men who have sex with men (YMSM), and the mediating role of internalized homophobia (IH). IH refers to when a sexual minority person internalizes social bias and develops a negative view of themselves, which is a likely process through which victimization and neuroticism impact mental health. Data were collected over three time points across 12 months, with 450 YMSM (mean age = 18.9) and an 80.7% retention rate. Two mediation analyses with bias-corrected bootstrapping using 1000 samples were conducted, controlling for age, race, and sexual orientation. Results revealed that victimization [ F (9, 440) = 4.83, p < .001, R 2 = .09] and neuroticism [ F (9, 440) = 12.23, p < .001, R 2 = .20] had a significant indirect effect on mental health via increased levels of IH. These findings show how external experiences of stigma and personality level characteristics may impact YMSM in terms of their sense of self. Furthermore, these results support addressing social conditions that marginalize YMSM in order to promote better mental health through decreasing IH.

  8. Longitudinal associations between cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization and problem behavior and mental health problems in young Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Kotevski, Aneta; Heerde, Jessica A

    2015-02-01

    To investigate associations between Grade 9 and 10 cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization and Grade 11 problem behavior and mental health problems after controlling for risk factors for these outcomes in the analyses. The sample comprised 927 students from Victoria, Australia who completed a modified version of the self-report Communities That Care Youth Survey in Grades 9-11 to report on risk factors, traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, problem behavior, and mental health. Complete data on over 650 participants were analyzed. Five per cent of Grade 9 and 10 students reported cyber-bullying perpetration only, 6-8% reported victimization only, and 8-9% both cyber-bullied others and were cyber-bullied. Results showed that cyber-bullying others in Grade 10 was associated with theft in Grade 11, cyber-victimization in Grade 10 was linked with Grade 11 depressive symptoms, and Grade 10 cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization combined predicted Grade 11 school suspension and binge drinking. Prevention approaches that target traditional and cyber-bullying, and established risk factors are necessary. Such multi-faceted programs may also reduce problem behavior and mental health problems.

  9. Professional Development: How Young Children Solve Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shure, Myrna B.

    2006-01-01

    There are lots of ways to handle behavior problems in the classroom. Some teachers send difficult children to time out, others tell them what and what not to do, and many explain why. But these techniques have one thing in common: they all do the thinking for the child. In this article, the author discusses how to help children handle conflicts…

  10. Young Children, Gender and the Heterosexual Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paechter, Carrie

    2017-01-01

    In this paper I consider the adult focus of current mainstream gender theory. I relate this to how the concept of the heterosexual matrix originates in a social contract which excludes children from civil society. I argue that this exclusion is problematic both for theoretical reasons and from the perspective of children themselves. I start by…

  11. Hearing young children's experiences during teachers government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper is a qualitative study that reports the perception of eight school children on the effect of a strike by their teachers on their education. Convenience sampling technique was used to select the participants. Interviews with the children were carried out using a semi-structured face-to-face interview. Thematic analysis ...

  12. Management of Disruptive Behavior in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, Erin M.; Eyberg, Sheila M.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the prevalence and stability of disruptive behavior in preschool-age children and the use of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) to treat such children and their parents. PCIT focuses on changing ineffective parent-child interaction patterns by first focusing on child-directed interaction and then on parent-directed…

  13. Enhancing Social Responsibility and Prosocial Leadership to Prevent Aggression, Peer Victimization, and Emotional Problems in Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Thompson, Kara; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena

    2016-12-01

    Testing the theories that form the basis of prevention programs can enhance our understanding of behavioral change and inform the development, coordination, and adaptation of prevention programs. However, theories of change showing the linkages from intervention program components to risk or protective factors to desired outcomes across time are rarely specified or tested. In this 2-year longitudinal study, we test the theory that increases in two protective factors (i.e., children's prosocial leadership and their teachers' expectations of social responsibility) targeted by the WITS Programs (Walk Away, Ignore, Talk it Out, and Seek Help) would be associated with declines in peer victimization, aggression, and emotional problems. Participants included Canadian students, in grades 1-4 at baseline (n = 1329) and their parents and teachers. Consistent with our theory of change, variability in program implementation (adherence and integration) and in children's use of program skills (child responsiveness) are related to increases in both protective factors. Increases in these protective factors are associated with subsequent declines in children's aggression, victimization, and emotional problems. We discuss how enhancement of these protective factors may operate to improve child outcomes and the need for theory-based research to refine and improve the effectiveness of intervention strategies and to improve program scale-up. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  14. Young children with language difficulties: a dimensional approach to subgrouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Rianne; Ceulemans, Eva; Grauwels, Jolien; Maljaars, Jarymke; Zink, Inge; Steyaert, Jean; Noens, Ilse

    2013-11-01

    A dimensional approach was used to create bottom-up constructed subgroups that captured the behavioral heterogeneity in 36 Dutch-speaking children with language difficulties. Four subgroups were delineated based upon differences in cognitive ability, symbol understanding, joint attention and autism spectrum disorder related characteristics. Children with a different developmental disorder were found within a single cluster. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that bottom-up constructed subgroups might capture the heterogeneous behavioral profiles of young children with developmental difficulties in a more meaningful way. Furthermore, joint attention and symbol understanding seem important skills to assess in young children presenting with language difficulties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Young children show the bystander effect in helping situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plötner, Maria; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Much research in social psychology has shown that otherwise helpful people often fail to help when bystanders are present. Research in developmental psychology has shown that even very young children help and that the presence of others can actually increase helping in some cases. In the current study, in contrast, 5-year-old children helped an experimenter at very high levels when they were alone but helped significantly less often in the presence of bystanders who were potentially available to help. In another condition designed to elucidate the mechanism underlying the effect, children's helping was not reduced when bystanders were present but confined behind a barrier and thus unable to help (a condition that has not been run in previous studies with adults). Young children thus show the bystander effect, and it is due not to social referencing or shyness to act in front of others but, rather, to a sense of a diffusion of responsibility. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Expectancy violations promote learning in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Aimee E; Feigenson, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    Children, including infants, have expectations about the world around them, and produce reliable responses when these expectations are violated. However, little is known about how such expectancy violations affect subsequent cognition. Here we tested the hypothesis that violations of expectation enhance children's learning. In four experiments we compared 3- to 6-year-old children's ability to learn novel words in situations that defied versus accorded with their core knowledge of object behavior. In Experiments 1 and 2 we taught children novel words following one of two types of events. One event violated expectations about the spatiotemporal or featural properties of objects (e.g., an object appeared to magically change locations). The other event was almost identical, but did not violate expectations (e.g., an object was visibly moved from one location to another). In both experiments we found that children robustly learned when taught after the surprising event, but not following the expected event. In Experiment 3 we ruled out two alternative explanations for our results. Finally, in Experiment 4, we asked whether surprise affects children's learning in a targeted or a diffuse way. We found that surprise only enhanced children's learning about the entity that had behaved surprisingly, and not about unrelated objects. Together, these experiments show that core knowledge - and violations of expectations generated by core knowledge - shapes new learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Teacher and peer reports of overweight and bullying among young primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Pauline W; Verlinden, Marina; Dommisse-van Berkel, Anke; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Jansen, Wilma; Tiemeier, Henning

    2014-09-01

    Overweight is a potential risk factor for peer victimization in late childhood and adolescence. The current study investigated the association between BMI in early primary school and different bullying involvement roles (uninvolved, bully, victim, and bully-victim) as reported by teachers and children themselves. In a population-based study in the Netherlands, measured BMI and teacher-reported bullying behavior were available for 4364 children (mean age = 6.2 years). In a subsample of 1327 children, a peer nomination method was used to obtain child reports of bullying. In both teacher- and child-reported data, a higher BMI was associated with more victimization and more bullying perpetration. For instance, a 1-point increase in BMI was associated with a 0.05 increase on the standardized teacher-reported victimization score (95% confidence interval, 0.03 to 0.07; P bullying scores into different types of bullying involvement showed that children with obesity, but not children with overweight, had a significantly higher risk to be a bully-victim (odds ratio = 2.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.62 to 3.14) than normal-weight peers. At school entry, a high BMI is a risk factor associated with victimization and bullying perpetration, with obese children particularly likely to be victims and aggressors. Results were consistent for teacher and child reports of bullying, supporting the validity of our findings. Possibly, obesity triggers peer problems, but the association may also reflect a common underlying cause that makes obese children vulnerable to bullying involvement. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Sexual Abuse in Young Children: Its Clinical Presentation and Characteristic Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, John; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Sexually abused (N=37), physically abused (N=35), and nonabused clinical children (N=130) were compared. Family background of both abused groups had more family stress factors; the sexually abused children had a higher frequency of inappropriate sexual behavior. Sexually abused children were often victimized in single acts by nonrelated…

  19. Caring for Young Children Exposed to Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Natasha M; Shapiro, Susan E

    This article reviews the research report, Marijuana Exposure Among Children Younger Than Six Years in the United States (), and, using a case study approach, applies the findings to advanced practice registered nurses. B. extracted data from the National Poison Data System showing an increasing trend in marijuana exposure in children, especially in states where marijuana has been legalized for either medicinal use or recreational use. Advanced practice registered nurses need to be comfortable recognizing and managing marijuana intoxication in the pediatric population, as well as educating parents in providing safe environments for their children.

  20. Young children show the bystander effect in helping situations

    OpenAIRE

    Ploetner, Maria; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The authors thank the ESRC for supporting Harriet Over (grant number ES/K006702/1). Much research in social psychology has shown that otherwise helpful people often fail to help when bystanders are present. Research in developmental psychology has shown that even very young children help, and that others’ presence can actually increase helping in some cases. In the current study, in contrast, 5-year-old children helped an experimenter at very high levels when they were alone, but significa...

  1. Cognitive development after traumatic brain injury in young children

    OpenAIRE

    GERRARD-MORRIS, AIMEE; Taylor, H. Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Stancin, Terry; Minich, Nori; Wade, Shari L.

    2009-01-01

    The primary aims of this study were to examine post-injury cognitive development in young children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to investigate the role of the proximal family environment in predicting cognitive outcomes. Age at injury was 3–6 years, and TBI was classified as severe (n = 23), moderate (n = 21), and complicated mild (n = 43). A comparison group of children who sustained orthopedic injuries (OI, n = 117) was also recruited. Child cognitive assessments were administered ...

  2. Variables in Color Perception of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Rosslyn

    1972-01-01

    Study investigated the effect of the stimulus variables of value, chroma, and hue in relation to sex, intelligence, and dimensional attention of kindergarten children using two reward conditions. (Author)

  3. Euthanasia for children and young people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    In February 2014 the Belgian parliament voted to extend the existing euthanasia law to cover children under the age of 18. The law sanctions euthanasia for children with terminal or incurable conditions who are near death, suffering 'constant and unbearable pain', and whose parents and health professionals agree with the decision. The child also has to be interviewed by a psychologist or psychiatrist to ascertain and certify their 'capacity of discernment'.

  4. Ideas Exchange: "How Important Is Activity in Young Children (Preschool) to a Lifetime of Physical Activity?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hushman, GLenn; Morrison, Jaime; Mally, Kristi; McCall, Renee; Corso, Marjorie; Kamla, Jim; Magnotta, John; Chase, Melissa A.; Garrahy, Deborah A.; Lorenzi, David G.; Barnd, Sue

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the opinions of several professionals who were asked: "How important is activity in young children (preschool) to a lifetime of physical activity?" These professionals point out the importance of physical activity to young children.

  5. HOMEWORK ACCURACY TO INCREASE THE ACADEMIC REPERTOIRE OF YOUNG CHILDREN WITH AUTISM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lina Gilic

    2016-01-01

      There are many forms of interventions used to increase homework completion. However, there is far less research to assess homework accuracy for young children with special needs, and even less for young children diagnosed with Autism...

  6. Negative peer status and relational victimization in children and adolescents: the role of stress physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafko, Nicole; Murray-Close, Dianna; Shoulberg, Erin K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to determine the unique associations between two subtypes of low peer status, peer rejection and unpopularity, and changes in relational victimization over time. This study also investigated if these associations were moderated by sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) reactivity to peer stress. Sixty-one girls attending (M(age) = 11.91 years, SD = 1.62; predominantly Caucasian) a residential summer camp were followed across 1 calendar year. Participants' skin conductance and respiratory sinus arrhythmia were assessed during a laboratory stress protocol. Peer rejection and unpopularity were measured using peer nomination techniques and counselors reported on relational victimization. Both unpopularity and rejection were associated with increased relational victimization over time among girls who exhibited reciprocal SNS activation (i.e., high SNS reactivity coupled with PNS withdrawal). Rejection was also associated with subsequent victimization among girls exhibiting reciprocal PNS activation (i.e., low SNS reactivity, PNS activation). Findings underscore the biosocial interactions between low peer status and physiological reactivity in the prediction of peer maltreatment over time.

  7. Brief Report: Reducing Earthquake-Related Fears in Victim and Nonvictim Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karairmak, Ozlem; Aydin, GuL

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the fears of earthquake victim and nonvictim elementary school students and the effectiveness of an activity-based cognitive fear reduction (ABCF) procedure developed by the authors. To measure fear, the authors collected data from 266 participants using a modified version of the Fear Survey Schedule for…

  8. Community Mobilization: Strategies To Support Young Children and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombro, Amy Laura; O'Donnell, Nina Sazer; Galinsky, Ellen; Melchar, Sarah Gilkeson; Farber, Abby

    Noting the increasing need for public officials, practitioners, business leaders, concerned citizens, and parents to work together to improve the quality of life for young children and families, this book for community organizations provides information needed to begin or enhance local or statewide community mobilization efforts. Included are…

  9. Growth in very young children undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rees, Lesley; Azocar, Marta; Borzych, Dagmara; Watson, Alan R.; Büscher, Anja; Edefonti, Alberto; Bilge, Ilmay; Askenazi, David; Leozappa, Giovanna; Gonzales, Claudia; van Hoeck, Koen; Secker, Donna; Zurowska, Aleksandra; Rönnholm, Kai; Bouts, Antonia H. M.; Stewart, Heather; Ariceta, Gema; Ranchin, Bruno; Warady, Bradley A.; Schaefer, Franz; Sojo, E.; Coccia, P. A.; Suarez, A.; Valles, P. G.; Salim, R.; van Hoeck, K.; Koch, V.; Feber, J.; Geary, D. A.; White, C.; Valenzuela, M.; Villagra, J.; Cano, F.; Contreras, M. A.; Vogel, A.; Zambrano, P.; Berrocal, P.; Chiu, M. C.; Xu, H.; Vondrak, K.; Rönnholm, K.; Ranchin, B.; Ulinski, T.; Fischbach, M.; Büscher, R.; Kemper, M.; Pape, L.; Schaefer, F.; Borzych, D.; Misselwitz, J.; Klaus, G.; Haffner, D.; Papachristou, F.; Bagga, A.; Kanitkar, M.; Verrina, E.; Edefonti, A.; Leozappa, G.; Landau, D.; Ha, I. S.; Paik, K. H.; Sahpazova, E.; Groothoff, J. W.; Silva, Y.; Zurowska, A. M.; Drozdz, D.; Lipka, M.; Sczepanska, M.; Brumariu, O.; Yap, H. K.; Ariceta, G.; Bakkaloglu, A. S.; Bakkaloglu, S.; Bilge, I.; Serdaroglu, E.; Bal, A.; Mir, S.; Rees, L.; Watson, A. R.; Grünberg, J.; Greenbaum, L.; Neu, A.; Askenazi, D.; Gipson, D.; Patel, H.; Pottoore, S.; Dharnidharka, V.; Bunchman, T.; Chua, A.; Warady, B. A.; Zaritsky, J.

    2011-01-01

    Very young children with chronic kidney disease often have difficulty maintaining adequate nutrition, which contributes to the high prevalence of short stature in this population. Characteristics of the dialysis prescription and supplemental feeding via a nasogastric (NG) tube or gastrostomy may

  10. Evolving Creativity: New Pedagogies for Young Children in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, Keang-Ieng

    2008-01-01

    This book challenges the assumption that creativity is culture-free. Fostering creativity in the young has gained unprecedented attention in China, one of the most vigorous world economies today. This book examines Chinese kindergarten teachers' interpretations of creativity in relation to their ideas of children's learning and cognition, using…

  11. Plethysmographic measurements of specific airway resistance in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Nielsen, Kim G

    2005-01-01

    Validated methods for lung function measurements in young children are lacking. Plethysmographic measurement of specific airway resistance (sRaw) provides such a method applicable from 2 years of age. sRaw gauges airway resistance from the measurements of the pressure changes driving the airflow...

  12. Young Children's Sensitivity to Speaker Gender When Learning from Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lili; Woolley, Jacqueline D.

    2013-01-01

    This research explores whether young children are sensitive to speaker gender when learning novel information from others. Four- and 6-year-olds ("N" = 144) chose between conflicting statements from a male versus a female speaker (Studies 1 and 3) or decided which speaker (male or female) they would ask (Study 2) when learning about the functions…

  13. Never Too Early to Learn: Antibias Education for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooven, Jennifer; Runkle, Katherine; Strouse, Laurie; Woods, Misty; Frankenberg, Erica

    2018-01-01

    Four early childhood educators, along with a university researcher, describe their efforts to implement an antiracist, antibias curriculum in a daycare and preschool setting. Even very young children can learn important lessons about race, diversity, and equity, they argue, and teachers should not shy away from addressing these issues at staff…

  14. Consensus, Engagement, and Family Involvement for Young Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Glen

    1999-01-01

    After reviewing articles that discuss educational approaches for young children with autism, this article concludes that engagement is a critical feature, it is not clear that one approach is more effective than another, applied behavior analysis is a common foundation, and approaches may benefit from a more complete consideration of the family…

  15. Intellectual Patterns of Young Gifted Children on the WPPSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Sandra Kelly; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Patterns of Verbal and Performance Intelligence Quotients (IQ) and subtest scores of young gifted children (N=306) were identified on the Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI). Most students had higher verbal than performance IQs, and the verbal IQ mean was significantly higher than the performance IQ mean. (Author/CB)

  16. Screening for suppression in young children : the Polaroid Suppression test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pott, JWR; Oosterveen, DK; Van Hof-van Duin, J

    1998-01-01

    Background: Assessment of monocular visual impairment during screening of young children is often hampered by lack of cooperation. Because strabismus, amblyopia, or anisometropia may lead to monocular suppression during binocular viewing conditions, a test was developed to screen far suppression in

  17. Overflowing Every Idea of Age, Very Young Children as Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesen, Nina

    2013-01-01

    In this article I explore if and how very young children can be the educators of their early childhood educators. I describe and discuss a story constructed from a fieldwork done in one early childhood setting in Norway. The story is read with Levinas and his concepts Said and Saying. Further I discuss if and how this might be understood as…

  18. Identifying Hearing Loss in Young Children: Technology Replaces the Bell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiserman, William; Shisler, Lenore

    2010-01-01

    Hearing loss can too easily be misdiagnosed or overlooked by providers serving young children. Parents and professionals may observe a language delay--an "invisible" condition--while failing to identify the underlying cause. Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) hearing screening technology, used extensively with newborns, is becoming an essential tool,…

  19. Simple Texts, Complex Questions: Helping Young Children Generate Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Molly

    2017-01-01

    As they are naturally curious about the world around them, young children ask lots and lots of questions. In classrooms today, however, there seems to be little space for these student-generated questions as teachers are more likely to pose the questions. Research indicates that question generation is an effective strategy to motivate young…

  20. Phantoms and Fabrications: Young Children's Detection of Implausible Lies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Doucette, Joanne; Talwar, Victoria

    2002-01-01

    Five experiments examined whether young children believe a lie tellers' implausible statement about a misdeed when the statement violates their developing knowledge of the reality- fantasy distinction. Findings suggested that 5- and 6-year-olds tended to report that the individual making the implausible statement actually committed the misdeed; 3-…

  1. Men Who Teach Young Children: An International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, David

    2014-01-01

    Few men around the world work in daycare settings, nursery schools or kindergartens. Yet wherever they are found, men who are perceived to have crossed the gender boundary in their choice of profession are widely acclaimed as gifted educators and excellent caregivers. Policy makers who care about providing quality education for young children need…

  2. Gaze Shift as an Interactional Resource for Very Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Mardi

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how very young children in a day care center make use of their peers' gaze shifts to differentially locate and prepare for the possibility of a caregiver intervention during situations of their biting, hitting, pushing, and the like. At issue is how the visible character of a gaze shift--that is, the manner in which it is…

  3. Prevent Tipping Furniture from Injuring or Killing Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this! Home » Health Tips » Child Emergencies Prevent Tipping Furniture from Injuring or Killing Young Children The nation’s ... a child — killed by a piece of a furniture, appliance or a television falling on them. “It ...

  4. Television for Very Young Children and Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976

    This summary of the reports and papers presented at a seminar organized by the ABU in collaboration with the Prix Jeunesse Foundation and with the assistance of UNESCO includes reports on television programming for very young children in Europe, Japan, Australia, Bangladesh, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Iran, Korea, New Zealand, Pakistan, Singapore,…

  5. Supporting Military Families with Young Children throughout the Deployment Lifecycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    attended the Safe and Healthy Kids Fair and the National Employment Disability Awareness event. Recruitment Strategies for Phase 1 Recruitment... psychosocial needs of OEF/OIF families with very young children throughout the deployment lifecycle during the pre-deployment and deployment phases. Aim

  6. Working in the Classroom with Young Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, James; Daniels, Derek E.; Claflin, M. Susan

    2011-01-01

    Young children develop the skills necessary for communication in infancy. Interactions with family members and other caregivers nurture and support those skills. Spoken (expressive) language progresses rapidly after a child's first word. A typical 2-year-old has an expressive vocabulary of approximately 150-300 words. Around this time, as they…

  7. Breastfeeding practices of mothers of young children in Lagos, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the breastfeeding practices (prevalence, initiation and exclusivity) of mothers of young children in Lagos. Methods: This was a communitybased, cross-sectional study carried out in 2010 in two Local Government Areas of Lagos State. Structured, intervieweradministered questionnaires were ...

  8. Response Strength of Young Children in Operant Audiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primus, Michael A.; Thompson, Gary

    1985-01-01

    An operant conditioning discrimination paradigm was evaluated of relationships between response behavior of young children and two stimulus components of the paradigm, the discriminative stimulus and the reinforcing stimulus. Findings revealed the effects of schedules of reinforcement, novel reinforcement, and age. (Author/CL)

  9. The Ability of Young Korean Children to Use Spatial Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsung; Bednarz, Robert; Kim, Jaeyil

    2012-01-01

    The National Research Council emphasizes using tools of representation as an essential element of spatial thinking. However, it is debatable at what age the use of spatial representation for spatial thinking skills should begin. This study investigated whether young Korean children possess the potential to understand map-like representation using…

  10. Cyberbullying: Through the Eyes of Children and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackers, Melanie Jane

    2012-01-01

    The topic of cyberbullying is raising international debate and concern. Through the development and dissemination of a questionnaire 12 student researchers were supported in surveying 325 UK students across Years 7, 8 and 9 to gain further knowledge of this area, in relation to children and young people. Results were analysed and comparisons made…

  11. The perception of natural vs. built environments by young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briavel Holcomb

    1977-01-01

    This paper questions the assumption that young children need exposure to natural environments for healthy psychological development. Preliminary investigation of the environmental perceptions of 4-year-olds suggests that the distinction between natural and man-made milieux is insignificant to preschoolers, and that they find both kinds of environments similarly...

  12. Parent Recognition and Responses to Developmental Concerns in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jennifer; Coulter, Martha L.; Gorski, Peter A.; Ewing, Aldenise

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined influences, factors, and processes associated with parental recognition and appraisal of developmental concerns among 23 English- and Spanish-speaking parents of young children with signs of developmental or behavioral problems. Participants shared their experiences through in-depth interviews or focus groups and…

  13. The End-State Comfort Effect in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adalbjornsson, Carola F.; Fischman, Mark G.; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    The end-state comfort effect has been observed in recent studies of grip selection in adults. The present study investigated whether young children also exhibit sensitivity to end-state comfort. The task was to pick up an overturned cup from a table, turn the cup right side up, and pour water into it. Two age groups (N = 20 per group) were…

  14. Survey Report on Idol Worship among Children and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaozhong, He

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author presents his survey on contemporary idol worship (idolatry) which is a new turn in mankind's phenomenon of social idol worship and an important manifestation of the cultural reconfiguration of contemporary times. The principal group of persons presently engaged in idol worship consists of children and young people.…

  15. Mothering Young Children: Child Care, Stress and Social Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rullo, Giuseppina; Musatti, Tullia

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on mothers' and young children's everyday social experience by analyzing their social relationships, social support in child care, mother-child interaction, and mothers' evaluations of all these aspects. Three hundred and eighty-four mothers with a child aged between 1 and 3 years, living in a city in Central Italy, were…

  16. Improving the Efficiency of Inhalation Therapy in Young Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Festen

    2006-01-01

    textabstractInhalation therapy is the customary method to deliver medication to patients with lung disease. It is very difficult to deliver aerosolized drugs to the lungs efficiently and in a reproducible manner, especially in young children. Chapter 1 of this thesis deals with the background of

  17. Hypercholesterolaemia in children and young adults – current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Professor and Head, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Johannesburg Hospital ... (FH), those with diabetes mellitus or other cardiovascular disease risk factors or with a family history of premature coronary artery disease ... Table II: Guidelines for improving nutrition in young children3.

  18. Young Children with ADHD: Early Identification and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPaul, George J.; Kern, Lee

    2011-01-01

    The symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often begin early in life. In fact, many young children enter school with behavioral and cognitive symptoms that put them at a significant disadvantage compared with their typically-developing peers. Over the past several decades, researchers, psychologists and educators have devoted…

  19. Home Literacy, Television Viewing, Fidgeting and ADHD in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Davison, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Factors related to parent ratings of young children's (mean age = 3.72, range = 3-6) fidgeting and reports of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were examined in a nationally representative sample of US families via the National Household Education Surveys. In structural equation models, the number of television hours viewed daily was…

  20. Preschool and School Educators Noticing Young Children's Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Bob

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on how one of the major outcomes from a long term mathematics education professional development project involving educators from preschools and the early years of school in South Australia is being used by these educators to notice young children's mathematics. The educators use "Reflective Continua" to guide their…

  1. Knowledge of malaria amongst caregivers of young children in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Patrick O Erah

    Available online at http://www.tjpr.freehosting.net. Research Article. Knowledge of malaria amongst caregivers of young children in rural and urban communities in ..... context of drug use. Interventions to encourage responsible and effective treatments should aim at increasing the knowledge base of the population at large.

  2. SPIRE Project: Parental Involvement in Young Children's ESL Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harji, Madhubala Bava; Balakrishnan, Kavitha; Letchumanan, Krishnanveni

    2016-01-01

    Realising the clear dichotomy between schools and homes, the Malaysia government has now turned its attention to stakeholders and called for an increase involvement of parents, who are critical in transforming the education system. However, a clear line of demarcation continues to exist between the two prime educators of young children. Schools…

  3. Representations of Abstract Grammatical Feature Agreement in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melançon, Andréane; Shi, Rushen

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental question in language acquisition research is whether young children have abstract grammatical representations. We tested this question experimentally. French-learning 30-month-olds were first taught novel word-object pairs in the context of a gender-marked determiner (e.g., un[subscript MASC]ravole "a ravole"). Test trials…

  4. Investigating Young Children's Human Figure Drawings Using Rasch Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Claire; Bond, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    The Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test (GHDT) is a non-verbal assessment designed to infer young children's levels of intellectual development and understanding via the collection of three human figure drawings (HFDs)--one each of a man, a woman and a self-portrait. This paper presents findings from a research project that applied the Rasch model for…

  5. Father's Presence and Young Children's Behavioral and Cognitive Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Lisa J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined impact of biological father on young children's (n=1,688) cognitive and behavior adjustment. Used data from 1986 Child Supplement of National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to assess relationship between father's coresidence in household over child's first three years and adjustment. Findings suggest that father-effects operated through…

  6. The Development of Play in Infants, Toddlers, and Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casby, Michael W.

    2003-01-01

    The first of two articles on play reviews the development of play in typically developing infants, toddlers, and young children, including Piaget's observations on the development of play; developmental play research following Piaget (research by Lunzer, Sinclair, Lezine, Lowe, Rosenblatt, Uzgiris and Hunt, Fenson and others, Watson and Fischer,…

  7. Home Food Preservation among Families with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Lorraine J.; Sawicki, Marjorie A.; Elliott, Michael; White, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine preservation practices, perceived barriers, and likelihood of parents with young children to home preserve food in the future. Implications of this research relate to family and consumer sciences professionals who endeavor to improve fruit and vegetable intake and provide resources to families and…

  8. Supporting Families of Young Children with Disabilities Using Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parette, Howard P.; Meadan, Hedda; Doubet, Sharon; Hess, Jackie

    2010-01-01

    Research has frequently focused on needs, preferences, and practices of families of young children with disabilities. Surprisingly, relatively little seems to be known about how families use technology to gain information about and support their needs, even though Web-based and other information and communication technology applications have…

  9. Cardiac Pacing and Defibrillation in Children and Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harinder R. Singh, MD, CCDS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The population of children and young adults requiring a cardiac pacing device has been consistently increasing. The current generation of devices are small with a longer battery life, programming capabilities that can cater to the demands of the young patients and ability to treat brady and tachyarrhythmias as well as heart failure. This has increased the scope and clinical indications of using these devices. As patients with congenital heart disease (CHD comprise majority of these patients requiring devices, the knowledge of indications, pacing leads and devices, anatomical variations and the technical skills required are different than that required in the adult population. In this review we attempt to discuss these specific points in detail to improve the understanding of cardiac pacing in children and young adults.

  10. Exposure and Use of Mobile Media Devices by Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabali, Hilda K; Irigoyen, Matilde M; Nunez-Davis, Rosemary; Budacki, Jennifer G; Mohanty, Sweta H; Leister, Kristin P; Bonner, Robert L

    2015-12-01

    Research on children's use of mobile media devices lags behind its adoption. The objective of this study was to examine young children's exposure to and use of mobile media devices. Cross-sectional study of 350 children aged 6 months to 4 years seen October to November 2014 at a pediatric clinic in an urban, low-income, minority community. The survey was adapted from Common Sense Media's 2013 nationwide survey. Most households had television (97%), tablets (83%), and smartphones (77%). At age 4, half the children had their own television and three-fourths their own mobile device. Almost all children (96.6%) used mobile devices, and most started using before age 1. Parents gave children devices when doing house chores (70%), to keep them calm (65%), and at bedtime (29%). At age 2, most children used a device daily and spent comparable screen time on television and mobile devices. Most 3- and 4-year-olds used devices without help, and one-third engaged in media multitasking. Content delivery applications such as YouTube and Netflix were popular. Child ownership of device, age at first use, and daily use were not associated with ethnicity or parent education. Young children in an urban, low-income, minority community had almost universal exposure to mobile devices, and most had their own device by age 4. The patterns of use suggest early adoption, frequent and independent use, and media multitasking. Studies are urgently needed to update recommendations for families and providers on the use of mobile media by young children. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. The role of sleep problems in the relationship between peer victimization and antisocial behavior: A five-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ling-Yin; Wu, Wen-Chi; Wu, Chi-Chen; Lin, Linen Nymphas; Yen, Lee-Lan; Chang, Hsing-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Peer victimization in children and adolescents is a serious public health concern. Growing evidence exists for negative consequences of peer victimization, but research has mostly been short term and little is known about the mechanisms that moderate and mediate the impacts of peer victimization on subsequent antisocial behavior. The current study intended to examine the longitudinal relationship between peer victimization in adolescence and antisocial behavior in young adulthood and to determine whether sleep problems influence this relationship. In total, 2006 adolescents participated in a prospective study from 2009 to 2013. The moderating role of sleep problems was examined by testing the significance of the interaction between peer victimization and sleep problems. The mediating role of sleep problems was tested by using bootstrapping mediational analyses. All analyses were conducted using SAS 9.3 software. We found that peer victimization during adolescence was positively and significantly associated with antisocial behavior in young adulthood (β = 0.10, p peer victimization first increased levels of sleep problems, which in turn elevated the risk of antisocial behavior (indirect effect: 0.01, 95% bootstrap confidence interval: 0.004, 0.021). These findings imply that sleep problems may operate as a potential mechanism through which peer victimization during adolescence leads to increases in antisocial behavior in young adulthood. Prevention and intervention programs that target sleep problems may yield benefits for decreasing antisocial behavior in adolescents who have been victimized by peers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Foster Care on Young Children's Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Jennifer; Benigno, Joann P.; Wing, Christine A.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Koga, Sebastian F.; Nelson, Charles A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    This report examines 174 young children's language outcomes in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, the first randomized trial of foster placement after institutional care. Age of foster placement was highly correlated with language outcomes. Placement by 15 months led to similar expressive and receptive language test scores as typical age peers at 30 and 42 months. Placement from 15 to 24 months also led to dramatic language improvement. In contrast, children placed after 24 months had the same severe language delays as children in institutional care. Language samples at 42 months confirmed that placement after 24 months led to lower expressive skill. PMID:21679171

  13. Induced sputum in young healthy children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forton, Julian

    2015-10-01

    Young children with CF are often asymptomatic and non-productive, yet CF lung disease occurs early in life. Cough swabs are used routinely to sample bacteria from the CF respiratory tract in non-productive healthy children; bronchoscopy is used to definitively sample the lower airway, but is an invasive procedure. Induced sputum is a non-invasive approach to sampling the lower airway. The article concentrates on how well it is tolerated in children, how successful it is in identifying respiratory pathogens, and how it may be important in routine surveillance if 16S technology is to be used in the clinical forum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. From Listening to Understanding: Interpreting Young Children's Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliver, Yeshe

    2017-01-01

    As young children's perspectives are increasingly "taken seriously" across disciplines, the pursuit of authentic and ethical research with young children has become the subject of recent discussion. Much of this relates to listening "authentically" to (or understanding) young children, focusing on research design, ethics,…

  15. Development of [ɹ] in young, Midwestern, American children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Richard S.; Nittrouer, Susan; Manning, Carol J.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning at the age of about 14 months, eight children who lived in a rhotic dialect region of the United States were recorded approximately every 2 months interacting with their parents. All were recorded until at least the age of 26 months, and some until the age of 31 months. Acoustic analyses of speech samples indicated that these young children acquired [ɹ] production ability at different ages for [ɹ]'s in different syllable positions. The children, as a group, had started to produce postvocalic and syllabic [ɹ] in an adult-like manner by the end of the recording sessions, but were not yet showing evidence of having acquired prevocalic [ɹ]. Articulatory limitations of young children are posited as a cause for the difference in development of [ɹ] according to syllable position. Specifically, it is speculated that adult-like prevocalic [ɹ] production requires two lingual constrictions: one in the mouth, and the other in the pharynx, while postvocalic and syllabic [ɹ] requires only one oral constriction. Two lingual constrictions could be difficult for young children to produce. PMID:15000198

  16. Food advertising towards children and young people in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugge, Annechen Bahr

    2016-03-01

    Despite the fact that no studies have been carried out to map the amount of unhealthy food advertising aimed at Norwegian children and adolescents, it is still widely held belief that this type of advertising is disproportionately common. As a consequence, one of the issues high on the agenda in Norway in the 2000s was the possibility of imposing restrictions on advertising for unhealthy foods to children. The purpose of this study is to contribute with a research-based foundation for implementing this health initiative by mapping food marketing in media channels widely used by children and adolescents. In sum, the study shows that the food industry spends a lot of resources to influence young consumers' eating and drinking habits. Compared with studies from USA, UK and Australia, however, there are, strong indications that there is significantly less unhealthy food advertising in Scandinavian countries. Similar to a previous Swedish study, this study shows that Norwegian children and young people were exposed to little advertising for unhealthy food products through media channels such as TV, the Internet, magazines, comics and cinemas. The study also supports critical remarks from some researchers that the extensive use of the international discourse as a political argument and recommendation for Norwegian conditions is not accurate. For the future it may be beneficial to look more closely at the relationship between advertising and health policy, and how this relationship can be further developed to improve children and young people's diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ethics in Researching Young Children's Play in Preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hanne Værum

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses what considerations a researcher must do in the research of young children's play in preschool when she is using video. In using video technology, several researchers have described how their activities are technically, analytically, and interpretively done, but there is a ......This chapter discusses what considerations a researcher must do in the research of young children's play in preschool when she is using video. In using video technology, several researchers have described how their activities are technically, analytically, and interpretively done...... uncomfortable in the situation? How does the researcher know if a child wants to withdraw from the research? The permission has to be negotiated in relation to the specific child and in the specific situation. Examples from a study of children's physical activities in sprots preschool are applied to illustrate...

  18. Educating Young Children with Special Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Louise

    The 12 chapters in this Australian text on early childhood education of children with special needs are organized into two parts, the foundations of early years education and programming for atypical developmental needs. The 12 chapters are: (1) "Fundamentals of Early Education" (Louise Porter); (2) "Collaborating with Parents"…

  19. Encouraging Young Children's Thinking Skills with Logo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, Nicola J.

    1995-01-01

    Notes that Logo, a computer programming language developed for children by Seymour Papert, constitutes a valuable learning environment for promoting higher order thinking skills and promotes development of flexible and creative thinkers. Introduces the concept of Logo microworlds. Stresses cooperative learning and the use of Logo to support…

  20. Building Blocks for Young Children's Mathematical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarama, Julie; Clements, Douglas H.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design principles behind a set of research-based software microworlds included in the "Building Blocks" program, a pre-kindergarten to grade 2 software-based mathematics curriculum. Discusses how to help children extend and mathematize their everyday activities and presents the nine-step design process model used.…