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Sample records for victimized women increased

  1. Older women: victims of rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyra, P A

    1993-05-01

    Older female rape victims usually live alone, are raped by strangers, experience physical force and injury, and also are robbed. Rape trauma syndrome, a nursing diagnosis, consists of an acute phase of disorganization, and a long-term phase of reorganization of the victim's lifestyle. Rape victims experience emotional, physical, and cognitive reactions to the trauma of rape. Nursing actions can include providing specific interventions to victims during the acute phase, identifying victims during routine exams, referring victims for ongoing counseling, conducting community education programs on primary prevention and available services, and participating in longitudinal rape studies.

  2. Media coverage of women victimization

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinović-Vilić, Slobodanka; Žunić, Natalija

    2012-01-01

    Mass media seem to be playing the central role in our everyday life and the media impact is so overpowering nowadays that we live in a mediasaturated culture. Not only are mass media an inseparable part of our contemporary life but they also significantly define and shape our daily existence. In order to explain the cultural impact that the media coverage of crime and victimization has in our society, it is necessary to understand the relationship between crime, victimization and mass media. ...

  3. Sexual victimization and associated risks among lesbian and bisexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hequembourg, Amy L; Livingston, Jennifer A; Parks, Kathleen A

    2013-05-01

    This study examines relationships among childhood sexual abuse (CSA), risky alcohol use, and adult sexual victimization among bisexual and lesbian women. Half (51.2%) of women reported CSA and 71.2% reported adult sexual victimization. Perpetrators were generally male, and 56.4% of women's most recent adult sexual victimization incidents occurred after coming out. Regression results indicated that adult sexual victimization severity was associated with a bisexual identity, more severe CSA history, more lifetime sexual partners, and higher alcohol severity scores. Compared to lesbians, bisexual women reported more severe adult sexual victimization experiences, greater revictimization, riskier drinking patterns, and more lifetime male sexual partners.

  4. Revictimization of Victims Sexually Abused by Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata H. Kowalczyk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Victims experiencing the sexual abuse are surviving not only physical injustice but above all deep traumas, which very often in different forms, are keeping them company through the entire life. Quite often at establishing different results a sex is underestimated for the perpetrator. Therefore knowing the problem of sexual abuses from a perspective of close as well as distant results is very important in the event that a woman was a perpetrator of these acts – mother, minder. In the present article based on analysis of literature, a problem of results of the sexual abuse was presented at victims which experienced these behaviours on the part of women. In order to draw up discussing the survived specificity by victims was both of sex of the trauma connected with the sexual application as well as close and distant consequences of these events in the form prime victimisation and revictimisation for figure being noticeable in the adult life of psychosexual disorders and social shortages. Amongst the consequence isolated traumatic factors are deserving the particular attention about dynamic character which are provoking the appearance of many symptoms characteristic of children which experienced the sexual violence. Recalled factors it: traumatic sexualisation of child, the betrayal, the stigmatization and the helplessness. The specificity of these factors results from the fact that they will leave distant “tracks” in the psyche and they can undergo the additional reinforcement if a woman is a perpetrator of the sexual violence. It results from frequent attitudes of “denying” towards the sexual violence applied by women. In the study they pointed also at one of possible consequences of the revictimisation process copying patterns of behaviour connected with the sexual exploitation of children in their more late life by victims is which. This process resulting from the alternating identification of the perpetrator and the victim is starting

  5. Women in alcoholic partnerships: Victimized and stigmatized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragišić-Labaš Slađana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we strived to examine and therefore gain a deeper insight into the stigmatization and victimization of women living with an alcoholic partner by taking into account various perspectives. The association between alcohol consumption and violence against women has long been recognized, but wider social and legal support and protection followed rather late. Especially in developing countries, this serious problem has become one of the biggest health issues that is nonetheless still insufficiently investigated. High rates of aggressive and violent behavior of men towards women in partnerships have deep cultural and social roots, and this is additionally enhanced by the use of alcohol. The use of alcohol enhances violence against women and is therefore often justified which is obviously unacceptable. Women are victimized regardless of the position in these type of partnerships, namely irrespective of whether they themselves or addicts or are partners of addicted partners or husbands, because they often suffer psychological, physical and sexual violence. Several case studies drawn from our practice and presented below will partly illuminate dark side of a violent alcoholic partnership. In order to better understand the link between alcohol and violence it seems necessary to consider both social and structural factors involved.

  6. SEXUAL VICTIMIZATION AND ASSOCIATED RISKS AMONG LESBIAN AND BISEXUAL WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hequembourg, Amy L.; Livingston, Jennifer A.; Parks, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines relationships among childhood sexual abuse (CSA), risky alcohol use, and adult sexual victimization among bisexual and lesbian women. Half (51.2%) of women reported CSA and 71.2% reported adult sexual victimization. Perpetrators were generally male, and 56.4% of women’s most recent adult sexual victimization incidents occurred after coming-out. Regression results indicated that adult sexual victimization severity was associated with a bisexual identity, more severe CSA history, more lifetime sexual partners, and higher alcohol severity scores. Compared to lesbians, bisexual women reported more severe adult sexual victimization experiences, greater revictimization, riskier drinking patterns, and more lifetime male sexual partners. PMID:23759663

  7. Sexual Assertiveness Mediates the Effect of Social Interaction Anxiety on Sexual Victimization Risk among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schry, Amie R.; White, Susan W.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual victimization is prevalent among college women and is associated with adverse psychological consequences. Social anxiety, particularly related to interpersonal interaction, may increase risk of sexual victimization among college women by decreasing sexual assertiveness and decreasing the likelihood of using assertive resistance techniques.…

  8. Sexual victimization: incidence, knowledge and resource use among a population of college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasta, Aarti; Shah, Brijen; Brahmanandam, Shoma; Richman, Katherine; Wittels, Kathleen; Allsworth, Jenifer; Boardman, Lori

    2005-04-01

    To assess the incidence of sexual victimization among a convenience sample of college women and evaluate both victims and non-victims' knowledge and use of available on and off campus resources. Written questionnaire distributed to students in lobbies of two campus libraries and large computing center A private northeastern university Upper-class undergraduate women (sophomores, juniors and seniors) Respondents (n=234) were asked to complete demographic information, report instances of sexual victimization (including rape, sexual coercion and unwanted sexual contact) that occurred during the 1999-2000 academic year and indicate whether they would or did use either university and/or outside resources available to sexual assault victims. Of the women who participated, 38% (90/234) affirmed one or more episodes of sexual victimization, with 6% (14/234) reporting a completed rape and 4% (9/234) an attempted rape. Drug or alcohol-related impairment leading to unwanted sexual activity was reported by 15% (35/234) of women. Utilization of available on- and off-campus resources was uncommon among victims (22% and 6%, respectively); 12% contacted health services, while only 4% reported an event to university security. Victims cited fear, embarrassment and guilt, as well as lack of confidentiality, as the most common reasons for failure to use resources. Increasing campus awareness of sexual victimization and removing barriers to access for victims should remain university goals.

  9. Psychosocial Predictors Of Involvement Of Women As Victims Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated psychosocial predictors of involvement of women as victims of human trafficking using. This descriptive study had four independent variables- “coping strategies”, “self-esteem” “risk taking attitude” and “social support”. The dependent variable was involvement of women as victims of trafficking in ...

  10. Childhood Victimization, Attachment, Coping, and Substance Use Among Victimized Women on Probation and Parole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishon-Brown, Amanda; Golder, Seana; Renn, Tanya; Winham, Katherine; Higgins, George E; Logan, T K

    2017-06-01

    Justice-involved women report high rates of victimization across their life span, and these experiences contribute to their involvement in the criminal justice (CJ) system. Within this population, research has identified an overlap among victimization and substance use, a high-risk coping mechanism. Furthermore, research indicates attachment style is related to coping and high-risk behaviors. Research is needed to understand the relationship among these mechanisms as they relate to intimate partner violence (IPV). To address this gap, this study investigated the relationship between attachment, coping, childhood victimization, substance use, and IPV among 406 victimized women on probation/parole. Results of 6 multivariate regression analyses were statistically significant, accounting for 8%-13% of the variance in IPV. Particularly, childhood sexual victimization and negative coping were significant in all analyses. Findings provide practitioners, administrators, and policymakers information about the specific needs of justice-involved women.

  11. Emotional Profile of Women Victims of Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdibegovic, Esmina; Brkic, Maja; Sinanovic, Osman

    2017-06-01

    Research indicates that women victims of domestic violence show significant cognitive changes, emotional numbing, and avoidance of interpersonal relationships. The aim of this research was to analyze emotional profile of women victims of domestic violence, and to determine the relationship between dimensions of emotions and frequency of women exposure to domestic violence. The research was conducted on the sample of 169 women, 111 were victims of domestic violence and 58 were women who did not experience domestic violence. Plutchik's Emotions Profile Index (EPI) was used for measuring of the emotion profile, and the Modified Inventory of Domestic Violence for measuring experiences of different types of violence. Basic socio-demographic data were also collected. Significant differences between women victims of domestic violence and women who did not experience domestic violence were found in a few dimensions of emotional profile. Women victims of domestic violence had higher results in the dimensions of deprivation/depression and aggression/destruction, while women who did not experience domestic violence had higher results in dimensions of reproduction and incorporation. Aggression was in significant negative correlation with reproduction, incorporation and self protection, whereas it was significant positive correlation with deprivation and opposition. There were significant and positive correlation between the dimensions of aggression and deprivation and frequency of all three forms of domestic violence and age of women. According to results obtained in this research, it can be concluded that women victims of domestic violence have significantly more intensive negative emotional dimensions in comparison to women who were not abused. Women victims of domestic violence with higher frequency of abuse describe themselves as more sad, apathetic, lonely, angry, quarrelsome and less sociable. Prominence of negative emotions, deprivation and aggression, can be factor of

  12. Help-Seeking in a National Sample of Victimized Latino Women: The Influence of Victimization Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Schally, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine formal and informal help-seeking responses to interpersonal victimization among a national sample of Latino women. In addition, an examination of help-seeking by victimization type was undertaken. Data came from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas (SALAS) study that obtained help-seeking rates among a victimized…

  13. Prospective Prediction of Women's Sexual Victimization by Intimate and Nonintimate Male Perpetrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol; Livingston, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    Although behavioral risk factors such as substance use have been hypothesized to increase women's vulnerability to sexual victimization, prospective studies provide mixed empirical support. In the current prospective study, the authors considered substance use, sexual activity, and sexual assertiveness as predictors of sexual victimization from…

  14. Social anxiety and alcohol-related sexual victimization: A longitudinal pilot study of college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schry, Amie R; Maddox, Brenna B; White, Susan W

    2016-10-01

    We sought to examine social anxiety as a risk factor for alcohol-related sexual victimization among college women. Women (Time 1: n = 574; Time 2: n = 88) who reported consuming alcohol at least once during the assessment timeframe participated. Social anxiety, alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, and sexual victimization were assessed twice, approximately two months apart. Logistic regressions were used to examine social anxiety as a risk factor for alcohol-related sexual victimization at both time points. Longitudinally, women high in social anxiety were approximately three times more likely to endorse unwanted alcohol-related sexual experiences compared to women with low to moderate social anxiety. This study suggests social anxiety, a modifiable construct, increases risk for alcohol-related sexual victimization among college women. Implications for clinicians and risk-reduction program developers are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Traumatic victimization in the lives of lesbian and bisexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Kimberly F

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY This paper takes a contextual approach to understanding traumatic victimization experiences of lesbian and bisexual women over the life span. Expanding on feminist perspectives on violence against women, the concept of "cultural victimization" is used to explore the role of societal homophobia in shaping the experience of victimization for lesbian and bisexual women. An overview of the existing literature on the prevalence and impact of childhood abuse, domestic violence, sexual assault, and hate crimes among this population is provided. The relationship between sexual identity development and trauma is discussed. This article provides a framework for understanding lesbian and bisexual women's victimization, lends insight to clinicians working with lesbian/bisexual survivors, and provides direction for future research.

  16. Feminism, status inconsistency, and women's intimate partner victimization in heterosexual relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Cortney A; Menaker, Tasha A

    2014-07-01

    This study used a random community sample of 303 women in romantic relationships to investigate the role of educational and employment status inconsistency and patriarchal family ideology as risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, while considering demographic factors and relationship context variables. Sequential multivariate logistic regression models demonstrated a decrease in the odds of IPV victimization for Hispanic women and women who were older as compared with their counterparts. In addition, increased relationship distress, family-of-origin violence, and employment status inconsistency significantly increased the odds of IPV. Clinical intervention strategies and future research directions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Do Alcohol and Marijuana Increase the Risk for Female Dating Violence Victimization? A Prospective Daily Diary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Moore, Todd M.; McNulty, James K.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Dating violence is a serious and prevalent problem, with females being victimized by partners at high rates with numerous negative health consequences. Previous research has been equivocal on whether substance use on the part of the victim temporally precedes and, thus, increases the odds of victimization. While the sole responsibility for violence is always with the perpetrator, knowing this information could provide useful information for theory as well as interventions designed to keep women safe. Method Participants were female college students in a current dating relationship who had consumed alcohol in the previous month (N = 173). Students completed daily surveys on their violence victimization, alcohol use, and marijuana use for up to 90 consecutive days. Results On any drinking days, heavy drinking days, and as the number of alcoholic drinks consumed increased, women were more likely to be victimized by psychological, physical, and sexual dating violence. Marijuana use also preceded and increased the odds of sexual victimization. Relationship length moderated some of these temporal associations, such that the odds of victimization on a drinking day, or marijuana use day, were increased for participants in longer relationships. Conclusions Findings underscore the importance of considering the role that alcohol and marijuana use play in increasing the risk for dating violence victimization among women. Intervention programs for dating violence may benefit by attempting to decrease substance use in order to reduce risk for female victims. PMID:27818840

  18. Longitudinal Change in Women's Sexual Victimization Experiences as a Function of Alcohol Consumption and Sexual Victimization History: A Latent Transition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Amanda E B; Norris, Jeanette; Abdallah, Devon Alisa; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Morrison, Diane M; Davis, Kelly C; George, William H; Danube, Cinnamon L; Zawacki, Tina

    2016-04-01

    Women's alcohol consumption and vulnerability to sexual victimization (SV) are linked, but findings regarding the nature and direction of the association are mixed. Some studies have found support for the self-medication hypothesis (i.e., victimized women drink more to alleviate SV-related distress); others have supported routine activity theory (i.e., drinking increases SV vulnerability). In this study, we aimed to clarify the interplay between women's prior SV, typical drinking, and SV experiences prospectively over one year. Participants (N = 530) completed a baseline survey and weekly follow-up surveys across Months 3, 6, 9, and 12. Latent class analysis (LCA) suggested that women could be classified as victimized or non-victimized at each assessment month; 28% of participants were classified as victimized at one or more assessment months. Latent transition analysis (LTA) revealed that childhood sexual abuse and adult SV history each predicted greater likelihood of being victimized during the year. Typical drinking during a given assessment month was associated with (1) greater likelihood of victimized status at that assessment month and (2) greater likelihood of having transitioned into (or remained in) the victimized status since the previous assessment month. Furthermore, victimized status at a given assessment month predicted a higher quantity of subsequent drinking. These findings indicate a reciprocal relationship between typical drinking and SV, supporting both the self-medication hypothesis and routine activity theory, and suggesting that hazardous drinking levels may be one important target for both SV vulnerability reduction and interventions for women who have been sexually victimized.

  19. SOS hotline for women victims of discrimination at the workplace

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    Dobrosavljević-Grujić Ljiljana S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available SOS hotline for women victims of discrimination at the workplace offers free legal assistance to women, whenever their labor rights are endangered. If the dispute cannot be resolved peacefully by mediation between employer and employees, female lawyer skilled for the labor law starts up judicial proceedings. Some characteristic cases of discrimination of women from the practice of SOS telephone, such as dismissal from the work, physical violence and sexual blackmail, are presented in the paper.

  20. Victims and health - health consequences of violence against women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đikanović Bosiljka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an overview of violence against women prevalence in Serbia and worldwide, as well as its influences on health, is given. Apart from causing physical injuries, violence against women is a risk factor for developing different health problems. Violence effects on health are cumulative, and its consequences remain even after quitting violence. Most frequent health disorders related to violence are expressed as so called "functional" disorders, such as: diverse chronicle pain syndromes, gastrointestinal disorders, irritable bowel syndrome etc. Also, violence consequences could be sexual transmitted infections, unwanted pregnancy followed by complication and low birth weight, as well as various psychological disorders - depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress syndrome, etc. Substance and alcohol abuse, and suicidal tendencies, are also related to violence. Risk for illness is increasing when woman is exposed to both physical and sexual violence at the same time. In certain number of cases, violence against women is causing death of victim. While working with women, health professionals should approach in an appropriate way and ask questions regarding violence. .

  1. Substance use among victimized women on probation and parole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, Seana; Hall, Martin T; Logan, T K; Higgins, George E; Dishon, Amanda; Renn, Tanya; Winham, Katherine M

    2014-03-01

    Victimized women within the criminal justice system are an important group and understanding their substance use is critical. Substance use was examined among 406 victimized women on probation and parole in an urban community from 2010 to 2013. Ninety-three percent reported lifetime use of an illicit substance, whereas 58% and 45% reported use of at least one illicit substance in the past 2 years and 12 months, respectively. Among probationers, having been in a controlled environment was associated with a higher prevalence of illicit substance use as compared to parolees. Implications for practice, policy, and future research are discussed.

  2. Longitudinal pathways of sexual victimization, sexual self-esteem, and depression in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Berger, Anja

    2017-03-01

    This article presents a longitudinal analysis of the links between sexual assault victimization, depression, and sexual self-esteem by examining their cross-lagged paths among both men and women. Male and female college students (N = 2,425) in Germany participated in the study that comprised 3 data waves in their first, second, and third year of university, separated by 12-month intervals. Sexual assault victimization was assessed at Time 1 (T1) since the age of 14 and at Time 2 (T2) and Time 3 (T3) for the last 12 months. Depression and sexual self-esteem were measured at each wave. Random-intercept cross-lagged panel analyses, controlling for individual differences in depression and sexual self-esteem, showed that sexual assault at T1 predicted depression and lower sexual self-esteem at T2, and depression and lower self-esteem at T2 predicted sexual assault victimization at T3. In addition, significant paths were found from T1 depression to T2 sexual assault victimization and from T2 sexual assault victimization to depression at T3. Sexual victimization at T1 was indirectly linked to sexual victimization at T3 via depression at T2. Both depression and sexual self-esteem at T1 were indirectly linked to sexual victimization at T3. The paths did not differ significantly between men and women. Sexual assault victimization was shown to be a risk factor for both depression as a general mental health indicator and lowered sexual self-esteem as a specific outcome in the domain of sexuality. Moreover, depression and sexual self-esteem increased the vulnerability for sexual assault victimization, which has implications for prevention and intervention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Assuming Personal Responsibility for Sexual Victimization: Harmful But Potentially Adaptive for College Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donde, Sapana D; Ragsdale, Sally K A

    2017-10-01

    Survivors of sexual trauma often experience pervasive adverse cognitive attributions, such as assuming responsibility for victimization. In fact, these negative outcomes were recently included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) criterion for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and have garnered substantial research attention devoted toward investigating the effectiveness of empirically supported trauma treatments in altering and reducing maladaptive belief systems. However, less is known about the ways that these negative cognitions may be inadvertently serving an adaptive role in young women's healing and recovery from sexual trauma. The present study examined relationships between situational aspects of sexual victimization, personal responsibility, self-esteem, perceived future control, and perceived future likelihood of assault recurrence using path analysis in a sample of college women ( n = 347) who had experienced sexual victimization. Increased physical harm, decreased intoxication of the male, increased survivor intoxication, and decreased clarity of nonconsent were associated with increased personal responsibility, which was positively associated with self-esteem and perceived future control. Self-esteem mediated a negative relationship between personal responsibility and perceived future likelihood of assault recurrence, while perceived future control mediated a positive relationship. Findings suggest that college women's tendency to assume personal responsibility for sexual victimization experiences is a complicated double-edged sword with both harmful and adaptive effects. Innovative, comprehensive, and sophisticated approaches to sexual assault prevention and treatment are needed to more effectively address this issue and support young women's healing and recovery from victimization.

  4. Nonmedical prescription opioid use among victimized women on probation and parole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Martin T; Golder, Seana; Higgins, George E; Logan, T K

    2016-02-01

    Nonmedical prescription opioid use (NPOU) is a major public health concern and few studies have described this phenomenon among victimized women involved in the criminal justice system. This study will describe the relationship between victimization, psychological distress, health status and NPOU among the vulnerable population of victimized women on probation and parole. A sample of 406 women on probation and parole responded to items assessing victimization history, self-reported health status, physical pain, psychological distress, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Multiple logistic regression analysis was utilized to differentiate NPOUs versus nonusers. Overall, 169 (41.6%) women reported lifetime NPOU, and 20% reported use in the past year. Compared to women who did not report NPOU, NPOUs were more likely to be White, have poorer general health, and more severe psychological distress across nine symptom domains. In multiple logistic regression models, each year of age reduced the odds of NPOU by 4%; White women were twice as likely as women of other races to report NPOU; each unit increase in the measure for physical pain was associated with a 30% increase in the odds of NPOU; and participants who met diagnostic criteria for PTSD were 60% more likely to report NPOU compared to individuals who did not. Victimized women on probation and parole report high rates of NPOU and comorbid mental and physical health problems. The criminal justice system should routinely screen for NPOU, as well as untreated or poorly managed physical pain and psychological distress, which may increase risk of NPOU. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sexual Abuse as a Precursor to Prostitution and Victimization among Adolescent and Adult Homeless Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Ronald L.; Whitbeck, Les B.

    1991-01-01

    Studied 40 adolescent runaways and 95 homeless women to examine impact of early sexual abuse on prostitution and victimization. Findings suggest that early sexual abuse increases probability of involvement in prostitution irrespective of influence of running away, substance abuse, and other deviant acts; only indirectly affects chances of…

  6. Research on the Sexual Victimization of Women: Implications for Counselor Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Patricia A.; Cohen, B. Beth

    1992-01-01

    Reviews research on prevalence and effects of three types of victimization of women: child sexual abuse; sexual assault; and sexual harassment. Claims this research suggests victimization is quite common among women and has serious detrimental effects on their mental health. Presents data indicating victimization experiences are common among…

  7. Naturally occurring changes in women's drinking from high school to college and implications for sexual victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Maria; Hoffman, Joseph H

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the natural trajectories of alcohol use among women as they transitioned from high school to college, considering changes in drinking for students at initially different levels of drinking. We examined the hypothesis that the association between college drinking and sexual victimization would be stronger for women with less high school drinking experience. Female, college-bound, high school seniors were recruited from the community at the time of graduation (N = 437). Alcohol consumption and sexual victimization were assessed at the time of high school graduation (Time 0 [T0]) and at the end of the first (T1) and second (T2) semesters of college. Abstainers and light drinkers increased alcohol consumption from T0 to T1; however, consumption by those already engaging in heavy episodic drinking remained stable. Consumption did not increase for any group from T1 to T2. As expected, maximum consumption in college was strongly associated with experiencing incapacitated rape or other sexual victimization during the same semester; however, prior drinking experience did not moderate the relationship. Occasions of heavy drinking in college are a significant risk factor for sexual victimization for both experienced and inexperienced drinkers. Findings point toward universal prevention, ideally before college entry, as a strategy for reducing heavy episodic drinking and hence, college sexual victimization.

  8. The effect of immigration and acculturation on victimization among a national sample of Latino women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A; Schally, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the effect of immigrant status, acculturation, and the interaction of acculturation and immigrant status on self-reported victimization in the United States among Latino women, including physical assault, sexual assault, stalking, and threatened violence. In addition, immigrant status, acculturation, gender role ideology, and religious intensity were examined as predictors of the count of victimization among the victimized subsample. The Sexual Assault Among Latinas (SALAS) Study surveyed 2,000 adult Latino women who lived in high-density Latino neighborhoods in 2008. The present study reports findings for a subsample of women who were victimized in the United States (n = 568). Immigrant women reported significantly less victimization than U.S.-born Latino women in bivariate analyses. Multivariate models showed that Anglo orientation was associated with greater odds of all forms of victimization, whereas both Latino orientation and being an immigrant were associated with lower odds of all forms of victimization. Latino orientation was more protective for immigrant women than for U.S.-born Latino women with regard to sexual victimization. Among the victimized subsample, being an immigrant, Anglo acculturation, and masculine gender role were associated with a higher victimization count, whereas Latino orientation and religious intensity were associated with a lower victimization count. The findings point to the risk associated with being a U.S. minority, the protective value of Latino cultural maintenance, and the need for services to reach out to Anglo acculturated Latino women.

  9. Physical Dating Violence Victimization in College Women in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Evelyn L.; Zhao, Zhenxiang

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives There are no published studies on physical dating violence in college students in Chile, and campuses across the country currently lack systematized programs to prevent or respond to this public health problem. This is the first study to examine prevalence and predictors of physical dating violence victimization with a sample of female college students in Chile. Methods A closed-ended questionnaire was administered to students enrolled in general education courses at a major public university. The prevalence of women's physical dating violence victimization was calculated, and generalized ordered logit models were used to estimate risk factors for such victimization (n = 441). Ancillary analyses examined associations of dating violence victimization with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. Results Approximately 21% of subjects reported one or more incidents of physical dating violence not involving physical injury since age 14, and another 5% reported at least one incident resulting in physical injury during this time period. Risk factors identified in five sequential models were sexual abuse and witnessing of domestic violence in childhood, low parental education, residence away from the parental home, urban residence, and having had sexual intercourse. Maternal employment and religious participation had protective effects. Dating violence victimization was found to be significantly associated with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. Conclusions The study findings show a high prevalence of physical dating violence, strong associations between several sociodemographic factors and dating violence, and links between dating violence and sexual/reproductive risk. Our results indicate a need to expand attention to this public health problem in Chile as well as other developing countries, where research and prevention/response initiatives have generally been similarly limited. The findings

  10. Psychological distress among victimized women on probation and parole: A latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, Seana; Engstrom, Malitta; Hall, Martin T; Higgins, George E; Logan, T K

    2015-07-01

    Latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of victimized women (N = 406) on probation and parole differentiated by levels of general psychological distress. The 9 primary symptom dimensions from the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) were used individually as latent class indicators (Derogatis, 1993). Results identified 3 classes of women characterized by increasing levels of psychological distress; classes were further differentiated by posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, cumulative victimization, substance use and other domains of psychosocial functioning (i.e., sociodemographic characteristics; informal social support and formal service utilization; perceived life stress; and resource loss). The present research was effective in uncovering important heterogeneity in psychological distress using a highly reliable and easily accessible measure of general psychological distress. Differentiating levels of psychological distress and associated patterns of psychosocial risk can be used to develop intervention strategies targeting the needs of different subgroups of women. Implications for treatment and future research are presented. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. LEGAL PROTECTION AGAINST WOMEN VICTIMS BY THE INDONESIAN DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ACT 23, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanafi Arief

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic Violence, particularly against women is a social phenomenon which tends to increase from year to year and even from day to day. Many countries enacted special legislation to protect women from domestic violence based on the United Nation Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women (CEDAW. Indonesia adopted the conventions based on the Indonesian Act No. 7 of 1984 on the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, and issued Presidential Decree No. 9 of 1998 concerning the Commission on Violence against Women. Indonesia then enacted special legislation on domestic violence in 2004, namely Domestic Violence Act 23, 2004. This paper aims to understand how the Domestic Violence Act 23, 2004 protects women victims of domestic violence. The sources of law study are the basic rules and regulations, international conventions which have binding force legally. This is a library research using normative judicial approach, and the analysis is descriptive qualitative. The legal protection of women victims of domestic violence is an obligation, especially for countries that uphold human rights, because of the domestic violence constitutes crimes against humanity that are outstanding. This crime happens at any time either known or not, so it is described as an iceberg phenomenon. In addition, because this matter is private, many people do not want to intervene the matter. The strong culture of not interfering ones’ affairs also influences the police in law enforcement. Police often gives less respect for the report of the victims, and even ask the victims to go back to her husband or family

  12. Stalking Victimization among College Women and Subsequent Help-Seeking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhi, Eric R.; Clayton, Heather; Surrency, Heather Hepler

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the incidence of stalking victimization and subsequent help-seeking behaviors among college women. Participants and Methods: A stratified random sample of college women (N = 391) completed an anonymous Internet-based questionnaire in spring 2006. Results: One-fifth of women reported stalking victimization while…

  13. Physical victimization, gender identity and suicide risk among transgender men and women

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    Gia Elise Barboza, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether being attacked physically due to one's gender identity or expression was associated with suicide risk among trans men and women living in Virginia. The sample consisted of 350 transgender men and women who participated in the Virginia Transgender Health Initiative Survey (THIS. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression was used to explore the competing outcomes associated with suicidal risk. Thirty-seven percent of trans men and women experienced at least one physical attack since the age of 13. On average, individuals experienced 3.97 (SD = 2.86 physical attacks; among these about half were attributed to one's gender identity or expression (mean = 2.08, SD = 1.96. In the multivariate multinomial regression, compared to those with no risk, being physically attacked increased the odds of both attempting and contemplating suicide regardless of gender attribution. Nevertheless, the relative impact of physical victimization on suicidal behavior was higher among those who were targeted on the basis of their gender identity or expression. Finally, no significant association was found between multiple measures of institutional discrimination and suicide risk once discriminatory and non-discriminatory physical victimization was taken into account. Trans men and women experience high levels of physical abuse and face multiple forms of discrimination. They are also at an increased risk for suicidal tendencies. Interventions that help transindividuals cope with discrimination and physical victimization simultaneously may be more effective in saving lives.

  14. GENDER-BASED RESTORATIVE JUSTICE FOR VICTIMS OF VIOELENCE AGAINST WOMEN

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    Cahya Wulandari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive law is less oriented towards the protection of victims, especially women. Restorative justice appears to protect and resolve problems with the interests of the victim-oriented. This article discuss the form of legal protection for victims of violence against women, gender-based and describe the form of restorative justice for victims of gender-based violence against women. Positive criminal law does not accommodate both the interests of the victim to determine the crime against him self and to restore his suffering. This is caused due to the dominance of retributive justice in the settlement mind set crime through the criminal law. The restorative justice allows for an active role in the completion of a crime victim who happens also allows the imposition of sanctions that are beneficial to the recovery of the suffering of the victims.

  15. The trafficking of women and girls in Taiwan: characteristics of victims, perpetrators, and forms of exploitation.

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    Huang, Lanying

    2017-11-09

    Prior to the passing of 2009 Human Trafficking Prevention Act (HTPA), human trafficking was underestimated in Taiwan. In the past, domestic trafficking in women and girls often targeted vulnerable groups such as young girls from poor families or minority groups. Since the 1990s, an increasing flow of immigrant women, mainly from Vietnam and Indonesia and some from China, into Taiwan has created a new group of Human Trafficking victims. The current study intends to identify, describe, and categorize reported and prosecuted human trafficking cases involving women and girls according to the HTPA in Taiwan. Using the court proceedings of prosecuted trafficking in women and girls cases under Taiwan's HTPA from all 21 districts in Taiwan from 2009 to 2012 under the title keyword of 'Human Trafficking', this current study aims to categorize different patterns of existing trafficking in women and girls in Taiwan. The analysis is based on 37 court cases, involving 195 victimized women and girls and 118 perpetrators. This study identifies six forms of Human Trafficking victims according to their country of origin, vulnerability status, and means of transport. This study found that women and girls suffer from both labor and sexual exploitation, from mainly domestic male perpetrators. While sexual exploitation is more evenly distributed among citizens and immigrants and affects both adults and minors, labor exploitation seems to be an exclusive phenomenon among women immigrant workers in the data. Human Trafficking cases in Taiwan share many of the similarities of Human Trafficking in other regions, which are highly associated with gender inequality and gender-based vulnerability.

  16. Childhood victimization, attachment, psychological distress, and substance use among women on probation and parole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winham, Katherine M; Engstrom, Malitta; Golder, Seana; Renn, Tanya; Higgins, George E; Logan, T K

    2015-03-01

    The present analysis was guided by a gendered pathways-based theoretical model and examined relationships between childhood victimization and current attachment, psychological distress, and substance use among 406 women with histories of victimization who were on probation and parole in an urban Kentucky county. Structural equation modeling examined relationships among childhood victimization, attachment, psychological distress, and substance use. Additionally, we examined the mediational role that attachment plays in relationships between childhood victimization and both psychological distress and substance use. The data fit the models properly. Psychological distress was significantly predicted by childhood victimization, and adult attachment partially mediated this relationship. Childhood victimization did not significantly predict substance use; however, attachment did. The findings suggest that attachment may be an important factor to further understand and address in relation to psychological distress and substance use among women with histories of victimization who are involved in the criminal justice system. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Psychological characteristics of victim behavior of women in situations of domestic violence

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    Vakulich T.M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with analysis of psychological factors and characteristics of victim behavior of women in situations of domestic violence. We considered prerequisites for the formation of victim behavior in women, motives and psychological implication of protective mechanisms of women in a dysfunctional family. It is noted that the victimized women are inclined to sacrifice their "I" in order to be accepted by family system and this characteristic belongs to the general features of victimization, which manifests itself in disadaptive behavior of subjects. We revealed and described the psychological characteristics of victim behavior of women in situations of domestic violence, including neuroticism, affective functions disorder, state of learned helplessness, cognitive disorders, deformed self-perception and low self-esteem, proneness to conflict and contradictions, post-traumatic stress disorder, boundary violations of “Ego”, traumatic childhood experiences and behaviors of parents.

  18. Physically Abused Women's Experiences of Sexual Victimization and their Children's Disruptive Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Laura C; Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Skopp, Nancy A

    2012-10-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the substantial co-occurrence of women's experiences of physical and sexual violence, very little is known about their separate and combined effects on child functioning. The present study examines whether sexual victimization experienced by physically abused women is associated with their children's disruptive behavior problems, after controlling for mothers' physical victimization and parent to child aggression. It also tests the hypothesis that maternal distress mediates the association between women's sexual victimization and their children's disruptive behavior problems. METHOD: The sample includes 449 mothers and their children (4-8 years) who were recruited while residing in domestic violence shelters. Mothers reported on their experiences of physical and sexual victimization over the past year and their current symptoms of psychological distress. Trained diagnosticians interviewed mothers about their children's disruptive behavior problems. RESULTS: Approximately 75% of the women reported experiences of sexual victimization. Physically abused women's experiences of sexual victimization correlated positively with their children's disruptive behavior problems and their own psychological distress. The results of path analyses indicated that maternal psychological distress mediates the relation between women's experiences of sexual victimization and their children's disruptive behavior problems. CONCLUSIONS: This research suggests that physically abused women's experiences of sexual victimization are important for understanding their children's disruptive behavior problems. Additionally, this research provides further evidence that maternal psychological distress is important for understanding how intimate partner violence might influence children.

  19. Subjective Sleep Quality in Women With Divorce Histories: The Role of Intimate Partner Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Tamara L; Burns, Vicki Ellison; Miller, James J; Fernandez-Botran, G Rafael

    2016-05-01

    A marital status of divorced or separated, as opposed to married, predicts increased risk of health problems, but not for all persons. Focusing on one established health risk that has been linked with divorce--poor subjective sleep quality--the present cross-sectional study examined whether a history of physical intimate partner victimization (IPV) helps identify divorced women at potentially greater risk of health problems. Community midlife women with divorce histories, all of whom were free of current IPV, reported on their past month sleep quality and lifetime IPV. The predicted odds of poor sleep quality were significantly greater for women with, versus without, IPV histories. This held after adjusting for socioemotional, medical, or sociodemographic risks. A dose-response relationship between IPV chronicity and poor quality sleep was observed. IPV history may help identify divorced women at increased risk of poor quality sleep and, more broadly, poor health. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Correlates of victim-blaming attitudes regarding partner violence against women among the Spanish general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; Tomás, José M

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes correlates of victim-blaming attitudes regarding partner violence against women (PVAW) among the Spanish general population (N = 1,006). Results showed that victim-blaming attitudes were more common among respondents who were older, less educated, and who placed themselves at the bottom of the social scale. Furthermore, the odds of expressing victim-blaming attitudes were higher among respondents who thought that PVAW was common in society, considered it more acceptable, and knew women victims of partner violence in their circle of friends and family. Implications for public education are discussed.

  1. The Effects of Victim Age, Perceiver Gender, and Parental Status on Perceptions of Victim Culpability When Girls or Women Are Sexually Abused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klettke, Bianca; Mellor, David

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated perceptions of victim culpability in sexual assaults against girls and women according to victim age, perceiver gender, and perceiver parental status. Overall, 420 jury-eligible participants completed an online survey recording their attributions of guilt, responsibility, and blame toward 10-, 15-, and 20-year-old girls and women in relation to sexual assault. Attributions of culpability were affected by whether the victim physically or verbally resisted the abuse, wore sexually revealing clothes, or was described as having acted promiscuously. Fifteen-year-old victims were perceived as more culpable for the abuse than 10-year-old victims. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. Histories of Childhood Victimization and Subsequent Mental Health Problems, Substance Use, and Sexual Victimization for a Sample of Incarcerated Women in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, Stephen J.; Pettus-Davis, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    Women are entering US prisons at nearly double the rate of men and are the fastest growing prison population. Current extant literature focuses on the prevalence of the incarceration of women, but few studies exist that emphasize the different trajectories to prison. For example, women prisoners have greater experiences of prior victimization, more reports of mental illness, and higher rates of illicit substance use. The purpose of this study was to understand the prevalence of childhood victimization and its association with adult mental health problems, substance abuse disorders, and further sexual victimization. The research team interviewed a random sample of 125 women prisoners soon to release from prison to gather information on their childhood physical and sexual victimization, mental health and substance abuse problems as an adult, and sexual victimization in the year preceding incarceration. Results indicate that women prisoners in this sample who were both physically and sexually victimized as a child were more likely to be hospitalized as an adult for a psychological or emotional problem. Women who were sexually victimized or both physically and sexually victimized were more likely to attempt suicide. Women who experienced physical victimization as children and women who were both physically and sexually victimized were more likely to have a substance use disorder and women who were sexually abused as children or both physically and sexually victimized were more likely to be sexually abused in the year preceding prison. This article ends with a discussion about prisons’ role in providing treatment for women prisoners and basing this treatment on women’s trajectories to prison, which disproportionately includes childhood victimization and subsequent mental health and substance use problems. PMID:23196054

  3. An integrative review of separation in the context of victimization: consequences and implications for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert; Logan, T K; Jordan, Carol E; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2004-04-01

    Given the number of divorces that occur each year as well as the high rates of intimate partner violence, it is critical that divorce/separation and victimization be considered in research and in clinical practice with women. However, the separation/divorce research and victimization research has often been conducted independently, with limited attention to integration. The integration of these two domains is critically important in facilitating the understanding of these issues for women. This article has 5 main purposes: (a) to review the research on the general consequences of separation; (b) to review the research on the consequences of separation when children are involved; (c) to review the research on the consequences of victimization; (d) to integrate the separation and victimization research to examine separation in the context of victimization; and (e) to discuss the implications of separation in the context of victimization for practice and research.

  4. Sexual victimization and hazardous drinking among heterosexual and sexual minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Tonda L; Szalacha, Laura A; Johnson, Timothy P; Kinnison, Kelly E; Wilsnack, Sharon C; Cho, Young

    2010-12-01

    Although research shows that sexual minority women report high rates of lifetime sexual victimization and high rates of hazardous drinking, investigators have yet to explore the relationships between sexual victimization and hazardous drinking in this population. In addition, because the rates of these problems may vary within the sexual minority population, we examined and compared relationships between sexual victimization and hazardous drinking in exclusively heterosexual and sexual minority (mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly lesbian and exclusively lesbian) women. Data from 548 participants in the National Study of Health and Life Experiences of Women and 405 participants in the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women study were pooled to address these relationships. We compared hazardous drinking, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), adult sexual assault (ASA), and revictimization (both CSA and ASA) across the five sexual identity subgroups. We then fit a multilevel general linear model to examine group differences in the relationships between hazardous drinking and sexual victimization and to test for potential interactions between victimization and identity on hazardous drinking. Sexual minority women reported higher levels of hazardous drinking and higher rates of CSA and sexual revictimization than did exclusively heterosexual women. Revictimization was the strongest predictor of hazardous drinking among women who identified as mostly heterosexual and mostly lesbian. This study extends previous research by examining associations between sexual victimization and hazardous drinking in heterosexual and sexual minority women and by exploring within-group variations in these associations among sexual minority women. Higher rates of lifetime sexual victimization and revictimization may help to explain sexual minority women's heightened risk for hazardous drinking. The findings highlight the need for additional research that examines the meanings of sexual

  5. Child Sexual Abuse and Women's Sexual Health: The Contribution of CSA Severity and Exposure to Multiple Forms of Childhood Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…

  6. The impact of perceived childhood victimization and patriarchal gender ideology on intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among Korean immigrant women in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chunrye

    2017-08-01

    Childhood victimization experiences are common among intimate partner violence (IPV) victims. This study examines the link between childhood physical and sexual victimization experiences and adulthood IPV among Korean immigrant women in the USA. As Korean immigrants often use physical punishment to discipline their children, and reporting sexual abuse is discouraged due to stigmatization in this community, cultural factors (e.g. patriarchal values) related to childhood victimization and IPV were also examined. Survey data from Korean immigrant women in the USA were collected. Using a case-control design, we compared 64 Korean immigrant women who have experienced IPV in the past year with 63 Korean immigrant women who have never experienced IPV in their lifetime. The findings of this study reveal that IPV victims, compared with non-victims, experienced higher childhood victimization rates. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that childhood victimization and patriarchal gender ideology strongly predict IPV victimization among Korean immigrants. However, patriarchal values did not moderate the relationship between childhood victimization and IPV. To prevent IPV among Korean immigrant population, we need to make special efforts to prevent childhood abuse and change ingrained cultural attitudes about child physical and sexual abuse among immigrant communities through culturally sensitive programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Muslim women and foreign prostitutes: victim discourse, subjectivity, and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Christine M; Stenvoll, Dag

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we juxtapose the ways “Muslim women” and “foreign prostitutes” are commonly constituted as victims in media and politics. We analyze the functions of these two prototypical female victims in terms of the role they play in epitomizing “the problems of globalization” and in reinforcing the existing social and political structures. Victim discourse, when tied to the transnational proliferation of the sex industry and of (radical) Islam, has depoliticizing effects because it places nonindividual causes of victimization outside of “our” polity and society and casts the state as protector and neutral arbiter of national and global inequalities, marginalization, and social conflict.

  8. Correlates of Domestic Violence Victimization Among North Korean Refugee Women in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Mee Young; Kim, Hee Jin; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2016-01-06

    Although many North Korean (NK) refugee women are victims of domestic violence (DV) in North Korea, face sexual exploitation during migration, and remain at risk of DV while adapting to life in South Korea, there is no empirical evidence about risk factors for DV in this population. To fill this gap, this study examined whether gender role beliefs, child abuse history, and sociocultural adaptation were associated with past-year physical, emotional, sexual, and economic abuse, and whether they were associated with multiple forms of abuse. We also explored whether these associations were similar or different across different types of DV among NK refugee women. A sample of 180 ever-married NK refugee women in South Korea from the 2010 National Survey on Family Violence was used for analysis. Physical abuse was associated with more traditional gender role beliefs; emotional abuse and multiple forms of abuse were associated with lower levels of sociocultural adaptation; and sexual and economic abuse were associated with an increased likelihood of childhood abuse and poor sociocultural adaptation. Our study findings underscore the importance of assisting NK refugee women to be better adapted to the new culture in a practical way, because better sociocultural adaptation might protect them from experiencing various types of abuse. At the same time, findings of this study highlight the need for empowering NK refugee women who report physical abuse by educating their rights and altering their traditional beliefs of gender roles, and screening of childhood abuse and providing culturally sensitive psychotherapy to those who report sexual or economic abuse. Moreover, we suggest future studies to examine correlates of different forms of abuse separately because they can inform culturally tailored interventions for abused NK refugee women. To prevent further victimization, educational programs should be provided to NK refugee women at an early stage of resettlement in South Korea

  9. The criminal victimization of children and women in international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Jan; Kury, Helmut; Redo, Slawomir; Shea, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this article we will present an overview of the results of the national and international crime victims surveys regarding the distribution of victimization according to age and gender with a focus on violent crime. The results show a consistent inversed relationship between age and

  10. Women as Victims of Insurgency: A Study of Female Suicide Bombers in Nigeria

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    Dr. (Mrs Aisha Balarabe Bawa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism, which has systematically crept into Nigerian lexicon has gained currency and drawn increasing attention. Boko Haram is an extremist Islamic group in Nigeria that has engaged in guerrilla warfare across the north-eastern {Borno, Yobe, Adamawa and Gombe states of Nigeria since 2002. The increasing international character of Boko Haram particularly the use of teenage girls and women in their suicide operation has become a focus of analysis. The sect is known for bombing, using explosives to kill, and to cause massive destruction, hence a threat to national security. This paper undertakes a descriptive and qualitative method of inquiry to examine the Boko Haram instrumental use of women as suicide bombers. Many of the information presented in this study were based on some media interviews with the victims, the availability of high quality secondary sources as primary interviews were not possible.

  11. Sexual victimization history predicts academic performance in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Majel R; Frazier, Patricia A; Greer, Christiaan; Paulsen, Jacob A; Howard, Kelli; Meredith, Liza N; Anders, Samantha L; Shallcross, Sandra L

    2016-11-01

    College women frequently report having experienced sexual victimization (SV) in their lifetime, including child sexual abuse and adolescent/adult sexual assault. Although the harmful mental health sequelae of SV have been extensively studied, recent research suggests that SV is also a risk factor for poorer college academic performance. The current studies examined whether exposure to SV uniquely predicted poorer college academic performance, even beyond contributions from three well-established predictors of academic performance: high school rank, composite standardized test scores (i.e., American College Testing [ACT]), and conscientiousness. Study 1 analyzed longitudinal data from a sample of female college students (N = 192) who were assessed at the beginning and end of one semester. SV predicted poorer cumulative end-of-semester grade point average (GPA) while controlling for well-established predictors of academic performance. Study 2 replicated these findings in a second longitudinal study of female college students (N = 390) and extended the analyses to include follow-up data on the freshmen and sophomore students (n = 206) 4 years later. SV predicted students' GPA in their final term at the university above the contributions of well-established academic predictors, and it was the only factor related to leaving college. These findings highlight the importance of expanding the scope of outcomes of SV to include academic performance, and they underscore the need to assess SV and other adverse experiences on college campuses to target students who may be at risk of poor performance or leaving college. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The conflict resolution resources of female dating violence victims :a comparison of women who use mutual violence and women who remain nonviolent

    OpenAIRE

    Jester, Stephanie Barasch

    1992-01-01

    Social science research has consistently revealed that dating violence victims differ in their use of violence against their dating partners. Some victims use violence in mutually violent dating relationships while other victims remain nonviolent in unilaterally violent dating relationships. The present study sought to understand how mutually violent victims, unilateral victims and women in nonviolent relationships differ in their use of conflict resolution resources. Findings ...

  13. Intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration by Puerto Rican women with severe mental illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Loue, Sana; Goldman Heaphy, Emily L; Mendez, Nancy

    2011-04-01

    Previous research indicates a higher prevalence of victimization among severely mentally ill women. Few studies have either compared these levels across diagnostic categories or evaluated perpetration by the women. We report qualitative and quantitative findings regarding intimate partner violence perpetrated both against and by a sample of 53 Puerto Rican women diagnosed with major depression, bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia. Interviewers shadowed participants for a period of 2 years. Two-thirds of the women with serious mental illness had histories of victimization. However, 23% of the women also reported histories of violence towards their significant others. This was attributed to various reasons, such as anger, revenge, control, and self-defense. Participants described their personal conceptualization of the violence they received and perpetrated. This has implications for programs designed to prevent family violence, for health care professionals in general, and for psychiatrists, who may be called upon to address future risk of victimization or commission of violence.

  14. Violent Victimization and Substance Dependency: Comparing Rural Incarcerated Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    OTIS, MELANIE D.; OSER, CARRIE B.; STATON-TINDALL, MICHELE

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the relationship between sexual identity and violent victimization experiences as predictors of differences in illicit substance and alcohol use and substance use problems among a sample of incarcerated women in rural Appalachia (N = 400). Results indicated that, compared to heterosexual women, sexual minority women were more likely to have a lifetime history of weapon, physical, and sexual assault, and were younger at the time of their first violent victimization. Sexual minority women were younger than heterosexual women at the age of onset for intravenous drug use and at the time they first got drunk, and were more likely to report having overdosed. Multivariate analysis found violent victimization to be the strongest predictor of a history of overdose and substance use problems. PMID:27660590

  15. The Relation Between Dating Violence Victimization and Commitment Among Turkish College Women: Does the Investment Model Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Toplu-Demirtas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the sexual, physical, psychological, and overall dating violence experiences, and related these experiences to Investment Model variables among Turkish college women. Three hundred and ninety dating women from four universities in Ankara, Turkey completed the Satisfaction, Investment, Alternatives, and Commitment subscales from the Investment Model Scale and the Sexual Coercion, Physical Assault, and Psychological Aggression subscales from the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale. 79.5 percent reported at least one incident of violence in a dating relationship within the previous year. Regression analyses indicated that satisfaction fully mediated the relations between physical, psychological, and overall dating violence victimization and commitment, but not for sexual victimization. The results suggest that future research should explore the possibility that the dissatisfaction women experience may be related to an increased likelihood of relation termination.

  16. High Heels Increase Women's Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    Research has found that the appearance of women's apparel helps increase their attractiveness as rated by men and that men care more about physical features in potential opposite-sex mates. However, the effect of sartorial appearance has received little interest from scientists. In a series of studies, the length of women's shoe heels was examined. A woman confederate wearing black shoes with 0, 5, or 9 cm heels asked men for help in various circumstances. In Study 1, she asked men to respond to a short survey on gender equality. In Study 2, the confederate asked men and women to participate in a survey on local food habit consumption. In Study 3, men and women in the street were observed while walking in back of the female confederate who dropped a glove apparently unaware of her loss. It was found that men's helping behavior increased as soon as heel length increased. However, heel length had no effect on women's helping behavior. It was also found that men spontaneously approached women more quickly when they wore high-heeled shoes (Study 4). Change in gait, foot-size judgment, and misattribution of sexiness and sexual intent were used as possible explanations.

  17. Women's condom use assertiveness and sexual risk-taking: effects of alcohol intoxication and adult victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Susan A; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Morrison, Diane M; Zawacki, Tina; Davis, Kelly Cue; Hessler, Danielle M

    2008-09-01

    This experiment examined relationships among adulthood victimization, sexual assertiveness, alcohol intoxication, and sexual risk-taking in female social drinkers (N=161). Women completed measures of sexual assault and intimate partner violence history and sexual assertiveness before random assignment to 1 of 4 beverage conditions: control, placebo, low dose (.04%), or high dose (.08%). After drinking, women read a second-person story involving a sexual encounter with a new partner. As protagonist of the story, each woman rated her likelihood of condom insistence and unprotected sex. Victimization history and self-reported sexual assertiveness were negatively related. The less sexually assertive a woman was, the less she intended to insist on condom use, regardless of intoxication. By reducing the perceived health consequences of unprotected sex, intoxication indirectly decreased condom insistence and increased unprotected sex. Findings extend previous work by elucidating possible mechanisms of the relationship between alcohol and unprotected sex - perceived health consequences and situational condom insistence - and support the value of sexual assertiveness training to enhance condom insistence, especially since the latter relationship was robust to intoxication.

  18. Violence against women in Yemen: official statistics and results from an exploratory victim survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ba-Obeid, M.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.

    2002-01-01

    This article presents official statistics on violence against women in Yemen, as a threshold indicator of victimization incidence. Next, we present the findings from an exploratory survey into the prevalence of violent victimisation among a stratified sample of 120 women in Sana' a. We distinguish

  19. Increased risk of mental disorders among lifetime victims of stalking--findings from a community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehner, Christine; Gass, Peter; Dressing, Harald

    2007-04-01

    Population-based studies on the relationship between stalking and mental health outcomes in victims are scarce. The aim of the present study was to assess associations between stalking victimization and specific DSM-IV mental disorders in a community sample. A postal survey was conducted in a middle-sized German city (sample size=675). Lifetime stalking victims and non-victims were compared regarding rates of any mental disorder, comorbid mental disorders, and specific disorders assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Victims had a higher incidence of mental disorders and comorbid mental disorders. Sex- and age-adjusted rates of specific disorders were increased, with the most robust associations identified for major depression (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.8-12.8) and panic disorder (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.1-14.9). Victims also reported higher current use of psychotropic medication (20.8% versus 5.6%). Our study indicates substantial associations between stalking victimization and impaired mental health that can be quantified at diagnostic levels in the general population. To confirm these findings, larger community studies are needed, which also include an assessment of lifetime psychopathology and of factors potentially mediating the associations between stalking victimization and mental health.

  20. Increased risk of sadness and suicidality among victims of bullying experiencing additional threats to physical safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tammy B; Adesman, Andrew

    2017-11-23

    Objective To examine, in a nationally-representative sample of high school students, to what extent one or more additional threats to physical safety exacerbates the risk of sadness and suicidality among victims of school and/or cyber-bullying. Methods National data from the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) were analyzed for grades 9-12 (n = 15,624). Victimization groups were characterized by school-bullying and cyber-bullying, with and without additional threats to physical safety: fighting at school, being threatened/injured at school, and skipping school out of fear for one's safety. Outcomes included 2-week sadness and suicidality. Outcomes for victimization groups were compared to non-victims using logistic regression adjusting for sex, grade and race/ethnicity. Results Overall, 20.2% of students were school-bullied, and 15.5% were cyber-bullied in the past year. Compared to non-victims, victims of school-bullying and victims of cyber-bullying (VoCBs) who did not experience additional threats to physical safety were 2.76 and 3.83 times more likely to report 2-week sadness, and 3.39 and 3.27 times more likely to exhibit suicidality, respectively. Conversely, victims of bullying who experienced one or more additional threats to physical safety were successively more likely to report these adverse outcomes. Notably, victims of school-bullying and VoCBs with all three additional risk factors were 13.13 and 17.75 times more likely to exhibit suicidality, respectively. Conclusion Risk of depression symptoms and suicidality among victims of school-bullying and/or cyber-bullying is greatly increased among those who have experienced additional threats to physical safety: fighting at school, being threatened/injured at school and skipping school out of fear for their safety.

  1. Gender perspective in the implementation of the Victims and Land Restitution Law: a proposal for the characterization of women and girls victims of armed conflict in Colombia

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    Mariana Castrellón Pérez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present a methodological proposal to be included by local governments in their planning tools to implement the Victims and Land Restitution Law. Integral reparation measures on behalf of women who have been victimized by the armed actors have to recognize that the victimization oversees the violent episode and exacerbates inequality gaps and the effective enjoyment of rights between men and women. Hence, any attempt to characterize women survivors of the conflict must consider women’s situation in different areas of exclusion such as access to land and housing, educational level, economic independence, among others; as well as the different types of discrimination that women face during peace times. All this to formulate public policy that aims at preventing violence and repairing women in local territories.

  2. Intimate partner stalking victimization and posttraumatic stress symptoms in post-abuse women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Kimberly N; Newton, Tamara L; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Miller, James J; Ellison Burns, Vicki

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to further understanding of intimate partner stalking victimization in post-abuse women, with particular attention to the definition of stalking (with or without fear and threat) most predictive of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. In community midlife women with histories of divorce (N = 192), a history of stalking victimization accompanied by fear and threat was positively correlated with PTS symptom severity, after accounting for other partner abuse. The presence, compared with absence, of fear-and-threat stalking history doubled the odds of symptomatic levels of hyperarousal. Greater physical assault and injury chronicity differentiated fear-and-threat stalked women from other stalked women. Stalking contributed to a fuller understanding of PTS symptoms in women, showing particular relevance for hyperarousal.

  3. The Effect of Acculturation and Immigration on the Victimization and Psychological Distress Link in a National Sample of Latino Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Carlos A.; Sabina, Chiara; Bell, Kristin A.

    2012-01-01

    Distinct bodies of research have examined the link between victimization and psychological distress and cultural variables and psychological health, but little is known about how cultural variables affect psychological distress among Latino victims. Substantial research has concluded that Latino women are more likely than non-Latino women to…

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Women's Past-Year Physical IPV Perpetration and Victimization in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Bianka M; Chen, May S; Nekkanti, Manali; Mulawa, Marta I

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) in high-resource countries suggest that men and women may perpetrate similar rates of violence against their partners, yet the prevalence and etiology of female-perpetrated IPV, especially in comparison with IPV victimization among females, remains largely understudied in low-resource, high-prevalence countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Using multivariate logistic regression models, the current study examines the prevalence of and risk factors associated with past 12-month experiences of isolated physical IPV perpetration (i.e., violence perpetrated against an intimate partner not in self-defense) and physical IPV victimization among a nationally representative sample of women of reproductive age (15-49 years) from Tanzania who completed the Tanzanian Demographic and Health Survey Domestic Violence Module ( n = 5,372). Approximately 1.5% reported perpetrating violence in the past 12 months, whereas 35% reported victimization in the same time period. Risk factors of past 12-month IPV perpetration included past 12-month IPV victimization, making cash or in-kind earnings, having autonomy in decision making, and acceptance of justifications for wife beating. Women much younger than their partners had lower odds of IPV perpetration. Risk factors of past 12-month IPV victimization included past 12-month IPV perpetration, educational attainment, having children, partner's alcohol consumption, partner's decision making, acceptance of justifications for wife beating, and exposure to parental IPV. Making cash or in-kind earnings was the only protective factor against victimization. Findings suggest that female IPV perpetration and victimization may result from a combination of factors including power differentials between partners and attitudes about the acceptability of using violence. Future research directions and implications for policy and prevention efforts to reduce IPV in Tanzania are discussed.

  5. Intimate partner violence victimization and alcohol consumption in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen M; Child, Jennifer C; Bacchus, Loraine J; Mak, Joelle; Falder, Gail; Graham, Kathryn; Watts, Charlotte; Heise, Lori

    2014-03-01

    To examine the evidence of association between intimate partner physical or sexual violence (IPV) victimization and alcohol consumption in women. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies released before 6 June 2013. Studies providing an estimate of association between violence and alcohol consumption or alcohol use disorders were eligible for inclusion. Quality was assessed and random effects meta-analyses used to generate pooled odds ratios (OR) where appropriate. Higgins I(2) where Palcohol use and other key confounders. Seven longitudinal studies provided 12 estimates of the association between alcohol and subsequent IPV; nine of 12 estimates showed a direction of increased odds of subsequent IPV, pooled OR=1.27 [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.07-1.52], I(2) =0%, P=0.437. Nine longitudinal studies provided 15 estimates of association between IPV and subsequent alcohol use; 14 of 15 estimates showed a direction of increased odds of subsequent alcohol use, pooled OR=1.25 (95% CI 1.02-1.52), I(2)=0%, P=0.751. Cross-sectional studies showed an association between IPV and alcohol use, pooled OR=1.80, 95% CI 1.58-2.06, but with substantial heterogeneity, I(2)=60.8%, PDefinition of alcohol use partly accounted for heterogeneity in cross-sectional estimates. There is a clear positive association between alcohol use and intimate partner physical or sexual violence victimization among women, suggesting a need for programming and research that addresses this link. However, the temporal direction of the association remains unclear. Longitudinal studies with multiple waves of data collection are needed. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Inference of feminist contemplation's in reduction of women victimization

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrashekar, S.V

    2016-01-01

    There are many instances of crime especially against women go unreported in India. large number of dark figure crime index reflecting on country’s law and order situation, offences against women like domestic violence, Rape, sexual violence, Women Trafficking, Molestation, Murders, Dowry Deaths, and other violent crimes often impacting on society and they are seriously impacting on social condition. Women victim’s in this particular offences faces many problems throughout the investigation an...

  7. Unresolved attachment and agency in women victims of intimate partner violence: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallini, Susanna; Alfani, Agnese; Marech, Lucrezia; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2017-06-01

    Women victims of IPV are more likely insecurely attached and have experienced childhood abuse, which according to the attachment theory is deeply related to disorganized attachment. This case-control study was performed with the aim to compare the attachment status and the defensive processing patterns of women victims of IPV (cases) with women with no experiences of IPV (controls). Cases were 16 women with an age range from 26 years to 51 years. The control group included 16 women with an age range from 26 years to 59 years. Women's states of mind in regard to attachment were evaluated with the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System, which allows classifying attachment status and defensive mechanisms. Compared with control group, most IPV women resulted having an unresolved attachment status and describing characters less capable to draw upon internal resources, that is, internalized secure base, and less capable to act than controls. Women victims of IPV used significantly more words referring danger and failed protection than controls. The results evidenced the strong effectiveness of the AAP on analysing the psychological attitudes of women victims of IPV. The dramatic events lived by the women victims of IPV are so dominant in their minds that they invade their stories. This could represent a clue of emotional dysregulation. The use of AAP improves the understanding of the agency of self and of the specific levels of trauma experienced by IPV victims, on clarifying their frightening/frightened dynamic, typical of the disorganized attachment relationship, which undermines their activity of mentalization. The therapist will assume the stance of a secure base and then both promoting exploration and contrasting impotence, humiliation, and subordination that IPV women have experienced. This therapeutic interpersonal context will be functional to reach two different but related therapeutic goals: (1) to facilitate the rebuilding of agency (through an

  8. A Latent Growth Curve Analysis of Early and Increasing Peer Victimization as Predictors of Mental Health Across Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Hessel, Elenda T.; Schmidt, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    Peer victimization has been implicated as a traumatic stressor that compromises children’s long-term mental health, yet a dearth of prospective research specifically demonstrates lasting effects of early victimization. This research examined whether early (2nd grade) victimization and increasing (2nd – 5th grade) victimization independently predicted depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior (overt and relational) in 5th grade. Participants included 433 children (238 girls, 195 boys). Children reported on peer victimization and depressive symptoms; teachers reported on peer victimization and aggressive behavior. Latent growth curve analysis revealed that both early and increasing victimization made unique contributions to subsequent depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior. Relational aggression was particularly likely to follow victimization in girls. PMID:21229448

  9. A Latent Growth Curve Analysis of Early and Increasing Peer Victimization as Predictors of Mental Health across Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Hessel, Elenda T.; Schmidt, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    Peer victimization has been implicated as a traumatic stressor that compromises children's long-term mental health, yet a dearth of prospective research documents lasting effects of early victimization. This study examined whether early (2nd grade) and increasing (2nd-5th grade) victimization predicted 5th grade depressive symptoms and aggressive…

  10. A case study of Ore women victims of Biafra war in Nigeria between 1966 to 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Between 1966 and 1970, Nigeria went through a civil war during which the Eastern State of Biafra tried unsuccessfully to secede from the rest of Nigeria. Ore, a town in Ondo State, was affected during this war. The violations that were committed during the war included massacres, beatings, lootings, torture, and abductions. This article presents a case study of Ore women victims of Biafra war in Nigeria, utilizing documented experiences of such women. Included in this report is a summary of the testimony of Mrs. E, one of the many women victims who suffered atrocities during the war. Overall, the report blames the Nigerian government for doing little or nothing after the war to help the people of Ore in rebuilding and rehabilitating the victims¿ lives, as well as the community. In addition, the victims have never been assisted by nongovernmental organizations since the war ceased; and no research on the women's experiences was carried out before this report. In view of this, a strategy for redress, in which the survivors have suggested various remedies, is recommended.

  11. Social perception of violence against women: Individual and psychosocial characteristics of victims and abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Carmen Herrera

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Violence against women in close relationships is one of the most worrying and controversial situations in modern society. The main goal of this study was to identify the social perception that people generally have of gender violence in order to obtain profiles of both men who resort to violence against their partners and women who are victims of abuse, identifying both individual (e.g. self-esteem and social (power in relationship characteristics related to gender violence. Using a questionnaire (designed between groups, 268 participants were asked to estimate the probability of men (Batterers vs. Non-batterers and women (Victims vs. Non-victims displaying certain behaviours, beliefs or attitudes. The results revealed the existence of clear social profiles of both aggressors and victims, comprising both individual and psychosocial characteristics. These profiles contained aspects that coincide with the roles traditionally associated with men and women, thus highlighting inequality between both sexes, and which seems to be one of the main causes of gender violence.

  12. Perpetrators and victims: Exploring women's roles in ethno-religious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper contributes to the discourse on women's roles and narratives in political contexts characterised by the interplay of ethnic and religious identities and examines how peace building and conflict prevention initiatives can take these into account. Keywords: Women, Human Security, Conflict Theory, Peace building, ...

  13. Half of world's women are victims of domestic abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to a report by the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), up to half of the world's female population have suffered abuse at the hands of those closest to them, at some point in their lives. This report on Domestic Violence Against Women and Girls is a first effort by the UNICEF to establish the global dimensions of domestic abuse. It is also another step deeper into an aggressive campaign to address the root causes of the problems of millions of the world's women and children. Meanwhile, an outcome of the 5-day UN special meeting is a new blueprint to improve women's lives, noting domestic violence as a primary issue with emphasis on abortion, and punishment for marital rape, domestic abuse, and trafficking. In addition, the conference acknowledged the role of men in the process of improving women's lives. Moreover, the issues of welfare for women caught in armed conflict are also discussed with focus on the war in Mindanao, Philippines.

  14. Correlates of recent drug use among victimized women on probation and parole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, Seana; Hall, Martin T; Engstrom, Malitta; Higgins, George E; Logan, Tk

    2014-12-01

    Guided by the Comprehensive Health Seeking and Coping Paradigm (CHSCP; Nyamathi, 1989), the present research sought to examine associations between victimization, psychological distress, lawbreaking and recent drug use (past 12 months) among 406 victimized women on probation and parole. Bivariate differences between women who reported recent drug use and those who did not report recent use were compared across the 4 domains of the CHSCP (sociodemographic characteristics, personal resources, lifetime victimization, dynamic crime and drug factors). Variables significantly related to recent drug use at the bivariate level were retained in the multivariate analysis. The final multivariate model, using stepwise logistic regression via backward elimination, retained five candidate variables indicating women who recently used drugs, were younger, were not sexually victimized as children, began using drugs before they were 13 years of age, were on probation, and had engaged in more recent lawbreaking. The final model accounted for approximately 30% of the variance in drug use over the past 12 months. Implications for intervention and future research are discussed.

  15. [A support group intended for women victimized by conjugal violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, T; Kérouac, S; Boucher, D

    1991-01-01

    For battered women, leaving the home and spending time in a shelter is only the first step of a long process of change that usually involves periodic crises. A support group has been set up to help these women establish new ways to relate with the outside world, ways that are meant to assist them in successfully going through this difficult phase of their lives. Based on Lifton's principles of affinity, presence and consolidation (1976), the authors highlight the value of reciprocity in the therapeutical relationship. In addition, the authors discuss issues relating to the main points affecting interventions with battered women who have spent time in a shelter.

  16. Victimization and substance use disorders in a national sample of heterosexual and sexual minority women and men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Tonda; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; West, Brady T.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2010-01-01

    Context There is consensus in the research literature that substance use disparities exist among sexual minority women and men; however, few studies have examined risk factors that may contribute to these disparities. Aims To compare reports of life-time victimization experiences in a US national sample of adult heterosexual and sexual minority women and men and to examine the relationships between victimization experiences and past-year substance use disorders. Design, participants, measurements The secondary data analyses used 2004–05 (wave 2) National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) data collected in structured diagnostic face-to-face interviews in the United States. Substance use disorders (SUDs) were defined according to DSM-IV criteria and included past-year alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, drug abuse and drug dependence. The sample consisted of 34 653 adults aged 20 years and older; approximately 2% of the respondents self-identified as sexual minority (lesbian, gay or bisexual). Findings Results showed strong associations between victimization and any past-year SUDs and confirmed findings from several previous studies indicating that, compared with heterosexuals, sexual minority women and men are at heightened risk for life-time victimization. However, prevalence of the seven victimization experiences and the degree of association between individual victimization experiences and SUDs varied substantially across sexual minority subgroups. The childhood victimization variables—especially childhood neglect—showed the strongest and most consistent associations with SUDs. Odds of SUDs were generally higher among both female and male respondents, regardless of sexual identity, who reported multiple (two or more) victimization experiences than among those who reported no life-time victimization, suggesting a possible cumulative effect of multiple victimization experiences. Conclusions Higher rates of life-time victimization

  17. The association between childhood maltreatment, psychopathology, and adult sexual victimization in men and women: results from three independent samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, K B; McCutcheon, V V; Challa, M; Agrawal, A; Lynskey, M T; Conroy, E; Statham, D J; Madden, P A F; Henders, A K; Todorov, A A; Heath, A C; Degenhardt, L; Martin, N G; Bucholz, K K; Nelson, E C

    2016-02-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) has consistently been linked with adverse outcomes including substance use disorders and adult sexual revictimization. Adult sexual victimization itself has been linked with psychopathology but has predominately been studied in women. The current investigation examines the impact of CM and co-occurring psychopathology on adult sexual victimization in men and women, replicating findings in three distinct samples. We investigated the association between continuous CM factor scores and adult sexual victimization in the Childhood Trauma Study (CTS) sample (N = 2564). We also examined the unique relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual victimization while adjusting for co-occurring substance dependence and psychopathology. We replicated these analyses in two additional samples: the Comorbidity and Trauma Study (CATS; N = 1981) and the Australian Twin-Family Study of Alcohol Use Disorders (OZ-ALC; N = 1537). Analyses revealed a significant association with CM factor scores and adult sexual victimization for both men and women across all three samples. The CSA factor score was strongly associated with adult sexual victimization after adjusting for substance dependence and psychopathology; higher odds ratios were observed in men (than women) consistently across the three samples. A continuous measure of CSA is independently associated with adult sexual trauma risk across samples in models that included commonly associated substance dependence and psychopathology as covariates. The strength of the association between this CSA measure and adult sexual victimization is higher in magnitude for men than women, pointing to the need for further investigation of sexual victimization in male community samples.

  18. [Elements of comprehensiveness in the professional health practices provided to rural women victims of violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Marta Cocco; Lopes, Marta Julia Marques

    2012-10-01

    The present article refers to a qualitative study that was performed with the objective to identify and analyze the practice of healthcare professionals regarding rural women victims of violence, under the perspective of comprehensive care, in cities located in southern Rio Grande do Sul state. Participants were healthcare professionals and workers from health services who work in rural areas. The information was generated through interviews and analyzed using the thematic mode. In regards to care elements provided to rural women who are victims of violence, the study pointed out not only the relational strategies - welcoming, attachment and dialogue - but also the construction of collective actions through group activities, recognized as supporting health promotion, as well as individual and collective empowerment in the dimension of violent events. It was found that the professionals' care practices are aimed at focusing care on the rural women, establishing a relationship between the worker and client to produce comprehensiveness of care.

  19. Victims and health - health consequences of violence against women

    OpenAIRE

    Đikanović Bosiljka

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, an overview of violence against women prevalence in Serbia and worldwide, as well as its influences on health, is given. Apart from causing physical injuries, violence against women is a risk factor for developing different health problems. Violence effects on health are cumulative, and its consequences remain even after quitting violence. Most frequent health disorders related to violence are expressed as so called "functional" disorders, such as: diverse chronicle pain syndro...

  20. [Clinical and psychopathological profile of women victims of psychological partner violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, C; Dubois, F; Jaafari, N; Carl, T; Gaillard, P; Camus, V; El Hage, W

    2009-08-01

    Partner violence is a serious public health problem, due to their potential short-, medium- or long-term physical and psychological consequences. Violence is unbearable when it occurs between family members, and often remains unrevealed, invisible, hidden and repeated. The woman possibly feels trapped in a relationship of imprisonment. International studies have well-explored the psychopathological aspects of physical and sexual abuse within couples, but few explored the clinical profile of women victims of psychological violence or moral harassment. This study aims to define the clinical and psychopathological profile of women who are victims of psychological intimate partner violence. We contacted 628 women who consulted consecutively at the emergency ward of a university hospital covering a 300,000 catchment area. The telephone screening of psychological violence was therefore carried out using the Women's Experience with Battering (WEB) questionnaire (N=226). An optional clinical interview was given to the women declaring themselves as victims of psychological intimate partner violence (N=56) to evaluate the life events and the psychiatric disorders according to the DSM-IV. Finally, 43 participants (77%) gave their opinion on the qualitative aspects of the WEB questionnaire and their level of ease with this report. In 63% (N=35) of the cases, the victims and their partners had a rather high socioprofessional level. Women refer to emergency ward mostly for complaint of vague idiopathic pain (49%) or for psychiatric disorders (52%) with predominance of anxiety (28%) or addictive disorders (19%). The prevalence of potentially traumatic life events was found to be high in this group (83%). The traumatic psychological intimate partner violence was associated with a heightened prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities, like anxiety (72%), depression (100%), posttraumatic stress disorder (100%), and addiction to alcohol (100%) or another psychoactive substance (50

  1. Vulnerability of Elderly Women: Victim of Gender Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subir Kumar Roy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle of human being completes with the process of aging but we fail to realize this simple arithmetic of life and often consider our elders as a burden for us. They are compelled to compromise with their dignity and integrity and forced to live at the mercy of their own nearest and dearest. When we talk about elderly women their position is more appalling than their male counterpart due to this male chauvinism which tries to regulate every affair of the life of the people. Under the alibi of protection and security of women they are subjected to the violent gender discrimination and compelled to live and lead their life at the fingertips of a male. The women in especially in third world countries are considered as a tool of procreation of child and all her activities and qualities of life are relegated with the household course. Across the globe the male tendency is to regulate Women’s ownership and control of property, resources created by her own labor, education and information and even her reproductive abilities and sexualities with an intention to jeopardize and throttled down the rights of the women. Women bear this status till her last breath and hence, it is axiomatic that how vulnerable their position is.

  2. Women and AIDS. Punishing the victims in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, S

    1991-01-01

    The plight of HIV positive women illegally detained in a remand home in India for an undetermined period due to their HIV status is described. Detention was originally received due to infractions of the Prevention of Immoral Traffic Act (PITA). The rationale for continued detention after sentences were served was to prevent the spread of infection to others and to provide medical care. Women detained were interviewed in March 1989. The initial difficulties encountered were gaining access to the women since the press had been banned. After permission was granted, there were restrictions on cameras or tape recorders and the superintendent was to be present at all times. The 1st meeting was heralded by a call for all the AIDs women to come to the office. There were several passionate outburst demanding release and return to their families and small children. The illegal nature of the detention was recognized by authorities but justified because of the women being considered "pools of infection" and a "threat to society." There was no recognition of the means of transmission of HIV infection or the nature of HIV/AIDs by authorities. These prostitutes were infected by HIV-positive men paying to have sex with them. Condoms were not routinely used because prostitutes were unaware of the risk of an incurable disease, and felt that required condom use for paid sex would lead to beatings and loss of work. In conversations with brothel owners, the attitude was that the women were medically well until they became ill; in which case, the women were replaced. There was no recognition that the client could be ill and spread disease or HIV infection. Prostitutes were also concerned that the crime ignored the client, the pimp, and brothel owners. In fact, prostitution is legal, but soliciting in a public place is illegal. In November 1989, the public prosecutor was contacted about the illegal detention, but it was not until a writ of habeas corpus was filed in March 1990 seeking

  3. Lived Experiences of Women Victims of Domestic Violence in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high rate of domestic violence has become an issue of concern in South African families today. In most instances women and children die due to domestic violence and cases go unreported because of fear, lack of facilities such as: crisis intervention centers, hot lines as well as refugee places (shelters). The overall aim ...

  4. WOMEN AND CHILDRENS, THE MAIN VICTIMS OF FORCED DISPLACEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alonso Andrade Salazar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to shows the particular manner as in Colombia, women and children areparticularly vulnerable by armed groups that attack their dignity and privacy affect their family, ideological and sexual. The preparation of the article involved an extensive literature review. In Colombia and adolescent girls constitute 53% of the displaced population, of which at least 17% were mobilized as a result of harassment, assault and sexual violence. The vital risk factors and vulnerability are directly proportional to the armed conflict, therefore the war dissociates the family unit, and alters the elements of group cohesion. Often children carry their emotional state through aggressive or playful - in conflicting attitudes, and recharges in women full weight of family reconstitution, which hinders its adaptation process.

  5. Sexual orientation differences in the relationship between victimization and hazardous drinking among women in the National Alcohol Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabble, Laurie; Trocki, Karen F; Hughes, Tonda L; Korcha, Rachael A; Lown, Anne E

    2013-09-01

    This study examined relationships between past experiences of victimization (sexual abuse and physical abuse in childhood, sexual abuse and physical abuse in adulthood, and lifetime victimization) and hazardous drinking among sexual minority women compared to exclusively heterosexual women. Data were from 11,169 women responding to sexual identity and sexual behavior questions from three National Alcohol Survey waves: 2000 (n = 3,880), 2005 (n = 3,464), and 2010 (n = 3,825). A hazardous drinking index was constructed from five dichotomous variables (5+ drinking in the past year, drinking two or more drinks daily, drinking to intoxication in the past year, two or more lifetime dependence symptoms, and two or more lifetime drinking-related negative consequences). Exclusively heterosexual women were compared with three groups of sexual minority women: lesbian, bisexual, and women who identified as heterosexual but reported same-sex partners. Each of the sexual minority groups reported significantly higher rates of lifetime victimization (59.1% lesbians, 76% bisexuals, and 64.4% heterosexual women reporting same-sex partners) than exclusively heterosexual women (42.3%). Odds for hazardous drinking among sexual minority women were attenuated when measures of victimization were included in the regression models. Sexual minority groups had significantly higher odds of hazardous drinking, even after controlling for demographic and victimization variables: lesbian (ORadj = 2.0, CI = 1.1-3.9, p sexual minority women. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Violence perception and victimization reasons of women exposed to spouse/partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Baskale

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine violence perception and victimization reasons of women exposed to spouse/partner violence who applied to the violence prevention and monitoring center. Methods: This study is a descriptive survey in order to determine violence perception and victimization reasons of women who applied because of violence. This study was made on women who exposed to spouse/partner violence applied to the violence prevention and monitoring center in the west of Turkey. In these dates 137 women applied to the violence prevention and monitoring center. We reached 51% of universe. In the study, demographic information was collected through the survey method face to face interviews consisted of questions which identify the causes of violence and victimization perception. Results: 31.4% of the women participating in the study exposed to violence for 1-5 years, 21.4% of them exposed for 11-15 years. 74.3% of women share violence with others, women who didn't share with others because of they didn't know what to do and where to apply. Children have witnessed domestic violence, 51.4% were exposed to the violence. causes of violence were determined as economic problems, spouse / partner's alcohol / substance abuse, women are responding to partner, he does not want his wife, and has been identified as not prompted by his partner's family. 91.4% of women don't participate in the idea of violence was sometimes necessary, 81.4% don't think not so much violence against women can be seen joining excused. 62.9% of them think people who experience violence would behave similarly. Most of the women exposed to violence think if there is violence when women-man arguing the bond of love will be extinction, 84.3% think violence is not a solution, and 14.3% stated that it might be a solution. Conclusion: Health personnel are the group that can identify the violence, can be found in initiatives and can lead women to cope. Steps to be taken to

  7. Access to justice for women victims of domestic violence in the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Bistra, Netkova

    2013-01-01

    In the recent decades as a result of feminist efforts, significant progress in addressing the issue of domestic violence on the international scene, as well as, on the national level have been made. However, there are still numerous examples of the legal systems routinely failing women victims of domestic violence. In the Republic of Macedonia the issue of domestic violence emerged on the national agenda in the 1994, and ever since, many projects and actions on government level, as well as, i...

  8. Sexual Victimization, Alcohol Intoxication, Sexual-Emotional Responding, and Sexual Risk in Heavy Episodic Drinking Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N. Tatiana; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.; Otto, Jacqueline M.; Andrasik, Michele P.

    2013-01-01

    This study used an experimental paradigm to investigate the roles of sexual victimization history and alcohol intoxication in young women’s sexual-emotional responding and sexual risk taking. A nonclinical community sample of 436 young women, with both an instance of heavy episodic drinking and some HIV/STI risk exposure in the past year, completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. A majority of them reported CSA and/or ASA, including rape and attempted rape. After random assignment to a high alcohol dose (.10%) or control condition, participants read and projected themselves into an eroticized scenario of a sexual encounter involving a new partner. As the story protagonist, each participant rated her positive mood and her sexual arousal, sensation, and desire, and then indicated her likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that ASA and alcohol were directly associated with heightened risk taking, and alcohol’s effects were partially mediated by positive mood and sexual desire. ASA was associated with attenuated sexual-emotional responding and resulted in diminished risk taking via this suppression. These are the first findings indicating that, compared to non-victimized counterparts, sexually victimized women respond differently in alcohol-involved sexual encounters in terms of sexual-emotional responding and risk-taking intentions. Implications include assessing victimization history and drinking among women seeking treatment for either concern, particularly women at risk for HIV, and alerting them to ways their histories and behavior may combine to exacerbate their sexual risks. PMID:23857517

  9. The women on Stieve's list: Victims of national socialism whose bodies were used for anatomical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Research on the history of anatomy in the Third Reich has often concentrated on the influence of the National Socialist (NS) regime on anatomists and their consequent unethical activities. Only recently, the focus has shifted to NS victims whose bodies were used for anatomical purposes. As a first approach to learning more about the victims, this study investigated the persons whose names Hermann Stieve, chairman of the Anatomical Department at the University of Berlin, had listed after using their bodies for his research. The study draws a group portrait and recounts selected biographies of the 174 women and eight men on the list. Most women were of reproductive age, two-thirds were German and a majority was executed for political reasons. Among the executed were at least two pregnant women. The corrected names, biographical data, and nationalities of all persons on the list are published here. None of them volunteered to be dissected, nor were the anatomists at the time interested in the victims' personal background. Future work will have to focus on the investigation of further biographies so that numbers can be turned back into people. This history is a reminder to modern anatomy that ethical body procurement and the anatomists' caring about the body donor is of the utmost importance in a discipline that introduces students to professional ethics in the medical teaching curriculum. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Entrapment of Victims of Spousal Abuse in Ghana: A Discursive Analysis of Family Identity and Agency of Battered Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei, Stephen Baffour

    2015-06-02

    Drawing on discursive psychology and positioning theory, this study explores the influence of cultural and familial value orientations on battered women's identity, agency, and decision to leave or stay in abusive conjugal relationship in Ghana. Two semi-structured focus group discussions and four in-depth personal interviews were conducted with 16 victims of husband-to-wife abuse from rural and urban Ghana. The findings indicate that entrapment of victims of spousal abuse in Ghana reflects their social embeddedness and that battered women's identities and agency are expressed in the context of familial and cultural value orientations. The primacy of family identity and victims' apparent implicit moral obligation to preserve the social image of their extended family influence their entrapment. Participants' discursive accounts further suggest that stay or leave decisions of battered women in Ghana reflect a joint product of negotiated agency between victims and their extended family. It is thus argued that the agency of battered women in Ghana is not constituted by individual psychological states or motives, but instead, viewed as a property of victims who exercise it in a given relational context, and partly constituted by familial relationships and identities. The study suggests that intervention initiatives in Ghana should focus on the phenomenon of conjugal violence beyond immediate victims to include families and the larger communities in which victims are embedded. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Increased mRNA expression of cytochrome oxidase in dorsal raphe nucleus of depressive suicide victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Bahillo, A; Bautista-Hernandez, V; Barcia Gonzalez, Carlos; Bañon, R; Luna, A; Hirsch, EC; Herrero, Maria-Trinidad

    2008-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is a problem with important social repercussions. Some groups of the population show a higher risk of suicide; for example, depression, alcoholism, psychosis or drug abuse frequently precedes suicidal behavior. However, the relationship between metabolic alterations in the brain and premorbid clinical symptoms of suicide remains uncertain. The serotonergic and noradrenergic systems have frequently been, implicated in suicidal behavior and the amount of serotonin in the brain and CSF of suicide victims has been found to be low compared with normal subjects. However, there are contradictory results regarding the role of noradrenergic neurons in the mediation of suicide attempts, possibly reflecting the heterogeneity of conditions that lead to a common outcome. In the present work we focus on the subgroup of suicide victims that share a common diagnosis of major depression. Based on post-mortem studies analyzing mRNA expression by in situ hybridization, serotonergic neurons from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) from depressive suicide victims are seen to over-express cytochrome oxidase mRNA. However, no corresponding changes were found in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA in the noradrenergic neurons of the Locus Coeruleus (LC). These results suggest that, despite of the low levels of serotonin described in suicide victims, the activity of DRN neurons could increase in the suicidally depressed, probably due to the over activation of serotonin re-uptake. No alteration was found in noradrenergic neurons, suggesting that they play no crucial role in the suicidal behavior of depressive patients. PMID:18728743

  12. Environmental Dysfunctions, Childhood Maltreatment and Women's Intimate Partner Violence Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, Maria Lo; Guarnaccia, Cinzia; Infurna, Maria Rita; Mancuso, Laura; Parroco, Anna Maria; Giannone, Francesca

    2017-06-01

    Childhood maltreatment is considered a crucial explanatory variable for intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood. However, a developmental multifactorial model for the etiology of IPV is not shared by researchers yet. This study has investigated the role of a wide range of childhood maltreatments and family and social dysfunctions in predicting IPV; furthermore, it tests a model where childhood maltreatment mediates the relationship between environmental dysfunctions and IPV. The sample included 78 women: IPV (38) and non-IPV (40). The Italian version of the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA) Interview was used to assess the presence of adverse childhood experiences. The Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS-2) and the IPV History Interview were used to assess IPV in the last year and lifetime, respectively. The results of a multivariate logistic regression model have indicated that only sexual (odds ratio [OR] = 4.24) and psychological (OR = 3.45) abuse significantly predicted IPV; with regard to association between IPV and environmental dysfunctions, only poor social support (OR = 8.91) significantly predicted IPV. The results of a mediation model have shown that childhood psychological and sexual abuse, in association with each other, partially mediate the relationship between poor social support and IPV. The findings from this study pinpoint poor social support as an important predictor of IPV so far neglected in the literature on the developmental antecedents of IPV. They also support the theoretical assumption according to which dysfunctional environmental variables and types of childhood maltreatment interacting with each other may influence development outcomes.

  13. Sexual Assault, Sexual Harassment, and Physical Victimization during Military Service across Age Cohorts of Women Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Carolyn J; Gray, Kristen E; Katon, Jodie G; Simpson, Tracy L; Lehavot, Keren

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to sexual and physical trauma during military service is associated with adverse mental and physical health outcomes. Little is known about their prevalence and impact in women veterans across age cohorts. Data from a 2013 national online survey of women veterans was used to examine associations between age and trauma during military service, including sexual assault, sexual harassment, and physical victimization. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression, adjusting for service duration and demographic factors. In secondary analyses, the moderating role of age in the relationship between trauma and self-reported health was examined. The sample included 781 women veterans. Compared with the oldest age group (≥ 65), all except the youngest age group had consistently higher odds of reporting trauma during military service. These differences were most pronounced in women aged 45 to 54 years (sexual assault odds ratio [OR], 3.81 [95% CI, 2.77-6.71]; sexual harassment, OR, 3.99 [95% CI, 2.25-7.08]; and physical victimization, OR, 5.72 [95% CI, 3.32-9.85]). The association between trauma during military service and self-reported health status also varied by age group, with the strongest negative impact observed among women aged 45 to 54 and 55 to 64. Compared with other age groups, women in midlife were the most likely to report trauma during military service, and these experiences were associated with greater negative impact on their self-reported health. Providers should be aware that trauma during military service may be particularly problematic for the cohort of women currently in midlife, who represent the largest proportion of women who use Department of Veterans Affairs health care. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. The effect of acculturation and immigration on the victimization and psychological distress link in a national sample of Latino women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Carlos A; Sabina, Chiara; Bell, Kristin A

    2012-05-01

    Distinct bodies of research have examined the link between victimization and psychological distress and cultural variables and psychological health, but little is known about how cultural variables affect psychological distress among Latino victims. Substantial research has concluded that Latino women are more likely than non-Latino women to experience trauma-related symptoms following victimization. In addition, examination of different types of cultural adaptation has found results supporting the idea that maintaining ties with one's culture of origin may be protective against negative mental health outcomes. The present study evaluates the effect of victimization, immigrant status, and both Anglo and Latino orientation on psychological distress in a national sample of Latino women. Results indicate that along with the total count of victimization experiences, Anglo and/or Latino orientation were strong predictors of all forms of psychological distress. Anglo orientation also functioned as a moderator between victimization and psychological distress measures for anger, dissociation, and anxiety. The results suggest a more nuanced and complex interaction between cultural factors, victimization, and psychological distress.

  15. The special features of response on the disease and victim behavior in women with thyroid pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Вікторівна Варібрус

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid pathologies are characterized with an expressed somatic distress and transformations of psychic sphere. Elimination of hormonal imbalance as pathogenetic mechanism levels the clinic symptomatology to a great extent. That is why the problem of inclination to treatment in endocrinological patients becomes particularly topical.The aim of research was the study of the special features of response on treatment and manifestations of victim behavior connected with chronic somatic pathology in women with the different types of thyroid pathologies.Contingent and methods of research. There were used the clinical methodology of diagnostics of the type of an attitude to disease (TAD and the Andronnikova modified questionnaire of inclination to victim behavior.Results. Most of all interrogated patients with thyroid pathologies had intrapsychic (49,6 % against 32,0 % and combined maladjustment (18,6 % against 8,0 %, the lesser part of them had adaptive types of response on disease comparing with healthy women (9,7 % against 40,0 %. The intragroup differences were expressed in prevalence of types with intrapsychic maladjustment in women with hypothyroidism (57,4 % against 42,4 %, and interpsychic and combined at hyperthyroidism (27,1 % against 16,7 % and 22,0 % against 14,8 %. The main types of response on disease in persons with thyroid pathologies were anxious and sensitive (10,6 %, anxious (8,8 %, sensitive (8,8 % and anosognosic (8,8 %, in healthy women – ergopathic (16,0 %, anosognosic (14,0 %, energopathic and sensitive (12,0 % and harmonic types (10,0 %.An intensity of the victim behavior was higher in patients with thyroid pathologies, in women with hyperthyroidism took place aggressive, self-destructive and hypersocial ones, in patients with hypothyroidism – dependent and uncritical types of victimhood that indicated the presence of somatogenic victimhood as a factor of psychological and psychosocial maladjustment.Conclusions. The

  16. Is Sexual Victimization Gender Specific? The Prevalence of Forced Sexual Activity among Men and Women in Denmark, and Self-Reported Well-Being among Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Vanita; Laursen, Bjarne; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the prevalence of sexual victimization and correlations between sexual victimization and indicators of poor health in two representative samples of men and women in Denmark. Specifically, the authors explore the prevalence of self-reported victimization among adolescents (N = 5,829) and adults (N = 3,932) and analyze…

  17. Increasing Receipt of Women's Preventive Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The receipt of clinical preventive services is important for health promotion and prevention of illness, death, and disability for women in the United States. Today, the Affordable Care Act makes a variety of evidence-based preventive services available with no out-of-pocket cost to women with certain health insurance plans. Nevertheless, available service receipt data suggest receipt of the services for all American adults remains suboptimal. This article seeks to raise awareness about the critical gaps in the delivery of preventive services to women and highlight opportunities for women, primary care providers, and public health professionals to increase receipt of clinical preventive services among women. PMID:26447836

  18. Reaction to and Coping With Domestic Violence by Iranian Women Victims: A Qualitative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Masoud; Shokrollahi, Paymaneh; Kohan, Shahnaz; Momeni, Ghodratollah; Rivaz, Mozhgan

    2015-11-18

    Domestic violence is a continual stressor that motivates its victim to react. The way a woman deals with her husband's violence determine the consequence of the violent relationship. In the present study, a qualitative approach was employed to investigate women's reactions to and ways of coping with domestic violence. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2014 with 18 women who experienced domestic violence in an attempt to explain how women deal with domestic violence. After the interviews were transcribed word by word, they were explored in the form of meaningful units and encoded as subcategories and categories through inductive content analysis. The reliability and validity of the interviews were measured by an external supervisor. Two categories of reaction and coping were identified through content analysis: passive and non-normative measures and active measures. Passive and non-normative measures included the subcategories of harmful behaviors, retaliation, tolerance, and silence. Active measures included seeking help and advice, legal measures, leaving the spouse, positive and health promoting measures. In the present study, ways of coping with a husband's violence among women experiencing domestic violence were divided into two categories: passive and non-normative measures and active measures. These categories confirmed the models of coping with stress in previous studies. Adopting an appropriate approach to dealing with domestic violence is affected by a woman's capacity and beliefs, the dominant culture, intensity of the violence, available social and legal supports, and effectiveness of evaluation measures. To generalize service provision to victimized women, the type of coping and the reason for adopting the chosen approach need to be taken into account.

  19. Athletic Participation and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization: Investigating Sport Involvement, Self-Esteem, and Abuse Patterns for Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Adrienne N; Baker, Elizabeth H

    2015-05-14

    This study used representative, quantitative data from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and explored the relationship between young adults' sport participation and experiences of intimate partner violence victimization (IPVV) for both women and men. Past research has suggested that sports participation, especially among women, results in increased self-esteem, a prominent protective factor against experiencing IPVV. We found that sports participation was associated with a lower prevalence of experiencing IPVV, but only for women. In addition, this pattern held after controls for race, mother's education, age, number of relationships, and the hypothesized pathways of self-esteem and alcohol consumption. However, controls for the young adult's own education completely mediated the association between sports participation and IPVV. Additional analyses indicated that higher education reduced the risk of experiencing IPVV and increased the likelihood of sports participation. Nonetheless, even among women with the highest educational attainment, sports participation was associated with lower prevalence of experiencing IPVV. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Examining Perpetration of Physical Violence by Women: The Influence of Childhood Adversity, Victimization, Mental Illness, Substance Abuse, and Anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Sheryl; Fedock, Gina; Kim, Woo Jong; Bybee, Deborah

    2017-02-01

    Research on women's perpetration of physical violence has focused primarily on partners, often neglecting perpetration against nonpartners. This study proposes a conceptual model with direct and indirect relationships between childhood adversity and different targets of violence (partners and nonpartners), mediated by victimization experiences (by partner and nonpartners), mental illness, substance abuse, and anger. Using survey data from a random sample of incarcerated women (N = 574), structural equation modeling resulted in significant, albeit different, indirect paths from childhood adversity, through victimization, to perpetration of violence against partners (β = .20) and nonpartners (β = .19). The results indicate that prevention of women's violence requires attention to specific forms of victimization, anger expression, and targets of her aggression.

  1. Victims of gender-based violence and their legal protection in Serbia: In relation to men's violence against women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main issue in this work is men's violence against women as a hate crime. The author analyzes this through a feminist perspective considering the relevance of basic facts and concepts such as gender, gender roles and socialization, power, patriarchy and women's rights. The author analyzes the position of women victims of men's violence on both the international and national level, and their legal protection, in general and especially in Serbia, using a victimological approach.

  2. [Psychological violence against women: What factors increase the risk of this kind of intimate partner abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safranoff, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Using data from Argentina's National Study on Violence Against Women [Estudio nacional sobre violencias contra las mujeres] carried out in 2015, the article identifies the risk factors that increase women's vulnerability to psychological abuse. Findings show that women who are more prone to be victims of this kind of partner violence are those who are less educated, older, do not earn a wage for their work, live with children at home, are involved in less "formal" long-term relationships, as well as those whose male partners have a lower educational level than their own and/or have alcohol problems and/or were victims or witnesses of violence during their childhood. The article suggests possible intervention strategies to eradicate abuse, which should be primarily targeted at empowering women and strengthening their independence from their partners.

  3. Intimate Partner Violence Against Disabled Women as a Part of Widespread Victimization and Discrimination over the Lifetime: Evidence from a German Representative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Schröttle

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence rates of partner violence are high for women in general, but disabled women seem to be even more vulnerable. To explore this question, interviews were conducted with a representative sample of women with physical, mental, intellectual, hearing, and vision disabilities living in households (N=800 and in institutions (N=420. Additionally, a supplementary survey with a non-representative sample of blind, severely physically/multiply disabled, and deaf women (N=341 and qualitative interviews with thirty-one victimized women with disabilities were conducted. The standardized questionnaire was comparable to an earlier German representative survey on violence against women in the general population (N=10,264. Overall, 25 to 45 percent of women with disabilities had experienced intimate partner violence, which is two to five times the rate for the general population (depending on the specific group. Type and severity of disability, living situation, and experience of discrimination and violence in childhood and adolescence correlated with increased vulnerability. The findings confirm the hypothesis of elevated vulnerability discussed in international research and deepen insights into risk factors for victimization, for example discrimination, violence in childhood and youth, life situation, and type of disability. The results are crucial for further research as well as for prevention, intervention and support.

  4. A serial killer of elderly women: analysis of a multi-victim homicide investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campobasso, Carlo P; Colonna, Massimo F; Carabellese, Felice; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Candelli, Chiara; Morton, Robert J; Catanesi, Roberto

    2009-03-10

    Between 1995 and 1997, in the territories of Southern Italy, there were fifteen murders of elderly women over the age of 70 years old. Initially, however, not all the murders were attributed to a single serial killer. The majority of the victims were stabbed multiple times in the neck, except for three cases in which the cause of death was manual strangulation. There was evidence of sexual assault in only one of the cases. All the victims were discovered in their own apartments, which were located on the ground level, with no signs of forced entry. In most of the cases, the offender stole money and/or jewellery. A multi-disciplinary team reviewed the cases during the investigation and created a profile of the killer. The team determined that the method of operation was completely unusual for the local criminal element. They suggested that the perpetrator could be an immigrant, who committed the murders for sexual motivation and who may have been arrested previously for sex-related incidents. On 15th September 1997, a suspect was arrested. He was identified as Ben Mohamed Ezzedine Sebai, a 35-year-old white male, originally from Tunisia. He was charged and convicted of four of the murders and was given a life sentence. In 2005, Sebai confessed to the murders of four additional elderly women, for which nine other people had already been previously tried and convicted, among them, a man who committed suicide in jail. In 2007, Sebai finally confessed to committing fifteen murders that occurred between 1995 and 1997. Sebai also admitted to experiencing sexual gratification at every homicide scene, even though there was no physical proof at most of the crime scenes. The goal of this article is to illustrate a little-known but noteworthy case concerning a serial sexual killer of elderly women that occurred in Southern Italy, highlighting the method of operation, the victim selection process, and the injuries inflicted. The article will also discuss his motivation, the

  5. Increased mRNA expression of cytochrome oxidase in dorsal raphe nucleus of depressive suicide victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sanchez-Bahillo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A Sanchez-Bahillo1, V Bautista-Hernandez1, Carlos Barcia Gonzalez1, R Bañon2, A Luna2, EC Hirsch3, Maria-Trinidad Herrero11Clinical and Experimental Neuroscience, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED; 2Department of Legal Medicine, Department of Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, Murcia 30100, Spain; 3INSERM U679 Hôpital de la Salpêtrière, Boulevard de l’Hôpital, Paris, FranceAbstract: Suicidal behavior is a problem with important social repercussions. Some groups of the population show a higher risk of suicide; for example, depression, alcoholism, psychosis or drug abuse frequently precedes suicidal behavior. However, the relationship between metabolic alterations in the brain and premorbid clinical symptoms of suicide remains uncertain. The serotonergic and noradrenergic systems have frequently been, implicated in suicidal behavior and the amount of serotonin in the brain and CSF of suicide victims has been found to be low compared with normal subjects. However, there are contradictory results regarding the role of noradrenergic neurons in the mediation of suicide attempts, possibly reflecting the heterogeneity of conditions that lead to a common outcome. In the present work we focus on the subgroup of suicide victims that share a common diagnosis of major depression. Based on post-mortem studies analyzing mRNA expression by in situ hybridization, serotonergic neurons from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN from depressive suicide victims are seen to over-express cytochrome oxidase mRNA. However, no corresponding changes were found in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH mRNA in the noradrenergic neurons of the Locus Coeruleus (LC. These results suggest that, despite of the low levels of serotonin described in suicide victims, the activity of DRN neurons could increase in the suicidally depressed, probably due to the over activation of

  6. Increasing women in leadership in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jennifer A; Reif, Lindsey K; Hokororo, Adolfine; Fitzgerald, Daniel W

    2014-08-01

    Globally, women experience a disproportionate burden of disease and death due to inequities in access to basic health care, nutrition, and education. In the face of this disparity, it is striking that leadership in the field of global health is highly skewed towards men and that global health organizations neglect the issue of gender equality in their own leadership. Randomized trials demonstrate that women in leadership positions in governmental organizations implement different policies than men and that these policies are more supportive of women and children. Other studies show that proactive interventions to increase the proportion of women in leadership positions within businesses or government can be successful. Therefore, the authors assert that increasing female leadership in global health is both feasible and a fundamental step towards addressing the problem of women's health. In this Perspective, the authors contrast the high proportion of young female trainees who are interested in academic global health early in their careers with the low numbers of women successfully rising to global health leadership roles. The authors subsequently explore reasons for female attrition from the field of global health and offer practical strategies for closing the gender gap in global health leadership. The authors propose solutions aimed to promote female leaders from both resource-wealthy and resource-poor countries, including leadership training grants, mentorship from female leaders in global professions, strengthening health education in resource-poor countries, research-enabling grants, and altering institutional policies to support women choosing a global health career path.

  7. Oxytocin selectively increases perceptions of harm for victims but not the desire to punish offenders of criminal offenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuraman, Raja; Moody, Lara; Twieg, Peter; de Visser, Ewart; McCabe, Kevin; O’Hara, Martin; Lee, Mary R.

    2013-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin functions as a hormone and neurotransmitter and facilitates complex social cognition and approach behavior. Given that empathy is an essential ingredient for third-party decision-making in institutions of justice, we investigated whether exogenous oxytocin modulates empathy of an unaffected third-party toward offenders and victims of criminal offenses. Healthy male participants received intranasal oxytocin or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design. Participants were given a set of legal vignettes that described an event during which an offender engaged in criminal offenses against victims. As an unaffected third-party, participants were asked to rate those criminal offenses on the degree to which the offender deserved punishment and how much harm was inflicted on the victim. Exogenous oxytocin selectively increased third-party decision-makers’ perceptions of harm for victims but not the desire to punish offenders of criminal offenses. We argue that oxytocin promoted empathic concern for the victim, which in turn increased the tendency for prosocial approach behavior regarding the interpersonal relationship between an unaffected third-party and a fictional victim in the criminal scenarios. Future research should explore the context- and person-dependent nature of exogenous oxytocin in individuals with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, in whom deficits in empathy feature prominently. PMID:22368214

  8. Oxytocin selectively increases perceptions of harm for victims but not the desire to punish offenders of criminal offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Frank; Parasuraman, Raja; Moody, Lara; Twieg, Peter; de Visser, Ewart; McCabe, Kevin; O'Hara, Martin; Lee, Mary R

    2013-06-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin functions as a hormone and neurotransmitter and facilitates complex social cognition and approach behavior. Given that empathy is an essential ingredient for third-party decision-making in institutions of justice, we investigated whether exogenous oxytocin modulates empathy of an unaffected third-party toward offenders and victims of criminal offenses. Healthy male participants received intranasal oxytocin or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design. Participants were given a set of legal vignettes that described an event during which an offender engaged in criminal offenses against victims. As an unaffected third-party, participants were asked to rate those criminal offenses on the degree to which the offender deserved punishment and how much harm was inflicted on the victim. Exogenous oxytocin selectively increased third-party decision-makers' perceptions of harm for victims but not the desire to punish offenders of criminal offenses. We argue that oxytocin promoted empathic concern for the victim, which in turn increased the tendency for prosocial approach behavior regarding the interpersonal relationship between an unaffected third-party and a fictional victim in the criminal scenarios. Future research should explore the context- and person-dependent nature of exogenous oxytocin in individuals with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, in whom deficits in empathy feature prominently.

  9. Psychological violence against women: What factors increase the risk of this kind of intimate partner abuse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Safranoff

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Using data from Argentina’s National Study on Violence Against Women [Estudio nacional sobre violencias contra las mujeres] carried out in 2015, the article identifies the risk factors that increase women’s vulnerability to psychological abuse. Findings show that women who are more prone to be victims of this kind of partner violence are those who are less educated, older, do not earn a wage for their work, live with children at home, are involved in less “formal” long-term relationships, as well as those whose male partners have a lower educational level than their own and/or have alcohol problems and/or were victims or witnesses of violence during their childhood. The article suggests possible intervention strategies to eradicate abuse, which should be primarily targeted at empowering women and strengthening their independence from their partners.

  10. [Agency and victimization in the trajectory of women involved in drug trafficking in Rio de Janeiro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcinski, Mariana

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present article is to discuss the traditional victimization of women who get involved in criminal activities, focusing on agency and personal initiative as the main motivators. Through the discursive analysis of qualitative interviews with five women with a history in drug trafficking in Rio de Janeiro we sought to capture the dilemmas that characterize the ways in which these women justify their participation in a traditional male activity. At a micro level, the analysis focuses on the rhetoric efficacy of the different positions assumed by the participants(1). At a macro level, the analysis investigates how the participants appropriate different discourses about womanhood in order to give sense to their personal histories(2). The results show that the participants oscillate between appealing to external causes for justifying their choice (such as the lack of options characterizing the trajectory of marginalized populations and the personal involvement with criminal partners) and assuming responsibility for having been involved in drug trafficking. In this case, they often mention the power and respect they used to experience as traffickers as the main motivator for their criminal trajectory.

  11. Men and women as perpetrators and victims of sexual aggression in heterosexual and same-sex encounters: a study of first-year college students in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Berger, Anja

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of sexual aggression and victimization in a large convenience sample of N = 2,149 first-year college students from different universities in Germany. Participants were asked about both victimization by, and perpetration of, sexual aggression since the age of 14. Both same-sex and heterosexual victim-perpetrator constellations were examined. Prevalence rates were established for different victim-perpetrator relationships (partners, acquaintances, strangers) and for incidents involving alcohol consumption by one or both partners. The overall perpetration rate was 13.2%, for men and 7.6% for women. The overall victimization rate was 35.9% for women and 19.4% for men. A disparity between victimization and perpetration reports was found for both men and women. Perpetration and victimization rates were highest among participants who had sexual contacts with both opposite-sex and same-sex partners. Sexual aggression and victimization rates were higher between current or former partners and acquaintances than between strangers. Alcohol consumption by one or both partners was involved in almost 75% of all victimization and almost 70% of all perpetration incidents. The findings portray a comprehensive picture of the scale of sexual aggression and victimization in college students with different sexual lifestyles. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Increasing Women in Leadership in Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jennifer A.; Reif, Lindsey K.; Hokororo, Adolfine; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Globally, women experience a disproportionate burden of disease and death due to inequities in access to basic health care, nutrition, and education. In the face of this disparity, it is striking that leadership in the field of global health is highly skewed towards men and that global health organizations neglect the issue of gender equality in their own leadership. Randomized trials demonstrate that women in leadership positions in governmental organizations implement different policies than men and that these policies are more supportive of women and children. Other studies show that proactive interventions to increase the proportion of women in leadership positions within businesses or government can be successful. Therefore, the authors assert that increasing female leadership in global health is both feasible and a fundamental step towards addressing the problem of women’s health. In this article, the authors contrast the high proportion of young female trainees who are interested in academic global health early in their careers with the low numbers of women successfully rising to global health leadership roles. The authors subsequently explore reasons for female attrition from the field of global health and offer practical strategies for closing the gender gap in global health leadership. The authors propose solutions aimed to promote female leaders from both resource-wealthy and resource-poor countries, including leadership training grants, mentorship from female leaders in global professions, strengthening health education in resource-poor countries, research-enabling grants, and altering institutional policies to support women choosing a global health career path. PMID:24918761

  13. Childhood Victimization and Crime Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…

  14. Sexual Assault Victimization and Mental Health Treatment, Suicide Attempts, and Career Outcomes Among Women in the US Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosellini, Anthony J; Street, Amy E; Ursano, Robert J; Chiu, Wai Tat; Heeringa, Steven G; Monahan, John; Naifeh, James A; Petukhova, Maria V; Reis, Ben Y; Sampson, Nancy A; Bliese, Paul D; Stein, Murray B; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2017-05-01

    To examine associations of administratively recorded sexual assault victimization during military service with subsequent mental health and negative career outcomes among US Army women controlling for nonrandom victimization exposure. We used data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers to apply propensity score methods to match all 4238 female Regular Army soldiers with administratively recorded sexual assault victimization during 2004 to 2009 to 5 controls per case with similar composite victimization risk. We examined associations of this victimization measure with administratively recorded mental health treatment, suicide attempt, and Army career outcomes over the subsequent 12 months by using survival analysis for dichotomous outcomes and conditional generalized linear models for continuous outcomes. Women with administratively recorded sexual assault had significantly elevated odds ratios (ORs) of subsequent mental health treatment (any, OR = 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4, 2.6; specialty, OR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.9, 3.3; inpatient, OR = 2.8; 95% CI = 2.5, 3.1), posttraumatic stress disorder treatment (any, OR = 6.3; 95% CI = 5.7, 6.9; specialty, OR = 7.7; 95% CI = 6.8, 8.6; inpatient, OR = 6.8; 95% CI = 5.4, 8.6), suicide attempt (OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 2.5, 3.6), demotion (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.9, 2.3), and attrition (OR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.1, 1.2). Sexual assault victimization is associated with considerable suffering and likely decreased force readiness.

  15. [The development of a questionnaire for identification of women who are victims of violence in the conjugal milieu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, C

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a questionnaire that permits the identification of women victims of their male partner's violence. Four indicators inspired by Orem's theory (1985) of nursing care were utilized to elaborate the different items in this research instrument: self-esteem, autonomy, social interaction and prevention of life hazards. The content validation process involved presenting 178 items for validation to 20 expert female judges. Then, the predictive value of 106 out of these items was tested with two comparable groups of women: one group of 81 women victims of family violence and another of 203 women identified as having never been victims. T-tests (p less than .05) were calculated on each of these 106 items, but finally it was the difference between the averages obtained by the t-tests that was used as the criterion of selection. Correlations item-total and correlations inter-item were run on the 49 items remaining, and this procedure brought to 30 the number of items retained for the questionnaire. Finally, factorial analysis showed that the degree of variance explained by the four indicators is about 18%, and that these indicators constituted many different facets of the same construct.

  16. The impact of community-based outreach on psychological distress and victim safety in women exposed to intimate partner abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePrince, Anne P; Labus, Jennifer; Belknap, Joanne; Buckingham, Susan; Gover, Angela

    2012-04-01

    Using a longitudinal, randomized controlled trial, this study assessed the impact of a community-based outreach versus a more traditional criminal justice system-based referral program on women's distress and safety following police-reported intimate partner abuse (IPA). Women (N = 236 women) with police-reported IPA were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 interdisciplinary community-coordinated response program conditions: Outreach (community-based victim advocate outreach) or Referral (criminal justice system-based victim advocate referrals to community-based agencies). Participants were interviewed 3 times over a 1-year period: within 26 (median) days of police-reported IPA, 6 months later, and 12 months later. Primary outcome measures included posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptom severity (Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale; Beck Depression Inventory-II), fear appraisals (Trauma Appraisal Questionnaire), IPA revictimization (Revised Conflict Tactics Scale), and readiness to leave the relationship with the abuser. One year after the initial interview, women in the Outreach condition reported decreased PTSD and depression symptom severity and fear compared with women in the Referral condition. Although both conditions were unrelated to revictimization in the follow-up year, women in the Outreach condition reported greater readiness to leave the abuser and rated services as more helpful than women in the Referral condition. This is one of the first studies to examine community-based outreach in the context of an interdisciplinary community coordinated response to police-reported IPA. The findings suggest that community-based outreach by victim advocates results in decreased distress levels, greater readiness to leave abusive relationships, and greater perceived helpfulness of services relative to system-based referrals. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. An Investigation on Legal Protection for Women Victims of Climate Change; Studying African Regional Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Mosaffa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, paying attention to the subject of Climate Change and its destructive effects on different countries around the world have caused regular activities as holding international conferences, and ratifying some international documents. Developing and non-developed countries have less facilities and infrastructures to protect themselves from climate change effects and are more vulnerable. Moreover, African countries due to their climate conditions are the most vulnerable. Even more, they have the main population of climate refugees. Although an increasing effort in Africa has resulted in more legal protection for victims of climate change especially women as the most volunrable people, and has been appeared in many regional treaties, but inconsistency and denial of responsibilities from developing countries have caused serious challenges for long term legal-protection of environmental refugees and displacements, especially women and children who are the most vulnerable of climate change victims. Since a sufficient protection of these people requires a common concern and responsibility between states, referring to the "common but different responsibility" principle is one of the most important legal pillar for burden sharing of the massive climate – change movements. تأثیرات تغییرات اقلیم در دهه‌های گذشته بسیار بزرگ بوده و توجه به این پدیده موجب انجام اقدامات معمول بین‌المللی از قبیل برگزاری کنفرانس، تشکیل نهادهـا و تنظیم اسناد گردیده است. در ایـن بین، کشورهای کمتر توسعه‌یافته از امکانات کمتری برای مقابله با این تغییرات برخوردار و در نتیجه آسیب پذیر‌ترند. منطقه آفریقا با توجه به شرایط اقلیمی خاص خود بیشترین آسیب را متحمل شده و هم

  18. Self-reported disciplinary practices among women in the child welfare system: association with domestic violence victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Kelly J; Hazen, Andrea L; Coben, Jeffrey H; Wang, Yun; McGeehan, Jennifer; Kohl, Patricia L; Gardner, William P

    2008-08-01

    To examine the association between physical domestic violence victimization (both recent and more than a year in past measured by self-report) and self-reported disciplinary practices among female parents/caregivers in a national sample of families referred to child welfare. Cross-sectional survey of more than 3,000 female caregivers in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW) study, a nationally representative sample of children and their families referred to child welfare agencies for investigation of abuse and neglect. Women reported physical domestic violence victimization and their disciplinary practices for their child on different versions of the Conflict Tactics Scales. Four hundred and forty-three women reported prior year domestic violence, 1,161 reported domestic violence but not in the past 12 months, and 2,025 reported no domestic violence exposure. Any prior domestic violence exposure was associated with higher rates of self-reported psychological aggression, physical aggression and neglectful disciplinary behaviors as compared to those with no domestic violence victimization in bivariate comparisons. After controlling for child behavior, demographic factors, and maternal characteristics, those with remote and recent domestic violence victimization employed more self-reported psychological aggression, while only caregivers with recent DV reported more physical aggression or neglectful behaviors. In a national child welfare sample, self-reported aggressive and neglectful parenting behaviors were common. In this sample, domestic violence victimization is associated with more self-reported aggressive and neglectful disciplinary behaviors among female caregivers. The mechanism for these associations is not clear. Rates of aggressive and neglectful disciplinary practices are especially high among female parents/caregivers exposed to domestic violence. Child welfare agencies should plan routine and structured assessments for domestic

  19. Power increases infidelity among men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Joris; Stoker, Janka I; Jordan, Jennifer; Pollmann, Monique; Stapel, Diederik A

    2011-09-01

    Data from a large survey of 1,561 professionals were used to examine the relationship between power and infidelity and the process underlying this relationship. Results showed that elevated power is positively associated with infidelity because power increases confidence in the ability to attract partners. This association was found for both actual infidelity and intentions to engage in infidelity in the future. Gender did not moderate these results: The relationship between power and infidelity was the same for women as for men, and for the same reason. These findings suggest that the common assumption (and often-found effect) that women are less likely than men to engage in infidelity is, at least partially, a reflection of traditional gender-based differences in power that exist in society.

  20. Sexual Victimization among Spanish College Women and Risk Factors for Sexual Revictimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Sexual revictimization is frequent among victims of child sexual abuse. Several variables, such as sexual experience, substance abuse, and sexual assertiveness, have been proposed to explain the link between child sexual abuse and adolescent and adult sexual victimization, although they have typically been tested separately. The main objective of…

  1. Sexual victimization and completed suicide among Danish female adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradus, Jaimie L; Qin, Ping; Lincoln, Alisa K; Miller, Matthew; Lawler, Elizabeth; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Lash, Timothy L

    2012-05-01

    Although sexual victimization has been associated with suicidal behaviors, its association with completed suicide has not been examined. We investigated this association among Danish women using longitudinal data and a conservative definition of victimization. This population-based case-control study included 476 suicide cases and 12,010 matched controls. Seven cases (1.5%) and 5 controls (0.04%) experienced sexual victimization that was reported to the police and resulted in a conviction. Sexual victimization was associated with a 14-fold increased rate of suicide, controlling for confounders and matching (95% CI: [3.4, 59]). Completed suicide is an important potential outcome of sexual victimization, warranting further examination.

  2. Understanding victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show that the proba......This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show...... that the probability of being victimized is increasing in income, but at a diminishing rate. The effect of income is dependent on the type of crime, and poorer households are vulnerable. While less at risk of victimization, they suffer relatively greater losses when such shocks occur. Lower inequality and increased...

  3. Understanding Victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show that the proba......This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show...... that the probability of being victimized is increasing in income, but at a diminishing rate. The effect of income is dependent on the type of crime, and poorer households are vulnerable. While less at risk of victimization, they suffer relatively greater losses when such shocks occur. Lower inequality and increased...

  4. Does Childhood Victimization Increase the Risk of Early Death? A 25-Year Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Helene Raskin; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2003-01-01

    This study compared mortality data and causes of death in a sample of 908 abused and/or neglected individuals and 667 matched controls followed for 25 years into young adulthood. The study found no significant differences in rates of mortality for the two groups and victims of child abuse and neglect were not more likely to experience a violent…

  5. The Role of Structural Barriers in Risky Sexual Behavior, Victimization and Readiness to Change HIV/STI-Related Risk Behavior Among Transgender Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiford, Jerris L; Hall, Grace J; Taylor, Raekiela D; Bimbi, David S; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the role of structural barriers experienced by a community-based sample of 63 HIV-positive and negative transgender women that may elevate HIV infection and transmission risks. Separate hierarchical linear multiple regression analyses tested the association between structural barriers (e.g., unemployment, lack of food, shelter) and condomless anal sex acts, abuse, and readiness to change risk behavior, while controlling for other related factors. Among this primarily Hispanic and African-American sample, HIV-positive and negative transgender women experienced a similar number of structural barriers and experiencing structural barriers was significantly associated with an increased number of condomless anal sex acts (p = .002), victimization (p = .000) and a decreased readiness to change HIV-related risk behavior (p = .014). Structural-level interventions are needed to address this elevated risk among this underserved and hard-to-reach population.

  6. [Critical trajectories of female victims of gender violence: discourse analysis of women and staff professionals in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Bairros, Fernanda; Mueller, Betânia; Monteiro, Débora; Oliveira, Lidiane Pellenz de; Collaziol, Marceli Emer

    2011-04-01

    This qualitative study aims to describe the trajectories of female victims of gender violence in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The methodology included in-depth interviews with women and staff, attempting to map the critical paths of women when they made the decision to seek professional help. We interviewed 21 women victims of gender violence and 25 professionals, including law enforcement officials, health and social workers, and nongovernmental organizations. The women's trajectories in the services were mapped, identifying facilitating factors and obstacles in the process of breaking with gender violence. The victims reported: pressure by professional staff to return to their marriages and police inefficiency in providing protection. The discourse of law enforcement officials and health and social workers showed a range of different concepts regarding violence, medicalization of violence, and network fragmentation.

  7. Development of the contemporary concept of restorative justice: Towards increased visibility of crime victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary concept of restorative justice emerged at the end of 1960s and the beginning of 1970s, at the time when repression and social exclusion stared to show their lacks. Restorative justice has emerged on the critics of the conventional criminal justice response to crime, which denies the power to both the victim and the offender, and particularly neglecting a victim and minimizing his/her role in the procedure. While the accent of the repressive discourse is on the crime and punishment, restorative discourse is focused on the relationship between parities involved in a criminal case, who should actively participate in the process of finding out adequate solution of the problem arose from the criminal offence. Keeping that in mind, it is quite obvious that theoretical knowledge, concepts and movements that are focused on victims, their rights, legal and overall position had the strongest impact on the development of restorative justice. Taking that as a departure point, the impact of the “conflict as property” concept, victimology, movement for the restitution, movement for victim’s rights, and feminist movement, on the development of a contemporary concept of restorative justice is analyzed in this paper, and vice versa.

  8. "Passive victim - strong survivor"? Perceived meaning of labels applied to women who were raped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papendick, Michael; Bohner, Gerd

    2017-01-01

    Three experiments (total N = 464) were conducted in parallel with English- and German-speaking participants to examine the perceived meanings and effects of the labels "victim" versus "survivor" (and their German equivalents) when applied to a woman who was raped. In Study 1 (N = 179), participants read a rape vignette and then rated the meaning of the label it contained (either "victim" or "survivor") on a 15-item semantic differential. Independent of language and participant gender, "survivor" was perceived more positively overall (e.g., as strong, brave, active) than was "victim" (weak, passive, but also innocent). In Study 2 (N = 95), labels were varied within items assessing judgments of an acquaintance-rape case (e.g., "Does the victim [survivor] … carry a certain responsibility for what happened?"), focusing on short-term outcomes. Significant interaction effects of label and participants' gender emerged on case-related judgments. Participants in both language samples judged "survivor" to be a less appropriate term than "victim". In Study 3 (N = 190), participants read a text in which a woman who had been raped labeled herself as either "victim" or "survivor", focusing on the coping with sexual violence. As in Study 2, German-language participants showed no significant effects of the label on their case judgments but rejected the term "survivor" as inappropriate; English-language participants, by contrast, perceived the woman describing herself as "survivor" to be more psychologically stable and regarded the use of both labels as appropriate. Results are discussed in terms of their applied relevance for communicating about sexual violence.

  9. "Passive victim – strong survivor"? Perceived meaning of labels applied to women who were raped

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papendick, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Three experiments (total N = 464) were conducted in parallel with English- and German-speaking participants to examine the perceived meanings and effects of the labels "victim" versus "survivor" (and their German equivalents) when applied to a woman who was raped. In Study 1 (N = 179), participants read a rape vignette and then rated the meaning of the label it contained (either "victim" or "survivor") on a 15-item semantic differential. Independent of language and participant gender, "survivor" was perceived more positively overall (e.g., as strong, brave, active) than was "victim" (weak, passive, but also innocent). In Study 2 (N = 95), labels were varied within items assessing judgments of an acquaintance-rape case (e.g., "Does the victim [survivor] … carry a certain responsibility for what happened?"), focusing on short-term outcomes. Significant interaction effects of label and participants’ gender emerged on case-related judgments. Participants in both language samples judged "survivor" to be a less appropriate term than "victim". In Study 3 (N = 190), participants read a text in which a woman who had been raped labeled herself as either "victim" or "survivor", focusing on the coping with sexual violence. As in Study 2, German-language participants showed no significant effects of the label on their case judgments but rejected the term "survivor" as inappropriate; English-language participants, by contrast, perceived the woman describing herself as "survivor" to be more psychologically stable and regarded the use of both labels as appropriate. Results are discussed in terms of their applied relevance for communicating about sexual violence. PMID:28493976

  10. Racial/ethnic disparities in history of incarceration, experiences of victimization, and associated health indicators among transgender women in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Bailey, Zinzi; Sevelius, Jae

    2014-01-01

    Limited national data document the prevalence of incarceration among transgender women, experiences of victimization while incarcerated, and associations of transgender status with health. Data were from the National Transgender Discrimination Survey (NTDS), a large convenience sample of transgender adults in the U.S., collected between September 2008 and March 2009. Respondents who indicated a transfeminine gender identity were included in the current study (n = 3,878). Multivariable logistic regression was used to model ever being incarcerated and experiencing victimization while incarcerated as a function of race/ethnicity and health-related indicators. Overall, 19.3% reported having ever been incarcerated. Black and Native American/Alaskan Native transgender women were more likely to report a history of incarceration than White (non-Hispanic) respondents, and those with a history of incarceration were more likely to report negative health-related indicators, including self-reporting as HIV-positive. Among previously incarcerated respondents, 47.0% reported victimization while incarcerated. Black, Latina, and mixed race transgender women were more likely to report experiences of victimization while incarcerated. Transgender women reported disproportionately high rates of incarceration and victimization while incarcerated, as well as associated negative health-related indicators. Interventions and policy changes are needed to support transgender women while incarcerated and upon release.

  11. 'Sex slaves' and shrewd business women : the role of victim consent in trafficking in persons in Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schloenhardt, Andreas; Bowcock, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of judicial treatment of victim consent in cases of trafficking in persons in Australia - understanding victim consent - international law - Australian criminal law examples of legal cases...

  12. Increasing Women in Leadership in Global Health

    OpenAIRE

    Downs, Jennifer A; Reif, Lindsey K.; Hokororo, Adolfine; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Globally, women experience a disproportionate burden of disease and death due to inequities in access to basic health care, nutrition, and education. In the face of this disparity, it is striking that leadership in the field of global health is highly skewed towards men and that global health organizations neglect the issue of gender equality in their own leadership. Randomized trials demonstrate that women in leadership positions in governmental organizations implement different policies tha...

  13. Femoral lipectomy increases postprandial lipemia in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Teri L; Bessesen, Daniel H; Cox-York, Kimberly A; Erickson, Christopher B; Law, Christopher K; Anderson, Molly K; Wang, Hong; Jackman, Matthew R; Van Pelt, Rachael E

    2015-07-01

    Femoral subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) appears to be cardioprotective compared with abdominal SAT, possibly through better triglyceride (TG) sequestration. We hypothesized that removal of femoral SAT would increase postprandial TG through a reduction in dietary fatty acid (FA) storage. Normal-weight (means ± SD; BMI 23.9 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)) women (n = 29; age 45 ± 6 yr) were randomized to femoral lipectomy (LIPO) or control (CON) and followed for 1 yr. Regional adiposity was measured by DEXA and CT. A liquid meal labeled with [(14)C]oleic acid was used to trace the appearance of dietary FA in plasma (6-h postprandial TG), breath (24-h oxidation), and SAT (24-h [(14)C]TG storage). Fasting LPL activity was measured in abdominal and femoral SAT. DEXA leg fat mass was reduced after LIPO vs. CON (Δ-1.4 ± 0.7 vs. 0.1 ± 0.5 kg, P < 0.001) and remained reduced at 1 yr (-1.1 ± 1.4 vs. -0.2 ± 0.5 kg, P < 0.05), as did CT thigh subcutaneous fat area (-39.6 ± 36.6 vs. 4.7 ± 14.6 cm(2), P < 0.05); DEXA trunk fat mass and CT visceral fat area were unchanged. Postprandial TG increased (5.9 ± 7.7 vs. -0.6 ± 5.3 × 10(3) mg/dl, P < 0.05) and femoral SAT LPL activity decreased (-21.9 ± 22.3 vs. 10.5 ± 26.5 nmol·min(-1)·g(-1), P < 0.05) 1 yr following LIPO vs. CON. There were no group differences in (14)C-labeled TG appearing in abdominal and femoral SAT or elsewhere. In conclusion, femoral fat remained reduced 1 yr following lipectomy and was accompanied by increased postprandial TG and reduced femoral SAT LPL activity. There were no changes in storage of meal-derived FA or visceral fat. Our data support a protective role for femoral adiposity on circulating TG independent of dietary FA storage and visceral adiposity. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Increasing Numbers of Pregnant Women Also Have Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Increasing Numbers of Pregnant Women Also Have Heart Disease Multiple specialists may be needed to care for ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Many more American women with heart disease are choosing to have babies, a new study ...

  15. The relevance of social contexts and social action in reducing substance use and victimization among women participating in an HIV prevention intervention in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed E

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Reed,1 Andrea N Emanuel,2 Bronwyn Myers,3,4 Kim Johnson,3 Wendee M Wechsberg2,5–7 1George Washington University School of Public Health, Department of Prevention and Community Health, Washington, DC, USA; 2RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 3Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; 4Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 5Gillings Global School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 6Psychology in the Public Interest, North Carolina State University, NC, USA; 7Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, NC, USA Objectives: To examine qualitatively how women's social context and community mobilization (eg, mobilizing women to take social action and engaging their community in social change influence substance use abstinence and victimization among women participating in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV intervention in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods: Thirty women who had participated in a randomized controlled trial of a group-delivered intervention to address substance use, gender-based violence, and associated risk for HIV (The Women's Health CoOp were selected to participate in semi-structured interviews about their perceived impact of the intervention on their substance use and exposure to victimization. The Women's CoOp intervention involved creating a new positive social environment for women within a group setting that also fostered women's social action (eg, educating peers or family members in the community. Interviews were analyzed using content analysis and coded to examine women's descriptions of social contexts and social action, and the influence of these on women's substance use abstinence and exposure to victimization. Results: Social support (eg, via program staff and other participants and social action (eg, engaging others in the

  16. Sexuality, Substance Use, and Susceptibility to Victimization: Risk for Rape and Sexual Coercion in a Prospective Study of College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messman-Moore, Terri L.; Coates, Aubrey A.; Gaffey, Kathryn J.; Johnson, Carrie F.

    2008-01-01

    An 8-month prospective study examined behavioral, personality, and psychological variables thought to increase vulnerability for college women's experience of rape and verbal sexual coercion. Participants were 276 college women who completed self-report surveys. During 1 academic year, 9.5% of women were raped and 11.7% reported verbal sexual…

  17. "If something happened, I will leave it, let it go and move on": resiliency and victimized homeless women's attitudes toward mental health counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Laura; Fthenos, Georgios; Hryniewicz, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we draw on interviews conducted with 60 homeless women (N = 60) in Detroit and Chicago about their experiences of violent criminal victimization and their attitudes toward accessing various postvictimization assistance-in particular, mental health counseling. Contrary to the research literature, which tends to overemphasize pathological responses to victimization within this population, what our data reveals is the extent to which victimized homeless women exhibit signs of resiliency through both attitudes and coping behaviors. Further, their expressed attitudes demonstrate the existence of a complex set of relationships between trauma, resiliency, and the desire to access mental health services. These findings we suggest have implications for the delivery of mental health services to this group.

  18. Are Women in Management Victims of the Phantom of the Male Norm?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billing, Yvonne Due

    2011-01-01

    Managerial jobs have conventionally been understood as male and thus as not being directly suitable for women. The point of departure of this discourse is that women and men are different and that there is congruence between men and managerial jobs. On the basis of a qualitative study of women ma...

  19. Adverse Effect of Child Abuse Victimization among Substance-Using Women in Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Yeon; Magura, Stephen; Laudet, Alexandre; Whitney, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    Study examined adverse effects of childhood sexual/physical abuse among substance-abusing women with children. Several significant differences between abused and nonabused women were found in service outcomes. Abused women had more problems relating to drug use and psychiatric/psychological adjustment at follow-up. Findings support a need for…

  20. College Women's Aggression in Relationships: The Role of Childhood and Adolescent Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Katie M.; Desai, Angeli D.; Gidycz, Christine A.; VanWynsberghe, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Despite growing evidence suggesting that women engage in verbal and physical dating aggression, there is a dearth of research examining the predictors of women's engagement in these behaviors. Utilizing a college sample, the purpose of the current study was to explore women's perpetration of dating aggression within the context of victimization…

  1. Increasing Women's Access to Skilled Pregnancy Care in Nigeria ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Increasing Women's Access to Skilled Pregnancy Care in Nigeria (IMCHA). Less than one-third of Nigerian women receive skilled care during delivery. This project will aim to reduce maternal and perinatal deaths by improving vulnerable women's access to healthcare services during and after childbirth. Access to care in ...

  2. Is sexual victimization gender specific?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundaram, Vanita; Laursen, Bjarne; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the prevalence of sexual victimization and correlations between sexual victimization and indicators of poor health in two representative samples of men and women in Denmark. Specifically, the authors explore the prevalence of self-reported victimization among...

  3. Victimización de mujeres en prisión/Victimization of women in prission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Neuman (Argentina

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available La criminalidad femenina ha cambiado y los mitos en torno a esta deben igualmente ser modificados. Los estereotipos y determinismos biológicos que rodean la conducta criminal femenina deben ser superados. Al evolucionar este prejuicio se logrará abordar de manera más crítica la victimización de la que sufre, en este caso en particular, dentro de la prisión. A lo largo de este artículo se hablará de su situación actual, las distintas formas de victimización dentro del sistema penal y ellas en la particular condición de embarazadas o lactando. Female crime has changed and the myths around this must also be modified. Stereotypes and biological determinism that surround the female criminal conduct must be overcome. The evolve this bias will be achieved more critically address the victimization that suffers, in this case in particular, within the prison. Throughout this article will discuss it’s current situation, the various forms of victimization within the criminal justice system and in the particular status of pregnant or breastfeeding.

  4. Hispanic Parents' Conflict Tactics Influence on College Women's Verbal Aggression Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Shannon M.; Stephens, Dionne P.

    2017-01-01

    Prior research has shown that college women in the United States are experiencing significantly high rates of verbal aggression (VA); approximately 20% to 30% of college women experience VA in their intimate relationships. Research has shown that familial conflict experiences directly influence these outcomes. Unfortunately, studies focusing on…

  5. The mother who cannot provide liberation: family atom analysis of women victims of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Silvia Guglielmin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution presents the discussion about the analysis carried out on family atoms that were completed in the first psychodrama group meetings carried out in all the Empower Daphne III program partner countries. The issue of the relationship with the mother is central to the aim of the project, in that we hypothesise that the mothers of victims are incapable of educating their daughters about personal autonomy in relation to men, due to the traditional culture in which they grew up in. The article presents information about the use and processing of the survey tool “Family atom ” created by Jacob Moreno and the analysis of the data that emerged in parallel to the reports sent periodically by the psychodramatists to the monitoring and analysis team. From the results three types of maternal relationships emerge (positive, negative and incongruent that enable us to confirm the initial hypothesis of this action research.

  6. The mediating role of avoidance coping between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, mental health, and substance abuse among women experiencing bidirectional IPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Julianne C; Jaquier, Véronique; Overstreet, Nicole; Swan, Suzanne C; Sullivan, Tami P

    2014-12-15

    Avoidance coping is consistently linked with negative mental health outcomes among women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). This study extended the literature examining the potentially mediating role of avoidance coping strategies on both mental health and substance use problems to a highly generalizable, yet previously unexamined population (i.e., women experiencing bidirectional IPV) and examined multiple forms of IPV (i.e., psychological, physical, and sexual) simultaneously. Among a sample of 362 women experiencing bidirectional IPV, four separate path models were examined, one for each outcome variable. Avoidance coping mediated the relationships between psychological and sexual IPV victimization and the outcomes of PTSD symptom severity, depression severity, and drug use problems. Findings indicate nuanced associations among IPV victimization, avoidance coping, and mental health and substance use outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Care of women victims of spouse violence from the Heidegger's perspective of the technology world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, M S; Lopes, R L; Diniz, N M

    2001-09-01

    This is concerned with a reflexive text that approaches the subject of the care to women that suffer conjugal violence in an analytic perspective of the world of the technique, developed from conceptions and concepts of Martin Heidegger, contemporary philosopher of phenomenology. The care of women that suffer conjugal violence appears as one that considers values, decision, trust to care, knowledge and care actions and its consequences.

  8. How do primary health care professionals deal with pregnant women who are victims of domestic violence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Mariela Salcedo-Barrientos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to determine how Family Health Strategy professionals recognize and deal with domestic violence in pregnant women.METHOD: qualitative study based on the Theory of Praxis Intervention in Collective Health Nursing (TIPESC. Fourteen professionals at a Basic Health Unit in the east side of Sao Paulo/Brazil were interviewed. Empirical data were categorized and discussed in thematic groups. For data analysis was used the technique of Discourse Analysis.RESULTS: we identified low number of reported cases of domestic violence; lack of education and training of health care professionals; failure in the identification and intervention process due to bias on their personal problems, moral attitudes and prejudice against these women. In addition, the study showed that their labor process was based entirely on the biological aspects of the women and to overcome this, they need of proper rapport between health care professionals and pregnant women to deal with of domestic violence.CONCLUSION: professionals should develop skills to intervene in violence against pregnant women and also modify labor processes considering women in their totality and part of society.

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial Targeting Alcohol Use and Sexual Assault Risk among College Women at High Risk for Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Amanda K.; Lewis, Melissa A.; George, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Current sexual assault risk reduction programs do not target alcohol use despite the widespread knowledge that alcohol use is a risk factor for being victimized. The current study assessed the effectiveness of a web-based combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction program using a randomized control trial. A total of 207 college women between the ages of 18 and 20 who engaged in heavy episodic drinking were randomized to one of five conditions: full assessment only control condition, sexual assault risk reduction condition, alcohol use reduction condition, combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction condition, and a minimal assessment only condition. Participants completed a 3-month follow-up survey on alcohol-related sexual assault outcomes, sexual assault outcomes, and alcohol use outcomes. Significant interactions revealed that women with higher incidence and severity of sexual assault at baseline experienced less incapacitated attempted or completed rapes, less incidence/severity of sexual assaults, and engaged in less heavy episodic drinking compared to the control condition at the 3-month follow-up. Web-based risk reduction programs targeting both sexual assault and alcohol use may be the most effective way to target the highest risk sample of college students for sexual assault: those with a sexual assault history and those who engage in heavy episodic drinking. PMID:26408290

  10. A randomized controlled trial targeting alcohol use and sexual assault risk among college women at high risk for victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Amanda K; Lewis, Melissa A; George, William H

    2015-11-01

    Sexual assault risk reduction programs do not target alcohol use despite the widespread knowledge that alcohol use is a risk factor for being victimized. The current study assessed the effectiveness of a web-based combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction program using a randomized control trial. A total of 207 college women between the ages of 18 and 20 who engaged in heavy episodic drinking were randomized to one of five conditions: full assessment only control condition, sexual assault risk reduction condition, alcohol use reduction condition, combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction condition, and a minimal assessment only condition. Participants completed a 3-month follow-up survey on alcohol-related sexual assault outcomes, sexual assault outcomes, and alcohol use outcomes. Significant interactions revealed that women with higher severity of sexual assault at baseline experienced less incapacitated attempted or completed rapes, less severity of sexual assaults, and engaged in less heavy episodic drinking compared to the control condition at the 3-month follow-up. Web-based risk reduction programs targeting both sexual assault and alcohol use may be the most effective way to target the highest risk sample of college students for sexual assault: those with a sexual assault history and those who engage in heavy episodic drinking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Blame Attributions of Victims and Perpetrators: Effects of Victim Gender, Perpetrator Gender, and Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Erin E; Kotary, Brandy; Hetz, Maria

    2015-08-11

    Although research has been conducted on rape myth acceptance (RMA) and other factors associated with attribution formation, researchers have not yet determined how the combination of such factors simultaneously affects levels of victim blame and perpetrator blame. The current investigation recruited 221 students from an all-women's college to examine differences in blame attributions across RMA, victim gender, and perpetrator gender, and the relationship between the two parties (i.e., stranger vs. acquaintance). Results suggested that RMA, victim gender, and perpetrator gender account for a significant amount of variance in blame attributions for both victims and perpetrators. In sum, victim blame with female perpetrators was relatively consistent across levels of RMA, but increased substantially for male perpetrators as individuals endorsed higher levels of RMA. Perpetrator blame, however, was highest with male perpetrators when individuals endorsed low levels of RMA and lowest for male perpetrators when individuals endorsed relatively higher levels of RMA. Findings demonstrate the continued influence of RMA on blame attributions for both victims and perpetrators, and the stigma faced by male victims. More research is needed on the differing attributions of male and female victims and perpetrators, as well as differing attributions based on type of relationship. Such research will lead to a better and more thorough understanding of sexual assault and rape. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Antecedents of sexual victimization: factors discriminating victims from nonvictims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synovitz, L B; Byrne, T J

    1998-01-01

    A sexual victimization survey was used to assess the factors that would discriminate between victims and nonvictims of sexual assault. The sample consisted of 241 female college students at a large midwestern university. Victimization status was ascertained from the 13-question Sexual Experiences Survey developed by Koss and Gidycz and Koss and Oros. Data eliciting information about possible associated factors (demographics, dating history, sexual history, personality characteristics and traits) and victimization status were obtained by adapting several scales and instruments into a single Dating and Relationship Survey. Of the 241 women, 102 reported they had been victimized. Discriminant function analysis was used to develop a set of variables that significantly identified victimization status. The variables found to be related to women's being sexually victimized were (a) number of different lifetime sexual partners, (b) provocative dress, and (c) alcohol use.

  13. Invisible Victims: Same-Sex IPV in the National Violence against Women Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Adam M.

    2011-01-01

    With intimate partner violence (IPV) among same-sex couples largely ignored by policy makers and researchers alike, accurately estimating the size of the problem is important in determining whether this minimal response is justified. As such, the present study is a secondary data analysis of the National Violence Against Women Survey and…

  14. Victim's Response and Alcohol-Related Factors as Determinants of Women's Responses to Violent Pornography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeanette; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Martell, Joel; Heiman, Julia R.

    2004-01-01

    Women suffer a variety of detrimental effects from exposure to violent pornography. This study examined the role of specific situational cues embedded within a violent pornographic story, as well as alcohol consumption and alcohol expectancies, to determine potential mechanisms through which these effects occur. Female social drinkers (N=123),…

  15. Childhood abuse victimization, stress-related eating, and weight status in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Susan M; MacLehose, Richard F; Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Austin, S Bryn; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Harlow, Bernard L; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2015-10-01

    Abuse in childhood predicts stress-related overeating and excess weight gain in young women. We investigated whether two stress-related overeating behaviors--binge eating and coping-motivated eating--explain childhood abuse associations with weight status in young women. Analyses included 4377 women participating in the Growing Up Today Study, a longitudinal cohort of youth enrolled at age 9 to 14 years. We used marginal structural models to estimate the effects of abuse before age 11 years on weight status at age 22 to 29 years with and without adjustment for binge eating and coping-motivated eating. Women with severe physical, sexual, and emotional abuse had early adult body mass indexes (BMIs) that were 0.74 kg/m(2) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.15-1.33), 0.69 (95% CI: -0.46 to 1.83), and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.24-1.45) kg/m(2) higher, respectively, than those without abuse. Adjustment for coping-motivated eating attenuated the excess BMI associated with severe physical abuse, but no other important attenuations were found. Physical, sexual, and emotional abuse before age 11 years were associated with higher early adult weight status, although the sexual abuse estimate was not statistically significant. Evidence for a role of stress-related eating in abuse--BMI associations was limited and inconsistent across abuse types. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Traumatic Stress Symptoms of Women Exposed to Different Forms of Childhood Victimization and Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kimberly D.; Stuewig, Jeffrey; McCloskey, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    Interviews of women with (n = 193) and without (n = 170) recent exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) were used to examine how IPV and past exposure to child abuse influence self-reports of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The measurement of IPV included assessing psychological, physical, escalated physical, and sexual abuse.…

  17. Intimate partner sexual assault against women and associated victim substance use, suicidality, and risk factors for femicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Judith; Malecha, Ann; Gist, Julia; Watson, Kathy; Batten, Elizabeth; Hall, Iva; Smith, Sheila

    2005-11-01

    In order to establish the frequency of substance use, following and attributed to sexual assault, and describe the danger for femicide and suicidality for women physically and sexually abused compared to physically-abused only women, a personal interview of 148 African-American, Hispanic, and white English and Spanish-speaking abused women was completed. Women who reported more than one sexual assault were 3.5 (95% CI, 0.9, 13.4) times more likely to report beginning or increasing substance use compared to women who reported only one sexual assault. Sexually assaulted women reported significantly (p=.002) more risk factors for femicide compared to physically- abused only women. Specific to suicide, women reporting sexual assault were 5.3 (95% CI, 1.3, 21.5) times more likely to report threatening or attempted suicide within a 90-day period compared to physically-abused only women. The health assessment and intervention of intimate partner violence must extend beyond injury to include behavior risk sequelae of substance abuse and suicidality.

  18. Cultural Collision and Women Victimization in Buchi Emecheta’s The Joys of Motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fathi Helaly

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Buchi Emecheta is one of the most important female writers to emerge from Nigeria. She is distinguished for her vivid description of female subordination and conflicting cultural values in modern Africa. In Emecheta’s The Joys of Motherhood Nnu Ego, the protagonist, has to suffer as a wife both in the tribal environment in which she was born and the urban community in which she is compelled to live the rest of her life.  Nnu Ego has to suffer because these two environments have different cultures. She falls a victim of the tension of the collision of these two conflicting cultures. This collision occurs between the institutions of the traditional Ibo society and the institution of Western Europe.  The hardships that Nnu Ego experiences are the result of the clash between the Ibo traditions and the colonized Lagos. It is a clash of traditions, values and priorities. Nnu Ego is victimzed because of what the village (Ibuza community demands her to do, on the one hand, and what the rules of a European political  regime requires her to be. She finds herself in a predicament as she has to assume different roles in accordance with the values of the surrounding communities in which she has to live. She escapes from Ibuza because she is not accepted as a wife who cannot produce children. She flees to the distant city of Lagos to start a new life with another husband with the hope of fulfilling her dream of carrying children. This dream is rooted in the cultural values of the Ibo society where motherhood is the primary source of female self- esteem and public status. In Lagos Nnu Ego fulfills her dream of motherhood and begets a lot of children but the pleasures associated with motherhood are negated by the difficult economic conditions of her new urban community and its norms and values. She has to work day in and day out as a street-side peddler to sustain her children because her husband is away working for the colonizers most of the time. Nnu

  19. The Role of Early Maladaptive Schemas in the Appearance of Psychological Symptomatology in Adult Women Victims of Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Ana; Jauregui, Paula; Ozerinjauregi, Nagore; Herrero-Fernández, David

    2017-01-01

    Child abuse affects people's ways of thinking, feeling, and observing the world, resulting in dysfunctional beliefs and maladaptive schemas. Thus, consequences of child abuse may persist during adulthood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the psychological consequences (anxiety, phobic anxiety, depression, and hopelessness) of different types of maltreatment (physical, sexual, and emotional abuse and physical and emotional neglect) and to study the role of early maladaptive schemas in the onset of symptomatology in adult female victims of child abuse. The sample consisted of 75 women referred by associations for treatment of abuse and maltreatment in childhood. Sexual abuse was the type of maltreatment that was most strongly related to most dysfunctional symptomatology, followed by emotional abuse and physical abuse, whereas physical neglect was the least related. Also, early maladaptive schemas were found to correlate with child abuse and dysfunctional symptomatology. Finally, early maladaptive schemas mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and dysfunctional symptomatology when the effect of other types of abuse was controlled. These results may provide important guidance for clinical intervention.

  20. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in History of Incarceration, Experiences of Victimization, and Associated Health Indicators Among Transgender Women in the U.S

    OpenAIRE

    Reisner, Sari L.; Bailey, Zinzi; Sevelius, Jae

    2014-01-01

    Limited national data document the prevalence of incarceration among transgender women, experiences of victimization while incarcerated, and associations of transgender status with health. Data were from the National Transgender Discrimination Survey (NTDS), a large convenience sample of transgender adults in the U.S., collected between September 2008 and March 2009. Respondents who indicated a transfeminine gender identity were included in the current study (n = 3,878). Multivariable logisti...

  1. Yoga and victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić-Ristanović Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the findings of literature review and explorative empirical research of yoga application in the work with victims of various forms of sufferings is presented. The largest notion of victim is accepted, which encompasses victims of crime, victims of human rights violations (including convicted persons, as well as victims of war, natural disasters and other sufferings. After determination of the notion of victim and yoga, the review and analyses of research findings and direct experiences with the application of yoga in victim support and victimisation prevention worldwide and in Serbia, is done. The author’s research findings as well as personal experiences with the application of yoga in the work with prisoners in prison for women in Pozarevac (Serbia, within the workshops that Victimology Society of Serbia implemented during 2012/2013, are presented as well. In the conclusions, contribution of yoga to holistic approach to victim support as well as important role that yoga may have in prevention of victimisation and criminalisation, is stressed. The importance of yoga for support of prisoners as the part of preparation for re-entry and with the aim to prevent recidivism, as well as to enable their more successful reintegration into the society, is particularly emphasised. The paper is based on the research implemented by the author for the purpose of writing the final essey at the course for yoga instructors on International yoga academy, Yoga Allience of Serbia.

  2. Developing a tripartite prevention program for impoverished young women transitioning to young adulthood: addressing substance use, HIV risk, and victimization by intimate partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Barnes, Dionne; Gilbert, Mary Lou; Ryan, Gery; Wenzel, Suzanne L

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the transition to adulthood for adolescent females and young women who are impoverished and homeless. Co-occurrence of drug use and abuse, HIV risk, and victimization is notable among homeless women, highlighting the need for comprehensive interventions. Unfortunately, evidence-based prevention approaches addressing these inter-related problems among impoverished women transitioning into adulthood are lacking. To address this gap, we designed an innovative prevention program by utilizing open- and closed-ended interview data from impoverished women (n = 20), focus groups with community experts and providers (2 groups; n = 9), and a theoretical framework to direct the research. Information provided by our focus groups and interviews with women supported our theoretical framework and highlighted the importance of addressing normative information, providing skills training, and utilizing a non-confrontational approach when discussing these sensitive issues.

  3. [The elderly as victims of violent crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlf, E H

    1994-01-01

    Up to now, victimology has only dealt with partial aspects of the situation of the elderly as victims of violent crime. Nevertheless, the Police Crime Statistics enable us to make the following three basic statements: In general, old people are less likely to become victims of violent crime (than young people). The acts of violence committed against the elderly are mainly ones in which there was a relationship between offender and victim before the offense. Elderly women are disproportionately more often victims of purse snatching. The increasing social isolation of old people constitutes not only a specific form of victimization, it probably also increases their susceptibility to become victims. The theory that old people have "a particularly pronounced fear of crime" cannot be generally proven. This question must be considered from differing points of view and depends largely on the individual vulnerability of the old people. In Germany, there has hardly been any empirical study of violence towards the elderly in institutions and in family households (so-called domestic violence). It is believed that more violence takes place in both than in generally assumed.

  4. Rumination mediates the association between cyber-victimization and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Brian A; Bhatia, Vickie; Davila, Joanne

    2014-06-01

    The current study examined the 3-week prospective associations between cyber-victimization and both depressive symptoms and rumination. In addition, a mediation model was tested, wherein rumination mediated the association between cyber-victimization and depressive symptoms. Participants (N = 565 college-age young adults) completed online surveys at two time points 3 weeks apart. Results indicated that cyber-victimization was associated with increases in both depressive symptoms and rumination over time. Furthermore, results of the path analysis indicated that cyber-victimization was associated with increases in rumination over time, which were then associated with greater depressive symptoms, providing support for the proposed mediation effect for women, but not men. Findings extend previous correlational findings by demonstrating that cyber-victimization is associated with increases in symptomatology over time. Findings also suggest that the negative consequences of cyber-victimization extend beyond mental health problems to maladaptive emotion regulation. In fact, rumination may be a mechanism through which cyber-victimization influences mental health problems, at least for women. Mental health professionals are encouraged to assess cyber-victimization as part of standard victimization assessments and to consider targeting maladaptive emotion regulation in addition to mental health problems in clients who have experienced cyber-victimization.

  5. No increased systemic fibrinolysis in women with heavy menstrual bleeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiewel-Verschueren, S.; Knol, H. M.; Lisman, T.; Bogchelman, D. H.; Kluin-Nelemans, J. C.; van der Zee, A.G.J.; Mulder, A.B.; Meijer, K.

    BackgroundBleeding disorders have been recognized as important etiologic or contributory factors in women with heavy menstrual bleeding. Fibrinolysis in the endometrium plays a role in heavy menstrual bleeding. It is unknown whether increased systemic fibrinolysis might also increase the risk of

  6. Increased rates of pregnancy complications in women with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleski, Stephanie M; Lindenmeyer, Christina C; Veloski, J Jon; Miller, Robin S; Miller, Cynthia L; Kastenberg, David; DiMarino, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease is an immune-mediated small bowel disorder that develops in genetically susceptible individuals upon exposure to dietary gluten. Celiac disease could have extra-intestinal manifestations that affect women's reproductive health. The aim of this study was to investigate fertility and outcomes of pregnancy among women with celiac disease. In a retrospective cohort study, we analyzed information collected from patients at a tertiary care celiac center and from members of 2 national celiac disease awareness organizations. Women without celiac disease were used as controls. Women completed an anonymous online survey, answering 43 questions about menstrual history, fertility, and outcomes of pregnancy (329 with small bowel biopsy-confirmed celiac disease and 641 controls). Of the 970 women included in the study, 733 (75.6%) reported that they had been pregnant at some point; there was no significant difference between women with celiac disease (n=245/329, 74.5%) and controls (488/641, 76.1%; P=0.57). However, fewer women with celiac disease than controls (79.6% vs. 84.8%) gave birth following 1 or more pregnancies (P=0.03). Women with celiac disease had higher percentages of spontaneous abortion than controls (50.6% vs. 40.6%; P=0.01), and of premature delivery (23.6% vs. 15.9% among controls; P=0.02). The mean age at menarche was higher in the celiac disease group (12.7 years) than controls (12.4 years; P=0.01). In a retrospective cohort analysis examining reproductive features of women with celiac disease, we associated celiac disease with significant increases in spontaneous abortion, premature delivery, and later age of menarche.

  7. [The profile of female victims of conjugal violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, Philippe

    2004-12-18

    To define the profile of female victims of conjugal violence examined in the Legal Medicine emergency unit of the Hotel-Dieu hospital in Paris. A self-administered questionnaire with 15 questions was distributed to 100 victims. The 100 victims replied: 86 cases of violence took place usually in the home, 78 episodes of violence were multiple and complaints were rarely lodged after the first episodes. Mental and sexual violence were severe and unrecognized. Eighty women interviewed suffered from mental violence. In 43 cases, alcohol played a determining role in the onset of such violence. Female victims of conjugal violence do not have a specific profile. The law of silence persists, but the increase in the number of complaints from North African and African women is encouraging for the future.

  8. Hidden Forms of Victimization in Elementary Students Involved in Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Melissa K.; Finkelhor, David; Kantor, Glenda Kaufman

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the possibility that bullies, victims of bullying, and bully-victims (i.e., youth who both perpetrate and are victims of bullying) are at increased risk for victimization in four other domains: conventional crime, child maltreatment, sexual victimization, and witnessing or indirect victimization. It also evaluated the extent to…

  9. Prevalence of osteoporosis increased in postmenopausal women with postural scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Rachmawati

    2015-12-01

    In post menopausal women with postural scoliosis found a higher incidence of osteoporosis. High endurance of erector spinae muscle lowers the risk of scoliosis. Exercise to improve posture and increase endurance of erector spinae muscle need to be done to prevent decline of BMD.

  10. The increasing burden of tuberculosis in pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. In spite of the global epidemic of tuberculosis (TB) which has been exacerbated by HIV, the impact of these coinfections on maternal and perinatal health has been limited. We document new evidence from Durban, KwaZulu- Natal, on the increasing effects of TB in pregnant women, neonates and infants. Method ...

  11. Predictive Effects of Social Anxiety on Increases in Future Peer Victimization for a Community Sample of Middle-School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Saskia F.; Hutteman, Roos; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study focused on clarifying the direction of effects between social anxiety and victimization in a community-based sample. In addition, we studied the moderating effect of gender on this association. A total of 1,649 children (45% boys, approximately 12 years old) of 65 secondary-school classes participated in the study.…

  12. Victimization, perception of insecurity, and changes in daily routines in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Ávila

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between victimization, perception of insecurity, and changes in routines. METHODS The 8,170 subjects of both sexes (49.9% women and 50.1% men aged between 12 and 60 years, selected from a proportional stratified sampling, participated in this study. The measuring instrument was an adaptation of the National Survey on Victimization and Perception of Public Security. Chi-square tests were performed. RESULTS The results show significant differences on victimization and sex regarding perception of insecurity, restrictions on everyday activities, and protection measures. 13.1% of those interviewed claimed to have been victims of a crime in the past 12 months. 52.7% of women considered their municipality as unsafe or very unsafe. In the case of men, this percentage was 58.2%. Female victims reported significant restrictions in everyday activities when compared to non-victims. In relation to men, the percentage of victims with a high restriction of activities was higher in male victims than non-victims. In the group of victimized women, the segment of women who opted for increased measures of protection against crime was larger than expected, while those of non-victims who took less protective measures was lower than expected. These same results were observed in the group of men. CONCLUSIONS The experience of victimization implies a greater perception of insecurity. However, the climate of insecurity is widespread in a large number of citizens. Gender differences in a high-crime environment show the importance of investigating in depth the roles of both genders in the perception of insecurity and changes in routines.

  13. No increased systemic fibrinolysis in women with heavy menstrual bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewel-Verschueren, S; Knol, H M; Lisman, T; Bogchelman, D H; Kluin-Nelemans, J C; van der Zee, A G J; Mulder, A B; Meijer, K

    2014-09-01

    Bleeding disorders have been recognized as important etiologic or contributory factors in women with heavy menstrual bleeding. Fibrinolysis in the endometrium plays a role in heavy menstrual bleeding. It is unknown whether increased systemic fibrinolysis might also increase the risk of heavy menstrual bleeding. To investigate fibrinolytic parameters, including clot lysis time, in women with heavy menstrual bleeding. We included 102 patients referred for heavy menstrual bleeding (Pictorial Bleeding Assessment Chart score of > 100) in our cohort. Patients and controls (28 healthy volunteers without heavy menstrual bleeding) underwent hemostatic testing in the first week after menstruation. For 79 patients and all controls, fibrinolytic parameters (thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor activity, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasmin inhibitor levels) and clot lysis time were available. Fibrinolytic parameters were similar between patients and controls, except for thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (89.4% vs. 82.5%) and plasmin inhibitor (106% vs. 96%), the levels of which which were significantly higher in patients. In women with menorrhagia without gynecologic abnormalities, we found lower thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels than in women with gynecologic abnormalities (thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, 85.4% vs. 94.8%; plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, 16.0 μg L(-1) vs. 24.5 μg L(-1) ). Systemic fibrinolytic capacity is not increased in women with heavy menstrual bleeding. Overall, levels of the fibrinolytic inhibitors thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor and plasmin inhibitor were even higher in patients than in controls. However, in a subgroup of women without gynecologic abnormalities, relatively lower levels of inhibitors may contribute to the heavy menstrual bleeding. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  14. Gender Victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Oluwole Ayodele

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Badagry is the first community to receive the Christian religion in Nigeria. For this, every good reason exists to suppose that its coming into early contact with the missionaries should have caused the Ogu people to acquire a healthier understanding of fair play in the context of widowhood practices. Regrettably, they seem to respond more slowly to change in their attitudes to widows. Thus, despite the overwhelming presence of Christian relics in the ancient town of Badagry, traditional customs such as wife inheritance and widowhood rites have continued to appear significantly associated with violence against which women are not well-protected. “Gender Victimization: A Study of Widowhood Practices” among Ogu People of Lagos is the focus of this study. Quantitative and qualitative methods were adopted for the study. Thus, five in-depth interviews and three focus group discussion instruments were used to collect primary data, which were used to complement quantitative data. Although quantitative data were subjected to univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses, qualitative data were cleaned, reorganized into themes and analyzed. The study found that much as the Ogu people of Lagos acknowledge the position of the scriptures on society’s non-criminal relation with widows, they still believe that their culture comfortably drives the greater proportion of their widow-friendly interactions. This study suggests that the adoption of cultural best practices in handling women and their peculiar issues will tone down violence in customary widowhood practices and enable women who lost their husbands in circumstances beyond their controls access community-based support.

  15. Increased neutrophil numbers account for leukocytosis in women with preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canzoneri, Bernard J; Lewis, David F; Groome, Lynn; Wang, Yuping

    2009-11-01

    We evaluated the leukocyte differentials in women with normal pregnancies and in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (PE). A retrospective study was performed in 240 women who were delivered at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-Shreveport, Louisiana, from January 1, 2002, to July 31, 2003. A total of 80 patients were studied in each group: normal pregnancy, mild PE, or severe PE. Leukocyte total and neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, hemoglobin, and platelet counts were analyzed by analysis of variance and pairwise comparison. Data are presented as mean +/- standard deviation. A P value numbers: 8.05 +/- 4.01 (severe; P hours after delivery in the group with severe PE. No statistical differences for monocyte and lymphocyte counts were observed between normal and PE groups. Increased neutrophil numbers account for the leukocytosis in women with PE. (c) Thieme Medical Publishers.

  16. Restraining orders among victims of intimate partner homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittes, K A; Sorenson, S B

    2008-06-01

    Most intimate partner homicides (IPHs) follow a long history of violence and occur while the victim is ending the relationship. Restraining orders are a common legal recourse by which to seek protection from an abusive partner. This study expands on prior research by examining the restraining order history of IPH victims by characteristics of the victim, assailant, and homicide. State-wide databases containing information about restraining orders and homicides were linked, and bivariate and multivariate statistics were then calculated to identify differences between IPH victims who had and had not been issued a restraining order. About 11% of 231 women killed by male intimates had been issued a restraining order. About one-fifth of the female IPH victims who had a restraining order were killed within 2 days of the order being issued; about one-third were killed within a month. Nearly half of those with a restraining order had been protected by multiple orders. Victims killed in a shared residence (versus elsewhere) had lower odds of having a restraining order, whereas victims from rural (versus urban) counties, married (versus dating) victims, and Latino (versus non-Latino) victim-offender dyads had higher odds of having a restraining order. The type of weapon used was not associated with whether the victim had been under the protection of a restraining order. Most female IPH victims did not have a restraining order when they were killed. Further research is needed to determine whether restraining orders protect against IPH and, if they do, on how to increase their utilization.

  17. Sleep Loss and Partner Violence Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert; Shannon, Lisa; Logan, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    Intimate partner violence victimization has been associated with serious health problems among women, including many disorders that involve sleep disturbances. However, there has been only limited examination of sleep duration among women with victimization experiences. A total of 756 women with a domestic violence order (DVO) against a male…

  18. Oxytocin selectively increases perceptions of harm for victims but not the desire to punish offenders of criminal offenses

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, Frank; Parasuraman, Raja; Moody, Lara; Twieg, Peter; de Visser, Ewart; McCabe, Kevin; O’Hara, Martin; Lee, Mary R.

    2012-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin functions as a hormone and neurotransmitter and facilitates complex social cognition and approach behavior. Given that empathy is an essential ingredient for third-party decision-making in institutions of justice, we investigated whether exogenous oxytocin modulates empathy of an unaffected third-party toward offenders and victims of criminal offenses. Healthy male participants received intranasal oxytocin or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled,...

  19. Between "Victims" and "Criminals"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plambech, Sine

    2014-01-01

    This article is about the lives of Nigerian sex workers after deportation from Europe, as well as the institutions that intervene in their migration trajectories. In Europe, some of these women's situations fit the legal definitions of trafficking, and they were categorized as “victims of human...

  20. Increasing prevalence of group B streptococcal infection among pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    .3% in 2002 to 5.1% in 2010 (p population and 7.8 per 1,000 among women with GBS (p ... an increasing trend over the study period. GBS during pregnancy was associated with a low birth weight and preterm delivery. More research on preventive measures is needed, but updated guidelines, screening and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis continue to be the cornerstones of EOGBS disease prevention...

  1. HEALTH TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREASING ADAPTIVE CAPABILITIESOF PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Krivonogova

    2014-01-01

    and II half of pregnancy, anemia, the threat of pregnancy termination, hypertension and hypotension.The complex of breathing exercises and aqua-gymnastics was carried out as follows. Firstly the presence of somatic diseases and prenatal risk factors (ultrasound, CTG, Doppler were confirmed. Then termina­ting breath tests were carried out, after which the complex of breathing exercises and aqua-gymnastics was put on.Carrying out this complex by main group women allowed increasing their functional reserves level and forming a good adaptation to the various factors of external and internal environment, as indicated by the adaptive type of response in 64% of the cases. There was a gradual decline in the functional reserves of pregnant women with somatic morbidity and prenatal risk factors who did not make the complex of breathing exercises and aqua-gymnastics that indicates the possible worsening of somatic pathology. Subsequently, these women have a disease recurrence contributed to a further decrease in functional reserves, which led to the breakdown of adaptation in 35% of cases.The performing of breathing exercises and aqua-gymnastics had a positive effect on the hormonal and metabolic status of pregnant women. In the first trimester cortisol concentration was significantly lower in women of main group and comparison group compared to control group. Against the background of the active respiratory training within the main group of women it was shown normalization of this hormone concentration in the blood serum up to the performance level of healthy mothers. Indices of insulin in the blood serum against the background of pregnancy also tended to increase, but they remained within the reference ranges.Breathing exercises combined with aqua-gymnastics helped to increase the sensitivity to hormones and exerted a stimulating effect on the secretion of glucocorticoid effect.In the main group of women against the background of the respiratory training in the third

  2. Increasing fruits and vegetables in midlife women: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Caroline A; Weber, Janet L; Coad, Jane; Kruger, Marlena C

    2013-07-01

    The positive link between bone health and fruit/vegetable consumption has been attributed to the lower renal acid load of a diet high in alkaline-forming fruit/vegetables. Other important dietary determinants of bone health include micronutrients and bioactives found in fruit/vegetables. We hypothesized that increased intake of fruit/vegetables to 9 or more servings a day would lower net endogenous acid production (NEAP) significantly (~20 mEq/d) and increase urine pH (0.5 pH units). This 8-week feasibility study investigated if 21 midlife women (age, 40-65 years) currently consuming 5 or less servings a day of fruit/vegetables could increase their intake to 9 or more servings a day to substantially lower NEAP and include specific vegetables daily. Three-day diet diaries were completed at baseline and the end of the study and assessed for NEAP (estimated) and number of servings from all food groups. Urine pH dipsticks were provided for the participants to assess and record their fasting urine pH daily (second void). Seventy-six percent of women achieved the study aim, which was to increase to 9 or more servings of fruit/vegetables for at least 5 d/wk. There was a reduction in the number of bread/cereal servings. Net endogenous acid production (estimated) was reduced significantly, with a mean urine pH increase of 0.68 pH units (95% confidence interval, 0.46-1.14); however, daily urine pH measures showed high variability. This study demonstrated that a group of midlife women can change their diet for 8 weeks by significantly increasing fruit/vegetable servings and include specific "bone friendly" vegetables daily, resulting in a significant decrease in estimated dietary NEAP and an increase in urine pH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased cortical porosity in women with hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundh, D; Nilsson, A G; Nilsson, M; Johansson, L; Mellström, D; Lorentzon, M

    2017-05-01

    Hip fractures cause increased mortality and disability and consume enormous healthcare resources. Only 46% of hip fracture patients have osteoporosis at the total hip according to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurement. Cortical porosity increases with ageing and is believed to be important for bone strength. To investigate whether older women with hip fracture have higher cortical porosity than controls, and if so whether this difference is independent of clinical risk factors and areal bone mineral density (aBMD). From an ongoing population-based study, we identified 46 women with a prevalent X-ray-verified hip fracture and 361 control subjects without any fractures. aBMD was measured with DXA. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography was used to measure bone microstructure at the standard (ultradistal) site and at 14% (distal) of the tibial length. Women with a previous hip fracture had lower aBMD at the femoral neck (-11.8%) and total hip (-14.6%) as well as higher cortical porosity at the ultradistal (32.1%) and distal (29.3%) tibia compared with controls. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, with adjustment for covariates (age, height, weight, smoking, calcium intake, physical activity, walk time, oral glucocorticoids, parental hip fracture, rheumatoid arthritis, previous fall, current bisphosphonate treatment and femoral neck aBMD), cortical porosity at the ultradistal [odds ratio per standard deviation increase (95% confidence interval) 2.61 (1.77-3.85)] and distal [1.57 (1.12-2.20)] sites was associated with prevalent hip fracture. Cortical porosity was associated with prevalent hip fracture in older women independently of femoral neck aBMD and clinical risk factors. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The Journal of Internal Medicine.

  4. Psychological characteristics of victims of trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larin A.N.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main causes of falling into slavery, forms of slave labour, as well as moral-psychological properties and characteristics of potential victims of trafficking. Noted risk factors leading to victimization of the person and increase the possibility of becoming an object for criminal groups specializing in this kind of crime. The number of victims of international trafficking ranges from 600 to 800 thousand people a year, and when you consider human trafficking within the individual countries, the total number of victims ranges from 2 to 4 million people. 80% of trafficked people are women and children, of which 70% are sold to other countries for sexual exploitation. According to the International organization for migration (International Organization of Migration annually only in the European markets of prostitution sold is not less than 500 thousand women. Among the personal factors that affect the increase in the number of such crimes, it is necessary to indicate family trouble, which manifests itself, primarily, to neglect, loss of relationships with family and parents, or in the absence of moral and material support from existing family and friends.

  5. Self-Reported Disciplinary Practices among Women in the Child Welfare System: Association with Domestic Violence Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Kelly J.; Hazen, Andrea L.; Coben, Jeffrey H.; Wang, Yun; McGeehan, Jennifer; Kohl, Patricia L.; Gardner, William P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between physical domestic violence victimization (both recent and more than a year in past measured by self-report) and self-reported disciplinary practices among female parents/caregivers in a national sample of families referred to child welfare. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of more than 3,000 female…

  6. Abdominal breathing increases tear secretion in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Kokoro; Kawashima, Motoko; Ikeura, Kazuhiro; Arita, Reiko; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    To determine the relationship between abdominal breathing and tear meniscus volume in healthy women, we investigated the change in tear meniscus volume in two groups: normal breathing and abdominal breathing. We used a crossover experimental model and examined 20 healthy women aged 20-54 years (mean ± SD, 32.7 ± 11.1 years). The participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups. During the first visit, the normal breathing group was subjected to normal breathing for 3 min, whereas the abdominal breathing group was subjected to abdominal breathing (4-second inhalation and 6-second exhalation) for 3 min. During the second visit, the protocols were swapped between the two groups. We estimated the R wave to R wave (R-R) interval, tear meniscus volume, salivary amylase activity, pulse, and blood pressure before and immediately after, 15 min after, and 30 min after completion of the breathing activity. After abdominal breathing, compared to that before breathing, the tear meniscus volume increased significantly 15 min after breathing (Pabdominal breathing (PAbdominal breathing for 3 minutes increases the tear meniscus volume in healthy women. Consequently, abdominal breathing may be considered in the treatment of dry eye disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Increasing Valid Profiles in Phallometric Assessment of Sex Offenders with Child Victims: Combining the Strengths of Audio Stimuli and Synthetic Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall-Lévesque, Shawn; Rouleau, Joanne-Lucine; Renaud, Patrice

    2017-11-08

    Penile plethysmography (PPG) is a measure of sexual interests that relies heavily on the stimuli it uses to generate valid results. Ethical considerations surrounding the use of real images in PPG have further limited the content admissible for these stimuli. To palliate this limitation, the current study aimed to combine audio and visual stimuli by incorporating computer-generated characters to create new stimuli capable of accurately classifying sex offenders with child victims, while also increasing the number of valid profiles. Three modalities (audio, visual, and audiovisual) were compared using two groups (15 sex offenders with child victims and 15 non-offenders). Both the new visual and audiovisual stimuli resulted in a 13% increase in the number of valid profiles at 2.5 mm, when compared to the standard audio stimuli. Furthermore, the new audiovisual stimuli generated a 34% increase in penile responses. All three modalities were able to discriminate between the two groups by their responses to the adult and child stimuli. Lastly, sexual interest indices for all three modalities could accurately classify participants in their appropriate groups, as demonstrated by ROC curve analysis (i.e., audio AUC = .81, 95% CI [.60, 1.00]; visual AUC = .84, 95% CI [.66, 1.00], and audiovisual AUC = .83, 95% CI [.63, 1.00]). Results suggest that computer-generated characters allow accurate discrimination of sex offenders with child victims and can be added to already validated stimuli to increase the number of valid profiles. The implications of audiovisual stimuli using computer-generated characters and their possible use in PPG evaluations are also discussed.

  8. Pregnancy Exercise Increase Enzymatic Antioxidant In Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagey Freddy Wagey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pregnancy is a vulnerable condition to all kinds of "stress", resulting in changes of physiological and metabolic functions. This research aims to determine effect of exercise during pregnancy in increasing enzymatic antioxidant marked by increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalase (CAT levels. Methods: Randomized pre and posttest control group design was employed in this study. A number of 66 pregnant women were recruited in this study and grouped into two groups, i.e 30 of them as control group and the rest as treatment group. Pregnancy exercise was performed to all 36 pregnant women from 20 weeks gestation on treatment group. The exercise was performed in the morning for about 30 minutes, twice a weeks. On the other hand, daily activities was sugested for control group. Student’s t-test was then applied to determine the mean different of treatment and control group with 5 % of significant value. Results: This study reveals that there were significantly higher increase of (superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthation peroxidase (GSHPx, and catalse (CAT levels of treatment group compare to control group. These enzymatic antioxidant increase among these two group were around 1.36 mg/gHb for SOD; 1.14 IU/gHb for GSHPx; and 0.97 IU/gHb for CAT, (p < 0.05. Clinical outcomes, such as strengten of pelvic muscle and quality of life of treatment group were significantly better compared to control group (p < 0.05. Conclusions: This means that exercise during pregnancy ages of 20 weeks increase enzymatic antioxidant levels SOD, GSHPx, and CAT higher compare to control group without exercise.

  9. The Impact of Community-Based Outreach on Psychological Distress and Victim Safety in Women Exposed to Intimate Partner Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePrince, Anne P.; Labus, Jennifer; Belknap, Joanne; Buckingham, Susan; Gover, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using a longitudinal, randomized controlled trial, this study assessed the impact of a community-based outreach versus a more traditional criminal justice system-based referral program on women's distress and safety following police-reported intimate partner abuse (IPA). Method: Women (N = 236 women) with police-reported IPA were…

  10. Lifetime trauma victimization and PTSD in relation to psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder in a sample of incarcerated women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Robyn L; Reddy, Madhavi K; Zlotnick, Caron; Johnson, Jennifer E

    2015-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy are similar, but distinct, psychiatric conditions that are common in male and female inmates; a segment of the population with high rates of trauma exposure. It is unclear whether specific types of lifetime trauma are associated with ASPD and psychopathy in incarcerated women and men. Furthermore, the unique roles of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and trauma victimization in antisocial personality disturbance are not well-understood. The paper aims to discuss these issues. This study investigated associations between trauma variables (different kinds of traumatic experiences and PTSD) and antisocial personality variables (ASPD and psychopathy) in a sample of incarcerated women and men who participated in a randomized clinical trial for major depressive disorder. In total, 88 incarcerated men and women were assessed for ASPD diagnosis, psychopathy severity, PTSD symptom severity, and history of physical, sexual, and crime-related trauma. Regression analyses predicted ASPD or psychopathy from trauma variables, controlling for gender. Physical trauma was the only form of trauma that was significantly related to psychopathy. Physical trauma and crime-related trauma were associated with ASPD. PTSD symptom severity was not associated with psychopathy or ASPD. There are associations between some kinds of lifetime trauma exposure and current ASPD/psychopathy in the target sample, but these associations do not appear to be mediated through current PTSD symptoms.

  11. Further victimization of child sexual abuse victims: A latent class typology of re-victimization trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Nina L; Luebbers, Stefan; Ogloff, James R P; Cutajar, Margaret; Mullen, Paul E; Mann, Emily

    2017-04-01

    The association between child sexual abuse (CSA) and risk for re-victimization is well-documented; however, less is known about the temporal progression of re-victimization experiences over the early life-course among CSA survivors, and whether this differs from that of those without known sexual abuse histories. This study investigated whether there are distinct temporal pathways of interpersonal re-victimization between the ages of 10-25 years among medically confirmed CSA cases, and considered whether abuse variables, re-victimization variables, and the presence of other adverse outcomes, were associated with heterogeneity in re-victimization pathways. The data were collected as part of a large-scale data-linkage study in which the medical records of 2759 cases of contact-CSA between 1964 and 1995 were linked, between 13 and 44 years following abuse, to police and public psychiatric databases; cases were compared to a matched community sample (n=2677). Using a subsample of 510 (401 victims; 109 comparisons) individuals with an interpersonal (re)victimization history, we examined the aggregate 'age-(re)victimization' curves for CSA victims and comparisons, respectively. Further, we applied longitudinal latent class analysis to explore heterogeneity in re-victimization trajectories among abuse survivors across their early life-course. Four latent pathways were identified, labeled: Normative; Childhood-Limited; Emerging-Adulthood; and Chronic re-victimization trajectories. Older age at abuse, a criminal history, and mental health problems were uniquely predictive of membership to the more problematic and persistent re-victimization trajectories. Findings indicate that individuals exposed to CSA during adolescence may be particularly vulnerable to poorer re-victimization trajectories, characterized by multiple risk indices, and thus may warrant increased service provision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Increased rates of pregnancy complications in women with celiac disease

    OpenAIRE

    Moleski, Stephanie M.; Lindenmeyer, Christina C.; Veloski, J. Jon; Miller, Robin S.; Miller, Cynthia L.; Kastenberg, David; DiMarino, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Celiac disease is an immune-mediated small bowel disorder that develops in genetically susceptible individuals upon exposure to dietary gluten. Celiac disease could have extra-intestinal manifestations that affect women?s reproductive health. The aim of this study was to investigate fertility and outcomes of pregnancy among women with celiac disease. Methods In a retrospective cohort study, we analyzed information collected from patients at a tertiary care celiac center and from me...

  13. Increasing prevalence of group B streptococcal infection among pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Group B streptococci (GBS) can cause preterm delivery for women and sepsis and meningitis in infants younger than 90 days of age. The present retrospective cohort study determines the trend over time in the rates of GBS and in demographic risk factors for GBS among pregnant women.......3% in 2002 to 5.1% in 2010 (p neonates in the general population and 7.8 per 1,000 among women with GBS (p

  14. Partner violence against women in Spain: Quantification and characterization of the problem, victims, aggressors, and the social and professional context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Menéndez Álvarez-Dardet

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available After a literature review of recent studies on partner violence against women in Spain, this paper describes the central indicators of frequency, prevalence and course of domestic abuse. The main characteristics of battered women, their children, the male aggressors, and the social and professional context in which these actions take place are summarized. Partner violence against women in Spain appears to be a serious social problem affecting a significant number of people. It is also a very heterogeneous and widespread phenomenon particularly with respect to female victims’ characteristics. However, studies offer a more homogenous profile of the course of domestic violence against women. As a whole, available indicators of domestic violence against women in Spain led us to cast some doubt and refute many of the prejudices about this subject.

  15. Increasing prevalence of group B streptococcal infection among pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Group B streptococci (GBS) can cause preterm delivery for women and sepsis and meningitis in infants younger than 90 days of age. The present retrospective cohort study determines the trend over time in the rates of GBS and in demographic risk factors for GBS among pregnant women.......3% in 2002 to 5.1% in 2010 (p pregnant cohort, but the rate followed...

  16. The Roles of Peritraumatic Dissociation, Child Physical Abuse, and Child Sexual Abuse in the Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Adult Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Melanie D.; McCanne, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Previous research has indicated that women who experience childhood physical abuse or childhood sexual abuse are at increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and adult victimization. Recently, peritraumatic dissociation (PD) has been suggested as another possible risk factor for PTSD and adult victimization. The purpose of…

  17. Increasing prevalence of group B streptococcal infection among pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Rosthoj, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Group B streptococci (GBS) can cause preterm delivery for women and sepsis and meningitis in infants younger than 90 days of age. The present retrospective cohort study determines the trend over time in the rates of GBS and in demographic risk factors for GBS among pregnant women.......3% in 2002 to 5.1% in 2010 (p women with GBS (p pregnant cohort, but the rate followed...... delivering at Rigshospitalet (RH). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the period from 2002 to 2010, a total of 33,616 women gave birth at the RH. Our cohort was defined as 16,587 (49%) women examined by 24,724 cultures. All microbiological requisitions from the Department of Obstetrics at RH were extracted from...

  18. Profile of women treated in the municipal program of treatment of women who are victims of sexual violence in Londrina-PR and the circumstances of the sexual violence suffered by them: from October 2001 to august 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Men de Oliveira

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexual violence is one of the most serious ways of violence that affects women. Considered as hideous crimes, rape and violent assault are characterized by a not-allowed sexual contact. The consequences caused by these acts are: early sexual experience, physical traumas, HIV/STDs infections, unwanted pregnancies to psychic sequels that fit into post-traumatic stress disturb. The purpose of this paper is to bring up the profile of the population treated in the Program of Treatment of Women who are Victims of Sexual Violence – “Rosa Viva” – and the available information that could characterize the incidents in Londrina – PR. This was a descriptive study carried out based on data gathered from 106 records used in the treatments in the Municipal Maternity Ward from October 2001 to August 2004. The characterization points out that: 59,9% are in the age group of 10 to 19 years old; 52,8% look for the service on the first 24 hours after the aggression, when it was necessary to administer the emergency contraception in 54,7% of the women. The isolated rape happened in 50,2% of the cases and the absence of traumas predominated in 56,6%. In general, 58,5% of the aggressors were unknown, although in the age group of 10 to 14 years old, the victim would be able to identify the aggressor. Based on the deficiency of data on the analysis of the records, some important items are suggested to be included in the medical records, considering as fundamental an instrument capable of showing in detail the dimension of the violence against women.

  19. Gender and victimization by intimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, L E; Browne, A

    1985-06-01

    Recent data demonstrate that, although gender has an impact upon the experience of being a victim of an intimate's violence, there is no particular personality pattern that leads one to become a victim. Rather, women--who are socialized to adapt and submit, and who are likely to become victims of men's sexual violence or physical abuse--may not develop adequate self-protection skills as children, especially if they come from childhood homes in which females are victimized, leading to a later vulnerability to physical and sexual abuse. Men, however, socialized to express anger and aggression in an outward manner, learn to model the abuse witnessed or experienced in childhood and often learn that women are the "appropriate" recipients of this violence. Social learning theories of modeling and aggression are used to explain how such personality patterns develop, and the theory of learned helplessness is used to explain battered women's coping responses to their partners' abusive behavior. The extreme situation, in which a battered woman kills her partner in self-defense, is analyzed in order to understand women victims' sense of desperation and entrapment in severely abusive relationships and the extent to which their behaviors are in reaction to the abuse perpetrated by the mate.

  20. Partner violence victimization and unintended pregnancy in Latina and Asian American women: Analysis using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Susan; Masho, Saba W; Heh, Victor

    2017-04-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive public health problem in the U.S., affecting nearly one in every three women over their lifetimes. Using structural equation modeling, we evaluated the association between IPV and unintended pregnancy, mediated by condom use and perceived spousal/partner support among Latina and Asian women. Data came from the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS). The analysis was restricted to married or cohabiting female respondents aged 18+ years (n = 1,595). Dependent variables included unintended pregnancy, condom use, and perceived partner support. Independent variables included physical abuse or threats by current partner and primary decision-maker. Weighted least squares was used to fit path models to data comprising dichotomous and ordinal variables. More than 13% of women reported IPV during their relationship with their partner/spouse. Abused women were twice as likely as non-abused women to have had an unintended pregnancy. This association was partially mediated by perceived partner support. Condom use had a positive, but non-significant association with unintended pregnancy, and IPV had a negative, but non-significant association with condom use. Results highlight the importance of IPV screening for minority women. Efforts to combine family planning and violence prevention services may help reduce unintended pregnancy.

  1. Cyberstalking victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilić Vida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Global social networks contributed to the creation of new, inconspicuous, technically perfect shape of criminality which is hard to suppress because of its intangible characteristics. The most common forms of virtual communications’ abuse are: cyberstalking and harassment, identity theft, online fraud, manipulation and misuse of personal information and personal photos, monitoring e-mail accounts and spamming, interception and recording of chat rooms. Cyberstalking is defined as persistent and targeted harassment of an individual by using electronic communication. The victim becomes insecure, frightened, intimidated and does not figure out the best reaction which will terminate the harassment. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance and necessity of studying cyberstalking and to point out its forms in order to find the best ways to prevent this negative social phenomenon. Basic topics that will be analyzed in this paper are the various definitions of cyberstalking, forms of cyberstalking, and the most important characteristics of victims and perpetators.

  2. There Is No Strength in Emotions: The Role of Street Enculturation in Influencing How Victimized Homeless Women Speak About Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Laura

    2016-06-01

    This article is based on analysis of 76 in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with homeless women in Los Angeles. What is revealed are three patterns of street enculturation-"low-," "medium-," and "high street"- which are linked to attitudes women professed to hold about violence. In essence, the degree to which a woman had adopted a "street orientation" is seen to influence how she spoke of violence during earlier portions of the interview. However, several "medium-street" and "high-street" women subsequently acknowledged (directly or indirectly) that they were "fronting" for the interviewer to preserve a tough façade. When they opened up about their real feelings, the extent to which they had internalized the trauma of violence was revealed. Implications of these findings are explored. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Intranasal administration of oxytocin increases compassion toward women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palgi, Sharon; Klein, Ehud; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2015-03-01

    It has been suggested that the degree of compassion-the feeling of warmth, understanding and kindness that motivates the desire to help others, is modulated by observers' views regarding the target's vulnerability and suffering. This study tested the hypothesis that as compassion developed to protect vulnerable kinships, hormones such as oxytocin, which have been suggested as playing a key role in 'tend-and-befriend' behaviors among women, will enhance compassion toward women but not toward men. Thirty subjects participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject study. Following administration of oxytocin/placebo, participants listened to recordings of different female/male protagonists describing distressful emotional conflicts and were then asked to provide compassionate advice to the protagonist. The participants' responses were coded according to various components of compassion by two clinical psychologists who were blind to the treatment. The results showed that in women and men participants oxytocin enhanced compassion toward women, but did not affect compassion toward men. These findings indicate that the oxytocinergic system differentially mediates compassion toward women and toward men, emphasizing an evolutionary perspective that views compassion as a caregiving behavior designed to help vulnerable individuals. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The presence of depression in women who are victims of violence. The experiences of Anti Violence centers in the region of Calabria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juli, Maria Rosaria

    2014-11-01

    As is clear from research accredited by the ONU, the violence suffered by the partner, husband or other family members is the leading cause of death and disability for women aged 15 to 44 years. The WHO has also shown that at least one in five women suffers a beating or any form of violence in herl lifetime. Gender-based violence is undoubtedly a widespread phenomenon on a worldwide scale regardless of ethnicity, religion, social class,or level of education. It is a traumatic experience that produces different effects depending on the type of violence and the person who is the victim. There is a close relationship of cause and effect between violence and health status of women. They are in fact relevant primary effects related to the consequences of direct physical violence on the body and the side effects associated with mental and physical damage to repetitive exposure and situations of traumatic impact. The health consequences can be of different nature,rainging from Physical, Psychological and Behavioral, Sexual and Reproductive, to Death. The first important Psychological consequences are Depressive Disorder and Anxiety. The objective of this study was to analyze, through the administration of diagnostic tests, the methods of the links of the subjects on the one hand, attachment and relationships on the other; grouped in practice to detect if there is a close relationship between a Depressive Disorder and Violence suffered. 20 women aged between 23 and 50 years who have experienced various forms of violence, were randomly selected and followed by the three anti-violence centers of Calabria. The Separation Anxiety Depressive trait that explains the current Depression is not the result of the violence, but it is due to lack of self-confidence, difficulty im being identified and ability to plan for their lives. These difficulties are established in the woman through an enmeshed relationship with her partner, in fact, what has emerged is the establishment of an

  5. HEALTH TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREASING ADAPTIVE CAPABILITIESOF PREGNANT WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    T. S. Krivonogova; O. M. Gerget; A. A. Ber; Ya. S. Pekker

    2014-01-01

    Our research is aimed to investigate the influence of breathing exercises and aqua-gymnastics on the adaptive capabilities of pregnant women in different trimesters of gestation.The estimation of adaptive capabilities of the pregnant women organism was carried out on the basis of functional tests on breath-holding duration – Stange’s test (for inhalation) and Ghencea’s test (for exhalation) in the initial period, 11–19, 21–29 and 31–39 weeks periods of pregnancy.To identify the adaptation str...

  6. Binge Drinking and Rape: A Prospective Examination of College Women with a History of Previous Sexual Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Jenna L.; Calhoun, Karen S.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study prospectively examined the longitudinal relationships between binge drinking behavior and rape experiences among a multisite sample of college women with a history of prior attempted or completed rape (N = 228). Rates of binge drinking among this high-risk sample were high. Prospective analyses indicated that binge drinking…

  7. Incest Victims: Inadequate Help by Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenken, Jos; Van Stolk, Bram

    1990-01-01

    Interviews with 130 Dutch professionals helping incest victims and 50 adult women who were incest victims as children found that assistance was hampered by institutional distrust, inability of professionals to stop ongoing incest, frequent breaking off of contact by the young girls, professionals' shortcomings in knowledge and skills, and…

  8. Obesity is related to increased menopausal symptoms among Spanish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alonso, Ana M; Cuadros, José L; Chedraui, Peter; Mendoza, Marcela; Cuadros, Angela M; Pérez-López, Faustino R

    2010-09-01

    To assess the metabolic syndrome (METS) and its components in postmenopausal women using updated diagnostic criteria and explore their relation to menopausal symptom severity. Medical records of the first visit of 574 postmenopausal Caucasian Spanish women attending a menopause clinic were retrospectively reviewed. Recorded information included general demographic data, type of menopause, menopausal symptom intensity (Kupperman index) and baseline hormonal and metabolic parameters. METS was established if three or more of the following criteria were met: body mass index (BMI) >28.8 kg/m(2), fasting glycaemia ≥100 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) menopause and 38.9% were obese. In all, 23.1% met diagnostic criteria for METS who were significantly older and displayed higher rates of being married, obesity and abnormal glucose, triglyceride, HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure values, when compared with those without the syndrome. The mean Kupperman index score for the whole sample was 26.4±10.6, with 73.8% displaying moderate to severe scores (20 or more). Logistic regression analysis determined that obesity and marriage status were independent risk factors related to more severe menopausal symptoms (Kupperman index scores of 20 or more). Although METS was observed in a lower frequency than previous reports, obesity was associated with more severe menopausal symptoms among postmenopausal Spanish women.

  9. Are students with asthma at increased risk for being a victim of bullying in school or cyberspace? Findings from the 2011 Florida youth risk behavior survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Young, Linda; Martinasek, Mary P; Clutter, Michiko; Forrest, Jamie

    2014-07-01

    Adolescents with asthma are at risk for psychological and behavioral problems. The aim of this study was to determine whether high school students with asthma are at increased risk for bullying in school and cyberspace, and to explore the role of depressive symptoms in moderating this association. A secondary data analysis was completed with the 2011 Florida Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Participant included a random sample of adolescents in grades 9 through 12 who attended public high schools in Florida. Descriptive and inferential statistics were conducted using SPSS software. We examined data from 6212 high school adolescents and found a significant relationship between current asthma and cyberbullying in adolescents. Of the sample diagnosed with asthma, 15.6% reported bullying and 17% cyberbullying (versus 10.2% and 11% of nonasthmatics). We further examined data using depressive symptoms as a mediating and moderating variable and found significance on all accounts. Adolescents with asthma are at increased risk for being victims of bullying in school and cyberspace. Our findings suggest that adolescents with asthma who also report depressive symptoms are particularly at high risk for bullying than adolescents with asthma who did not report depressive symptoms. Efforts to increase education and decrease all types of bullying at the high school level for both students with and without asthma are warranted. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  10. „Geschichte des Mitmachens“ oder Opferdiskurs. Frauen als Autorinnen von Kriegsliteratur “History of Participation” or Victim Discourse: Women as Authors of War Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Gehrig

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cordula Mahr ermöglicht mit ihrer Untersuchung von 70 Autobiographien deutscher Frauen einen Blick auf die „Heimatfront“, ein Blick, der bisher in einer vornehmlich männlich besetzten Kriegsliteratur, die Krieg in erster Linie als Fronterlebnis definiert, vernachlässigt wurde. Die Autorin konzentriert sich auf die Passagen der Autobiographien, die sich direkt auf den Zweiten Weltkrieg beziehen, und berücksichtigt ausschließlich nach 1960 erschienene Texte. In den Darstellungen überwiegt in Bezug auf den Krieg und den Nationalsozialismus das Selbstverständnis als Geschädigte und Leidtragende. Nur sieben Frauen schreiben in ihren Autobiographien auch ihre „Geschichte des Mitmachens”. Mahrs Untersuchung gibt gerade durch diese Auffälligkeit Anlass, auch über formale Strukturmerkmale der Autobiographie nachzudenken, z. B. darüber, ob diese eventuell eine Selbstdarstellung als Opfer begünstigen.Cordula Mahr’s examination of 70 autobiographies of German women provides insight into the “home front,” insight that till now has been neglected in male-dominated war literature, which defines war first and foremost as an experience of the front. The author concentrates on passages in autobiographies that refer to the World War II directly and takes into account only those texts that appeared before 1960. Self-images as the marred and the suffering woman with respect to war and to National Socialism dominate the descriptions. Only seven women include their own “history of participation” in their autobiographies. Mahr’s study also incites a consideration of the formal structural features of the autobiography, for example, whether the structures may potentially aid the construction of a self-portrait as victim.

  11. Does Identification With Rwanda Increase Reconciliation Sentiments Between Genocide Survivors and Non-Victims? The Mediating Roles of Perceived Intergroup Similarity and Self-Esteem During Commemorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Kanazayire

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire survey (N = 247 investigated the influence of identification with the Rwandan nation on reconciliation sentiments between members of the survivor and of the non-victim groups of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Results showed that, whereas the two groups did not differ in their level of identification with the nation, members of the non-victim group were more willing to reconcile than members of the survivor group. Perceived intergroup similarity mediated the effect of national identification on reconciliation sentiment for both groups, but this effect was stronger among non-victims. Finally, self-esteem during commemorations also mediated this effect, but only among non-victims. We discuss the importance of people’s motivation to reconcile with out-group members in post-genocidal contexts in light of the common in-group identity model (Gaertner & Dovidio, 2000 as well as the needs-based model of intergroup reconciliation (Nadler & Schnabel, 2008.

  12. Increased thrombin generation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Lambaa Altinok, Magda

    2015-01-01

    randomized to 12 months treatment with metformin, metformin + OC or OC alone. C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, total cholesterol, trunk fat mass, body mass index, estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) as well as TG measures, i.e. the lag time for formation of thrombin......, the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), peak thrombin concentration (peak) and time to peak were determined at baseline and after 12 months of treatment. Results. CRP and total testosterone were significantly higher and SHBG significantly lower in PCOS women than in controls (P=0.012, P

  13. Increased hematuria following hypergravic exposure in middle-aged women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, D. J.; Ohara, D. B.; Sandler, H.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of simulated weightlessness on orthostatic tolerance were studied in 9 women (55 to 65 years old) who underwent acceleration and lower body negative pressure before and after 10 days of horizontal bed rest. The results of this study show the first known association of microscopic hematuria with hypergravic and orthostatic stress which suggests similarities to the 'stress hematuria syndrome' previously seen with heavy exercise (Boileau et al., 1980). In addition, the sporadic occurrence of this phenomenon indicates a multifactorial etiology in predisposed individuals. Bedrest or weightlessness simulation per se does not seem to significantly alter renal function, but may decrease microscopic hematuria with an orthostatic component.

  14. Increasing Retention of Women in Engineering at WSU: A Model for a Women's Mentoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor, Cara J.; Brown, Shane

    2013-01-01

    Concerns with the retention of women in engineering have led to the implementation of numerous programs to improve retention, including mentoring programs. The college of engineering at Washington State University (WSU) started a novel women's mentoring program in 2008, using professional engineers who graduated from WSU as mentors. The program is…

  15. The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Plus Media on the Reduction of Bullying and Victimization and the Increase of Empathy and Bystander Response in a Bully Prevention Program for Urban Sixth-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Laura Pierce

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy plus media on the reduction of bullying and victimization and the increase in empathy and bystander response in a bully prevention program for urban sixth-graders. Sixty-eight students participated. Because one of the…

  16. Gravidade psicopatológica em mulheres vítimas de violência doméstica Psychopathology severity in women victims of violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristine Fonseca Mozzambani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de sintomas psicopatológicos em mulheres vítimas de violência doméstica (VD que procuraram uma delegacia de defesa da mulher. MÉTODO: Foram avaliadas mulheres com idade entre 20 e 50 anos que deram entrada em uma delegacia da mulher com queixa de VD. Durante a entrevista, todas foram submetidas ao Relatório de Indicadores Sociais e preencheram os seguintes instrumentos de autoaplicação: Inventário de Depressão de Beck, Inventário de Ansiedade de Beck, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist - Civilian Version e o Questionário de Experiências Dissociativas Peritraumáticas (todos em língua portuguesa. Foram usadas notas de corte a partir dos estudos de validação desses instrumentos para categorizar indivíduos com alta probabilidade de apresentar transtorno depressivo maior, transtorno de ansiedade, transtorno de estresse pós-traumático, ou alta/baixa dissociação peritraumática. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliadas 17 mulheres com idade média de 34,7±7,7 anos. O tempo médio de duração da violência foi de 9,1±8,7 anos. Do total de mulheres, 53% eram vítimas de agressão excessiva e 84% eram ameaçadas de morte pelo companheiro; em 71% dos casos, os companheiros eram usuários de drogas. Além disso, 53% das mulheres afirmaram ter sofrido VD na infância. Do total da amostra, 89% tiveram grande probabilidade de apresentar transtorno depressivo maior, 94% transtorno de ansiedade, 76% transtorno de estresse pós-traumático e 88% apresentaram elevados níveis de experiências dissociativas peritraumáticas. CONCLUSÃO: As vítimas de VD que dão entrada em delegacias de defesa da mulher têm alta probabilidade de apresentar morbidade psiquiátrica, assim como alterações cognitivas que as impossibilitam de sair do ciclo da violência.OBJECTIVE: To assess the presence of psychopathological symptoms in women victims of domestic violence who seek help at police units offering women's protective

  17. Atendimento às mulheres vítimas de violência sexual: um estudo qualitativo The services for women victims of sexual violence: a qualitatif study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Menicucci de Oliveira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o funcionamento de serviços públicos de atendimento a mulheres vítimas de violência sexual. MÉTODOS: Estudo de natureza qualitativa realizado em dois serviços públicos de atendimento às mulheres vítimas da violência sexual. Foram realizadas entrevistas com 42 mulheres, sendo 13 que buscaram os serviços e 29 profissionais que trabalhavam nas equipes. A avaliação teve por referência as categorias: acolhimento, acesso, resolutividade e responsabilidade sanitária. RESULTADOS: A análise das entrevistas por categorias revelou haver acolhimento em ambos os serviços, dificuldade de acesso por falta de informação da existência desses serviços, resolutividade de qualidade com equipe multiprofissional. Quanto à responsabilidade sanitária, ela existe nesses serviços especializados, mas é deficiente nos pronto-socorros e unidades básicas de saúde. Muitas mulheres desconhecem os direitos que lhes garantem serviço especializado. Muitas vezes chegam tardiamente aos serviços comprometendo sua eficácia. Há deficiência na referência e contra-referência. CONCLUSÕES: As conclusões permitem ratificar a importância desses serviços de atendimento, a necessidade de sua ampliação descentralizada e a inserção da temática da violência sexual nas graduações dos cursos de saúde.OBJECTIVE: To assess public services attending female victims of sexual violence in the city of Sao Paulo. METHODS: This is a qualitative study conducted in two public services attending female victims of sexual violence. Interviews with 42 women were conducted, 13 of whom had sought these services for assistance and 29 were professionals working in these services. Evaluation of the services was based on the categories: reception, access, resolvability and sanitary responsibility. RESULTS: The analysis of the interviews per category has shown that there was reception in both services, problems with respect to access due to the lack of

  18. Increasing prevalence of group B streptococcal infection among pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    an increasing trend over the study period. GBS during pregnancy was associated with a low birth weight and preterm delivery. More research on preventive measures is needed, but updated guidelines, screening and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis continue to be the cornerstones of EOGBS disease prevention...

  19. Increased vascular inflammation in early menopausal women is associated with hot flush severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechlioulis, Aris; Naka, Katerina K; Kalantaridou, Sophia N; Kaponis, Apostolos; Papanikolaou, Odysseas; Vezyraki, Patra; Kolettis, Theofilos M; Vlahos, Antonis P; Gartzonika, Konstantina; Mavridis, Anestis; Michalis, Lampros K

    2012-05-01

    Menopause has been related to an increased atherosclerotic risk. Presence and severity of hot flushes in menopausal women have been associated with impaired endothelial function and advanced subclinical atherosclerosis. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of menopausal transition on vascular inflammation indices and investigate the association of hot flush severity with these indices in early menopausal women. This was a cross-sectional study that included 120 early menopausal women (age range 42-55 yr, women (controls). Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, P-selectin, and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) levels were measured. P-selectin and sCD40L were increased in early menopausal compared with control women (P = 0.006 and P = 0.02 respectively), whereas high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels did not differ (P = 0.4) between the groups. Hot flush severity was the most important independent predictor of P-selectin levels (P = 0.011) in early menopausal women. Women with moderate/severe/very severe hot flushes had increased P-selectin compared with women with no/mild hot flushes or controls (P women with moderate/severe/very severe hot flushes compared with controls (P = 0.03) but did not differ significantly compared with women with no/mild hot flushes (P = 0.2). Increased indices of vascular inflammation in early menopausal compared with age-matched premenopausal women may indicate a higher atherosclerotic risk. Increased severity of hot flushes was associated with adverse changes in vascular inflammation, further supporting the emerging role of hot flushes in cardiovascular prognosis in these women.

  20. [Mission woman: a survey on the perception of the "Service of Welcome and Listening" offered in the Emergency Department at the San Camillo Hospital in Rome by women victims of violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vender, Cristian; Zicca, Anna; Parasole, Tiziana; Delle Fratte, Roberta; Battilana, Daniela; Mitello, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    The project Mission Woman was set up to describe how the service offered by the Emergency Department of the Hospital San Camillo-Forlanini in Rome was perceived by women victims ( or supposed to be) of violence. The objective of this investigation is to frame clients' perception about the service offered by staff in terms of sensitivity, recognition and management of the issue. The access to the Emergency Room is the first contact of the client with a helping relationship which goes beyond the simple provision of medical care. A questionnaire devised for the purpose was filled in by women who have asked for help to the Service "Door Woman" . The Service "Door Woman", set up in 2009, aimed to welcome and listen women victims of violence with the collaboration of different operators in the emergency department: nurses, doctors, psychologists and social workers. The project developed within the Hospital S. Camillo-Forlanini is managed by both professionals of the Emergency Department together with the Charity "Be Free". The service is open 24/7, all year, the clients could be women or children and could receive assistance or medical, nursing, psychosocial and legal counselling. The triage nurses are those who through their expertise could first identify the victims of violence and to introduce them in the path. Despite the level of injuries, who access to the Emergency Room for single or repeated events of violence, may have decided to claim in court and not hide seeking.. The research aims to understand what are the theoretical and practical deficiencies of staff in the management of a issue which is not only medical but also social and legal, as well as structural and organizational weaknesses of the service.

  1. Gendered pathways from child sexual abuse to sexual aggression victimization and perpetration in adolescence and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Berger, Anja

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the pathways from child sexual abuse to sexual assault victimization and perpetration in adolescence and early adulthood, considering risky sexual behavior and lowered sexual self-esteem as mediator variables. In a two-wave longitudinal study with 2251 college students in Germany, male and female participants provided reports of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration since age 14 (T1) and again a year later (T2), covering the last 12 months. In addition, child sexual abuse (CSA; before the age of 14), risky sexual behavior, and sexual self-esteem were assessed at T1, and risky sexual behavior and sexual-self-esteem were assessed again at T2. Experience of CSA was significantly associated with greater likelihood of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration, lower sexual self-esteem, and more risky sexual behavior in both gender groups at T1 and was directly related to victimization at T2 among male participants. In both gender groups, CSA indirectly contributed to a higher probability of sexual victimization at T2 via its impact on victimization T1. In males, the indirect path from CSA to T2 perpetration via T1 perpetration was also significant. Through its negative impact on sexual self-esteem, CSA indirectly increased the probability of sexual victimization among women and the probability of sexual aggression perpetration among men. Risky sexual behavior mediated the pathway from CSA to sexual victimization at T2 for men and women and the pathway from CSA to sexual aggression perpetration for women. The findings contribute to the understanding of gendered effects of CSA on revictimization and the victim-to-perpetrator cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Big Five Personality Traits of Cybercrime Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Weijer, Steve G A; Leukfeldt, E Rutger

    2017-07-01

    The prevalence of cybercrime has increased rapidly over the last decades and has become part of the everyday life of citizens. It is, therefore, of great importance to gain more knowledge on the factors related to an increased or decreased likelihood of becoming a cybercrime victim. The current study adds to the existing body of knowledge using a large representative sample of Dutch individuals (N = 3,648) to study the relationship between cybercrime victimization and the key traits from the Big Five model of personality (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience). First, multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between the personality traits and three victim groups, that is, cybercrime victims versus nonvictims, traditional crime victims versus nonvictims, and cybercrime victims versus traditional crime victims. Next, logistic regression analyses were performed to predict victimization of cyber-dependent crimes (i.e., hacking and virus infection) and cyber-enabled crimes (i.e., online intimidation, online consumer fraud, and theft from bank account). The analyses show that personality traits are not specifically associated with cybercrime victimization, but rather with victimization in general. Only those with higher scores on emotional stability were less likely to become a victim of cybercrime than traditional crime. Furthermore, the results indicate that there are little differences between personality traits related to victimization of cyber-enabled and cyber-dependent crimes. Only individuals with higher scores on openness to experience have higher odds of becoming a victim of cyber-enabled crimes.

  3. Violence Victimization, Social Support, and Papanicolaou Smear Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study from Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Heinze, Justin E; Lang, Ian; Mistry, Ritesh; Buu, Anne; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2017-12-01

    African American youth are among those at greatest risk for experiencing violence victimization. Notably, the mortality rate of cervical cancer for African American women is also twice that of white women. To date, we know of no literature using longitudinal data to examine how violence victimization relates to Papanicolaou (Pap) smear results or cervical cancer in this population. Our study examines how violence victimization during adolescence (age 15 to 18) influences psychological distress, perceived social support, heavy substance abuse, and sexual risk behaviors during emerging adulthood (age 20 to 23), and subsequent Pap smear outcomes during young adulthood (age 29 to 32). This study is based on 12 waves of data collected in a longitudinal study of 360 African American women from mid-adolescence (ninth grade, mean age = 14.8 years) to young adulthood (mean age = 32.0 years). We used structural equation modeling analysis to examine the hypothesized model. Violence victimization during adolescence had a direct effect on decreased social support, increased psychological distress, and increased heavy cigarette use during emerging adulthood. Better social support was also associated with fewer sexual partners during emerging adulthood and lower odds of abnormal Pap smear results during young adulthood. The effect of violence victimization on abnormal Pap smear was mediated by social support. Our results show that violence victimization during adolescence has long-term negative effects through multiple pathways that persist into adulthood. Our findings also suggest that social support may help to compensate against other risk factors. Interventions designed to address the perceived support may help victims cope with their experience.

  4. Increasing Women's Aspirations and Achievement in Science: The Effect of Role Models on Implicit Cognitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Julie E.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the role of implicit science beliefs in the gender gap in science aspirations and achievement, with the goal of testing identification with a female role model as a potential intervention strategy for increasing women's representation in science careers. At Time 1, women's implicit science stereotyping (i.e., associating…

  5. Glucose intolerance in early postpartum in women with gestational diabetes: Who is at increased risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuridan, Liesbeth; Wens, Johan; Devlieger, Roland; Verhaeghe, Johan; Mathieu, Chantal; Benhalima, Katrien

    2015-08-01

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes (GDM) have an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes in the years after the index pregnancy. Some women with GDM already develop glucose intolerance in early postpartum. The best screening strategy for glucose intolerance in early postpartum among women with a history of GDM is still debated. We review the most important risk factors of women with GDM to develop glucose intolerance within one year postpartum. We also discuss the current recommendations for screening in early postpartum and the many challenges to organize postpartum follow up in primary care. Copyright © 2015 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Does an informational film increase women's possibility to make an informed choice about second trimester ultrasound?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, Susanne Georgsson; Björklund, Ulla; Marsk, Anna

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate effects of an informational film on making an informed choice regarding second trimester ultrasound. Randomized controlled study. The intervention was an informational film about prenatal examinations. Data were collected at gestational week 26. A total of 184 women in the intervention group and 206 women in the control group participated in the study. Of those in the intervention group, 81.3% made an informed choice regarding second trimester ultrasound examination compared with 76.1% in the control group (p = 0.21). Women making an informed choice scored higher in knowledge about the examination (p film does not increase women's knowledge or the number of women making an informed choice about the second trimester ultrasound. Women who did not make an informed choice about the second trimester ultrasound had a lower level of education and less knowledge about second trimester ultrasound screening. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Women in science and engineering: Increasing their numbers in the 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Committee on Women in Science and Engineering (CWSE), a continuing committee established within the National Research Council (NRC) in January 1991, has a four-pronged mandate to: (1) collect and disseminate current data about the participation of women in science and engineering to broad constituencies in academe, government, industry, and professional societies; (2) monitor the progress of efforts to increase the participation of women in scientific and engineering careers; (3) conduct symposia, workshops, and other meetings of experts to explore the policy environment, to stimulate and encourage initiatives in program development for women in science and engineering, and to evaluate their effectiveness on a regular basis; and (4) propose research and conduct special studies on issues particularly relevant to women scientists and engineers in order to develop reports that will document evidence and articulate NRC recommendations for action. CWSE activities will focus on the participation of women in science and engineering at the postsecondary level of education and in various employment sectors. This report is the culmination of an initial examination by CWSE of the status of women scientists and engineers in the United States. In addition to providing statistics on the participation of women in the education/employment pipeline, it summarizes the Committee's deliberations relating to its role in increasing the participation and improving the status of women in science and engineering.

  8. Victims of violence and the general practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezey, G; King, M; MacClintock, T

    1998-01-01

    Violent crime is on the increase in Britain, with 17% of the 15 million incidents of crime reported in 1991 being of a violent nature. Although there is some information on the role of accident and emergency departments for victims who sustain physical injury, little is known about the role of the general practitioner (GP) in managing the acute and longer-term sequelae of violence. To examine the links between experiencing physical of sexual assault and seeking help from GPs in London. A cross-sectional survey of all adult attendees in one large group practice was carried out. The main outcome measures were prevalence of assault, reporting to the doctor and other people, and scores on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the Impact of Events scale. Of the 195 people who took part, 33 (17%) reported a physical or sexual assault in the previous year. Women were three times more likely than men to report any type of assault. Women rarely spontaneously disclosed these experiences to the GP and yet the experience of violence was associated with higher levels of distress, as measured on the GHQ and the Impact of Events Scale. Assault is a relatively common event in the lives of people who consult their GP. Doctors could help these patients through gaining an awareness of the problem and by fostering links with voluntary services, such as victim support schemes, which can provide support, practical assistance, and advice on compensation claims and legal procedures.

  9. Trajectories of Intimate Partner Violence Victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Swartout

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purposes of this study were to assess the extent to which latent trajectories of female intimate partner violence (IPV victimization exist; and, if so, use negative childhood experiences to predict trajectory membership.Methods: We collected data from 1,575 women at 5 time-points regarding experiences during adolescence and their 4 years of college. We used latent class growth analysis to fit a series of personcentered, longitudinal models ranging from 1 to 5 trajectories. Once the best-fitting model was selected, we used negative childhood experience variables—sexual abuse, physical abuse, and witnessing domestic violence—to predict most-likely trajectory membership via multinomial logistic regression.Results: A 5-trajectory model best fit the data both statistically and in terms of interpretability. The trajectories across time were interpreted as low or no IPV, low to moderate IPV, moderate to low IPV, high to moderate IPV, and high and increasing IPV, respectively. Negative childhood experiences differentiated trajectory membership, somewhat, with childhood sexual abuse as a consistent predictor of membership in elevated IPV trajectories.Conclusion: Our analyses show how IPV risk changes over time and in different ways. These differential patterns of IPV suggest the need for prevention strategies tailored for women that consider victimization experiences in childhood and early adulthood. [West J Emerg Med. 2012;13(3:272–277.

  10. Interrelationships between LGBT-Based Victimization, Suicide, and Substance Use Problems in a Diverse Sample of Sexual and Gender Minority Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H.; O'Cleirigh, C; Bradford, Judith B.

    2013-01-01

    Research has documented significant relationships between sexual and gender minority stress and higher rates of suicidality (i.e., suicidal ideation and attempts) and substance use problems. We examined the potential mediating role of substance use problems on the relationship between sexual and gender minority stress (i.e., victimization based on lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender identity; LGBT) and suicidality. A non-probability sample of LGBT patients from a community health center (N = 1457) ranged in age 19 to 70 years. Participants reported history of lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts, and substance use problems, as well as experiences of LGBT-based verbal and physical attacks. Substance use problems were a significant partial mediator between LGBT-based victimization and suicidal ideation and between LGBT-based victimization and suicide attempts for sexual and gender minorities. Nuanced gender differences revealed that substance use problems did not significantly mediate the relationship between victimization and suicide attempts for sexual minority men. Substance use problems may be one insidious pathway that partially mediates the risk effects of sexual and gender minority stress on suicidality. Substances might be a temporary and deleterious coping resource in response to LGBT-based victimization, which have serious effects on suicidal ideation and behaviors. PMID:23535038

  11. The Roles of Family Factors and Relationship Dynamics on Dating Violence Victimization and Perpetration Among College Men and Women in Emerging Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paat, Yok-Fong; Markham, Christine

    2016-03-27

    Using data from the International Dating Violence Study, this study examined the roles of early socialization, family social structure, and relationship dynamics factors on physical aggression in dating among U.S. college students in emerging adulthood. The interaction effects between these three domains of interest (early socialization, family social structure, and relationship dynamics) were explored to understand the underlying mechanisms that influenced victimization and perpetration in dating. In general, we found that family and relational variables associated with dating victimization and perpetration were fairly similar. Among the early socialization variables, experience of childhood neglect and having witnessed domestic violence were significantly related to victimization and perpetration. Living in a two-parent household appeared to exert a protective effect, although associations with parental education were not statistically significant. Furthermore, the participants were more likely to experience victimization or impose aggression in dating relationships which were characterized by conflicts, distress, dominance, or psychological aggression. Overall, for the participants who came from a two-parent household, dominance in dating was linked to less violence. When the participants faced higher levels of psychological aggression, adverse early socialization factors were associated with higher levels of dating violence victimization and perpetration. Research and practice implications were discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. The roles of family factors and relationship dynamics on dating violence victimization and perpetration among college men and women in emerging adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paat, Yok-Fong; Markham, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Using data from the International Dating Violence Study, this study examined the roles of early socialization, family social structure, and relationship dynamics factors on physical aggression in dating among U.S. college students in emerging adulthood. The interaction effects between these three domains of interest (early socialization, family social structure, and relationship dynamics) were explored to understand the underlying mechanisms that influenced victimization and perpetration in dating. In general, we found that family and relational variables associated with dating victimization and perpetration were fairly similar. Among the early socialization variables, experience of childhood neglect and having witnessed domestic violence were significantly related to victimization and perpetration. Living in a two-parent household appeared to exert a protective effect, although associations with parental education were not statistically significant. Further, the participants were more likely to experience victimization or impose aggression in dating relationships which were characterized by conflicts, distress, dominance, or psychological aggression. Overall, for the participants who came from a two-parent household, dominance in dating was linked to less violence. When the participants faced higher levels of psychological aggression, adverse early socialization factors were associated with higher levels of dating violence victimization and perpetration. Research and practice implications were discussed. PMID:27021738

  13. Sexual Aggression Experiences Among Male Victims of Physical Partner Violence: Prevalence, Severity, and Health Correlates for Male Victims and Their Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Denise A; Douglas, Emily M

    2016-07-01

    Although research has documented the prevalence and health correlates of sexual aggression among women who have experienced severe partner violence (PV), no research has documented the parallel issues among male victims of severe PV. Research also suggests that children of female victims of both physical and sexual PV have worse mental health than children of female victims of physical PV only, but no research has assessed the mental health of children whose fathers experienced both physical and sexual PV. We surveyed 611 men who experienced physical PV from their female partners and sought help. We assessed the types and extent of various forms of PV, the men's mental and physical health, and the mental health of their oldest child. Results showed that almost half of the men experienced sexual aggression in their relationship, and 28 % severe sexual aggression. Increasing levels of severity of sexual aggression victimization was associated with greater prevalence and types of other forms of PV. In addition, greater levels of severity of sexual aggression victimization among the men was significantly associated with depression symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, physical health symptoms, and poor health, and attention deficit and affective symptoms among their children. These associations held after controlling for demographics and other violence and trauma exposure. Discussion focused on the importance of broadening our conceptualization of PV against men by women to include sexual aggression as well.

  14. Sex hormone manipulation slows reaction time and increases labile mood in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, D. S.; Fisher, P M; Budtz-Jørgensen, E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women show increased risk of depressive symptoms in life phases where ovarian steroid hormone levels fluctuate or decline rapidly. The risk mechanisms may include changes in mental state and affective cognition possibly mediated by serotonergic neurotransmission. METHODS...

  15. Increased plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in infants of women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halse, Karen G; Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Goetze, Jens P

    2005-01-01

    Up to 40% of newborn infants of women with type 1 diabetes have echocardiographic signs of cardiomyopathy. Increased plasma concentrations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its precursor (proBNP) are markers of cardiac failure and hypoxia in adults. In this study, we investigated whether...... plasma concentrations of proBNP and/or BNP are increased in infants of women with type 1 diabetes....

  16. Revealing Victimization: The Impact of Methodological Features in the National Crime Victimization Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jennifer Gatewood

    2017-08-01

    This study examines the impact of methodological features of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) on respondent willingness to report violent, serious violent, and property victimizations to the NCVS. Bounded and unbounded data from the 1999-2005 NCVS are used to create a longitudinal file of respondents, and survey-weighted logistic regression models are used to assess the factors associated with the reporting of victimization. Net of sociodemographic control variables, unbounded interviews produced higher estimates of serious violence (72%), violence (66%), and property victimization (67%). Mobile respondents reported higher estimates than nonmobile respondents of serious violence (48%), violence (35%), and property victimization (15%). Compared with in-person interviews, interviewing by telephone increased reporting for serious violence (7%), violence (12%), and property victimization (17%). This study highlights the importance of controlling for these factors in both longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses to estimate victimization risk.

  17. Sexual minority youth victimization and social support: the intersection of sexuality, gender, race, and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Deeanna M; O'Connell, Daniel J; Gealt, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    In comparison to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth are more likely to experience victimization. Multiple studies have connected anti-gay prejudice and anti-gay victimization to negative outcomes. Research shows that social support may protect sexual minorities from the harmful effects of anti-gay victimization. However, rates of victimization and the negative outcomes linked to sexual identity within the sexual minority community have been relatively unexplored. Using data from three years of statewide data from heterosexual and sexual minority adolescents in grades 9-12, this study examines victimization, substance use, suicidality, and access to social support by sexuality. Results indicate that sexual minority youth are at increased risk for victimization, substance use, suicidality, and social isolation compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Results also indicate that there is very little bivariate difference within the sexual minority community. Multivariate results indicate differences among sexual minorities' experiences with victimization and substance use.

  18. When and Why We See Victims as Responsible: The Impact of Ideology on Attitudes Toward Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Laura; Young, Liane

    2016-09-01

    Why do victims sometimes receive sympathy for their suffering and at other times scorn and blame? Here we show a powerful role for moral values in attitudes toward victims. We measured moral values associated with unconditionally prohibiting harm ("individualizing values") versus moral values associated with prohibiting behavior that destabilizes groups and relationships ("binding values": loyalty, obedience to authority, and purity). Increased endorsement of binding values predicted increased ratings of victims as contaminated (Studies 1-4); increased blame and responsibility attributed to victims, increased perceptions of victims' (versus perpetrators') behaviors as contributing to the outcome, and decreased focus on perpetrators (Studies 2-3). Patterns persisted controlling for politics, just world beliefs, and right-wing authoritarianism. Experimentally manipulating linguistic focus off of victims and onto perpetrators reduced victim blame. Both binding values and focus modulated victim blame through victim responsibility attributions. Findings indicate the important role of ideology in attitudes toward victims via effects on responsibility attribution. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  19. Women's Facial Redness Increases Their Perceived Attractiveness: Mediation Through Perceived Healthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazda, Adam D; Thorstenson, Christopher A; Elliot, Andrew J; Perrett, David I

    2016-07-01

    In the present research, we investigated whether the red-attraction relation that has been observed for men viewing women may also be observed with regard to women's facial redness. We manipulated facial redness by slightly increasing or decreasing the redness on the faces of baseline pictures of target women, and then had men judge the attractiveness of the women. We also examined healthiness perceptions as a mediator of the redness-attraction relation, along with several other candidate mediator variables. A series of experiments showed that increased redness led to increased ratings of attractiveness, and decreased redness led to decreased ratings of attractiveness. Perceived healthiness was documented as a mediator of the influence of female facial redness on male perceptions of attractiveness, and this mediation was independent of other candidate mediator variables. The findings highlight the importance of attending to facial coloration as an attraction-relevant cue and point to interesting areas for subsequent research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. An Educational Intervention Designed to Increase Women's Leadership Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Carol; Kaatz, Anna; Lee, Barbara; Carnes, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Women are sparsely represented in leadership in academic science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM). Cultural stereotypes about men, women, and leaders influence the attitudes, judgments, and decisions that others make about women and the choices women make for themselves. Multilevel interventions are needed to counteract the impact of these pervasive and easily activated stereotypes, which conspire in multiple ways to constrain women's entry, persistence, and advancement in academic STEMM. We describe an individual-level educational intervention. Using the transtheoretical model of behavioral change as a framework, we assessed the success of a semester course on increasing women's leadership self-efficacy for the first three cohorts of course participants (n = 30). Pre/post questionnaires showed gains in leadership self-efficacy, personal mastery, and self-esteem, and decreases in perceived constraints. Qualitative text analysis of weekly journals indicated increasing leadership self-efficacy as course participants applied course information and integrated strategies to mitigate the impact of societal stereotypes into their own leadership practices. Follow-up queries of the first two cohorts supported the enduring value of course participation. We conclude that providing strategies to recognize and mitigate the impact of gender stereotypes is effective in increasing leadership self-efficacy in women at early stages of academic STEMM careers. PMID:22949427

  1. An educational intervention designed to increase women's leadership self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Carol; Kaatz, Anna; Lee, Barbara; Carnes, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Women are sparsely represented in leadership in academic science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM). Cultural stereotypes about men, women, and leaders influence the attitudes, judgments, and decisions that others make about women and the choices women make for themselves. Multilevel interventions are needed to counteract the impact of these pervasive and easily activated stereotypes, which conspire in multiple ways to constrain women's entry, persistence, and advancement in academic STEMM. We describe an individual-level educational intervention. Using the transtheoretical model of behavioral change as a framework, we assessed the success of a semester course on increasing women's leadership self-efficacy for the first three cohorts of course participants (n = 30). Pre/post questionnaires showed gains in leadership self-efficacy, personal mastery, and self-esteem, and decreases in perceived constraints. Qualitative text analysis of weekly journals indicated increasing leadership self-efficacy as course participants applied course information and integrated strategies to mitigate the impact of societal stereotypes into their own leadership practices. Follow-up queries of the first two cohorts supported the enduring value of course participation. We conclude that providing strategies to recognize and mitigate the impact of gender stereotypes is effective in increasing leadership self-efficacy in women at early stages of academic STEMM careers.

  2. Increase in Fracture Risk Following Unintentional Weight Loss in Postmenopausal Women: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compston, Juliet E; Wyman, Allison; FitzGerald, Gordon; Adachi, Jonathan D; Chapurlat, Roland D; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Gehlbach, Stephen H; Greenspan, Susan L; Hooven, Frederick H; LaCroix, Andrea Z; March, Lyn; Netelenbos, J Coen; Nieves, Jeri W; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Saag, Kenneth G; Siris, Ethel S; Silverman, Stuart; Watts, Nelson B; Anderson, Frederick A

    2016-07-01

    Increased fracture risk has been associated with weight loss in postmenopausal women, but the time course over which this occurs has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb (4.5 kg) in postmenopausal women on fracture risk at multiple sites up to 5 years after weight loss. Using data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW), we analyzed the relationships between self-reported unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb at baseline, year 2, or year 3 and incident clinical fracture in the years after weight loss. Complete data were available in 40,179 women (mean age ± SD 68 ± 8.3 years). Five-year cumulative fracture rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and adjusted hazard ratios for weight loss as a time-varying covariate were calculated from Cox multiple regression models. Unintentional weight loss at baseline was associated with a significantly increased risk of fracture of the clavicle, wrist, spine, rib, hip, and pelvis for up to 5 years after weight loss. Adjusted hazard ratios showed a significant association between unintentional weight loss and fracture of the hip, spine, and clavicle within 1 year of weight loss, and these associations were still present at 5 years. These findings demonstrate increased fracture risk at several sites after unintentional weight loss in postmenopausal women. This increase is found as early as 1 year after weight loss, emphasizing the need for prompt fracture risk assessment and appropriate management to reduce fracture risk in this population. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  3. Post-Traumatic Cognition Mediates the Relationship between a History of Sexual Abuse and the Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Sexual Assault Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyoung Min; Chung, Young Ki; Shin, Yee Jin; Kim, Miran; Kim, Nam Hee; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Hanbyul; Chang, Hyoung Yoon

    2017-10-01

    More than half of all sexual assault victims report experiencing sexual victimization more than once. The aim of this paper was to determine the role post-traumatic cognition plays in the relationship between a history of sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress symptoms in sexual assault victims. The relationship between a history of sexual assault and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms was investigated retrospectively using data from a sexual assault crisis center in Korea. Data on psychological symptoms were collected in person at the initial assessment and by telephone 1 month later using the Post-traumatic Cognitions Inventory and the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Scale: Self-report Version. Of 105 women included in the analysis, 10 (9.5%) reported prior sexual abuse and were classified as sexually revictimized. Revictimized women had more post-traumatic negative cognition at initial assessment (t = -2.98; P = 0.004) and more post-traumatic symptoms at 1 month follow-up (t = -2.39; P = 0.019) than singly victimized women. At 1 month follow-up, the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms had increased in revictimized women but had decreased slightly in singly victimized women. Negative post-traumatic cognition fully mediated the association between a history of sexual abuse and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Early detection of sexually revictimized women and tailored service and treatment intervention is needed to better serve this group of victims. Interventions targeted at preventing revictimization or post crime victimization may also help victims recover from the trauma and prevent future abuse. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  4. Victims of Crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karin Wittebrood

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Slachtoffers van criminaliteit. More than three million people in the Netherlands are victims of crime each year. Are all Dutch citizens equally at risk of becoming victims? And of those who become victims, which report the offence to the police, and what motivates them to do

  5. Predictors of Sexual Aggression Victimization and Perpetration Among Polish University Students: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Paulina; Krahé, Barbara

    2016-08-19

    This two-wave study investigated predictors of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration in a convenience sample of 318 Polish university students (214 women), considering males and females from the perspective of both victims and perpetrators. At T1, we assessed participants' risky sexual scripts (defined as cognitive representations of consensual sexual interactions containing elements related to sexual aggression), risky sexual behavior, pornography use, religiosity, sexual self-esteem, and attitudes toward sexual coercion. These variables were used to predict sexual aggression perpetration and victimization reports obtained 12 months later (T2) for two time windows: (a) since the age of 15 until a year ago and (b) in the past year. As expected, risky sexual scripts were linked to risky sexual behavior and indirectly increased the likelihood of victimization in both time windows. Lower sexual self-esteem predicted sexual victimization since age 15, but not in the past 12 months. Pornography use and religiosity indirectly predicted victimization via risky scripts and behavior. Attitudes toward sexual coercion were a prospective predictor of sexual aggression perpetration. The results extend the international literature on sexual aggression and have implications for sexual education and sexual aggression prevention programs.

  6. Student-Led Training Day Increases Student Confidence in Women's Primary Care Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnick, Julia; Spelke, M Bridget; Martinez, Ashley Rae

    2016-07-01

    Medical students are often apprehensive in approaching basic women's health concepts, including wellness exams, reproductive health concerns, and patient counseling. This study evaluates a novel student-developed and student-run Women's Health Training Day (WHTD) as a means of cultivating medical student confidence in women's primary care early in medical training. Sixty-six first-year medical students participated in WHTD, a voluntary 6-hour weekend day of interactive workshops. Students were divided into groups of six to eight students that rotated together through five workshops focused on the breast exam, pelvic exam, microscopy, family planning, and patient interviews. Before participating in WHTD, students completed surveys indicating their confidence in performing skills related to women's health on a 5-point Likert scale. Students completed an identical survey after participating in all of the WHTD workshops. Changes in pre- and post-training day confidence scores were assessed. Students reported increased confidence in all of the composite sessions that were assessed. The specific skillsets demonstrating the greatest increases in student confidence were speculum handling during pelvic examinations, detecting abnormal breast masses, and recognizing the clinical presentations of common sexually transmitted infections. All but one of the evaluated skills, using a microscope, demonstrated a significant increase in student confidence. These results indicate that the student-implemented and student-run Women's Health Training Day increases student confidence in women's primary care skills. Further studies are needed to determine whether this perceived increase in confidence is associated with increased objective knowledge pertaining to primary care and women's health.

  7. Increased hot flash severity and related interference in perimenopausal human immunodeficiency virus-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looby, Sara E; Shifren, Jan; Corless, Inge; Rope, Alison; Pedersen, Maria C; Joffe, Hadine; Grinspoon, Steven

    2014-04-01

    As women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are living longer, more are entering perimenopause. Prior studies suggest that HIV-infected women are more likely to have hot flashes than non-HIV-infected women. However, little is known regarding hot flash severity and hot flash-related interference with daily function, mood, and quality of life in this population. Perimenopausal HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected women matched by age, race, and menstrual patterns completed the Menopause Rating Scale (to assess hot flash severity) and the Hot Flash Related Daily Interference Scale (HFRDIS). Menopause Rating Scale and HFRDIS scores and subscores were compared between the groups. Thirty-three HIV-infected women and 33 non-HIV-infected women who were similar in age (median [interquartile range], 47 [45-48] vs 47 [46-49] y), race (64% vs 52% nonwhite, P = 0.32), and menstrual patterns (number of periods in the past year; 5 [4-9] vs 6 [4-10], P = 0.53) were studied. Perimenopausal HIV-infected women reported greater hot flash severity (HIV vs non-HIV: 2 [1-3] vs 1 [0-3], P = 0.03) and hot flash-related interference (HFRDIS total score, 37 [10-60] vs 6 [0-20], P = 0.001). Perimenopausal HIV-infected women experience greater hot flash severity and related interference compared with non-HIV-infected perimenopausal women. Increased distress secondary to hot flashes may reduce quality of life and negatively impact important health-promoting behaviors, including adherence to antiretroviral therapy, in HIV-infected women.

  8. Effectiveness of Existential Psychotherapy in Increasing the Resiliency of Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    z rezaei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Many problems are associated with infertility diagnosis, especially for women. Resiliency is one of the strategies which may reduce psychological distress of infertile women. The aim of current research was to study the effectiveness of existential psychotherapy in increasing the resiliency of infertile women. Method: The design of the present study was a semi-experimental research with pretest and posttest with control group. Statistical population consisted of all infertile women of Dehdasht, Iran, in the summer of 2014. Samples were selected at first by available sampling method and after completing resiliency questionnaire, and obtaining score for enter to research, were placement using random sampling method in two experimental and control groups (N = 8 per group. The experimental group participated in 8 sessions of group counseling based on existential approach and control group received no intervention. The gathered data were analyzed using covariance analysis. Results: The results showed that significant differences between the pre-test and post-test scores of the experimental group existed. This difference was significant at the level of 0.01. Therefore, it seemed that existential psychotherapy increased the resiliency of infertile women. Conclusion: The results revealed that existential psychotherapy increased resiliency of infertile women and interventions based on this approach will lead to the improvement of the mental health.

  9. Bullying and Victimization Among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetgiri, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Bullying among children is a significant public health problem world-wide. Bullying is most commonly defined as repeated, intentional aggression, perpetrated by a more powerful individual or group against a less powerful victim. Trends in victimization and moderate to frequent bullying may be decreasing slightly in the United States, but over 20% of children continue to be involved in bullying. Direct bullying consists of physical and verbal aggression, whereas indirect bullying involves relational aggression. Cyber bullying is an emerging problem which may be more difficult to identify and intervene with than traditional bullying. Bullies, victims, and bully-victims are at risk for negative short and long-term consequences such as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and delinquency. Various individual, parental, and peer factors increase the risk for involvement in bullying. Anti-bullying interventions are predominantly school-based and demonstrate variable results. Healthcare providers can intervene in bullying by identifying potential bullies or victims, screening them for co-morbidities, providing counseling and resources, and advocating for bullying prevention. PMID:24007839

  10. Teachers' victimization-related beliefs and strategies: associations with students' aggressive behavior and peer victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Ladd, Gary W

    2015-01-01

    Although teachers are often called upon to reduce children's bullying and aggression, little is known regarding teachers' responses to students' harassment of peers or the beliefs which may inform their response strategies. To address this limitation, data were collected from 170 6th- and 7th-grade teachers (33 men; 137 women) and 2,938 (1,413 girls; 1,525 boys) of their students. Teachers beliefs regarding peer victimization were predictive of their efforts to advice victims how to cope with peer harassment. In particular, teachers who held more normative views of peer victimization were less likely to report reprimanding aggressive students and were more likely to utilize passive response strategies. Specific links emerged between teachers' beliefs and strategies and classroom-levels of aggression and peer victimization in the fall and in the spring, as well as changes in students' aggressive behavior and victimization over the course of the school year. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  11. Living with Cat and Dog Increases Vaginal Colonization with E. coli in Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Schjørring, Susanne; Pedersen, Louise; Bischoff, Anne Louise; Følsgaard, Nilofar; Carson, Charlotte G.; Chawes, Bo; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Mølgaard, Anne; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Bisgaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background Furred pets in the household are known reservoirs for pathogenic bacteria, but it is not known if transmission of bacteria between pet and owner leads to significantly increased rate of infections. We studied whether cats and dogs living in the household of pregnant women affect the commensal vaginal flora, and furthermore the need for oral antibiotics and rate of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Methods The novel unselected Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2010) pregnancy cohort of 709 women participated in this analysis. Detailed information on pet exposure, oral antibiotic prescriptions filled at pharmacy and urinary tract infection during pregnancy was obtained and verified prospectively during clinic visits. Vaginal cultures were obtained at pregnancy week 36. Results Women, who had cat or dog in the home during pregnancy, had a different vaginal flora, in particular with increased Escherichia coli (E. coli) colonization; odds ratio after adjustment for lifestyle confounders and antibiotics 2.20, 95% CI, [1.27–3.80], p = 0.005. 43% of women living with cat and/or dog in the home used oral antibiotics compared to 33% of women with no cat or dog; adjusted odds ratio 1.51, 95% CI, [1.08–2.12], p = 0.016. Women living with cat had increased frequency of self-reported urinary tract infection; adjusted odds ratio 1.57, 95% CI, [1.02–2.43], p = 0.042. Conclusions The increased vaginal E. coli colonization in women living with cat or dog suggests a clinically important transmission of pathogenic bacteria from pet to owner substantiated by increased rate of antibiotic use and urinary tract infections which, which is of particular concern during pregnancy. PMID:23049986

  12. Living with cat and dog increases vaginal colonization with E. coli in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Stokholm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Furred pets in the household are known reservoirs for pathogenic bacteria, but it is not known if transmission of bacteria between pet and owner leads to significantly increased rate of infections. We studied whether cats and dogs living in the household of pregnant women affect the commensal vaginal flora, and furthermore the need for oral antibiotics and rate of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. METHODS: The novel unselected Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC(2010 pregnancy cohort of 709 women participated in this analysis. Detailed information on pet exposure, oral antibiotic prescriptions filled at pharmacy and urinary tract infection during pregnancy was obtained and verified prospectively during clinic visits. Vaginal cultures were obtained at pregnancy week 36. RESULTS: Women, who had cat or dog in the home during pregnancy, had a different vaginal flora, in particular with increased Escherichia coli (E. coli colonization; odds ratio after adjustment for lifestyle confounders and antibiotics 2.20, 95% CI, [1.27-3.80], p=0.005. 43% of women living with cat and/or dog in the home used oral antibiotics compared to 33% of women with no cat or dog; adjusted odds ratio 1.51, 95% CI, [1.08-2.12], p=0.016. Women living with cat had increased frequency of self-reported urinary tract infection; adjusted odds ratio 1.57, 95% CI, [1.02-2.43], p=0.042. CONCLUSIONS: The increased vaginal E. coli colonization in women living with cat or dog suggests a clinically important transmission of pathogenic bacteria from pet to owner substantiated by increased rate of antibiotic use and urinary tract infections which, which is of particular concern during pregnancy.

  13. Countertransference in the initial visit of women victims of sexual violence Contratransferência no atendimento inicial de mulheres vítimas de violência sexual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Eizirik

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify demographic and clinical correlates associated with therapists' countertransference feelings on the first visit of women victims of sexual violence. METHOD: Forty patients were seen by 26 therapists, during 2 consecutive years, at the Center for the Study and Treatment of Psychological Trauma, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre , Brazil. After the first visit with the patient, the therapist completed the Assessment of Countertransference Scale and the patient was evaluated with the Davidson Trauma Scale, the Standardized Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Defense Style Questionnaire. RESULTS:The therapists showed a predominance of feelings of closeness (Mean = 5.42, SD = 1.25 in relation to the feelings of indifference (Mean = 1.82, SD = 1.22 and distance (Mean = 1.57, SD = 1.08 [p OBJETIVO: Identificar os correlatos demográficos e clínicos associados com sentimentos contratransferenciais de terapeutas na primeira consulta de mulheres vítimas de violência sexual. MÉTODO: Quarenta pacientes foram atendidas por 26 terapeutas, ao longo de dois anos consecutivos, no Núcleo de Estudos e Tratamento do Trauma Psíquico do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brasil. Após a primeira consulta com a paciente, o terapeuta preenchia a Escala para Avaliação da Contratransferência. Os pacientes foram avaliados com a Escala Davidson de Trauma, a Standardized Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale, o Inventário de Depressão de Beck, e a versão em português do Defense Style Questionaire. RESULTADOS: Os terapeutas apresentaram predominantemente sentimentos de proximidade (Mean = 5,42, SD = 1,25 em comparação aos sentimentos de indiferença (Mean = 1,82, SD = 1,22 e de distanciamento (Mean = 1,57, SD = 1,08 [p < 0,001]. As análises multivariadas revelaram a ausência de associações entre os sentimentos contratransferenciais e características clínicas dos

  14. Peer Victimization in Extremely Low Birth Weight Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Kimberly L; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Schmidt, Louis A

    2015-12-01

    Extremely low birth weight (ELBW; peer victimization. We examined retrospectively reported peer victimization in ELBW and control children in the oldest known, prospectively followed, population-based birth cohort of ELBW survivors. We compared levels of verbal and physical peer victimization in ELBW and control children. We also predicted peer victimization in the ELBW sample from child characteristics. ELBW children, especially girls, were at an increased risk for verbal, but not physical victimization. In addition, ELBW children with a higher IQ reported higher levels of verbal victimization, although ELBW females who had a lower body mass index in childhood reported higher levels of physical victimization. Findings highlight the need for parents and clinicians to be aware that ELBW girls, especially those with a lower body mass index in childhood, may be at increased risk of peer victimization, as are ELBW children with a higher IQ. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Domestic violence and the impact on its victims

    OpenAIRE

    Kirejevová, Iva

    2010-01-01

    Domestic violence is one of the essential problems of our society. Domestic violence is determined by high prevalence, enormous latency and great victimization impact. The aim of my thesis is to describe the psychological aspects of the victims of domestic violence. I presume that long-term psychological and physical violence has a crucial influence on the psycho-somatic health of the victim. I am aware of the fact that this problem does not concern only battered women. Nevertheless I want to...

  16. Gender differences in acknowledgment of stalking victimization: results from the NCVS stalking supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englebrecht, Christine M; Reyns, Bradford W

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that a significant portion of victims of interpersonal violence do not acknowledge or label their experience as a criminal victimization. Studies exploring unacknowledged victimizations have found that individuals are more likely to acknowledge victimization when the experience meets certain, often stereotypical criteria. This study addressed this issue by integrating literature on victim acknowledgment and stalking victimization to identify correlates of victimization acknowledgment among stalking victims. Data were drawn from the 2006 stalking supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), and the sample included both female and male victims of stalking. Findings revealed support for a "classic stalking script," which included a reliance on stereotypical types of stalking behavior (i.e., being spied on) that were shown to increase acknowledgment for victims of stalking. Results also described gender based correlates of victimization acknowledgment.

  17. Markers of Increased Cardiovascular Risk in Postmenopausal Women: Focus on Oxidized-LDL and HDL Subpopulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas-Melo, Filipa; Sereno, José; Teixeira-Lemos, Edite; Rocha-Pereira, Petronila; Teixeira, Frederico; Reis, Flávio

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effect of gender and menopause in cardiovascular risk (CVR) in a healthy population based on both classical and nontraditional markers. Methods. 56 men and 68 women (48 pre- and 20 postmenopause) were enrolled in the study. The following markers were analyzed: blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), glucose, total cholesterol (total-c), triglycerides (TGs), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), oxidized-LDL (Ox-LDL), HDL-c and subpopulations, paraoxonase-1 activity, hsCRP, uric acid, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), adiponectin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and intercellular adhesion molecular 1 (ICAM1). Results. Relative to the women, men present significantly increased BMI, WC, BP, glucose, total-c, TGs, LDL-c, Ox-LDL, uric acid, and TNF-α and reduced adiponectin and total and large HDL-c. The protective profile of women is lost after menopause with a significantly increased BMI, WC, BP, glucose, LDL-c, Ox-LDL, hsCRP, and VEGF and decreased total and large HDL-c. Significant correlations were found in women population and in postmenopausal women between Ox-LDL and total, large, and small HDL-c and between TNF-α and total, large, and small HDL-c, LDL-c, and Ox-LDL. Conclusions. Men present higher CVR than women who lost protection after menopause, evidenced by nontraditional markers, including Ox-LDL and HDL subpopulations. PMID:24167352

  18. OSA is common and independently associated with hypertension and increased arterial stiffness in consecutive perimenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Rodrigo P; Barros, Isly M L; Drager, Luciano F; Bittencourt, Marcio S; Medeiros, Ana Kelley L; Carvalho, Liana L; Lustosa, Thais C; Carvalho, Martinha M B; Ferreira, Moacir N L; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Costa, Laura O B F

    2014-07-01

    Perimenopause is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. OSA is an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease, particularly among men, but the independent contribution of OSA to cardiovascular risk in climacteric women is not clear. We evaluated 277 consecutive women (age, 56 [52-61] years; BMI, 28 [25-32] kg/m2) without manifest cardiovascular disease (heart failure, coronary disease, or stroke). All women underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring, arterial stiffness evaluation (pulse wave velocity), and portable sleep study. OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 5 events/h) and moderate to severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15 events/h) were diagnosed in 111 (40.1%) and 31 (11.1%) women, respectively. None of the participants had received a previous diagnosis of OSA. Women with moderate to severe OSA vs those without OSA had a higher prevalence of hypertension, were prescribed more medications for hypertension, had higher awake BP (systolic, 133 [125-142] vs 126 [119-134] mm Hg [P OSA, respectively). OSA is common, underdiagnosed, and independently associated with high BP and increased arterial stiffness in perimenopausal women.

  19. Markers of Increased Cardiovascular Risk in Postmenopausal Women: Focus on Oxidized-LDL and HDL Subpopulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Mascarenhas-Melo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of gender and menopause in cardiovascular risk (CVR in a healthy population based on both classical and nontraditional markers. Methods. 56 men and 68 women (48 pre- and 20 postmenopause were enrolled in the study. The following markers were analyzed: blood pressure (BP, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, glucose, total cholesterol (total-c, triglycerides (TGs, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c, oxidized-LDL (Ox-LDL, HDL-c and subpopulations, paraoxonase-1 activity, hsCRP, uric acid, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, adiponectin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and intercellular adhesion molecular 1 (ICAM1. Results. Relative to the women, men present significantly increased BMI, WC, BP, glucose, total-c, TGs, LDL-c, Ox-LDL, uric acid, and TNF-α and reduced adiponectin and total and large HDL-c. The protective profile of women is lost after menopause with a significantly increased BMI, WC, BP, glucose, LDL-c, Ox-LDL, hsCRP, and VEGF and decreased total and large HDL-c. Significant correlations were found in women population and in postmenopausal women between Ox-LDL and total, large, and small HDL-c and between TNF-α and total, large, and small HDL-c, LDL-c, and Ox-LDL. Conclusions. Men present higher CVR than women who lost protection after menopause, evidenced by nontraditional markers, including Ox-LDL and HDL subpopulations.

  20. The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is not increased in normal-weight women with PCOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelanis, Rasa; Mellembakken, Jan Roar; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) needed in all women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? SUMMARY QNSWER: OGTT is not routinely needed in women with PCOS and BMI PCOS is associated with insulin resistance and increased prevalence...... of prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) which is closely linked to obesity and possibly age, ethnicity and PCOS phenotype. Several guidelines recommend OGTT upon diagnosis of PCOS and during follow-up. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A Nordic cross-sectional study including 876 women. PARTICIPANTS....../MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The 876 Nordic women with PCOS, aged 14-57 years, were examined for T2D and prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) by OGTT. MAIN RESULT AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Of all study subjects 3% (23/876) had T2D, 23% (204/876) prediabetes and 74% (649...

  1. Increasing LH pulsatility in women with hypothalamic amenorrhoea using intravenous infusion of Kisspeptin-54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Channa N; Abbara, Ali; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Comninos, Alexander N; Ratnasabapathy, Risheka; De Silva, Akila; Nijher, Gurjinder M K; Ganiyu-Dada, Zainab; Mehta, Amrish; Todd, Catriona; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Dhillo, Waljit S

    2014-06-01

    Hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) is the one of the most common causes of period loss in women of reproductive age and is associated with deficient LH pulsatility. High-dose kisspeptin-54 acutely stimulates LH secretion in women with HA, but chronic administration causes desensitization. GnRH has paradoxical effects on reproductive activity; we therefore hypothesized that a dose-dependent therapeutic window exists within which kisspeptin treatment restores the GnRH/LH pulsatility in women with HA. The aim of the study was to determine whether constant iv infusion of kisspeptin-54 temporarily increases pulsatile LH secretion in women with HA. Five patients with HA each underwent six assessments of LH pulsatility. Single-blinded continuous iv infusion of vehicle or kisspeptin-54 (0.01, 0.03, 0.10, 0.30, or 1.00 nmol/kg/h) was administered. The LH pulses were detected using blinded deconvolution. Kisspeptin increased LH pulsatility in all patients with HA, with peak responses observed at different doses in each patient. The mean peak number of pulses during infusion of kisspeptin-54 was 3-fold higher when compared with vehicle (number of LH pulses per 8 h: 1.6 ± 0.4, vehicle; 5.0 ± 0.5, kisspeptin-54, P 54 was 6-fold higher when compared with vehicle (LH pulse secretory mass in international units per liter: 3.92 ± 2.31, vehicle; 23.44 ± 12.59, kisspeptin-54; P 54 infusion temporarily increases LH pulsatility in women with HA. Furthermore, we have determined the dose range within which kisspeptin-54 treatment increases basal and pulsatile LH secretion in women with HA. This work provides a basis for studying the potential of kisspeptin-based therapies to treat women with HA.

  2. Increased Hot Flash Severity and Related Interference in Perimenopausal HIV-infected Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looby, Sara E.; Shifren, Jan; Corless, Inge; Rope, Alison; Pedersen, Maria C.; Joffe, Hadine; Grinspoon, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Objective As women with HIV are living longer, more are entering the perimenopause. Prior studies suggest that HIV-infected women are more likely to have hot flashes than non-HIV-infected women. However, little is known regarding the severity and degree of interference that hot flashes have on daily function, mood, and quality of life in this population. Methods Perimenopausal HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected women matched by age, race, and menstrual patterns completed the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) to assess hot flash severity and the Hot Flash Related Daily Interference Scale (HFRDIS). MRS and HFRDIS scores and subscores were compared between groups. Results 33 HIV-infected and 33 non-HIV-infected women similar in age (47 (45,48) median (interquartile range) vs. 47 (46,49) yrs; race (64% vs. 52% non-white; P=0.32), and menstrual patterns (# periods in past year; 5 (4,9) vs. 6 (4,10); P=0.53) were studied. Perimenopausal HIV-infected women reported greater hot flash severity (HIV; 2 (1,3) vs. non-HIV: 1 (0,3); P=0.03), and hot flash-related interference (HFRDIS total score; 37 (10,60) vs. 6 (0,20); P=0.001). Conclusions Perimenopausal HIV-infected women experience greater hot flash severity and related interference compared to non-HIV-infected perimenopausal women. Increased distress secondary to hot flashes may reduce quality of life and negatively impact important health-promoting behaviors including adherence to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected women. PMID:23820600

  3. Increased psychiatric morbidity in women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome or complete gonadal dysgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, Hedvig; Strandqvist, Anna; Nordenström, Anna; Butwicka, Agnieszka; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Frisén, Louise

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge concerning mental health outcomes is important to optimize the health of individuals with disorders or differences of sex development (DSD). Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate if the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in adult women diagnosed with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) or complete gonadal dysgenesis (46,XY GD and 46,XX GD) differs from that in women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) or age-matched population controls. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, and included 33 women with different DSDs: 20 CAIS, 6 46,XY GD, 7 46,XX GD, 21 women with POI and 61 population-derived controls. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview plus (MINI+). To complement the MINI+, three self-report questions were used to evaluate current and previous psychiatric history. Results are presented as p values and estimated risks (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence intervals [CI]) of psychiatric conditions among women with CAIS or GD in comparison with women with POI and age-matched population-derived controls. Twenty-eight of the 33 women (85%) with CAIS or GD met the criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder according to the MINI+, with depression and anxiety disorders being most common. This was significantly higher compared with population controls (52%) (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.7-14.9), but not compared to women with POI, who had a high frequency of psychiatric diagnoses (76%). The increased psychiatric morbidity in women with CAIS and GD highlights the need for clinical awareness of the psychiatric vulnerability in these patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Interrelationships between LGBT-Based Victimization, Suicide, and Substance Use Problems in a Diverse Sample of Sexual and Gender Minority Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Mereish, Ethan H.; O'Cleirigh, C; Bradford, Judith B.

    2013-01-01

    Research has documented significant relationships between sexual and gender minority stress and higher rates of suicidality (i.e., suicidal ideation and attempts) and substance use problems. We examined the potential mediating role of substance use problems on the relationship between sexual and gender minority stress (i.e., victimization based on lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender identity; LGBT) and suicidality. A non-probability sample of LGBT patients from a community health center (N...

  5. Vitamin supplementation increases risk of subclinical mastitis in HIV-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Joanne E; Aboud, Said; Manji, Karim P; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Villamor, Eduardo

    2010-10-01

    Subclinical mastitis is common in HIV-infected women and is a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin supplementation [vitamin A + β-carotene, multivitamins (B complex, C, and E), or multivitamins, including vitamin A + β-carotene] on the risk of subclinical mastitis during the first 2 y postpartum among HIV-infected women. The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial including 674 HIV-infected, antiretroviral naïve Tanzanian women who were recruited during pregnancy and followed-up after delivery. Breast milk samples were obtained approximately every 3 mo. Any subclinical mastitis was defined as a ratio of the sodium to potassium (Na:K) breast milk concentrations > 0.6 and further classified as either moderate (Na:K ≥ 0.6 and ≤ 1) or severe (Na:K > 1.0). Fifty-eight percent of women had at least 1 episode of any subclinical mastitis. Women assigned to multivitamins (B complex, C, and E) had a 33% greater risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.005) and a 75% greater risk of severe subclinical mastitis (P = 0.0006) than women who received the placebo. Vitamin A + β-carotene also increased the risk of severe subclinical mastitis by 45% (P = 0.03). Among women with CD4+ T-cell counts ≥ 350 cells/μL, multivitamin intake resulted in a 49% increased risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.006); by contrast, there were no treatment effects among women with CD4+ T-cell counts subclinical mastitis.

  6. Vitamin Supplementation Increases Risk of Subclinical Mastitis in HIV-Infected Women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Joanne E.; Aboud, Said; Manji, Karim P.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Villamor, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Subclinical mastitis is common in HIV-infected women and is a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin supplementation [vitamin A + β-carotene, multivitamins (B complex, C, and E), or multivitamins, including vitamin A + β-carotene] on the risk of subclinical mastitis during the first 2 y postpartum among HIV-infected women. The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial including 674 HIV-infected, antiretroviral naïve Tanzanian women who were recruited during pregnancy and followed-up after delivery. Breast milk samples were obtained approximately every 3 mo. Any subclinical mastitis was defined as a ratio of the sodium to potassium (Na:K) breast milk concentrations > 0.6 and further classified as either moderate (Na:K ≥ 0.6 and ≤ 1) or severe (Na:K > 1.0). Fifty-eight percent of women had at least 1 episode of any subclinical mastitis. Women assigned to multivitamins (B complex, C, and E) had a 33% greater risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.005) and a 75% greater risk of severe subclinical mastitis (P = 0.0006) than women who received the placebo. Vitamin A + β-carotene also increased the risk of severe subclinical mastitis by 45% (P = 0.03). Among women with CD4+ T-cell counts ≥ 350 cells/μL, multivitamin intake resulted in a 49% increased risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.006); by contrast, there were no treatment effects among women with CD4+ T-cell counts subclinical mastitis. PMID:20739447

  7. The educational gradient of obesity increases among Swedish pregnant women: a register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjermo, Helena; Lind, Simon; Rasmussen, Finn

    2015-04-01

    Overweight or obesity is detrimental during pregnancy. We studied time trends in the educational gradient of overweight and obesity among pregnant women. Differences in overweight and obesity by area of residence and country of birth were also examined. The study was based on the Swedish Medical Birth Register between 1992 and 2010 and included 1,569,173 singleton pregnancies. Weight and height were registered during the first visit at the antenatal-care clinic. Data on education, country of birth, and area of residence were derived from registers with national coverage. In 2008-2010, 32% of Swedish nulliparous pregnant women were overweight or obese. The relative risk of obesity among lower educated women compared to women with higher education increased from 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.85-1.97) in 1992-1995 to 2.09 (95% confidence interval: 2.05-2.14) in 2008-2010. There was an inverse linear relationship between risks of overweight or obesity, and population density and type of residence municipality. An excessive gestational weight gain according to the American Institute of Medicine was observed among 57-63% of the overweight or obese women, but there were small differences by education. Pregnant women born in Africa, Middle East or Latin America had higher risks of being overweight or obese compared to women born in Sweden. The prevalence of obesity as well as the social inequalities in obesity during pregnancy increased in Sweden between 1992 and 2010. Further understanding of social inequalities and geographical differentials in health behaviours of pregnant women is needed when planning public health interventions.

  8. Annual Feedback Is an Effective Tool for a Sustained Increase in Calcium Intake among Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C. Nicholson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to optimize calcium intake among the 2,000+ older women taking part in the Vital D study. Calcium supplementation was not included in the study protocol. Our hypothesis was that annual feedback of calcium intake and informing women of strategies to improve calcium intake can lead to a sustained increase in the proportion of women who consume adequate levels of the mineral. Calcium intake was assessed on an annual basis using a validated short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Supplemental calcium intake was added to the dietary estimate. Participants and their nominated doctor were sent a letter that the participant’s estimated daily calcium intake was adequate or inadequate based on a cutoff threshold of 800 mg/day. General brief statements outlining the importance of an adequate calcium intake and bone health were included in all letters. At baseline, the median daily consumption of calcium was 980 mg/day and 67 percent of 1,951 participants had calcium intake of at least 800 mg per day. Of the 644 older women advised of an inadequate calcium intake at baseline (< 800 mg/day, 386 (60% had increased their intake by at least 100 mg/day when re-assessed twelve months later. This desirable change was sustained at 24 months after baseline with almost half of these women (303/644 consuming over 800 mg calcium per day. This study devised an efficient method to provide feedback on calcium intake to over 2,000 older women. The improvements were modest but significant and most apparent in those with a low intake at baseline. The decreased proportion of these women with an inadequate intake of calcium 12- and 24-months later, suggests this might be a practical, low cost strategy to maintain an adequate calcium intake among older women.

  9. Models of resistance: "victims" lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Theresa M

    2006-01-01

    This author has found through professional and personal experience that throughout the world, women directly affected by injustice have led demands for accountability. The purpose of this article is to challenge mainstream human rights groups to create a different type of partnership between themselves and the people for whom they advocate by seeking the involvement of "victims", including leaders of successful "victim-led" initiatives. This approach will result in more appropriate policy recommendations and will enhance both entities' capacity for outreach. Moreover, it will bring mainstream human rights organizations into greater compliance with their own stated values, as well as exemplifying the same respect, flexibility, and accommodation that these groups often recommend to governmental, political, and institutional entities.

  10. Imaging findings of avalanche victims

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Alexandra B.; Grosse, Claudia A.; Anderson, Suzanne [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Diagnostic, Pediatric and Interventional Radiology, Berne (Switzerland); Steinbach, Lynne S. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Zimmermann, Heinz [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Trauma and Emergency Medicine, Berne (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    Skiing and hiking outside the boundaries remains an attractive wilderness activity despite the danger of avalanches. Avalanches occur on a relatively frequent basis and may be devastating. Musculoskeletal radiologists should be acquainted with these injuries. Fourteen avalanche victims (11 men and 3 women; age range 17-59 years, mean age 37.4 years) were air transported to a high-grade trauma centre over a period of 2 years. Radiographs, CT and MR images were prospectively evaluated by two observers in consensus. Musculoskeletal findings (61%) were more frequent than extraskeletal findings (39%). Fractures were most commonly seen (36.6%), involving the spine (14.6%) more frequently than the extremities (9.8%). Blunt abdominal and thoracic trauma were the most frequent extraskeletal findings. A wide spectrum of injuries can be found in avalanche victims, ranging from extremity fractures to massive polytrauma. Asphyxia remains the main cause of death along with hypoxic brain injury and hypothermia. (orig.)

  11. Yoga increased serum estrogen levels in postmenopausal women-a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Rui Ferreira; Kozasa, Elisa Harumi; Rodrigues, Dinah; Leite, José Roberto; Tufik, Sérgio; Hachul, Helena

    2016-05-01

    This case report aimed to evaluate 4 months of yoga practice on the quality of life (QOL) and estradiol levels of two postmenopausal women. Participants were clinically healthy postmenopausal women, with follicle-stimulating hormone levels greater than or equal to 30 mIU/mL and a body mass index lower than 30 kg/m. The participants practiced yoga for 4 months in two 1-hour sessions per week. The participants exhibited an abnormal estrogen-level increase after 4 months of yoga practice and showed QOL improvements. In some cases, yoga practice can affect the female neuroendocrine system, increasing estrogen and improving QOL.

  12. Does obesity increase the risk of hot flashes among midlife women?: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccomani, Sylvio; Lui-Filho, Jeffrey Frederico; Juliato, Cassia Raquel; Gabiatti, Jose Roberto; Pedro, Adriana Orcesi; Costa-Paiva, Lucia

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the association between vasomotor symptoms and obesity in climacteric women. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study of 749 women aged 45 to 60 years. The dependent variable was intensity of menopausal symptoms evaluated by the menopause rating scale questionnaire. Independent variables were sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and obesity evaluated by body mass index. There was no significant difference in the majority of clinical and sociodemographic characteristics between the body mass index groups. Obese women had less physical activity (P = 0.019) and a higher prevalence of hypertension (P hot flashes increased progressively and were higher for participants with body mass index greater than 30 kg/m (P = 0.027). Joint and muscle pain scores also increased with increased body mass index (P women (body mass index >30 kg/m) (P hot flash scores were higher body mass index, presence of urinary urgency, and vaginal dryness. We found that menopausal symptoms, including vasomotor, joint, and urinary symptoms, were related to obesity. Hot flashes were associated with higher body mass index, urinary urgency, and vaginal dryness. Understanding this relationship may contribute to the development of healthcare strategies aimed at minimizing the impact of obesity on several health issues of climacteric women.

  13. Effects of increasing levothyroxine on pregnancy outcomes in women with uncontrolled hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraka, Spyridoula; Singh Ospina, Naykky M; O'Keeffe, Derek T; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Espinosa De Ycaza, Ana E; Wi, Chung-Il; Juhn, Young J; Coddington, Charles C; Montori, Victor M

    2017-01-01

    Uncontrolled hypothyroidism has been associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of increasing levothyroxine (LT4) dose on reducing the risk of adverse outcomes for pregnant women with TSH level greater than the recommended 1st trimester limit. We reviewed the electronic medical records of pregnant women evaluated from January 2011 to December 2013, who had history of LT4-treated hypothyroidism and were found to have TSH > 2·5 mIU/l in 1st trimester. Women were divided into two groups: group A - LT4 dose was increased within two weeks from the TSH test, group B - LT4 dose remained stable. We compared the frequency of pregnancy loss (primary outcome) and other prespecified pregnancy-related adverse outcomes between groups. There were 85 women in group A (median TSH: 5·0, interquartile range 3·8-6·8 mIU/l) and 11 women in group B (median TSH: 4·5, interquartile range 3·2-4·9 mIU/l). The groups were not different in baseline clinical and socioeconomic characteristics. The mean interval between TSH test and LT4 dose increase was 4·5 (SD 4·6) days. Pregnancy loss was significantly lower in group A (2/85, 2·4%) vs group B (4/11, 36·4%) (P = 0·001). Other pregnancy-related adverse outcomes were similar between groups. Increasing LT4 dose for women with uncontrolled hypothyroidism in the 1st trimester of pregnancy was associated with a decreased risk of pregnancy loss. Given the limitations of our study, this association awaits further confirmation from larger studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Female peer mentors early in college increase women's positive academic experiences and retention in engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Tara C; Dasgupta, Nilanjana

    2017-06-06

    Scientific and engineering innovation is vital for American competitiveness, quality of life, and national security. However, too few American students, especially women, pursue these fields. Although this problem has attracted enormous attention, rigorously tested interventions outside artificial laboratory settings are quite rare. To address this gap, we conducted a longitudinal field experiment investigating the effect of peer mentoring on women's experiences and retention in engineering during college transition, assessing its impact for 1 y while mentoring was active, and an additional 1 y after mentoring had ended. Incoming women engineering students ( n = 150) were randomly assigned to female or male peer mentors or no mentors for 1 y. Their experiences were assessed multiple times during the intervention year and 1-y postintervention. Female (but not male) mentors protected women's belonging in engineering, self-efficacy, motivation, retention in engineering majors, and postcollege engineering aspirations. Counter to common assumptions, better engineering grades were not associated with more retention or career aspirations in engineering in the first year of college. Notably, increased belonging and self-efficacy were significantly associated with more retention and career aspirations. The benefits of peer mentoring endured long after the intervention had ended, inoculating women for the first 2 y of college-the window of greatest attrition from science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Thus, same-gender peer mentoring for a short period during developmental transition points promotes women's success and retention in engineering, yielding dividends over time.

  15. Increased cerebrospinal fluid levels of GABA, testosterone and estradiol in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawwass, Jennifer F; Sanders, Kristen M; Loucks, Tammy L; Rohan, Lisa Cencia; Berga, Sarah L

    2017-07-01

    Do cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) differ in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) as compared to eumenorrheic, ovulatory women (EW)? Women with PCOS displayed higher CSF levels of GABA and E2, and possibly T, than EW. The chronic anovulation characteristic of PCOS has been attributed to increased central GnRH drive and resulting gonadotropin aberrations. Androgens are thought to regulate GABA, which in turn regulates the neural cascade that modulates GnRH drive. This cross-sectional observational study included 15 EW and 12 non-obese women with PCOS who consented to a lumbar puncture in addition to 24 h of serum blood collection at 15-min intervals. In total, 27 women were studied at a the General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) at the University of Pittsburgh. Serum analytes included T, E2 and androstenedione. CSF analytes included GABA, glutamate, glucose, T and E2. Women with PCOS had higher CSF GABA as compared to EW (9.04 versus 7.04 μmol/L, P gender identity issues. No conflicts of interest. The study was funded by NIH grants to SLB (RO1-MH50748, U54-HD08610) and NIH RR-00056 to the General Clinical Research Center of the University of Pittsburgh. NCT01674426.

  16. Obesity increases risk of declining physical activity over time in women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jared M; Tucker, Larry A; Lecheminant, James; Bailey, Bruce

    2013-12-01

    Research indicates that risk of obesity increases as physical activity (PA) decreases; however, the reciprocal effect has been rarely studied. The present investigation was conducted to determine the contribution of obesity on objectively measured PA over 20 months. A prospective cohort design with 254 middle-aged women was employed. Body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using Bod Pod, and obesity was defined as BF% ≥32%. PA was assessed objectively using 7-day accelerometry at baseline and ∼20 months later at follow-up. Of the 254 subjects, 124 were obese (49%) at baseline. Mean BF% was 32.1 ± 7.8 and average age was 41.7 ± 3.1 years. Mean weekly PA was 2.79 ± 0.85 million activity counts for all participants. Over the 20-month period, PA decreased significantly more in obese women (-8.1% ± 27.1%) than in nonobese women (0.3% ± 31.7%) after adjusting for confounders (F = 5.3, P = 0.022). Moderate plus vigorous PA levels also decreased more in obese women (-28.1 ± 73.6 min/week) than in nonobese women (-5.9 ± 66.8 min/week), after adjusting for covariates (F = 7.84; P = 0.0055). It appears that obese women tend to reduce PA over time at a faster rate than nonobese women. Evidently, obesity is a risk factor for decreasing PA over time in middle-aged women. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  17. The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is not increased in normal-weight women with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelanis, Rasa; Mellembakken, Jan Roar; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger; Ravn, Pernille; Morin-Papunen, Laure; Tapanainen, Juha S; Piltonen, Terhi; Puurunen, Johanna; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Fedorcsak, Peter; Andersen, Marianne; Glintborg, Dorte

    2017-11-01

    Is oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) needed in all women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? OGTT is not routinely needed in women with PCOS and BMI PCOS is associated with insulin resistance and increased prevalence of prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) which is closely linked to obesity and possibly age, ethnicity and PCOS phenotype. Several guidelines recommend OGTT upon diagnosis of PCOS and during follow-up. A Nordic cross-sectional study including 876 women. The 876 Nordic women with PCOS, aged 14-57 years, were examined for T2D and prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) by OGTT. Of all study subjects 3% (23/876) had T2D, 23% (204/876) prediabetes and 74% (649/876) had normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Increased BMI and waist circumference were significantly (P PCOS phenotype did not predict 2-h glucose levels during OGTT after adjustment for BMI and age. The present study included cross-sectional data and prospective studies are needed to confirm our results. These results may not apply to populations of other ethnic origin. Routine OGTT may not be indicated in normal-weight women with PCOS. None. N/A.

  18. Secondary victims of rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Bak, Rikke; Elklit, Ask

    2012-01-01

    Rape is often a very traumatic experience, which affects not only the primary victim (PV) but also his/her significant others. Studies on secondary victims of rape are few and have almost exclusively studied male partners of female rape victims. This study examined the impact of rape on 107...... secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels...... of social support for the respondent, and feeling let down by others. The respondents were generally interested in friend-, family-, and partner-focused interventions, particularly in receiving education about how best to support a rape victim...

  19. Increased plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in infants of women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halse, Karen G; Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Goetze, Jens P

    2005-01-01

    Up to 40% of newborn infants of women with type 1 diabetes have echocardiographic signs of cardiomyopathy. Increased plasma concentrations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its precursor (proBNP) are markers of cardiac failure and hypoxia in adults. In this study, we investigated whether pl...

  20. Peripheral Mononuclear Cell Resistin mRNA Expression Is Increased in Type 2 Diabetic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayoula C. Tsiotra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistin has been shown to cause insulin resistance and to impair glucose tolerance in rodents, but in humans its physiological role still remains elusive. The aim of this study was to examine whether resistin mRNA expression in human peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs and its corresponding plasma levels are altered in type 2 diabetes. Resistin mRNA levels were easily detectable in human PBMC, and found to be higher in DM2 compared to healthy women (P=.05. Similarly, mononuclear mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 were all significantly higher in DM2 compared to control women (P<.001. The corresponding plasma resistin levels were slightly, but not significantly, increased in DM2 women (P=.051, and overall, they correlated significantly with BMI (r=0.406, P=.010 and waist circumference (r=0.516, P=.003, but not with fasting insulin levels or HOMA-IR. Resistin mRNA expression is increased in PBMC from DM2 women, together with increased expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6, independent of obesity. These results suggest that resistin and cytokines might contribute to the low-grade inflammation and the increased atherogenic risk observed in these patients.

  1. Living with Cat and Dog Increases Vaginal Colonization with E. coli in Pregnant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Schjørring, Susanne; Pedersen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Furred pets in the household are known reservoirs for pathogenic bacteria, but it is not known if transmission of bacteria between pet and owner leads to significantly increased rate of infections. We studied whether cats and dogs living in the household of pregnant women affect the commensal vag...

  2. Moderate alcohol consumption increases insulin sensitivity and ADIPOQ expression in postmenopausal women: A randomised, crossover trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.; Beulens, J.W.J.; Kersten, S.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: To determine whether 6 weeks of daily, moderate alcohol consumption increases expression of the gene encoding adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and plasma levels of the protein, and improves insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal women. Methods: In a randomised, open-label, crossover trial

  3. Increases in alcohol consumption in women and elderly groups: evidence from an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geels, L.M.; Vink, J.M.; van Beek, J.H.D.A.; Bartels, M.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In most Western countries, alcohol consumption continues to increase, specifically among women and older adults. Insight into these trends may aid intervention strategies. Here we present data on alcohol consumption by age and sex as well as associations between alcohol use and

  4. Increases in alcohol consumption in women and elderly groups: Evidence from an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geels, L.M.; Vink, J.M.; Beek, J.H.D.H. van; Bartels, M.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In most Western countries, alcohol consumption continues to increase, specifically among women and older adults. Insight into these trends may aid intervention strategies. Here we present data on alcohol consumption by age and sex as well as associations between alcohol use and

  5. HIV risk, partner violence, and relationship power among Filipino young women: testing a structural model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucea, Marguerite B; Hindin, Michelle J; Kub, Joan; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2012-01-01

    A person's ability to minimize HIV risk is embedded in a complex, multidimensional context. In this study, we tested a model of how relationship power impacts IPV victimization, which in turn impacts HIV risk behaviors. We analyzed data from 474 young adult women (aged 15-31) in Cebu Province, Philippines, using structural equation modeling, and demonstrated good fit for the models. High relationship power is directly associated with increased IPV victimization, and IPV victimization is positively associated with increased HIV risk. We highlight in this article the complex dynamics to consider in HIV risk prevention among these young women.

  6. INCREASED INTIMA-MEDIA THICKNESS OF CAROTID ARTERIES AND CARDIOVASKULAR RISK FACTORS IN WOMEN WITH PREVIOUS GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Janša

    2009-08-01

    conclusions The significantly increased intima-media thickness of carotid arteries in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus vs. women with normal glucose tolerance, demonstrates that women with previous GDM already have early signs of atherosclerosis. The results demonstate the increased risk of cardiovascular disease as well. They also suggest that these women are at high risk not only for type 2 diabetes but also for cardiovascular disease and need appropriate preventive management.

  7. Barriers to and Methods of Help Seeking for Domestic Violence Victimization: A Comparison of Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Women Residing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Ana J; Karlsson, Marie E; Jackson, Jennifer C; Andrews, Arthur R; Villalobos, Bianca T

    2018-02-01

    This study examined strategies Hispanic and non-Hispanic White victims of domestic violence use to manage violence and leave their relationships. Participants ( N = 76, 41% Hispanic) completed self-report questionnaires and a semistructured interview with a language-congruent research assistant. Hispanics reported child care needs and fears of social embarrassment as barriers to leaving, while non-Hispanic Whites reported fewer social supports as a barrier. Hispanics were more likely to use legal resources for help, while non-Hispanic Whites used more informal resources. Recognizing unique barriers to leaving abusive relationships and accessing help can guide service providers and others to target vulnerable populations more effectively.

  8. INCREASED LIFE EXPECTANCY OF WORKING WOMEN THROUGH PARTICIPATION IN REGULAR PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES/ YOGIC EXERCISE

    OpenAIRE

    Jahanavee Ichchhaporia

    2017-01-01

    In today’s fast and globalized life style Women hold a key position in the shaping of the next generation, plays such an important part in the life of the family. Their value is beyond measure. The changing life style demands more financial steadiness, that’s why the percentage of women in the active work population has increased rapidly in many countries around the world, including ours. As a consequence, we have seen the proliferation of dual-income families where role expectations toward m...

  9. Increasing physical activity in postpartum multiethnic women in Hawaii: results from a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddock Jason E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mothers of an infant are much less likely to exercise regularly compared to other women. This study tested the efficacy of a brief tailored intervention to increase physical activity (PA in women 3–12 months after childbirth. The study used a pretest-posttest design. Sedentary women (n = 20 were recruited from a parenting organization. Half the participants were ethnic minorities, mean age was 33 ± 3.8, infants' mean age was 6.9 ± 2.4 months, 50% were primiparas, and mean body mass index was 23.6 ± 4.2. Methods The two-month intervention included telephone counseling, pedometers, referral to community PA resources, social support, email advice on PA/pedometer goals, and newsletters. The primary outcome of the study was minutes per week of moderate and vigorous leisure-time physical activity measured by the Godin physical activity instrument. Results All women (100% returned for post-test measures; thus, paired t-tests were used for pre-post increase in minutes of moderate and vigorous leisure-time physical activity and comparisons of moderate and vigorous leisure-time physical activity increases among ethnic groups. At baseline participants' reported a mean of 3 ± 13.4 minutes per week moderate and vigorous leisure-time physical activity. At post-test this significantly increased to 85.5 ± 76.4 minutes per week of moderate and vigorous leisure-time physical activity (p Conclusion A telephone/email intervention tailored to meet the needs of postpartum women was effective in increasing physical activity levels. However, randomized trials comparing tailored telephone and email interventions to standard care and including long-term follow-up to determine maintenance of physical activity are warranted.

  10. Myths and Mirrors: A Qualitative Analysis of Images of Violence against Women in Mainstream Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Juliet

    In light of increasing concern over media portrayals of women as willing victims of violence, a study examined images of violence against women in advertising, with the goal of determining to what extent advertisers were aware of the implied violence against women in the ads they sponsor, and, if advertisers were aware of the underlying…

  11. Thai traditional massage increases biochemical markers of bone formation in postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetung, Sunee; Chailurkit, La-Or; Ongphiphadhanakul, Boonsong

    2013-03-25

    The effect of massage therapy on bone metabolism in adults has only scarcely been explored. In a randomized crossover trial, we investigated the skeletal effect of Thai traditional massage by examining the changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover. Forty-eight postmenopausal women participated in the study. All volunteers were randomized to a 2-hour session of Thai traditional massage twice a week for 4 weeks and a 4-week control period after a 2-week washout, or vice versa. Twenty-one subjects were allocated to receiving Thai traditional massage first, followed by the control period, while 27 were initially allocated to the control period. Serum P1NP increased significantly after Thai traditional massage (P women whose ages were in the middle and higher tertiles and whose heights were in the lower and middle tertiles (n = 22) had a 14.8 ± 3.3% increase in P1NP after massage (P women (n = 26). Thai traditional massage results in an increase in bone formation as assessed by serum P1NP, particularly in postmenopausal women who are older and have a smaller body build. Future studies with larger samples and additional design features are warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT01627028.

  12. Increasing participation in cancer research: insights from Native Hawaiian women in medically underserved communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue; Mitschke, Diane; Lono, Joelene

    2004-09-01

    The cancer burden falls heavily on Native Hawaiian women, and of particular concern are those living in medically underserved communities where participation in potentially helpful clinical studies may be limited. Difficulty in accrual of Native Hawaiian women to a culturally-grounded intervention led researchers to conduct focus groups aimed at exploring attitudes towards research, use of a traditional Hawaiian practice for family discussion, and study promotion. Social marketing theory guided the development of discussion questions and a survey. Through purposive sampling, 30 women from medically underserved communities were recruited. Content analysis was used to identify major discussion themes. Findings indicate that lack of informational access may be a major barrier to participation. Study information disseminated through community channels with targeted outreach to social and religious organizations, promotion through face-to-face contact with researchers, and culturally tailored messages directed to families were preferred. Community oriented strategies based on linkages with organizational networks may increase participation.

  13. Women referred for occupational risk assessment in pregnancy have no increased risk of adverse obstetric outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Signe Brøker; Kaerlev, Linda; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to study the association between pregnant women's referral status for occupational risk assessment, and their risk of preterm delivery (METHODS: In a cohort study, 1,202 deliveries among.......72-1.17). CONCLUSION: The women who are referred for occupational risk assessment at two large occupational university departments are not at an increased risk of preterm birth or of delivering low birth weight children. This may reflect that reproductive hazards in Danish workplaces are limited and....../or that the occupational risk assessment and counselling of pregnant women are preventing these selected adverse pregnancy outcomes. FUNDING: The Research Unit at Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine at Bispebjerg Hospital supported the study financially. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant. The study...

  14. From Survivor to Thriver: A Pilot Study of an Online Program for Rape Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather; Buck, Katherine; Rosman, Lindsey; Grills-Taquechel, Amie

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 15% to 20% of women have been victims of rape and close to a third report current rape-related PTSD or clinically significant depression or anxiety. Unfortunately, very few distressed rape victims seek formal help. This suggests a need to develop alternative ways to assist the many distressed victims of sexual violence. Online…

  15. Marshak Lectureship: Women in Physics: Increasing in Number, and What Else?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Montes, Lilia

    2013-03-01

    Latin America is a region with high contrasts. With abundant natural resources and home of several celebrities among the wealthiest in the world, the zone has elevated indexes of poverty. In spite of this, and mostly thanks to the continuing intense efforts of the scientific community, it has been possible to create many excellence research centers. In contrast, illiteracy and lack of access to information and communication technologies are widely spread across our countries. Attitudes toward women have even coined a term, machismo. The situation of female physicists in this scenario is analyzed. We present a statistical overview of the participation of women as students or researchers in physics and related areas, for countries where data are available. Initiatives and ongoing programs to support and promote participation of women in science are discussed. Beyond statistics, some comments are given, as expressed by colleagues about work environment and gender issues in general, which have been collected through several years of exchanging concerns on the topic. Mexico and Brazil are discussed in more detail. Finally, we propose some joint actions to increase and improve the participation of women in our scientific field, which will give rise to better conditions for us but will also contribute to building a more equitable and developed region. Member of IUPAP Working Group on Women in Physics.

  16. Increasing Pap Smear Utilization Among Samoan Women: Results from a Community Based Participatory Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shiraz I.; Luce, Pat H.; Baquet, Claudia R.

    2013-01-01

    Background We tested the effectiveness of a theory-guided, culturally tailored cervical cancer education program designed to increase Pap smear use among Samoan women residing in the U.S. Territory of American Samoa. Methods We used a two-group, pretest-posttest design. The sample comprised 398 Samoan women age 20 and older who we recruited from Samoan churches. Women in the intervention group received a culturally tailored cervical cancer education program in three weekly sessions. The primary outcome was self-reported receipt of a Pap smear. Results Overall, there was a significant intervention effect, with intervention compared with control group women twice (adjusted odds ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval = 1.3–3.2, pPap smear use at the posttest. Conclusions The findings support the efficacy of the multifaceted, theory-guided, culturally tailored community-based participatory cervical cancer education program for Samoan women in effecting positive changes in Pap smear use and cervical cancer related knowledge and attitudes. PMID:19711495

  17. Interventions to increase the uptake of seasonal influenza vaccination among pregnant women: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Valerie W Y; Lok, Kris Y W; Tarrant, Marie

    2016-01-02

    Pregnant women and their infants under 6 months of age infected with influenza have a high risk of serious morbidity and mortality. Influenza vaccine during pregnancy offers 3-for-1 benefits to pregnant women, fetuses and newborn infants. Current vaccination uptake rates during pregnancy, however, are often lower than other high-risk groups and the general population. We systematically reviewed evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to improve influenza vaccination coverage in pregnant women. Risk differences (RDs) were calculated from the included studies. Eleven studies were included in the review, of which four were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Three cohort studies assessed provider-focused interventions while four RCTs and one cohort study evaluated pregnant women-focused interventions. Two cohort studies and a prospective intervention study assessed the effectiveness of bundled interventions. No study solely assessed the effectiveness of interventions to enhance access to influenza vaccination. One moderate quality RCT showed that an influenza pamphlet, with or without a verbalized benefit statement, improved the vaccination rate (RD=0.26; RD=0.39). The other reviewed RCTs showed discordant results, with RDs ranging from -0.15 to 0.03. Although all observational studies significantly improved vaccination rates (RDs ranged from 0.03 to 0.44), the quality of the evidence varied. There is a lack of effective interventions to increase the influenza vaccination rate in pregnant women. Based on the existing research, we recommend that clinicians provide influenza pamphlets to pregnant women with a verbalized statement about the benefits of influenza vaccine to newborns. Further high-quality RCTs are needed to develop successful maternal influenza vaccination programs. Increased clarity in reporting the content of interventions would help to improve the comparability and generalizability of the published studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  18. Increased fracture rate in women with breast cancer: a review of the hidden risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Body Jean-Jacques

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women with breast cancer, particularly individuals diagnosed at a relatively early age, have an increased incidence of fractures. Fractures can have serious clinical consequences including the need for major surgery, increased morbidity and mortality, increased cost of disease management, and reduced quality of life for patients. The primary cause of the increased fracture risk appears to be an accelerated decrease in bone mineral density (BMD resulting from the loss of estrogenic signaling that occurs with most treatments for breast cancer, including aromatase inhibitors. However, factors other than BMD levels alone may influence treatment decisions to reduce fracture risk in this setting. Our purpose is to review current evidence for BMD loss and fracture risk during treatment for breast cancer and discuss pharmacologic means to reduce this risk. Results Fracture risk during treatment for breast cancer may be influenced by the rate of BMD loss and the consequent rapid alterations in bone microarchitecture, in addition to the established fracture risk factors in postmenopausal osteoporosis. The rapid decrease in BMD during adjuvant chemoendocrine therapy for breast cancer may necessitate more aggressive pharmacotherapy than is indicated for healthy postmenopausal women who develop osteoporosis. Over the last few years, clinical trials have established the effectiveness of bisphosphonates and other antiresorptive agents to preserve BMD during adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer. In addition, some bisphosphonates (eg, zoledronic acid may also delay disease recurrence in women with hormone-responsive tumors, thereby providing an adjuvant benefit in addition to preserving BMD and potentially preventing fractures. Conclusions It is likely that a combined fracture risk assessment (eg, as in the WHO FRAX algorithm will more accurately identify both women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and women with breast cancer who require

  19. Increasing occurrence of multiple sclerosis in women correlates to hygiene level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Cendrowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increasing incidence of multiple sclerosis, particularly among women in Europe and North America, has a multifactorial aetiology. Method: The aim of the current study was to ascertain the relation between the hygiene level and occurrence of multiple sclerosis in women in Poland. The study was based on a large cohort of 14,200 multiple sclerosis individuals (male – 6,106, female – 8,094 who died in the years 1981–2010 in Poland. The female to male ratio (the F:M ratio in the multiple sclerosis group was calculated using the number of deaths per year. The rate of late mortality in infants (LMI per 1,000 live births yearly was used as a marker of the hygiene level. A correlation analysis was carried out between the rate of LMI and the F:M ratio in the multiple sclerosis cohort in the years 1981–2010. Demographic data were obtained from the Central Statistical Office in Warsaw. Results: The F:M ratio in the multiple sclerosis group evidently increased (range 1.08–1.79 in the years 1981–2010, showing increasing occurrence of multiple sclerosis in women (p < 0.0001. A significant, strong and inverse correlation was found between the marker of the hygiene level (LMI rate and the F:M ratio in the multiple sclerosis group over three decades: linear correlation coefficient by Pearson: r = –0.693, p < 0.0001. By contrast with this result, no correlation was established between the hygiene level marker and proportion of women to men in the general population on account of extremely low variance of the F:M ratio (0.000025. Conclusion: The improvement of the hygiene level showed association with the increasing occurrence of multiple sclerosis in women in the years 1981–2010. The higher the hygiene level was, the greater the occurrence of female multiple sclerosis in Poland.

  20. Does gender inequity increase the risk of intimate partner violence among women? Evidence from a national Bangladeshi sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosiur Rahman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence from developing countries regarding the association between gender inequity and intimate partner violence (IPV victimization in women has been suggestive but inconclusive. Using nationally representative population-based data from Bangladesh, we examined the association between multidimensional aspects of gender inequity and the risk of IPV. METHODS: We used data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. The analyses were based on the responses of 4,467 married women. The main explanatory variable was gender inequity, which reflects the multidimensional aspects of women's autonomy and the relationship inequality between women and their partner. The experience of physical and/or sexual IPV was the main outcome variable of interest. RESULTS: Over 53% of married Bangladeshi women experienced physical and/or sexual violence from their husbands. In the adjusted models, women who had a higher level of autonomy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.48; 99% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.61, a particularly high level of economic-decision-making autonomy (AOR 0.12; 99% CI 0.08-0.17, and a higher level of non-supportive attitudes towards wife beating or raping (AOR 0.61; 99% CI 0.47-0.83 were less likely to report having experienced IPV. Education level, age at marriage, and occupational discrepancy between spouses were also found to be significant predictors of IPV. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, dimensions of gender inequities were significant predictors of IPV among married women in Bangladesh. An investigation of the causal link between multidimensional aspects of gender inequity and IPV will be critical to developing interventions to reduce the risk of IPV and should be considered a public health research priority.

  1. Rape Myth Consistency and Gender Differences in Perceiving Rape Victims: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, Jericho M; Smith, Sara J; Klausing, Cathleen D; Saucier, Donald A

    2016-02-01

    An overview discusses feminist analyses of oppression, attitudes toward rape victims, and previously studied predictors of individuals' attitudes toward rape victims. To better understand such attitudes, this meta-analysis examines the moderating influences of various rape victim, perpetrator, and crime characteristics' rape myth consistency on gender differences in individuals' perceptions of rape victims (i.e., victim responsibility and blame attributions and rape minimizing attitudes). Consistent with feminist theoretical predictions, results indicated that, overall, men perceived rape victims more negatively than women did. However, this sex difference was moderated by the rape myth consistency within the rape vignettes. Implications for research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Increasing women's aspirations and achievement in science: The effect of role models on implicit cognitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Julie E.

    This research investigated the role of implicit science beliefs in the gender gap in science aspirations and achievement, with the goal of testing identification with a female role model as a potential intervention strategy for increasing women's representation in science careers. At Time 1, women's implicit science stereotyping (i.e., associating men more than women with science) was linked to more negative (implicit and explicit) attitudes towards science and less identification with science. For men, stereotypes were either non-significantly or positively related to science attitudes and identification. Time 2 examined the influence of implicit and explicit science cognitions on students' science aspirations and achievement, and found that implicit stereotyping, attitudes, and identification were all unique predictors of science aspirations, but not achievement. Of more importance, Time 2 examined the influence of science role models, and found that identification with a role model of either gender reduced women's implicit science stereotyping and increased their positive attitudes toward science. Implications for decreasing the gender gap in advanced science achievement are discussed.

  3. Factors Predicting Adherence to Risk Management Behaviors of Women at Increased Risk for Developing Lymphedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Kerry A.; Miller, Suzanne M.; Roussi, Pagona; Taylor, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Lymphedema affects 20-30% of women following breast cancer treatment. However, even when women are informed, they do not necessarily adhere to recommended lymphedema self-management regimens. Utilizing the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing framework, we assessed cognitive and emotional factors influencing adherence to lymphedema risk management. Methods Women with breast cancer who had undergone breast and lymph node surgery were recruited through the Fox Chase Cancer Centre breast clinic. Participants (N=103) completed measures of lymphedema-related perceived risk, beliefs and expectancies, distress, self-regulatory ability to manage distress, knowledge, and adherence to risk management behaviors. They then received the American Cancer Society publication “Lymphedema: What Every Woman with Breast Cancer Should Know”. Cognitive and affective variables were reassessed at 6- and 12-months post-baseline. Results Maximum likelihood multilevel model analyses indicated that overall adherence increased over time, with significant differences between baseline and 6- and 12- month assessments. Adherence to wearing gloves was significantly lower than that for all other behaviors except electric razor use. Distress significantly decreased, and knowledge significantly increased, over time. Greater knowledge, higher self-efficacy to enact behaviors, lower distress, and higher self-regulatory ability to manage distress were associated with increased adherence. Conclusions Women who understand lymphedema risk management and feel confident in managing this risk are more likely to adhere to recommended strategies. These factors should be rigorously assessed as part of routine care to ensure that women have the self-efficacy to seek treatment and the self-regulatory skills to manage distress, which may undermine attempts to seek medical assistance. PMID:24970542

  4. INCREASED RATES OF SMOKING CESSATION OBSERVED AMONG TRANSGENDER WOMEN RECEIVING HORMONE TREATMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steven C; Safer, Joshua D

    2017-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control, while 68% of adult smokers nationally desire to quit, only 6.2% successfully quit in a given year. Transgender women seen for hormone therapy at Boston Medical Center (BMC) are strongly advised to quit smoking before the start of treatment, not only due to general health benefits, but also because of the concern for increased thromboembolic events with estrogen therapy. Transgender men are given the same recommendation regarding tobacco as any patient. We retrospectively examined 156 patients' charts, 120 transgender women and 36 transgender men, from the Transgender Center at BMC. Thirty-five charts were excluded, as they did not contain smoking data (29 transgender women and 6 transgender men). Twenty-eight transgender women (31%) were current smokers when they began treatment. Of those, 64% quit smoking over the course of initiating treatment. Of the 30 transgender men included in this study, 8 (27%) were current smokers when they began treatment. Of those, 25% quit smoking over the course of initiating treatment. Although others report that discussing tobacco use with a healthcare provider can increase rates of smoking cessation as seen with transgender men at our center, the substantially increased rate of smoking cessation among our transgender women suggests that greater impact can be achieved when a life-changing event is leveraged. Further, while some physicians raise concern over morbidity from hormone therapy, in our experience, good health habits initiated with care in our system more than outweigh the modest risks currently described. Abbreviation: BMC = Boston Medical Center.

  5. Sympathetic arousal increases a negative memory bias in young women with low sex hormone levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Shawn E.; Barber, Sarah J.; Chai, Audrey; Clewett, David V.; Mather, Mara

    2015-01-01

    Emotionally arousing events are typically better attended to and remembered than neutral ones. Current theories propose that arousal-induced increases in norepinephrine during encoding bias attention and memory in favor of affectively salient stimuli. Here, we tested this hypothesis by manipulating levels of physiological arousal prior to encoding and examining how it influenced memory for emotionally salient images, particularly those that are negative rather than positive in valence. We also tested whether sex steroid hormones interact with noradrenergic activity to influence these emotional memory biases in women. Healthy naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraception completed one of the following physiological arousal manipulations prior to viewing a series of negative, positive and neutral images: 1) Immediate handgrip arousal – isometric handgrip immediately prior to encoding, 2) Residual handgrip arousal – isometric handgrip 15 min prior to encoding, or 3) No handgrip. Sympathetic arousal was measured throughout the session via pupil diameter changes. Levels of 17β-estradiol and progesterone were measured via salivary samples. Memory performance was assessed approximately 10 minutes after encoding using a surprise free recall test. The results indicated that handgrip successfully increased sympathetic arousal compared to the control task. Under immediate handgrip arousal, women showed enhanced memory for negative images over positive images; this pattern was not observed in women assigned to the residual and no-handgrip arousal conditions. Additionally, under immediate handgrip arousal, both high estradiol and progesterone levels attenuated the memory bias for negative over positive images. Follow-up hierarchical linear models revealed consistent effects when accounting for trial-by-trial variability in normative International Affective Picture System valence and arousal ratings. These findings suggest that heightened sympathetic arousal

  6. Sympathetic arousal increases a negative memory bias in young women with low sex hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Barber, Sarah J; Chai, Audrey; Clewett, David V; Mather, Mara

    2015-12-01

    Emotionally arousing events are typically better attended to and remembered than neutral ones. Current theories propose that arousal-induced increases in norepinephrine during encoding bias attention and memory in favor of affectively salient stimuli. Here, we tested this hypothesis by manipulating levels of physiological arousal prior to encoding and examining how it influenced memory for emotionally salient images, particularly those that are negative rather than positive in valence. We also tested whether sex steroid hormones interact with noradrenergic activity to influence these emotional memory biases in women. Healthy naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraception completed one of the following physiological arousal manipulations prior to viewing a series of negative, positive and neutral images: (1) immediate handgrip arousal-isometric handgrip immediately prior to encoding, (2) residual handgrip arousal-isometric handgrip 15min prior to encoding, or (3) no handgrip. Sympathetic arousal was measured throughout the session via pupil diameter changes. Levels of 17β-estradiol and progesterone were measured via salivary samples. Memory performance was assessed approximately 10min after encoding using a surprise free recall test. The results indicated that handgrip successfully increased sympathetic arousal compared to the control task. Under immediate handgrip arousal, women showed enhanced memory for negative images over positive images; this pattern was not observed in women assigned to the residual and no-handgrip arousal conditions. Additionally, under immediate handgrip arousal, both high estradiol and progesterone levels attenuated the memory bias for negative over positive images. Follow-up hierarchical linear models revealed consistent effects when accounting for trial-by-trial variability in normative International Affective Picture System valence and arousal ratings. These findings suggest that heightened sympathetic arousal interacts

  7. Factors predicting adherence to risk management behaviors of women at increased risk for developing lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Kerry A; Miller, Suzanne M; Roussi, Pagona; Taylor, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Lymphedema affects 20-30% of women following breast cancer treatment. However, even when women are informed, they do not necessarily adhere to recommended lymphedema self-management regimens. Utilizing the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing framework, we assessed the cognitive and emotional factors influencing adherence to lymphedema risk management. Women with breast cancer who had undergone breast and lymph node surgery were recruited through the Fox Chase Cancer Center breast clinic. Participants (N = 103) completed measures of lymphedema-related perceived risk, beliefs and expectancies, distress, self-regulatory ability to manage distress, knowledge, and adherence to risk management behaviors. They then received the American Cancer Society publication "Lymphedema: What Every Woman with Breast Cancer Should Know." Cognitive and affective variables were reassessed at 6 and 12 months post-baseline. Maximum likelihood multilevel model analyses indicated that overall adherence increased over time, with significant differences between baseline and 6- and 12-month assessments. Adherence to wearing gloves was significantly lower than that for all other behaviors except electric razor use. Distress significantly decreased, and knowledge significantly increased, over time. Greater knowledge, higher self-efficacy to enact behaviors, lower distress, and higher self-regulatory ability to manage distress were associated with increased adherence. Women who understand lymphedema risk management and feel confident in managing this risk are more likely to adhere to recommended strategies. These factors should be rigorously assessed as part of routine care to ensure that women have the self-efficacy to seek treatment and the self-regulatory skills to manage distress, which may undermine attempts to seek medical assistance.

  8. Sudden death victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceelen, Manon; van der Werf, Christian; Hendrix, Anneke; Naujocks, Tatjana; Woonink, Frits; de Vries, Philip; van der Wal, Allard; Das, Kees

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to ascertain accordance between cause of death established by the forensic physician and autopsy results in young sudden death victims in the Netherlands. Sudden death victims aged 1-45 years examined by forensic physicians operating in the participating regions which also

  9. Victimization of Obese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…

  10. Increased Angiotensin II Sensitivity Contributes to Microvascular Dysfunction in Women Who Have Had Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhewicz, Anna E; Jandu, Sandeep; Santhanam, Lakshmi; Alexander, Lacy M

    2017-08-01

    Women who have had preeclampsia have increased cardiovascular disease risk; however, the mechanism(s) responsible for this association remain unclear. Microvascular damage sustained during a preeclamptic pregnancy may persist postpartum. The putative mechanisms mediating this dysfunction include a reduction in NO-dependent dilation and an increased sensitivity to angiotensin II. In this study, we evaluated endothelium-dependent dilation, angiotensin II sensitivity, and the therapeutic effect of angiotensin II receptor blockade (losartan) on endothelium-dependent dilation in vivo in the microvasculature of women with a history of preeclampsia (n=12) and control women who had a healthy pregnancy (n=12). We hypothesized that preeclampsia would have (1) reduced endothelium-dependent dilation, (2) reduced NO-mediated dilation, and (3) increased sensitivity to angiotensin II. We further hypothesized that localized losartan would increase endothelium-dependent vasodilation in preeclampsia. We assessed microvascular endothelium-dependent vasodilator function by measurement of cutaneous vascular conductance responses to graded infusion of acetylcholine (acetylcholine; 10 -7 -102 mmol/L) and a standardized local heating protocol in control sites and sites treated with 15 mmol/L L-NAME ( N G -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester; NO-synthase inhibitor) or 43 µmol/L losartan. Further, we assessed microvascular vasoconstrictor sensitivity to angiotensin II (10 -20 -10 -4 mol/L). Preeclampsia had significantly reduced endothelium-dependent dilation (-0.3±0.5 versus -1.0±0.4 log EC50 ; P Preeclampsia also had augmented vasoconstrictor sensitivity to angiotensin II (-10.2±1.3 versus -8.3±0.5; P =0.006). Angiotensin II type I receptor inhibition augmented endothelium-dependent vasodilation and NO-dependent dilation in preeclampsia but had no effect in healthy pregnancy. These data suggest that women who have had preeclampsia have persistent microvascular dysfunction postpartum

  11. Increased stress among women following an economic collapse--a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauksdóttir, Arna; McClure, Christopher; Jonsson, Stefan Hrafn; Olafsson, Orn; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur A

    2013-05-01

    There is a scarcity of data on mental health effects of the global economic recession. In this study, we investigated potential change in self-reported levels of psychological stress in the Icelandic population as a result of the major national economic collapse that occurred in 2008. We used a national cohort of 3,755 persons who responded to a survey administered in 2007 and 2009, including demographic questions and a stress measure (the 4-item Perceived Stress Scale). We used repeated-measures analysis of variance and logistic regression models to assess change in mean stress levels and risk of high stress levels (>90th percentile) in 2009 as compared with 2007. Age-adjusted mean stress levels increased between 2007 and 2009 (P = 0.004), though the increase was observed only for women (P = 0.003), not for men (P = 0.34). Similarly, the odds ratios for experiencing high stress levels were increased only among women (odds ratio (OR) = 1.37), especially among women who were unemployed (OR = 3.38), students (OR = 2.01), had middle levels of education (OR = 1.65), or were in the middle income bracket (OR = 1.59). The findings indicate that psychological stress may have increased following the economic collapse in Iceland, particularly among females in economically vulnerable groups.

  12. Increased participation in weekend physical activity reduces postprandial lipemia in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, M; Takahashi, M; Burns, S

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the acute effect of increased participation in weekend physical activity on postprandial lipemia in postmenopausal women. Ten postmenopausal women, aged 63±4 years (mean±SD), completed 2 trials in a random order: 1) control trial and 2) active trial. In the control trial, participants maintained their usual weekend lifestyle. In the active trial, participants increased their weekend activities above their usual lifestyle levels, freely deciding the duration and intensity of their chosen activities. On Monday of each trial, participants rested and consumed a standardised breakfast and lunch. Capillary blood samples were collected in the fasted state (0 h) and at 2, 4 and 6 h after eating. In the active trial, participants increased their moderate to vigorous weekend physical activity by 16 min (mean±SD: 12.3±6.7 min vs. 27.9±11.9 min, P=0.009). Area under the capillary triacylglycerol concentration vs. time curve was 13% lower in the active trial than control trial (8.8±3.8 vs. 10.1±3.9 mmol/L∙6 h, P=0.024). These findings demonstrate that small increases in moderate to vigorous physical activity under a real-life setting lowers postprandial lipemia in postmenopausal women. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Evaluating the correlation between film mammography and MRI for screening women with increased breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Janie M; Halpern, Elkan F; Rafferty, Elizabeth A; Gazelle, G Scott

    2009-11-01

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly being added to mammography for screening asymptomatic women at increased risk of breast cancer. Because the direction and extent of correlation between mammography and MRI could potentially result in over- or underestimation of the diagnostic gain related to using MRI as an adjunct to mammographic screening, we performed an analysis to evaluate the extent of correlation between mammography and MRI. We reviewed the published literature to identify multimodality breast cancer screening studies reporting the sensitivity of mammography and MRI, alone and in combination, for breast cancer diagnosis. After calculating the expected sensitivity of combined mammography and MRI under conditions of test independence (no correlation), we compared the calculated and observed sensitivities for combined mammography and MRI. We then calculated correlation coefficients for mammography and MRI. Seven studies of multimodality screening in women at increased risk of developing breast cancer were included for analysis. Of these studies, the correlation between film mammography and MRI was positive in three studies, negative in two studies, and not identified in two studies. The calculated correlation coefficients ranged from -0.38 to 0.18. In six of seven studies, the 95% confidence interval for the correlation coefficient included 0.0, indicating no significant correlation. Evidence from published trials of multimodality breast cancer screening identified no statistically significant correlation between film mammography and MRI. Using both tests for breast cancer screening is likely to improve the early detection of breast cancer in women at increased risk.

  14. Supplementation of milled chia seeds increases plasma ALA and EPA in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Fuxia; Nieman, David C; Sha, Wei; Xie, Guoxiang; Qiu, Yunping; Jia, Wei

    2012-06-01

    Ten postmenopausal women (age 55.6 ± 0.8 years, BMI 24.6 ± 1.1 kg/m²) ingested 25 g/day milled chia seed during a 7-week period, with six plasma samples collected for measurement of α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Subjects operated as their own controls with overnight fasted blood samples taken at baseline (average of two samples), and then after 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 weeks supplementation. Plasma ALA increased significantly after one week supplementation and was 138 % above baseline levels by the end of the study (overall time effect, P chia seeds for seven weeks by postmenopausal women resulted in significant increases in plasma ALA and EPA but not DPA and DHA.

  15. Sexual and Reproductive Health Indicators and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization Among Female Family Planning Clinic Patients Who Have Sex with Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Heather L; Silverman, Jay G; Decker, Michele R; Agénor, Madina; Borrero, Sonya; Tancredi, Daniel J; Zelazny, Sarah; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Sexual minority women are more likely than heterosexual women to have ever experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Although IPV is associated with sexual risk and poor reproductive health outcomes among US women overall, little is known about whether IPV is related to sexual and reproductive health indicators among sexual minority women in particular. Baseline data from a prospective intervention trial were collected from women ages 16-29 years at 24 family planning clinics in western PA (n=3,455). Multivariable logistic regression for clustered survey data was used to compare women who have sex with men only (WSM) and women who have sex with women and men (WSWM) on (1) IPV prevalence and (2) sexual and reproductive health behaviors, outcomes, and services use, controlling for IPV. Finally, we tested the interaction of sexual minority status and IPV. WSWM were significantly more likely than WSM to report a lifetime history of IPV (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.00; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.30, 3.09). Controlling for IPV, WSWM reported higher levels of sexual risk behaviors (e.g., unprotected vaginal and anal sex), male-perpetrated reproductive coercion, unwanted pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infection (STI) and pregnancy testing but less contraceptive care seeking. The association between IPV and lifetime STI diagnosis was greater among WSWM than among WSM. IPV was pervasive and associated with sexual risk and reproductive health indicators among WSWM in this clinic-based setting. Healthcare providers' sexual risk assessment and provision of sexual and reproductive health services should be informed by an understanding of women's sexual histories, including sex of sexual partners and IPV history, in order to help ensure that all women receive the clinical care they need.

  16. Women with minor menstrual irregularities have increased risk of preeclampsia and low birthweight in spontaneous pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnesen, Barbara; Oddgeirsdóttir, Hanna L; Naver, Klara Vinsand

    2016-01-01

    examination-based gestational age. Outcome measures were gestational diabetes, hypertension, preeclampsia, preterm premature rupture of membranes, preterm birth, prolonged pregnancy, birthweight, umbilical artery pH ... with more than 7 days' deviation between self-reported and ultrasound examination-based gestational age were compared with women with a deviation of 7 days or less. RESULTS: Irregular menstrual cycle before conception increases the risk of preeclampsia (7.9% vs. 5.2%, p

  17. Effects of a Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase Repeat Mammography Screening in Iranian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taymoori, Parvaneh; Molina, Yamile; Roshani, Daem

    2015-01-01

    Although mammography use has increased in developed countries, regular screening in developing countries including Iran remains low. Multiple frameworks, including the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), have been used to understand screening practices among Iranians. The HBM includes intrapersonal constructs such as perceptions of breast cancer and mammography. The TPB includes interpersonal and environmental constructs, such as perceived control and subjective norms. The current study had 2 objectives: (1) to examine changes in the HBM and TPB constructs and repeat mammography screening in women receiving either intervention and women in the control group and (2) to compare changes in the HBM and TPB constructs and repeat mammography screening across the 2 interventions. One hundred eight-four women from 3 randomly selected health centers in Sanandaj, Iran, participated. Eligibility criteria were being 50 years or older, having received a mammogram in the past 2 to 3 years, and no intention to obtain a mammogram within the next year. The TPB and HBM participants exhibited greater changes in the HBM and TPB constructs and were more likely to have a mammogram relative to control participants. The TPB and HBM participants exhibited comparable changes in constructs and repeat mammography. Findings suggest both interventions equally improved mammography screening. Additional studies are furthermore warranted to address nonadherent Iranian women's needs in line with these conceptual models. Use of the HBM and TPB constructs in clinical practice may be helpful to promote continued screening among this population.

  18. Higher gravidity and parity are associated with increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome among rural Bangladeshi women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamima Akter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parity increases the risk for coronary heart disease; however, its association with metabolic syndrome among women in low-income countries is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the association between parity or gravidity and metabolic syndrome in rural Bangladeshi women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,219 women aged 15-75 years from rural Bangladesh. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the standard NCEP-ATP III criteria. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between parity and gravidity and metabolic syndrome, with adjustment of potential confounding variables. RESULTS: Subjects with the highest gravidity (> = 4 had 1.66 times higher odds of having metabolic syndrome compared to those in the lowest gravidity (0-1 (P trend = 0.02. A similar association was found between parity and metabolic syndrome (P(trend = 0.04, i.e., subjects in the highest parity (> = 4 had 1.65 times higher odds of having metabolic syndrome compared to those in the lowest parity (0-1. This positive association of parity and gravidity with metabolic syndrome was confined to pre-menopausal women (P(trend <0.01. Among the components of metabolic syndrome only high blood pressure showed positive association with parity and gravidity (P(trend = 0.01 and <0.001. Neither Parity nor gravidity was appreciably associated with other components of metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Multi parity or gravidity may be a risk factor for metabolic syndrome.

  19. Dietary fiber intake increases the risk of zinc deficiency in healthy and diabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Meika; Karra, Michelle; Picone, Tegan; Chu, Anna; Hancock, Dale P; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2012-11-01

    Phytic acid is a major determinant of zinc bioavailability. Little is known about phytic acid intakes or indices of zinc bioavailability in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), a condition that predisposes to zinc deficiency. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to measure and explore the relationships among phytic acid intake, zinc bioavailability, and molecular markers of zinc homeostasis in 20 women with DM compared to 20 healthy women. The phytate/zinc, (calcium)(phytate)/zinc, and (calcium + magnesium)(phytate)/zinc molar ratios were used to indicate zinc bioavailability. Plasma zinc concentrations and zinc transporter (ZnT1, ZnT8, and Zip1) gene expression in mononuclear cells were measured. Participants with DM consumed 1,194 ± 824 mg/day (mean ± SD) phytic acid, an amount similar to the intake of healthy women (1,316 ± 708 mg/day). Bread products and breakfast cereals contributed more than 40 % of the phytic acid intake in each group. A positive relationship was observed in all participants between phytic acid and dietary fiber (r = 0.6, P dietary fiber and the (calcium)(phytate)/zinc ratio (r = 0.5, P diabetic women consume phytic acid in amounts that are likely to decrease the bioavailability of dietary zinc. Recommendations to consume greater amounts of dietary fiber, much of which is associated with phytate, increase the risk of zinc deficiency.

  20. Características das mulheres violentadas sexualmente e da adesão ao seguimento ambulatorial: tendências observadas ao longo dos anos em um serviço de referência em Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil Characteristics of women victims of sexual violence and their compliance with outpatient follow-up: time trends at a referral center in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Tadayuki Oshikata

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A violência sexual é um crime praticado contra a integridade e a liberdade sexual de uma pessoa. Atinge mulheres de todos os níveis socioeconômicos, e o agressor não escolhe a cor e nem a idade da vítima para agredi-las. É causa de elevado custo financeiro ao país e grave problema de saúde pública. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a evolução da adesão de mulheres vítimas de violência sexual ao seguimento ambulatorial, as quais foram atendidas no Centro de Atenção Integral à Saúde da Mulher da Universidade Estadual de Campinas, entre janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2006. Observamos um aumento significativo no retorno às consultas agendadas. Em 2000, 41% das mulheres completavam o seguimento de seis meses, e, em 2006, o índice aumentou para 70%. Cerca de 70% das mulheres compareceram nas primeiras 24 horas após serem agredidas; a agressão por conhecidos triplicou ao longo dos anos. Houve mudanças na forma de intimidação e diminuição significativa na prescrição da anticoncepção de emergência.Sexual violence is a crime against individual integrity and sexual freedom. It affects women of all socioeconomic levels, and the perpetrator does not choose the victim's color or age. It is a source of high financial cost and a serious public health problem in Brazil. The current study aimed to assess compliance with outpatient follow-up by women victims of sexual violence treated at the Center for Women's Comprehensive Healthcare at the State University in Campinas, São Paulo State, from January 2000 to December 2006. We observed a significant increase in the return for scheduled appointments. In 2000, 41% of the women completed the six-month follow-up, and by 2006 the proportion had increased to 70%. Some 70% of the women appeared for treatment within 24 hours after being raped. Sexual assault by perpetrators known to the victims tripled during this same period. There were changes in the forms of intimidation and a

  1. Using pedometers to increase physical activity in overweight and obese women: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binns Colin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most public health guidelines recommend that adults participate in 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on most days of the week. Establishing new ways to achieve these targets in sedentary populations need to be explored. This research evaluated whether the daily use of pedometers could increase physical activity and improve health outcomes in sedentary overweight and obese women. Methods Twenty six overweight and obese middle-aged women were randomized into two groups: The control group was not able to record their steps daily, whilst the pedometer group, were asked to record the number of steps on a daily basis for 12 weeks. Results Our data showed that the pedometer group significantly increased their steps/day, by 36%, at the end of the 12 weeks, whereas the control group's physical activity levels remained unchanged. There was no significant difference in weight or body fat composition in the pedometer group compared to the control group. However, there was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure in the pedometer group (112.8 ± 2.44 mm Hg compared to the control group (117.3 ± 2.03 mm Hg (p = 0.003. Conclusion In conclusion, this pilot study shows that the combination of having step goals and immediate feedback from using a pedometer was effective in increasing physical activity levels in sedentary overweight and obese women. Trial registration ACTRN12609000176268

  2. Victimization, perception of insecurity, and changes in daily routines in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, María Elena; Martínez-Ferrer, Belén; Vera, Alejandro; Bahena, Alejandro; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2016-10-03

    To analyze the relationships between victimization, perception of insecurity, and changes in routines. The 8,170 subjects of both sexes (49.9% women and 50.1% men) aged between 12 and 60 years, selected from a proportional stratified sampling, participated in this study. The measuring instrument was an adaptation of the National Survey on Victimization and Perception of Public Security. Chi-square tests were performed. The results show significant differences on victimization and sex regarding perception of insecurity, restrictions on everyday activities, and protection measures. 13.1% of those interviewed claimed to have been victims of a crime in the past 12 months. 52.7% of women considered their municipality as unsafe or very unsafe. In the case of men, this percentage was 58.2%. Female victims reported significant restrictions in everyday activities when compared to non-victims. In relation to men, the percentage of victims with a high restriction of activities was higher in male victims than non-victims. In the group of victimized women, the segment of women who opted for increased measures of protection against crime was larger than expected, while those of non-victims who took less protective measures was lower than expected. These same results were observed in the group of men. The experience of victimization implies a greater perception of insecurity. However, the climate of insecurity is widespread in a large number of citizens. Gender differences in a high-crime environment show the importance of investigating in depth the roles of both genders in the perception of insecurity and changes in routines. Analizar las relaciones existentes entre victimización, percepción de inseguridad y cambios en las rutinas. Participaron en este estudio 8,170 sujetos de ambos sexos (49.9% mujeres y 50.1% hombres) de entre 12 y 60 años, seleccionados a partir de un muestro estratificado proporcional. El instrumento de medida fue una adaptación de la Encuesta Nacional

  3. 35 Years of Experience From the American Association for Women Radiologists: Increasing the Visibility of Women in Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalluto, Lucy B; Arleo, Elizabeth K; Macura, Katarzyna J; Rumack, Carol M

    2017-03-01

    Women radiologists remain in minority, unchanged for the past several decades. In 1981, the American Association for Women Radiologists (AAWR) was founded to address the problems that women radiologists were experiencing in being subordinate to male radiologists in the workplace and at the national level in organizations with respect to political power and financial compensation, as well as additional issues unique to women in radiology. The AAWR defined goals to meet the needs of women in radiology: improve the visibility of women radiologists, advance the professional and academic standing of women in radiology, and identify and address issues faced by women in radiology. AAWR efforts have included providing opportunities for career development and award recognition, hosting educational programs at national meetings, and publishing numerous manuscripts on issues faced by women in radiology. The AAWR recognizes that although there has been significant progress in the standing of women in radiology over the past 35 years, there is much room for improvement. The AAWR will continue to advocate for the needs of women in radiology. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Metformin increases pressure pain threshold in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiałka M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Marta Kiałka,1 Tomasz Milewicz,1 Krystyna Sztefko,2 Iwona Rogatko,2 Renata Majewska3 1Department of Gynecological Endocrinology, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Kraków, Poland; 2Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Kraków, Poland; 3Department of Epidemiology, Chair of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland Background: Despite the strong preclinical rationale, there are only very few data considering the utility of metformin as a potential pain therapeutic in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the association between metformin therapy and pressure pain threshold (PPT in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. We hypothesized that metformin therapy in lean PCOS women increases PPT. Materials and methods: Twenty-seven lean PCOS women with free androgen index phenotype >5 and 18 lean healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Fifteen of the PCOS women were randomly assigned to be treated with metformin 1,500 mg daily for 6 months. PPT and plasma β-endorphin levels were measured in all women at the beginning of the study and after 6 months of observation. Results: We observed an increase in PPT values measured on deltoid and trapezius muscle in the PCOS with metformin group after 6 months of metformin administration (4.81±0.88 kg/cm², P<0.001 on deltoid muscle, and 5.71±1.16 kg/cm² on trapezius muscle. We did not observe any significant changes in PPT values in the PCOS without treatment group and in controls. We did not observe any significant changes in serum β-endorphin levels in any studied groups during the 6-month observation. Conclusion: We conclude that metformin therapy increases PPT in lean PCOS women, without affecting plasma β-endorphin concentration. Our results may suggest the potential role of metformin in pain therapy. We propose that larger, randomized studies on metformin impact on pain

  5. The relationship between support for victims of domestic violence and social work in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Terada, Kimiyo

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, the term domestic violence (DV) refers generally to violence between men and women in intimate relationships, including spouses and lovers. DV-related consultations filed at spousal violence counseling and support centers have steadily increased in recent years. Support for victims of domestic violence in Japan is provided at women’s consulting offices, women’s protection facilities, maternal and child living support facilities, and shelters operated by NPOs. However, despite progre...

  6. Strength Training Decreases Inflammation and Increases Cognition and Physical Fitness in Older Women with Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupel, Matheus U; Direito, Fábio; Furtado, Guilherme E; Minuzzi, Luciéle G; Pedrosa, Filipa M; Colado, Juan C; Ferreira, José P; Filaire, Edith; Teixeira, Ana M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive impairment that affects older adults is commonly associated with an inflammatory imbalance, resulting in decreased physical fitness. Exercise has been pointed to mitigate immunosenescence and cognitive impairment associated with aging, while increase in physical fitness. However, few studies explored the relationship between changes in cytokine concentration and improvement on cognition due to elastic band strength training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of strength training on pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines, hematological markers and physical fitness of older women with cognitive impairment. Methods: Thirty-three women (82.7 ± 5.7 years old) participated in the study and were divided in two groups: strength exercise training group (ST; n = 16) and Control Group (CG; n = 17) and were evaluated before and after 28 weeks of the exercise program. The CG did not undergo any type of exercise programs. Data for IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), white blood counts (WBC), red blood counts (RBC), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and physical fitness tests were analyzed in both moments. Results: IL-10 increased in the ST group without changes in CG. TNF-α and CRP increased in the control group while no changes were observed for IFN-γ in both groups. Strength training decreased leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and increase hemoglobin, mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin concentration. The MMSE score increased in strength training group but remained unchanged in the control group. A correlation between the variation of granulocyte counts and the MMSE scores was also observed within the total sample. An improvement in physical fitness was observed with strength training. Conclusion: Resistance exercise promoted better anti-inflammatory balance and physical performance simultaneously with an increase in cognitive profile in older women with cognitive impairment.

  7. Strength Training Decreases Inflammation and Increases Cognition and Physical Fitness in Older Women with Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus U. Chupel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive impairment that affects older adults is commonly associated with an inflammatory imbalance, resulting in decreased physical fitness. Exercise has been pointed to mitigate immunosenescence and cognitive impairment associated with aging, while increase in physical fitness. However, few studies explored the relationship between changes in cytokine concentration and improvement on cognition due to elastic band strength training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of strength training on pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines, hematological markers and physical fitness of older women with cognitive impairment.Methods: Thirty-three women (82.7 ± 5.7 years old participated in the study and were divided in two groups: strength exercise training group (ST; n = 16 and Control Group (CG; n = 17 and were evaluated before and after 28 weeks of the exercise program. The CG did not undergo any type of exercise programs. Data for IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, C-Reactive Protein (CRP, white blood counts (WBC, red blood counts (RBC, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and physical fitness tests were analyzed in both moments.Results: IL-10 increased in the ST group without changes in CG. TNF-α and CRP increased in the control group while no changes were observed for IFN-γ in both groups. Strength training decreased leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and increase hemoglobin, mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin concentration. The MMSE score increased in strength training group but remained unchanged in the control group. A correlation between the variation of granulocyte counts and the MMSE scores was also observed within the total sample. An improvement in physical fitness was observed with strength training.Conclusion: Resistance exercise promoted better anti-inflammatory balance and physical performance simultaneously with an increase in cognitive profile in older women with cognitive impairment.

  8. Is the victim blameless?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, E A

    1990-01-01

    The study concerned 50 cases occurring throughout Austria between 1950 and 1962 where murder was committed for the purpose of robbing the victim. Fifty-nine convicted killers and 61 victims were involved and 1950 was chosen as the starting point of the research in order to avoid undue influence from the extraordinary factors affecting criminality during and immediately following the Second World War. Cases were consecutive and unselected apart from a very small number excluded through unavailability of their files for legal reasons at the time when the data were collected. Unsuccessful murder attempts were not excluded since there is no difference between crimes actually carried out and those merely attempted as regards criminogenic factors, the pre-criminal situation, the choice of victim, the relationship and interaction between criminal and victim, and the recourse to homicide. However, the inquiry was confined to cases where guilt had been proven because of the aim to study not only the crime and the victim, but also the relationship of the criminal and victim. The latter is obviously not possible where the murderer remains unknown. Accordingly, since the material comprises a large number of cases over a fairly long period (more than a decade) from all over Austria, it is fair to claim that it provides an overview of the criminality of murder with intent to rob, and of the killers and the victims, for an entire country and over a significant epoch.

  9. The risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes is increased in preeclamptic women who smoke compared with nonpreeclamptic women who do not smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth C; Cao, Huiling; Wen, Shi Wu; Yang, Qiuying; Lafleche, Julie; Walker, Mark

    2010-10-01

    Maternal smoking and preeclampsia independently increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes; however, smoking decreases the risk of preeclampsia. We sought to estimate the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes among preeclamptic women who smoke and hypothesized that this risk would be increased, compared with nonpreeclamptic women who smoke or preeclamptic women who do not smoke. With the use of the Niday Perinatal Database and multiple logistic regressions, we estimated the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in nonpreeclamptic women who smoke, preeclamptic women who do not smoke, and preeclamptic women who smoke in relation to nonpreeclamptic women who do not smoke. The incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes was more than twice as high among preeclamptic women who smoke as among nonpreeclamptic women who do not smoke. The following data were observed: small-for-gestational-age infant (odds ratio [OR], 3.40; 95% CI, 2.27-4.89), preterm birth (OR, 5.77; 95% CI, 4.50-7.35), very preterm birth (OR, 5.44; 95% CI, 3.51-8.11), abruption (OR, 6.16; 95% CI, 3.05-11.01), Apgar stillbirth (OR, 3.39; 95% CI, 1.33-6.99). Smoking decreases the risk of preeclampsia, but smokers with preeclampsia have an increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Girls and Young Women Living in the Slums of Kampala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica H. Swahn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the prevalence and correlates of victimization among girls and young women in Kampala. The study population, a convenience sample of youth living in the slums, were 14 to 24 years of age, and participants in community-based drop-in centers (N = 313. Overall, the prevalence of physical fights (37%, being threatened or injured with a weapon (28%, and being raped (30% was high and increased with age. Multivariate analyses revealed that sadness, drunkenness, and hunger were associated with multiple forms of victimization. Findings suggest that additional services are needed to address the cumulative impact of victimizations, depression, and living conditions.

  11. Identification of traumatic stress reactions in women at increased risk for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nangel M; Wellisch, David K

    2004-01-01

    It has been shown that the diagnosis and treatment of cancer may constitute a traumatic event that generates in patients and some of their family members traumatic reactions that are consistent with the symptom profile of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study was conducted to establish the degree to which women at increased familial risk for breast cancer showed such traumatic reactions and to establish which demographic or psychological variables may contribute to the experience of such traumatic reactions in at-risk individuals. Seventy-three women from the Revlon UCLA Breast Center High Risk Clinic were assessed for traumatic reactions that might be consistent with the DSM-IV criteria for PTSD. The results showed that women at increased risk for breast cancer exhibited traumatic responses similar to those reported by cancer patients. When the authors used a self-report instrument that maps onto DSM-IV criteria, 4% of the study subjects reported symptoms consistent with criteria for a potential diagnosis of PTSD, and an additional 7% of the subjects reported symptoms consistent with potentially subclinical levels of PTSD, according to DSM-IV criteria.

  12. Female Scarcity Reduces Women's Marital Ages and Increases Variance in Men's Marital Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Kruger

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available When women are scarce in a population relative to men, they have greater bargaining power in romantic relationships and thus may be able to secure male commitment at earlier ages. Male motivation for long-term relationship commitment may also be higher, in conjunction with the motivation to secure a prospective partner before another male retains her. However, men may also need to acquire greater social status and resources to be considered marriageable. This could increase the variance in male marital age, as well as the average male marital age. We calculated the Operational Sex Ratio, and means, medians, and standard deviations in marital ages for women and men for the 50 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States with 2000 U.S Census data. As predicted, where women are scarce they marry earlier on average. However, there was no significant relationship with mean male marital ages. The variance in male marital age increased with higher female scarcity, contrasting with a non-significant inverse trend for female marital age variation. These findings advance the understanding of the relationship between the OSR and marital patterns. We believe that these results are best accounted for by sex specific attributes of reproductive value and associated mate selection criteria, demonstrating the power of an evolutionary framework for understanding human relationships and demographic patterns.

  13. Systemic inflammatory changes and increased oxidative stress in rural Indian women cooking with biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Anindita, E-mail: anidu14@gmail.com [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing (China); Department of Experimental Hematology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata-700 026 (India); Ray, Manas Ranjan; Banerjee, Anirban [Department of Experimental Hematology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata-700 026 (India)

    2012-06-15

    The study was undertaken to investigate whether regular cooking with biomass aggravates systemic inflammation and oxidative stress that might result in increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rural Indian women compared to cooking with a cleaner fuel like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). A total of 635 women (median age 36 years) who cooked with biomass and 452 age-matched control women who cooked with LPG were enrolled. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured by ELISA. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leukocytes was measured by flow cytometry, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (SOD) was measured by spectrophotometry. Hypertension was diagnosed following the Seventh Report of the Joint Committee. Tachycardia was determined as pulse rate > 100 beats per minute. Particulate matter of diameter less than 10 and 2.5 μm (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, respectively) in cooking areas was measured using real-time aerosol monitor. Compared with control, biomass users had more particulate pollution in indoor air, their serum contained significantly elevated levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and CRP, and ROS generation was increased by 37% while SOD was depleted by 41.5%, greater prevalence of hypertension and tachycardia compared to their LPG-using neighbors. PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} levels were positively associated with markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and hypertension. Inflammatory markers correlated with raised blood pressure. Cooking with biomass exacerbates systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, hypertension and tachycardia in poor women cooking with biomass fuel and hence, predisposes them to increased risk of CVD development compared to the controls. Systemic inflammation and oxidative stress may be the mechanistic factors involved in the development of CVD. -- Highlights: ► Effect of chronic biomass smoke exposure on

  14. Expression of NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1) is increased in the endometrium of women with endometrial cancer and women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atiomo, William; Shafiee, Mohamad Nasir; Chapman, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Women with a prior history of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk of endometrial cancer (EC). Aim: To investigate whether the endometrium of women with PCOS possesses gene expression changes similar to those found in EC. Design and Methods: Patients with EC, PCOS...

  15. The WHISK (Women's Health: Increasing the Awareness of Science and Knowledge) Pilot Project: Recognizing Sex and Gender Differences in Women's Health and Wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lorece V; Dennis, Sabriya; Weaks, Francesca

    2013-09-01

    Women's health encompasses a continuum of biological, psychological, and social challenges that differ considerably from those of men. Despite the remarkable advances in science, women's health and sex differences research is slowly gaining recognition and acceptance. It is important that women's health gain attention as women are usually the gatekeepers of care for the family. Women's health and health outcomes are strongly influenced by sex and gender differences as well as geography. Around the world, the interplay of biology and culture brings about differences in men's and women's health, which have been largely overlooked. The Women's Health: Increasing the Awareness of Science and Knowledge (WHISK) Pilot Project was a multidisciplinary project aimed to increase the awareness of sex and gender differences in women's health and research among healthcare professionals. Theater expression and creative art were used to translate knowledge, enhance understanding, and increase the awareness of sex differences. Findings from this project clearly showed an apparent increase in knowledge and cultivation of new insights.

  16. Predicting risky sexual behavior in emerging adulthood: examination of a moderated mediation model among child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather L; Grills, Amie E; Drum, Katherine B

    2014-01-01

    Although having a sexual victimization history is associated with engaging in sexual risk behavior, the mechanisms whereby sexual victimization increases risk behavior are unclear. This study examined use of sex as an affect regulation strategy as a mediator of the relationship between depressive symptoms and sexual risk behavior among 1,616 sexually active college women as well as examined having a history of child sexual abuse (CSA), adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA), or both (CSA/ASA) as moderators. Results supported the mediated model as well as moderated mediation, where depressive symptoms were more strongly associated with use of sex as an affect regulation strategy among ASA victims, and sex as an affect regulation strategy was more strongly related to sexual risk behavior for CSA/ASA victims.

  17. Gene-environment processes linking peer victimization and physical health problems: a longitudinal twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E; Pérusse, Daniel; Boivin, Michel

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether (a) a genetic disposition for physical health problems increases the risk of peer victimization and (b) peer victimization interacts with genetic vulnerability in explaining physical health problems. Participants were 167 monozygotic and 119 dizyogtic twin pairs. Physical symptoms were assessed in early childhood and early adolescence. Peer victimization was assessed in middle childhood. Genetic vulnerability for physical health problems in early childhood was unrelated to later peer victimization, but genetic vulnerability for physical health problems during early adolescence increased the risk of victimization. Victimization did not interact with genetic factors in predicting physical symptoms. Environmental, not genetic, factors had the greatest influence on the development of physical symptoms in victims. Genetic vulnerability for physical health problems in early adolescence increases the risk of peer victimization. Whether victims suffer a further increase in physical symptoms depends on the presence of protective environmental factors.

  18. Cyber-Victimized Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn N. Ryan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is a common topic in the media and academic settings. Teachers are regularly expected to provide curriculum and intervene regarding all forms of bullying, including cyber-bullying. Altering the behaviors of those who bully is often the focus of interventions, with less attention being placed on victim impact. The purpose of this article was to provide educators with a review of evidence regarding the occurrence, impact, and interventions for victims of cyber-bullying. Evidence reveals that cyber-bullying can have emotional, social, and academic impacts but that there are very few documented, and even fewer evidence-based, programs for victims of cyber-bullying. We conclude by proposing that school-wide programs and support be developed and provided to victims.

  19. Increased Cortical Porosity in Type-2 Diabetic Postmenopausal Women with Fragility Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsch, Janina M.; Burghardt, Andrew J.; Yap, Samuel P.; Baum, Thomas; Schwartz, Ann V.; Joseph, Gabby B.; Link, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to assess peripheral bone microarchitecture and strength in diabetic postmenopausal women with fragility fractures (DMFx) and to compare them with diabetic women without fracture (DM). Secondary goals were to assess differences in non-diabetic women with (Fx) and without fragility fractures (Co) and in women with (DM) and without diabetes (Co). Eighty women (mean age 61.3±5.7 yrs) were recruited into these groups (n=20 per group). Participants underwent DXA and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) of the ultradistal and distal radius and tibia. In the HR-pQCT images volumetric bone mineral density, cortical and trabecular structure measures, including cortical porosity, were calculated. Bone strength was estimated using micro-finite element analysis (μFEA). Differential strength estimates were obtained with and without open cortical pores. At the ultradistal and distal tibia, DMFx had greater intracortical pore volume (+52.6%, p=0.009; +95.4%, p=0.020), relative porosity (+58.1%; p=0.005; +87.9%, p=0.011) and endocortical bone surface (+10.9%, p=0.031; +11.5%, 0.019) than DM. At the distal radius DMFx had 4.7-fold greater relative porosity (p=0.000) than DM. At the ultradistal radius, intracortical pore volume was significantly higher in DMFx than DM (+67.8%, p=0.018). DMFx also displayed larger trabecular heterogeneity (ultradistal radius; +36.8%, p=0.035), and lower total and cortical BMD (ultradistal tibia: −12.6%, p=0.031; −6.8%, p=0.011) than DM. DMFx exhibited significantly higher pore-related deficits in stiffness, failure load and cortical load fraction at the ultradistal and distal tibia, and the distal radius than DM. Comparing non-diabetic Fx and Co, we only found a non-significant trend with increase in pore volume (+38.9%, p=0.060) at the ultradistal radius. The results of our study suggest that severe deficits in cortical bone quality are responsible for fragility fractures in

  20. Increased pain sensitivity is not associated with electrodiagnostic findings in women with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Laguarta-Val, Sofia; Alonso-Blanco, Cristina; Martínez-Perez, Almudena; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Pareja, Juan A

    2011-01-01

    To determine the differences in widespread pressure pain and thermal hypersensitivity in women with minimal, moderate, and severe carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and healthy controls. A total of 72 women with CTS (19 with minimal, 18 with moderate, and 35 with severe) and 19 healthy age-matched women participated. Pressure pain thresholds were bilaterally assessed over the median, ulnar, and radial nerves, the C5 to C6 zygapophyseal joint, the carpal tunnel, and the tibialis anterior muscle. In addition, warm and cold detection thresholds and heat and cold pain thresholds were bilaterally assessed over the carpal tunnel and the thenar eminence. All outcome parameters were assessed by an assessor blinded to the participant's condition. No significant differences in pain parameters among patients with minimal, moderate, and severe CTS were found. The results showed that PPT were significantly decreased bilaterally over the median, ulnar, and radial nerve trunks, the carpal tunnel, C5 to C6 zygapophyseal joint, and the tibialis anterior muscle in patients with minimal, moderate, or severe CTS as compared with healthy controls (all, P<0.001). In addition, patients with CTS also showed lower heat pain threshold and reduced cold pain threshold compared with controls (P<0.001). No significant sensory differences between minimal, moderate, or severe CTS were found. The similar widespread pressure and thermal hypersensitivity in patients with minimal, moderate, or severe CTS and pain intensity suggests that increased pain sensitivity is not related to electrodiagnostic findings.

  1. Increased incidence of ectopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization in women with decreased ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shengli; Yang, Rui; Chi, Hongbin; Lian, Ying; Wang, Jiejing; Huang, Shuo; Lu, Cuiling; Liu, Ping; Qiao, Jie

    2017-02-28

    The incidence of ectopic pregnancy after assisted reproductive technology is increased approximately 2.5-5-fold compared with natural conceptions.Strategies were used to decrease the incidence of ectopic pregnancy, but ectopic pregnancy still occurs. In the present study, women were selected with decreased ovarian reserve (defined as FSH > 10 IU/L) aged 20 to 38 years who underwent IVF-ET between 2009 and 2014. These 2,061 women were age-matched with an equal number of women with normal ovarian reserve (defined as FSH ≤ 10 IU/L). During cycles following fresh embryo transfer, 93 patients were diagnosed with ectopic pregnancy. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy in clinical pregnancies was significantly higher in the decreased ovarian reserve than in the normal ovarian reserve group (5.51% vs. 2.99%). After adjusting for confounding factors, the incidence of ectopic pregnancy was significantly associated with decreased ovarian reserve. Our results showed that decreased ovarian reserve is an independent risk factor for ectopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer.

  2. Stress-induced increases in progesterone and cortisol in naturally cycling women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ycaza Herrera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies with animals of both sexes show that the adrenal glands release progesterone in addition to cortisol in response to stress. However, little is known about the progesterone response to stress in naturally cycling women. We investigated the effect of stress on estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol levels in women during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. We found that physical stress (the cold pressor test had no effect on estradiol levels, but increased progesterone and cortisol. We also found positive correlations between baseline progesterone and cortisol levels, as well as between the change in progesterone and cortisol before and after water exposure in both the stress and control sessions. Mediation analyses revealed during the stress session, the change in progesterone from baseline to 42-min post-stress onset was mediated by the magnitude of change in cortisol levels across the same time span. Overall, these findings reveal that progesterone released in response to stress as observed in animals and men extends to women during the low ovarian output follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, and that the mechanism of release may be similar to the mechanism of cortisol release.

  3. Gynecologic simulation training increases medical student confidence and interest in women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschmann, Caroline; Bartz, Deborah; Johnson, Natasha R

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to commonly performed gynecologic procedures via simulation has potential to improve medical student knowledge and foster confidence with procedures. To implement and evaluate a gynecologic simulation curriculum for 3rd-year medical students during their obstetrics and gynecology core clerkship. A gynecologic simulation curriculum was implemented for medical students during their obstetrics and gynecology clerkship. Participants completed pre-and postsurveys to assess learner confidence; effect on interest in a surgical field, women's health, and obstetrics and gynecology as a career; and whether the session met their learning needs. Fifty-nine students participated. Improved confidence in performing the procedures was noted when comparing mean survey scores before and after the simulation for IUD insertion and removal (1.9 pre, 4.3 post, p women's health (3.7 pre, 4.9 post, p Gynecologic simulation training for medical students can increase confidence in procedures, interest in pursuing a surgical field and women's health, and was highly effective in meeting student learning needs.

  4. Antibacterial mouthwash blunts oral nitrate reduction and increases blood pressure in treated hypertensive men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Liu, Alex H; Croft, Kevin D; Considine, Michael J; Puddey, Ian B; Woodman, Richard J; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2015-05-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) is fundamental to cardiovascular health. Dietary nitrate and nitrate from endothelial derived NO metabolism provides a significant contribution to the circulating NO pool through the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. A critical step in this pathway is the reduction of nitrate to nitrite by the oral microbiota. We aimed to assess the effects of antibacterial mouthwash use on markers of nitrate-nitrite-NO metabolism and blood pressure in treated hypertensive men and women. Fifteen treated hypertensive men and women (mean age 65 years) were recruited to a randomized controlled cross-over trial. The effects of 3-day use of antibacterial mouthwash on oral nitrate to nitrite reduction, salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite, plasma cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were compared to control (water). Relative to control, 3-day antibacterial mouthwash use resulted in decreased oral nitrate to nitrite reduction (P = 0.02), decreased salivary nitrite (P = 0.01) and increased salivary nitrate (P nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway through the use of antibacterial mouthwash was paralleled by a small elevation of systolic blood pressure in treated hypertensive men and women. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Adipose tissue IL-8 is increased in normal weight women after menopause and reduced after gastric bypass surgery in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvehus, Malin; Simonyte, Kotryna; Andersson, Therése; Söderström, Ingegerd; Burén, Jonas; Rask, Eva; Mattsson, Cecilia; Olsson, Tommy

    2012-11-01

    The menopausal transition is characterized by increased body fat accumulation, including redistribution from peripheral to central fat depots. This distribution is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease that are linked to low-grade inflammation. We determined whether postmenopausal women have higher levels of inflammatory markers, compared with premenopausal women. We also wanted to determine whether these markers are reduced by stable weight loss in obese women. Anthropometric data, blood samples and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were collected from normal weight premenopausal and postmenopausal women and obese women before and 2 years after gastric bypass (GBP) surgery. Serum protein levels and adipose tissue gene expression of inflammatory markers were investigated. IL-8 expression in adipose tissue and circulating levels were higher in postmenopausal vs premenopausal women. IL-8 expression was associated with waist circumference, independent of menopausal status. IL-6 expression and serum levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 were higher in postmenopausal vs premenopausal women. Two years after GBP surgery, adipose expression of IL-8, tumour necrosis factor-α and MCP-1 decreased significantly. Serum insulin levels were associated with inflammation-related gene expression before GBP surgery, but these associations disappeared after surgery. Postmenopausal women have an increased inflammatory response in the subcutaneous fat and circulation. Inflammatory markers in adipose tissue decreased significantly after surgery-induced weight loss. This effect may be beneficial for metabolic control and reduced cardiovascular risk after weight loss. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Verbal versus physical victimization from other people's drinking: how do gender, age, and their interactions with drinking pattern affect vulnerability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn

    2007-07-01

    The main objectives of this study were to determine (1) the extent of differential association of gender and age with being the victim of aggression by someone who has been drinking (i.e., alcohol-related victimization) for both verbal and physical forms of victimization and (2) whether drinking status/pattern interacts with gender and age in predicting verbal and physical victimization. A general population survey of Canadian adults ages 18-76 was conducted using random digit dialing and computer-assisted telephone interviewing. Respondents who reported verbal victimization only, physical victimization only, and any combination of verbal and physical victimization were compared with those who reported no victimization. Verbal victimization was significantly more likely for women than for men, whereas physical victimization was more likely for men than for women. Younger age was more strongly associated with physical than with verbal victimization. In terms of significant interaction effects, the relationship between heavy episodic drinking (HED) and experiencing verbal victimization alone and combined verbal and physical victimization (but not for physical victimization alone) was significant for women but not for men. HED was significantly associated with experiencing combined verbal and physical victimization for younger people but not for older people. Future research on alcohol-related victimization needs to take into consideration the nature of alcohol-related victimization (e.g., verbal vs physical) and potential interactions involving gender and age. The significant relationship between HED and combined verbal and physical victimization for younger persons suggests that prevention efforts aimed at decreasing heavy drinking among young people may reduce their risk of victimization.

  7. Factors Associated with Increased Risk for Lethal Violence in Intimate Partner Relationships among Ethnically Diverse Black Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Bushra; Stockman, Jamila K.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; O’Brien, Sharon; Campbell, Doris; Callwood, Gloria B.; Bertrand, Desiree; Sutton, Lorna W.; Hart-Hyndman, Greta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with increased risk for lethal violence among ethnically diverse Black women in Baltimore, Maryland (MD) and the US Virgin Islands (USVI). Women with abuse experiences (n=456) were recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in Baltimore, MD and St. Thomas and St. Croix, USVI. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with the risk for lethal violence among abused women. Factors independently related to increased risk of lethal violence included fear of abusive partners, PTSD symptoms, and use of legal resources. These factors must be considered in assessing safety needs of Black women in abusive relationships. PMID:25429191

  8. Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in women in early pregnancy: does it increase with maternal age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diéguez, Marta; Herrero, Ana; Avello, Noelia; Suárez, Patricio; Delgado, Elías; Menéndez, Edelmiro

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies report high rates of thyroid disorders in pregnant women. However, the need for universal thyroid screening remains controversial. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction (TD) during pregnancy and to analyse the association with maternal age. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a referral centre in collaboration with the primary care units from April 2010 to March 2011. The study included 2509 consecutive pregnant women resident in an iodine-sufficient area, mean age 32 years (range 16-47) who were universally screened for TD in their first trimester (median gestation 8 weeks, range 4-13 weeks). Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free T4 (FT4) were analysed during the first antenatal visit. We applied first trimester-specific population-based TSH and FT4 reference ranges. We identified 416 women with positive TD screening [16·6%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 15·1-18·0]. Of these, 47 had overt hypothyroidism (1·9%), 90 subclinical hypothyroidism (3·6%), 23 overt hyperthyroidism (0·9%), 20 subclinical hyperthyroidism (0·8%) and 236 had isolated hypothyroxinaemia (9·4%). Applying a logistic regression model, age ≥30 years was not associated with a higher risk of TD [odds ratio (OR) 0·85, 95% CI 0·67-1·08] or hypothyroidism (OR 0·72, 95% CI 0·50-1·06). TD affects one in six pregnant women in an iodine-sufficient population. Maternal age ≥30 years do not increase the risk of TD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Premature Coronary Heart Disease and Autosomal Dominant Hypercholesterolemia: Increased Risk in Women with LDLR Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zahid; Li, Xilong; Wosik, Jedrek; Mani, Preethi; Petr, Elisabeth Joye; McLeod, George; Murad, Shatha; Song, Li; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Garg, Abhimanyu

    2015-01-01

    Background For patients with autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH), it remains unclear whether differences exist in the risk of premature coronary heart disease (CHD) between patients with confirmed mutations in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) vs those without detectable mutations. Objective This study sought to assess the risk of premature CHD in ADH patients with mutations in LDLR (referred to as Familial Hypercholesterolemia, FH) vs those without detectable mutations (unexplained ADH), stratified by sex. Methods Comparative study of premature CHD in a multiethnic cohort of 111 men and 165 women meeting adult Simon-Broome criteria for ADH. Results Women with FH (n = 51) had an increased risk of premature CHD compared to unexplained ADH women (n = 111) (hazard ratio [HR] 2.74 [95% CI: 1.40, 5.34], p = 0.003) even after adjustment for lipid levels and traditional CHD risk factors (HR 2.53 [1.10, 5.83], p = 0.005). Men with FH (n = 42), in contrast, had a similar risk of premature CHD when compared to unexplained ADH men (n = 66) (unadjusted: HR 1.48 [0.84, 2.63], p = 0.18; adjusted: HR 1.04 [0.46, 2.37] p = 0.72). To address whether mutation status provides additional information beyond LDL-C level, we analyzed premature CHD risk for FH vs unexplained ADH at each quartile of LDL-C: the findings were significant for women (Q1: HR 4.90 [1.69-14.19]; Q2: HR 3.44 [1.42-8.32]; Q3: HR 2.79 [1.25-6.23]; Q4: HR 1.99 [0.95-4.17]), but not for men. Conclusion Our findings suggest that genetic confirmation of ADH may be important to identify patient's risk of CHD, especially for female LDLR mutation carriers. PMID:26892126

  10. Soy isoflavone supplementation increases equol-producing capability in postmenopausal women with osteopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elly Herwana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Isoflavone containing soy protein has been associated with beneficial health effects. Equol, a gut bacterial metabolite of the isoflavone daidzein, has been hypothesized to be the cause of the effectiveness of isoflavones. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 100 mg/day soy isoflavone supplementation for 3 months on the ability to produce equol in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Method A pre-post experimental study was conducted to assess the effects of 100 mg/day soy isoflavone supplementation on equol production capability and the proportion of equol producers to non-equol producers in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. A total of 39 subjects received 1 supplement tablet containing 100 mg soy isoflavones (genistein, daidzein for 3 months. Determination of serum genistein, daidzein, and equol concentrations was performed twice at baseline and at 3 months post-supplementation using high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrophotometry (HPLC-MS. Equol producer status was determined by the detection of a serum equol concentration of 5 µg/L. Results Mean genistein and daidzein concentrations at baseline were 86.2 ± 68.4 ìg/L and 16.7 ± 18.6 ìg/L, respectively. The proportion of equol producers was 69.2%. After 3 months of soy isoflavone supplementation the serum concentrations of genistein and daidzein significantly increased to 161.0 ± 5.8 ìg/L (p=0.000 and 49.9 ± 40.4 ìg/L (p=0.000, respectively, and the proportion of equol producers also significantly increased (100.0%. Conclusion Soy isoflavone supplementation was capable of increasing the serum concentrations of isoflavones (genistein and daidzein and the equol-producing capacity of postmenopausal women with osteopenia.

  11. Comparing narrative and informational videos to increase mammography in low-income African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuter, Matthew W; Holmes, Kathleen; Alcaraz, Kassandra; Kalesan, Bindu; Rath, Suchitra; Richert, Melissa; McQueen, Amy; Caito, Nikki; Robinson, Lou; Clark, Eddie M

    2010-12-01

    Compare effects of narrative and informational videos on use of mammography, cancer-related beliefs, recall of core content and a range of reactions to the videos. African American women (n=489) ages 40 and older were recruited from low-income neighborhoods in St. Louis, MO and randomly assigned to watch a narrative video comprised of stories from African American breast cancer survivors (Living Proof) or a content-equivalent informational video using a more expository and didactic approach (Facts for Life). Effects were measured immediately post-exposure and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. The narrative video was better liked, enhanced recall, reduced counterarguing, increased breast cancer discussions with family members and was perceived as more novel. Women who watched the narrative video also reported fewer barriers to mammography, more confidence that mammograms work, and were more likely to perceive cancer as an important problem affecting African Americans. Use of mammography at 6-month follow-up did not differ for the narrative vs. informational groups overall (49% vs. 40%, p=.20), but did among women with less than a high school education (65% vs. 32%, p<.01), and trended in the same direction for those who had no close friends or family with breast cancer (49% vs. 31%, p=.06) and those who were less trusting of traditional cancer information sources (48% vs. 30%, p=.06). Narrative forms of communication may increase the effectiveness of interventions to reduce cancer health disparities. Narratives appear to have particular value in certain population sub-groups; identifying these groups and matching them to specific communication approaches may increase effectiveness. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bully/victims: a longitudinal, population-based cohort study of their mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Copeland, William E; Zammit, Stanley; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-12-01

    It has been suggested that those who both bully and are victims of bullying (bully/victims) are at the highest risk of adverse mental health outcomes. However, unknown is whether most bully/victims were bullies or victims first and whether being a bully/victim is more detrimental to mental health than being a victim. A total of 4101 children were prospectively studied from birth, and structured interviews and questionnaires were used to assess bullying involvement at 10 years (elementary school) and 13 years of age (secondary school). Mental health (anxiety, depression, psychotic experiences) was assessed at 18 years. Most bully/victims at age 13 (n = 233) had already been victims at primary school (pure victims: n = 97, 41.6 % or bully/victims: n = 47, 20.2 %). Very few of the bully/victims at 13 years had been pure bullies previously (n = 7, 3 %). After adjusting for a wide range of confounders, both bully/victims and pure victims, whether stable or not from primary to secondary school, were at increased risk of mental health problems at 18 years of age. In conclusion, children who are bully/victims at secondary school were most likely to have been already bully/victims or victims at primary school. Children who are involved in bullying behaviour as either bully/victims or victims at either primary or secondary school are at increased risk of mental health problems in late adolescence regardless of the stability of victimization. Clinicians should consider any victimization as a risk factor for mental health problems.

  13. Incident osteoarthritis associated with increased allied health services use in 'baby boomer' Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Lynne; Moorin, Rachael; Peeters, Geeske; Byles, Julie; Blyth, Fiona; Caughey, Gillian; Cunich, Michelle; Magin, Parker; March, Lyn; Pond, Dimity

    2016-08-01

    To explore impact of incident osteoarthritis (OA) on health services use by Australian women born 1946-51. Secondary analysis of Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health survey data linked to Medicare Australia databases (2002 to 2011). Medicare services use was compared for two groups: OA group (n=761) - reported incident OA in 2007; Never group (n=4346) - did not report arthritis in time frame. Interrupted time series regression compared health services use over time. The OA group had higher health services use than the Never group. Rate of services use increased over time for both groups. Rate of increase in quarterly doctor attendances was significantly lower for the OA group after onset of OA, with no corresponding change for the Never group. A pre-existing higher use of health services is associated with reporting incident OA, compared to those who never report arthritis. After onset of OA, rate of doctor use reduced and allied health use increased, consistent with recommended Australian treatment guidelines. This study provides a rare insight into change in healthcare use for people reporting incident OA, against an appropriate comparison group, highlighting the importance of early diagnosis of OA to optimise effective use of health services. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  14. Comparison of the Psychological Recovery of Black and White Victims of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Patricia H.

    Knowledge of individual differences of victim responses to and recovery from rape is necessary in order to provide for each victim's individual needs. Black women may be exposed to more violence in their culture and may be treated differently than white women. These differences may lead to different recovery patterns between black and white rape…

  15. Parenting behavior and the risk of becoming a victim and a bully/victim: a meta-analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Samara, Muthanna; Wolke, Dieter

    2013-12-01

    Being bullied has adverse effects on children's health. Children's family experiences and parenting behavior before entering school help shape their capacity to adapt and cope at school and have an impact on children's peer relationship, hence it is important to identify how parenting styles and parent-child relationship are related to victimization in order to develop intervention programs to prevent or mitigate victimization in childhood and adolescence. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature on parenting behavior and peer victimization using MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Eric and EMBASE from 1970 through the end of December 2012. We included prospective cohort studies and cross-sectional studies that investigated the association between parenting behavior and peer victimization. Both victims and those who both bully and are victims (bully/victims) were more likely to be exposed to negative parenting behavior including abuse and neglect and maladaptive parenting. The effects were generally small to moderate for victims (Hedge's g range: 0.10-0.31) but moderate for bully/victims (0.13-0.68). Positive parenting behavior including good communication of parents with the child, warm and affectionate relationship, parental involvement and support, and parental supervision were protective against peer victimization. The protective effects were generally small to moderate for both victims (Hedge's g: range: -0.12 to -0.22) and bully/victims (-0.17 to -0.42). Negative parenting behavior is related to a moderate increase of risk for becoming a bully/victim and small to moderate effects on victim status at school. Intervention programs against bullying should extend their focus beyond schools to include families and start before children enter school. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Increased prevalence of dhfr and dhps mutants at delivery in Malawian pregnant women receiving intermittent preventive treatment for malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jessica T; Mbewe, Bernard; Taylor, Steve M; Luntamo, Mari; Meshnick, Steven R; Ashorn, Per

    2013-02-01

    In the context of an Intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) trial for pregnant women in Malawi, Plasmodium falciparum samples from 85 women at enrollment and 35 women at delivery were genotyped for mutations associated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance. The prevalence of the highly resistant haplotype with mutations at codons 51 and 108 of dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and codons 437 and 540 of dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) increased from 81% at enrollment to 100% at delivery (P = 0.01). Pregnant women who were smear-positive at enrollment were more likely to have P. falciparum parasitemia at delivery. These results lend support to concerns that IPTp use may lead to increased drug resistance in pregnant women during pregnancy and emphasise the importance of screening pregnant women for malaria parasites in areas with prevalent SP resistance even when they are already on IPTp. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. An Educational Intervention Designed to Increase Women's Leadership Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Carol; Kaatz, Anna; Lee, Barbara; Carnes, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Women are sparsely represented in leadership in academic science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM). Cultural stereotypes about men, women, and leaders influence the attitudes, judgments, and decisions that others make about women and the choices women make for themselves. Multilevel interventions are needed to counteract…

  18. Timing and duration of sleep and meals in obese and normal weight women. Association with increase blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbalán-Tutau, M D; Madrid, J A; Garaulet, M

    2012-08-01

    The aim was to evaluate the efficiency and duration of sleep and meals in normal-weight and obese women and the impact of these factors on metabolic syndrome (MetS) variables. The study was conducted in 70 women, normal-weight women (n=20) and obese women (n=50). Anthropometric variables, plasma glucose, lipids and ghrelin concentrations were determined. Blood pressure measurement was performed before lunch and before dinner for a week on alternate days. Subjects were instructed to keep a sleep and feeding diary. In general, obese women displayed longer and a significantly higher number of awakenings per week than normal-weight women and a higher duration of naps. Sleep efficiency was significantly lower in obese women. The higher intake in energy in the obese women was due to snacking differences. Moreover, higher sleep efficiency was correlated with a decrease in the diastolic blood pressure evening/morning ratio. Interestingly, among normal-weight women, visceral fat increased with the number of awakenings while plasma ghrelin was inversely correlated with meal duration (P=0.027). In conclusion, obese women had lower sleep efficiency, ate more quickly and spent more time eating and sleeping during the daytime hours than normal-weight women. Of note, sleep efficiency was associated with MetS features. Further interventions in obesity could include educating patients in food timing and in healthier sleep-hygiene practices, helping them to modify bad sleep habits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Increasing explicit sequence knowledge by odor cueing during sleep in men but not women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne eDiekelmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep consolidates newly acquired memories. Beyond stabilizing memories, sleep is thought to reorganize memory representations such that invariant structures, statistical regularities and even new explicit knowledge are extracted. Whereas increasing evidence suggests that the stabilization of memories during sleep can be facilitated by cueing with learning-associated stimuli, the effect of cueing on memory reorganization is less well understood. Here we asked whether olfactory cueing during sleep enhances the generation of explicit knowledge about an implicitly learned procedural memory task. Subjects were trained on a serial reaction time task (SRTT containing a hidden 12-element sequence in the presence of an odor. During subsequent sleep, half of the subjects were re-exposed to the odor during periods of slow wave sleep (SWS, while the other half received odorless vehicle. In the next morning, subjects were tested on their explicit knowledge about the underlying sequence in a free recall test and a generation task. Although odor cueing did not significantly affect overall explicit knowledge, differential effects were evident when analyzing male and female subjects separately. Explicit sequence knowledge, both in free recall and the generation task, was enhanced by odor cueing in men, whereas women showed no cueing effect. Procedural skill in the SRTT was not affected by cueing, neither in men nor in women. These findings suggest that olfactory memory reactivation can increase explicit knowledge about implicitly learned information, but only in men. Hormonal differences due to menstrual cycle phase and/or hormonal contraceptives might explain the lacking effect in women.

  20. An Educational Intervention Designed to Increase Women's Leadership Self-Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac, Carol; Kaatz, Anna; Lee, Barbara; Carnes, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Women are sparsely represented in leadership in academic science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM). Cultural stereotypes about men, women, and leaders influence the attitudes, judgments, and decisions that others make about women and the choices women make for themselves. Multilevel interventions are needed to counteract the impact of these pervasive and easily activated stereotypes, which conspire in multiple ways to constrain women's entry, persistence, and advance...

  1. Hormonal contraception does not increase women's HIV acquisition risk in Zambian discordant couples, 1994–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Kristin M.; Kilembe, William; Vwalika, Bellington; Khu, Naw Htee; Brill, Ilene; Chomba, Elwyn; Johnson, Brent A.; Haddad, Lisa; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan

    2015-01-01

    add to a controversial literature and uniquely address several common design and analytic challenges faced by previous studies. After controlling for confounders, we found no association between hormonal contraception and HIV acquisition risk in women. We support promoting condoms for HIV prevention and increasing the contraceptive method mix to decrease unintended pregnancy. PMID:25708502

  2. Hormonal contraception does not increase women's HIV acquisition risk in Zambian discordant couples, 1994-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Kristin M; Kilembe, William; Vwalika, Bellington; Htee Khu, Naw; Brill, Ilene; Chomba, Elwyn; Johnson, Brent A; Haddad, Lisa; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan

    2015-06-01

    several common design and analytic challenges faced by previous studies. After controlling for confounders, we found no association between hormonal contraception and HIV acquisition risk in women. We support promoting condoms for HIV prevention and increasing the contraceptive method mix to decrease unintended pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The gender difference of snore distribution and increased tendency to snore in women with menopausal syndrome: a general population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Li-Pang; Lin, Shih-Wei; Lee, Li-Ang; Li, Hsueh-Yu; Chang, Chih-Hao; Kao, Kuo-Chin; Li, Li-Fu; Huang, Chung-Chi; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Chen, Ning-Hung

    2017-05-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a prevalent disorder with a major impact in women, especially postmenopausal women. However, few studies have investigated the prevalence of a specific SDB, snoring, among women especially those with menopausal syndrome. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted in Taiwan. Adults over 20 years of age were interviewed. The number of successful interviews was calculated based on the population prior to the study. Demographic data and information about snoring, menopausal syndrome, and medical conditions were obtained. In total, 3624 adults, 1473 males and 2151 females, completed the interviews. Both men and women shows an increase in snoring until age 50 to 59 years, followed by a decline in snoring that is less steep among women. The prevalence of snoring increased significantly in females after age 50 years, which is the mean menopausal age in our country (p women with snoring was significantly higher among those with menopausal syndrome than those without menopausal syndrome (p = 0.021, odds ratio = 1.629). This population-based study revealed different snoring percentages among men and women and diminishing differences in the older population. Additionally, the percentage of women with snoring was increased among those women who were older than 50 years and those with menopausal syndrome.

  4. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation does not increase blood pressure of healthy elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marcelo Pinto

    2012-07-01

    Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) is an attractive method to increase strength and proprioception of elderly individuals. However, a major clinical concern about the prescription of PNF is the belief that it can cause a cardiovascular overload, because it involves close-to-maximal loads and isometric contractions. Yet the acute effect of a PNF training session on cardiovascular response in elderly individuals is still unknown. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of PNF on diastolic and systolic blood pressure of healthy elderly people. Fifteen older women (mean age 72.40±6.82 years) performed three sets (five repetitions each) of three different PNF techniques (rhythmic initiation, dynamic reversion, and isotonic combination), executing a single movement pattern. Diastolic and systolic blood pressure (DBP and SBP) were evaluated by means of a manual sphygmomanometer immediately before and during the last two repetitions (last set) of each technique. A two-way ANOVA test (time and technique) was performed to investigate the PNF effect on blood pressure. No time (preexercise to postexercise) (p=0.33 for DBP; p=0.06 for SBP) or PNF technique (p=0.75; p=0.81) effect were observed. In conclusion, we can state that the execution of these PNF techniques is safe for the cardiovascular system of healthy elderly women, because no blood pressure increases were found.

  5. Características Demográficas e Intervalo para Atendimento em Mulheres Vítimas de Violência Sexual Demographic Characteristics and the Interval between Occurrence and the Search for Attendance by Women Victims of Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosires Pereira Andrade

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: analisar as características sociodemográficas das mulheres vítimas de violência sexual, avaliar a experiência sexual prévia, pesquisar a utilização de métodos anticoncepcionais por ocasião da violência e observar o período de tempo desde a agressão até o atendimento hospitalar. Métodos: foram analisados os dados de 117 fichas pré-codificadas, de um total de 134 atendimentos. As fichas foram utilizadas no atendimento de mulheres vítimas de violência sexual na Maternidade do Hospital de Clínicas de Curitiba no período de agosto de 1998 até junho de 2000. Resultados: a idade das mulheres variou de 5 a 49 anos, sendo que a metade era de jovens, com até 19 anos. A maioria tinha segundo grau completo ou incompleto, 41 (41,0% eram estudantes e 82 (82,0% eram solteiras. Na análise da experiência sexual prévia, constatou-se que cerca de um terço (32,4% era virgem. Das mulheres que referiam ter vida sexual prévia, 35 (47,9% usavam algum método anticoncepcional quando da agressão. Houve variação de 2 horas a 2 meses em relação ao tempo decorrido desde a violência sexual até a procura por atendimento. Conclusões: o número de mulheres vítimas de violência sexual evidencia a importância de um atendimento especializado a estas pacientes. Há também necessidade de este atendimento ser multidisciplinar, já que dentre as vítimas existem grupos que necessitam de atenção diferenciada, como por exemplo as crianças. O intervalo entre a violência sexual e a procura do serviço pode ser considerado como indício de que a população deve ter acesso a mais informações em relação à prevenção de gravidez e doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, inclusive a infecção pelo HIV.Purpose: to investigate the social and demographic characteristics of women victims of sexual abuse; to evaluate their sexual experience before the abuse; to investigate the use of contraceptive methods at the time of the violence, and

  6. Tissue-specific increases in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in normal weight postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therése Andersson

    Full Text Available With age and menopause there is a shift in adipose distribution from gluteo-femoral to abdominal depots in women. Associated with this redistribution of fat are increased risks of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Glucocorticoids influence body composition, and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1 which converts inert cortisone to active cortisol is a putative key mediator of metabolic complications in obesity. Increased 11betaHSD1 in adipose tissue may contribute to postmenopausal central obesity. We hypothesized that tissue-specific 11betaHSD1 gene expression and activity are up-regulated in the older, postmenopausal women compared to young, premenopausal women. Twenty-three pre- and 23 postmenopausal, healthy, normal weight women were recruited. The participants underwent a urine collection, a subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy and the hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity was estimated by the serum cortisol response after an oral dose of cortisone. Urinary (5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol+5beta-tetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocortisone ratios were higher in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in luteal phase (P<0.05, indicating an increased whole-body 11betaHSD1 activity. Postmenopausal women had higher 11betaHSD1 gene expression in subcutaneous fat (P<0.05. Hepatic first pass conversion of oral cortisone to cortisol was also increased in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (P<0.01, at 30 min post cortisone ingestion, suggesting higher hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity. In conclusion, our results indicate that postmenopausal normal weight women have increased 11betaHSD1 activity in adipose tissue and liver. This may contribute to metabolic dysfunctions with menopause and ageing in women.

  7. High education and increased parity are associated with breast-feeding initiation and duration among Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holowko, Natalie; Jones, Mark; Koupil, Ilona; Tooth, Leigh; Mishra, Gita

    2016-10-01

    Breast-feeding is associated with positive maternal and infant health and development outcomes. To assist identifying women less likely to meet infant nutritional guidelines, we investigated the role of socio-economic position and parity on initiation of and sustaining breast-feeding for at least 6 months. Prospective cohort study. Australia. Parous women from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (born 1973-78), with self-reported reproductive and breast-feeding history (N 4777). While 89 % of women (83 % of infants) had ever breast-fed, only 60 % of infants were breast-fed for at least 6 months. Multiparous women were more likely to breast-feed their first child (~90 % v. ~71 % of primiparous women), and women who breast-fed their first child were more likely to breast-feed subsequent children. Women with a low education (adjusted OR (95 % CI): 2·09 (1·67, 2·62)) or a very low-educated parent (1·47 (1·16, 1·88)) had increased odds of not initiating breast-feeding with their first or subsequent children. While fewer women initiated breast-feeding with their youngest child, this was most pronounced among high-educated women. While ~60 % of women breast-fed their first, second and third child for at least 6 months, low-educated women (first child, adjusted OR (95 % CI): 2·19 (1·79, 2·68)) and women with a very low (1·82 (1·49, 2·22)) or low-educated parent (1·69 (1·33, 2·14)) had increased odds of not breast-feeding for at least 6 months. A greater understanding of barriers to initiating and sustaining breast-feeding, some of which are socio-economic-specific, may assist in reducing inequalities in infant breast-feeding.

  8. Teriparatide (PTH 1-34) treatment increases peripheral hematopoietic stem cells in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Elaine W; Kumbhani, Ruchit; Siwila-Sackman, Erica; DeLelys, Michelle; Preffer, Frederic I; Leder, Benjamin Z; Wu, Joy Y

    2014-06-01

    Cells of the osteoblast lineage play an important role in regulating the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche and early B-cell development in animal models, perhaps via parathyroid hormone (PTH)-dependent mechanisms. There are few human clinical studies investigating this phenomenon. We studied the impact of long-term daily teriparatide (PTH 1-34) treatment on cells of the hematopoietic lineage in postmenopausal women. Twenty-three postmenopausal women at high risk of fracture received teriparatide 20 mcg sc daily for 24 months as part of a prospective longitudinal trial. Whole blood measurements were obtained at baseline, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Flow cytometry was performed to identify hematopoietic subpopulations, including HSCs (CD34+/CD45(moderate); ISHAGE protocol) and early transitional B cells (CD19+, CD27-, IgD+, CD24[hi], CD38[hi]). Serial measurements of spine and hip bone mineral density (BMD) as well as serum P1NP, osteocalcin, and CTX were also performed. The average age of study subjects was 64 ± 5 years. We found that teriparatide treatment led to an early increase in circulating HSC number of 40% ± 14% (p = 0.004) by month 3, which persisted to month 18 before returning to near baseline by 24 months. There were no significant changes in transitional B cells or total B cells over the course of the study period. In addition, there were no differences in complete blood count profiles as quantified by standard automated flow cytometry. Interestingly, the peak increase in HSC number was inversely associated with increases in bone markers and spine BMD. Daily teriparatide treatment for osteoporosis increases circulating HSCs by 3 to 6 months in postmenopausal women. This may represent a proliferation of marrow HSCs or increased peripheral HSC mobilization. This clinical study establishes the importance of PTH in the regulation of the HSC niche within humans. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2014 American Society for

  9. College students' social reactions to the victim in a hypothetical sexual assault scenario: the role of victim and perpetrator alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untied, Amy S; Orchowski, Lindsay M; Mastroleo, Nadine; Gidycz, Christine A

    2012-01-01

    College students' responses to a hypothetical sexual assault scenario involving alcohol use by the victim and/or perpetrator were examined (N = 295). Participants reported on victim/perpetrator responsibility, the extent to which the scenario would be considered rape, and their likelihood of providing positive or negative responses to the victim. Compared to women, men indicated that they would provide more negative and less positive social reactions to the victim, were less likely to identify the scenario as rape, and endorsed less perpetrator responsibility. When the victim was drinking, participants endorsed greater victim responsibility and lower perpetrator responsibility for the assault. Participants indicated that they would provide the victim with less emotional support when only the perpetrator was drinking, compared to when both the individuals were drinking.

  10. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increases spinal BMD in healthy, postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baeksgaard, L; Andersen, K P; Hyldstrup, Lars

    1998-01-01

    We undertook a double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a calcium and vitamin D supplement and a calcium supplement plus multivitamins on bone loss at the hip, spine and forearm. The study was performed in 240 healthy women, 58-67 years of age. Duration....... Together with significant changes in serum calcium and serum parathyroid hormone, this indicates that a long-term calcium and vitamin supplement of 1 g elementary calcium (calcium carbonate) and 14 micrograms vitamin D3 increases intestinal calcium absorption. A positive effect on BMD was demonstrated...... of treatment was 2 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine, hip and forearm. A dietary questionnaire was administered twice during the study and revealed a fairly good calcium and vitamin D intake (919 mg calcium/day; 3.8 micrograms vitamin D/day). An increase in lumbar spine BMD...

  11. Increased incidence of infertility treatment among women working in the plastics industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K.S.; Hannerz, H.; Feveile, H.

    2009-01-01

    Several plastic chemicals adversely affect reproductive ability. This study examined the possible association between employment in the plastics industry and infertility. Dynamic cohorts of economically active women and men were followed for hospital contacts due to infertility in the Danish...... Occupational Hospitalisation Register, from 1995 to 2005. A person was considered to be at increased risk in a particular year if plastic work was the main occupation in the previous year. Analyses were standardized according to county, socio-economic group, year and age. 107 cases of treatment for female...... infertility were observed among female plastic workers, as opposed to an expected 87.15 cases, i.e. relative risk was 1.23 (95% CI: 1.01-1.48). For male workers the numbers were 41 respectively 49.9 cases, with relative risk being 0.82 (95% CI: 0.59-1.11). The increased incidence of infertility treatment...

  12. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increases spinal BMD in healthy, postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baeksgaard, L; Andersen, K P; Hyldstrup, Lars

    1998-01-01

    We undertook a double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a calcium and vitamin D supplement and a calcium supplement plus multivitamins on bone loss at the hip, spine and forearm. The study was performed in 240 healthy women, 58-67 years of age. Duration...... of treatment was 2 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine, hip and forearm. A dietary questionnaire was administered twice during the study and revealed a fairly good calcium and vitamin D intake (919 mg calcium/day; 3.8 micrograms vitamin D/day). An increase in lumbar spine BMD...... not significant, the same trend was seen at the hip. No significant changes from baseline values were observed at the distal forearm in either the treatment or the placebo group. In conclusion, we found a significant increase in urinary calcium excretion in the treatment group compared with the placebo group...

  13. Increased risk of breast cancer in women with false-positive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Kuchiki, Megumi; Vejborg, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown that women with a false-positive result from mammography screening have an excess risk for breast cancer compared with women who only have negative results. We aimed to assess the excess risk of cancer after a false-positive result excluding cases...... of misclassification, i.e. women who were actually false-negatives instead of false-positives. METHOD: We used data from the Copenhagen Mammography Screening Programme, Denmark. The study population was the 295 women, out of 4743 recalled women from a total of 58,003 participants, with a false-positive test during...... the women with misclassified tests had been excluded, there was an excess risk of breast cancer of 27% (RR=1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.46) among the women with a false-positive test compared to women with only negative tests. Women with a false-positive test determined at assessment had...

  14. Breast-Specific γ-Imaging for the Detection of Mammographically Occult Breast Cancer in Women at Increased Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Rachel F; Ruda, Rachel C; Yang, Jialu L; Coffey, Caitrín M; Rapelyea, Jocelyn A

    2016-05-01

    Breast-specific γ-imaging (BSGI) is a physiologic imaging modality that can detect subcentimeter and mammographically occult breast cancer, with a sensitivity and specificity comparable to MRI. The purpose of this study was to determine the incremental increase in breast cancer detection when BSGI is used as an adjunct to mammography in women at increased risk for breast cancer. All patients undergoing BSGI from April 2010 through January 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Eligible patients were identified as women at increased risk for breast cancer and whose most recent mammogram was benign. Examinations exhibiting focally increased radiotracer uptake were considered positive. Incremental increase in cancer detection was calculated as the percentage of mammographically occult BSGI-detected breast cancer and the number of mammographically occult breast cancers detected per 1,000 women screened. Included in this study were 849 patients in whom 14 BSGI examinations detected mammographically occult breast cancer. Patients ranged in age from 26 to 83 y, with a mean age of 57 y. Eleven of 14 cancers were detected in women with dense breasts. The addition of BSGI to the annual breast screen of asymptomatic women at increased risk for breast cancer yields 16.5 cancers per 1,000 women screened. When high-risk lesions and cancers were combined, BSGI detected 33.0 high-risk lesions and cancers per 1,000 women screened. BSGI is a reliable adjunct modality to screening mammography that increases breast cancer detection by 1.7% (14/849) in women at increased risk for breast cancer, comparable to results reported for breast MRI. BSGI is beneficial in breast cancer detection in women at increased risk, particularly in those with dense breasts. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  15. Standard psychological consultations and follow up for women at increased risk of hereditary breast cancer considering prophylactic mastectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. Tan; E.M.A. Bleiker (Eveline); M.B.E. Menke-Pluymers (Marian); A.R. van Gool (Arthur); S. van Dooren (Silvia); B.N. van Geel (Bert); M.M.A. Tilanus-Linthorst (Madeleine); C.C.M. Bartels (Carina); J.G.M. Klijn (Jan); C.T. Brekelmans (Cecile); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Women at increased (genetic) risk of breast cancer have to weigh the personal pros and cons of prophylactic mastectomy (PM) as an option to reduce their cancer risk. So far, no routine referral to a psychologist has been investigated for women considering PM. Aim of this

  16. The Association Between Familial Homelessness, Aggression, and Victimization Among Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetelina, Katelyn K; Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M; Cuccaro, Paula M; Peskin, Melissa F; Elliott, Marc N; Coker, Tumaini R; Mrug, Sylvie; Davies, Susan L; Schuster, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the number of periods children were exposed to familial homelessness and childhood aggression and victimization. Survey data were obtained from 4,297 fifth-grade children and their caregivers in three U.S. cities. Children and primary caregivers were surveyed longitudinally in 7th and 10th grades. Family homelessness, measured at each wave as unstable housing, was self-reported by the caregiver. Children were categorized into four mutually exclusive groups: victim only, aggressor only, victim-aggressor, and neither victim nor aggressor at each time point using validated measures. Multinomial, multilevel mixed models were used to evaluate the relationship among periods of homelessness and longitudinal victimization, aggression, and victim aggression compared to children who were nonvictims and nonaggressors. Results suggest that children who experienced family homelessness were more likely than domiciled children to report aggression and victim aggression but not victimization only. Multivariate analyses suggested that even brief periods of homelessness were positively associated with aggression and victim aggression (relative to neither) compared to children who were never homeless. Furthermore, childhood victimization and victim aggression significantly decreased from 5th grade to 10th grade while aggression significantly increased in 10th grade. Children who experienced family homelessness for brief periods of time were significantly more likely to be a victim-aggressor or aggressor compared to those who were never homeless. Prevention efforts should target housing security and other important factors that may reduce children's likelihood of aggression and associated victimization. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased oxygen free radical production during pregnancy may impair vascular reactivity in preeclamptic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazushi; Mori, Toshitaka; Iwasaki, Ai; Kimura, Chiharu; Matsushita, Hiroshi; Shinohara, Koichi; Wakatsuki, Akihiko

    2013-04-01

    To determine whether enhanced oxidative stress during pregnancy impairs vascular endothelial function and improves after delivery in preeclamptic women, we measured serum parameters of oxidative stress and endothelial function during pregnancy and 1 month after delivery in women with or without preeclampsia. We evaluated 18 participants with uncomplicated pregnancies, 11 with mild preeclampsia and 13 with severe preeclampsia. The plasma concentrations of reactive oxygen metabolite derivatives (d-ROMs) were measured, and the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) was determined to evaluate the oxygen free radicals and antioxidants, respectively. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) was also assessed as a marker of endothelial function. FMD was decreased significantly in both preeclamptic groups compared with control during pregnancy. FMD did not change after delivery in the control group, but it significantly increased after delivery in both the mildly and severely preeclamptic groups, nearing control levels 1 month after delivery (mild, 6.5±3.6-9.0±3.5%; severe, 4.3±3.3-9.7±2.6%). No changes in d-ROM concentrations were observed in the control group; however, the concentrations in both the mildly and severely preeclamptic groups significantly decreased to normal levels 1 month after delivery (mild, 562.0±106.5-430.5±90.5 CARR U (Carratelli units); severe, 681.0±239.0-411.8±69.7 CARR U). The plasma BAP levels did not change significantly in all three groups. A negative correlation between FMD and d-ROM concentrations was observed in the preeclamptic group, but not in the control group (r=-0.497; Ppregnancy may impair endothelial function and improve after delivery in preeclamptic women.

  18. Complementary and alternative medicine use among women at increased genetic risk of breast and ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loud Jennifer T

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM use is well documented among breast cancer patients and survivors, but little evidence is available to describe rates and patterns of use among women at increased genetic risk of breast cancer. Methods A pre-visit telephone interview was conducted to ascertain CAM use among the BRCA mutation carriers enrolled in a high-risk breast cancer screening study. Participants were asked to report on their use of thirteen therapies within the year prior to enrollment into the study. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between various factors and CAM use in this population. Results Among the 164 BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation-positive (BRCA+ women in this analysis, 78% reported CAM use, with prayer and lifestyle diet being the two most commonly reported modalities. Many subjects used multiple CAM therapies, with 34% reporting use of three or more modalities. The most commonly used modalities were mind-body therapies and biologically-based practices, 61.6% and 51.8%, respectively. High-risk women were more likely to use CAM if they were older, more educated, more worried about ovarian cancer risk, or had a previous cancer diagnosis. Conclusion This study suggests that the prevalence of CAM use is high among BRCA mutation carriers, with frequency of use comparable to that of breast cancer patients and survivors. Given the high prevalence of CAM use in our subjects, especially biologically-based therapies including herbal supplements, whose safety and efficacy in relation to cancer risk are unknown, our study suggests that future research is necessary to clarify these risks, and that it is important for providers to inquire about and to discuss the pros and cons of CAM use with their BRCA+ patients.

  19. Association of autistic traits in adulthood with childhood abuse, interpersonal victimization, and posttraumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrea L; Koenen, Karestan C; Lyall, Kristen; Robinson, Elise B; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2015-07-01

    Persons with autistic traits may be at elevated risk for interpersonal victimization across the life course. Children with high levels of autistic traits may be targeted for abuse, and deficits in social awareness may increase risk of interpersonal victimization. Additionally, persons with autistic traits may be at elevated risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms subsequent to trauma. We examined retrospectively reported prevalence of childhood abuse, trauma victimization and PTSD symptoms by autistic traits among adult women in a population-based longitudinal cohort, the Nurses' Health Study II (N=1,077). Autistic traits were measured by the 65-item Social Responsiveness Scale. We estimated odds ratios (OR) for childhood sexual and physical/emotional abuse and PTSD symptoms by quintiles of autistic traits. We examined possible mediation of PTSD risk by abuse and trauma type. Women in the highest versus lowest quintile of autistic traits were more likely to have been sexually abused (40.1% versus 26.7%), physically/emotionally abused (23.9% versus 14.3%), mugged (17.1% versus 10.1%), pressured into sexual contact (25.4% versus 15.6%) and have high PTSD symptoms (10.7% versus 4.5%). Odds of PTSD were elevated in women in the top three quintiles of autistic traits compared with the reference group (OR range=1.4 to 1.9). Childhood abuse exposure partly accounted for elevated risk of PTSD in women with autistic traits. We identify for the first time an association between autistic traits, childhood abuse, trauma victimization, and PTSD. Levels of autistic traits that are highly prevalent in the general population are associated with abuse, trauma and PTSD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Victims of peer violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents facts on peer violence victims, committed by minor perpetrators against other minors. The author analyses four main characteristics of peer violence: imbalance of power between perpetrators and victims, identified intention to cause injuries, permanent treats of repeated violence and afraidness of the victims. Otherness and weakness (physical and social of the victims are identified as the main motives of the perpetrators who decide to attack, and these characteristics form the basis of the victim typology. Due to the fact that the research is phenomenologically based mostly on media report on peer violence cases in the period between September 2011 and the end of 2012, the author illustrates all main statements with the real cases which took place in the focused period. Measures to combat peer violence are presented, like the already established such as the school without violence program, and those recently proposed, such as the so called Aleksa’s class. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: Društvene transformacije u procesu evropskih integracija - multidisciplinarni pristup

  1. Women in science and engineering: Increasing their numbers in the 1990s. A statement on policy and strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The Committee on Women in Science and Engineering (CWSE), a continuing committee established within the National Research Council (NRC) in January 1991, has a four-pronged mandate to: (1) collect and disseminate current data about the participation of women in science and engineering to broad constituencies in academe, government, industry, and professional societies; (2) monitor the progress of efforts to increase the participation of women in scientific and engineering careers; (3) conduct symposia, workshops, and other meetings of experts to explore the policy environment, to stimulate and encourage initiatives in program development for women in science and engineering, and to evaluate their effectiveness on a regular basis; and (4) propose research and conduct special studies on issues particularly relevant to women scientists and engineers in order to develop reports that will document evidence and articulate NRC recommendations for action. CWSE activities will focus on the participation of women in science and engineering at the postsecondary level of education and in various employment sectors. This report is the culmination of an initial examination by CWSE of the status of women scientists and engineers in the United States. In addition to providing statistics on the participation of women in the education/employment pipeline, it summarizes the Committee`s deliberations relating to its role in increasing the participation and improving the status of women in science and engineering.

  2. Sex of victims in maternal filicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Line; Tzoumakis, Stacy; Marleau, Jacques D; Allaire, Jean-François

    2005-06-01

    In many societies, girls are more often killed by their parents than boys. However, not much of this is known in contemporary societies. This study had two main objectives. The first was to assess whether the number of boy and girl victims of maternal filicide differ in the literature from 1959 to 2000. Using two scientific databases, Medline and PsycINFO, 20 texts were pertinent. The second objective was to identify the variables that differentiate the mothers who killed a son and those who killed a daughter in a sample of 42 women from the province of Quebec (Canada). Analysis of the data for the first part indicate that the numbers of sons and daughters killed by their mothers are similar in the literature. For the second aim no significant differences were noted between the women who killed a son and those who killed a daughter for 30 variables studied, e.g., motivation, method of killing, age of the victims, etc.

  3. Women, conflict, and culture in former Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojsavljevic, J

    1995-02-01

    The civil war in the former Yugoslavia has taken a toll on the women's movement which has disintegrated across male-defined nationalist borders. The women's movement in this area got its start during the Second World War but was disbanded under communism until women's groups began to form in the 1970s. Today the women's movement has lost the power to oppose the war and has been unable to prevent widespread violence perpetuated against women. Some feminists who have refused to embrace nationalism and patriotism have been vilified and have had to seek refuge abroad. Recently, however, hundreds of nongovernmental organizations have been formed to provide support to women and children victimized by the war. Women have been raped and impregnated as a strategy of male warfare, and raped women who refused an abortion were ostracized. War-related rape has yet to be fully recognized as an international human rights violation, and the issue is being used as political propaganda in the former Yugoslavia while it is ignored elsewhere. Sensationalist reporting of these rapes has further victimized women and made them unable to give voice to their trauma. War also increases women's suffering by destroying economic and social welfare systems. Oxfam is helping women record their testimonies of war and reconstruct the fabric of their societies through programs which provide income-generation and training in micro-enterprises. In addition, Oxfam is strengthening electronic communication and networking among women's groups throughout the region.

  4. Child Maltreatment Histories among Female Inmates Reporting Inmate on Inmate Sexual Victimization in Prison: The Mediating Role of Emotion Dysregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Gonsalves, Valerie M.; Scalora, Mario J.; King, Steve; Hardyman, Patricia L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite data indicating that child maltreatment (CM) in various forms is associated with adult sexual victimization among community women, few studies have explicitly explored how types of CM might relate to prison sexual victimization. Because little is known about "how" CM might give rise to prison sexual victimization, the present…

  5. Following the 2009 American Institute of Medicine recommendations for normal body mass index and overweight women led to an increased risk of fetal macrosomia among Taiwanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yieh-Loong; Chong, Kian-Mei; Seow, Kok-Min

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the risk of birth weights over 4000 g (macrosomia) in association with following the 2009 American Institute of Medicine (AIOM) recommendations. Seventy-six nondiabetic women who delivered a singleton, term macrosomic fetus and 82 women who delivered a singleton, term fetus weighing macrosomia and gestational weight gain in different periods of pregnancy was investigated using logistic regression. The incidence of macrosomia from January 2008 to December 2009 was 1.8% among the Taiwanese women. The incidences of cesarean delivery (54.5% vs. 18.2%, p 1000 mL at delivery (35.5% vs. 6.1%, p macrosomia. The risk of macrosomia among normal weight women with gestational weight gain greater than 13 kg increased four-fold [odds ratio (OR) = 4.88; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.84-12.90]. For overweight women with total gestational weight gain >11.5 kg, the risk of macrosomia increased nine-fold (OR = 9.63; 95% CI 1.76-52.74). Macrosomia resulted in more cesarean deliveries and greater maternal blood loss at birth. In Taiwan, to prevent macrosomia, we suggest that the total gestational weight gain should be <11.5 kg among normal weight women and within 10 kg for overweight women. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Being Victims or Beneficiafies? Perspectives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the perceptions and experiences Was that both the Women and the men in this study were victims of the consequences of FGC and RI. The female narratives could be .... exploring Sudanese women's and men's perceptions and experiences of ..... insult girls Wh0 have not undergone FGC, for example by the expression ...

  7. A single injection of kisspeptin-54 temporarily increases luteinizing hormone pulsatility in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, C N; Comninos, A N; Veldhuis, J D; Misra, S; Abbara, A; Izzi-Engbeaya, C; Donaldson, M; Ghatei, M A; Bloom, S R; Dhillo, W S

    2013-10-01

    Kisspeptin is a novel hypothalamic peptide which stimulates endogenous gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. A single subcutaneous bolus injection of kisspeptin-54 increases circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in women, but its acute effects on LH pulsatility are not known. To investigate the effects of a single subcutaneous (sc) injection of kisspeptin-54 administration on LH pulsatility in healthy female volunteers. Six healthy female adult volunteers underwent 10-minute blood sampling for serum LH measurement for 8 h during the follicular phase of menstrual cycle. Sc bolus injection of saline or kisspeptin-54 (0·15, 0·30 or 0·60 nmol/kg) was administered 4 h after commencing the study. A previously described, blinded deconvolution method was used to detect LH pulses. Mean number of LH pulses was increased significantly following 0·30 and 0·60 nmol/kg kisspeptin-54 when compared with saline (mean increase in number of LH pulses per 4 h, following injection: -0·17 ± 0·54, saline; +2·33 ± 0·56, 0·30 nmol/kg kisspeptin-54, P 54, P 54, P = 0·10 vs saline). A single injection of kisspeptin-54 temporarily stimulates the number of LH pulses in healthy women. Further studies are required to investigate the therapeutic potential of kisspeptin-54 injection to restore LH pulsatility in patients with reproductive disorders caused by impaired GnRH secretion. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Pharyngeal Gonorrhoea in Women: An Important Reservoir for Increasing Neisseria gonorrhoea Prevalence in Urban Australian Heterosexuals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Josephine Lusk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to characterize sexual behavioral aspects of heterosexual Neisseria gonorrhoea (NG acquisition in two Sexually Transmitted Diseases clinics in Sydney, Australia, in 2008–2012. Of 167 NG cases, 102 were heterosexually acquired with a trend of increasing NG prevalence in heterosexuals from 1.1% (95% CI 0.6–2.1 in 2008 to 3.0% (95% CI 2.0–4.0 in 2012 (P=0.027. Of heterosexual male cases, unprotected fellatio was the likely sexual activity for NG acquisition in 21/69 (30.4% and commercial sex work (CSW contact the likely source in 28/69 (40.6%. NG prevalence overall in CSW (2.2% was not significantly higher than in non-CSW (1.2% (P=0.15, but in 2012 there was a significant increase in NG prevalence in CSW (8.6% compared to non-CSW (1.6% (P<0.001. Pharyngeal NG was found in 9/33 (27.3% female cases. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC ≥ 0.03 mg/L occurred in 2.5% NG isolates, none heterosexually acquired. All were azithromycin susceptible. A significant trend of increasing prevalence of heterosexual gonorrhoea in an urban Australian STD clinic setting is reported. We advocate maintenance of NG screening in women, including pharyngeal screening in all women with partner change who report fellatio, as pharyngeal NG may be an important reservoir for heterosexual transmission. Outreach to CSW should be enhanced.

  9. Increased tobacco and alcohol use among women with joint hypermobility: a way to cope with anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza-Velasco, C; Stoebner-Delbarre, A; Cousson-Gélie, F; Pailhez, G; Bulbena, A; Baguet, F; Gély-Nargeot, M C

    2015-01-01

    Joint hypermobility (JH) is a common trait of heritable disorders of the connective tissue which has been identified as a risk factor for anxiety states. Anxiety and other negative emotions lead some people to use tobacco and alcohol as a coping strategy. The purpose of this study was to examine JH in relation to the consumption of these psychoactive substances and the associated anxiety and coping strategies. A cross-sectional sample of 305 female college students completed self-administered questionnaires on JH, tobacco and alcohol use, state and trait anxiety, and coping strategies. The prevalence of JH in the final sample (N = 301) was 51.8 %. The percentage of smokers, smokers using tobacco to calm anxiety, at-risk drinkers, tobacco and alcohol users, and the number of standard drinks consumed per week were significantly higher among females with JH than among those without it. The percentage of participants with severe state anxiety was significantly higher in the JH group, as were the emotion-focused coping score. The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of being assessed with JH were greater in those who consume tobacco and alcohol. This study provides evidence that women with JH report higher levels of state anxiety than non-JH women and use emotion-focused coping (i.e., efforts to regulate affect) more than any other coping strategies to deal with stress. These factors may help explain the increase in tobacco and alcohol use observed in this population.

  10. Epidemiologic analysis of change in eyelash characteristics with increasing age in a population of healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Dee A; Jones, Derek; Carruthers, Jean; Campo, Antoinette; Moench, Susan; Tardie, Greg; Largent, Joan; Caulkins, Carrie

    2014-11-01

    Observations that eyelashes become thinner, shorter, and lighter, as women age has not been previously quantified. This study was conducted to investigate associations between eyelash characteristics and age. The upper natural eyelashes of 179 subjects were photographed and analyzed (digital image analysis); length, thickness, and darkness (intensity: 0 = white and 255 = black) were calculated. Linear regression, including race as a potentially confounding factor, was used to assess the association between age and mean eyelash characteristics. Subjects' mean age was 40.3 (±10.3) years; 46.1% were white, 36.5% Asian, 9.0% Hispanic, 5.1% East Indian, and 3.4% black. Mean eyelash length ranged from 6.39 (±1.02) to 7.98 (±1.15) mm (subjects aged 50-65 years and 22-29 years, respectively). Mean thickness ranged from 1.17 (±0.42) to 1.62 (±0.56) mm (subjects aged 50-65 years and 20-29 years, respectively). Mean intensity ranged from 118.2 (±19.8) to 129.4 (±17.3) (subjects aged 30-39 years and 50-65 years, respectively). Adjusted for race, eyelash length, thickness, and darkness decreased significantly with increasing age (p population of healthy women is associated with significant decreases in eyelash length, thickness, and darkness.

  11. Frequent shopping by men and women increases survival in the older Taiwanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hung; Chen, Rosalind Chia-Yu; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2012-07-01

    Active ageing is a key to healthy ageing; shopping behaviour is an economically relevant activity of the elderly. Analysis was based on the NAHSIT 1999-2000 dataset. A total of 1841 representative free-living elderly Taiwanese people were selected and information included demographics, socioeconomic status, health behaviours, shopping frequencies, physical function and cognitive function. These data were linked to official death records. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate shopping frequency on death from 1999-2008 with possible covariate adjustment. Highly frequent shopping compared to never or rarely predicted survival (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.67) with adjustment for physical function and cognitive function and other covariates HR was 0.73 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.93). Elderly who shopped every day have 27% less risk of death than the least frequent shoppers. Men benefited more from everyday shopping than women with decreased HR 28% versus 23% compared to the least. Shopping behaviour favourably predicts survival. Highly frequent shopping may favour men more than women. Shopping captures several dimensions of personal well-being, health and security as well as contributing to the community's cohesiveness and economy and may represent or actually confer increased longevity.

  12. An increase in epicardial fat in women is associated with thrombotic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basurto Acevedo, Lourdes; Barrera Hernández, Susana; Fernández Muñoz, María de Jesús; Saucedo García, Renata Patricia; Rodríguez Luna, Ana Karen; Martínez Murillo, Carlos

    2018-01-29

    A decrease in fibrinolytic activity and an increase in the thickness of the epicardial adipose tissue have been observed in patients with coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to determine the association between epicardial adipose tissue and fibrinolytic activity by measuring the concentration of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 56 apparently healthy women aged 45 to 60 years. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical determinations were performed on all participants. The fibrinolytic activity was determined by measuring PAI-1 by ELISA. Epicardial thickness was assessed by transthoracic echocardiography. The concentration of PAI-1 was directly associated with the thickness of the epicardial adipose tissue (r=0.475, P=.001), body mass index (BMI), visceral adipose tissue, insulin resistance, glucose, and HDL-cholesterol. The multivariate regression analysis indicated that epicardial fat independently predicts the concentrations of PAI-1. Women with thicker epicardial adipose tissue have reduced fibrinolytic activity, and consequently greater thrombotic risk. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Establishing the Research Agenda for Increasing the Representation of Women in Engineering and Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Kathleen; Hill, Catherine; Benson, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    While there is an extensive body of research on gender equity in engineering and computing, there have been few efforts to glean insight from a dialog among experts. To encourage collaboration and to develop a shared vision of the future research agenda, a 2 day workshop of 50 scholars who work on the topic of gender in engineering and computing was held at a rural conference center. The structure of the conference and the location allowed for time to reflect, dialog, and to craft an innovative research agenda aimed at increasing the representation of women in engineering and computing. This paper has been written by the conference organizers and details the ideas and recommendations from the scholars. The result is an innovative, collaborative approach to future research that focuses on identifying effective interventions. The new approach includes the creation of partnerships with stakeholders including businesses, government agencies, non-profits and academic institutions to allow a broader voice in setting research priorities. Researchers recommend incorporating multiple disciplines and methodologies, while expanding the use of data analytics, merging and mining existing databases and creating new datasets. The future research agenda is detailed and includes studies focused on socio-cultural interventions particularly on career choice, within undergraduate and graduate programs, and for women in professional careers. The outcome is a vision for future research that can be shared with researchers, practitioners and other stakeholders that will lead to gender equity in the engineering and computing professions.

  14. Establishing the Research Agenda for Increasing the Representation of Women in Engineering and Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Kathleen; Hill, Catherine; Benson, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    While there is an extensive body of research on gender equity in engineering and computing, there have been few efforts to glean insight from a dialog among experts. To encourage collaboration and to develop a shared vision of the future research agenda, a 2 day workshop of 50 scholars who work on the topic of gender in engineering and computing was held at a rural conference center. The structure of the conference and the location allowed for time to reflect, dialog, and to craft an innovative research agenda aimed at increasing the representation of women in engineering and computing. This paper has been written by the conference organizers and details the ideas and recommendations from the scholars. The result is an innovative, collaborative approach to future research that focuses on identifying effective interventions. The new approach includes the creation of partnerships with stakeholders including businesses, government agencies, non-profits and academic institutions to allow a broader voice in setting research priorities. Researchers recommend incorporating multiple disciplines and methodologies, while expanding the use of data analytics, merging and mining existing databases and creating new datasets. The future research agenda is detailed and includes studies focused on socio-cultural interventions particularly on career choice, within undergraduate and graduate programs, and for women in professional careers. The outcome is a vision for future research that can be shared with researchers, practitioners and other stakeholders that will lead to gender equity in the engineering and computing professions. PMID:28469591

  15. Medicaid enrollment policy increased smoking cessation among pregnant women but had no impact on birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarlenski, Marian; Bleich, Sara N; Bennett, Wendy L; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Barry, Colleen L

    2014-06-01

    Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is an important cause of poor maternal and infant health outcomes in the population eligible for Medicaid. These outcomes may be avoided or attenuated by timely, high-quality prenatal care. Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System for the period 2004-10, we examined the effects of two optional state Medicaid enrollment policies on smoking cessation, preterm birth, and having an infant who was small for gestational age. We used a natural experiment to compare outcomes before and after nineteen states adopted either of the two policies. The first policy, presumptive eligibility, permits women to receive prenatal care while their Medicaid application is pending. Its adoption led to a 7.7-percentage-point increase in smoking cessation but did not reduce adverse birth outcomes. The second policy, the unborn-child option, permits states to provide coverage to pregnant women who cannot document their citizenship or residency. Its adoption was not significantly associated with any of the three outcomes. The presumptive-eligibility enrollment policy will continue to be an important tool for promoting timely prenatal care and smoking cessation. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  16. Increasing HIV/AIDS awareness among African-American women: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ludella; Tabi, Marian M

    2013-07-01

    This exploratory study was conducted to assess the effect of an HIV/AIDS prevention program on producing positive changing attitudes among African-American women in Southeast Georgia. This study used a faith-based approach. Data were collected from 23 respondents recruited from a local African-American church. HIV training was conducted over four 1-hour sessions using web-based interactive videos and lectures on HIV/AIDS. Constructs from the Social Cognitive Theory comprised the framework upon which the women received HIV/AIDS prevention training. Participants completed a 25-item pre- and post-intervention questionnaire to measure any changes that occurred in their attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS. Results showed a statistically significant difference in mean scores of individual knowledge and attitudes about HIV. The difference in mean scores for the remaining items was found to be statistically insignificant. The overall change in attitudes was also statistically significant, t = 2.27, df = 22, p HIV/AIDS, it makes a significant difference in changing their attitudes about this disease. Although findings were positive, further data is needed to substantiate and validate the use of community peers to increase knowledge and awareness about HIV/AIDS among the African-American population.

  17. Vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal, healthy women predicts increased cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierbeck, Louise Lind; Rejnmark, Lars; Tofteng, Charlotte Landbo

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between vitamin D status in healthy women and cardiovascular outcome.......To investigate the relationship between vitamin D status in healthy women and cardiovascular outcome....

  18. Sociodemographic and Incident Variables as Predictors of Victim Injury From Intimate Partner Violence: Findings From Police Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Marie E; Reid Quiñones, Kathryn; López, Cristina M; Andrews, Arthur R; Wallace, Megan M; Rheingold, Alyssa

    2017-11-01

    Predictors of victim injury from intimate partner violence (IPV) were investigated using 1,292 police reports collected in South Carolina in 2009/2010. All cases were opposite sex adults. Results from bivariate statistics showed that IPV cases with ( n = 649) and without visible injuries ( n = 643) differed on victim gender, victim race, type of relationship, and perpetrator's alcohol use. Results from a logistic regression analysis predicting victim injury showed higher odds ratios for males, Whites, and couples identified as cohabitants. Although most victims, including most injured victims, were Black women, males and Whites were overrepresented in the injured group.

  19. Derechos de ciudadanía de las mujeres extranjeras víctimas de violencia de género, en situación irregular (Citizenship rights of gender violence foreign women victims, in an irregular situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jesús Yugueros García

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La Ley Orgánica 10/2011, de 27 de julio, de modificación de los artículos 31 bis y 59 bis de la Ley Orgánica 4/2000, de 11 de enero, sobre Derechos y Libertades de los Extranjeros en España y su Integración Social (LO 10/2011; LO 4/2000, supone un avance en la consolidación de derechos de ciudadanía de las mujeres extranjeras en situación irregular, víctimas de violencia de género en las relaciones de pareja o expareja. Con este trabajo se pretende realizar un análisis diferenciado entre la actual Ley y las anteriores que regulaban la situación legal de estas mujeres, así como exponer los derechos que tienen concedidos en las diversas disposiciones legales actuales.Abstract: Organic Law 10/2011 of 27 July amending Articles 31a and 59a of the Organic Law 4/2000 of 11 January, on Rights and Freedoms of Foreigners in Spain and their Social Integration (LO 10/2011, 4/2000, is a step forward in the consolidation of citizenship rights of foreign women in an irregular situation, victims of gender violence in intimate relationships or former partner. This paper aims to make a differentiated analysis between the current and previous Law regulating the legal status of these women, as well as exposing the rights that have been granted by various existing laws.

  20. Victimization and pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata K. Szerla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pain has several causes. It can be caused not only by operative trauma or cancer. Some patients suffer from pain as a result of being victims of violence. The aim of the study was to introduce diagnosis and treatment of pain problems in patients who are victims of violence, from a physician’s and a psychologist’s common perspective. Physical pain-related primary effects experienced by the victims of domestic violence go far beyond the results which are noticeable directly and confirmed visually in a forensic examination. In the present paper we introduce an ‘invisible’ group of secondary effects of violence. They appear in time, often after several years, in the form of a variety of psychosomatic disorders. The body is devastated insidiously and the secondary effects are visible as vegetative symptoms, a variety of psychosomatic disorders and pain, difficult to diagnose and treat.

  1. [MRI breast-cancer screening: particularly important in women at increased risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wobbes, Th.; Boetes, C.

    2006-01-01

    In some women, the density of breast tissue is a limiting factor in the detection of early-stage breast cancer by palpation and mammography. This is the case in young women, for example. MRI sensitivity is not influenced by tissue density. For this reason, it would appear that young women with a

  2. Women victims of sexual violence: adherence to chemoprevention of HIV Mujeres víctimas de la violência sexual: adhesión a la quimioprofilaxia del HIV Mulheres vítimas de violência sexual: adesão à quimioprofilaxia do HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normélia Maria Freire Diniz

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the adherence of women victims of sexual violence, to AIDS chemoprevention treatment. A quantitative study was carried out at a care service to victims of sexual violence in Salvador (Bahia, Brazil. Study participants were 172 women. Data were collected through interviews with forms and consultation of patient files. The results showed that 45.4% of the abused women were teenagers and 40.7% of the attended women were raped. Only 54% of the women were advised to use antiretrovirals to prevent HIV. Adherence to treatment occurred in 57.4% of cases and discontinuity corresponded to 42.6%. Non-adherence to treatment was attributed to psychological or emotional disorders and non-understanding of the established treatment. Therefore, it is important that professionals pay careful attention in order to perceive the conditions that might increase women's vulnerability to the infection.La finalidad de este estudio fue investigar si las mujeres víctimas de violencia sexual adhieren o no al uso de medicamentos para prevención del HIV. Fue realizado un estudio cuantitativo en un servicio de atención a personas sexualmente violentadas, ubicado en Salvador (Bahía, Brasil. Participaron del estudio 172 mujeres. Los datos fueron recopilados a través de entrevistas dirigidas y consulta a los archivos. Los resultados demostraron que el 45.4% de las mujeres víctimas de violencia eran adolescentes y que el 40.7% de las mujeres asistidas fueron violadas. Sólo el 54% de las mujeres fue aconsejado a usar medicamentos antiretrovirales para prevención del VIH, El 57.4% de ellas adhirió al tratamiento y el 42.6% no lo continuó. Aquellas que no adhirieron al tratamiento alegaron disturbios psicológico y/o emocional o no comprensión del tratamiento instituido. Por lo tanto, es necesaria una mirada atenta de los profesionales para percibir las condiciones que implican un aumento en la vulnerabilidad de las mujeres a la infecci

  3. Women with more severe degrees of temporomandibular disorder exhibit an increase in temperature over the temporomandibular joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Vieira Dibai-Filho

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: FAI score was associated with skin temperature over the TMJ, as determined by infrared thermography, in this sample. Women with more severe TMD demonstrated a bilateral increase in skin temperature.

  4. Women victims of intentional homicide in Italy: New insights comparing Italian trends to German and U.S. trends, 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Claudio; Zen, Margherita

    2018-01-01

    National statistics on female homicide could be a useful tool to evaluate the phenomenon and plan adequate strategies to prevent and reduce this crime. The aim of the study is to contribute to the analysis of intentional female homicides in Italy by comparing Italian trends to German and United States trends from 2008 to 2014. This is a population study based on data deriving primarily from national and European statistical institutes, from the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reporting and from the National Center for Health Statistics. Data were analyzed in relation to trends and age by Chi-square test, Student's t-test and linear regression. Results show that female homicides, unlike male homicides, remained stable in the three countries. Regression analysis showed a higher risk for female homicide in all age groups in the U.S. Middle-aged women result at higher risk, and the majority of murdered women are killed by people they know. These results confirm previous findings and suggest the need to focus also in Italy on preventive strategies to reduce those precipitating factors linked to violence and present in the course of a relationship or within the family. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. Fish consumption does not prevent increase in waist circumference in European women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Due, Karen M; Dethlefsen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    fish consumption and subsequent change in waist circumference. Sex, age and waist circumference at enrolment were considered as potential effect modifiers. Women and men (n 89 432) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) were followed for a median of 5......Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. However, human studies have suggested that fish consumption has no appreciable association with body-weight gain. We investigated the associations between...... not systematically change the observed associations, but the 95 % CI became slightly wider. The results in subgroups from analyses stratified by sex, age or waist circumference at enrolment were not systematically different. In conclusion, the present study suggests that fish consumption does not prevent increase...

  6. Measuring Poly-Victimization Using the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.; Hamby, Sherry L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Children who experience multiple victimizations (referred to in this paper as poly-victims) need to be identified because they are at particularly high risk of additional victimization and traumatic psychological effects. This paper compares alternative ways of identifying such children using questions from the Juvenile Victimization…

  7. Poly-Victimization: A Neglected Component in Child Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the role of multiple victimization, or what is termed in this article "poly-victimization," in explaining trauma symptomatology. Method: In a nationally representative sample of 2,030 children ages 2-17, assessment was made of the past year's victimization experiences and recent trauma symptoms. Results: Children experiencing…

  8. Poly-Victimization and Peer Harassment Involvement in a Technological World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Segura, Anna; Jones, Lisa M; Turner, Heather A

    2018-03-01

    This article explores the ways poly-victimized youth (those experiencing multiple different types of victimization over the course of 1 year) use technology to interact with peers. Particular attention is given to the peer harassment victimization and perpetration experiences of poly-victimized youth compared with less victimized and non-victimized youth-both overall and through technology. Data were collected as part of the Technology Harassment Victimization (THV) study; a national survey of 791 youth, ages 10 to 20 across the United States. Study results document the heightened risks that poly-victimized youth experience when interacting with peers. Low and high poly-victimized youth were both at significantly greater risk of being dual victims and perpetrators of peer harassment when compared with non-victimized youth even after taking into account other potentially explanatory factors. This was not found to be the case for less victimized youth. This was true for high poly-victims and technology-involved harassment risk as well. There were indications that poly-victimized youth were interacting with peers in more intense and risky ways in general using new technology. The increase in attention to poly-victimization in recent years has importantly identified the detrimental role that experiencing different forms of victimization have on youth. This study not only adds to that literature but suggests that there is an opportunity to interrupt additional victimization by understanding how poly-victimized youth interact with peers before and during adolescence. Although preliminary, the differences in technology use by poly-victimized youth versus others suggest that more information is needed to understand how they are relating to peers in both positive and risky ways in this environment.

  9. A sad mood increases attention to unhealthy food images in women with food addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frayn, Mallory; Sears, Christopher R; von Ranson, Kristin M

    2016-05-01

    Food addiction and emotional eating both influence eating and weight, but little is known of how negative mood affects the attentional processes that may contribute to food addiction. The purpose of this study was to compare attention to food images in adult women (N = 66) with versus without food addiction, before and after a sad mood induction (MI). Participants' eye fixations were tracked and recorded throughout 8-s presentations of displays with healthy food, unhealthy food, and non-food images. Food addiction was self-reported using the Yale Food Addiction Scale. The sad MI involved watching an 8-min video about a young child who passed away from cancer. It was predicted that: (1) participants in the food addiction group would attend to unhealthy food significantly more than participants in the control group, and (2) participants in the food addiction group would increase their attention to unhealthy food images following the sad MI, due to increased emotional reactivity and poorer emotional regulation. As predicted, the sad MI had a different effect for those with versus without food addiction: for participants with food addiction, attention to unhealthy images increased following the sad MI and attention to healthy images decreased, whereas for participants without food addiction the sad MI did not alter attention to food. These findings contribute to researchers' understanding of the cognitive factors underlying food addiction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. One Session of Autogenic Training Increases Acute Subjective Sexual Arousal in Premenopausal Women Reporting Sexual Arousal Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Amelia M; Hixon, J Gregory; Nichols, Lindsey M; Meston, Cindy M

    2018-01-01

    Below average heart rate variability (HRV) has been associated with sexual arousal dysfunction and overall sexual dysfunction in women. Autogenic training, a psychophysiologic relaxation technique, has been shown to increase HRV. In a recent study, sexually healthy women experienced acute increases in physiologic (ie, genital) and subjective sexual arousal after 1 brief session of autogenic training. To build on these findings by testing the effects of a single session of autogenic training on sexual arousal in a sample of women who reported decreased or absent sexual arousal for at least 6 months. Genital sexual arousal, subjective sexual arousal, and perceived genital sensations were assessed in 25 women 20 to 44 years old before and after listening to a 22-minute autogenic training recording. HRV was assessed with electrocardiography. Change in genital sexual arousal, subjective sexual arousal, and perceived genital sensations from the pre-manipulation erotic film to the post-manipulation erotic film. Marginally significant increases in discrete subjective sexual arousal (P = .051) and significant increases in perceived genital sensations (P = .018) were observed. In addition, degree of change in HRV significantly moderated increases in subjective arousal measured continuously over time (P women who are reporting a lack of subjective arousal or decreased genital sensations. There are few treatment options for women with arousal problems. We report on a new psychosocial intervention that could improve arousal. Limitations include a relatively small sample and the lack of a control group. Our findings indicate that autogenic training significantly improves acute subjective arousal and increases perceived genital sensations in premenopausal women with self-reported arousal concerns. Stanton AM, Hixon JG, Nichols LM, Meston CM. One Session of Autogenic Training Increases Acute Subjective Sexual Arousal in Premenopausal Women Reporting Sexual Arousal Problems. J

  11. Frequency of self-reported sexual aggression and victimization in Brazil: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lylla Winzer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The lack of official data on rape has been a challenge for researchers in Brazil. Two recently published studies were based on law enforcement and medical records. Although these studies represent important progress in research on rape in the country, they have several limitations. In order to obtain more realistic rates, the current article reviews Brazilian studies on self-reported sexual aggression and victimization in individuals over 14 years of age. Forty-one studies were identified through electronic searches and reference verification. From 1% to 40% of women and 1% to 35% of men reported some form of victimization in the previous year. The male perpetration incidence ranged from 2% to 44%. Despite the wide variability, these rates were much higher than those provided by official data. The results suggest that sexual orientation is associated with vulnerability. Mixed findings were found concerning race. Most studies were based on convenience samples and focused on female victimization. Male victimization has received increasing attention, but studies on self-reported perpetration are still limited.

  12. Violent victimization among state prison inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldredge, John; Steiner, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Violent victimization in prison may enhance inmates' cynicism toward legal authority and the risk of subsequent criminality. Both micro- and macro-level effects on the prevalence and incidence of inmate-on-inmate physical assault during a 6-month period were examined for random samples of inmates (n1 = 5,640) from all state prisons in Ohio and Kentucky (n2 = 46). Findings revealed that nonprovoked assaults were more common among inmates with lifestyles that might have increased their vulnerability to victimization (less time spent in structured activities, committed violent acts themselves, etc.), and in prisons with larger populations and officers who practice lax rule enforcement. A supplementary analysis of violent offending also revealed that inmate offenders and victims may look less like each other compared to offenders and victims in the general population. Policies focused on increasing inmates' involvement in structured prison activities, enhancing professionalism among officers, and lowering prison populations may be most effective for minimizing the risk of violent victimization.

  13. That's What Friends Are For: Bystander Responses to Friends or Strangers at Risk for Party Rape Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jennifer; Pazienza, Rena; Olin, Rachel; Rich, Hillary

    2015-10-01

    The present research examined bystander responses to potential party rape scenarios involving either a friend or a stranger at risk. Undergraduate students (N = 151) imagined attending a party and seeing a man lead an intoxicated woman (friend or stranger) into a bedroom. After random assignment to conditions, participants reported on intentions to help, barriers to helping, victim blame, and empathic concern. As expected, based on their shared social group membership, bystanders intended to offer more help to friends than to strangers. Bystanders also reported more personal responsibility to help and more empathic concern when the potential victim was a friend rather than stranger. Observing a friend versus stranger at risk did not affect audience inhibition or perceived victim blame. Compared with women, men reported more blame and less empathic concern for potential victims. However, there were no gender differences in bystander intent to help or barriers to helping. In multivariate analyses, both responsibility to help and empathic concern for the potential victim uniquely predicted bystanders' intent to help a woman at risk for party rape. Results suggest that promoting social identification with peers at risk could increase bystander intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Exploring Bullying Perpetration and Victimization Among Adolescent Girls in the Child Welfare System: Bully-Only, Victim-Only, Bully-Victim, and Noninvolved Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzing, Paul R; Auslander, Wendy F; Ratliff, G Allen; Gerke, Donald R; Edmond, Tonya; Jonson-Reid, Melissa

    2017-03-01

    Childhood abuse is a common experience for youth in the child welfare system, increasing their risk of bullying perpetration and victimization. Little research exists that has examined the rates of bullying perpetration and victimization for child welfare-involved adolescent girls. The study addressed the following aims: (a) to generate frequency estimates of physical, nonphysical, and relational forms of bullying perpetration and victimization; (b) to identify the frequency of bully-only, victim-only, bully-victim, and noninvolved roles; and (c) to identify risk and protective factors that correlate with these bullying role types. Participants were 236 girls (12-19 years) in the child welfare system from a Midwestern urban area. Participants were referred to the study to join a trauma-focused group program. Seventy-five percent of the total sample were youth of color, with the remaining 25% identifying as White, non-Hispanic. Data were collected through baseline surveys that assessed childhood abuse, bullying perpetration and victimization, posttraumatic stress, substance misuse, aggression-related beliefs and self-efficacy, placement type, placement instability, and mental health service use. Child welfare-involved adolescent girls were found to assume all four major role types: bully-only (6.4%, n = 15), victim-only (20.3%, n = 48), bully-victim (44.1%, n = 104), and nonvictims (29.2%, n = 69). The bully-victim rate was approximately 7 times higher than the rate found in a nationally representative sample of non-child welfare-involved youth. The current study identified posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, anger self-efficacy, and alcohol use as significant correlates of bullying roles. The identification of a substantially higher rate of bully-victims has important practice implications, suggesting child welfare and school systems adopt trauma-informed systems of care. Bully-victims are very likely traumatized children who are in need of effective

  15. Predictors of Latent Trajectory Classes of Dating Violence Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Foshee, Vangie; Ennett, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study identified classes of developmental trajectories of physical dating violence victimization from grades 8 to 12 and examined theoretically-based risk factors that distinguished among trajectory classes. Data were from a multi-wave longitudinal study spanning 8th through 12th grade (n = 2,566; 51.9% female). Growth mixture models were used to identify trajectory classes of physical dating violence victimization separately for girls and boys. Logistic and multinomial logistic regressions were used to identify situational and target vulnerability factors associated with the trajectory classes. For girls, three trajectory classes were identified: a low/non-involved class; a moderate class where victimization increased slightly until the 10th grade and then decreased through the 12th grade; and a high class where victimization started at a higher level in the 8th grade, increased substantially until the 10th grade, and then decreased until the 12th grade. For males, two classes were identified: a low/non-involved class, and a victimized class where victimization increased slightly until the 9th grade, decreased until the 11th grade, and then increased again through the 12th grade. In bivariate analyses, almost all of the situational and target vulnerability risk factors distinguished the victimization classes from the non-involved classes. However, when all risk factors and control variables were in the model, alcohol use (a situational vulnerability) was the only factor that distinguished membership in the moderate trajectory class from the non-involved class for girls; anxiety and being victimized by peers (target vulnerability factors) were the factors that distinguished the high from the non-involved classes for the girls; and victimization by peers was the only factor distinguishing the victimized from the non-involved class for boys. These findings contribute to our understanding of the heterogeneity in physical dating violence victimization during

  16. The contribution of hereditary thrombophilia to increasing the frequency of thrombosis in patients with Ph negative myeloproliferative neoplasms, including the victims from the Chornobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishcheniuk, O Y; Shkarupa, V M; Kostukevich, O M; Neumerzhitcka, L V; Kravchenko, S M; Klymenko, S V

    2016-12-01

    The definition of a contribution of the carriage of the G1691A allele of thecoagulation factor V gene and the G20210A allele of the coagulation factor II gene in the development of thrombosis in Ph negative myeloprolifer ative neoplasms (MPN) patients, who were irradiated in the dose range 0,001 0,99 Gy and who were not. The clinical and molecular genetic characteristics of patients with radiation associated and spontaneous polycythemia vera (PV), essential trombotsytemiya (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) were ana lyzed. The group of radiation associated PV, ET and PMF represented by 35, 10 and 22 patients respectively, and the cohort of spontaneous PV, ET and PMF - 149, 111 and 78 patients respectively. The carriage of any of the two molecular genetic markers of hereditary thrombophilia at spontaneous PMF increases the frequency (3 of 6 vs 8 of 72; p = 0.033) and risk (RR = 6.09; 95 % CI = 1.40-26.43) of thrombosis. The presence of the G1691A allele of the proaccelerin gene in patients with PMF, who were not exposed to ionizing radiation, causes increase the likelihood of venous thrombosis at 10.14 times (95 % CI = 1.67-61.33). At spontaneous and radiation associated Ph negative MPN (in individuals exposed to doses in the range 0,001-0,99 Gy), the higher rate of the occurrence of venous, arterial and any thrombosis was observed in carriers of the G1691A allele the coagulation factor V gene, than in those, whose have the wild type allele. In particular, the G1691A allele of the proaccelerin gene carriers, that are belonged to the group of patients with radiation associated PV, have at 33.33 person years bigger rate of any thrombosis (95 % CI = 0.22-100.00, p = 0.048) and venous vascular events (95 % CI = 12.50-50.00; p = 0.003).In PMF patients with a radiation anamnesis were found the difference (20.00 person years; 95 % CI = 1.51-50.00, p = 0.035) between the ratio of any thrombosis and arterial vascular events, which was calculated for the G1691A allele of

  17. Sexually Victimized Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Joann, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The documented incidence of sexual abuse of boys is reported. Though prevalence rates varied from different sources, all sources agreed that reported cases reflect only a fraction of the actual prevalence. The paper also discusses characteristics of the abusers, risk factors of victims, the effects of abuse, and the coping styles of the young male…

  18. Victims and Heroes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg, Christian K.

    2010-01-01

    Victimization, autochthony and citizenship, power and nation-building constitute recurrent, interrelated themes in post-war Manding historical memory in the border area between Liberia and Guinea. While the perceived history of the Manding diverges from academic, historical knowledge as well...

  19. First Person Victim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Bruni, Luis Emilio; Khalil, Faysal Fuad

    2010-01-01

    of violent interactive shooter experiences by allowing the participants to experience the feeling of being a victim of war. An evaluation of the implementation indicated that participants experienced free spatial interaction, while still being able to acquire an understanding of the theme being mediated....

  20. Adolescent sexual victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P

    2012-01-01

    at baseline and first time APSV during a 6-month period. Data analysis was a binary logistic regression analysis. Number of sexual partners and displaying sexual risk behaviors significantly predicted subsequent first time peer-on-peer sexual victimization, whereas a history of child sexual abuse, early...

  1. Disaster victim identification: Tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Arveen

    2005-04-23

    In the aftermath of the devastating tsunami that hit South East Asia last December, a huge operation to try to identify thousands of victims got underway, with the help of many overseas medical and dental professionals. British dentist Gareth Pearson went to Thailand to try and help in this task and here recounts his experience.

  2. [The war victim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugeux, P; Barouti, H

    1994-10-01

    Just as the concept of war itself, the concept of the war victim is progressive, necessitating legal, economic, social, sanitary, ethical and political adaptations. In France, the laws of 1919, effective from 2nd August 1914, brought radical reform as laws of public solidarity, which guaranteed by the nation, the support of invalids of the most savage war in history. The collective nature of this new social risk obliged the state to replace a purely financial compensation by a solution of rehabilitation. The "Office National des Mutilés et Réformés", created in March 1916, was put in charge of the organisation of professional reeducation. The "war invalids" category was being transform a logic of assistance into one of social action. Later, the legislative structure made extensions, enlarging the beneficiaries in the "war victim" category. The "Service de Santé des Armées" in its basic mission of support to the armed forces covers many areas. The "Anciens Combattants et Victimes de Guerre" administration disposes of specific instruments, such as the "Institution Nationale des Invalides", the "Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur l'Appareillage des Handicapés", the "Office National des Anciens Combatants". These joint actions, added to the ones of very influential autonomous associations, contribute to give handicapped war victims an honourable citizenship.

  3. [Violence and health. Symptoms, consequences and treatment of victimized patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Ute; Wagels, Lisa; Ellendt, Sinika; Scheller, Maryse; Evler, Aynur; Bergs, René; Clemens, Benjamin; Pütz, Annette; Kohn, Nils; Schneider, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Violence has many faces and often results in a variety of consequences. Some studies indicated different types of violence and health consequences in men and women. However, it is still unclear whether this is reflected in clinical context, for example in a patient sample of a German university hospital. The primary goal of the present study was to analyze associations of violence with health, gender and social, economic, job-related, psychological and physical consequences. In addition, the effects of psychological treatment were examined. One line of research refers to the survey of more than 5000 patients of the university hospital Aachen, evaluating violence experience and several health complaints anonymously. Another line of research deals with detailed interviews with victims of violence and their experienced consequences. A final data source stems from the evaluation of psychological counseling of patients with prior experience of violence. Changes in subjectively perceived depressive symptoms and acceptance of the treatment are evaluated. Experience of violence increases the risk for several health problems, especially the experience of multiple types of violence. The interviews showed that more than 60% of the victims had a clinical diagnosis--independent of sex. The risk for a clinical diagnosis increased with multiple violence experiences during childhood. Patients with a clinical diagnosis indicated more subjective consequences of violence, and consequences of violence were more pronounced in patients that experienced multiple types of violence. The good acceptance as well as the effects on symptomatology and other relevant therapeutic variables provides a first indication for a successful treatment of victims of violence in a clinical context.

  4. Pregnant trauma victims experience nearly 2-fold higher mortality compared to their nonpregnant counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Neha A; Kucirka, Lauren M; Smith, Randi N; Oxford, Corrina M

    2017-11-01

    Trauma is the leading nonobstetric cause of death in women of reproductive age, and pregnant women in particular may be at increased risk of violent trauma. Management of trauma in pregnancy is complicated by altered maternal physiology, provider expertise, potential disparate imaging, and distorted anatomy. Little is known about the impact of trauma on maternal mortality. We sought to: (1) characterize nonviolent and violent trauma among pregnant women; (2) determine whether pregnancy is associated with increased mortality following traumatic injury; and (3) identify risk factors for trauma-related death in pregnant women. We studied 1148 trauma events among pregnant girls and women and 43,608 trauma events among nonpregnant girls and women of reproductive age (14-49 years) who presented to any accredited trauma center in Pennsylvania for treatment of trauma-related injuries from 2005 through 2015, as captured in the Pennsylvania Trauma Outcome Study. Traumas were categorized as violent (eg, homicide or assault) or nonviolent (eg, motor vehicle accident or accidental fall). We used modified Poisson regression to estimate relative rate of trauma-related death, adjusting for demographic characteristics and severity of trauma. Compared to nonpregnant women, pregnant women and girls had a lower injury severity score (8.9 vs 10.9, P victims had a 1.6-fold higher rate of mortality compared to their nonpregnant counterparts (P victims of nonviolent and violent trauma (adjusted relative risk, 1.69, P = .002, and adjusted relative risk, 1.60, P = .007, respectively). Pregnant trauma victims were less likely to undergo surgery (adjusted relative risk, 0.70, P = .001) and more likely to be transferred to another facility (adjusted relative risk, 1.72, P < .001). Even after adjusting for demographics and injury severity score, violent trauma was associated with 3.14-fold higher mortality in pregnant women and girls compared to nonviolent trauma (adjusted relative risk, 3

  5. Predicting Psychosocial Consequences of Homophobic Victimization in Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation examined the extent to which homophobic victimization predicted multiple indicators of psychological and social distress for middle school students (n = 143) during a 1-year assessment period. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that homophobic victimization significantly predicted increased anxiety and depression,…

  6. Progesterone increases glomerular filtration rate, urinary kallikrein excretion and uric acid clearance in normal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, A N; Guimarães, J A; Gebara, M; Sustovich, D R; Martinez, T R; Camano, L

    1988-01-01

    In pregnancy there is a rise in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), plasma aldosterone levels, uric acid clearance and urinary kallikrein excretion. In toxemia all the above parameters tend to decrease. Progesterone has a diuretic effect which is usually related to aldosterone antagonism. We administered progesterone to normal women and observed that GFR, uric acid clearance and kallikrein excretion increased significantly, GFR from 103.0 +/- 13.7 ml/min to 118.0 +/- 18.0 ml/min (P less than 0.01), uric acid clearance from 9.0 +/- 3.6 ml/min to 14.3 +/- 4.0 ml/min (P less than 0.01), and urinary kallikrein excretion from 165 +/- 156 mU to 432 +/- 220 mU (P less than 0.01). Natriuresis and potassium excretion also increased from 15.9 +/- 6.4 mEq to 33.4 +/- 10.9 mEq (P less than 0.01) and from 7.6 +/- 2.7 mEq to 14.0 +/- 5.4 mEq, (P less than 0.01), respectively, suggesting that in this situation aldosterone antagonism is not relevant to explain the diuretic effects of progesterone.

  7. Undifferentiated Gender Role Orientation, Drinking Motives, and Increased Alcohol Use in Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugitt, Jessica L; Ham, Lindsay S; Bridges, Ana J

    2017-05-12

    Alcohol misuse has historically affected men more than women. However, the differences in drinking behaviors across sex have steadily decreased over time and accumulating research suggests that gender role orientation, or culturally scripted gender-specific characteristics, and negative reinforcement drinking motives may better explain risk for alcohol use and related problems than sex. The current study tested a mediational model of the undifferentiated orientation (low masculinity and low femininity), an oft neglected orientation despite evidence that it could carry much weight in drinking behaviors, versus the other three gender role orientations, coping and conformity drinking motives, and hazardous alcohol use. Participants were 426 current drinkers over age 21 (41% men; 77.8% Caucasian; M age = 34.5, range = 21-73) residing across the United States who completed an online survey. Structural equation modeling analyses suggested that individuals with an undifferentiated orientation (n = 99), compared to masculine (high masculinity, low femininity; n = 102), feminine (high femininity, low masculinity; n = 113), or androgynous (high masculinity, high femininity; n = 112) orientations, reported higher coping drinking motives, which were positively associated with levels of hazardous alcohol use. Although analyses suggested that undifferentiated individuals reported drinking for conformity motives more often than masculine and androgynous individuals, conformity motives were not associated with increased use. Conclusions/Importance: An undifferentiated gender role orientation may contribute a unique risk for alcohol use and related problems by increasing frequency of drinking to cope, a motive specifically associated with hazardous use trajectories.

  8. Stress-induced alterations in estradiol sensitivity increase risk for obesity in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity in the United States continues to rise, increasing individual vulnerability to an array of adverse health outcomes. One factor that has been implicated causally in the increased accumulation of fat and excess food intake is the activity of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) axis in the face of relentless stressor exposure. However, translational and clinical research continues to understudy the effects sex and gonadal hormones and LHPA axis dysfunction in the etiology of obesity even though women continue to be at greater risk than men for stress-induced disorders, including depression, emotional feeding and obesity. The current review will emphasize the need for sex-specific evaluation of the relationship between stress exposure and LHPA axis activity on individual risk for obesity by summarizing data generated by animal models currently being leveraged to determine the etiology of stress-induced alterations in feeding behavior and metabolism. There exists a clear lack of translational models that have been used to study female-specific risk. One translational model of psychosocial stress exposure that has proven fruitful in elucidating potential mechanisms by which females are at increased risk for stress-induced adverse health outcomes is that of social subordination in socially housed female macaque monkeys. Data from subordinate female monkeys suggest that increased risk for emotional eating and the development of obesity in females may be due to LHPA axis-induced changes in the behavioral and physiological sensitivity of estradiol. The lack in understanding of the mechanisms underlying these alterations necessitate the need to account for the effects of sex and gonadal hormones in the rationale, design, implementation, analysis and interpretation of results in our studies of stress axis function in obesity. Doing so may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets with which to combat stress-induced obesity

  9. Effects of group status and victim sex on female bystanders' responses to a potential party rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jennifer; Colbert, Samuel; Colangelo, Liane

    2015-01-01

    This research examined bystander responses to 1 of 4 potential party rape scenarios. Undergraduate women (N = 249) imagined attending a party either alone or with three friends where a sober man led an intoxicated potential victim (either male or female) into a bedroom. After random assignment to conditions, participants reported on intent to help and barriers to helping the potential victim. In contrast to the classic bystander effect, bystanders in groups intended to offer more help than lone bystanders. Bystanders also intended to offer more help to potential female than male victims and experienced more barriers to helping male victims. Two of these barriers (lack of personal responsibility to help and identifying risk) explained the lower intentions to help potential male victims. Potential male victims were more likely than female victims to be perceived as gay, and bystanders reported the least intentions to help presumably gay men at risk.

  10. Increased acceptance of HRT and improved level of information: a change in Norwegian women's opinion from 1990 to 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backe, B; Hunskaar, S

    2001-07-01

    To investigate the development in women's attitude to hormone replacement therapy, and the change in views concerning positive and negative effects. National cohort study based on telephone interviews in 1990 and 1997, of women randomly sampled from the Norwegian telephone book (n=1019 and 1003). The same questions were asked in both studies. In 1997, more women stated radio and television, doctors, friends and relatives as sources of information. The general attitude to hormone replacement therapy had become significantly more positive, and the respondents reported a higher level of information than in 1990. However, some misunderstandings about estrogen therapy still remain; the proportion of women who believed that estrogen treatment reduced the risk for breast cancer increased from 4% in 1990 to 15% in 1997. About one third of women aged 60 or more are current or past users. More than 60% of the women in the youngest age group state that they will consider use of estrogen replacement therapy. About four-fifths of the women in 1997 stated their willingness to use long term estrogen therapy if osteoporosis could be prevented. Estrogen replacement therapy has become a part of the public debate. A high degree of willingness to use estrogen is demonstrated. The self reported level of information is higher and women are generally more correctly informed about positive and negative effects.

  11. Frequency of victimization experiences and well-being among online, offline and combined victims on social online network sites of German children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eGlüer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Victimization is associated with negative developmental outcomes in childhood and adolescence. However, previous studies have provided mixed results regarding the association between offline and online victimization and indicators of social, psychological, and somatic well-being. In this study, we investigated 1,906 German children and adolescents (grades 5 to 10, mean age = 13.9; SD = 2.1 with and without offline or online victimization experiences who participated in a social online network (SNS. Online questionnaires were used to assess previous victimization (offline, online, combined, and without, somatic and psychological symptoms, self-esteem, and social self-concept (social competence, resistance to peer influence, esteem by others. In total, 1,362 (71.4% children and adolescents reported being a member of at least one social online network, and 377 students (28.8% reported previous victimization. Most children and adolescents had offline victimization experiences (17.5%, whereas 2.7% reported online victimization, and 8.6% reported combined experiences. Girls reported more online and combined victimization, and boys reported more offline victimization. The type of victimization (offline, online, combined was associated with increased reports of psychological and somatic symptoms, lower self-esteem and esteem by others, and lower resistance to peer influences. The effects were comparable for the groups with offline and online victimization. They were, however, increased in the combined group in comparison to victims with offline experiences alone.

  12. Victim Simulator for Victim Detection Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James P.; Haque, Salman

    2013-01-01

    Testing of victim detection radars has traditionally used human subjects who volunteer to be buried in, or climb into a space within, a rubble pile. This is not only uncomfortable, but can be hazardous or impractical when typical disaster scenarios are considered, including fire, mud, or liquid waste. Human subjects are also inconsistent from day to day (i.e., they do not have the same radar properties), so quantitative performance testing is difficult. Finally, testing a multiple-victim scenario is difficult and expensive because of the need for multiple human subjects who must all be coordinated. The solution is an anthropomorphic dummy with dielectric properties that replicate those of a human, and that has motions comparable to human motions for breathing and heartbeat. Two airfilled bladders filled and drained by solenoid valves provide the underlying motion for vinyl bags filled with a dielectric gel with realistic properties. The entire assembly is contained within a neoprene wetsuit serving as a "skin." The solenoids are controlled by a microcontroller, which can generate a variety of heart and breathing patterns, as well as being reprogrammable for more complex activities. Previous electromagnetic simulators or RF phantoms have been oriented towards assessing RF safety, e.g., the measurement of specific absorption rate (SAR) from a cell phone signal, or to provide a calibration target for diagnostic techniques (e.g., MRI). They are optimized for precise dielectric performance, and are typically rigid and immovable. This device is movable and "positionable," and has motion that replicates the small-scale motion of humans. It is soft (much as human tissue is) and has programmable motions.

  13. Creating the "desired mindset": Philip Morris's efforts to improve its corporate image among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2009-01-01

    Through analysis of tobacco company documents, we explored how and why Philip Morris sought to enhance its corporate image among American women. Philip Morris regarded women as an influential political group. To improve its image among women, while keeping tobacco off their organizational agendas, the company sponsored women's groups and programs. It also sought to appeal to women it defined as "active moms" by advertising its commitment to domestic violence victims. It was more successful in securing women's organizations as allies than active moms. Increasing tobacco's visibility as a global women's health issue may require addressing industry influence.

  14. Victimization and Violent Offending: An Assessment of the Victim-Offender Overlap Among Native American Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingle, Jennifer M.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the victim–offender overlap among a nationally representative sample of Native American adolescents and young adults. Data for this study were obtained from 338 Native American youth who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Waves I-IV. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to estimate trajectories of violence and victimization separately. Bivariate tests were used to assess the overlap between victimization and violent trajectory groups. Multinomial regression procedures were used to assess the predictors of victimization, offending, and the overlap category of both victimization and offending. Three trajectory groups were found for violence (nonviolent, escalators, and desistors) and victimization (nonvictim, decreasing victimization, and increasing victimization). We found substantial evidence of an overlap between victimization and offending among Native Americans, as 27.5% of the sample reported both victimization and offending. Those in the overlap group had greater number of risk factors present at baseline. These results suggest that the victim–offender overlap is present in Native American adolescents. Explanations and implications are discussed. PMID:24078778

  15. Increased illness burden in women with comorbid bipolar and premenstrual dysphoric disorder: data from 1 099 women from STEP-BD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slyepchenko, A; Frey, B N; Lafer, B; Nierenberg, A A; Sachs, G S; Dias, R S

    2017-11-01

    The impact of comorbid premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in women with bipolar disorder (BD) is largely unknown. We compared illness characteristics and female-specific mental health problems between women with BD with and without PMDD. A total of 1 099 women with BD who participated in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) were studied. Psychiatric diagnoses and illness characteristics were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Female-specific mental health was assessed using a self-report questionnaire developed for STEP-BD. PMDD diagnosis was based on DSM-5 criteria. Women with comorbid BD and PMDD had an earlier onset of bipolar illness (P disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, bulimia nervosa, substance abuse, and adult attention deficit disorder (all P < 0.05). There was a closer gap between BD onset and age of menarche in women with comorbid PMDD (P = 0.003). Women with comorbid PMDD reported more severe mood symptoms during the perinatal period and while taking oral contraceptives (P < 0.001). The results from this study is consistent with research suggesting that sensitivity to endogenous hormones may impact the onset and the clinical course of BD. The comorbidity between PMDD and BD is associated with worse clinical outcomes and increased illness burden. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Hepcidin levels are low during pregnancy and increase around delivery in women without iron deficiency - a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedengran, Katrine K; Nelson, Dick; Andersen, Malene R

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate hepcidin during pregnancy, delivery and postpartum in women with sufficient iron supplementation. METHODS: Hepcidin was measured using LC-MS spectroscopy in 37 women during pregnancy, delivery and postpartum period in this longitudinal study. RESULTS: Hepcidin was low...... during pregnancy and increased at delivery and postpartum. No correlations with inflammatory markers or iron metabolism were observed during pregnancy; at delivery a correlation with inflammatory markers was observed. CONCLUSION: During pregnancy, in women with sufficient iron supplementation, hepcidin...... is low and does not reflect iron status. During delivery and the postpartum period, hepcidin functions as a marker of inflammation....

  17. The Effects of Sexual Assault on the Identity Development of Black College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Wilma J.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual assault victims face more social criticism than victims of any other crime. It is uncertain whether women of color are more at risk for sexual assault than White women during their college years. However, studies suggest that Black female sexual assault victims are more likely than White female victims to be blamed for their attacks and…

  18. The bidirectional relationships between online victimization and psychosocial problems in adolescents: a comparison with real-life victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Eijnden, Regina; Vermulst, Ad; van Rooij, Antonius J; Scholte, Ron; van de Mheen, Dike

    2014-05-01

    Although peer victimization is of major concern and adolescents spend increasing amounts of time on the Internet, relatively little is known about the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online victimization. The main aim of this study was to compare the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online versus real-life victimization. More specifically, the bidirectional relationship between online and real-life victimization on the one hand and psychosocial problems (i.e., loneliness and social anxiety) on the other was examined. In addition, the moderating role of online aggression in the relationship between online victimization and subsequent psychosocial problems was studied. This prospective study, consisting of three annual measurements, was conducted among a sample of 831 adolescents (50.3 % girls) aged 11-15, of which most (80.2 %) had a Dutch ethnic background. The results indicate a unidirectional relationship whereby loneliness and social anxiety predict an increase in latter online victimization rather than the reverse. A bidirectional relationship was found for real-life victimization: loneliness (but not social anxiety) predicted an increase in latter real-life victimization, which in turn predicted an increase in subsequent social anxiety (but not loneliness). No moderating effects of online aggression were found. The findings of the present study suggest that negative online and in real life peer interactions have a differential meaning for, and impact on adolescents' well-being.

  19. The Bidirectional Relationships Between Online Victimization and Psychosocial Problems in Adolescents: A Comparison with Real-Life Victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Vermulst, A.A.; Rooij, A.J. van; Scholte, R.H.J.; Mheen, H. van de

    2014-01-01

    Although peer victimization is of major concern and adolescents spend increasing amounts of time on the Internet, relatively little is known about the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online victimization. The main aim of this study was to compare the psychosocial antecedents and

  20. The Bidirectional Relationships Between Online Victimization and Psychosocial Problems in Adolescents : A Comparison with Real-Life Victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Eijnden, Regina; Vermulst, Ad; van Rooij, Antonius J.; Scholte, Ron; van de Mheen, Dike

    2014-01-01

    Although peer victimization is of major concern and adolescents spend increasing amounts of time on the Internet, relatively little is known about the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online victimization. The main aim of this study was to compare the psychosocial antecedents and

  1. Victims' Responses to Stalking: An Examination of Fear Levels and Coping Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podaná, Zuzana; Imríšková, Romana

    2016-03-01

    Fear for the stalking victim's own safety or the safety of people close to them is of primary research interest due to the fact that fear is often required as a necessary condition for repetitive intrusive behavior to be defined as stalking. This study examines factors that increase levels of fear in stalking victims and analyzes their coping strategies, making use of data from a victimization survey among citizens of the Czech Republic (N = 2,503). Overall, 147 stalking victims were identified in the sample. Results show that female victims, those stalked by male offenders, and victims pursued over a long period of time, are most fearful. Higher levels of fear are elicited by strangers as opposed to partners or acquaintances. Among stalking practices, only direct aggression is significantly associated with fear, whereas monitoring the victim (comprising typical stalking behavior such as following the victim) increases the perception of the seriousness of stalking, but does not influence the victim's fear. In addition, three behavioral coping strategies have been identified: proactive behavior (47% of victims), avoidance (30%), and passivity (23%). The examination of the association between these coping strategies and victims' fear reveals that female victims, whose behavior is proactive, express higher levels of fear than male victims and than those choosing avoidance or passivity strategies. Overall, the study confirms gender differences in both the level of fear and coping strategies, and lends further support to appeals for eliminating the fear requirement from the stalking definition. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Effects of a Rape Awareness Program on College Women: Increasing Bystander Efficacy and Willingness to Intervene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foubert, John D.; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Brasfield, Hope; Hill, Brent

    2010-01-01

    An experimental study evaluated the efficacy of a sexual assault risk-reduction program on 279 college women that focused on learning characteristics of male perpetrators and teaching bystander intervention techniques. After seeing The Women's Program, participants reported significantly greater bystander efficacy and significantly greater…

  3. A New Approach to Increasing Diversity in Engineering at the Example of Women in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Andrea I.

    2006-01-01

    A new initiative to incorporate diversity issues into the common engineering curriculum at the University of Wollongong (UoW) in Australia is outlined and the effect on student awareness quantified. The diversity issues were illustrated in the example of women in engineering, seeing that the numbers of women in engineering have dropped drastically…

  4. Five Approaches to Increasing Participation of Talented Women in Science Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Walter S.

    This paper is concerned with the need for science teachers to encourage women students to pursue professional science careers. It presents five hypotheses that are often assumed about women and counters with five strategies that can be used. These are: (1) Deficiency hypothesis/Remediation strategy; (2) Unfeminine career hypothesis/Career selling…

  5. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion predicts preeclampsia in pregnant women with pregestational type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, MS; Hesse, D; Ekbom, P

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the urinary orosomucoid excretion (UOE) as a biomarker of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes.......We evaluated the urinary orosomucoid excretion (UOE) as a biomarker of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes....

  6. [Interviewing victims of sexual crimes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Teresa; Ribeiro, Catarina

    2007-01-01

    The approach to victims of sexual crimes is of special complexity due to the nature of this kind of crime, the impact of victimization and the specificity of judicial investigation procedures. The absence of physical evidence and the secrecy that characterizes the majority of sexual victimization cases frequently lead the victim's story to be used as one of few proof elements. Given the importance of the information supplied by the victim in the criminal inquiry, it is essential to create strategies to optimise the interview process, not only to preserve evidence, but also to prevent a secondary victimization process. This review discusses in a brief manner the extent to which information given by victims can be considered relevant forensic evidence, and then presents the methodological guidelines for interview that should be used in this type of expertise.

  7. Raised salivary testosterone in women is associated with increased attraction to masculine faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, L L M; Jones, B C; DeBruine, L M; Conway, C A; Law Smith, M J; Little, A C; Feinberg, D R; Sharp, M A; Al-Dujaili, E A S

    2007-08-01

    Women's preferences for masculinity in men's faces, voices and behavioral displays change during the menstrual cycle and are strongest around ovulation. While previous findings suggest that change in progesterone level is an important hormonal mechanism for such variation, it is likely that changes in the levels of other hormones will also contribute to cyclic variation in masculinity preferences. Here we compared women's preferences for masculine faces at two points in the menstrual cycle where women differed in salivary testosterone, but not in salivary progesterone or estrogen. Preferences for masculinity were strongest when women's testosterone levels were relatively high. Our findings complement those from previous studies that show systematic variation in masculinity preferences during the menstrual cycle and suggest that change in testosterone level may play an important role in cyclic shifts in women's preferences for masculine traits.

  8. Women referred for occupational risk assessment in pregnancy have no increased risk of adverse obstetric outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Signe Brøker; Kaerlev, Linda; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to study the association between pregnant women's referral status for occupational risk assessment, and their risk of preterm delivery (... pregnant women referred to two Danish clinics of occupational medicine (Copenhagen and Aarhus) from 1984 to 2010 were compared with the referred women's 1,077 non-referred pregnancy outcomes and with the pregnancy outcomes of 345,467 gainfully employed women from the same geographical areas and time period....../or that the occupational risk assessment and counselling of pregnant women are preventing these selected adverse pregnancy outcomes. FUNDING: The Research Unit at Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine at Bispebjerg Hospital supported the study financially. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant. The study...

  9. Increased homocysteine levels exist in women with preeclampsia from early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, Nisha S; Patil, Vidya V; Mehendale, Savita S; Wagh, Girija N; Gupte, Sanjay A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2016-01-01

    The present prospective study examines the levels of maternal plasma folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine in normotensive control (NC) women and women with preeclampsia (PE) from early pregnancy till delivery. The present study includes 126 NC and 62 PE women. Maternal blood was collected at 3 time points during pregnancy (T1 = 16th-20th weeks, T2 = 26th-30th weeks and T3 = at delivery). Levels of folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine were estimated by the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay technology. Maternal plasma folate levels were similar between NC and PE women at all the time points across gestation. Maternal plasma vitamin B12 levels were significantly higher in PE (p exist in women with PE from early pregnancy and continue till delivery.

  10. NIVELES DE DISFUNCIÓN FAMILIAR, EN VEINTE MUJERES VÍCTIMAS DE VIOLENCIA INTRAFAMILIAR EN EL MUNICIPIO DE ARMENIA. FAMILY DYSFUNCTION LEVELS IN TWENTY WOMEN, VICTIMS OF INTRAFAMILY VIOLENCE, IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF ARMENIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gonzales Portillo.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación pretende encontrar posibles niveles de disfunción familiar en las familias de 20 mujeres víctimas de violencia intrafamiliar en la ciudad de Armenia - Quindío, para lo cual se aplicó el APGAR familiar, el cual evalúa la satisfacción respecto a 5 variables: adaptación, participación, ganancia o crecimiento, afecto y recursos. El estudio encontró que las familias presentan disfunción leve (35%, moderada (30% y severa (20%, mientras un porcentaje muy bajo tiene buena función familiar (15%; lo anterior indica una correlación importante entre violencia intrafamiliar y disfunción familiar, condición que disminuye la calidad de vida del núcleo familiar, alterando los roles, los modos de expresión afectiva y la interiorización de lo normativo. ABSTRACT. This research aims to find possible levels of family dysfunction in families of 20 women victims of domestic violence in the city of Armenia - Quindío, which applied the family Apgar. It evaluates satisfaction with respect to 5 variables: adaptation, participation, gain or growth, affection and resources. The study found that the 35% families have mild dysfunction, 30% moderate dysfunction, and 20% severe dysfunction, while a very low percentage has good family function, which represents 15%. This indicates a significant correlation between intrafamily violence and family dysfunction, a condition that reduces the family unit's quality of life, altering roles, modes of emotional expression, and the internalization of norms.

  11. Prospective Effects of Method of Coercion in Sexual Victimization Across the First College Year

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Melissa J.; Read, Jennifer P.

    2012-01-01

    Women who enter college with a sexual victimization (SV) history may be at particular risk for deleterious outcomes including maladaptive alcohol involve posttraumatic stress, and re-victimization. Further, pre-college SV may be an impediment for the achievement of academic mile and may negatively impact the transition into college. Recent work shows that the method of coercion used in SV may be an important predictor of post-victimization outcomes. As such, the identification of pathways bet...

  12. Increasing certified nurse-midwives' confidence in managing the obstetric care of women with female genital mutilation/cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Susan D; Smith, Amy

    2013-01-01

    In response to an increase in the number of women who immigrate to the United States from countries that practice female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C; infibulation), US clinicians can expand their knowledge and increase confidence in caring for women who have experienced infibulation. This article describes a comprehensive education program on FGM/C and the results of a pilot study that examined its effect on midwives' confidence in caring for women with infibulation. An education program was developed that included didactic information, case studies, a cultural roundtable, and a hands-on skills laboratory of deinfibulation and repair. Eleven certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) participated in this pilot study. Participants completed a measure-of-confidence survey tool before and after the education intervention. Participants reported increased confidence in their ability to provide culturally competent care to immigrant women with infibulation when comparisons of preeducation and posteducation survey confidence logs were completed. Following the education program and the knowledge gained from it, these midwives were more confident about their ability to perform anterior episiotomy and to deliver necessary care to women with FGM/C in a culturally competent context. This education program should be expanded as more women who have experienced infibulation immigrate to the United States. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  13. "The Heart Truth:" Using the Power of Branding and Social Marketing to Increase Awareness of Heart Disease in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Terry; Taubenheim, Ann; Wayman, Jennifer; Temple, Sarah; Ruoff, Beth

    2008-03-01

    In September 2002, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute launched The Heart Truth, the first federally-sponsored national campaign aimed at increasing awareness among women about their risk of heart disease. A traditional social marketing approach, including an extensive formative research phase, was used to plan, implement, and evaluate the campaign. With the creation of the Red Dress as the national symbol for women and heart disease awareness, the campaign integrated a branding strategy into its social marketing framework. The aim was to develop and promote a women's heart disease brand that would create a strong emotional connection with women. The Red Dress brand has had a powerful appeal to a wide diversity of women and has given momentum to the campaign's three-part implementation strategy of partnership development, media relations, and community action. In addition to generating its own substantial programming, The Heart Truth became a catalyst for a host of other national and local educational initiatives, both large and small. By the campaign's fifth anniversary, surveys showed that women were increasingly aware of heart disease as their leading cause of death and that the rise in awareness was associated with increased action to reduce heart disease risk.

  14. Identification of victims in extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talipova, Yu.; Polukhina, O.

    2009-04-01

    Catastrophic natural disasters including tsunami events are increased the frequency in last years. One of very important problems here is the identification of personality of the victims. Due to difficult identification of the dead bodies lied into water for a long time the analysis of tooth-jaw system is proposed to apply because teeth are extremely stable to the destructive actions of environment. The method of identification of the age, sex and race of victims based on the mathematic model of pattern recognition and collected database is described. Some examples from extreme sea wave events are analyzed.

  15. Financial strain is associated with increased oxidative stress levels: the Women's Health and Aging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Priya; Szanton, Sarah L; Semba, Richard D; Thorpe, Roland J; Varadhan, Ravi; Fried, Linda P

    2015-01-01

    Elevated oxidative stress levels may be one mechanism contributing to poor health outcomes. Financial strain and oxidative stress are each predictors of morbidity and mortality, but little research has investigated their relationship. Community-dwelling older adults (n = 728) from the Women's Health and Aging Studies I and II were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Financial strain was ascertained as an ordinal response to: "At the end of the month, do you have more than enough money left over, just enough, or not enough?" Oxidative stress was measured using serum protein carbonyl concentrations. Linear regression was used to quantify the relationship between financial strain and oxidative stress. Participants who reported high financial strain exhibited 13.4% higher protein carbonyl concentrations compared to individuals who reported low financial strain (p = 0.002). High financial strain may be associated with increased oxidative stress, suggesting that oxidative stress could mediate associations between financial strain and poor health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Italian University Habilitation and the Challenge of Increasing the Representation of Women in Academia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pautasso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the representation of women in academia is a priority challenge in higher education policy. This study uses data from the Italian University habilitation competition in 2012 to test whether this national, standardized and quantitative assessment of researchers contributed to improving the situation. The proportion of female applications (on the whole about 36% was in many fields higher than the reported proportion of female University professors (27%, 2010, but lower than the proportion of female researchers (2010 in Italy (45% and 51% for researchers with and without a permanent position, respectively. There was still a gap between the proportion of female applications at the associate (on average 39% and full professor level (29%. A similar gap was also present between scientific disciplines and the humanities. Average success rates of female applications (41.2% were on the whole lower than those of male applications (43.9%, but in most fields these differences were not significant. Overall, it is generally much lower proportion of female applications rather than their lower success rate that perpetuates the low proportion of female academics in Italy. More effort is needed to support female researchers in choosing and pursuing an academic career.

  17. Effects of an intervention program for female victims of intimate partner violence on psychological symptoms and perceived social support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina B. Hansen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research has documented severe mental health problems in female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV. Therefore, providing effective treatment is pivotal. Few studies have investigated the effects of intervention programs on reducing the harmful consequences of IPV. Objective: The present study examined the effects of a specific three-phase intervention program for female victims of IPV on psychological symptoms (PTSD, anxiety, and depression and perceived social support. Given that many of the women dropped out before and during the intervention program, potential differences in initial levels of psychological symptoms, perceived social support, as well as descriptive variables were explored between the women who completed the whole program and the groups of women who dropped out prematurely. Method: The initial sample consisted of 212 female victims of IPV. Symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and level of perceived social support were measured with validated scales before the start of the intervention and after completion of each treatment phase. Results: Results showed a significant effect of the intervention program on reducing psychological symptoms and increasing levels of perceived social support. Effect sizes ranged from medium to very high. Significant positive effects were found for each of the treatment phases. There were no significant differences between the women who completed the whole program and those women who dropped out prematurely in terms of initial level of symptoms and perceived social support as well as descriptive characteristics. Conclusions: Specifically developed intervention programs for female victims of IPV are effective in reducing the harmful personal consequences of IPV. Future studies should consider employing controlled study designs and address the issue of high drop out rates found in intervention studies.

  18. Why are the benefits of increased resources not impacting the risk of HIV infection for high SES women in Cameroon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumah, Joyce N; Jackson-Smith, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Despite evidence of a positive SES-HIV gradient in some SSA countries, researchers and policy-makers frequently assume that a range of protective interventions--increasing awareness of mechanisms of HIV transmission, techniques for prevention, greater access to health care facilities, and greater availability of condoms--will reduce the likelihood of contracting HIV, even among higher SES populations. We therefore explore the relationships between SES and these intervening behaviors to illuminate the complex factors that link SES and HIV among women in Cameroon. We use bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis to examine patterns among the 5, 155 women aged 15-49 who participated in the 2004 CDHS. The results show a strong pattern where higher SES women have greater access to and use of health care facilities, higher levels of condom use, more HIV knowledge, and command higher power within their relationships, yet also have higher rates of HIV. These traditionally protective factors appear to be offset by riskier sexual behaviors on the part of women with increased resources, most notably longer years of premarital sexual experience, multiple partners in last 12 months, and sexual encounters outside of relationship. Multivariate analyses suggests net of the effect of other factors, women who command higher decision-making power, have greater access to health care, more negative attitudes toward wife beating, longer years of premarital sexual exposure, and partners with professional/white collar jobs (characteristics associated with rising SES) had higher odds of testing positive for HIV. Results show that higher riskier sexual practices on part of high SES women offset benefits that may have accrued from their increased access to resources. The results suggest that traditional approaches to HIV prevention which rely on poverty reduction, improving access to health care, improving HIV knowledge, and boosting women's social and economic power may be

  19. Why are the benefits of increased resources not impacting the risk of HIV infection for high SES women in Cameroon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce N Mumah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite evidence of a positive SES-HIV gradient in some SSA countries, researchers and policy-makers frequently assume that a range of protective interventions--increasing awareness of mechanisms of HIV transmission, techniques for prevention, greater access to health care facilities, and greater availability of condoms--will reduce the likelihood of contracting HIV, even among higher SES populations. We therefore explore the relationships between SES and these intervening behaviors to illuminate the complex factors that link SES and HIV among women in Cameroon. METHODS: We use bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis to examine patterns among the 5, 155 women aged 15-49 who participated in the 2004 CDHS. RESULTS: The results show a strong pattern where higher SES women have greater access to and use of health care facilities, higher levels of condom use, more HIV knowledge, and command higher power within their relationships, yet also have higher rates of HIV. These traditionally protective factors appear to be offset by riskier sexual behaviors on the part of women with increased resources, most notably longer years of premarital sexual experience, multiple partners in last 12 months, and sexual encounters outside of relationship. Multivariate analyses suggests net of the effect of other factors, women who command higher decision-making power, have greater access to health care, more negative attitudes toward wife beating, longer years of premarital sexual exposure, and partners with professional/white collar jobs (characteristics associated with rising SES had higher odds of testing positive for HIV. CONCLUSION: Results show that higher riskier sexual practices on part of high SES women offset benefits that may have accrued from their increased access to resources. The results suggest that traditional approaches to HIV prevention which rely on poverty reduction, improving access to health care, improving HIV knowledge, and

  20. Zoledronic acid acutely increases sclerostin serum levels in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Antonino; Morabito, Nancy; Basile, Giorgio; Brancatelli, Santa; Cucinotta, Domenico; Lasco, Antonino

    2013-05-01

    Sclerostin is a circulating inhibitor of the Wnt-signaling pathway produced by osteocytes, which acts as a negative regulator of bone formation. Effects of zoledronic acid on sclerostin serum levels in postmenopausal osteoporosis are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate sclerostin serum levels after zoledronic acid administration and correlate variations with bone turnover markers. We conducted a prospective intervention study in an ambulatory care setting. Forty women (mean age 62.6 ± 4.9 years) with postmenopausal osteoporosis were enrolled in this study and randomized into 2 groups to receive zoledronic acid (5 mg) or placebo. At baseline and then at 2, 7, 30, and 360 days after zoledronic acid or placebo administration, serum levels of sclerostin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), as a bone formation marker, and serum C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX), as a bone resorption marker, were measured. Sclerostin serum levels increased by day 2, reached a peak at day 7 (3-fold baseline, P < .001), and then decreased at day 30 and returned near to baseline after 360 days in the zoledronic acid group. Both CTX and BSAP were reduced, and a significant negative correlation was observed between the percentage changes of sclerostin and the variation in BSAP and CTX at all time points in the zoledronic acid group (P < .05). No changes were observed in the placebo group. Our data demonstrate that zoledronic acid increases sclerostin serum levels and that sclerostin could play a role in coupling bone resorption to bone formation.

  1. The Effects of Victim-Related Contextual Factors on the Criminal Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Stacy Hoskins

    2011-01-01

    Despite numerous reforms designed to integrate the needs and concerns of crime victims into the criminal justice system, which include expanding programs for compensation and restitution, providing counseling and other services to victims, and increasing victims' involvement in the criminal justice process, critics have argued that these reforms…

  2. A Test of a Model of Sexual Victimization: A Latent Variable Path Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Roodman, Allison A.

    2000-01-01

    Both a recent narrative review and a meta-analytic review of prevalence rates, indicates that prior sexual victimization increases risk for future victimization (Messman & Long, 1996, Roodman & Clum, in press). The purpose of this study was to examine two competing models of sexual victimization that examined the path between child abuse and later sexual victimization. Hypothesized mediating variables were negative cognitive schemas, dissociation, risky behaviors, and coping strategies. St...

  3. Disaster victim identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Eleanor A M

    2006-09-01

    In the event of any mass fatality incident, despite the cause, disaster victim identification must be undertaken; the humanitarian and legal responsibility for this falls on the forensic community. Mass fatality incidents can be natural (e.g., tsunamis, earthquakes, hurricanes), accidental (e.g., building collapse, ship sinking) or can occur as a result of a terrorist attack. Terrorism alone has been responsible for thousands of deaths in recent years and can be encountered in many forms (e.g., suicide bombings, airplane hijackings). In mass fatality situations, the experitise of many specialities are called on to assist in the identification efforts and to allow for the speedy return of recovered human remains to the relatives of the deceased. Today, DNA plays a vital but never solitary role in disaster victim identification.

  4. Niacin increased glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels in sedentary nondiabetic postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Y

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yunsuk Koh,1 Heidi Bidstrup,2 David L Nichols2 1Department of Health, Human Performance, and Recreation, Baylor University, Waco, TX, USA; 2Department of Kinesiology, Texas Woman's University, Denton, TX, USA Abstract: The current study examined the effects of niacin and a single bout of aerobic exercise on plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide in sedentary, nondiabetic postmenopausal women. As a crossover design, 17 participants underwent four different trials: rest during the no-niacin condition (R, exercise during the no-niacin condition (E, rest during the with-niacin condition (RN, and exercise during the with-niacin condition (EN. All participants took 1,000 mg/day of extended-release niacin for 4 weeks during the with-niacin conditions (RN and EN. The exercise treatment consisted of a single bout of treadmill walking at 60% heart rate reserve until 400 kcal were expended. Blood samples were collected at 24 hours after each trial and analyzed for changes in plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide. A two by two analysis of variance was used to examine the changes in dependent variables, and the Bonferroni adjustment was employed as the post hoc test. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. There was no significant interaction between exercise and niacin, nor was there a main effect of exercise for changes in glucose, insulin, or C-peptide. However, there was a significant main effect for niacin as mean glucose, insulin, and C-peptide values significantly increased with niacin; glucose increased 10.6% (P=0.001, from 95.03±10.67 mg/dL to 105.07±13.56 mg/dL; insulin increased 61.8% (P=0.001, from 16.98±12.49 µU/mL to 27.48±14.84 µU/mL; and C-peptide increased 46.1% (P=0.001, from 1.65±0.75 ng/mL to 2.41±0.97 ng/mL. Although niacin was generally well tolerated, given its adverse effects on glucose, insulin, and C-peptide profiles, the use of niacin should be done so with caution and under medical supervision. Keywords

  5. Cyber-Victimized Students

    OpenAIRE

    Kaitlyn N. Ryan; Tracey Curwen

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a common topic in the media and academic settings. Teachers are regularly expected to provide curriculum and intervene regarding all forms of bullying, including cyber-bullying. Altering the behaviors of those who bully is often the focus of interventions, with less attention being placed on victim impact. The purpose of this article was to provide educators with a review of evidence regarding the occurrenc...

  6. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, T

    1996-01-01

    This essay opens its discussion of violence against women by referring to the 1994 television broadcast of a 10-year-old Egyptian girl undergoing female genital mutilation (FGM) without benefit of infection control measures or anesthesia at the hands of a local barber. After presenting a brief description of FGM, its various justifications, and its impacts on its victims, the official Egyptian policy is described as ambiguous, and the broadcast is shown to have caused influential religious leaders and medical personnel to defend FGM and, thus, led to postponement of a bill to outlaw FGM. The next section of the essay shows that Egypt's response to FGM reflects the international debate on all forms of violence against women emerging from and reinforcing the social relationships that give men power over women. These forms of violence include domestic violence in almost all societies; the dowry-related, bride-burning homicides that claim 5000-12,000 lives each year in India; son preference that leads to abortion of female fetuses and female infanticide; and crimes such as rape, sexual abuse, and forced prostitution. The essay continues with a look at the costs of violence hidden in the damage to women that increases health care costs substantially and reduces economic productivity. Violence towards women, which occurs throughout the world and can prevent women from participating in public life or from controlling their fertility, is a male tool to inhibit women from gaining autonomy outside the home. The essay concludes that victims of violence are beginning to break the silence that surrounded these deeds and are seeking legislative protection. Laws may not result in real-life changes, but the movement to eliminate FGM may prove to be the first success in women's efforts to achieve human rights. An example is the important precedent being set in the US by a woman seeking asylum to avoid facing an arranged marriage and FGM in her native Togo.

  7. Cognitive-behavioral stress management increases benefit finding and immune function among women with early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Bonnie A; Antoni, Michael H; Boyers, Amy; Alferi, Susan M; Blomberg, Bonnie B; Carver, Charles S

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention on emotional well-being and immune function among women in the months following surgery for early-stage breast cancer. Twenty-nine women were randomly assigned to receive either a 10-week CBSM intervention (n=18) or a comparison experience (n=11). The primary psychological outcome measure was benefit finding. The primary immune function outcome measure was in vitro lymphocyte proliferative response to anti CD3. Women in the CBSM intervention reported greater perceptions of benefit from having breast cancer compared to the women in the comparison group. At 3-month follow-up, women in the CBSM group also had improved lymphocyte proliferation. Finally, increases in benefit finding after the 10-week intervention predicted increases in lymphocyte proliferation at the 3-month follow-up. A CBSM intervention for women with early-stage breast cancer facilitated positive emotional responses to their breast cancer experience in parallel with later improvement in cellular immune function.

  8. Revival of the intrauterine device: increased insertions among US women with employer-sponsored insurance, 2002-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Macaluso, Maurizio; Ouyang, Lijing; Kulczycki, Andrzej; Grosse, Scott D

    2012-02-01

    Use of the intrauterine device (IUD) in the United States has recently increased. New evidence for women with employer-sponsored health insurance permits analysis of variation and trends in such use. A retrospective analysis of annual IUD insertion rates between 2002 and 2008 was conducted by evaluating claims from the MarketScan® Commercial Research Databases for US women insured by plans that covered IUD insertions. Estimates were weighted to be nationally representative. IUD insertion rates increased from 1.6/1000 women of reproductive age to 9.8/1000 over 2002-2008 and varied substantially by state. Insertion rates of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) increased from 0.4/1000 to 7.7/1000, whereas the insertion rates of copper T380A IUD (copper IUD) increased from 0.6/1000 to 1.5/1000. IUD insertions, which are most common among women aged 25-34 years, increased at roughly the same rate across all age groups. The sixfold increase in IUD insertion rates between 2002 and 2008 was accompanied by an increase in the share IUD use with the LNG-IUS from 40% to 85%. Substantial geographic and age variations existed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Increased Risk of Psychiatric Disorders in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tan

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: PCOS and related symptoms may be risk factors for depression and anxiety. Professionals should be concerned with the MH of women with PCOS, and psychological therapy should be considered.

  10. Increasing and decreasing factors of hope in infertile women with failure in infertility treatment: A phenomenology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosalanejad, Leili; Parandavar, Nehle; Gholami, Morteza; Abdollahifard, Sareh

    2014-02-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) provide the hope of pregnancy for infertile women, but do not always turn this hope into reality. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of infertile women from increasing and decreasing factors of hope in infertile women with failure in infertility treatment. Using a qualitative research design (Phenomenology study), 23 subjects were selected who had experienced infertility failure visited by gynecologist (Rasekh Infertility center) in 2012. The data were collected through semi structured interviews and analyzed using interpretive research strategies of phenomenology by Collizi's seven-stage method. Totally 96 codes were identified. The data arranged in two categories. The factors decreasing and increasing hope in infertility treatments. Totally 5 themes and 20 sub themes were extracted. The increasing factors which emerged from the data contain "spiritual source", "family interaction and support" and "information through the media", and decreasing factors contain "nature of treatments" and "negatively oriented mind".

  11. Emotional disclosure and victim blaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, Kent D; Podolski, Peter; Williams, Christian H

    2015-10-01

    Victim blaming occurs when people are unfairly held responsible for their misfortunes. According to just world theory, witnessing another's victimization threatens just world beliefs, which arouses distress. Victim blaming redeems just world beliefs, thereby reducing distress. However, negative emotions can also be resolved through emotional disclosure, suggesting that disclosure can prevent victim blaming. Two experiments confirmed this prediction. In Study 1 participants viewed a woman being victimized or a woman in a nonvictimizing conflict. Participants then disclosed or suppressed the emotions aroused by these scenes and 1 week later evaluated the woman they had viewed. Disclosure reduced blaming of the victim but did not affect blaming of the nonvictim. Further, the more distress participants disclosed, the less they blamed the victim. Study 2 replicated the primary results of Study 1 and also showed that (a) disclosure exclusively reduces blaming of victims; it does not moderate judgments of victimizers, and (b) the effects of disclosure on blaming applies across genders. These 2 studies confirm that victim blaming is a form of emotion management (per just world theory), and that emotional disclosure prevents blaming by supplying an alternative mode of emotion management. This research also suggests that emotional disclosure moderates social perception, in general. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Short-term prospective effects of homophobic victimization on the mental health of heterosexual adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V Paul; Scheer, Jillian R; DiGiovanni, Craig D; Mereish, Ethan H

    2014-08-01

    Many heterosexual youth report homophobic victimization but there is little longitudinal research to examine its mental health consequences for them. In a 7-month study across an academic school year among 572 heterosexual high school students (55% females), we tested the short-term effects of homophobic victimization on anxiety and depressive symptoms with attention to gender differences. Homophobic victimization at the beginning of the school year predicted higher levels of concurrent anxiety over and above levels attributable to general victimization. Further, when controlling for initial anxiety and general victimization, homophobic victimization at the beginning of the school year predicted increased anxiety at the end of the school year for males, but not for females. Homophobic victimization across time points was more strongly associated for males than females, and this accounted for why initial homophobic victimization predicted increased anxiety for males but not females (i.e., it was indicative of mediated moderation). In contrast, homophobic victimization at the beginning of the school year did not predict concurrent depressive symptoms over and above general victimization. Similarly, although it predicted increased depressive symptoms at the end of the school year for males but not for females, the effect was weaker than for anxiety. These findings underscore that the effects of homophobic victimization are not temporary, particularly as they pertain to anxiety, and underscore the need to consider the nature of the victimization that youth experience, including for heterosexual youth.

  13. Males’ Reactions to Participating in Research on Dating Violence Victimization and Childhood Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Zucosky, Heather; Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood abuse and dating violence victimization are prevalent and devastating problems. While there has been an abundance of research on these topics in recent years, researchers and Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) often struggle with determining whether asking respondents questions on previous violence will result in increased emotional distress or other negative research outcomes. Empirical data is therefore needed that examines the research reactions of individuals who participate in research on childhood abuse and dating violence. The current study examined this topic among a sample of male college students (N = 193). Results showed that victims of childhood sexual abuse had more negative emotional reactions and victims of physical dating violence had more negative perceived drawbacks to research participation than non-victims. However, victims and non-victims did not differ on positive research reactions. These findings suggest that there are few differences between victims and non-victims on research reactions. PMID:23741174

  14. Males' Reactions to Participating in Research on Dating Violence Victimization and Childhood Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Zucosky, Heather; Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Stuart, Gregory L

    2013-04-29

    Childhood abuse and dating violence victimization are prevalent and devastating problems. While there has been an abundance of research on these topics in recent years, researchers and Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) often struggle with determining whether asking respondents questions on previous violence will result in increased emotional distress or other negative research outcomes. Empirical data is therefore needed that examines the research reactions of individuals who participate in research on childhood abuse and dating violence. The current study examined this topic among a sample of male college students (N = 193). Results showed that victims of childhood sexual abuse had more negative emotional reactions and victims of physical dating violence had more negative perceived drawbacks to research participation than non-victims. However, victims and non-victims did not differ on positive research reactions. These findings suggest that there are few differences between victims and non-victims on research reactions.

  15. Three Coagulation Related Mutations and Increased Risk of Myoma in Women of Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Moghtaderi Nasab

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Myoma is one of the most common benign tumor in the women’s genital tract and causing some implications such as miscarriages, anemia or even infertility. Since tumorigenesis is associated with a hypercoagulant state, we investigate the role of coagulation related variations in methylene-tetra hydrofolate reductase (MTHFR and endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR genes in patients with uterine myoma. Methods In this case- control study, genotyping was performed for rs867186, rs1801131 and rs1801133 by amplification-refractory mutation system- polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR method in 73 patients with myoma and 73 healthy women. Data was analyzed by logistic regression and χ2 test through software SPSS 16. Results A statistically significant difference was observed between patients and the control group regarding the frequency of allele C in the MTHFR (A1298C gene (P = 0.01. The frequency of the genotypes carries at least one C allele (CC + AC is higher in patients (13.7% compared to controls (2.7%. This means the C allele increases the risk of the disease (P = 0.01. Although the frequency of the T allele in patients was higher than controls, no significant relationship was observed between it and the risk of the disease. Our studied population was completely homogeneous for allele A at EPCR locus. Conclusions In conclusion, results revealed a significant association between A1298T variation and myoma incidence, but more research is needed to verify the role of this mutation as a genetic marker in uterine myoma.

  16. Adverse Health Outcomes, Perpetrator Characteristics, and Sexual Violence Victimization among U.S. Adult Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Ekta; Coben, Jeffrey; Bossarte, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, an estimated three million men are victims of sexual violence each year, yet the majority of existing studies have evaluated the consequences and characteristics of victimization among women alone. The result has been a gap in the existing literature examining the physical and psychological consequences of sexual assault…

  17. Recollections of Childhood Bullying and Multiple Forms of Victimization: Correlates with Psychological Functioning among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Hong, Jun Sung; Mebane, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective investigation examined the association among childhood bullying victimization, multiple forms of victimization, and psychological functioning in a college sample. Four hundred-and-eighty-two undergraduate students participated in the study (M = 19.98 years, SD = 1.82). The sample included 65% women. For race/ethnicity, 66.4%…

  18. Managing Victim Status in Group Therapy for Men: A Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zverina, Michaela; Stam, Henderikus J.; Babins-Wagner, Robbie

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the abundance of research on women victims, this article sheds light on the discourse of men who are self-identified as victims of their female partners' abuse. The purpose of this study was to investigate the most salient identity constructions and abuse conceptualizations among participants of group psychotherapy for men who have…

  19. Victimization, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptomatology, and Later Nonsuicidal Self-Harm in a Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Skegg, Keren

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal population-based study examined pathways to nonsuicidal self-harm (NSSH) in relation to childhood sexual abuse (CSA), assault victimization in early adulthood, posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology (PTSD), and other mental disorders. At age 21, 476 men and 455 women completed interviews on assault victimization, PTSD, and…

  20. Effects of Victim Sex and Sexual Orientation on Perceptions of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Bradley H.; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationship of sex, gender role attitudes, and sexual orientation to perceptions of rape. College students responded to scenarios depicting the rape of heterosexual and homosexual males and females. Men assigned more blame to victims (particularly male victims) than did women. Traditional gender role attitudes positively related…

  1. 78 FR 64245 - AG Survey of Transitional Housing Assistance for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Survey of Transitional Housing Assistance for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Stalking, or... notice. The Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) will be submitting the... Transitional Housing Assistance Program Grant for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Stalking, or...

  2. Lifetime Sexual Victimization and Poor Risk Perception: Does Emotion Dysregulation Account for the Links?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; DiLillo, David; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether and which facets of emotion dysregulation serve an intervening role in the association between prior victimization and risk perception in an analogue sexual assault vignette. Participants were 714 university women who completed self-report measures of sexual victimization, emotion dysregulation, and a…

  3. Why the bully/victim relationship is so pernicious: a gendered perspective on power and animosity among bullies and their victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodkin, Philip C; Hanish, Laura D; Wang, Shuai; Logis, Handrea A

    2014-08-01

    The bully/victim relationship was studied in a sample of elementary school children (N = 1,289 in first, third, and fifth grades). Three questions were tested. Does bullying involve a power differential between bully and victim? Are bully/victim dyads participants in a relationship, whether mutual liking or disliking? Does the gender composition of the bully/victim dyad moderate power differential and relational context patterns? Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze predictors of the reputational strength of bully/victim ties. The findings revealed that the bully/victim dyads most frequently nominated by peers were characterized by asymmetries in social status, where bullies were increasingly more popular than their victims, and by asymmetries in aggression, where bullies were increasingly less aggressive than their victims. Bullies and victims were likely to select one another as among the children that they least like. Most effects with respect to aggression, popularity, and relationships were moderated by the gender composition of the bully/victim dyad. Implications for a developmental psychopathology perspective on peer bullying and victimization are highlighted.

  4. Does aging increase vitamin D serum level in healthy postmenopausal women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Asadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is the most under-diagnosed medical condition in postmenopausal women. There are few epidemiologic studies on vitamin D status of postmenopausal women in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in postmenopausal women living in Tehran, capital of Iran. In this cross sectional study, 110 women were selected via convenience sampling method from menopause clinic of Tehran Women General Hospital between 2011 and 2012. For each woman, a questionnaire was completed, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were determined by chemiluminescence's immunoassay. Vitamin D deficiency has been considered as a 25(OHD of less than 20ng/ml. Vitamin D insufficiency has been defined as a 25(OHD of 21-29ng/ml, and sufficiency as a 25(OHD of 30-100ng/ml. The data was analyzed by using Pearson correlation test in SPSS version 16. The mean age of women was 52.67±5 years. The mean age at natural menopause onset was 47.66±4.44 years, and the median menopause age was 49.00. The median 25(OHD level was 19.28 (Inter Quartile Range=26.08. We found vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D insufficiency 52.7% and17.3% respectively. Serum 25(OH D concentrations were significantly correlated with age(r=0.21, P=0.024. These findings indicate that 25(OHD level in postmenopausal women from Tehran is low. There is a statistically significant positive correlation between vitamin D concentration and age in late postmenopausal period.

  5. Acute Ascorbic Acid Infusion Increases Left Ventricular Diastolic Function in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozemek, Cemal; Hildreth, Kerry L.; Groves, Daniel W.; Moreau, Kerrie L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress contributes to reductions in left ventricular diastolic function in estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women, related in part to reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Study design LV diastolic function – recorded using transthoracic echocardiography and determined as the peak early (E) to late (A) mitral inflow velocity ratio and the E to peak early (e’) mitral annular velocity ratio – and brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD), a biomarker of NO bioavailability, were measured during acute systemic infusions of saline (control) and ascorbic acid (experimental model to decrease oxidative stress) in healthy premenopausal women (N=14, 18-40 years) and postmenopausal women (N=23, 45-75 years). Results The E/A ratio was lower (1.16[1.06−1.33] vs 1.65[1.5−2.3]; median[interquartile range]) and the E/e’ ratio was elevated (8.8[7.6−9.9] vs. 6.6[5.5−7.3]) in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women, indicating reduced LV diastolic function. E/A and E/e’ were correlated with FMD (r=0.54 and r=−0.59, respectively, both PAscorbic acid infusion improved both FMD (5.4±2.0% to 7.8±2.6%) and E/e’ (to 8.1[7.2−9.7], P=0.01) in postmenopausal women but not in premenopausal women. Ascorbic acid did not change E/A in either group. Conclusion The current study provides evidence that oxidative stress contributes to reduced LV diastolic function in estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women, possibly by reducing the availability of NO. PMID:27621254

  6. The interrelation between victimization and bullying inside young offender institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häufle, Jenny; Wolter, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bullying and victimization are serious problems within prisons. Young Offender Institutions (YOIs), in particular, suffer from high rates of inmate-on-inmate violence. More recent theories about the development of bullying in closed custody institutions imply a relationship between the experience of victimization and the usage of bullying. In our study, we test this linkage using longitudinal survey data taken at two time-points from 473 inmates (aged 15-24) inside three YOIs in Germany. We first analyze the extent of bullying and victimization, and then used a longitudinal structural equation model to predict inmate bullying behavior at time 2 based on victimization that occurred at time 1. Age is used as a predictor variable to account for differences in the amount of victimization and bullying. Results suggest that bullying and victimization are high in the YOIs, which were subject to research. Most inmates reported being a bully and a victim at the same time. Younger inmates use more direct physical bullying but not psychological bullying. An increase in psychological bullying over time can significantly be explained by victimization at an earlier measurement time point. Our study therefore supports recent theoretical assumptions about the development of bullying behavior. Possible implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Peer victimization and peer rejection during early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godleski, Stephanie A.; Kamper, Kimberly E.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Hart, Emily J.; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bi-directional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3- to 5- years-old) were investigated in an integrated model. Method The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the US. Using observations, research assistant report and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Results Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Conclusions Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress. PMID:25133659

  8. Peer victimization and peer rejection during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godleski, Stephanie A; Kamper, Kimberly E; Ostrov, Jamie M; Hart, Emily J; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bidirectional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3 to 5 years old) were investigated in an integrated model. The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the United States. Using observations, research assistant report, and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress.

  9. [Identifying victims of a disaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Hans H; Kloosterman, Ate D; de Bruijn, Arie G; Maat, George J R

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the victims of a disaster is important for the next of kin, to issue a death certificate and, if necessary, for forensic investigations. In the Netherlands victims are identified by the Dutch disaster victim identification team, which is part of the national forensic investigation team ('Landelijk Team Forensische Opsporing'). Ante-mortem data are collected during the identification process; these include the victim's specific medical characteristics and the DNA profile of the victim and their family members. The victim's own doctor can play an important role in the ante-mortem investigation because of his or her knowledge of their personal medical details, and of the possible availability of samples for establishing a DNA profile. The ante-mortem data are then compared with post-mortem data. For a definitive identification at least 1 primary identification characteristic has to be established from the physical remains - dermatoglyphics, the DNA profile or the dental status.

  10. Increased periodontal inflammation in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Pascale F M; Eick, Sigrun; Salvi, Giovanni E; Surbek, Daniel; Mohr, Stefan; Bürgin, Walter; Ramseier, Christoph A; Sculean, Anton

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate possible differences in periodontal inflammatory, microbiological and clinical parameters between women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and controls with uncomplicated pregnancies. Fifty-six women (32 test (PPROM) and 24 controls (uncomplicated pregnancies)) were examined at three time-points (T1: gestational weeks 20-35, T2: within 48 h after parturition, T3: 4-6 weeks after parturition). The examinations included assessment of the Periodontal Screening Index, collection of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and subgingival as well as vaginal bacterial sampling. Periodontal inflammation was found to be higher in the test compared with the control group (p  0.05) in prevalence of bacteria, but a decrease in subgingival periodontopathogens from T1 to T2 in the test group (p  0.05). In women with PPROM, GCF levels of IL-8 (p < 0.05) and C-reactive protein (p < 0.05) were lower and IL-10 levels higher (p < 0.05) compared with controls. Periodontal inflammation is elevated during pregnancy and seems to be more pronounced in women with PPROM. The findings of the present study revealed an association between periodontal inflammation and PPROM, thus emphasizing the importance of optimizing self-performed oral hygiene in pregnant women.

  11. Celiac disease is not increased in women with hip fractures and low vitamin D levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leboff, M S; Cobb, H; Gao, L Y; Hawkes, W; Yu-Yahiro, J; Kolatkar, N S; Magaziner, J

    2013-01-01

    Celiac disease is associated with decreased bone density; however, the risk of fractures in celiac disease patients is unclear. We compared the prevalence of celiac disease between a group of women with hip fractures and a group of women undergoing elective joint replacement surgery and the association between celiac disease and vitamin D levels. Two hundred eight community dwelling and postmenopausal women were recruited from Boston, MA (n=81) and Baltimore, MD (n=127). We measured tissue transglutaminase IgA by ELISA to diagnose celiac disease and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels by radioimmunoassay in both women with hip fractures (n=157) and a control group (n=51) of total hip replacement subjects from Boston. Subjects were excluded if they took any medications or had medical conditions that might affect bone. Median serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower (pwomen with hip fractures versus the control group (1.91% vs. 1.96%, respectively). Vitamin D levels are markedly reduced in women with hip fractures, however hip fracture patients did not show a higher percentage of positive tissue transglutaminase levels compared with controls. These data suggest that routine testing for celiac disease among hip fracture patients may not be necessary in the absence of clinical signs and symptoms, although data from larger studies among hip fracture subjects are needed.

  12. A cluster randomized controlled trial to increase breast cancer screening among African American women: the black cosmetologists promoting health program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; Ko, Celine M; Wu, Phillis; Alisangco, Jennifer; Castañeda, Sheila F; Kelly, Colleen

    2011-08-01

    African American women have disproportionately higher rates of breast cancer mortality than all other ethnic groups, thus highlighting the importance of promoting early detection. African American women (N = 984) from San Diego, California, participated in a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of breast cancer education sessions offered in beauty salons. Cosmetologists received ongoing support, training, and additional culturally aligned educational materials to help them engage their clients in dialogues about the importance of breast cancer early detection. Posters and literature about breast cancer early detection were displayed throughout the salons and cosmetologists used synthetic breast models to show their clients how breast cancer lumps might feel. Participants in the control group received a comparable diabetes education program. Baseline and 6-month follow-up surveys were administered to evaluate changes in women's breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors. This intervention was well received by the participants and their cosmetologists and did not interfere with or prolong the client's salon visit. Women in the intervention group reported significantly higher rates of mammography compared to women in the control group. Training a single educator proved sufficient to permeate the entire salon with the health message, and salon clients agreed that cosmetologists could become effective health educators. Cosmetologists are in an ideal position to increase African American women's breast cancer knowledge and adherence to breast cancer screening guidelines.

  13. Standard psychological consultations and follow up for women at increased risk of hereditary breast cancer considering prophylactic mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Murly BM

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women at increased (genetic risk of breast cancer have to weigh the personal pros and cons of prophylactic mastectomy (PM as an option to reduce their cancer risk. So far, no routine referral to a psychologist has been investigated for women considering PM. Aim of this study was to asses: 1 the acceptance of the offer of a standard psychological consultation as part of pre-surgical decision-making in high-risk women, 2 reasons for PM and reasons for postponing it, 3 the need for additional psychological interventions, and factors associated, and 4 the frequency of psychiatric/psychological treatment history. Methods During a 30 months period, women at high risk considering PM were offered a psychological consultation. The content of these, and follow-up, consultations were analyzed. Results Most women (70 out of 73 accepted the psychological consultation, and 81% proceeded with PM. Main reasons for undergoing PM were to reduce anxiety about cancer, and to reduce the cancer risk. Uncertainty about surgery and the need for further information were the reasons given most frequently for postponing PM. Additional psychological support was given to 31% before and 14% after PM. The uptake of additional support was significantly higher in women with a BRCA1/2 mutation. A history of psychiatric/psychological treatment was present in 36%, mainly consisting of depression and grief after death of a mother. Conclusion The uptake-rate of the standard psychological consultation indicates a high level of acceptability of this service for women deciding about PM. Since anxiety is one of the main reasons for considering PM, and depression and grief were present in a third, a standard consultation with a psychologist for high-risk women considering PM may be indicated. This may help them arrive at an informed decision, to detect and manage psychological distress, and to plan psychological support services.

  14. Does Risk for Anxiety Increase During the Menopausal Transition? Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberger, Joyce T.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Chang, Yuefang; Randolph, John F.; Avis, Nancy E.; Gold, Ellen B.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the risk of anxiety in women during midlife and the menopausal transition. We examined anxiety as a cluster of 4 symptoms and determined the association between menopausal stage and high anxiety during ten years of follow-up of 2,956 women of multiple race/ethnicities. Methods This study was a longitudinal analysis of data from the multi-site Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a study of menopause and aging. Women were 42-52 at study entry. The outcome was high anxiety, a score of 4 or greater on the sum of four anxiety symptoms rated according to frequency in the previous 2 weeks from 0 (none) to 4 (daily) (upper 20%). Covariates included sociodemographics, health factors, stressors, and vasomotor symptoms (VMS). Results Women with low anxiety at baseline were more likely to report high anxiety symptoms when early or late perimenopausal or postmenopausal compared to when they were premenopausal (odds ratios ranged from 1.56 to 1.61), independent of multiple risk factors, including upsetting life events, financial strain, fair/poor perceived health, and VMS. Women with high anxiety at baseline continued to have high rates of high anxiety throughout the follow-up but odds ratios did not differ by menopausal stage. Conclusion