WorldWideScience

Sample records for victimization survey crime

  1. Revealing Victimization: The Impact of Methodological Features in the National Crime Victimization Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jennifer Gatewood

    2017-08-01

    This study examines the impact of methodological features of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) on respondent willingness to report violent, serious violent, and property victimizations to the NCVS. Bounded and unbounded data from the 1999-2005 NCVS are used to create a longitudinal file of respondents, and survey-weighted logistic regression models are used to assess the factors associated with the reporting of victimization. Net of sociodemographic control variables, unbounded interviews produced higher estimates of serious violence (72%), violence (66%), and property victimization (67%). Mobile respondents reported higher estimates than nonmobile respondents of serious violence (48%), violence (35%), and property victimization (15%). Compared with in-person interviews, interviewing by telephone increased reporting for serious violence (7%), violence (12%), and property victimization (17%). This study highlights the importance of controlling for these factors in both longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses to estimate victimization risk.

  2. Split-Half Administration of the 2015 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. Methodology Report. NCES 2017-004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessne, Deborah; Cidade, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    This report outlines the development, methodology, and results of the split-half administration of the 2015 School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS). The National Center for…

  3. Split-Half Administration of the 2015 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey: Methodology Report. NCES 2017-004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessne, Deborah; Cidade, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    This report outlines the development, methodology, and results of the split-half administration of the 2015 School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS). The U.S. Census Bureau…

  4. Victimization among female and male sexual minority status groups: evidence from the British Crime Survey 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Bere; Davies, Michelle; Scurlock-Evans, Laura

    2014-01-01

    International surveys of victims show crime rates in England and Wales, including hate crimes, are among the highest in Europe. Nevertheless, sexual minority status is a less considered risk factor in general victimization research. This study used sexual minority status and sex to predict victimization across British Crime Surveys from 2007-2010. Logistic regression analyses showed sexual minority status groups were more likely than heterosexuals to be victimized from any and some specific crimes. However, bisexuals rather than lesbians or gay men were more consistently victimized, notably by sexual attacks and within the household. Implications for understanding victimization among these groups are discussed.

  5. Childhood Victimization and Crime Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…

  6. Non-governmental organizations assisting victims of crime in Belgrade: Survey results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milivojević Sanja K.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of survey regarding non-governmental organizations assisting victims of crime in Belgrade. The survey was completed at the end of 2002 for purposes of establishing a Victim Support Service in Serbia. In introduction authors give a short review of victim support services development in the World and the region, explaining the need for such service in Serbia, the subject and the aim of the article as well as the purpose of the survey. Second part of the paper contains the sample, methodology and the aim of the interview with NGO representatives. In the third section authors present the analysis of the survey data. Finally, in conclusion authors summarize the data and observed problems, suggestions for possible solution and directions of future development of services and organizations assisting victims of crime in Serbia.

  7. Student Reports of Bullying and Cyber-Bullying: Results from the 2007 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. Web Tables. NCES 2011-316

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Jill; Murphy, Christina

    2011-01-01

    These Web Tables use data from the 2007 School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to show the relationship between bullying and cyber-bullying victimization and other variables of interest such as the reported presence of gangs, guns, drugs, and alcohol at school; select school security measures; student…

  8. Victims of Crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karin Wittebrood

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Slachtoffers van criminaliteit. More than three million people in the Netherlands are victims of crime each year. Are all Dutch citizens equally at risk of becoming victims? And of those who become victims, which report the offence to the police, and what motivates them to do

  9. Student Reports of Bullying: Results from the 2015 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. Web Tables. NCES 2017-015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessne, Deborah; Yanez, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This document reports data from the 2015 School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The Web Tables show the extent to which students with different personal characteristics report being bullied. Estimates include responses by student characteristics: student sex, race/ethnicity, grade, and household income.…

  10. Student Reports of Bullying and Cyber-Bullying: Results from the 2011 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. Web Tables. NCES 2013-329

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessne, Deborah; Harmalkar, Sayali

    2013-01-01

    This document reports data from the 2011 School Crime Supplement (SCS) of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The Web Tables show the extent to which students with different personal characteristics report bullying and cyber-bullying. Estimates include responses by student characteristics: student sex, race/ethnicity, grade, and…

  11. The epidemiology of self-defense gun use: evidence from the National Crime Victimization Surveys 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Solnick, Sara J

    2015-10-01

    To describe the epidemiology of self-defense gun use (SDGU) and the relative effectiveness of SDGU in preventing injury and property loss. Data come from the National Crime Victimization Survey for 2007-2011, focusing on personal contact crimes. For property loss, we examined incidents where the intent was to steal property. Multivariate analyses controlled for age, gender of offender and victim, if offender had a gun, urbanicity, and thirteen types of self-protective action. Of over 14,000 incidents in which the victim was present, 127 (0.9%) involved a SDGU. SDGU was more common among males, in rural areas, away from home, against male offenders and against offenders with a gun. After any protective action, 4.2% of victims were injured; after SDGU, 4.1% of victims were injured. In property crimes, 55.9% of victims who took protective action lost property, 38.5 of SDGU victims lost property, and 34.9% of victims who used a weapon other than a gun lost property. Compared to other protective actions, the National Crime Victimization Surveys provide little evidence that SDGU is uniquely beneficial in reducing the likelihood of injury or property loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploring the Characteristics of Personal Victims Using the National Crime Victimization Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jairam, Shashi

    1998-01-01

    .... Two statistical methods were used to investigate these hypotheses, logistical regression for victimization prevalence, and negative binomial regression for victimization incidence and concentration...

  13. Student Victimization in U.S. Schools: Results from the 2007 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. NCES 2010-319

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Jill Fleury; Bauer, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Student victimization in schools is a major concern of educators, policymakers, administrators, parents, and students. Understanding the scope of the criminal victimization of students, as well as the factors associated with it, is an essential step in developing solutions to address the issues of school crime and violence. This report uses data…

  14. Student Victimization in U.S. Schools: Results from the 2015 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. Stats in Brief. NCES 2018-106

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez, Christina; Lessne, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    Student victimization and school violence have been an ongoing cause of national concern, resulting in a concerted effort among educators, administrators, parents, and policymakers to determine the gravity of the issue and consider approaches to crime prevention. This Statistics in Brief presents estimates of student criminal victimization at…

  15. Fear of property crime: examining the effects of victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Carrie L; Fox, Kathleen A

    2011-01-01

    Fear of crime research has primarily focused on fear of crime in general or on fear of specific types of violent crimes. This study builds from this line of research by focusing exclusively on the night fear of six types of property crimes, including fear of burglary while away from home, vehicle theft, bicycle theft, property theft, vandalism, and vehicle burglary. This study examines the effects of victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk on fear of property crime. Survey data from college students reveal that victimization and vicarious victimization were not significant predictors of fear of property crime, whereas perceived risk was a consistent and significant predictor of fear of all property crimes.

  16. [Interviewing victims of sexual crimes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Teresa; Ribeiro, Catarina

    2007-01-01

    The approach to victims of sexual crimes is of special complexity due to the nature of this kind of crime, the impact of victimization and the specificity of judicial investigation procedures. The absence of physical evidence and the secrecy that characterizes the majority of sexual victimization cases frequently lead the victim's story to be used as one of few proof elements. Given the importance of the information supplied by the victim in the criminal inquiry, it is essential to create strategies to optimise the interview process, not only to preserve evidence, but also to prevent a secondary victimization process. This review discusses in a brief manner the extent to which information given by victims can be considered relevant forensic evidence, and then presents the methodological guidelines for interview that should be used in this type of expertise.

  17. Crime victims in the criminal justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative social reaction and inadequate reaction of the agencies of the formal control on the primary victimization is leading to the so called secondary victimization that can be a source of trauma and frustration as much as the primary victimization. Due to that, relation of the police and the judiciary towards the crime victims is of a great importance regarding victims’ willingness to report the victimization, their confidence in these agencies, and cooperation during clearing up the crime. In order to realize the victim’s position in the criminal justice system, this paper contains an overview of how the police, prosecutor’s office and courts are functioning. The paper is based on the interviews made with the representatives of these state agencies, as well as on the previous knowledge and realized surveys concerning this topic. The aim of the paper is to emphasize the position and the role of the victim support service in the system of the state intervention, based upon the obtained data, as well as to give some basic information on how victims could report the crime, what are their rights and duties, what can they expect from the competent agencies.

  18. Punishment goals of crime victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Uli

    2003-04-01

    Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals.

  19. Victimization and the general theory of crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofziger, Stacey

    2009-01-01

    Theories of victimization developed independently of theories of offending, in spite of consistent findings of similarities between offenders and victims of crime. This study examines whether Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) general theory of crime, typically used to predict offending, also has relevance in understanding juvenile victimization. The data for this project are drawn from a sample of over 1,200 middle and high school students. Using structural equation models, the findings suggest that higher self-control does directly decrease victimization and that self-control also affects victimization indirectly though opportunities (peer deviance). Implications for the studies of victimization as well as the general theory of crime are discussed.

  20. For Whom Does Hate Crime Hurt More? A Comparison of Consequences of Victimization Across Motives and Crime Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellgren, Caroline; Andersson, Mika; Ivert, Anna-Karin

    2017-12-01

    Hate crimes have been found to have more severe consequences than other parallel crimes that were not motivated by the offenders' hostility toward someone because of their real or perceived difference. Many countries today have hate crime laws that make it possible to increase the penalties for such crimes. The main critique against hate crime laws is that they punish thoughts. Instead, proponents of hate crime laws argue that sentence enhancement is justified because hate crimes cause greater harm. This study compares consequences of victimization across groups of victims to test for whom hate crimes hurt more. We analyzed data that were collected through questionnaires distributed to almost 3,000 students at Malmö University, Sweden, during 2013. The survey focused on students' exposure to, and experiences of, hate crime. A series of separate logistic regression analyses were performed, which analyzed the likelihood for reporting consequences following a crime depending on crime type, perceived motive, repeat victimization, gender, and age. Analyzed as one victim group, victims of hate crime more often reported any of the consequences following a crime compared with victims of parallel non-hate-motivated crimes. And, overall victims of threat more often reported consequences compared with victims of sexual harassment and minor assault. However, all hate crime victim groups did not report more consequences than the non-hate crime victim group. The results provide grounds for questioning that hate crimes hurt the individual victim more. It seems that hate crimes do not hurt all more but hate crimes hurt some victims of some crimes more in some ways.

  1. Reporting Crime Victimizations to the Police and the Incidence of Future Victimizations: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranapurwala, Shabbar I; Berg, Mark T; Casteel, Carri

    2016-01-01

    Law enforcement depends on cooperation from the public and crime victims to protect citizens and maintain public safety; however, many crimes are not reported to police because of fear of repercussions or because the crime is considered trivial. It is unclear how police reporting affects the incidence of future victimization. To evaluate the association between reporting victimization to police and incident future victimization. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using National Crime Victimization Survey 2008-2012 data. Participants were 12+ years old household members who may or may not be victimized, were followed biannually for 3 years, and who completed at least one follow-up survey after their first reported victimization between 2008 and 2012. Crude and adjusted generalized linear mixed regression for survey data with Poisson link were used to compare rates of future victimization. Out of 18,657 eligible participants, 41% participants reported to their initial victimization to police and had a future victimization rate of 42.8/100 person-years (PY) (95% CI: 40.7, 44.8). The future victimization rate of those who did not report to the police (59%) was 55.0/100 PY (95% CI: 53.0, 57.0). The adjusted rate ratio comparing police reporting to not reporting was 0.78 (95%CI: 0.72, 0.84) for all future victimizations, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.90) for interpersonal violence, 0.73 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.78) for thefts, and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.07) for burglaries. Reporting victimization to police is associated with fewer future victimization, underscoring the importance of police reporting in crime prevention. This association may be attributed to police action and victim services provisions resulting from reporting.

  2. 75 FR 20889 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8499 of April 16, 2010 National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2010 By the.... This week, we renew our commitment to supporting crime victims and preventing crimes that threaten our.... Though crime rates have declined in recent years, crime and its devastating effects still require our...

  3. [The elderly as victims of violent crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlf, E H

    1994-01-01

    Up to now, victimology has only dealt with partial aspects of the situation of the elderly as victims of violent crime. Nevertheless, the Police Crime Statistics enable us to make the following three basic statements: In general, old people are less likely to become victims of violent crime (than young people). The acts of violence committed against the elderly are mainly ones in which there was a relationship between offender and victim before the offense. Elderly women are disproportionately more often victims of purse snatching. The increasing social isolation of old people constitutes not only a specific form of victimization, it probably also increases their susceptibility to become victims. The theory that old people have "a particularly pronounced fear of crime" cannot be generally proven. This question must be considered from differing points of view and depends largely on the individual vulnerability of the old people. In Germany, there has hardly been any empirical study of violence towards the elderly in institutions and in family households (so-called domestic violence). It is believed that more violence takes place in both than in generally assumed.

  4. Supporting children: Victims of crime, within victim support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walle Vande Ilse

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available All too often, the victimization of children is automatically associated with child abuse and sexual abuse. However, children are also confronted, either directly or indirectly, with other kinds of criminality. In spite of that children usually do not get appropriate support and assistance. In this paper, the establishment and development of services for the support of children-victims of crime in Belgium, as well as European cooperation in this regard, are described.

  5. 77 FR 25345 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... April 27, 2012 Part V The President Proclamation 8804--National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2012 #0; #0... Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation For..., services, and support for victims of crime. Our Nation stands stronger for their efforts. Today, thousands...

  6. 28 CFR 0.91 - Office for Victims of Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office for Victims of Crime. 0.91 Section...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.91 Office for Victims of Crime. The Office for Victims of Crime is headed by a Director appointed by the Assistant Attorney General, Office of Justice...

  7. Perceived Community Disorder Moderates the Relation between Victimization and Fear of Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccato, Michele; Russo, Silvia; Vieno, Alessio

    2011-01-01

    In a representative sample of the Italian population (N=2,002), surveyed in January 2008, we studied the direct and interactive effects exerted on fear of crime by direct and indirect victimization, on the one hand, and perceived level of disorder of participants' community, on the other hand. Indirect victimization fostered fear of crime among…

  8. The Nature of Bias Crime Injuries: A Comparative Analysis of Physical and Psychological Victimization Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzer, Matthew D; Pezzella, Frank S

    2016-10-13

    The core justification of bias crime statutes concerns whether bias-motivated crimes are qualitatively different from otherwise motivated crimes. We test the hypothesis that bias crimes are more detrimental than non-bias crimes by testing for multi-dimensional injuries to victims of bias and non-bias-motivated criminal conduct. Using National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) Extract 2013 Collection Year Incident-level Extract File, we analyzed physical injuries and psychological trauma to NCVS victims during 2013. We found a range of covariates consistent with the likelihood of physical injury and psychological trauma. These included whether the incident was bias motivated, whether weapons (firearms, knives, other or unknown type of weapons) were involved, whether the incident involved multiple offenders or strangers, or whether drugs or alcohol were involved. Our findings reinforce previous studies that detected empirical evidence of multi-dimensional physical and psychological injuries to bias crime victims. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Developing support service for victims of hate crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunn Peter

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the nature and development of Victim Support’s services to victims of hate crime in England and Wales. It provides definitions of hate crime, information about its extent, and considers why services for victims of some forms of hate crime have developed faster than others. It concludes with a summary of points made during a discussion at the 2004 European Forum for Victim Services conference about whether or not services to victims of hate crime should be provided by mainstream victim services or specialist agencies.

  10. Victims and contemporary tendencies in crime control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soković Snežana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Victimological dimension of new criminality forms is a specific challenge for contemporary criminal law systems; new time brings new forms of criminality, new victims, but also new ways and opportunities for more efficient protection of victims. At the same time with review and improvement of existing standards of victims` protection, contemporary criminality control systems show strong tendency toward compromising the general position of the victim. Victim’s interests are being instrumentalized because of the justification of changes in criminality control in the direction of significant strengthening of criminal law repression. The crime which is emotionalized with the affective media presentation of the victim justifies stricter penal policy and provides the populist support for repressive criminality control strategies and criminal law expansionism. The aim of the paper is the analysis of the mechanisms of victim “use“ in contemporary criminality control and the examination of its consequences, with special review on domestic circumstances through analysis of the Code on special measures for prevention of crimes against sexual freedom towards juveniles (Marija`s Code.

  11. Mental health in violent crime victims: Does sexual orientation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J; McNiel, Dale E; Holley, Sarah R; Shumway, Martha; Boccellari, Alicia

    2012-04-01

    The present study investigates victim sexual orientation in a sample of 641 violent crime victims seeking emergency medical treatment at a public-sector hospital. Victim sexual orientation was examined as it: (a) varies by type of violent crime and demographic characteristics, (b) directly relates to psychological symptoms, and (c) moderates the relationship between victim and crime characteristics (i.e., victim gender, victim trauma history, and type of crime) and psychological symptoms (i.e., symptoms of acute stress, depression, panic, and general anxiety). Results showed that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) victims were more likely to be victims of sexual assault. Heterosexual victims were more likely to be victims of general assault and shootings. LGBT victims demonstrated significantly higher levels of acute stress and general anxiety. Moreover, victim sexual orientation moderated the association of type of crime with experience of panic symptoms. Also, victim sexual orientation moderated the relation of victim trauma history and general anxiety symptoms. Results are discussed in relation to victimization prevalence rates, sexual prejudice theory, and assessment and treatment of violent crime victims.

  12. [Postraumatic mental disorders in traders victims of crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilli, Julián; Rodríguez, María C; Folino, Jorge O

    2014-01-01

    Crime consequences are not only a security problem; they are also a community health question. Because shop assistants are particularly exposed to crime victimization, they are at risk from suffering posttraumatic stress disorders. To describe posttraumatic symptomatology of crime victimized shop assistants and to explore the relationship between the symptoms and demographic, victim and situational factors. Self-reported information about mental symptomatology was gathered from 126 victimized shop assistants identified during cross-sectional study. Case and control groups were formed to explore association between symptomatology and crime and victim characteristics. The 20.6% of respondents reported information compatible with posttraumatic stress disorder; the 13 %, with moderate/severe depression and the 69.8% with adjustment disorder. The condition of being a case was associated with the violent characteristic of the crime, with the subtraction of goods and the economic value of the goods.

  13. Victim-Offender Mediation with Adolescents Who Commit Hate Crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Stephen C.; Swain, Jennifer E.

    The number of reported hate crimes has steadily increased. Racial prejudice motivates most of these crimes, which typically are committed by a small, loosely associated group of adolescent offenders. In addition to the physical pain and material loss associated with these crimes, they can be psychologically devastating to the victim. New…

  14. Comparing Victims of Phishing and Malware Attacks: Unraveling Risk Factors and Possibilities for Situational Crime Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Leukfeldt, Eric Rutger

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares the risk factors for becoming a victim of two types of phishing: high-tech phishing (using malicious software) and low-tech phishing (using e-mails and telephone calls). These risk factors are linked to possibilities for situational crime prevention. Data from a cybercrime victim survey in the Netherlands (n=10,316) is used. Based on routine activity theory, the multivariate analyses include thirty variables. The findings show situational crime prevention has to be aimed a...

  15. CRIMINAL LEGAL PROTECTION OF CHILD VICTIMS AND WITNESSES OF CRIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Mushevska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The term victim indicates a natural person that underwent some kind of crime, including psychological and mental disorder, and emotional suffering or monetary loss, that were caused by accomplishing or not accomplishing a certain kind of activity that violates the law in one state. The term Victim also includes the close members of the victim’s family that depend on the victim. “Kids, victims and witnesses of crimes” indicates kids and adolescents under 18 years of age, which are victims of different kinds of crime or witnesses of different kinds of crime, in spite of the role that they have in the crime act. In all proceedings that directly or indirectly child victims involved it is important to act in a way that is the best and most appropriate for the child.

  16. Crime victimization and the implications for individual health and wellbeing: A Sheffield case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Su-Yin; Haining, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Public health and criminology have developed largely independently of one another at the research and policy levels so that the links between crime victimization and health status are not well understood. Although it is not difficult to support the idea of crime as a threat to the health of individuals and the wider community, the difficulty lies in quantifying the impact of crime on public health, while controlling other variables, including gender and ethnicity. We report the results of a study, the goals of which were to: develop an understanding conceptually of the relationships between different types of crime (violent and non-violent) and health; explore the impact of victimization on quality of life and physical and psychological wellbeing; investigate the role of social and demographic factors in shaping any relationships. The study is based on 840 responses from a postal survey administered to 4,100 households in Sheffield, England, located primarily in deprived areas where overall crime rates were high. Non-violent crimes were more frequently reported than violent crimes and in general, inner city neighbourhoods were associated with higher violent crime rates. Out of 392 victims of crime, 27% of individuals detailed physical injuries resulting directly from a crime event and 31% had taken some medical steps to treat a crime-related injury. 86% experienced at least one psychological or behavioural change, including stress, sleeping difficulties, loss of confidence, and depression. Logistic regression models estimated victimization risk based on various social and demographic variables. Violent crimes were consistently linked with higher odds of seeking medical treatment and a higher likelihood of experiencing psychological ill health effects or behavioural changes. In comparison, victims of non-violent or property crimes were not significantly associated with mental health or behavioural/lifestyle effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. Student Reports of Bullying and Cyber-Bullying: Results from the 2009 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. Web Tables. NCES 2011-336

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Jill; Murphy, Christina

    2011-01-01

    In school year 2008-09, some 7,066,000 U.S. students ages 12 through 18, or 28.0 percent of all such students, reported they were bullied at school, and about 1,521,000, or 6.0 percent, reported they were cyber-bullied anywhere (i.e., on or off school property). These Web Tables use data from the 2009 School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National…

  18. Base rates of hate crime victimization among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, Nadine Recker; Earleywine, Mitchell; Davison, Gerald C

    2003-10-01

    This study uses the unmatched count technique (UCT) to estimate base rates for hate crime victimization in college students and compares the results with estimates found using conventional methods. Hate crimes, criminal acts perpetrated against individuals or members of specific stigmatized groups, intend to express condemnation, hate, disapproval, dislike, or distrust for a group. The UCT is a promising tool in the investigation of hate crime because it does not require participants to directly answer sensitive questions. This may provide more accurate responses than other methods. The UCT revealed higher estimates for a variety of serious hate crimes, including physical and sexual assault. These higher estimates provide a better feel for the level of hate crime victimization and point to the increased need for hate crime victims' assistance programs on college campuses.

  19. How Does Survey Context Impact Self-reported Fraud Victimization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Michaela E; Carr, Dawn C; Mottola, Gary R; Deevy, Martha J; Carstensen, Laura L

    2017-04-01

    This study examines the effect of survey context on self-reported rates of personal fraud victimization, and explores if the effect is influenced by age and gender. Participants (3,000U.S. adults) were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 versions of a fraud victimization questionnaire: questions about fraud were identical across conditions, however, the context varies. One questionnaire asked about crime, one about consumer buying experiences, and a third focused only on fraud. Participants who were asked about fraud victimization in the context of crime reported significantly less victimization (p reports from those asked within the context of a consumer survey did not differ from the fraud-alone condition. The effect of the crime context interacted with age (p crime context on self-reported fraud victimization. These findings inform the production of new surveys and guide the development of effective social and health policies.

  20. Effects of Victims' Characteristics on Attitudes toward Hate Crimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, Donald A.; Brown, Tamara L.; Mitchell, Raquel C.; Cawman, Audrey J.

    2006-01-01

    Hate crimes are motivated by perpetrators' prejudice toward targets' group. To examine individuals' attitudes toward hate crime perpetrators and targets, participants responded to vignettes of court cases in which the victim's group membership was varied. Results showed that participants recommended more severe sentences for perpetrators when the…

  1. Bystanders' perceptions of perpetrators and victims of hate crime: an investigation using the person perception paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, Nadine Recker; Mendoza, Margaret; Davison, Gerald C

    2003-09-01

    This study used the person perception vignette method to examine whether people perceive hate crime victims as more culpable than non-hate crime victims. In a between-participants design, participants were randomly assigned to read a vignette depicting a nonhate crime or a comparable hate crime motivated by the perpetrator's hatred for either the victim's race, sexual orientation, or religion. Results showed that participants assigned more blame to the victim in the non-hate crime condition compared to the victims in each of the three hate crime conditions. In addition, they perceived the perpetrators as more guilty in each of the three hate crime conditions compared to the non-hate crime condition. In addition, people with prejudiced attitudes perceived both hate crime and non-hate crime victims as more culpable and both hate crime and non-hate crime perpetrators as less culpable than did unprejudiced people.

  2. Categorization of crime victims: comparing theory and legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifi Besa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the categorization of victims by several victimological schools and to compare that to the categorization in the Criminal Procedure Code of Macedonia (CPC. The first part of this article analyzes different theoretical categories of victims, taking into consideration approaches of representatives of positivist, conservative, radical and critical victimology. A parallel is drawn between theoretical and legislative categorization of victims. Many countries have reformed their criminal legislation providing certain rights to the victim of crime. The second part of the article discusses the categorization of the victims within the CPC of Macedonia. Categorization of the victims is linked to their separate rights guaranteed by law. The article draws certain conclusions and recommendations regarding the categorization of victims and their specific rights. The importance of effective implementation of the guaranteed rights for the victim is especially emphasized.

  3. How friends’ involvement in crime affects the risk of offending and victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokven, Josja J; de Boer, Gijs; Tolsma, Jochem; Ruiter, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how friends’ involvement in crime influences such involvement in those around them, as offenders or victims, and the extent to which such friendship effects vary with contact frequency, friendship intimacy, and geographical proximity. To test our hypotheses we used four waves from the Dutch panel survey CrimeNL, which includes ego-centered network measures in each wave for respondents aged between 16 and 45. To test our hypotheses, fixed-effects panel models were employed. The results show that living in close proximity to delinquent friends increases people’s own risk of offending, and daily interaction with these friends decreases the risk of victimization. Victimization is also communicated among friends in their daily interactions. These findings stress the need to consider factors that condition how friendships exert influence on the risk of crime involvement. PMID:29187805

  4. Cyber-Dependent Crime Victimization: The Same Risk for Everyone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Marie Christine; Dreißigacker, Arne; von Skarczinski, Bennet; Wollinger, Gina Rosa

    2018-02-01

    The Internet has simplified daily life activities. However, besides its comfortability, the Internet also presents the risk of victimization by several kinds of crimes. The present article addresses the question of which factors influence cyber-dependent crime and how they vary between three kinds of cyber-dependent offences: malware infection, ransomware infection, and misuse of personal data. According to the Routine Activity Approach, it is assumed that crime is determined by a motivated offender, the behavior of the Internet user, and the existence of prevention factors. Our analyses were based on a random sample of 26,665 Internet users in two federal states in Germany, aged 16 years and older; 16.6 percent of the respondents had experienced at least one form of cyber-dependent victimization during the year 2014. The results indicate that individual and household factors, as well as online and prevention behavior, influence the risk of cyber-dependent victimization. Furthermore, the effects differ between the three types of offences. In conclusion, the risk of being victimized by cyber-dependent crime is not the same for anyone, but depends on multivariate factors according to the idea of Routine Activity Approach. However, in view of the fact that crime-related factors also matter, studying different cybercrime offences separately seems to be an appropriate research approach.

  5. 76 FR 79219 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Crime Victim...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ...: Crime Victim Compensation State Certification Form Request ACTION: 60-Day notice of information... Victims of Crime (OVC) will be submitting the following information collection request to the Office of...-3612, Office for Victims of Crime, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, 810 7th...

  6. 77 FR 12079 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Crime Victim...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Crime Victim... Department of Justice (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Office for Victims of Crime (OVC) will be... the form/collection: Crime Victim Compensation State Certification Form. (3) Agency form number, if...

  7. Putting a face on the dark figure: Describing victims who don’t report crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fohring Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the inception of large scale victimisation surveys a considerable amount of research has been conducted investigating the so called ‘dark figure’ of unreported crime. Although this figure has consistently hovered around 60% of all victims, recent research reveals little about those who choose not to pursue formal avenues of justice. This article thus seeks to open a dialogue which focuses on the actual people behind the dark figure. It uses examples from the Scottish Crime and Justice Survey to describe these individuals and to explore explanations for their non-reporting. It highlights the importance of deprivation and vulnerability with regards to reporting crime but also the initial risk of victimisation. It concludes by arguing that the lack of focus on victims who don’t report leaves them vulnerable and invisible to the eyes of policy makers and the criminal justice system.

  8. Crime Victimization and Suicidal Ideation Among Colombian College Students: The Role of Depressive Symptoms, Familism, and Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata Roblyer, Martha I; Betancourth Zambrano, Sonia

    2017-03-01

    Crime victimization is one of the most pressing public health concerns in Latin America. Young people in the region are at particularly high risk of victimization. The present study examined exposure to crime victimization as a risk factor for depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation, and the protective effects of familism and social support in a community sample of Colombian college students. Data ( N = 424) came from the Juventud Project (The Emergent Adults Project), a cross-sectional study of college students, 18 to 29 years old ( M = 20.8, SD = 2.5; 63% female; 75.5% lived with their families), attending an urban public university in Southern Colombia. Data were collected between March and June of 2014 through anonymous, self-administered surveys. Conditional process analysis was used to test a model in which crime victimization was directly and indirectly associated with suicidal ideation via depressive symptoms, with familism and social support as moderators of this association while controlling for gender, age, and socioeconomic status. Overall, 58.9% of participants reported at least one crime victimization event in the past year. The most common types of victimization were being robbed without the threat of harm (29.8%) and being robbed with a weapon (24.8%). Male participants reported more instances of crime victimization than female participants. Levels of depressive symptoms that could be clinically significant were reported by 30.2% of participants, and suicidal ideation was reported by 31% of participants. The association between crime victimization and suicidal ideation was fully mediated by depressive symptoms. Social support, but not familism, moderated this association; social support weakened the link between depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Findings suggest that crime victimization may be a significant risk for depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation among college students in Colombia, and that social support may protect from the

  9. 76 FR 20827 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Alaska Native women who have been the victims of sexual assault or domestic abuse. To avoid the recurrence of another financial crisis, we are also working to prevent and prosecute financial crimes. My... cyberbullying, online child sexual exploitation, and sexual assault on college campuses. Through the President's...

  10. Victim blame in a hate crime motivated by sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumm, Karyn M; Terrance, Cheryl A; Henderson, Vanessa R; Ellingson, Heather

    2010-01-01

    A jury simulation paradigm was employed for two studies exploring levels of victim blame in a case of bias-motivated assault based on sexual orientation. In the first study, participants were grouped according to their score on the Index of Homophobia (IHP) scale as either reporting high or low support for gay and lesbian community members. The label of the crime (i.e., bias-motivated assault versus first-degree assault) as well as the gender of the victim were systematically varied. Results indicated that attributions of blame against the victim varied as a function of participants' attitudes toward minority sexual orientation. As extra-legal factors likely contribute to victim blame in these cases, the second study explored such factors as location and "provocation." Jurors in the second study read a transcript depicting an attack on a gay man by a man in either a local bar (i.e., not a gay bar) or a gay bar. Within location conditions, jurors were presented with either "provocation" by the victim (i.e., asking the perpetrator to dance and putting his arm around him) or alternatively no provocation was presented. Results revealed significant differences of victim blame depending on condition. Participants in both the local bar and provocation present conditions were more likely to blame the victim for the attack than those in the gay bar or provocation-absent conditions. Implications for hate crime law and attribution theory within the courtroom are discussed.

  11. Foreign Nationals as Offenders and Victims in Malaysian Crime News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misman Norealyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign nationals in Malaysia come from all corners of the world. They are here as migrant labour, highly skilled and professional migrants (expatriates, illegal migrants, refugees, asylum-seekers (Burmese asylum seekers with UNHCR card, forced migrants (human trafficking victims, students, and tourists. The influx of foreign nationals residing in Malaysia coincides with greater number of crime news featuring foreign nationals. This study explores the social construction of foreign nationals as the ‘other’ in the local crime news published by Malaysian newspapers. 94 news headlines and lead sentences of local crime news involving foreign nationals were identified and analysed for this study. Findings suggest that Malaysian newspapers magnify foreign nationals’ migration status in each crime news.

  12. Cumulative Effects of Neighborhood Social Adversity and Personal Crime Victimization on Adolescent Psychotic Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Joanne; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Odgers, Candice L; Fisher, Helen L

    2018-02-15

    Little is known about the impact of urbanicity, adverse neighborhood conditions and violent crime victimization on the emergence of adolescent psychotic experiences. Participants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of 2232 British twins who were interviewed about adolescent psychotic experiences at age 18. Urbanicity, neighborhood characteristics, and personal victimization by violent crime were measured during childhood and adolescence via geocoded census data, surveys of over 5000 immediate neighbors of the E-Risk participants, and interviews with participants themselves. Adolescents raised in urban vs rural neighborhoods were significantly more likely to have psychotic experiences (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.21-2.30, P = .002). This association remained significant after considering potential confounders including family socioeconomic status, family psychiatric history, and adolescent substance problems (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.01-2.03, P = .042), but became nonsignificant after considering adverse social conditions in urban neighborhoods such as low social cohesion and high neighborhood disorder (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.94-1.92, P = .102). The combined association of adverse neighborhood social conditions and personal crime victimization with adolescent psychotic experiences (adjusted OR = 4.86, 95% CI = 3.28-7.20, P crime victimization (interaction contrast ratio = 1.81, 95% CI = -0.03 to 3.65) that was significant at the P = .054 level. Cumulative effects of adverse neighborhood social conditions and personal victimization by violent crime during upbringing partly explain why adolescents in urban settings are more likely to report psychotic experiences. Early intervention efforts for psychosis could be targeted towards victimized youth living in urban and socially adverse neighborhoods.

  13. Race, gender, and sexual orientation in hate crime victimization: identity politics or identity risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Edward

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the impact of hate crimes upon gay and lesbian victims, reviewing 1538 hate crimes committed in Los Angeles County. Differences between sexual orientation and other hate crime categories were considered for offense severity, reportage to law enforcement, and victim impact. The type of offense varied between crimes classified for sexual orientation (n=551) and other bias-motivated crimes (n=987). Assault, sexual assault, sexual harassment, and stalking were predictive of sexual orientation hate crimes. Sexual orientation bias crimes evidenced greater severity of violence to the person and impact upon victim level of functioning. More violent forms of aggression were predictive of gay and lesbian victim's underreportage to law enforcement. For sexual orientation offenses, victim gender and race/ethnicity differences were predictive of the base rates of crime reportage as well. These findings are considered in terms of a group-risk hypothesis, encountered by multiple outgroup persons, that influences help-seeking behavior and ingroup identity.

  14. Foreign Nationals as Offenders and Victims in Malaysian Crime News

    OpenAIRE

    Misman Norealyna; Mohd Adnan Hamedi; Firdaus Amira Sariyati; Ahmad Che Mahzan

    2017-01-01

    Foreign nationals in Malaysia come from all corners of the world. They are here as migrant labour, highly skilled and professional migrants (expatriates), illegal migrants, refugees, asylum-seekers (Burmese asylum seekers with UNHCR card), forced migrants (human trafficking victims), students, and tourists. The influx of foreign nationals residing in Malaysia coincides with greater number of crime news featuring foreign nationals. This study explores the social construction of foreign nationa...

  15. The Impact of Judicial Reform on Crime Victimization and Trust in Institutions in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the impact of judicial reform in Mexico. It does so using a survey about crime victimization and perceptions of insecurity (Encuesta Nacional Sobre la Inseguridad [ENSI]) collected in 2005, 2008, and 2009 in 11 Mexican cities, 3 of which implemented the reform in 2007 and 2008. This analysis shows that judicial reform not only reduces victimization but also lowers perceptions of security. Although we find that judicial reform has a negative effect on trust in the local and federal police, judicial reform reduces the probability of being asked by the transit police for a bribe.

  16. Psychological sequelae of hate-crime victimization among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herek, G M; Gillis, J R; Cogan, J C

    1999-12-01

    Questionnaire data about criminal victimization experiences were collected from 2,259 Sacramento-area lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (N = 1,170 women, 1,089 men). Approximately 1/5 of the women and 1/4 of the men had experienced victimization because of their adult sexual orientation. Hate crimes were less likely than nonbias crimes to have been reported to police. Compared with other recent crime victims, lesbian and gay hate-crime survivors manifested significantly more symptoms of depression, anger, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress. They also displayed significantly more crime-related fears and beliefs, lower sense of mastery, and more attributions of their personal setbacks to sexual prejudice than did nonbias crime victims and nonvictims. Comparable differences were not observed among bisexuals. The findings highlight the importance of recognizing hate-crime survivors' special needs in clinical settings and in public policy.

  17. Criminal Victimization and Crime Risk Perception: A Multilevel Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…

  18. Rates of criminal victimization in an early intervention for psychosis service - a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rowena; Banbury, Luke

    2017-01-26

    There is a growing body of research looking into the high rates of victimization amongst people with severe mental illness. Studies to date have tended to look at victimization rates in people with chronic mental illness over a wide age range. However, national crime surveys indicate that younger people are more likely to be the victim of crime than older people. There is also evidence that people from ethnic minorities are more likely to experience and less likely to report criminal victimization. This study therefore aimed to look at victimization rates specifically in young people with first episode psychosis (FEP) in Birmingham, one of the most youthful and ethnically diverse cities in the UK. Patients with FEP under the South Birmingham Early Intervention Service were asked to complete a modified version of the Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW). Data was compared to control-group data from the CSEW 2014. Patients with FEP were significantly more likely to be victims of crime, in particular violent crime, than their age-matched counterparts. The overall victimization rate was 39%. Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) groups were more likely to be victims of personal and violent crime than the white FEP population. Victimization rates were broadly in keeping with other UK and international studies. Young people with FEP, particularly those from BME backgrounds, are at significantly greater risk of victimhood than the general population of the West Midlands. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Reactions to Victims of Crime: Sympathy, Defensive Attribution, and the Just World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Alice Ross; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Two studies were conducted that explored observers' perceptions of responsibility of a victim for her involvement in a premeditated crime. Male and female college students listened to tapes of a purported victim describing a crime (either a rape or a mugging). There was general tendency toward a sympathetic reaction pattern. (Author)

  20. Helping Aged Victims of Crime (the HAVoC Study): Common Crime, Older People and Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfaty, Marc; Ridgewell, Anna; Drennan, Vari; Kessel, Anthony; Brewin, Chris R; Leavey, Gerard; Wright, Anwen; Laycock, Gloria; Blanchard, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Limited data suggest that crime may have a devastating impact on older people. Although identification and treatment may be beneficial, no well-designed studies have investigated the prevalence of mental disorder and the potential benefits of individual manualized CBT in older victims of crime. To identify mental health problems in older victims of common crime, provide preliminary data on its prevalence, and conduct a feasibility randomized controlled trial (RCT) using mixed methods. Older victims, identified through police teams, were screened for symptoms of anxiety, depression or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) one (n = 581) and 3 months (n = 486) after experiencing a crime. Screen positive participants were offered diagnostic interviews. Of these, 26 participants with DSM-IV diagnoses agreed to be randomized to Treatment As Usual (TAU) or TAU plus our manualized CBT informed Victim Improvement Package (VIP). The latter provided feedback on the VIP. Recruitment, assessment and intervention are feasible and acceptable. At 3 months 120/486 screened as cases, 33 had DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric disorder; 26 agreed to be randomized to a pilot trial. There were trends in favour of the VIP in all measures except PTSD at 6 months post crime. This feasibility RCT is the first step towards improving the lives of older victims of common crime. Without intervention, distress at 3 and 6 months after a crime remains high. However, the well-received VIP appeared promising for depressive and anxiety symptoms, but possibly not posttraumatic stress disorder.

  1. An exploratory examination of student to professor disclosures of crime victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Tara N; Branch, Kathryn A; Hayes, Rebecca M

    2013-11-01

    Prior qualitative research has demonstrated that female college students may utilize their professors as support providers when they experience sexual assault and intimate partner violence victimization. To further explore this phenomenon, the present study used a random sampling design on two college campuses to examine the following questions: (a) Are student disclosures of crime victimization a common occurrence for college professors? (b) What is the nature of college professors' most recent disclosure of crime victimization? and (c) Do professor characteristics predict receiving a student disclosure of victimization? Implications of these findings as well as directions for future research will be discussed.

  2. Service for victims of crime VDS info and victims’ support: Analysis of the previous work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The first victim support service in our country VDS info and victims’ support started with its work in April 2003 within the Victimology Society of Serbia. This service is aimed at victims of crime (women and men, primarily at victims of violent crime, but also of some forms of property crime (such as burglary. The aim of the Service is to offer victims of crime information on their rights and the ways of how to realize them, emotional support, as well as to refer them to other institutions/organizations depending on the certain victim’s needs. Coordinators and volunteers, who passed the appropriate training, are responsible for that. Bearing that in mind, this paper will give the brief glens on the Service itself, its organization and the way of work, followed by the analysis of the results of previous work.

  3. Violent video games and attitudes towards victims of crime: an empirical study among youth

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, L.; Griffiths, MD

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that playing violent video games may be associated with an increase in acceptance of violence and positive attitudes towards perpetrators of crime. This study is the first to investigate the relationship between playing violent video games and attitudes towards victims of crime. A total of 206 young people (aged 12-24 years) completed measures of attitudes towards victims and violent video game exposure. The results suggest that exposure to violent video games ...

  4. Exploring attitudes towards victims of crime among video game players: a vignette study

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, L; Griffiths, MD

    2013-01-01

    Research on video game playing has focused mainly on the effects of such games in relation to aggression and attitudes towards perpetrators and towards crime. The present research was designed to investigate gamers’ attitudes towards victims of crimes and incidents that were designed to mirror those portrayed in violent video games. Vignettes were used during interviews to explore 50 participants’ attitudes towards different types of victims. The results indicate that long-term playing of vio...

  5. Stigma or Sympathy? Attributions of Fault to Hate Crime Victims and Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of social status on attributions of blame in specific instances of hate crime. Two theoretical explanations for the impact of offender's and victim's social status characteristics on evaluations of hate crimes are examined. The stigma perspective suggests that the public will deride minority-status…

  6. Restorative justice and the relationship of perpetrator and victim of crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Restorative justice as the theoretical foundation of social reaction to crime is one of the key themes of contemporary criminological discourse. The idea of crime as a conflict between perpetrator and victim of crime is included in the core ideas related to the concept of restorative justice, which differs from traditional understanding of crime as a relationship between the state and the individual. This change in perspective on crime points towards social reaction to crime that differs from traditional criminal justice system. As the restoration process of relationship damaged by crime is directly related to possibilities of participation in the very process, institutionalisation of that participation sets the scope of restorative process. In this article, the author points towards the traditional criminal justice and restorative justice processes, focusing the relationship of perpetrator and victim of crime and the process of conflict resolution. The aim of the article is to highlight the conflict perspective as a defining element of the relationship between offender and victim, and to underline the effectiveness of restorative justice as social reaction to crime, which contributes to optimisation of the relationship between the offender and the community.

  7. Victimization and Fear of Crime in Elderly Public Housing Tenants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, M. Powell; Yaffe, Silvia

    1980-01-01

    Fear of crime was central in determining psychological well-being. Crime-related variables were minimally related to size of social space and activity outside the housing site. Planned housing serves a protective function and tenants are not necessarily made prisoners in their homes by crime or fear. (Author)

  8. Preventive Activities of Preliminary Investigation Bodies in Respect of Crime Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Timko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of the prevention of victimization by the investigation and inquiry divisions of the internal affairs bodies of the Russian Federation. It defines the main forms and methods of working with the victim during the investigation of a crime aimed at reducing the possibility of again becoming a victim of criminal assault. The organizational and legal directions of victimological prevention are analyzed, the necessity of developing effective mechanisms for assessing the activities of the units of internal affairs agencies in crime prevention is justified.

  9. Identifying crime victims who are at high risk for post traumatic stress disorder: developing a practical referral instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wohlfarth, T.; Winkel, F. W.; van den Brink, W.

    2002-01-01

    Objective To construct a practical instrument for the identification and referral of crime victims who are at high risk for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Crime victims filing a complaint at a police station were asked to fill out a questionnaire probing risk factors for PTSD (n

  10. Seven hundred seventy eight bite marks: analysis by anatomic location, victim and biter demographics, type of crime, and legal disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Adam J; Senn, David R; Arendt, Douglas M

    2005-11-01

    A study of the etiology, anatomic location, victim demographics and legal disposition of bite mark cases was made with the purpose of updating and augmenting previous research in the field. The information may be of interest to a myriad of professional disciplines including Forensic Odontologists, Medical Examiners, Detectives, Profilers, Emergency Room Personnel, Coroners, Psychologists, and Family Service Counselors, as bite marks provide both physical and biological data. While bite marks were found on all anatomic regions of the body some sites are significantly more likely to receive bites, and the frequency that an area is bitten may vary with the type of crime. Sex and age of the victim may also impact the resulting location and frequency of bites. A survey form for bite mark cases was created and mailed to all Diplomates of the American Board of Forensic Odontology. The survey form was also included in the American Society of Forensic Odontology newsletter. The survey requested that the recipient fill out a separate form for each case for which the recipient was the primary investigator of a patterned injury. The data from the resulting surveys were entered into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. The responses detailed two hundred thirty two (259) bite mark cases that included seven hundred (778) individual bite marks. Harvey (1976) and Sweet and Pretty (2000) published studies finding the highest percentage of bites to the breasts. In 1983 Vale and Noguchi published the paper indicating that the most frequently bitten area was the upper extremities. The survey forms were sent to approximately 1100 forensic dentist in 26 countries. The forensic experience level of the dentists varied from neophyte to very experienced. The data were analyzed and the results reported and organized in the following categories; Victim Distribution by Gender, Victim Distribution by Age, Child Abuse Distribution by Age and Gender, Sexual Assault Distribution by age and Gender

  11. Being (almost invisible: Victims of crime in the Italian juvenile criminal justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vezzadini Susanna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From 2008 to 2013 the author has been a Special Judge in the Juvenile Criminal Court of the Emilia Romagna Region. From that privileged perspective, it was possible to observe the dynamics of how victims of underage offenders were considered before the law, no differences if they are adults or minors, too. The reflections presented will first consider EU and UN provision on victims of crime; then, the normative framework supporting the Italian criminal juvenile justice system will be considered by an examining of the difficulties victims meet in that peculiar context. The implementation of juvenile criminal law shows the paradox victims of crime have to cope with. The Juvenile Criminal Court in Bologna recently started to promote a wide use of restorative justice measures as an attempt to correct the unfair consequences in the application of law, with judicial discretion interpreted as an instrument to favour victims’ harm recognition and to protect their dignity as persons.

  12. The position of crime victims in legislation of the Republic of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipčič Katja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years the position of victims of crimes has been improved in Slovenia. In criminal law the model of restorative justice has been enacted and the hearing of sexual abused children at the court main hearing is not allowed. By this measure the secondary victimisation of abused children has been reduced. The changes in the other law, beside the criminal code and criminal procedure code, also have determined the position of victims. The most important new law is The law of preventing family violence witch does not contain any new incrimination or sanction. Its main goal is to coordinate activities of different agencies and provide the systematic approach to family violence. Slovenia also enacted special law about payment the restitution to victims of violent crimes. In Slovenia public opinion about offenders became more punitive and demands for harsher sentences are made in the name of victims rights and public safety.

  13. Assessing the risk and prevalence of hate crime victimization in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, John

    2016-01-01

    This article presents results of multivariate and multi-level analyses of data on hate crime victimization from 14 Western European nations. Although the ethnic composition of immigrant communities shows considerable variation across the 14 countries, in all countries self-defined immigrants are

  14. Silent Victims in the Public Eye: Socially Vulnerable EU Citizens' Exposure to Crime and Its Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallengren, Simon; Mellgren, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    This study used thematic analysis to explore 28 socially vulnerable European Union (EU) citizens who support themselves by begging in public spaces in Malmö, Sweden, their exposure to crime, and the consequences of victimization. The analysis revolved around the following themes: daily harassment in public spaces, multiple motives for victimization, strategies to combat victimization, and consequences of victimization. The participants described that they lived in a constant state of stress, due to their marginalized life situation and a fear of becoming victimized in public spaces while begging. Study participants claimed that it was not their ethnicity but rather the activity of begging and their overall vulnerable life situation together with a label as "non-Swedish" that motivate offenders to commit attacks against them. The discussion concludes by presenting a number of policy implications.

  15. The relationship of victim injury to the progression of sexual crimes through the criminal justice system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, Kieran M

    2012-08-01

    A number of factors are known to influence the progression of sexual crimes through the criminal justice system. The role of victim injury in influencing decision-making at pivotal stages has been addressed by a number of separate research projects. This article consolidates existing research evidence in order to highlight the important role that victim injury plays at each step of the legal process. The importance of accurate diagnosis and recording of victim injury is highlighted. Furthermore, by describing the significant impact that the presence of victim injury can have on the legal outcome, the importance of ensuring that cases without victim injury are correctly interpreted by the police, legal professionals, judiciary and the jury is heavily emphasised.

  16. Defining and evaluating perceptions of victim blame in antigay hate crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J; Nobles, Matt R; Amacker, Amanda M; Dovoedo, Lisa

    2013-09-01

    Victimology research often hinges on attribution of blame toward victims despite a lack of conceptual agreement on the definition and measure of the construct. Drawing on established blame attribution and intent literature, the present study evaluates psychometric properties of the Perceptions of Victim Blame Scale (PVBS) using mock jury samples in a vignette-based capital murder antigay hate crime context. Factor analyses show support for a three-factor structure with the following perceptions of victim blame subscales: Malice, Recklessness, and Unreliability. All factors displayed expected positive associations with homonegativity and authoritarianism. Likewise, all factors displayed null relations with trait aggression and social desirability. Only the Malice factor predicted sentencing decisions after controlling for crime condition and support for the death penalty. Results are reviewed with respect to blame attribution theory and practical application of a revised PVBS.

  17. 78 FR 24319 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... that give law enforcement, schools, mental health professionals, and public health officials better tools to reduce violent crime. But we cannot solve this problem alone. That is why I will continue to... fellow citizens and the basic values that unite us. Let us renew that common cause this week, and let us...

  18. South African Crime Quarterly 59

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In February this year, Statistics South Africa (Stats SA) released the findings of the 2015/16 Victims of Crime Survey, and announced that it would release the 2016/17 results in November. Victim surveys, though not without fault, capture valuable data relating to crime, justice and safety that are not typically collected by ...

  19. Crime Victims Support System and Restorative Justice: Possible Implementation in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlinda Azman, PhD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Victims’ position is increasingly acknowledged in the criminal justice system across the world. Because of that, criminal justice systems in various countries slowly transform from focusing too much on the relationship between offenders and the legal system and to between the offenders and their victims. Several programs are highlighted such as victim-offender mediation, family group conferences, reparative orders and referral orders in this article. Findings from several studies support the effectiveness of the programs on both the victims and the offenders in terms of several measurements such as satisfaction and recidivism. Looking at this revolution, Malaysian academicians and professionals are beginning to recognize restorative justice as a possible revolution to its criminal justice system, but Malaysian criminal justice system first needs to strengthen or build components that support victims of crime, as this is one of the main principles of restorative justice. Currently, Malaysia still focuses on offenders and their relationship with legal system, but not much with their own victims (physical, emotional, and psychological consequences of the crime. Several possible issues before formal implementation of restorative justice are discussed. The issues (culture, training, and attitude of Malaysian people, including the victims, offenders, and those who work with them can influence the efficiency of restorative justice programs if not identified systematically. These issues can also be the possible research areas to be ventured in the future as these researches can help in implementation.

  20. Reporting Crimes to the Police Depends on Relationship Networks: Effects of Ties Among Victims, Advisors, and Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoth, Lauren K; Ruback, R Barry

    2016-08-01

    A victim's decision to report a crime to the police is typically made after talking with someone else, usually a friend or relative, but sometimes a stranger. The advice this person gives depends primarily on the seriousness of the crime, and to some extent on the gender and age of the victim. The present research, which used experimental vignettes, examined the role of social networks in reporting: How do the relationships among a victim, the advisor, and the offender affect the advice to report or not to report a violent or nonviolent crime? Results from Study 1 indicated that relationships matter: Crimes are least likely to be reported if the offender is part of the same triad as the victim and the advisor, and crimes are most likely to be reported if the victim, the advisor, and the offender are all strangers. Study 1 also found that males are more likely to protect friends who are offenders (by advising against reporting), while females are more likely to protect friends who are victims (by advising them to report). Study 2 found that the effect of these relationships on reporting is conditioned by the nature of the organization to which the offender belongs, such that males are particularly likely to protect their friends in athletic organizations and fraternities when accused of minor property crimes. Both studies found that gender differences in the advice to report are moderated by characteristics of the crime and triad structure.

  1. Relationship between the police and crime victims: An analysis of the process and the level of satisfaction with police work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klisarić Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of this study was to investigate the level of satisfaction of various categories of crime victims with various aspects of police work and behavior. The aim of this research was to examine whether the police treat all victims of crime equally responsibly, or whether there is a significant difference in the satisfaction of various categories of crime victims with various aspects of police work and behavior. On an occasional sample of 150 examinees, we analyzed the level of satisfaction of crime victims in relation to the expectations of the police regarding the reported criminal offenses and then the level of satisfaction towards different aspects of work and conduct of the police, such as reporting crime to the police, environmental conditions of interview and human compassion/empathy of police officers. The results indicate a significant difference in the satisfaction of specified aspects of police work among different categories of victims. Most dissatisfaction was expressed by members of the LGBT community and convicted persons when they appear in the role of victims. The research makes recommendations for improving the quality of the work and behavior of the police towards victims of crime.

  2. Protecting Children Victims of Crimes of Human Trafficking in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora-Ioana Balan-Rusu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the paper there were examined the main provisions of the European legislative act framework in the domain of protecting children victims of human trafficking offenses, with some critical remarks. The paper can be useful to the European and Romanian legislator, practitioners and academics in the field. The novelty consists of analyzing the provisions of the European legislative act, focusing on the practical ways provided for the protection of children victims of this kind of crime, and the formulated critical remarks.

  3. Supporting and Protecting the Victims of Crime and the European Union. Some General Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Minodora Rusu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper there were examined, the general provisions of Directive 2012/29/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012 establishing minimum standards on the rights, support and protection of victims of crime and replacing the Framework Decision 2001/220/JHA. The paper continues other studies relating to international judicial cooperation in criminal matters, published in national or international journals or conference proceedings. Developed in a modern way that allows understanding the terms used by the European legislator and the described objectives, the paper can be useful to academics, practitioners or European legislator in terms of changing and supplementing this legislative act. The innovations consist in the brief examination, in the critical opinions and in formulating de lege ferenda, by which we propose a single act regulating the rights, supporting and protecting victims of crime by amending and completion of the examined document.

  4. Victims of crime with disabilities in Ireland: invisible citizens within an adversarial paradigm of justice

    OpenAIRE

    Kilcommins, Shane; Edwards, Claire; Harold, Gill

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed Victims of crime with disabilities experience the more general problems associated with victimhood in Ireland including under reporting, lack of information provision, lack of private areas in courtrooms, and delays in progressing complaints. Very often, however, the centrality of their outsider status is also more pronounced. They experience marginalisation at a number of different levels in the criminal process including policy emphasis, the specific...

  5. Single-victim and serial sexual homicide offenders: differences in crime, paraphilias and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Beauregard, Eric; Myers, Wade C

    2015-02-01

    Information on psychopathological characteristics of sexual homicide offenders is scarce. To investigate criminal, paraphilic and personality trait differences between serial and single-victim sexual homicide offenders. All 73 single-victim and 13 serial sexual homicide offenders presenting within a cohort of 671 men sentenced for sexual crimes between 1994 and 2005 and serving their sentence in one high-security Canadian prison and who consented to interview were assessed and compared on their offending patterns, personality pathology and paraphilic behaviours. Serial sexual homicide offenders were more likely than the single offenders to report deviant sexual fantasies, having selected victims with distinctive characteristics, to have targeted strangers, structured premeditation and/or verbal humiliation of their victims during the offences. Personality pathology, defined by at least two Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV criteria for personality disorder, was common in both groups, but the serial offenders were more likely to have narcissistic, schizoid and/or obsessive-compulsive traits; they were also more likely to engage in sexual masochism, partialism, homosexual paedophilia, exhibitionism and/or voyeurism. Samples of serial sexual homicide offenders will, fortunately, always be small, and it may be that more could be learned to assist in preventing such crimes if data from several studies or centres were pooled. Our findings suggest that an investigation of sexual homicide offenders should include strategies for evaluating premeditation as well as personality and paraphilic characteristics. Crime scene features that should alert investigators should include similar characteristics between victims and particular aspects of body exposure or organisation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Impact of crime victimization on initial presentation to an early intervention for psychosis service and 18-month outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Helen L; Roberts, Anna; Day, Fern; Reynolds, Nicky; Iacoponi, Eduardo; Garety, Philippa A; Craig, Thomas K J; McGuire, Philip; Valmaggia, Lucia; Power, Paddy

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the clinical and social correlates of a lifetime history of crime victimization among first-episode psychosis patients at entry to an Early Intervention Service and following 18 months of specialist care. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 149 individuals who presented to an Early Intervention Service for the first time with psychosis in the London borough of Lambeth, UK. A range of demographic and clinical measures were completed including self-reported history of victimization along with the type of crime and its subjective effect on the patient. Clinical and functional outcomes at 18-month follow up were ascertained from clinical case notes by a psychiatrist. A large proportion of patients (n = 64, 43%) reported a history of crime victimization. This was associated with significantly higher levels of depression and substance misuse at initial presentation. Being a victim of a crime was not significantly associated with poorer clinical or functional outcomes after 18 months of specialist care. However, non-significant differences were found for those who reported crime victimization in terms of their increased use of illegal substances or having assaulted someone else during the follow-up period. Past experience of being a victim of crime appears to be common in patients presenting for the first time with psychosis and is associated with increased likelihood of comorbidity. Thus, Early Intervention Services should consider screening for past victimization and be prepared to deal with comorbid problems. The impact of crime victimization on clinical and functional outcomes requires investigation over a longer period of time. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Understanding Gang Membership and Crime Victimization among Jail Inmates: Testing the Effects of Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kathleen A.; Lane, Jodi; Akers, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous research has examined factors related to gang membership and offending, research on the relationship between gangs and victimization is limited. The present study builds on previous research and examines gang membership, victimization, and self-control among 2,414 jail inmates. Results from self-report surveys indicate that gang…

  8. A Survey of Cyber Crime in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Papanikolaou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past years, the Internet has evolved into the so-called “Web 2.0”. Nevertheless, the wide use of the offered Internet services has rendered individual users a potential target to cyber criminals. The paper presents a review and analysis of various cyber crimes, based on the cases that were reported to the Cyber Crime and Computer Crime Unit of the Greek Police Force and compares them to similar data of other EU countries.

  9. Reducing the risk of being a victim of crime in South Africa: you can tell and be heard!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornman, Juan; Nelson Bryen, Diane; Kershaw, Priscilla; Ledwaba, Gloria

    2011-06-01

    People who use Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) know that silence is not always golden. Persons with disabilities and in particular those with complex communication needs, have a heightened risk of becoming victims of crime, abuse, and neglect. This study looked at the vocabulary needed to disclose or report crime or abuse in South Africa, and also focussed on the development of communication boards for this purpose, in four of the 11 official South African languages (Afrikaans, English, Sepedi, and isiZulu). Thirty-six participants in four language-based focus groups (English, Afrikaans, Sepedi, and isiZulu) were asked to generate a list of possible words they deemed important when wanting to disclose a crime, abuse or neglect. Participants then prioritized the top 55 words. A total of 56 words appeared on two or more of the lists from the four language groups. The board was developed using Picture Communication Symbols (PCS), the most frequently used symbol set in South Africa, according to an electronic mail survey. A discrepancy analysis revealed that these 56 words could be represented by 219 symbols. Symbols were developed for two words (swear, threaten) for which no PCS symbols existed. The process of developing the communication boards described in this paper may be useful to AAC communities in other countries, and the boards can serve as templates for other languages.

  10. Psychological distress following crime victimization: An exploratory study from an agency perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, M J J; Koster, N N

    2017-10-01

    Deficits in recognition of suffering play a significant role in the etiology of psychological distress in crime victims. However, given the preliminary status of the literature, it seems necessary to take other factors into account as well. Starting from an agency perspective, this study explored three such factors: negative self-attributions, peritraumatic distress, and early posttraumatic emotions. More specifically, this study explored whether the association between recognition deficits and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms observed in other studies could be replicated and, if so, whether this association was mediated by negative self-attributions and would decrease in strength when taking into account the adverse roles of peritraumatic distress and early posttraumatic emotions. To address these questions, we used prospective data from 201 victims who had reported a crime to the Dutch police. Recognition deficits, negative self-attributions, peritraumatic distress, and early posttraumatic emotions were assessed within 1 month after the crime report and PTSD symptoms 1 month later. Results indicated that the association between recognition deficits and PTSD symptoms was partly mediated by negative self-attributions and that the strength of this association decreased when controlling for peritraumatic distress and early posttraumatic emotions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Performance Evaluations and Victim Satisfaction With State Compensation for Violent Crime: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, M J J; Koster, N N; Van Heugten, J

    2015-07-29

    Satisfaction with a particular good or service represents an affective state in response to an individual's evaluation of the performance of that good or service. This evaluation involves a comparison between perceived actual performance and prior expectations. The current study used this theoretical idea to study violent crime victims' levels of satisfaction with services provided by a Dutch state compensation scheme. One hundred and seventy-seven victims of violent crime who had applied for compensation from the Dutch Violent Offences Compensation Fund (DVOCF) participated in two brief telephone interviews: one before receipt of the fund's decision upon their request for compensation and one after receipt of that decision. Based on the theories of distributive and procedural justice, measurement of prior expectations was differentiated in expectations about receipt of compensation, treatment by fund workers, and information provision. Results suggested that satisfaction with the DVOCF depended on fulfillment of expectations about treatment by fund workers and information provision, but not on fulfillment of expectations about receipt of compensation. Other predictors of victim satisfaction were as follows: duration of the application procedure, approval upon request for compensation, and satisfaction assessed during the first interview. Results were discussed in light of theory, policy implications, study limitations, and future research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Development of the contemporary concept of restorative justice: Towards increased visibility of crime victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary concept of restorative justice emerged at the end of 1960s and the beginning of 1970s, at the time when repression and social exclusion stared to show their lacks. Restorative justice has emerged on the critics of the conventional criminal justice response to crime, which denies the power to both the victim and the offender, and particularly neglecting a victim and minimizing his/her role in the procedure. While the accent of the repressive discourse is on the crime and punishment, restorative discourse is focused on the relationship between parities involved in a criminal case, who should actively participate in the process of finding out adequate solution of the problem arose from the criminal offence. Keeping that in mind, it is quite obvious that theoretical knowledge, concepts and movements that are focused on victims, their rights, legal and overall position had the strongest impact on the development of restorative justice. Taking that as a departure point, the impact of the “conflict as property” concept, victimology, movement for the restitution, movement for victim’s rights, and feminist movement, on the development of a contemporary concept of restorative justice is analyzed in this paper, and vice versa.

  13. Frequency, Nature, and Correlates of Hate Crime Victimization Experiences in an Urban Sample of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Community Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Alixandra C; Cramer, Robert J; Henderson, Craig E; Stroud, Caroline H; Crosby, James W; Graham, James

    2018-02-01

    The present study examines two central research questions. First, we sought to add to current knowledge on the frequency and types of hate crime experiences in an urban sample. Also, drawing on existing frameworks for sexual minority specific (SMS) stress, we examined internalized SMS stress (defined by internalized homophobia and acceptance concerns regarding one's minority status) as a mediator of the association between hate crime victimization (i.e., objective or social SMS stress) and mental health symptoms (i.e., symptoms of depression, anxiety, and general stress). Participants were 336 self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) community members who elected to participate in research at a community health agency in an urban southwestern United States jurisdiction. Results suggested (a) approximately one third of the sample reported lifetime hate crime victimization, with the most common types characterized by interpersonal, as opposed to property, crimes; (b) approximately half of participants reported their most recent victimization to law enforcement; and (c) internalized SMS stress mediated the relation between hate crime victimization and overall mental health symptoms. Findings are discussed with respect to implications of the unique nature of hate crimes in an urban setting, as well as theoretical and practical implications of SMS stress findings.

  14. The Effect of Police on Recorded Crime vs. The Effect of Police on Victimisation of Crime. Evidence for England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.; Hamed, J.

    2009-01-01

    Using two sources of crime data, police statistics on recorded crime and victimization data from the British Crime Survey, we provide evidence that measurement error in recorded crime statistics results in underestimation of the effect of police on violent crime. We do not find a similar estimation

  15. The effect of victimization, mental health, and protective factors on crime and illicit drug use among homeless young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kimberly A; Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Swendener, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Although research has found high rates of child maltreatment, widespread victimization, and other negative outcomes among homeless youth and young adults, resiliency among this population has largely been understudied. Specifically, a gap remains in terms of how protective factors such as self-efficacy, low deviant beliefs, and religiosity operate among homeless youth and young adults. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between various forms of victimization, mental health, and protective factors with property and violent crime and illicit drug use among homeless young adults. Results from regression analyses indicate that running away from home more frequently, experiencing more physical victimization on the street, higher levels of self-efficacy, and more deviant beliefs were associated with greater property crime. Significant correlates of violent crime included being male, running away from home more frequently, greater sexual and physical victimization on the street, higher levels of self-efficacy, and more deviant beliefs. Finally, being male, running away more frequently from home, greater child physical abuse and partner victimization, and more deviant beliefs were all associated with greater illicit drug use. Self-efficacy was positively related to both property and violent crime, suggesting that it may not operate for homeless young adults in the same manner as it does for normative populations.

  16. Racial disparities in hate crime reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaykowski, Heather

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the influence of the victim's race in reporting hate crimes to the police. Data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) concentrated incident-level files (1992-2005) were used to (a) analyze how the victim's race influences the likelihood of reporting and (b) explore differences between reporting racial hate crimes and non-racial hate crimes. Controlling for other demographic and incident characteristics, the results indicate that minority victimizations are less likely to be reported for both racial and nonracial hate crimes; however, the magnitude of this effect was greater for racial hate crimes. Failure to report to the police has serious consequences for the victim and the criminal justice system. Implications and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  17. Traditional versus modern values, self-perceived interpersonal factors, and posttraumatic stress in Chinese and German crime victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maercker, Andreas; Mohiyeddini, Changiz; Müller, Mario; Xie, Wei; Hui Yang, Zhi; Wang, Jiangping; Müller, Julia

    2009-06-01

    The influence of cultural factors on mental health is not disputed in general - but elaborated research approaches are still lacking. We investigate cultural influences not only by nationality but also by value orientation (modern vs. traditional). A cross-cultural comparison with Chinese and German crime victims included an assessment of value orientation according to Schwartz's theory (Schwartz, 1994) of personal values. Chinese and German adult crime victims were assessed. By means of structural equation multi-sample analysis, data of the two groups were compared. Traditional (conformity, benevolence, customs orientation) and modern values (achievement, hedonism, stimulation), traumatic exposure, posttraumatic stress (PTS), and two self-perceived interpersonal mediator processes (disclosure intentions, social acknowledgement as a victim) were assessed by self-report measures in 130 Chinese and 151 German crime victims. The two patterns of prediction for PTS differed between the countries: In the German sample both value types but in the Chinese sample only traditional values were directly or indirectly predictive of PTS. Traditional values inhibited social acknowledgement as a victim in China and Germany. In Germany, traditional values were related to increased PTS severity. Modern values predicted social acknowledgement as well as lower symptoms in Germany, but not in China. The study shows cultural and interpersonal factors that may contribute to the development of PTSD that are under-researched in contemporary psychology and psychotherapy.

  18. Provocative behavior of a victim and its difference from the provocation of a crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Anatolyevich Cherepakhin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to define the main elements of provocative behavior of a victim and its difference from the provocation of a crime. Methods dialectic approach to the study of social phenomena and historical and comparativelegal methods for the study of legal reality. Results scientific grounding of theoreticallegal bases of the ldquoprovocationrdquo institution and formulating proposals for improving its legislative regulation and increasing the efficiency of its law enforcement. Scientific novelty the article presents the author39s classification of the types and forms of provocative activity in the norms of both the General and the Specific parts. Practical value summarizing and analysis of the modern empirical data on the practice of implementation of the norms containing the features of provocation and elaboration of organizational and methodological recommendations based on the authorrsquos research. nbsp

  19. Mental health problems and satisfaction with amount of state compensation for intentional violent crime victimization in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, M J J

    2012-08-01

    The current study explored whether self-reported mental health problems among victims of violent crime (n = 151) affect their ratings of satisfaction with amount of financial compensation awarded by the Dutch state and vice versa. This topic is important to address, because satisfaction is often used as an indicator of quality of victim services. Relying on medical literature about satisfaction with compensation in patient populations, it was expected that satisfaction levels would be negatively associated with mental health problems. Mental health problems were assessed with the General Health Questionnaire. A threshold of 11/12 on this scale was used to differentiate between victims with and without probable mental health problems. In line with expectations, victims with probable mental health problems reported significantly lower levels of satisfaction than those without. Results remained unchanged after adjusting for potential confounding. Findings were discussed in light of study limitations and directions for future research.

  20. From crime scene actions in stranger rape to prediction of rapist type: single-victim or serial rapist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corovic, Jelena; Christianson, Sven Å; Bergman, Lars R

    2012-01-01

    The differences in crime scene actions in cases of stranger rape committed by convicted offenders were examined between 31 single-victim rapists and 35 serial rapists. Data were collected from police files, court verdicts, psychiatric evaluations, and criminal records. Findings indicate that the serial rapists were more criminally sophisticated than the single-victim rapists, during their first and second rapes. The single-victim rapists were significantly more likely to engage in the interpersonal involvement behavior of kissing the victim, and to engage in pre-assault alcohol use, than the serial rapists. There was, however, no significant difference in physically violent or sexual behaviors. To investigate the possibility of predicting rapist type, logistic regression analyses were performed. Results indicate that three behaviors in conjunction, kissed victim, controlled victim, and offender drank alcohol before the offense, predicted whether an unknown offender is a single-victim or serial rapist with a classification accuracy of 80.4%. The findings have implications for the classification of stranger rapists in offender profiling. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Hate Crime Victimisation

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Kevin; Christmann, Kris

    2017-01-01

    Hate crime as an area of justice and social policy has a relatively recent history, although it's not a new phenomenon. Drawing on evidence primarily from the United Kingdom and United States, this chapter examines four issues of particular salience to understanding hate crime victimization policy and practice: how hate crime is defined; how hate crime is measured; why victims under-report hate crime and how to encourage victims to report; and the effectiveness of services for hate crime vict...

  2. Crime

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — Updated daily postings on Montgomery County’s open data website, dataMontgomery, provide the public with direct access to crime statistic databases - including raw...

  3. Fear of Crime in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Brown

    2016-01-01

    This study provides analyses of data on crime-associated trepidation obtained from surveys administered to college students in South Korea. The survey contained questions about, and the analyses distinguished between, offense-specific fears (fear of burglary and fear of home invasion), perceived risk of victimization (day and night), and crime avoidance behaviors (avoidance of nocturnal activity and avoidance of particular areas). Regression analyses of the data show that victimization was no...

  4. SURVEY ON CRIME ANALYSIS AND PREDICTION USING DATA MINING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Benjamin Fredrick David

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Data Mining is the procedure which includes evaluating and examining large pre-existing databases in order to generate new information which may be essential to the organization. The extraction of new information is predicted using the existing datasets. Many approaches for analysis and prediction in data mining had been performed. But, many few efforts has made in the criminology field. Many few have taken efforts for comparing the information all these approaches produce. The police stations and other similar criminal justice agencies hold many large databases of information which can be used to predict or analyze the criminal movements and criminal activity involvement in the society. The criminals can also be predicted based on the crime data. The main aim of this work is to perform a survey on the supervised learning and unsupervised learning techniques that has been applied towards criminal identification. This paper presents the survey on the Crime analysis and crime prediction using several Data Mining techniques.

  5. Understanding victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show that the proba......This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show...... that the probability of being victimized is increasing in income, but at a diminishing rate. The effect of income is dependent on the type of crime, and poorer households are vulnerable. While less at risk of victimization, they suffer relatively greater losses when such shocks occur. Lower inequality and increased...

  6. Understanding Victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show that the proba......This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show...... that the probability of being victimized is increasing in income, but at a diminishing rate. The effect of income is dependent on the type of crime, and poorer households are vulnerable. While less at risk of victimization, they suffer relatively greater losses when such shocks occur. Lower inequality and increased...

  7. [The effects of information about crime on mother's anxiety about crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takashi; Fuji, Kei; Yoshida, Fujio

    2010-10-01

    This study examined a causal model that the effect of information about crime on risk perception, anxiety about crime, and crime prevention is mediated by the informational content and source. We measured risk perception and anxiety about crime from a social and an individual perspective. A web-based survey was conducted with mothers (N=1040) who have children aged 3-12 years. The results of structural equation modeling indicated the following. (a) Information about crime given by the mass media, Internet, and hearsay increased the risk perception and anxiety about crime through the impact of informational content (i.e., "feeling that crime is close," "emotional fluctuations," "sympathy for the victims," and "remembering a similar crime"). (b) Hearsay information directly controlled optimistic cognitions. (c) Mass media and hearsay information directly promoted crime prevention. (d) Cognition about the deterioration of security advanced cooperative crime prevention in the neighborhood.

  8. Crime and Context : The Impact of Individual, Neighborhood, City and Country Characteristics on Victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilsem, Johan Arend van

    2003-01-01

    This book deals with the distribution of criminal victimization across social groups and spatial areas. Why do certain kinds of people run higher risk of victimization than others? Why do spatial units, such as neighborhoods, cities and countries, differ in their rates of victimization? The present

  9. The criminal victimization of children and women in international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Jan; Kury, Helmut; Redo, Slawomir; Shea, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this article we will present an overview of the results of the national and international crime victims surveys regarding the distribution of victimization according to age and gender with a focus on violent crime. The results show a consistent inversed relationship between age and

  10. Victims of crime, with special emphasis on victims of work abuse and domestic violence: Analysis of the service VDS info and victim support for 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radaković Danica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the work of the VDS info and victim support service for the period January 1st 2009 - December 31st 2009. It contains the data about victims, type and quality of assistance and support provided by the Service, and also about institutions and organizations the victims contacted before or after contacting the Service and their satisfaction with the help they received.

  11. Fear of Crime in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Brown

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study provides analyses of data on crime-associated trepidation obtained from surveys administered to college students in South Korea. The survey contained questions about, and the analyses distinguished between, offense-specific fears (fear of burglary and fear of home invasion, perceived risk of victimization (day and night, and crime avoidance behaviors (avoidance of nocturnal activity and avoidance of particular areas. Regression analyses of the data show that victimization was not consistently associated with crime-associated trepidation, while gender significantly impacted all measures of concern about crime. Women were more likely than men to report being fearful, perceiving risk, and crime avoidance behaviors. Building upon prior scholarship (for example, Madriz 1997; Stanko 1989 and considering the social context in which the data were gathered, it is herein suggested that the gendered variation in crime-associated anxiety may reflect patriarchal power relations. The methodological and policy implications of the study are also discussed.

  12. Rape Crimes Reviewed: The Role of Observer Variables in Female Victim Blaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara Ferrão

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of empirical research on the role of observer variables in rape victim blaming (female attacked by a male perpetrator. The focus is on literature from the last 15 years. The variables observer gender, ambivalent sexism, rape myth acceptance, and rape empathy are discussed in relation to victim blaming. Most research on rape is conducted using diverse methods and approaches that result in a great disparity regarding the role of these variables in predicting blame assignments. Despite the inconsistencies, most studies show that men hold the victim more responsible for her own victimization than women. Findings further indicate that higher scores on sexist ideologies and rape myth acceptance predict higher victim blame, and that higher rape empathy scores predict lower victim blame. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  13. Crime and Punishment: the Impact of Skin Color and Socioeconomic Status of Defendants and Victims in Jury Trials in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rogério Ferreira; Oliveira Lima, Marcus Eugênio

    2016-11-14

    Social judgments are often influenced by racism. Voluntary crimes against life, and in particular the crime of homicide, may be the most critical situations of the impact of racism in social judgments. We analyzed 114 homicide trials conducted by the 1st Jury Court, in a Brazilian judicial capital, concluded between 2003 and 2007, for the purpose of investigating the effects of skin color and the socioeconomic status of the defendant and the victim of homicides in the jury trial court's decision. The results indicate that the social and economic profile of defendants and victims of homicide is identical. They are almost all poor (more than 70%), with low education (more than 73%) and frequently non-Whites (more than 88%). We found that judges assign longer sentences to black (β = .34, p = .01) and poor defendants (β = .23, p < .05). We even verified that the poorer the defendant, the higher was the corresponding conviction rate (Wald's Test = 5.90, p < .05). The results are discussed based on theories of social psychology and criminological sociology, which consider the relationship between skin color and socioeconomic status in social judgments and in discrimination.

  14. Intergroup Conflict in Los Angeles County Schools. Report on a Survey of Hate Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Angeles County Commission on Human Relations, CA.

    This report discusses the findings of a survey on school hate crime which was distributed to all schools in Los Angeles County (California). The survey was designed to assess the level of inter-ethnic conflict and hate crime on kindergarten through twelfth-grade campuses. Chapter 1 discusses the background of the problem, including information…

  15. Meanings in adult male victims' experiences of hate crime and its aftermath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Danny G

    2008-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe gay men's experiences of hate crime and understand the meanings they attribute to it. Data were analyzed from individual interviews with seven gay men who recounted nine separate hate crimes. Participants perceived their hate crimes as homophobic acts of verbal harassment and violent assault targeted at silencing their identities, which they actively resisted. They perceived the aftermath as an extended period of time in which they lived with a heightened awareness of self, others, and the environment. This heightened awareness was reported to disrupt intimacy and social connectedness while they attempted to make meaning of their experiences and heal.

  16. The contribution of prosecutors to the failure of damage claims of victims in war crimes trials at the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Šimić

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to definition and laws, the role of the prosecutor is to represent public goods. In the cases of war crimes, that public good is not exhausted with criminal prosecution of the perpetrators of the criminal offences, but it also covers reparation of the damage to the victims. This is not part of the judiciary praxis of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Although there is a clear obligation to collect evidence that would support damage claims of the victims as prescribed in the Criminal Procedure Code of Bosnia and Herzegovina (CPCBH, in reality prosecutors fail to fulfill this obligation. In few cases, settled before the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina, where the court had awarded compensation to the victims of war crimes, merits for that are to be given to the victims who have, on their own initiative and with their own limited resources, hired attorneys and other experts who acted as prosecutors. To prevent this from happening in the future, having in mind hundreds of potential pending cases (with thousands of victims waiting for trial, this practice needs to be changed. In that way, although mostly only declaratory in nature in criminal codes and during war crimes trials, more “realistic” and “humane” justice could be achieved for those directly affected by these crimes.

  17. Neighborhood Crime and Perception of Safety as Predictors of Victimization and Offending Among Youth: A Call for Macro-Level Prevention and Intervention Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartinger-Saunders, Robin M; Rine, Christine M; Nochajski, Thomas; Wieczorek, William

    2012-09-01

    This paper is one of two in a series that reports detailed findings from a larger study that simultaneously explored individual, family and neighborhood level predictors of victimization and offending among youth. The current analysis aims to identify which neighborhood level factors have better predictive power with regard to type of victimization (direct and vicarious measures) and total offending overtime (Wave 1 and Wave 2). METHODS: Path analysis was conducted using data from a multi-wave, panel study (N=625) of youth ages 16-19 at Wave 1. A best fitting model was determined showing causal pathways from neighborhood level factors including crime and perception of safety, to direct and vicarious victimization through exposure to violence, and subsequent offending. FINDINGS: Neighborhood crime significantly predicted property victimization. Neighborhood crime and perception of safety significantly predicted vicarious victimization by exposure to violence in the neighborhood. Neighborhood crime and perception of safety were significantly associated with Wave 1 offending. Findings highlight the need for professionals who work with youth to be cognizant of how their environments influence their lives. Prevention and intervention models seeking to create sustainable change among youth should consider mezzo and macro level components that build and strengthen neighborhood capacity through community partnerships.

  18. The aflatoxin-affair: the invisible victims of crime in the food-sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerschke-Risch Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aflatoxin affair is an example which can be assumed as a typical offence committed in the food sector in a globalized world. In 2013 mouldy Serbian feed was distributed by an international logistics company to Germany. The exceptional danger of aflatoxin infested feed is the carry over effect, which means that harmful substances devolve into animal products like milk. Generally speaking victims are identifiable persons who have been physically injured or suffer from financial losses or psychological damage. In contrast to e.g. victims of violence we know almost nothing about the effects of victimization as a result of offences committed in the food sector. The aim of this article is to show and discuss the possible effects of the aflatoxin scandal on consumers who have been victimized. As a result it suggests that victimization effects of offences related to food in general are ignored hitherto both by policy and criminologists.

  19. Prevalence of Childhood Exposure to Violence, Crime, and Abuse: Results From the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather A; Shattuck, Anne; Hamby, Sherry L

    2015-08-01

    It is important to estimate the burden of and trends for violence, crime, and abuse in the lives of children. To provide health care professionals, policy makers, and parents with current estimates of exposure to violence, crime, and abuse across childhood and at different developmental stages. The National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV) includes a representative sample of US telephone numbers from August 28, 2013, to April 30, 2014. Via telephone interviews, information was obtained on 4000 children 0 to 17 years old, with information about exposure to violence, crime, and abuse provided by youth 10 to 17 years old and by caregivers for children 0 to 9 years old. Exposure to violence, crime, and abuse using the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire. In total, 37.3% of youth experienced a physical assault in the study year, and 9.3% of youth experienced an assault-related injury. Two percent of girls experienced sexual assault or sexual abuse in the study year, while the rate was 4.6% for girls 14 to 17 years old. Overall, 15.2% of children and youth experienced maltreatment by a caregiver, including 5.0% who experienced physical abuse. In total, 5.8% witnessed an assault between parents. Only 2 significant rate changes could be detected compared with the last survey in 2011, namely, declines in past-year exposure to dating violence and lifetime exposure to household theft. Children and youth are exposed to violence, abuse, and crime in varied and extensive ways, which justifies continued monitoring and prevention efforts.

  20. Fear, helplessness, and horror in posttraumatic stress disorder: investigating DSM-IV criterion A2 in victims of violent crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, C R; Andrews, B; Rose, S

    2000-07-01

    A DSM-IV diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) required for the first time that individuals must report experiencing intense fear, helplessness, or horror at the time of the trauma. In a longitudinal study of 138 victims of violent crime, we investigated whether reports of intense trauma-related emotions characterized individuals who, after 6 months, met criteria for PTSD according to the DSM-III-R. We found that intense levels of all 3 emotions strongly predicted later PTSD. However, a small number of those who later met DSM-III-R or ICD criteria for PTSD did not report intense emotions at the time of the trauma. They did, however, report high levels of either anger with others or shame.

  1. The discovery of fear of crime in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Hough, Mike

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores the way in which the fear of crime emerged as a policy issue and as a criminological topic in the United Kingdom in the early 1980s. The British Crime Survey (BCS, now CSEW) was the first large-scale survey to attempt to measure fear of crime in the UK. It included questions asking if respondents felt safe out alone at night, and whether they worried about becoming the victim of various crimes. The first BCS report suggested that fear of crime was inflated by media accou...

  2. Psychiatric and Psychological Support to Reduce the Psychological Effects Incurred to Female Victim in the Crime of Rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sedaqat Far

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The modern world with all the blessings of easier and more pleasant life is a world full of unsolved contradictions and complexities. industrialization of communities, the expansion of class gap and poverty, lack of proper management systems, lack of proper sanitation and lack of access to home and many other things have caused irreparable social damage on the body of society. One of these injuries is the problem of sexual violence against women and rape and deliberate and widespread harassment of women in different environments, including enterprises, community, neighborhood, streets and more. Rape is a wrong act and is punished hard in the Iranian criminal law or social convention. Yet, in the meantime, the women affected by this type of sexual violence not only do not enjoy the legal protections but also face identity crisis due to participation in family and community. So the issue of Psychiatric and psychological support for the female victims should be put on the priority of law and women's rights organization committed to ending violence. Methods: this study has been conducted via descriptive and analytical method and library and Internet tools. To describe the psychiatric and psychological support to reduce the psychological effects incurred to female victim in the crime of rape, female victims were interviewed using a case study. To complete the obtained information and analyze research findings using interview, some of the findings of provincial criminal court judges, public courts prosecutors, psychologists and psychiatrists were examined. Finding: The best legal action in support of women victim is psychiatric and psychological supports for these women in safe houses. Women who are suffering from this scourge often commit suicide or live with the fear of this event or their natural life is seriously disrupted. Therefore, it is incumbent on legislators to approve strong support rules in helping and supporting the victim and raped

  3. Posttraumatic Anger, Recalled Peritraumatic Emotions, and PTSD in Victims of Violent Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, M. J. J.; Winkel, F. W.; Bogaerts, S.

    2011-01-01

    A mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal design was employed to explore the association between posttraumatic anger and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; symptoms) in victims of civilian violence. It was speculated that this relationship is mainly due to concurrent recalled peritraumatic emotions. Such emotions may be interpreted to result from…

  4. Victims of ‘private’ crimes and application of human rights in interpersonal relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiter Axelle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available International human rights law has been challenged because of its alleged inability to safeguard the rights of the most vulnerable victims of violence. Whereas in real life they are often marginalized and effectively left without adequate protection, this is not to be attributed to the absence of an appropriate normative framework but rather to the contempt, lack of enforcement and systemic neglect of their claims. This paper proposes to find a ‘cure’ inside international human rights law, by strengthening the mechanisms that permit a horizontal application of human rights standards in private relations. The paper is divided in four sections. The first section describes the problematic at hand, focusing in particular on violence against women and children. The three subsequent sections then analyze the avenues open to victims in order to claim a ‘third-party’ application of human rights treaties against non-state actors who have violated their fundamental rights.

  5. Hate crimes hurt some more than others: implications for the just sentencing of offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iganski, Paul; Lagou, Spiridoula

    2015-06-01

    An accumulation of research evidence indicates that hate crimes are more serious than similar but otherwise motivated crimes in respect of the greater post-victimization distress for victims. Such evidence has been used by advocates of hate crime laws to justify greater penalties for hate crime offenders. However, in focusing on the commonalities of the post-victimization impacts inflicted by hate crimes, the research evidence to date has obscured the diversity of reactions between victims. Consequently, this article expands the evidence by illuminating the variation in reported victim impacts. The analysis presented uses data from the Crime Survey for England and Wales on racially motivated crime and reveals that not all victims report being affected by hate crime, not all victims are affected the same way, and some victims of racially motivated crime report less of an emotional impact than some victims of equivalent but otherwise motivated crimes. It is reasoned that in any individual case of hate crime the motivating sentiments of the offender provide an unreliable indicator of the harms inflicted on the victim. Therefore, a blanket uplift in penalty in every case which rests on the offender's motivations cannot be justified if the justification for sentence uplift is to give offenders their just deserts for the harms they inflict. Instead, the justification must rest on the culpability of the offender for the harms they may or may not actually inflict. Just as there is variation in victim impacts, there will be variation in offender culpability: Discretion and flexibility in sentencing is therefore necessary to ensure justice for offenders. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. The effect of violent video game playing on gamer's views of victims of crime

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, L.

    2015-01-01

    This research was designed to explore the relationship between violent video game play and attitudes towards victims. As the violent genre of games become more popular and as the graphics and content becomes even more realistic and immersive, there has been concern that this media form offers a different perspective on violence to players than more passive forms of media. Much of the research in the area of violent video game research has focused on changes in players in terms of aggressive b...

  7. Autori e vittime nella criminalità informatica / Auteurs et victimes de la criminalité informatique / Computer crime: authors and victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apruzzese Antonio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Today computer crime belongs to transnational criminal organizations which have new rules for the development of new strategies able to enrol people in their organizations and to obtain profits from money laundering. These new forms of crime which are more and more related to sophisticated data processing technologies must urge institutional agencies for new strategies against crime

  8. Institution-Specific Victimization Surveys: Addressing Legal and Practical Disincentives to Gender-Based Violence Reporting on College Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantalupo, Nancy Chi

    2014-07-01

    This review brings together both the legal literature and original empirical research regarding the advisability of amending the Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act or creating new Department of Education regulations to mandate that all higher education institutions survey their students approximately every 5 years about students' experiences with sexual violence. Legal research conducted regarding the three relevant federal legal regimes show inconsistent incentives for schools to encourage victim reporting and proactively address sexual violence on campus. Moreover, the original research carried out for this article shows that the experience of institutions that have voluntarily conducted such surveys suggests many benefits not only for students, prospective students, parents, and the general public but also for schools themselves. These experiences confirm the practical viability of a mandated survey by the Department of Education. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Celebrities and cyber crimes: An analysis of the victimization of female film stars on the internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halder Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of internet and digital communication technology, online crimes targeting celebrities have gained a momentum. This article argues that, among the celebrities, actresses of Hollywood and Bollywood are particularly targeted online mainly because of their sex appeal and easy availability of contents including their images, video clippings, their private geo-location information, etc. The perpetrators are mostly fans who may wish to view the actresses as sex symbols. This article suggests that production houses should take primary responsibilities to prevent such victimisation and the actors themselves may avail legal policies such as right to be forgotten to approach the internet companies including search engines like Google to prevent victimisation and remove the offensive contents.

  10. Relationship between PTSD symptomatology and nicotine dependence severity in crime victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschnagel, Joseph S; Coffey, Scott F; Schumacher, Julie A; Drobes, David J; Saladin, Michael E

    2008-11-01

    Smoking rates are higher and cessation rates are lower among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to the general population, thus understanding the relationship between PTSD and nicotine dependence is important. In a sample of 213 participants with a crime-related trauma (109 with PTSD), the relationship between PTSD status, smoking status (smoker vs. non-smoker), substance abuse diagnosis (SUD), PTSD symptoms, and sex was assessed. SUD diagnosis was significantly related to smoking status, but PTSD symptomatology and sex were not. Among smokers (n=117), increased nicotine dependence severity was associated with being male and with increased level of PTSD avoidance symptoms. Correlations indicated that PTSD avoidance and hyperarousal symptom clusters and total PTSD symptom scores were significantly related to nicotine dependence severity in males, while PTSD symptomatology in general did not correlate with dependence severity for females. The results suggest that level of PTSD symptomatology, particularly avoidance symptoms, may be important targets for smoking cessation treatment among male smokers who have experienced a traumatic event.

  11. Determinant Factors in the Perception of Crime-Related Insecurity in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos J. Vilalta Perdomo

    2013-01-01

    What determines the feeling of insecurity with respect to crime and what can be done about it? This study proposes and tests a correlational model that combines different theoretical determinants of insecurity and the fear of crime. The test was carried out both in the country as a whole and in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. The sources of information are the National Victimization Survey and Perception on Public Security (ENVIPE) of 2011 and the Victimization Survey and Institutional Eff...

  12. Nonlinear relationship between income, age and criminal victimization in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sant’Anna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was mainly intended to investigate the effects of the income and age of individuals on their risk of becoming victims of physical assault, theft, robbery and attempted theft or robbery. Specifically, we were looking for evidence for a nonlinear relationship between these variables and victimization risk. Data from a national victimization survey were used to estimate victimization probability models. We found that, except for robbery and physical assault, the relationship between personal income and victimization risk has an inverted-U shape. We also found an inverted U-shape relationship between the age of individuals and victimization risk for the four types of crimes analyzed.

  13. Crime, Violence, Discipline, and Safety in U.S. Public Schools. Findings from the School Survey on Crime and Safety: 2009-10. First Look. NCES 2011-320

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiman, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    The National Center for Education Statistics collects data on crime and violence in U.S. public schools through the School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS). This First Look report presents findings from the 2009-10 School Survey on Crime and Safety data collection. Developed and managed by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)…

  14. Postille sulla produzione di dati mediante indagini di vittimizzazione / Annotations sur la création des données par enquêtes de victimisation / Notes on data from victimization surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raiteri Monica

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay puts forward a critical review of the relationship between the size of the police force and crime rate mediated by the precaution taken by potential victims. It has been examined by two Dutch scholars, Vollaard and Koning, from the law and economics point of view and is a comparison between data collected from police reports and data generated through victimization surveys. The matter concerns the acceptance of the synchronous model scrutinised, which is being strongly questioned underlining the limits and paradoxes that may occur. Conversely, the author outlines the advantages of assuming a recursive model, characterised by a time gap between increases in crime rate, size of the police force and precautions taken by potential victims that will be able to highlight the strength of each variable to fight back, thus contributing to the correct detection of causal links.

  15. Crime and Psychiatric Disorders Among Youth in the US Population: An Analysis of National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Kendell L.; Smith, Philip H.; Westphal, Alexander; Zonana, Howard V.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Current knowledge regarding psychiatric disorders and crime in youth is limited to juvenile justice and community samples. This study examined relationships between psychiatric disorders and self-reported crime involvement in a sample of youth representative of the US population. Method The National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement (N=10,123; ages 13–17; 2001–2004) was used to examine the relationship between lifetime DSM-IV-based diagnoses, reported crime (property, violent, other), and arrest history. Logistic regression compared the odds of reported crime involvement with specific psychiatric disorders to those without any diagnoses, and examined the odds of crime by psychiatric comorbidity. Results Prevalence of crime was 18.4%. Youth with lifetime psychiatric disorders, compared to no disorders, had significantly greater odds of crime, including violent crime. For violent crime resulting in arrest, conduct disorder (CD; OR=57.5; 95% CI=30.4,108.8), alcohol use disorders (OR=19.5; 95% CI=8.8,43.2), and drug use disorders (OR=16.1; 95% CI=9.3,27.7) had the greatest odds with similar findings for violent crime with no arrest. Psychiatric comorbidity increased the odds of crime. Youth with 3 or more diagnoses (16.0% of population) accounted for 54.1% of those reporting arrest for violent crime. Youth with at least 1 diagnosis committed 85.8% of crime, which was reduced to 67.9% by removing those with CD. Importantly, 88.2% of youth with mental illness report never committing any crime. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of improving access to mental health services for youthful offenders in community settings given the substantial associations found between mental illness and crime in this nationally representative epidemiological sample. PMID:25062596

  16. 78 FR 64245 - AG Survey of Transitional Housing Assistance for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Survey of Transitional Housing Assistance for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Stalking, or... notice. The Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) will be submitting the... Transitional Housing Assistance Program Grant for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Stalking, or...

  17. Gender differences in acknowledgment of stalking victimization: results from the NCVS stalking supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englebrecht, Christine M; Reyns, Bradford W

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that a significant portion of victims of interpersonal violence do not acknowledge or label their experience as a criminal victimization. Studies exploring unacknowledged victimizations have found that individuals are more likely to acknowledge victimization when the experience meets certain, often stereotypical criteria. This study addressed this issue by integrating literature on victim acknowledgment and stalking victimization to identify correlates of victimization acknowledgment among stalking victims. Data were drawn from the 2006 stalking supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), and the sample included both female and male victims of stalking. Findings revealed support for a "classic stalking script," which included a reliance on stereotypical types of stalking behavior (i.e., being spied on) that were shown to increase acknowledgment for victims of stalking. Results also described gender based correlates of victimization acknowledgment.

  18. Psychological Distress as a Risk Factor for Re-Victimization in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Carlos A.; Finkelhor, David; Clifford, Cynthia; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study is to examine the role of psychological distress in predicting child re-victimization across various forms including conventional crime, peer/sibling violence, maltreatment, sexual violence, and witnessed violence. Methods: Longitudinal data from the Developmental Victimization Survey, which surveyed children…

  19. Victimisation surveys: What are they good for?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aromaa Kauko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the usefulness of victimization surveys. The paper is focused of surveys in which nationally representative population samples are surveyed for their personal victimisation experiences, and their attitudes and opinions of issues related to crime and crime control. The author points out the benefits of using victimization surveys, but also explains why most countries have failed to make systematic use of this instrument.

  20. Developing an evidence base for violent and disablist hate crime in Britain: findings from the life opportunities survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Eric; Roulstone, Alan

    2014-11-01

    In the context of there being little robust U.K. data on disabled people's exposure to violent crime and hate crime, we examined self-reported rates of exposure over the preceding 12 months to violent crime, hate crime, and disablist hate crime in a newly established survey, the U.K.'s Life Opportunities Survey. Information was collected from a nationally representative sample of 37,513 British adults (age 16 or older). Results indicated that (a) disabled adults were significantly more likely to have been exposed over the previous 12 months to violent crime (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [2.08, 2.61]) and hate crime (adjusted OR = 2.58, 95% CI = [2.17, 3.07]) than their non-disabled peers, (b) the differential risk of exposure to violent crime was particularly elevated among disabled adults with mental health problems (adjusted OR = 6.26, 95% CI = [5.01, 7.82]), (c) the differential risk of exposure to hate crime was particularly elevated among disabled adults with mental health problems (adjusted OR = 10.70, 95% CI = [7.91, 14.47]) or cognitive impairments (adjusted OR = 6.66, 95% CI = [3.95, 11.22]), and (d) these effects were strongly moderated by poverty status with no increase in differential risk of exposure for disabled adults among more wealthy respondents. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Relationship between income and repeat criminal victimization in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Justus

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effect of income on repeat criminal victimization in Brazil using data from the 2009 National Household Sample Survey and its special supplement on victimization and access to justice. Two count-data models were estimated for four types of crime: theft, robbery, attempted theft/robbery, and physical assault. A positive nonlinear effect of income on repeat victimization for the three types of property crimes and a negative nonlinear effect of income on physical assault were observed.

  2. Stalking Victimization, Labeling, and Reporting: Findings From the NCVS Stalking Victimization Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Kim S; Cox, Amanda K

    2016-05-01

    Using the National Crime Victimization Survey 2006 Stalking Victimization Supplement (NCVS-SVS) and guided by Greenberg and Ruback's social influence model, this study examines the effects of individual (e.g., severity, sex, victim-offender relationship) and contextual (e.g., location) factors on stalking victimization risk, victim labeling and help seeking, and victim and third-party police contacts. Logistic regression results suggest individual and contextual characteristics matter. Consistent with prior research and the theoretical model, the positive effects of severity and sex (female) were significant across all dependent variables, whereas the interaction effect of victim-offender relationship and location held only for third-party police contacts. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Crime, diagnóstico psiquiátrico e perfil da vítima: um estudo com a população de uma casa de custódia do estado de São Paulo Crime, psychiatric diagnosis and victims' profiles: a study with the sample of a criminal-psychiatric ward in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Teixeira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a população de uma casa de custódia quanto a aspectos criminais, diagnóstico clínico e perfil da vítima. MÉTODOS: Foram examinados os prontuários de 269 pacientes durante o ano de 2005. Considerou-se apenas a população do gênero masculino cujos casos já tinham laudo anexado ao prontuário psiquiátrico-criminal. RESULTADOS: Foi encontrado predomínio de transtornos psicóticos (58%. O crime mais freqüente foi contra a vida (52,8%, sendo o grupo dos pacientes psicóticos o que teve maior associação com esse tipo de crime (p OBJECTIVE: To study the population of a high security hospital according to its criminal records, clinical diagnosis and victim profile. METHODS: The records of 269 patients were analyzed, considering only male patients whose medical reports had already been included in the criminal-psychiatric records. RESULTS: Psychotic disorders were the most common findings (58%. The most common type of crime was murder or murder attempt (52.8%, with a significant correlation between psychotic disorders and this type of crime (p < 0.05. These crimes led to death in 89.7% of the cases, and in 34.5% the victim was a close relative. Mentally retarded patients committed proportionally more sexual crimes when compared to psychotic patients and considering only sexual crimes or murder attempts (p < 0.05. In 78.5% of all sexual crimes the victims were under 14 years old. CONCLUSION: The studied population is similar to the ones of other institutions with the same profile. The data on the victims, both murders committed by psychotic patients and sexual crimes committed by mentally retarded individuals, show that aspects of the victim are to be considered when analyzing the crime.

  4. Churches as service providers for victims of sexual and/or violent crimes: A case study from the Paarl Community

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, JC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available in Paarl doing to provide services to address unemployment, HIV/Aids, sexual and/or violent crimes, and substance abuse? A pilot study was launched in 2001 in the Paarl/Mbekweni area, where all places of worship were mapped using Global Positioning System...

  5. Crime and psychiatric disorders among youth in the US population: an analysis of the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Kendell L; Smith, Philip H; Westphal, Alexander; Zonana, Howard V; McKee, Sherry A

    2014-08-01

    Current knowledge regarding psychiatric disorders and crime in youth is limited to juvenile justice and community samples. This study examined relationships between psychiatric disorders and self-reported crime involvement in a sample of youth representative of the US population. The National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement (N = 10,123; ages 13-17 years; 2001-2004) was used to examine the relationship between lifetime DSM-IV-based diagnoses, reported crime (property, violent, other), and arrest history. Logistic regression compared the odds of reported crime involvement with specific psychiatric disorders to those without any diagnoses, and examined the odds of crime by psychiatric comorbidity. Prevalence of crime was 18.4%. Youth with lifetime psychiatric disorders, compared to no disorders, had significantly greater odds of crime, including violent crime. For violent crime resulting in arrest, conduct disorder (CD) (odds ratio OR = 57.5; 95% CI = 30.4, 108.8), alcohol use disorders (OR = 19.5; 95% CI = 8.8, 43.2), and drug use disorders (OR = 16.1; 95% CI = 9.3, 27.7) had the greatest odds with similar findings for violent crime with no arrest. Psychiatric comorbidity increased the odds of crime. Youth with 3 or more diagnoses (16.0% of population) accounted for 54.1% of those reporting arrest for violent crime. Youth with at least 1 diagnosis committed 85.8% of crime, which was reduced to 67.9% by removing individuals with CD. Importantly, 88.2% of youth with mental illness reported never having committed any crime. Our findings highlight the importance of improving access to mental health services for youthful offenders in community settings, given the substantial associations found between mental illness and crime in this nationally representative epidemiological sample. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Does Religious Involvement Generate or Inhibit Fear of Crime?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Matthews

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In victimology, fear of crime is understood as an emotional response to the perceived threat of crime. Fear of crime has been found to be affected by several variables besides local crime rates and personal experiences with victimization. This study examines the relationship between religion and fear of crime, an underexplored topic in the criminological literature. This gap is rather surprising given the central role religion has been found to play in shaping the attitudes and perceptions of congregants. In particular, religion has been found to foster generalized trust, which should engender lower levels of distrust or misanthropy, including that which is directed towards a general fear of crime. OLS regression was performed using data from the West Georgia Area Survey (n = 380. Controlling for demographic, community involvement, and political ideology variables, frequency of religious attendance was significantly and negatively associated with fear of property crime. This relationship remained even after a perceived neighborhood safety variable was introduced to the model. However, religious attendance was not significantly related to fear of violent crime, and religious orientation was unrelated to fear of property and violent crime. These results suggest that religious involvement conditionally reduces fear of crime, and the authors recommend that future research explore relationships between religion and fear of crime.

  7. Climate Surveys: An Inventory of Understanding Sexual Assault and Other Crimes of Interpersonal Violence at Institutions of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Leila; Sulley, Caitlin; Kammer-Kerwick, Matt; Follingstad, Diane; Busch-Armendariz, Noël

    2016-08-01

    Sexual assault, dating/domestic violence, sexual harassment, and stalking are complex crimes and have been a major focus of national attention at institutions of higher education (IHEs). To grasp the extent and nature of these crimes on campuses, institutionally specific climate surveys are being developed and endorsed by the federal government and conducted at IHEs. These climate surveys differ in content and length. This article describes 10 different climate surveys and outlines the variables measured in each tool. Next steps for assessing climate surveys are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Violence witnessing, perpetrating and victimization in medellin, Colombia: a random population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo Alexandra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of injury from violence and the costs attributable to violence are extremely high in Colombia. Despite a dramatic decline in homicides over the last ten years, homicide rate in Medellin, Colombia second largest city continues to rank among the highest of cities in Latin America. This study aims to estimate the prevalence and distribution of witnesses, victims and perpetrators of different forms of interpersonal violence in a representative sample of the general population in Medellin in 2007. Methods A face-to-face survey was carried out on a random selected, non-institutionalized population aged 12 to 60 years, with a response rate of 91% yielding 2,095 interview responses. Results We present the rates of prevalence for having been a witness, victim, or perpetrator for different forms of violence standardized using the WHO truncated population pyramid to allow for cross-national comparison. We also present data on verbal aggression, fraud and deception, yelling and heavy pranks, unarmed aggression during last year, and armed threat, other severe threats, robbery, armed physical aggression, and sexual aggression during the lifetime, by age, sex, marital and socioeconomic status, and education. Men reported the highest prevalence of being victims, perpetrators and witnesses in all forms of violence, except for robbery and sexual violence. The number of victims per perpetrator was positively correlated with the severity of the type of violence. The highest victimization proportions over the previous twelve months occurred among minors. Perpetrators are typically young unmarried males from lower socio-economic strata. Conclusions Due to very low proportion of victimization report to authorities, periodic surveys should be included in systems for epidemiological monitoring of violence, not only of victimization but also for perpetrators. Victimization information allows quantifying the magnitude of different forms of

  9. Doing Masculinity in Narratives about Reporting Violent Crime: Young Male Victims Talk about Contacting and Encountering the Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcar, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    Reporting criminal victimization to the police is no obvious act. The decision to file a complaint varies depending on the specific situation. This article discusses 10 young Swedish men's narratives about contacting the police when mugged or assaulted. Although all of them have contacted the police it has not been self-obvious. Rather, they…

  10. Crime, Violence, Discipline, and Safety in U.S. Public Schools: Findings from the School Survey on Crime and Safety: 2015-16. First Look. NCES 2017-122

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diliberti, Melissa; Jackson, Michael; Kemp, Jana

    2017-01-01

    This report presents findings on crime and violence in U.S. public schools, using data from the 2015-16 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS:2016). First administered in school year 1999-2000 and repeated in school years 2003-04, 2005-06, 2007-08, 2009-10, and 2015-16, SSOCS provides information on school crime-related topics from the…

  11. Violence against women in Yemen: official statistics and results from an exploratory victim survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ba-Obeid, M.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.

    2002-01-01

    This article presents official statistics on violence against women in Yemen, as a threshold indicator of victimization incidence. Next, we present the findings from an exploratory survey into the prevalence of violent victimisation among a stratified sample of 120 women in Sana' a. We distinguish

  12. CHILD ABUSE IN MALAYSIA: LEGAL MEASURES FOR THE PREVENTION OF THE CRIME AND PROTECTION OF THE VICTIM

    OpenAIRE

    Abas, Afridah Binti

    2012-01-01

    Child abuse is not a new phenomenon. It happens all over the world. From the statistic, the case of child abuse is not something that we should take it lightly. Even though many steps have been taken by the government, cases of child abuse keep increasing. Hence, it should be taken seriously and provide the way to protect the victim and to prevent it from happening. In Malaysia, many laws have been passed with the objective of protecting the welfare of the child. In the same time, the law is ...

  13. Sexual Assault Victimization Among Female Undergraduates During Study Abroad: A Single Campus Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, William F; Kimble, Matthew O; Campbell, Brooke E; Hopper, Allyson B; Petercă, Oana; Heller, Emily J

    2015-12-01

    Almost all research on sexual assault victimization among undergraduate university students pertains to incidents that occur on domestic college and university campuses. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of sexual assault victimization and related factors among undergraduates in the context of study-abroad programs. Two hundred eight female students (52% response rate) from a small university in the northeastern United States who had recently studied abroad responded to an online survey containing measures of sexual assault, posttraumatic stress responses (PSR), and alcohol consumption. Almost 19% of the respondents indicated one or more types of sexual assault victimization. Approximately 17% reported non-consensual sexual touching, 7% attempted rape, 4% rape, with 9% reporting attempted rape or rape. As in domestic studies, victimization in this sample was related positively to alcohol consumption and PSR. Use of force was the most frequently reported perpetrator tactic. In sum, the high rates of sexual assault victimization reported by this sample during study abroad replicate previous findings. This context requires further attention from sexual assault researchers, especially given the increasing numbers of university students engaging in study abroad, and from campus support personnel who may be unaware of the likelihood of assault in this context. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. What causes violent crime?

    OpenAIRE

    Loayza, Norman

    1998-01-01

    This study uses a new data set of crime ratesfor a large sample of countriesfor the period 1970- 1994, based on information from the United Nations World Crime Surveys, to ana/yze the determinants ofnational homicide and robbery rates. A simple model of the incentives to commit crimes is proposed, which explicit/y considers possible causes of the persistence of crime over time (criminal inertia). Several econometric mode/s are estimated, attempting to capture the . determinonts...

  15. Fear of Violent Victimization among the Foreign-Born

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana ANDREESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In general, most studies that examined the relationship immigrants – criminal behavior focused on the immigrants’ involvement in criminal activities as offenders and/or the effects of immigration on crime rates. Only limited research looked at the levels of victimization and perceived safety experienced by immigrants in their receiving countries. Using the most recent available data from the European Social Survey (Round 5/2010, the present quantitative analysis conducted on a representative sample of residents in United Kingdom (N=2422 tries to determine the levels of criminal victimization and fear of violent crime associated with foreign nationals living in a European country, where immigration is generally unpopular. Although foreign-born persons living in United Kingdom appear to have a higher degree of victimization (vicarious and direct than natives, the inter-group difference is not sufficiently large to be significant at p< .05.Nevertheless, compared to natives, first-generation immigrants manifest a significantly higher level of fear of violent victimization. Results also show that in addition to inter-group differences in the levels of perceived unsafety and experiences with victimization, the effects of fear-of-crime correlates vary in intensity among respondents differentiated by their country of birth. In addition, one’s level of acculturation contributes to differences in fear of crime among immigrants.

  16. A Cure for Crime? Psycho-Pharmaceuticals and Crime Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Dave E.; Markowitz, Sara

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider possible links between the diffusion of new pharmaceuticals used for treating mental illness and crime rates. We describe recent trends in crime and review the evidence showing that mental illness is a clear risk factor both for criminal behavior and victimization. We summarize the development of a number of new…

  17. South African Crime Quarterly 56

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edited by Chandré Gould and Andrew Faull

    perpetrated a crime against them. Since public prosecutors traditionally have the duty and right to prosecute crimes, the victim's right to institute a private prosecution is not welcomed by some public prosecutors, who view it as a threat to their independence. As the Supreme Court of Zimbabwe stated in Telecel Zimbabwe ...

  18. Resisting rape: the effects of victim self-protection on rape completion and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tark, Jongyeon; Kleck, Gary

    2014-03-01

    The impact of victim resistance on rape completion and injury was examined utilizing a large probability sample of sexual assault incidents, derived from the National Crime Victimization Survey (1992-2002), and taking into account whether harm to the victim followed or preceded self-protection (SP) actions. Additional injuries besides rape, particularly serious injuries, following victim resistance are rare. Results indicate that most SP actions, both forceful and nonforceful, reduce the risk of rape completion, and do not significantly affect the risk of additional injury.

  19. Crime and Punishment (Scotland) Act 1997: a survey of sentencers' views concerning the Scottish 'hybrid order'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darjee, Rajan; Crichton, John; Thomson, Lindsay

    2002-01-01

    The Crime and Punishment (Scotland) Act 1997 introduced the hospital direction (HD), often termed the 'hybrid order' because it allows courts to simultaneously send a mentally disordered offender to hospital and impose a prison sentence, to be completed after hospital discharge. It is the first measure that explicitly allows the imposition of a prison sentence for an offender meeting criteria for detention under the Mental Health (Scotland) Act 1984. A previous survey showed that psychiatrists in Scotland favoured the principle of a hybrid order (Darjee et al., 2000). In this study all Scottish Sheriffs (n = 110) and High Court Judges (n = 26) were surveyed for their views on the HD. Of the 56 respondents 19 felt unable to participate largely due to lack of experience in sentencing mentally disordered offenders. Respondents felt the HD was a useful measure, but, in contrast to Scottish Office guidance, indicated that psychiatrists should recommend it directly if they considered that it was an appropriate disposal. Respondents viewed the HD as primarily an incapacitating measure and most respondents hoped that it would encourage psychiatrists to admit 'psychopaths'; although Scottish psychiatrists do not favour the hospitalisation of offenders with primary personality disorders. It is concluded that in its current form and with current guidance the HD is difficult to use, as there are no criteria to differentiate it from a hospital order (HO) and psychiatrists cannot recommend it. Further, recent legislation that makes public safety the primary concern when deciding on the discharge of restricted patients in Scotland, erodes the utility of the HD as an incapacitating measure. However following the Reports of the Millan and MacLean Committees in Scotland, the role of the HD may be strengthened and clarified.

  20. Hidden Forms of Victimization in Elementary Students Involved in Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Melissa K.; Finkelhor, David; Kantor, Glenda Kaufman

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the possibility that bullies, victims of bullying, and bully-victims (i.e., youth who both perpetrate and are victims of bullying) are at increased risk for victimization in four other domains: conventional crime, child maltreatment, sexual victimization, and witnessing or indirect victimization. It also evaluated the extent to…

  1. Cross-sectional prevalence survey of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization in Canadian military personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is prevalent and is associated with a broad range of adverse consequences. In military organizations, IPV may have special implications, such as the potential of service-related mental disorders to trigger IPV. However, the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) have limited data to guide their prevention and control efforts. Methods Self-reported IPV perpetration, victimization, and their correlates were assessed on a cross-sectional survey of a stratified random sample of currently-serving Canadian Regular Forces personnel (N = 2157). The four primary outcomes were perpetration or victimization of any physical and/or sexual or emotional and/or financial IPV over the lifespan of the current relationship. Results Among the 81% of the population in a current relationship, perpetration of any physical and/or sexual IPV was reported in 9%; victimization was reported in 15%. Any emotional and/or financial abuse was reported by 19% (perpetration) and 22% (victimization). Less physically injurious forms of abuse predominated. Logistic regression modelling showed that relationship dissatisfaction was independently associated with all four outcomes (OR range = 2.3 to 3.7). Probable depression was associated with all outcomes except physical and/or sexual IPV victimization (OR range = 2.5 – 2.7). PTSD symptoms were only associated with physical and/or sexual IPV perpetration (OR = 3.2, CI = 1.4 to 7.9). High-risk drinking was associated with emotional and/or financial abuse. Risk of IPV was lowest in those who had recent deployment experience; remote deployment experience (vs. never having deployed) was an independent risk factor for all IPV outcomes (OR range = 2.0 – 3.4). Conclusions IPV affects an important minority of military families; less severe cases predominate. Mental disorders, high-risk drinking, relationship dissatisfaction, and remote deployment were independently associated with abuse outcomes. The

  2. Cross-sectional prevalence survey of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization in Canadian military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorski, Mark A; Wiens-Kinkaid, Miriam E

    2013-10-28

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is prevalent and is associated with a broad range of adverse consequences. In military organizations, IPV may have special implications, such as the potential of service-related mental disorders to trigger IPV. However, the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) have limited data to guide their prevention and control efforts. Self-reported IPV perpetration, victimization, and their correlates were assessed on a cross-sectional survey of a stratified random sample of currently-serving Canadian Regular Forces personnel (N = 2157). The four primary outcomes were perpetration or victimization of any physical and/or sexual or emotional and/or financial IPV over the lifespan of the current relationship. Among the 81% of the population in a current relationship, perpetration of any physical and/or sexual IPV was reported in 9%; victimization was reported in 15%. Any emotional and/or financial abuse was reported by 19% (perpetration) and 22% (victimization). Less physically injurious forms of abuse predominated. Logistic regression modelling showed that relationship dissatisfaction was independently associated with all four outcomes (OR range = 2.3 to 3.7). Probable depression was associated with all outcomes except physical and/or sexual IPV victimization (OR range = 2.5 - 2.7). PTSD symptoms were only associated with physical and/or sexual IPV perpetration (OR = 3.2, CI = 1.4 to 7.9). High-risk drinking was associated with emotional and/or financial abuse. Risk of IPV was lowest in those who had recent deployment experience; remote deployment experience (vs. never having deployed) was an independent risk factor for all IPV outcomes (OR range = 2.0 - 3.4). IPV affects an important minority of military families; less severe cases predominate. Mental disorders, high-risk drinking, relationship dissatisfaction, and remote deployment were independently associated with abuse outcomes. The primary limitations of this analysis are its use of self-report data

  3. Fear of crime: Methodological considerations and results from a biannual survey in the city of Oporto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Manita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the main results of a biannual inquiry on fear of crime in the city of Oporto (Portugal. Given the ongoing controversy on fear of crime measurement, we developed an instrument that: (a differentiates between fear, risk and perceived seriousness of crime, (b includes multiple levels of measurement, both general and specific, and (c provides multiple measures of fear. Data were also collected on contextual clues that increase judgments of risk, defensive measures adopted by subjects and fear narratives. This instrument was first applied in 1997, to a sample of 467 subjects and again in 1999, to a sample of 500 subjects. Both studies evidence a high level of fear from crime in the population of Oporto, accompanied by a global perception of raising crime rates. Consistent with these high fear results, subjects resort to several defensive measures, mostly of an avoiding nature. Women and lower class subjects tend to report higher fear levels. Despite these global findings, fear levels (both general and between age groups vary substantially according to the different measures used, providing a more complex analysis of the pattern of results usually found in fear of crime research.

  4. Spatial Dependence of Crime in Monterrey, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Aguayo Téllez; Sandra Edith Medellín Mendoza

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the impact that the characteristics of the environment have on crime using neighborhood aggregate data of the Monterrey Metropolitan Area for the year 2010. Data spatial autocorrelation is corroborated, i.e. neighborhoods with high crime rates have a positive impact on the crime rates of its surrounding neighborhoods. Once it was controlled through the bias caused by spatial autocorrelation and data censoring, it is evidenced that the likelihood of being a crime victim and ...

  5. Victimization, perception of insecurity, and changes in daily routines in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Ávila

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between victimization, perception of insecurity, and changes in routines. METHODS The 8,170 subjects of both sexes (49.9% women and 50.1% men aged between 12 and 60 years, selected from a proportional stratified sampling, participated in this study. The measuring instrument was an adaptation of the National Survey on Victimization and Perception of Public Security. Chi-square tests were performed. RESULTS The results show significant differences on victimization and sex regarding perception of insecurity, restrictions on everyday activities, and protection measures. 13.1% of those interviewed claimed to have been victims of a crime in the past 12 months. 52.7% of women considered their municipality as unsafe or very unsafe. In the case of men, this percentage was 58.2%. Female victims reported significant restrictions in everyday activities when compared to non-victims. In relation to men, the percentage of victims with a high restriction of activities was higher in male victims than non-victims. In the group of victimized women, the segment of women who opted for increased measures of protection against crime was larger than expected, while those of non-victims who took less protective measures was lower than expected. These same results were observed in the group of men. CONCLUSIONS The experience of victimization implies a greater perception of insecurity. However, the climate of insecurity is widespread in a large number of citizens. Gender differences in a high-crime environment show the importance of investigating in depth the roles of both genders in the perception of insecurity and changes in routines.

  6. Are crimes by online predators different from crimes by sex offenders who know youth in-person?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David

    2013-01-01

    We examined cases in which sex offenders arrested for Internet-related crimes used the Internet for sexual communications with minors, comparing crimes by offenders who met victims online to those by...

  7. A Mandatory Uniform Policy in Urban Schools: Findings from the School Survey on Crime and Safety: 2003-04

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghee Han

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study is to examine the relations between a mandatory school uniform policy and student problem behavior. The study is based on the School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS 2003-04 data. Analyzing data from 421 urban schools, the study found that schools adopting a mandatory uniform policy are negatively associated with rates of student problem behaviors except at the high school level. As with other school safety initiatives, parental involvement at the elementary school level, and teacher training and community efforts at the high school level were revealed as negative predictors of student problem behavior.

  8. Perceived crime severity and biological kinship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinsey, V L; Lalumière, M L; Querée, M; McNaughton, J K

    1999-12-01

    Two predictions concerning the perceived severity of crimes can be derived from evolutionary theory. The first, arising from the theory of inclusive fitness, is that crimes in general should be viewed as more serious to the degree that the victim is genetically related to the perpetrator. The second, arising from the deleterious effects of inbreeding depression, is that heterosexual sexual coercion should be perceived as more serious the closer the genetic relationship of victim and perpetrator, particularly when the victim is a female of fertile age. Two hundred and thirty university students estimated the magnitude of the severity of brief crime descriptions in three separate studies. In the first two, the biological kinship of victim and perpetrator was varied, and in the third, the hypothetical genetic relatedness of the subject and the fictitious victim was varied. All three studies found the linear relationships between biological kinship and perceived crime severity predicted by theory.

  9. KETERKAITAN WHITE COLLAR CRIME DENGAN CORPORATE CRIME

    OpenAIRE

    R. Dyatmiko Soemodihardjo

    2003-01-01

    White collar crime is a crime that carried out by respected persons, whereas corporate crime is a crime that related to corporation. White collar crime and crime corporate are always related to economic crime. White collar crime can be committed by corporation, that is why a kind of crime emerges namely corporate crime.

  10. The independent associations of recorded crime and perceived safety with physical health in a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of men and women in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovasi, Gina S; Goh, Charlene E; Pearson, Amber L; Breetzke, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We investigated associations of officially recorded crime and perceived neighbourhood safety with physical health, evaluating potential effect modification by gender. Setting Nationally representative population-based survey in New Zealand. Participants Individual-level data from 6995 New Zealand General Social Survey (2010–2011) participants with complete data on physical health status, perceived neighbourhood safety, sociodemographic characteristics and smoking. Crime rate for each participant's home census was estimated based on data from the New Zealand Police (2008–2010). Primary outcome measure The Transformed Physical Composite Score from the SF-12, a physical health summary score based on self-report ranging from 0 to 100. Results We used cluster robust multivariable regression models to examine the associations among neighbourhood crime rates, perceived neighbourhood safety and the physical health summary score. Crime rates predicted adults’ perception that it was unsafe to walk in their neighbourhood at night: for each additional crime per 100 000 residents adults were 1.9% more likely to perceive their neighbourhood as unsafe (95% CI 1.2% to 2.5%). While relatively uncommon, the rate of crime with a weapon strongly predicted perceived safety: for each additional crime per 100 000 residents in this category, adults were 12.9% more likely to report the neighbourhood as unsafe (95% CI 8.8% to 17.0%). Police-recorded violent and night crime rates were associated with worse physical health among women: for each additional crime per 100 000 residents in these category women had a 0.3 point lower physical health score (95% CIs −0.6 to −0.1 for violent crime and −0.5 to −0.1 for crime at night, gender interaction p values 0.08 and 0.01, respectively). Perceiving the neighbourhood as unsafe was independently associated with 1.0 point lower physical health score (95% CI −1.5 to −0.5). Conclusions Gender may modify the

  11. The independent associations of recorded crime and perceived safety with physical health in a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of men and women in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovasi, Gina S; Goh, Charlene E; Pearson, Amber L; Breetzke, Gregory

    2014-03-10

    We investigated associations of officially recorded crime and perceived neighbourhood safety with physical health, evaluating potential effect modification by gender. Nationally representative population-based survey in New Zealand. Individual-level data from 6995 New Zealand General Social Survey (2010-2011) participants with complete data on physical health status, perceived neighbourhood safety, sociodemographic characteristics and smoking. Crime rate for each participant's home census was estimated based on data from the New Zealand Police (2008-2010). The Transformed Physical Composite Score from the SF-12, a physical health summary score based on self-report ranging from 0 to 100. We used cluster robust multivariable regression models to examine the associations among neighbourhood crime rates, perceived neighbourhood safety and the physical health summary score. Crime rates predicted adults' perception that it was unsafe to walk in their neighbourhood at night: for each additional crime per 100 000 residents adults were 1.9% more likely to perceive their neighbourhood as unsafe (95% CI 1.2% to 2.5%). While relatively uncommon, the rate of crime with a weapon strongly predicted perceived safety: for each additional crime per 100 000 residents in this category, adults were 12.9% more likely to report the neighbourhood as unsafe (95% CI 8.8% to 17.0%). Police-recorded violent and night crime rates were associated with worse physical health among women: for each additional crime per 100 000 residents in these category women had a 0.3 point lower physical health score (95% CIs -0.6 to -0.1 for violent crime and -0.5 to -0.1 for crime at night, gender interaction p values 0.08 and 0.01, respectively). Perceiving the neighbourhood as unsafe was independently associated with 1.0 point lower physical health score (95% CI -1.5 to -0.5). Gender may modify the associations of officially recorded crime rates with physical health. Perceived neighbourhood safety was

  12. Experience of measuring the level of victimization of the population of Nizhniy Novgorod region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Glukhova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective basing on the data from empirical sociological study to identify the level of latency and victimization of the population of Nizhny Novgorod region. Methods general scientific analysis systemicstructural approach to the analysis of object of research comparativelegal as well as logical methods and specific scientific method survey ndash questionnaires and interviews. nbsp Results qualitative and quantitative analysis is performed of the overall situation referring to unrecorded crime latent crime committed on the territory of Nizhny Novgorod city and Nizhny Novgorod oblast as well as comparative analysis of the level of latent crime in the city and region by the types and trends of criminal activities the main reasons are identified for refusal the victims to appeal to police in Nizhny Novgorod and Nizhny Novgorod oblast recommendations and proposals are elaborated of the work of territorial bodies of the Ministry of Domestic Affairs to the aim of reducing the level of latent crime. Scientific novelty for the first time on the basis of data obtained during a sociological survey the crime situation on the territory of Nizhny Novgorod region is discussed revealing the actual level of latent delinquency and proposals and practical recommendations are formulated for the adjustment of the work of territorial bodies of the Ministry of Domestic Affairs to the aim of reducing the level of latent crime. Practical significance basing on the research the recommendations are to improve the work of territorial bodies of the Ministry of Domestic Affairs to the aim of reducing the level of latent crime.

  13. Media coverage of women victimization

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinović-Vilić, Slobodanka; Žunić, Natalija

    2012-01-01

    Mass media seem to be playing the central role in our everyday life and the media impact is so overpowering nowadays that we live in a mediasaturated culture. Not only are mass media an inseparable part of our contemporary life but they also significantly define and shape our daily existence. In order to explain the cultural impact that the media coverage of crime and victimization has in our society, it is necessary to understand the relationship between crime, victimization and mass media. ...

  14. Neighborhood Crime and Perception of Safety as Predictors of Victimization and Offending Among Youth: A Call for Macro-Level Prevention and Intervention Models

    OpenAIRE

    Hartinger-Saunders, Robin M.; Rine, Christine M.; Nochajski, Thomas; Wieczorek, William

    2012-01-01

    This paper is one of two in a series that reports detailed findings from a larger study that simultaneously explored individual, family and neighborhood level predictors of victimization and offending among youth. The current analysis aims to identify which neighborhood level factors have better predictive power with regard to type of victimization (direct and vicarious measures) and total offending overtime (Wave 1 and Wave 2). Methods: Path analysis was conducted using data from a multi-wav...

  15. Potential of criminological research in evaluation of victim-focused policy and legislation in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefunková Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For effective victim-focused legislation, evidence-based knowledge is essential, thus making criminological research of great importance. Victimization surveys represent a globally recognized type of criminological investigation. Although they are primarily focused on measuring the dark figure of crime, they can also provide a broad spectrum of information on victimization-related issues. The latest victimization survey was carried out in the Czech Republic by the Institute of Criminology and Social Prevention in 2013. Through face to face interviews, victimization was explored through eight selected offences in the period of 12 months prior the survey. The representative sample included 3000 respondents 15 years of age and older. The next round is planned for 2017. Since 2013, a new Act no. 45/2013 Coll., on Victims of Crime has come into effect in the Czech Republic. This paper will discuss how victimization surveys can enrich the knowledge on victimization-related issues and how they can help in the evaluation of criminal policy.

  16. Victim Injury and Social Distance: A National Test of a General Principle of Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennison, Callie Marie; Jacques, Scott; Allen, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Our inquiry focuses on why some violent offenses but not others result in injury to the victim. Building on existing theory nested in the paradigm of pure sociology, we propose and test a general principle of conflict: Victim injury varies directly with social distance. This principle predicts that offenders are more likely to harm victims with whom they are less well acquainted and less similar culturally. We test three hypotheses derived from this principle with data from the National Crime Victimization Survey and find little support for the theory. Rather, findings suggest exactly the opposite of that predicted: As social distance between offender and victim increases, the odds of victim injury decreases. Recommendations of additional research are made.

  17. Crime-Reporting Practices Among Market Women in Oyo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Oluwole Ayodele

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Crime surveys of businesses have revealed that while crimes in which men were victims tend to be reported, those in which women were victims are likely to go unreported to the police. Understanding the reasons behind male reporting and female non-reporting is useful not only for collection of crime statistics but also for improving crime control competences of law enforcement agencies. This article examines the impact of crime involving market women on their crime-reporting practices in Oyo town, Oyo State, Nigeria. The study adopted quantitative and qualitative approaches. Copies of a questionnaire were administered to collect quantitative data from randomly selected 210 market women at Akesan, Sabo, and Mosadoba markets in Oyo town. Five focus group discussions, in-depth and key informant interviews were conducted to complement quantitative data. Both data were analyzed. The study found that cultural considerations stand between crime events that hurt the economic interests of women and their readiness to report to the police. Due to the very low confidence that market women have in the ability and willingness of the police to apprehend criminals, they prefer to internalize their losses, take their cases to traditional rulers who use “oro cult” to protect them against criminals, or approach available faith-based options such as churches and mosques. The article concludes that women have economy-enriching roles to play in the context of sustainable security. It therefore suggests that the government should address public safety to enable market women make their modest contribution to Nigeria’s economic development.

  18. Assessing the Role of Context on the Relationship Between Adolescent Marijuana Use and Property Crimes in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilalta, Carlos Javier; Allmang, Skye

    2017-01-28

    A limited amount of research has been conducted on the association between marijuana use and adolescent crime in developing countries such as Mexico, where crime rates are high and marijuana use is increasing. To examine the association between the frequency of marijuana use and the likelihood of committing of a property crime, and to identify contextual factors explaining individual differences in the likelihood of committing a property crime. The contribution of marijuana use to property crimes was examined based on two nationwide probabilistic surveys of public high school students, using a multilevel mixed effects logistic regression model. Marijuana use significantly increased the odds of committing a property crime. Differences between schools were observed in the random effects of marijuana use, suggesting that the likelihood of committing a property crime was differentially affected by contextual factors. In addition, students who were victims of bullying by peers and who had parents that abused alcohol had higher odds of committing a property crime. Perceived disorder in students' schools and neighborhoods also increased students' odds of reporting that they had committed a property crime. The importance of the effect of school context on the relationship between marijuana use and the commission of a property crime among Mexican public high school students seemed to increase over time. However, these results may also be due to changes in sampling designs over time.

  19. Victims' Compensation as a Tool of Therapeutic Justice: Examining the Physical and Mental Health Needs of Victim Compensation Applicants and the Role of Health in Receiving Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Leah E; Guastaferro, Wendy P; Azimi, Andia

    Victims' compensation programs are positioned to serve an important therapeutic role. Their use by persons with physical and mental health problems has not been investigated. This study evaluates the extent to which applicants have physical and mental health needs and whether receiving compensation is related to these needs. Data were part of a larger study designed to assess satisfaction with victim compensation in Georgia. The sample included 500 victim compensation applicants. Individuals were surveyed about their experiences applying for compensation as well as their current wellbeing. Descriptive and multivariate analyses investigated the link between physical and mental health problems and denial of victim compensation. Applicants for crime victim compensation in Georgia experienced a range of physical and mental health problems. Almost half of applicants had been diagnosed with a mental health condition, and 60% had been diagnosed with at least 1 physical health condition. Co-occurring disorders were common. In addition, being denied compensation was significantly related to having a mental health condition and to the number of diagnosed mental health conditions. Crime victim applicants have clear physical and mental health needs. Being denied compensation benefits is related to having a mental health disorder. These results suggest that victim compensation programs can be an intervention point for victims and their families for either receipt of direct service or referral to needed services. In addition, changes in program administration may need to be made to alleviate disparity in award benefit related to mental health status.

  20. Crimes against the Elderly. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs and Alcoholism of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session on Oversight of the Problem of Crimes Committed against Senior Citizens and What Measures May Be Taken to Help Prevent Such from Happening (St. Petersburg, FL, December 9, 1985).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This document contains the text of a Senate hearing on crimes against the elderly. Senator Paula Hawkins examines funding for day care of the elderly and discusses the crime of elder abuse and other crimes against the elderly. Two victims of abuse testify about their abuse, a victim of violent crime describes her victimization, and a…

  1. Lo studio della vittimologia per capire il ruolo della vittima / Étudier la victimologie pour comprendre le rôle de la victime / The study of victimology in order to understand the role of the victim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicurella Sandra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dès les premières études et les premières recherches, la victimologie a permis de se tourner vers l’image de la victime sans représenter cette dernière comme un sujet exclusivement passif qui subit le crime, mais aussi comme un acteur capable de peser de manière significative sur la dynamique criminelle. Cette discipline a aussi attribué une dignité aux victimes et a présenté leurs caractéristiques. La victimologie accompagne les victimes dans un parcours, celui de la reconnaissance de leurs droits, qui est encore long et difficile même si des progrès ont été faits.From the beginning of its analysis and surveys, the victimology has been the merit to bring the victim in light identifing him/her not only as a passive subject who suffers a crime, but also as an actor who can have a significant influence on crime dynamic. This discipline has also restored the dignity of victims and sketched the features of his/her characteristics. Victimology indicates to crime victims the way of rights, recognising that, despite some forward steps, there is still a long and hard way ahead.

  2. Sexual orientation differences in the relationship between victimization and hazardous drinking among women in the National Alcohol Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabble, Laurie; Trocki, Karen F; Hughes, Tonda L; Korcha, Rachael A; Lown, Anne E

    2013-09-01

    This study examined relationships between past experiences of victimization (sexual abuse and physical abuse in childhood, sexual abuse and physical abuse in adulthood, and lifetime victimization) and hazardous drinking among sexual minority women compared to exclusively heterosexual women. Data were from 11,169 women responding to sexual identity and sexual behavior questions from three National Alcohol Survey waves: 2000 (n = 3,880), 2005 (n = 3,464), and 2010 (n = 3,825). A hazardous drinking index was constructed from five dichotomous variables (5+ drinking in the past year, drinking two or more drinks daily, drinking to intoxication in the past year, two or more lifetime dependence symptoms, and two or more lifetime drinking-related negative consequences). Exclusively heterosexual women were compared with three groups of sexual minority women: lesbian, bisexual, and women who identified as heterosexual but reported same-sex partners. Each of the sexual minority groups reported significantly higher rates of lifetime victimization (59.1% lesbians, 76% bisexuals, and 64.4% heterosexual women reporting same-sex partners) than exclusively heterosexual women (42.3%). Odds for hazardous drinking among sexual minority women were attenuated when measures of victimization were included in the regression models. Sexual minority groups had significantly higher odds of hazardous drinking, even after controlling for demographic and victimization variables: lesbian (ORadj = 2.0, CI = 1.1-3.9, p sexual minority women. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Bullying Victimization, Binge Drinking, and Marijuana Use among Adolescents: Results from the 2013 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priesman, Emily; Newman, Rameika; Ford, Jason A

    2017-09-22

    The current research examines the association between bullying victimization, binge drinking, and marijuana use among adolescents. We seek to determine if this association varies based on the type of bullying experienced, traditional or cyberbullying. We used data from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of high school students in the United States. The dependent variables were binge drinking and marijuana use. Our key independent variable, bullying victimization, included both traditional and cyberbullying. We estimated logistic regression models, by gender, to examine the association between bullying victimization and substance use. About 25% of the sample reported bullying victimization, including 10.39% for only traditional, 5.47% for only cyber, and 9.26% for both. Traditional bullying was not significantly associated with binge drinking, but was negatively related to marijuana use. Being the victim of cyberbullying and both types of bullying was significantly associated with binge drinking and marijuana use. We also found important gender differences. The current research adds to a growing list of studies that suggests that cyberbullying is associated with more adverse outcomes than traditional bullying. Bullying prevention and intervention efforts should focus on reducing cyberbullying and providing adolescents with the skills needed to effectively deal with cyberbullying.

  4. Comparison of Hate Crime Rates Across Protected and Unprotected Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Stotzer, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Sexual orientation and gender identity are not currently covered by federal hate crime laws. This analysis compares victimization rates for lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals with groups already covered by hate crime laws. Results indicate that the hate crime rate against lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals is comparable to the rate of hate crimes against already protected groups. While the National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs reports an average of 213 hate crimes per year, the...

  5. Hate Crime in Suffolk: Understanding prevalence and support needs

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Kevin; Christmann, Kris; Meadows, Linda; Albertson, Katherine; Senior, Paul; Suffolk Hate Crime Partnership; Suffolk Police

    2013-01-01

    This research project was commissioned by the Suffolk Hate Crime Partnership with funding allocated to them from the Ministry of Justice. The aim of the project was to provide independent evidence of: the prevalence of Hate Crime in Suffolk; and the needs of victims and communities affected by Hate Crime across the victimisation themes of race, allegiance to a faith, sexuality, gender identity and disability.\\ud For this project, Hate Crime1 encompasses both hate incidents and Hate Crimes as ...

  6. Does Religious Involvement Generate or Inhibit Fear of Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    Todd Matthews; Lee Michael Johnson; Catherine Jenks

    2011-01-01

    In victimology, fear of crime is understood as an emotional response to the perceived threat of crime. Fear of crime has been found to be affected by several variables besides local crime rates and personal experiences with victimization. This study examines the relationship between religion and fear of crime, an underexplored topic in the criminological literature. This gap is rather surprising given the central role religion has been found to play in shaping the attitudes and perceptions of...

  7. Hate Crimes Against Trans People: Assessing Emotions, Behaviors, and Attitudes Toward Criminal Justice Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Mark A; Paterson, Jennifer; Brown, Rupert; McDonnell, Liz

    2017-06-01

    Based on a survey of 593 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in the United Kingdom, this study shows that direct anti-LGBT hate crimes (measured by direct experiences of victimization) and indirect anti-LGBT hate crimes (measured by personally knowing other victims of hate crime) are highly prolific and frequent experiences for LGBT people. Our findings show that trans people are particularly susceptible to hate crimes, both in terms of prevalence and frequency. This article additionally highlights the negative emotional and (intended) behavioral reactions that were correlated with an imagined hate crime scenario, showing that trans people are more likely to experience heightened levels of threat, vulnerability, and anxiety compared with non-trans LGB people. The study found that trans people are also more likely to feel unsupported by family, friends, and society for being LGBT, which was correlated with the frequency of direct (verbal) abuse they had previously endured. The final part of this study explores trans people's confidence levels in the Government, the police, and the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) in relation to addressing hate crime. In general, trans people felt that the police are not effective at policing anti-LGBT hate crime, and they are not respectful toward them as victims; this was especially true where individuals had previous contact with the police. Respondents were also less confident in the CPS to prosecute anti-LGBT hate crimes, though the level of confidence was slightly higher when respondents had direct experience with the CPS. The empirical evidence presented here supports the assertion that all LGBT people, but particularly trans individuals, continue to be denied equal participation in society due to individual, social, and structural experiences of prejudice. The article concludes by arguing for a renewed policy focus that must address this issue as a public health problem.

  8. Hate crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is not much interest for the subject of hate crime in our literature. In the article, the author defines hate crime, based on the facts mainly from the Anglosaxon literature, and tries to explain the origin of prejudice. There is a description of factors which can be the cause for these crimes to occur. The author highlights the importance of preventing bias motivated crime. The article ends with some propositions about how to fight hate crimes.

  9. Modelling the fear of crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Steven

    2017-01-01

    How secure people feel in a particular region is obviously linked to the actual crime suffered in that region but the exact relationship between crime and its fear is quite subtle. Two regions may have the same crime rate but their local perception of security may differ. Equally, two places may have the same perception of security even though one may have a significantly lower crime rate. Furthermore, a negative perception might persist for many years, even when crime rates drop. Here, we develop a model for the dynamics of the perception of security of a region based on the distribution of crime suffered by the population using concepts similar to those used for opinion dynamics. Simulations under a variety of conditions illustrate different scenarios and help us determine the impact of suffering more, or less, crime. The inhomogeneous concentration of crime together with a memory loss process is incorporated into the model for the perception of security, and results explain why people are often more fearful than actually victimized; why a region is perceived as being insecure despite a low crime rate; and why a decrease in the crime rate might not significantly improve the perception of security. PMID:28804260

  10. The Role of Cognition, Personality, and Trust in Fraud Victimization in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judges, Rebecca A; Gallant, Sara N; Yang, Lixia; Lee, Kang

    2017-01-01

    Older adults are more at risk to become a victim of consumer fraud than any other type of crime (Carcach et al., 2001) but the research on the psychological profiles of senior fraud victims is lacking. To bridge this significant gap, we surveyed 151 (120 female, 111 Caucasian) community-dwelling older adults in Southern Ontario between 60 and 90 years of age about their experiences with fraud. Participants had not been diagnosed with cognitive impairment or a neurological disorder by their doctor and looked after their own finances. We assessed their self-reported cognitive abilities using the MASQ, personality on the 60-item HEXACO Personality Inventory, and trust tendencies using a scale from the World Values Survey. There were no demographic differences between victims and non-victims. We found that victims exhibit lower levels of cognitive ability, lower honesty-humility, and lower conscientiousness than non-victims. Victims and non-victims did not differ in reported levels of interpersonal trust. Subsequent regression analyses showed that cognition is an important component in victimization over and above other social factors. The present findings suggest that fraud prevention programs should focus on improving adults' overall cognitive functioning. Further investigation is needed to understand how age-related cognitive changes affect vulnerability to fraud and which cognitive processes are most important for preventing fraud victimization.

  11. Big Five Personality Traits of Cybercrime Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Weijer, Steve G A; Leukfeldt, E Rutger

    2017-07-01

    The prevalence of cybercrime has increased rapidly over the last decades and has become part of the everyday life of citizens. It is, therefore, of great importance to gain more knowledge on the factors related to an increased or decreased likelihood of becoming a cybercrime victim. The current study adds to the existing body of knowledge using a large representative sample of Dutch individuals (N = 3,648) to study the relationship between cybercrime victimization and the key traits from the Big Five model of personality (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience). First, multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between the personality traits and three victim groups, that is, cybercrime victims versus nonvictims, traditional crime victims versus nonvictims, and cybercrime victims versus traditional crime victims. Next, logistic regression analyses were performed to predict victimization of cyber-dependent crimes (i.e., hacking and virus infection) and cyber-enabled crimes (i.e., online intimidation, online consumer fraud, and theft from bank account). The analyses show that personality traits are not specifically associated with cybercrime victimization, but rather with victimization in general. Only those with higher scores on emotional stability were less likely to become a victim of cybercrime than traditional crime. Furthermore, the results indicate that there are little differences between personality traits related to victimization of cyber-enabled and cyber-dependent crimes. Only individuals with higher scores on openness to experience have higher odds of becoming a victim of cyber-enabled crimes.

  12. Administrative Methods for Reducing Crime in Primary and Secondary Schools: A Regression Analysis of the U.S. Department of Education School Survey of Crime and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1999 Columbine High School shooting school administrators have been tasked with creating positive education environments while also maximizing the safety of the students and staff. However, limited resources require school administrators to only employ safety policies which are actually effective in reducing crime. In order to help…

  13. Fear of Crime: The Influence of General Fear, Risk, and Time Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadee, Derek; Ng Ying, Nikita K; Chadee, Mary; Heath, Linda

    2016-05-24

    Prior research on fear of crime has focused less on psychological causes than on sociological and demographic factors. This study, however, introduces time perspective (TP) as an important psychological variable in the understanding of fear of crime. Specifically, the article assesses the relationship between TP as a stable personality factor and the mediation of risk and general fear on fear of crime levels. Data were collected using the survey method from a sample of 375 respondents utilizing the following scales: Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) consisting of five TP subscales, Ferraro's perceived risk of victimization and fear of crime scales, and a general (non-crime) fear scale measuring pragmatic and abstract fear. Path analysis shows no significant direct relationships between the five TP subscales and fear of crime. However, indirect effects are observed for Past Negative TP and Present Fatalistic TP, with general fear (pragmatic and abstract) and risk of victimization mediating the relationship, and pragmatic fear having the greatest significant effect size. Results are discussed in the context of risk and general fear sensitivity and construal level theory. We conclude with recommendations for future research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Crime, physical activity and outdoor recreation among Latino adolescents in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinew, Kimberly J; Stodolska, Monika; Roman, Caterina G; Yahner, Jennifer

    2013-11-01

    The purpose was to examine how fear of crime, crime victimization, and perceived level of community incivilities are related to physical activity participation and outdoor recreation among Latino adolescents. The study utilized a mixed methods approach that included 25 qualitative interviews and 390 school-based surveys collected from youth across three schools in Little Village, Chicago, Illinois. Results showed that Latino adolescents who expressed greater fear of crime also engaged in less physical activity and outdoor recreation. There was no association between crime victimization and physical activity and outdoor recreation. Those who perceived greater levels of community incivilities also engaged in less outdoor recreation, but perception of incivilities had no significant association with physical activity levels. Interview data revealed most of the children believed crime was a serious problem in their neighborhood and it impacted their ability to be physically active and play outside. Fear of crime was related to lower physical activity and outdoor recreation. It is imperative that communities provide safe environments for children to be active. Increasing police and adult presence in parks and school grounds is recommended. Moreover, efforts must be made to reduce the gang problems in Latino communities. © 2013.

  15. Prevalence of stalking victimization in journalists: an E-mail survey of German journalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Peter; Martini, Marina; Witthöft, Michael; Bailer, Josef; Dressing, Harald

    2009-01-01

    Certain professionals, such as health care personnel, have a higher risk of stalking victimization because of their professional activities. This study analyzed the lifetime prevalence of stalking victimization for journalists because they belong to a professional group that often works in public, demonstrates personal attitudes and opinions, and thus may easily become objects for positive or negative transferences. Four hundred and ninety-three journalists answered a standardized Internet questionnaire on stalking victimization. Twelve percent of respondents reported common stalking due to nonprofessional reasons, and an additional 2.2% reported apparently job-related stalking. In contrast to common stalking, job-related stalking victims were mostly male and took the perpetration less seriously, although they had the same risk of suffering violence and aggressive attacks. Since stalking can cause severe psychological distress in victims and some cases are at high risk for aggressive violence, better information for this professional group is necessary. Primary and secondary preventive strategies should be considered.

  16. Profiling perpetrators of interpersonal violence against children in sport based on a victim survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertommen, Tine; Kampen, Jarl; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; Wouters, Kristien; Uzieblo, Kasia; Van Den Eede, Filip

    2017-01-01

    The current article reports on perpetrator characteristics gathered in the first large-scale prevalence study on interpersonal violence against children in sport in the Netherlands and Belgium. Using retrospective web survey design, 4043 adults answered questions on their experiences in youth sport. The study looks at the number of perpetrators as well as individual descriptive characteristics (sex, age, and role in the sport organization) of perpetrators of psychological, physical and sexual violence as reported retrospectively by victim-respondents. This information was then clustered to provide an overview of the most common perpetrator profiles. Results show that in all types of interpersonal violence in sport, perpetrators are predominantly male peer athletes who frequently operate together in (impromptu) groups. Several differences between the three types of interpersonal violence are highlighted. While incidents of physical violence perpetrated by coaches tend to be less severe compared to those by other perpetrators, acts of sexual violence committed by a coach are significantly more severe. The presented findings shed new light on perpetrators of interpersonal violence in sport, nuancing the predominant belief that the male coach is the main perpetrator while providing nuanced information that can be utilized to improve prevention and child protection measures and other safeguarding initiatives in sport. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bullying victimization and physical fighting among Venezuelan adolescents in Barinas: results from the Global School-Based Health Survey 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herring Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence among adolescents has untoward psycho-social and physical health effects among this age group. Most of the literature on this topic has been from high-income nations, and little information has come from middle- and low-income nations. This study was done to assess the relationship between physical fighting and bullying victimization among Venezuelan school-going adolescents in Barinas. Method We used data from the 2003 Global School-Based Health Survey conducted among in-school adolescents in Barinas, Venezuela. We estimated the prevalence of bullying victimization and physical fighting. We also conducted Logistic regression analysis to assess the association between a selected list of explanatory variables and physical fighting. We hypothesized that there would be a dose-response relationship between physical fighting and number of times the adolescent reported being a bullied in the past 30 days. Results A total of 2,249 adolescent students participated in the survey. However data on sex (gender were available for only 2,229 respondents, of whom 31.2 (47.4% males and 17.0% females reported having been involved in a physical fight in the last 12 months. Some 31.5% (37.0% males and 27.0% females reported having been bullied in the past 30 days. There was a dose-response relationship between bullying victimization and physical fighting (p-trend < 0.001. Compared to subjects who were not bullied, those who reported being bullied were more likely to engage in physical fighting after controlling for age, sex, substance use (smoking, alcohol drinking or drug use, and parental supervision. Conclusion Physical fighting and bullying victimization experience is common among in-school adolescents in Barinas, Venezuela. The fact that victims of bullying were more likely to have engaged in physical fighting may be evidence supporting the notion that "violence begets more violence".

  18. Is the victim blameless?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, E A

    1990-01-01

    The study concerned 50 cases occurring throughout Austria between 1950 and 1962 where murder was committed for the purpose of robbing the victim. Fifty-nine convicted killers and 61 victims were involved and 1950 was chosen as the starting point of the research in order to avoid undue influence from the extraordinary factors affecting criminality during and immediately following the Second World War. Cases were consecutive and unselected apart from a very small number excluded through unavailability of their files for legal reasons at the time when the data were collected. Unsuccessful murder attempts were not excluded since there is no difference between crimes actually carried out and those merely attempted as regards criminogenic factors, the pre-criminal situation, the choice of victim, the relationship and interaction between criminal and victim, and the recourse to homicide. However, the inquiry was confined to cases where guilt had been proven because of the aim to study not only the crime and the victim, but also the relationship of the criminal and victim. The latter is obviously not possible where the murderer remains unknown. Accordingly, since the material comprises a large number of cases over a fairly long period (more than a decade) from all over Austria, it is fair to claim that it provides an overview of the criminality of murder with intent to rob, and of the killers and the victims, for an entire country and over a significant epoch.

  19. Nurses wage war on hate crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Janet

    The number of hate crimes reported to the police is rising sharply, in part because increased awareness has prompted more victims and witnesses to come forward. This article explains how nurses are taking steps to identify such crimes and prevent them happening in the first place. The panel opposite offers some practical advice on how to raise concerns with the police and other authorities.

  20. Disability Hate Crime: Persecuted for Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Sue; Capewell, Carmel; Bonnett, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This article briefly discusses the long history of violence towards disabled people which sets the context for an analysis of the modern-day form of violence known as disability hate crime (DHC). People who look or behave differently to others often find themselves victims of violent crimes. The language used to describe disabled people…

  1. Hate crimes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kovacevic, Milica

    2009-01-01

    There is not much interest for the subject of hate crime in our literature. In the article, the author defines hate crime, based on the facts mainly from the Anglosaxon literature, and tries to explain the origin of prejudice...

  2. Victim Reports of Bystander Reactions to In-Person and Online Peer Harassment: A National Survey of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lisa M; Mitchell, Kimberly J; Turner, Heather A

    2015-12-01

    Bullying prevention is increasingly targeting education to bystanders, but more information is needed on the complexities of bystander actions across a wide variety of incidents, including both online and in-person peer harassment. The current study analyzes victim report data from a nationally representative survey of youth ages 10-20 (n = 791; 51% female). Bystander presence was common across all harassment incident types (80% of incidents). In contrast to previous research, our study found that supportive bystander behaviors occurred at relatively high rates. Unfortunately, antagonistic bystander behaviors, although less common, were predictive of higher negative impact for the victim. A large percentage of victims (76%) also disclosed the harassment to confidants, who play an important role as secondary bystanders. While friends were the most common confidant, incidents were also disclosed to adults at high rates (60%) and with mostly positive results. The findings suggest that prevention programs could increase their impact by targeting education to both direct witnesses and confidants, and considering a wider variety of peer victimization incident types.

  3. Perfil do idoso acusado de cometer crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Vieira Brandão

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available É verdade que o idoso, muitas vezes, é vítima de diversas formas de agressões, mas também é agente da prática de delitos. Por meio de pesquisa documental realizada em 2013 com todos os boletins de ocorrência registrados na delegacia de polícia de Imbé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, realizamos análise estatística e evidenciamos o perfil do idoso acusado de cometer crime e os tipos de crimes cometidos. No período pesquisado, 3,28% do total de idosos de Imbé foi acusado de cometer algum tipo de crime. Este artigo recomenda uma ação contínua e integrada da rede de saúde e de segurança pública com as demais áreas sociais para antecipar situações de risco para idosos (e comunidade em geral, de modo a promover a cidadania, gerenciar conflitos e reduzir a violência urbana. It is genuine that the elderly frequently are victims of several kinds of hostility, but the fact remains that he or she, too, is also an agent of the committal of criminal offenses. Through documentary research realized in 2013 with the total occurrences bulletins registered in police stations in Imbé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, we realize statistical analysis and show the profile of the elderly accused of committing crime and the types of crimes committed. In the period surveyed, 3.28% of the total number of elderly of Imbé was accused of committing some type of crime. Profile of the Elderly Accused of Committing Crime recommends a continuous and integrated action of the health and public safety network with the other social areas to anticipate risk situations for the elderly (and the community in general, in order to promote citizenship, manage conflicts and reduce urban violence. Keywords: violence, seniors, aging, public health, crime

  4. Student Reactions to Public Safety Reports of Hate Crimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jessica E.; Koenig, Anne; Smith, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated participant's reactions to hate crime versus nonbiased crime incident reports that included more or less detail about the crime using a 2 (victim race: African American, unstated) × 2 (amount of information: vague, detailed) between-subjects factorial design. We hypothesized that participants would be more sympathetic,…

  5. Hate crime in Suffolk : understanding prevalence and support needs

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Kevin; Christmann, Kris; Meadows, Linda; Wilkinson, Katherine; Senior, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This research project was commissioned by the Suffolk Hate Crime Partnership with funding allocated to them from the Ministry of Justice. The aim of the project was to provide independent evidence of:\\ud • The prevalence of Hate Crime in Suffolk\\ud • The needs of victims\\ud • The support needs of communities affected by Hate Crime

  6. Free State educators' perceptions of the scope of learner crime

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    the findings of an empirical investigation of a group of Free State educators' perceptions of the scope of learner crime and crime-related behaviour are reported. It was clear from the investigation that learners were involved, in particular, in victim-less crimes such as the use of alcohol and smoking marijuana; conventional ...

  7. Student reactions to public safety reports of hate crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jessica E; Koenig, Anne; Smith, Ramon

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated participant's reactions to hate crime versus nonbiased crime incident reports that included more or less detail about the crime using a 2 (victim race: African American, unstated)×2 (amount of information: vague, detailed) between-subjects factorial design. We hypothesized that participants would be more sympathetic, more distressed, and blame the victim less if the victim was African American (designating a hate crime) and if more detail was included in the incident report. The results generally showed greater psychological impact for a hate crime versus nonbiased crime and when more information was presented than with vague information, and these two manipulations did not interact in influencing participants' reactions. These results indicate that amount of detail provided about a crime should be considered when publishing incident reports.

  8. The Shadow of Physical Harm? Examining the Unique and Gendered Relationship Between Fear of Murder Versus Fear of Sexual Assault on Fear of Violent Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Samantha; Cook, Carrie L

    2015-09-01

    The shadow hypothesis regarding the impact of fear of sexual assault on fear of violent crime suggests that female fear of crime is characterized by concern about sexual assault as a contemporaneous victimization event during a violent crime event. Recent research has found that other types of crime, namely physical assault, may also be feared as a contemporaneous offense. We know of no research that has examined the unique impact of fear of murder versus fear of sexual assault on fear of violent crime. There is also a lack of research that explores how these two types of fear uniquely affect men and women. In addition to gender, we examine factors that have been suggested in previous research to correlate with fear of crime: race, victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk. Through survey methodology, this research examines the unique relationship between both fear of murder and fear of sexual assault and fear of three types of violent crime for men and women. Results suggest differences in how fear of murder and fear of sexual assault are related to fear of other types of violence for men and women. Specifically, fear of murder is important in estimating male fear of robbery and aggravated assault. However, fear of sexual assault is almost as important as fear of murder for men in estimating fear of home invasion. Similarly, for women, fear of sexual assault and fear of murder both are significant factors associated with fear of violent crime, and differences between the levels of significance are marginal. This study is a first to examine whether murder may also be feared as a contemporaneous offense. The results are informative in identifying what drives fear of crime, particularly violent crime, for both men and women. Avenues for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Analysis of crimes committed against scheduled tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadse, Vivek P.; Akhil, P.; Anto, Christopher; Gnanasigamani, Lydia J.

    2017-11-01

    One of the curses to the society is a crime which has a deep impact on the society. Victims of crimes are the one who is impacted the most. All communities in the world are affected by crime and the criminal justice system, but largely impacted communities are the backward classes. There are many cases reported of crime committed against scheduled tribes from the year 2005 till date. This paper states the analysis of Crimes Committed against Scheduled Tribes in the year 2015 in various states and union territories in India. In this study, Multiple Linear regression techniques have been used to analyze the crimes committed against scheduled tribes’ community in India. This study compares the number of cases reported to the police station and rate of crime committed in different states in India. It also states the future prediction of the crime that would happen. It will also predict the number of cases of crime committed against the scheduled tribe that can be reported in future. The dataset which has been used in this study is taken from official Indian government repository for crimes which include different information of crimes committed against scheduled tribes in different states and union territories measured under the population census of the year 2011. This study will help different Indian states and union territory government to analyze and predict the future crimes that may occur and take appropriate measures against it before the actual crime would occur.

  10. The hedgehog and the fox; the history of victimisation surveys from a Trans-Atlantic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Jan; Guzy, Nathalie; Birkel, Christoph; Mischkowitz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In his PhD thesis defended at the University of Versailles on November 12, 2014, Matthieu de Castelbajac traces back the early history of victimisation surveys in the USA and Europe with a focus on the National Crime Victims Surveys in the USA (starting in 1973), the Dutch Victimisation Survey

  11. Genetic Identification of Communist Crimes' Victims (1944-1956) Based on the Analysis of One of Many Mass Graves Discovered on the Powazki Military Cemetery in Warsaw, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossowski, Andrzej; Diepenbroek, Marta; Kupiec, Tomasz; Bykowska-Witowska, Milena; Zielińska, Grażyna; Dembińska, Teresa; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej

    2016-11-01

    As the result of the communist terror in Poland, during years 1944-1956 more than 50,000 people died. Their bodies were buried secretly, and most places are still unknown. The research presents the results of identification of people buried in one of many mass graves, which were found at the cemetery Powązki Military in Warsaw, Poland. Exhumation revealed the remains of eight people, among which seven were identified genetically. Well-preserved molars were used for the study. Reference material was collected from the closest living relatives. In one case, an exhumation of victim's parents had to be performed. DNA from swabs was extracted with a PrepFiler® BTA Forensic DNA Extraction Kit and organic method. Autosomal, Y-STR amplification, and mtDNA sequencing were performed. The biostatistical calculations resulted in LR values from 1608 to 928 × 1018 . So far, remains of more than 50 victims were identified. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Violence, Crime, and Violent Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. Felson

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available I propose a dual conceptualization of violent crime. Since violent crime is both violence and crime, theories of aggression and deviance are required to understand it. I argue that both harm-doing and rule breaking are instrumental behaviors and that a bounded rational choice approach can account for both behaviors. However, while some of the causes of harm-doing and deviance (and violent and nonviolent crime are the same, some are different. Theories of crime and deviance cannot explain why one only observes individual and group differences in violent crime and theories of aggression and violence cannot explain why one observes differences in all types of crimes. Such theories are “barking up the wrong tree.”

  13. Yoga and victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić-Ristanović Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the findings of literature review and explorative empirical research of yoga application in the work with victims of various forms of sufferings is presented. The largest notion of victim is accepted, which encompasses victims of crime, victims of human rights violations (including convicted persons, as well as victims of war, natural disasters and other sufferings. After determination of the notion of victim and yoga, the review and analyses of research findings and direct experiences with the application of yoga in victim support and victimisation prevention worldwide and in Serbia, is done. The author’s research findings as well as personal experiences with the application of yoga in the work with prisoners in prison for women in Pozarevac (Serbia, within the workshops that Victimology Society of Serbia implemented during 2012/2013, are presented as well. In the conclusions, contribution of yoga to holistic approach to victim support as well as important role that yoga may have in prevention of victimisation and criminalisation, is stressed. The importance of yoga for support of prisoners as the part of preparation for re-entry and with the aim to prevent recidivism, as well as to enable their more successful reintegration into the society, is particularly emphasised. The paper is based on the research implemented by the author for the purpose of writing the final essey at the course for yoga instructors on International yoga academy, Yoga Allience of Serbia.

  14. Reflexiones desde los Encuentros Restaurativos entre Víctimas y Condenados por Delitos de Terrorismo (Reflections on Restorative Encounters between Victims and Convicted Persons in Terrorism Crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Pascual Rodríguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a brief reflection on the results and consequences of the restorative encounters that took place between victims and former ETA members. It describes their origin and content. Finally it offers an analysis with respect to the effects on all participants and on Basque and Spanish societies. Este artículo se centra en hacer una breve reflexión sobre lo que han sido y lo que han supuesto los encuentros restaurativos entre víctimas y ex miembros de ETA. Describe como se originaron y en que han consistido, para finalizar con un análisis sobre el alcance que han desplegado en todas las personas intervinientes y lo que pueden llegar a suponer para la sociedad vasca y española.

  15. Cigarette smoking among intimate partner violence perpetrators and victims: findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Cory A; Pilver, Corey E; Weinberger, Andrea H

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking and intimate partner violence (IPV) are preventable, major public health issues that result in severe physical and psychological consequences. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the consistency and strength of the association between these highly variable behaviors using a nationally representative sample. Self-reported IPV perpetration, victimization, and smoking data were collected from 25,515 adults (54% female) through the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Multinomial logistic regression models were constructed to determine the relationships among smoking status (current daily, intermittent, former, and never smoker) and IPV (minor and sever victimization as well as perpetration). Results indicated a robust relationship between IPV and smoking among both victims and perpetrators. The odds for current daily and intermittent smoking were significantly elevated among those who reported both minor and severe IPV relative to their non-violent counterparts. Mood and anxiety disorders were significant comorbid conditions in the interpretation of the relationship between severe IPV and smoking. The current study provides strong evidence for a robust relationship between IPV and smoking across current smoking patterns, IPV severity levels, and IPV experience patterns. Findings emphasize the need to better understand the mechanisms by which smoking and IPV are associated and how this interdependence may impact approaches to treatment. Specifically, research is required to assess the efficacy of integrated smoking cessation and IPV treatment or recovery programs over more traditional, exclusive approaches. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  16. Spatial Dependence of Crime in Monterrey, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Aguayo Téllez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact that the characteristics of the environment have on crime using neighborhood aggregate data of the Monterrey Metropolitan Area for the year 2010. Data spatial autocorrelation is corroborated, i.e. neighborhoods with high crime rates have a positive impact on the crime rates of its surrounding neighborhoods. Once it was controlled through the bias caused by spatial autocorrelation and data censoring, it is evidenced that the likelihood of being a crime victim and the probability of becoming an offender is positively related to variables such as unemployment, the percentage of young men and the existence of schools, hospitals or markets in the neighborhood.

  17. Criminological research in contemporary China: challenges and lessons learned from a large-scale criminal victimization survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lening; Messner, Steven F; Lu, Jianhong

    2007-02-01

    This article discusses research experience gained from a large-scale survey of criminal victimization recently conducted in Tianjin, China. The authors review some of the more important challenges that arose in the research, their responses to these challenges, and lessons learned that might be beneficial to other scholars who are interested in conducting criminological research in China. Their experience underscores the importance of understanding the Chinese political, cultural, and academic context, and the utility of collaborating with experienced and knowledgeable colleagues "on site." Although there are some special difficulties and barriers, their project demonstrates the feasibility of original criminological data collection in China.

  18. CyberCrime and Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Susan J.; Gumpert, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Surveys ways in which criminal laws are finding their way into cyberspace, the implications of such actions for communicative rights and liabilities, and the media differentials of crime and punishment. Examines crime committed using email and the Internet; computer mediated felonies, misdemeanors, and violations committed in cyberspace; forgery;…

  19. Crime scenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to illuminate the significance of locations in TV series, in particular in crime series. The author presents different theoretical approaches on settings and landscapes in TV series and crime stories. By analysing both the Swedish and the British versions...

  20. Assessing Crime as a Problem: The Relationship between Residents' Perception of Crime and Official Crime Rates over 25 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, John R.

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the relationship between official crime rates in census tracts and resident perceptions of crime. Using a unique data set that links household-level data from the American Housing Survey metro samples over 25 years (1976-1999) with official crime rate data for census tracts in selected cities during selected years, this study…

  1. Secrecy, Betrayal and Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Siegel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years numerous secret transgressions and crimes have been revealed in the media. Whistleblowers reveal clandestine agreements between managers and directors of large companies; criminals (pentiti make deals with criminal justice officials; cyclists and athletes make public confessions about drug use; victims of sexual abuse come forward with their testimonies.  In this paper, I try to analyze why attitudes about secrecy have changed in the last couple of decades and how and why so many secrets have been revealed, either by individuals who are complicit (whistleblowers or cyclists, by victims (of child abuse by the Catholic clergy and by outsiders (WikiLeaks activists. In addition, some suggestions on the methods of criminological research in closed and isolated groups which consider such information leaks a form of betrayal are provided.

  2. Prevalence of Victimization in Patients With Dual Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, Marleen Maria; Dekker, Jacobus Johannes Maria; Goudriaan, Anna Emma

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of victimization in patients with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders (dual diagnosis) and compare them to the general population. In this cross-sectional survey study conducted in the Netherlands, 9 different types of victimization (e.g., physical assault) were assessed with the Safety Monitor in patients with dual diagnosis (n = 243) and a sample of the general population (n = 10,865). Chi-square tests were used to compare patients with a weighted sample of the general population. Compared to the general population, patients with dual diagnosis were more likely to have been a victim of violence (60% vs. 11%), property crime (58% vs. 30%), and vandalism (21% vs. 14%) in the year preceding the assessment. Threats, sexual assault, physical assault, robbery, bicycle theft, other theft, and vandalism were more prevalent in patients with dual diagnosis compared to the general population. Car theft was more prevalent in the general population. The risk of burglary did not differ significantly between groups. Patients with dual diagnosis are highly prone to victimization. In patients with severe mental illness, victimization is associated with psychopathology, substance use, homelessness, and engagement in criminal activity. Future research is necessary to explore underlying mechanisms in patients with dual diagnosis and develop interventions to reduce their vulnerability for victimization.

  3. Crime victims‘ right to compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrvić-Petrović Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the most important documents of the United Nations, Council of Europe and the European Union relating to rights to damage compensation (restitution from offender and state compensation. The analysis shows that there is a gradual move from the concept of exercising the rights of victims in favor of a solidaristic model that takes less into account the rights of victims, and more the need to satisfy their legitimate interests. The economic crisis that is undermining the foundations of the welfare state could jeopardize the realization of this concept, especially in those European countries where the criminal justice system focuses solely on the offender, as is the case in Serbia. In such circumstances, regulation which protects the right to compensation, other rights and interests of victims, shall apply only to the extent that serves crime prevention. So it happens that in spite of a suitable normative framework and developments regarding the protection of victims of domestic violence and trafficking, the right to compensation and other rights of the victims do not actually get actualized in practice. In order to overcome this, a systemic reform to the criminal justice system should be undertaken with the aim to redirect the system towards the victim of the offense. Within these reforms a public fund for compensation of the victims of violence should be established and the process of mediation between the victim and the offender with the goal to make a settlement should be regulated, because these mechanisms do not exist in Serbia.

  4. Comparing Female Victims of Separation/Divorce Assault across Geographical Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter S DeKeseredy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent analyses of National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS data show that male-to-female separation/divorce assault varies across geographic regions in the United States, with rural rates of such woman abuse being higher than those for suburban and urban areas. Using the same data set, the main objective of this paper is to present the results of an investigation into whether characteristics of female victims of separation/divorce assault also differ across urban, suburban, and rural communities.

  5. Justice And Legal Certainty For Child Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Setiadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Focus of attention in the criminal justice system so far has always been to the perpetrator, whereas parties related to a process of criminal justice encompasses the perpetrator, the victim, and the community. A crime victim, in particular, would suffer more since he/she could experience secondary victimization in the criminal justice system. The law concerning victim and witness protection only states the limitation for the criminal victim to ask for compensation to criminal justice system, either as a victim of direct criminal or a victim of abuse power done by law enforcement officers. Child victims are treated the same way as to adult victims, whilst they have a greater dimension of the problem and effects to be dealt with Mechanism and procedures to be followed are ius constituendum (intended/desirable law, as they only share expectation of indemnity, compensation, and rehabilitation which have not been empirically tested in a real situation.

  6. The Effect of Victim Resistance on Rape Completion: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jennifer S; Balemba, Samantha

    2016-08-12

    When confronted with a sexual attacker, women are often extremely concerned with avoiding rape completion. While narrative reviews typically suggest that the victim resistance is linked to rape avoidance, much of the existing literature relies on overlapping samples from the National Crime Victimization Survey. The current meta-analysis examines whether victim resistance is related to a greater likelihood of avoiding rape completion. Results from a systematic literature search across 25 databases supplemented by a search of the gray literature resulted in 4,581 hits of which seven studies met eligibility criteria for the review. Findings suggest that women who resist their attacker are significantly more likely than nonresisters to avoid rape completion. This finding held across analyses for physical resistance, verbal resistance, or resistance of any kind. Limitations of the analysis and policy implications are discussed, with particular focus on other research findings that resistance may be linked to greater victim injury. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Bullying and Victimization Trends in Undergraduate Medical Students - A Self-Reported Cross-Sectional Observational Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Shrea; Ajinkya, Shaunak; Jadhav, Pradeep R

    2016-02-01

    Bullying is a form of behaviour that can negatively impact a person. It can lead to several deleterious consequences like low self-confidence, drop in academic performance and depression. Studies have shown that bullying behaviour exists amongst medical students also. In the medical field, it is known to negatively impact dispensing of health care and attitudes of medical students towards becoming doctors. It is very difficult for medical students to cope with such a menace as they are already burdened with a vast curriculum and rigorous schedules. There exists paucity of studies regarding bullying amongst undergraduate medical students in Indian context. To study prevalence of peer-based bullying and victimization along with their associated factors in undergraduate medical students. Four hundred randomly chosen undergraduate medical students were included in the study. Socio-demographic and personal details including history of substance use were recorded in a self-designed case record form. Illinois Bullying Scale was used to assess bullying behaviours. Out of total 400 students, 383 completed the survey and this data was analysed. In this study, 98.69% participants self-reported to having indulged in bullying while 88.77% reported feeling victimized. Physical (pverbal (p=0.001) bullying was found to be of significantly greater severity in males as compared to females. Students of the third year of medical school indulged in significantly (p=0.034) greater severity of physical bullying than those of other years. Alcohol consumption (p=0.001) and cigarette smoking (p<0.001) were significantly associated with physical bullying. Peer-based bullying and victimization was found to be highly prevalent amongst undergraduate medical students. There is an urgent need for more detailed studies on bullying in medical students so that remedial measures can be initiated and steps to limit such behaviours can be looked at seriously.

  8. Victims of violence and the general practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezey, G; King, M; MacClintock, T

    1998-01-01

    Violent crime is on the increase in Britain, with 17% of the 15 million incidents of crime reported in 1991 being of a violent nature. Although there is some information on the role of accident and emergency departments for victims who sustain physical injury, little is known about the role of the general practitioner (GP) in managing the acute and longer-term sequelae of violence. To examine the links between experiencing physical of sexual assault and seeking help from GPs in London. A cross-sectional survey of all adult attendees in one large group practice was carried out. The main outcome measures were prevalence of assault, reporting to the doctor and other people, and scores on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the Impact of Events scale. Of the 195 people who took part, 33 (17%) reported a physical or sexual assault in the previous year. Women were three times more likely than men to report any type of assault. Women rarely spontaneously disclosed these experiences to the GP and yet the experience of violence was associated with higher levels of distress, as measured on the GHQ and the Impact of Events Scale. Assault is a relatively common event in the lives of people who consult their GP. Doctors could help these patients through gaining an awareness of the problem and by fostering links with voluntary services, such as victim support schemes, which can provide support, practical assistance, and advice on compensation claims and legal procedures.

  9. 78 FR 52877 - VOCA Victim Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... child abuse. In addition, the definition clarifies that child pornography related offenses are a form of... used terms, including ``crime victim'', ``State administering agency'', ``victim of child abuse'', and... Guidelines. OVC proposes a new definition of the undefined statutory term ``child abuse'' that is intended to...

  10. Dating violence and interpersonal victimization among a national sample of Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Carlos A; Sabina, Chiara; Bell, Kristin A

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this analysis was (1) to provide the rates of dating violence victimization among a national sample of Latino adolescents, (2) to determine the degree to which different forms of dating violence victimization co-occurred for this sample, and (3) to determine how much dating violence victimization overlapped with other forms of non-partner-perpetrated victimization. This analysis used data from the Dating Violence Among Latinos Study, which surveyed 1,525 Latino adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years about past-year dating violence and non-partner-perpetrated victimization. We calculated victimization rates and relative risk ratios to evaluate the co-occurrence among different forms of dating violence victimization as well as the co-occurrence of dating violence and other forms of victimization. Results show elevated rates of dating violence victimization compared with previous studies, which is primarily accounted for by psychological dating violence. The rate of dating violence appears to precipitously increase starting around ages 13 and 14 years and is consistently higher for boys. Each type of dating violence was significantly associated with other forms of dating violence (e.g., physical and psychological). Dating violence was significantly associated with experiencing conventional crime, peer or sibling victimization, and nonpartner sexual victimization as well as being a polyvictim. The results support the importance of early prevention efforts with Latino youth and addressing dating violence with both sexes. Furthermore, dating violence should be seen as a potential risk marker for youth who are experiencing multiple forms of victimization. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The association between school exclusion, delinquency and subtypes of cyber- and F2F-victimizations: identifying and predicting risk profiles and subtypes using latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Gia Elise

    2015-01-01

    This purpose of this paper is to identify risk profiles of youth who are victimized by on- and offline harassment and to explore the consequences of victimization on school outcomes. Latent class analysis is used to explore the overlap and co-occurrence of different clusters of victims and to examine the relationship between class membership and school exclusion and delinquency. Participants were a random sample of youth between the ages of 12 and 18 selected for inclusion to participate in the 2011 National Crime Victimization Survey: School Supplement. The latent class analysis resulted in four categories of victims: approximately 3.1% of students were highly victimized by both bullying and cyberbullying behaviors; 11.6% of youth were classified as being victims of relational bullying, verbal bullying and cyberbullying; a third class of students were victims of relational bullying, verbal bullying and physical bullying but were not cyberbullied (8%); the fourth and final class, characteristic of the majority of students (77.3%), was comprised of non-victims. The inclusion of covariates to the latent class model indicated that gender, grade and race were significant predictors of at least one of the four victim classes. School delinquency measures were included as distal outcomes to test for both overall and pairwise associations between classes. With one exception, the results were indicative of a significant relationship between school delinquency and the victim subtypes. Implications for these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. CSI Effect of Crime Clarification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calici, Can; Ziyalar, Neylan; Yakupoglu, Aylin

    2016-01-01

    ...: A survey has been conducted to 266 participants, who are working as crime scene investigation specialists, criminal courts judges, public prosecutors, lawyers, law enforcement personnel and forensic...

  13. Informing victims about the release of perpetrators from serving their prison sentence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamer-Vidmar Nikica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the practice of informing victims about the release of offenders who serve their prison sentences for crimes against sexual freedom, against life and limb or criminal acts with elements of violence in the Republic of Croatia. Tasks of informing victims about the offender‘s release on the basis of the Law on Amendments to the Law on Enforcement of Prison Sentence perform the Ministry of Justice, the Independent Service for Victims and Witnesses Support. The Independent Service for Victims and Witnesses Support developed the system of informing victims based on the practice of other countries and improves it continuously. The aim of this paper is to present the procedure of informing victims about the release of offenders, as well as the survey findings about the extent to which victims take advantage of some form of psychosocial support that is available, reactions of victims upon receiving information of the offender’s release as well as about victims’ needs for additional psychosocial support.

  14. Phishing for suitable targets in the Netherlands: routine activity theory and phishing victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukfeldt, E Rutger

    2014-08-01

    This article investigates phishing victims, especially the increased or decreased risk of victimization, using data from a cybercrime victim survey in the Netherlands (n=10,316). Routine activity theory provides the theoretical perspective. According to routine activity theory, several factors influence the risk of victimization. A multivariate analysis was conducted to assess which factors actually lead to increased risk of victimization. The model included background and financial data of victims, their Internet activities, and the degree to which they were "digitally accessible" to an offender. The analysis showed that personal background and financial characteristics play no role in phishing victimization. Among eight Internet activities, only "targeted browsing" led to increased risk. As for accessibility, using popular operating systems and web browsers does not lead to greater risk, while having up-to-date antivirus software as a technically capable guardian has no effect. The analysis showed no one, clearly defined group has an increased chance of becoming a victim. Target hardening may help, but opportunities for prevention campaigns aimed at a specific target group or dangerous online activities are limited. Therefore, situational crime prevention will have to come from a different angle. Banks could play the role of capable guardian.

  15. Victim's Rights - Comparative Approach within EU Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pocora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Usually is talking about offender rights and rarely about victim's rights. This study aims to analyse victim's rights especially in Romanian legislation from all points of view. Having involuntary fallen victim to crime, the person is often unaware of what information is available. It is therefore important that the onus is not put on the victim to request a certain piece of information. Victims of crimes need to have their important role in the criminal proceedings and he or she has to know about the extension of them rights. Not least, the study is focus on the right of the victim to receive information, not to be made responsible for the practicalities surrounding its delivery.

  16. The Impact of Drinking Age Laws on Perpetration of Sexual Assault Crimes in Canada, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatley, Jodi M; Sanches, Marcos; Benny, Claire; Wells, Samantha; Callaghan, Russell C

    2017-07-01

    Sexual-assault crimes, primarily perpetrated by males against female victims, impose a substantial burden on societies worldwide, especially on youth. Given that approximately half of all sexual assaults involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator or victim, it is reasonable to expect that minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) restrictions might have an effect on sexual-assault patterns. Canadian MLDA laws are 18 years in Quebec, Alberta, and Manitoba (MLDA-18), and 19 years in the rest of the country (MLDA-19). The present study assesses whether MLDA laws might have an impact on sexual-assault crimes. A regression-discontinuity design was applied to sexual-assault crime data (n = 12,980 incidents) from the national Uniform Crime Reporting survey 2009-2013, a population-level registry of all police-reported crimes in Canada. Uniform Crime Reporting data does not include an explicit alcohol involvement indicator. Nationally, in comparison to males slightly younger than the MLDA, those just older had significant and immediate increases in sexual-assault perpetration of 31.9% (95% confidence interval: 8.7%-54.5%, p = .007). In MLDA-19 provinces, there was an immediate post-MLDA increase of 56.0% (95% confidence interval: 18.9%-90.8%, p = .004) in sexual-assault crimes by males just older than 19 years, whereas in MLDA-18 provinces no significant effect was found. For females, there was no evidence of MLDA effects on sexual-assault crimes. Release from Canadian MLDA law restrictions was strongly associated with increases in sexual-assault perpetration by young men. These findings lend support to the potential effectiveness of population-level alcohol control policies for sexual-assault prevention among youth. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Human trafficking and health: a cross-sectional survey of NHS professionals' contact with victims of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Claire; Dimitrova, Stoyanka; Howard, Louise M; Dewey, Michael; Zimmerman, Cathy; Oram, Siân

    2015-08-20

    (1) To estimate the proportion of National Health Service (NHS) professionals who have come into contact with trafficked people and (2) to measure NHS professionals' knowledge and confidence to respond to human trafficking. A cross-sectional survey. Face-to-face mandatory child protection and/or vulnerable adults training sessions at 10 secondary healthcare provider organisations in England, and meetings of the UK College of Emergency Medicine. 782/892 (84.4%) NHS professionals participated, including from emergency medicine, maternity, mental health, paediatrics and other clinical disciplines. Self-completed questionnaire developed by an expert panel. Questionnaire asks about prior training and contact with potential victims of trafficking, perceived and actual human trafficking knowledge, confidence in responding to human trafficking, and interest in future human trafficking training. 13% participants reported previous contact with a patient they knew or suspected of having been trafficked; among maternity services professionals this was 20.4%. However, 86.8% (n=679) reported lacking knowledge of what questions to ask to identify potential victims and 78.3% (n=613) reported that they had insufficient training to assist trafficked people. 71% (n=556), 67.5% (n=528) and 53.4% (n=418) lacked confidence in making appropriate referrals for men, women and children, respectively, who had been trafficked. 95.3% (n=746) of respondents were unaware of the scale of human trafficking in the UK, and 76.5% (n=598) were unaware that calling the police could put patients in more danger. Psychometric analysis showed that subscales measuring perceived knowledge, actual knowledge and confidence to respond to human trafficking demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's αs 0.93, 0.63 and 0.64, respectively) and internal correlations. NHS professionals working in secondary care are in contact with potential victims of human trafficking, but lack knowledge and confidence in

  18. 76 FR 19909 - International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... of Justice Programs 28 CFR Part 94 RIN 1121-AA78 International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement... Victims of Crime (OVC) is promulgating this interim-final rule for its International Terrorism Victim... as an incident of international terrorism. DATES: Effective date: This interim-final rule is...

  19. Hate crime violence and its emergency department management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, H R; Anglin, D; Stratton, G; Moore, J

    1997-06-01

    As the 21st century approaches, the United States is moving, toward a more pluralistic society with regard to race, ethnicity, and national origin. With this increase in diversity has come a resurgence of hate crime violence. Scant information is available in the medical literature about hate crime violence, hate groups, hate crime violence legislation, or the physical and psychologic sequelae of hate crime violence on the individual and its effects on the community. Guidelines for the treatment of victims of hate crime violence in the prehospital care setting, ED, and inpatient setting are proposed.

  20. Prevalence and characteristics of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization--national intimate partner and sexual violence survey, United States, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiding, Matthew J; Smith, Sharon G; Basile, Kathleen C; Walters, Mikel L; Chen, Jieru; Merrick, Melissa T

    2014-09-05

    Sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence are public health problems known to have a negative impact on millions of persons in the United States each year, not only by way of immediate harm but also through negative long-term health impacts. Before implementation of the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) in 2010, the most recent detailed national data on the public health burden from these forms of violence were obtained from the National Violence against Women Survey conducted during 1995-1996. This report examines sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization using data from 2011. The report describes the overall prevalence of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization; racial/ethnic variation in prevalence; how types of perpetrators vary by violence type; and the age at which victimization typically begins. For intimate partner violence, the report also examines a range of negative impacts experienced as a result of victimization, including the need for services. January-December, 2011. NISVS is a national random-digit-dial telephone survey of the noninstitutionalized English- and Spanish-speaking U.S. population aged ≥18 years. NISVS gathers data on experiences of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence among adult women and men in the United States by using a dual-frame sampling strategy that includes both landline and cellular telephones. The survey was conducted in 50 states and the District of Columbia; in 2011, the second year of NISVS data collection, 12,727 interviews were completed, and 1,428 interviews were partially completed. In the United States, an estimated 19.3% of women and 1.7% of men have been raped during their lifetimes; an estimated 1.6% of women reported that they were raped in the 12 months preceding the survey. The case count for men reporting rape in the preceding 12 months was too small to produce a statistically reliable

  1. Willingness-to-pay for Crime Control Programs in Norway: Preferences and Attitudes towards Crime and Crime Reduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Antonsen, Sicilia Heien; Wiig, Emilie Kristine

    2017-01-01

    In this pilot study, we use the contingent valuation (CV) method to investigate Norwegians willingness to pay (WTP) for crime control programs. The CV method is well known in the environmental economics literature, and has later also been used to estimate the intangible costs of crime. There is a lack of knowledge about the costs of crime in Norway, and especially about the intangible costs which can be argued to constitute the biggest part of the costs and be the most damaging for the victim...

  2. The hate crime concept in GERMANY and how to improve the knowledge on the extent of hate crimes

    OpenAIRE

    Peucker, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Contents: 1. Hate crime concept in the police registration system; 2. Weaknesses of the (new) police registration system; 3. A significant contribution: non-governmental victim support organisations; 4. Recommendation

  3. Financial Disaster as a Risk Factor for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Internet Survey of Trauma in Victims of the Madoff Ponzi Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshman, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    There are no known studies to date examining the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with sudden and dramatic personal financial loss. A Web-based, online, nonprobability convenience survey of 172 Madoff victims (56 percent female; mean age, 60.9 years) using the Posttraumatic Stress List Checklist, civilian version was…

  4. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Trajectories in Child Sexual Abuse Victims: An Analysis of Sex Differences Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Koenen, Karestan C.; Jaffee, Sara R.

    2009-01-01

    Very few studies have prospectively examined sex differences in posttraumatic stress symptoms and symptom trajectories in youth victimized by childhood sexual abuse. This study addresses that question in a relatively large sample of children, drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, who were between the ages of 8-16 years…

  5. Violence, crime, and abuse exposure in a national sample of children and youth: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather A; Shattuck, Anne; Hamby, Sherry L

    2013-07-01

    Because exposure to violence, crime, and abuse has been shown to have serious consequences on child development, physicians and policymakers need to know the kinds of exposure that occur at various developmental stages. To provide updated estimates of and trends for childhood exposure to a broad range of violence, crime, and abuse victimizations. The National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence was based on a cross-sectional, US national telephone survey conducted in 2011. Interviews by telephone. The experiences of 4503 children and youth aged 1 month to 17 years were assessed by interviews with caregivers and with youth in the case of those aged 10 to 17 years. Two-fifths (41.2%) of children and youth experienced a physical assault in the last year, and 1 in 10 (10.1%) experienced an assault-related injury. Two percent experienced sexual assault or sexual abuse in the last year, but the rate was 10.7% for girls aged 14 to 17 years. More than 1 in 10 (13.7%) experienced maltreatment by a caregiver, including 3.7% who experienced physical abuse. Few significant changes could be detected in rates since an equivalent survey in 2008, but declines were documented in peer flashing, school bomb threats, juvenile sibling assault, and robbery and total property victimization. The variety and scope of children's exposure to violence, crime, and abuse suggest the need for better and more comprehensive tools in clinical and research settings for identifying these experiences and their effects.

  6. The Growing Global Threat of Cyber-crime given the Current Economic Crisis: A Study regarding Internet Malicious Activities in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Tuluc

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer crime, also referred as cyber-crime, is considered today one of the main leadingproblems in the ongoing global economic crisis and an impediment in the development of manycountries. Objectives of this work are: to determine the evolution of cyber-crime during the currenteconomic crisis, to emphasize the severity of this problem and the urgent need to limit its impactworldwide, to determine consumers perceptions regarding this phenomenon in Romania. Prior Workrelated to this issue was conducted by the Computer Security Institute in United States, InternationalComputer Protection Agency, Symantec and Ponemon Institute. In their studies, these institutionshave revealed many of cyber-crime features and proposed valuable solutions for decreasing itsimpact. The Approach used in this paper was a survey among Romanian consumers regarding cybercrime.A total number of 110 respondents participated in this survey. Results showed that almost80% of respondents were victims of cyber-crime at least once and more than 87% of respondentsnever reported these crimes to the police. As regards Implications, the study can offer support tospecialized institutions, while academics can use these findings for further research. The Value of thispaper consists of relevant findings regarding cyber-crime issue in Romania.

  7. Place of the victim in records of violence against children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevković Ljiljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of identifying the scope, prevalence and incidence of violence against children, at the national and international level, is determined by the way of measurement and the kind of information available on this type of crime. The starting point for successful preventive and combative measures of victimization of children is an efficient system of recording and presenting the data on violence to which they are exposed to, based on the information from the incident, the family, the perpetrator and the victim. This paper aims to identify and analyze ways of recording and the type of available data on violence against children, as well as the place of child victim in the officially presented data at the global and national level. In doing so, the paper was based on the research of relevant international and national literature in the field of judicial and social protection statistics, publications based on data from the judiciary, those based on the use of victimization surveys and other prospective or retrospective research of violent victimization experiences in childhood. At the very least an analysis of the Serbian approach to this area is given. [PR Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179044: Razvoj metodologije evidentiranja kriminaliteta kao osnova kreiranja efikasnih mera za njegovo suzbijanje i br. 47011: Kriminal u Srbiji - fenomenologija, rizici i mogućnosti socijalne intervencije

  8. Antecedents of sexual victimization: factors discriminating victims from nonvictims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synovitz, L B; Byrne, T J

    1998-01-01

    A sexual victimization survey was used to assess the factors that would discriminate between victims and nonvictims of sexual assault. The sample consisted of 241 female college students at a large midwestern university. Victimization status was ascertained from the 13-question Sexual Experiences Survey developed by Koss and Gidycz and Koss and Oros. Data eliciting information about possible associated factors (demographics, dating history, sexual history, personality characteristics and traits) and victimization status were obtained by adapting several scales and instruments into a single Dating and Relationship Survey. Of the 241 women, 102 reported they had been victimized. Discriminant function analysis was used to develop a set of variables that significantly identified victimization status. The variables found to be related to women's being sexually victimized were (a) number of different lifetime sexual partners, (b) provocative dress, and (c) alcohol use.

  9. Human trafficking and health: a cross-sectional survey of NHS professionals’ contact with victims of human trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Claire; Dimitrova, Stoyanka; Howard, Louise M; Dewey, Michael; Zimmerman, Cathy; Oram, Siân

    2015-01-01

    Objectives (1) To estimate the proportion of National Health Service (NHS) professionals who have come into contact with trafficked people and (2) to measure NHS professionals’ knowledge and confidence to respond to human trafficking. Design A cross-sectional survey. Setting Face-to-face mandatory child protection and/or vulnerable adults training sessions at 10 secondary healthcare provider organisations in England, and meetings of the UK College of Emergency Medicine. Participants 782/892 (84.4%) NHS professionals participated, including from emergency medicine, maternity, mental health, paediatrics and other clinical disciplines. Measures Self-completed questionnaire developed by an expert panel. Questionnaire asks about prior training and contact with potential victims of trafficking, perceived and actual human trafficking knowledge, confidence in responding to human trafficking, and interest in future human trafficking training. Results 13% participants reported previous contact with a patient they knew or suspected of having been trafficked; among maternity services professionals this was 20.4%. However, 86.8% (n=679) reported lacking knowledge of what questions to ask to identify potential victims and 78.3% (n=613) reported that they had insufficient training to assist trafficked people. 71% (n=556), 67.5% (n=528) and 53.4% (n=418) lacked confidence in making appropriate referrals for men, women and children, respectively, who had been trafficked. 95.3% (n=746) of respondents were unaware of the scale of human trafficking in the UK, and 76.5% (n=598) were unaware that calling the police could put patients in more danger. Psychometric analysis showed that subscales measuring perceived knowledge, actual knowledge and confidence to respond to human trafficking demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's αs 0.93, 0.63 and 0.64, respectively) and internal correlations. Conclusions NHS professionals working in secondary care are in contact with potential

  10. A mock juror investigation of blame attribution in the punishment of hate crime perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J; Clark, John W; Kehn, Andre; Burks, Alixandra C; Wechsler, Hayley J

    2014-01-01

    We examined blame attribution as a moderator of perceptions of hate crimes against gay, African American, and transgender victims. Participants were 510 Texas jury panel members. Results of vignette-based crime scenarios showed that victim blame displayed significant negative, and perpetrator blame significant positive, effects on sentencing recommendations. Also as hypothesized, victim and perpetrator blame moderated the effect of support for hate crime legislation. Interaction patterns suggested that both types of blame attribution influence sentencing recommendations, but only for participants disagreeing with hate crime legislation. Three-way interactions with victim type also emerged, indicating that the effects of both types of blame attribution show particular influences when the victim is gay, as opposed to transgender or African American. Implications for attribution theory, hate crime policy, and jury selection are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 28 CFR Appendix to Subpart A - International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program (ITVERP); Chart of Expense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Terrorism Victim Expense... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Pt. 94, Subpt. A, App. Appendix to Subpart A—International Terrorism Victim Expense...

  12. Effects of Racism on Perceptions and Punishment of Intra- and Interracial Crimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, Donald A.; Hockett, Jericho M.; Zanotti, Danielle C.; Heffel, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The majority of hate crimes in the United States are driven by racial bias. However, extra-legal factors such as the perpetrators' motivations, the races of the victims and perpetrators, and the presence or absence of hate symbols or slurs often result in ambiguity in the classification of crimes as hate crimes. This uncertainty evokes…

  13. Crime, Culture Conflict, and the Sources of Support for Gun Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleck, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Questions whether attitudes towards gun control are influenced primarily by exposure to high crime rates, prior victimization, and fear of crime, or result from membership in social groups hostile to gun ownership. Maintains that support for gun control is more a product of culture conflict than a response to crime. (MJP)

  14. 2011 Workplace and Equal Opportunity Survey of Reserve Component Members: Qualitative Analysis on Extremist Groups, Hate Crimes, and Gangs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Black  “There are a lot of kids in our neighborhood that are a part of a gang. They have been robbing homes and cars in our area and doing and...White  “There are young teenagers that are in the gangs. Some of these teens do crimes such as theft or trespassing.” —ANG, male, senior

  15. [The victim within the framework of criminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaro, P

    1978-01-01

    The Author makes a 'tour d'horizon', albeit summarized, of the problems brought about by the victim "from crime" in the exclusive picture of criminology. After defining the dogmatic relations between criminology and victimology, stating that such a (new) discipline highlights the entirety of the criminal event centering upon the dyad criminal-victim, the latest classifications of the victim viewed individually and also in his manifold relationships with the acting subject, are reviewed, in the attempt of identifying, on the basis of the various situations of victimization as they occur, if not some causal laws proper, at least some constants and some emerging lines susceptible of an in-depth analysis. After hinting to the problems brought about by the victim in the supranational prospect, and by the crimes so-called without a victim, the importance of the victim from the criminalistics and criminal execution angle, is outlined, and the Author closes up, by way of conclusion, and at the operational level, broadly hinting to the most suitable methods for the prevention and repairing in regard of the victims of crime.

  16. Taxing Guns Vs. Taxing Crime: An Application of The “Market For Offenses Model”

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrlich, Isaac; Saito, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between offenders and potential victims has so far received relatively little attention in the literature on the economics of crime. The main objective of this paper is twofold: to extend the "market for offenses model" to deal with both "product" and "factor" markets, and to apply it to the case where guns are used for crime commission by offenders and for self-protection by potential victims. Our analysis offers new insights about the association between crime and guns and t...

  17. Violence, abuse, and crime exposure in a national sample of children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather; Ormrod, Richard; Hamby, Sherry L

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this research was to obtain national estimates of exposure to the full spectrum of the childhood violence, abuse, and crime victimizations relevant to both clinical practice and public-policy approaches to the problem. The study was based on a cross-sectional national telephone survey that involved a target sample of 4549 children aged 0 to 17 years. A clear majority (60.6%) of the children and youth in this nationally representative sample had experienced at least 1 direct or witnessed victimization in the previous year. Almost half (46.3%) had experienced a physical assault in the study year, 1 in 4 (24.6%) had experienced a property offense, 1 in 10 (10.2%) had experienced a form of child maltreatment, 6.1% had experienced a sexual victimization, and more than 1 in 4 (25.3%) had been a witness to violence or experienced another form of indirect victimization in the year, including 9.8% who had witnessed an intrafamily assault. One in 10 (10.2%) had experienced a victimization-related injury. More than one third (38.7%) had been exposed to 2 or more direct victimizations, 10.9% had 5 or more, and 2.4% had 10 or more during the study year. The scope and diversity of child exposure to victimization is not well recognized. Clinicians and researchers need to inquire about a larger spectrum of victimization types to identify multiply victimized children and tailor prevention and interventions to the full range of threats that children face.

  18. The role of crime victim’s in criminal proceedings in order to obtain the compensation for “non pecuniary loss” - Le rôle de la victime d’actes criminel dans le procès pénal aux fins du dédommagement non patrimonial - Il ruolo della vittima del reato nel procedimento penale ai fini del risarcimento del danno non patrimoniale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monducci J.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In criminal proceedings, the victim of the crime plays a central role as he may check and solicit the public prosecutor in exercising the criminal action and he can exercise himself a civil action within the criminal proceedings. The role of the crime victim is now even more important as the recent rulings of the Italian Supreme Court of November 11, 2008, have broadened the object of the proof that the plaintiff has to allege in order to determine the damage, which cannot be deemed to be in re ipsa in the very fact of the commission of the criminal offence, but has to be actually proved by the damaged person, even if by natural presumption.

  19. Salience of Crime and Support for Harsher Criminal Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Taylor, D. Garth

    1979-01-01

    Individuals' fear of crime and actual victimization do not lead to their being more likely to advocate harsh treatment for criminals. Also, environmental areas which differ greatly in level of victimization and level of fear do not differ in their level of support for capital punishment or harsher courts. (Author/MC)

  20. Profiling perpetrators of interpersonal violence against children in sport based on a victim survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vertommen, Tine; Kampen, Jarl; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; Wouters, Kristien; Uzieblo, Kasia; Eede, Van Den Filip

    2017-01-01

    The current article reports on perpetrator characteristics gathered in the first large-scale prevalence study on interpersonal violence against children in sport in the Netherlands and Belgium. Using retrospective web survey design, 4043 adults answered questions on their experiences in youth sport.

  1. Invisible Victims: Same-Sex IPV in the National Violence against Women Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Adam M.

    2011-01-01

    With intimate partner violence (IPV) among same-sex couples largely ignored by policy makers and researchers alike, accurately estimating the size of the problem is important in determining whether this minimal response is justified. As such, the present study is a secondary data analysis of the National Violence Against Women Survey and…

  2. Earthquake technology fights crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, John C.; Ward, Peter L.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Hendley, James W.

    1996-01-01

    Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey have adapted their methods for quickly finding the exact source of an earthquake to the problem of locating gunshots. On the basis of this work, a private company is now testing an automated gunshot-locating system in a San Francisco Bay area community. This system allows police to rapidly pinpoint and respond to illegal gunfire, helping to reduce crime in our neighborhoods.

  3. More Than a Feeling: Public Expectations About Emotional Responses to Criminal Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrede, Olof; Ask, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Crime victims' emotional display in legal settings has been found to influence credibility judgments. The specific nature of public expectations about crime victims' emotional responses have, however, not been adequately investigated. In an experimental vignette study, respondents in a community sample (N = 404) estimated the likelihood that female and male victims would experience 7 distinct emotions in response to 5 types of crimes. Across all crime types, female victims were expected to experience significantly more situation-focused (anxiety, fear) and inward-focused (guilt, shame, sadness) emotions, and significantly less other-focused emotions (hatred, anger) than male victims. This calls for an increased focus on distinct emotions in future research on victim's emotions. Implications for victims in legal and social settings are discussed.

  4. [A doctor's action within possible crime scene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowizdraniuk, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Every doctor regardless of specialization in his practice may meet the need to provide assistance to victims of crime-related action. In this article there were disscused the issues of informing the investigative authorities about the crime, ensuring the safety of themselves and the environment at the scene. It also shows the specific elements of necessary procedures and practice to deal with the victims designed to securing any evidence present of potential or committed crime in proper manner. Special attention has been given to medical operation and other, necessary in case of certain criminal groups, among the latter we need to underline: actions against sexual freedom and decency, bodily integrity, life and well-being of human, and specially homicide, infanticide and suicide.

  5. United States Crimes Database 2001-2002 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows crime statistics for the United States for the years 2001-2002, drawn from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program data compiled by the Federal...

  6. United States Crimes Database 1994-2000 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows crime statistics for the United States for the years 1994-2000, drawn from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program data compiled by the Federal...

  7. Childhood adversity, mental health, and violent crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Cornelius, Monica E; Pickelsimer, E Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Little is understood about childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) and lifetime violent crime perpetration. The purpose was to evaluate TBI before the age of 15 years and other childhood environmental factors, mental health, and lifetime history of committing a violent crime. A cross-sectional study of 636 male and female offenders from a southeastern state prison population was conducted using Chi-squared tests, t tests, and logistic regression to determine factors associated with ever committing a violent crime. Committing a violent crime was associated with male gender, younger age, greater childhood sexual abuse (CSA), greater childhood emotional abuse, no TBI by the age of 15 years, and greater neighborhood adversity during childhood. Although TBI has been related to violent and nonviolent crime, this study showed that absence of TBI by the age of 15 years was associated with lifetime violent crime when adjusting for CSA, childhood emotional abuse, and neighborhood adversity during childhood. This builds upon neurobehavioral development literature suggesting that CSA and the stress of violence exposure without direct physical victimization may play a more critical role in lifetime violent criminal behavior than childhood TBI. Violence risk reduction must occur during childhood focusing on decreasing adversity, especially violence exposure as a witness as well as a direct victim.

  8. LGBTI Variations in Crime Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Miles-Johnson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that people vary in their willingness to report crime to police depending on the type of crime experienced, their gender, age, and their race or ethnicity. Whether or not lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI and heterosexual people vary in their willingness to report crime to the police is not well understood in the extant literature. In this article, I examine variations in LGBTI respondents’ attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control on their intentions to report crimes to the police. Drawing on a survey of LGBTI individuals sampled from a Gay Pride community event and online LGBTI community forums (N = 329, I use quantitative statistical methods to examine whether LGBTI people’s beliefs in police homophobia are also directly associated with the behavioral intention to report crime. Overall, the results indicate that LGBTI and heterosexual people differ significantly in their intention to report crime to the police, and that a belief in police homophobia strongly influences LGBTI people’s intention to underreport crime to the police.

  9. Is Spousal Violence Being "Vertically Transmitted" through Victims? Findings from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2012-13.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Kanwal Aslam

    Full Text Available Violence against women is regarded as a major violation of human rights, and several socio-behavioral aspects among victims have been identified as important determinants of spousal violence experience. Pakistani nationally representative contextual evidence is scarce in this regard. We aimed to estimate prevalence of spousal violence, and explore its association with intergenerational transfer, and attitudinal acceptance of violence, among Pakistani ever-married women.Data of 3,687 ever-married women from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-13 was used to perform secondary analysis. Logistic regression analyses were conducted. Association between the different forms of spousal violence and the independent variables: intergenerational transfer of spousal violence (mother also beaten up by father; and attitudinal acceptance of spousal violence (beating is justifies if wife argues with husband were reported as Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI.Overall, more than a third (n=1344, 37.9%of ever-married women reported that they experienced spousal violence. Almost 68% (n=539 of the women who reported that their mothers were also beaten up by their fathers, were victims of spousal violence; and almost 47% (n=603 of the women who agreed that beating was justified if the wife argues with her husband, also suffered spousal violence. Intergenerational transfer (OR =5.71, 95%CI 4.40-7.41, p-value <0.01, and attitudinal acceptance (OR =1.66, 95%CI 1.27-2.15, p-value <0.01 were significantly associated with experience of physical violence even after adjusting for respondents' age at marriage, education level, wealth index, parity, employment status, and empowerment status.Spousal violence continues to haunt the lives of women in Pakistan, and is being transmitted as a learned behavior from mothers to daughters who tend to accept such violation of human rights. Girl children from such unfortunate homes may continue to transmit such

  10. Victims of violence and the general practitioner.

    OpenAIRE

    Mezey, G; King, M.; MacClintock, T

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Violent crime is on the increase in Britain, with 17% of the 15 million incidents of crime reported in 1991 being of a violent nature. Although there is some information on the role of accident and emergency departments for victims who sustain physical injury, little is known about the role of the general practitioner (GP) in managing the acute and longer-term sequelae of violence. AIM: To examine the links between experiencing physical of sexual assault and seeking help from GPs ...

  11. The Survey of criterion of gravity threshold for prosecution of crimes in international criminal court: comparative view on other international courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Saber

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Survey of criterion of gravity threshold for prosecution of crimes in international criminal court One of the issues that have gained a good place in considerations of the office of the prosecution and Icc, is the gravity threshold set out in paragraph 1(d of article 17 of statute. This concept has some challenges: challenges such as lack of definition, lack of criterion for satisfaction of this concept. Given to the fact that gravity threshold is one part of admissibility mechanism, these ambiguities can disturb the legitimacy and function of international criminal court as the first permanent international criminal court. Hence, the purpose in present paper is to clarify this significant concept. Moreover, the gravity threshold criterions and the role of this concept in situation and cases also have been analyzed. Finally, it is concluded that due to political considerations, the clarification of gravity threshold is seriously needed.

  12. Vicarious annihilation: the effect of mortality salience on perceptions of hate crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, J D; Arndt, J; Personius, J; Cook, A

    2001-12-01

    Previous research has found that reminding participants of their mortality creates a need for individuals to maintain and defend subjective cultural worldviews. As a result, mortality salient participants typically strive to uphold legal sanctions and also react negatively to individuals who espouse alternative worldview beliefs, exhibiting behaviors toward those targets ranging from verbal derogation to physical aggression. This paper extends this line of research by examining perceptions of hate crimes. Hate crimes represent a unique class of crime where both the perpetrator and victim may be viewed as worldview violators. Study 1 revealed that mortality salient participants were more supportive of hate crime legislation than were control participants when hate crimes were described in abstract terms and no specific victim was mentioned. In Study 2, a specific victim who posed a potential worldview threat was identified. In this case, mortality salient participants were less punitive toward offenders who attacked these specific worldview-threatening victims.

  13. Genetic analysis of sudden cardiac death victims: a survey of current forensic autopsy practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Katarzyna; Mangin, Patrice; Elger, Bernice S

    2011-05-01

    Autopsy-negative sudden cardiac deaths (SCD) seen in forensic practice are most often thought to be the result of sudden arrhythmic death syndrome. Postmortem genetic analysis is recommended in such cases, but is currently performed in only a few academic centers. In order to determine actual current practice, an on-line questionnaire was sent by e-mail to members of various forensic medical associations. The questions addressed routine procedures employed in cases of sudden cardiac death (autopsy ordering, macroscopic and microscopic cardiac examination, conduction tissue examination, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, biochemical markers, sampling and storage of material for genetic analyses, toxicological analyses, and molecular autopsy). Some questions concerned the legal and ethical aspects of genetic analyses in postmortem examinations, as well as any existing multidisciplinary collaborations in SCD cases. There were 97 respondents, mostly from European countries. Genetic testing in cases of sudden cardiac death is rarely practiced in routine forensic investigation. Approximately 60% of respondents reported not having the means to perform genetic postmortem testing and 40% do not collect adequate material to perform these investigations at a later date, despite working at university hospitals. The survey demonstrated that many of the problems involved in the adequate investigation of SCD cases are often financial in origin, due to the fact that activities in forensic medicine are often paid by and dependent on the judicial authorities. Problems also exist concerning the contact with family members and/or the family doctor, as well as the often-nonexistent collaboration with others clinicians with special expertise beneficial in the investigation of SCD cases, such as cardiologists and geneticists. This study highlights the importance in establishing guidelines for molecular autopsies in forensic medicine.

  14. The legal definition of hate crime and the hate offender's distorted cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Key

    2006-07-01

    The legal definition of hate crime (i.e., the offender attacks the victim because of the victim's actual or perceived race, color, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or national origin) tends to be viewed as a causality description for the offense. This paper maintains that the "because" statement in the legal definition refers to the offender's criminal intent and distorted cognitions (e.g., blaming the victim and using different group memberships to justify and rationalize their hate crimes), rather than suggests that the different group memberships for the offender and the victim cause hate crime. Clarifying the distinction between the offender's mental state and reality has implications for understanding and conducting research on hate crime and clinical interventions with the victims.

  15. Crime Topic Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Kuang, D; Brantingham, PJ; Bertozzi, AL

    2017-01-01

    The classification of crime into discrete categories entails a massive loss of information. Crimes emerge out of a complex mix of behaviors and situations, yet most of these details cannot be captured by singular crime type labels. This information loss impacts our ability to not only understand the causes of crime, but also how to develop optimal crime prevention strategies. We apply machine learning methods to short narrative text descriptions accompanying crime records wi...

  16. Crime perception and Presidential evaluation in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo R. Gómez Vilchis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available How important are citizen perceptions of an increase in crime rate when they evaluate the President? This article uses Mexico as a case study to examine the relationship between perception of crime and citizen grading of the President. The research uses 11 national surveys from 1994 to 2006 to analyze the effects of perception of crime on citizen grading of the President before and after the 2000 presidential election. The main proposition is that, after the 2000 political transition, perception of crime, together with other economic variables, becomes more relevant and has stronger effects when citizens evaluate the President due to an increase of their expectations of the Executive's competence.

  17. Effectiveness of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined crime prevention strategies vis-a-vis perceived residents. feeling of safety in Osogbo Nigeria. The survey was conducted using systematic sampling. Four (4) crime prevention approaches were identified in the study area. Residents. perception of effectiveness of these safety strategies measured ...

  18. Suicide risk factors among victims of bullying and other forms of violence: data from the 2009 and 2011 Oklahma Youth Risk Behavior Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Thad; Edmondson, Andrea Hamor; Whitehead, Tyler; Smith, Barbara

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between exposure to bullying and other forms of violence and suicide risk among public high school students in Oklahoma. Data from the 2009 and 2011 Oklahoma Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were used for this analysis and were representative of public school students in grades 9-12 in Oklahoma. Students who were bullied, threatened or injured by someone with a weapon, physically hurt by their partner, or had ever been forced to have sex, were twice as likely as students who had not experienced victimization to have experienced persistent sadness, considered attempting suicide, made a plan to attempt suicide, and attempted suicide. The results of this study indicate that being a victim of bullying or other forms of violence significantly increases the likelihood for experiencing signs and symptoms of depression, suicidal thoughts, suicidal plans, or suicidal attempts.

  19. The difficulties of determining the notion of organized crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrvić-Petrović Nataša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The author emphasizes the most significant difficulties and disagreements in determining the notion of organized crime, which, on one hand, come as a result of a complexity and dynamism of a contemporary organized crime, and on the other hand, may lead to passing the inadequate legislation and/or the failure of actions against the organized crime. Pointing out to the differences between contemporary organized crime and theoretical definitions of it from the first decades of the 20th century, the author concludes that the answer to the organized crime should be systematic, and need to include the rule of law and the principles of division and control of state power. The author suggests that the changes are necessary within the present criminal legislature of Serbia. In these changes the emphasis need to be on the protection of victims rather than on special legal solutions and special court, prosecution and police units for suppression of organized crime.

  20. Students Perception of Cyber Crime in Edo State: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study determined the perception of students toward committing cyber crime the study will determine the level of success and the gender mostly prone to commit this crime. The study employed the use of descriptive survey to find out students perception towards cyber crime in Edo State. A sample of 500 students ...

  1. Can Poor Neighbourhoods be Correlated with Crime? Evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The subject of crime and poverty has long been of interest in the field of crime studies. Consequently, many studies in criminology have explored the extent to which crime correlates with poverty and the mechanisms that facilitate this relationship. Based on a household survey and a qualitative study conducted in different ...

  2. Children as Victims. 1999 National Report Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Howard N.; Sickmund, Melissa

    As part of a series that provides quick and focused access to findings from "Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1999 National Report" of the Office of Justice and Delinquency Prevention, this bulletin documents the impact of crime on society's most vulnerable victims, children. Homicide remains a leading cause of death for young people. In 1997, an…

  3. Is victimization from bullying associated with medicine use among adolescents? A nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Merlo, Juan

    2007-01-01

    for the higher prevalence of symptoms among bullied victims. The medications that adolescents use can have adverse effects, in addition to the potentially health-damaging effects of bullying. Policy makers, health care professionals, and school staff should be aware that the adolescent victims of bullying......OBJECTIVE: The goal was to examine whether being a victim of bullying was associated with medicine use, taking into account the increased prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms. METHODS: The study population included all students in grades 5, 7, and 9 (mean ages: 11.6, 13.6, and 15.......6 years, respectively) in a random sample of schools in Denmark (participation rate: 88.5%; N = 5205). The students reported health problems, medicine use, bullying, and a range of psychosocial conditions in an anonymous standardized questionnaire. The outcome measure was self-reported medicine use...

  4. Communities, Students, Schools, and School Crime: A Confirmatory Study of Crime in U.S. High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Greg

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how community characteristics, student background, school climate, and zero-tolerance policies interact to affect school crime. The study articulates and fits a school crime model to 712 high schools participating in the 2000 School Survey on Crime and Safety, confirming that school location and student socioeconomic status…

  5. The impact of criminal justice involvement on victims' mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Jim; Bergin, Tiffany

    2010-04-01

    The aftermath of violent crime can leave victims with persistent emotional and mental health problems. Although research has shown the potential benefits of prosecuting cases through the courts, there is also a substantial literature that suggests that common features of the criminal justice system can exacerbate the impact of the initial crime, leading to a secondary victimization. The authors present a review of the research on the positive and negative impact of criminal justice involvement, and common points of failure in the efforts of justice institutions to meet the needs of victims. They conclude with recommendations for future work, including the need for research on restorative justice, victim impact statements, court notification systems, victim services, and victim advocates.

  6. South African Crime Quarterly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Crime Quarterly is an inter-disciplinary peer-reviewed journal that promotes professional discourse and the publication of research on the subjects of crime, criminal justice, crime prevention, and related matters including state and non-state responses to crime and violence. South Africa is the primary focus for ...

  7. Fear of crime: Research of students' attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubičić Milana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have researched the students' perception of fear of crime. To begin with, our attention was at emotional, cognitive and behavioral dimension of this manifestation. Since this subject is rarely researched in our country, it was our ambition to establish the extent of fear of crime and potential differences in regard to gender, and what we are conditionally referring to as cohesiveness variables. The subjects were 59 second year sociology students. The findings pointed out that emotional and cognitive dimension of fear of crime is present only in regard to certain crimes: sexual assault, knife stabbing, home burglary regardless if home is empty, and homicide. It is indicative that dimension of emotional fear is higher with female subjects as opposed to their male counterparts, particularly in the case of sexual assault. Also, it has been noted that female subjects adopt certain behavioral patterns (avoiding particular part of town, at specific hours generated by the possible casualty assessment. On our sample fear of crime can be explained by some micro model variables, like personal or victim experience of someone dear. That is to say that such experience goes hand in hand with lower fear of crime. On the other hand, perception of crime threat is connected to models of social disorder and social care variables, such as: feeling of cohesiveness in the area of living and trusting the police force. Finally, it should be pointed out that some of the findings of this research, primarily those relating between fear(lessness and: gender, experience as victim and community cohesiveness, do not differ from the results of foreign studies.

  8. GENDER-BASED RESTORATIVE JUSTICE FOR VICTIMS OF VIOELENCE AGAINST WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahya Wulandari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive law is less oriented towards the protection of victims, especially women. Restorative justice appears to protect and resolve problems with the interests of the victim-oriented. This article discuss the form of legal protection for victims of violence against women, gender-based and describe the form of restorative justice for victims of gender-based violence against women. Positive criminal law does not accommodate both the interests of the victim to determine the crime against him self and to restore his suffering. This is caused due to the dominance of retributive justice in the settlement mind set crime through the criminal law. The restorative justice allows for an active role in the completion of a crime victim who happens also allows the imposition of sanctions that are beneficial to the recovery of the suffering of the victims.

  9. Is Knowledge Power? The Effects of a Victimology Course on Victim Blaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kathleen A.; Cook, Carrie L.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examines the impact of a victimology course on students' perceptions of the blameworthiness of crime victims and knowledge of victimization issues. Victim-blaming attitudes among college students enrolled in a victimology course were compared with students enrolled in other courses. Results from a pretest and posttest suggest…

  10. The Effects of Victim-Related Contextual Factors on the Criminal Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Stacy Hoskins

    2011-01-01

    Despite numerous reforms designed to integrate the needs and concerns of crime victims into the criminal justice system, which include expanding programs for compensation and restitution, providing counseling and other services to victims, and increasing victims' involvement in the criminal justice process, critics have argued that these reforms…

  11. Menos armas, menos crimes

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro Cerqueira, Daniel Ricardo; Mello, João Manoel Pinho de

    2012-01-01

    Do more guns cause less crime or more crime? Some authors argue that the spread of firearms encourage violent solutions to interpersonal conflicts. Other authors, however, suggest that the defensive use of gun decreases economic crime. In this paper we proposed an identification strategy to estimate the effect of guns on violent crimes and on property crime. The strategy was based on the use of instrumental variables that allowed us to explore the temporal and cross-section variation of the c...

  12. Crimes against humanity

    OpenAIRE

    Podlahová, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    57 Resumé "Crimes against humanity" (the thesis title) Crimes against humanity constitute one of the three integral parts of "crimes under international law." At the same time they represent the most severe form of infringement of fundamental human rights that are as the principle value protected by the international community and its peremptory rules. Although these crimes have not emerged during the 20th century for the first time, it was the World War II., which established the term "crime...

  13. Dal computer crime al computer-related crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Apruzzese

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Digital Identity Theft has become one of the most lucrative illegitimate business. Also known as “phishing”, it consists in unauthorized access to an individual’s personal financial data aiming to capture information relative to on line banking and on line financial services. At the beginning people were the victims of such scams, currently the attention is directed to computer networks. “Pharming” and “keylogging” are some of the latest and utmost sophisticated data processing techniques used by computer crime fraudsters. Latest entries are the “botnets”, herds of infected machines, usually managed by one sole command centre which can determine serious damages to network systems. Botnets have made large scale identity theft much simpler to realize. Organized crime is becoming more and more involved in this new crime world that can easily assure huge profits. The Italian State Police, in order to respond more effectively to this new rising challenge, has created, with the Postal and Communication Police, an agency highly specialized in combating such new phenomenon

  14. Media-Cultivated Perceptions of Criminal Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogles, Robert M.

    Many television viewers construct their social reality from media content as well as from sensory and interpersonally communicated information. One aspect of this media-influenced social reality is television viewers' estimates of crime in society, or their fear of criminal victimization. Several media-effects studies have demonstrated the…

  15. A Survey of the Self-Concept and Intellect of Girls Who Have Been Victims of Incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Sharon K.; Demos, George

    Research is attempting to examine the causes and effects of incestual child abuse and has discovered more complicated temporary and long-term repercussions than previously suspected. Fifteen subjects in a residential facility participated in a study to examine the self-concept and intellect of girls who had been victims of incest. Their scores on…

  16. Assessment of oral health status among endosulfan victims in endosulfan relief and remediation cell - A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundoor Manjunath Dayakar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endosulfan is a highly toxic agrichemical used in the cashew plantations. The Stockholm Convention held in April 2011 recommended a global ban on the manufacture and use of endosulfan because of its adverse effects on human health and the environment. Its impact on the quality of food, water, and beverages; and its ability to cause neurobehavioral disorders, congenital malformations in female subjects, and abnormalities related to the male reproductive system are studied, but however information regarding the oral health of endosulfan victims is scant. Objectives: To assess the oral health status of the endosulfan victim in rehabilitation center. Method and Methodology: A cross sectional study on 18 subjects of 4-50 years of age were interviewed and examined using modified WHO oral health assessment proforma (1997 in Endosulfan Relief and Remediation Cell in Kokkada, Belthangady Taluk, Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka, India. Results: Among the subjects, 10 (>50% were found to be in age group <20 years. The overall oral health status of the endosulfan victim's in rehabilitation center considered to be poor, as many of the subjects suffered from major medical problems like mental retardation, physical disabilities etc. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the need for special attention from government and voluntary organization to improve overall health status of the victims.

  17. SUPPORTING CHILDREN IN U.S. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS: Descriptive and Attitudinal Data From a National Survey of Victim/Witness Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliff, Bradley D; Nicholson, Elizabeth; Amarilio, Diana; Ravanshenas, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a national survey of 786 victim/witness assistants (VWAs) to provide descriptive and attitudinal information about support person use in U.S. legal proceedings involving children. VWAs (N = 414) from 46 states returned completed surveys (response rate = 53%). Prosecutor-based VWAs or parents/guardians most frequently served as support persons. One support person was almost always or often used with child victims and/or witnesses of all ages. Support persons were extremely common in cases involving child sexual abuse, physical abuse, neglect, and adult domestic violence. Overall, support persons provided more informational than emotional support. The most common informational support was to provide referrals to community resources, conduct courtroom visit/orientation, and disseminate relevant procedural information. The most common emotional support was to accompany the child to trial. Support persons rarely or never questioned children directly during investigative interviews or in court. Respondents believed support persons decrease children's stress and increase accuracy and credibility; however, this effect varied as a function of who provided support, child age, case type, and type of emotional or informational support. Respondents believed that support person presence at trial probably does not prejudice jurors against defendants. These survey data provide a benchmark for legal professionals and a foundation for future social scientific research examining the effects of support person use on children.

  18. Methods of Investigation of Sexual Crimes (Selected Issues)

    OpenAIRE

    Pixová, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Cizojazyčné resumé The diploma thesis deals with the methods of investigation of sexual crimes. Because the topic is too broad I've decided to focus only on selected issues of methods of investigation of child sexual abuse. Investigation of child sexual abuse is very specific in comparison to other sexual crimes. During the investigation the child victim must be handled very sensitively in order to avoid secondary victimization. The purpose of this thesis is to describe the specifics of inves...

  19. Cross-National Data on Victims of Bullying: How Does PISA Measure up with Other Surveys? An Update and Extension of the Study by Smith, Robinson, and Marchi (2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter K.; Lopez-Castro, Leticia

    2017-01-01

    Until recently, there were four sources of large-scale self-report survey data on victim rates, cross-nationally: EU Kids Online, Global School Health Survey, Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, and Health Behaviour of School-aged Children. Smith, Robinson, and Marchi (2016) examined the internal validity and external validity…

  20. Crime Reporting Behavior: Do Attitudes Toward the Police Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Francis D

    2016-02-24

    Police researchers have long argued that favorable evaluations of the police eventually lead to citizens' willingness to cooperate with the police. However, this assumption has barely been studied empirically. The current study examines the association between attitudes toward the police and crime reporting behavior of victims. Furthermore, the study explores the influence of victims' characteristics on their decisions to report crime to the police. Using field data originally collected in Ghana, the study found that victims' levels of confidence in the police and satisfaction with police work positively predict their decisions to report sexual assault and robbery to the police. Moreover, findings revealed that age, marital status, and employment status are important predictors of victims' reporting behavior. Several practical and theoretical implications of the results are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. A cross-sectional survey of blood pressure of a coastal city's resident victims of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hitoshi; Akashi, Hidechika; Noda, Shinichiro; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Okazaki, Osamu; Ouchi, Yoshiko; Okaji, Yuki; Kajiwara, Chieko; Miyoshi, Chiaki

    2013-06-01

    Blood pressure (BP) increase as a reaction to major disasters has been well documented; however, the impact has been underdocumented for tsunamis. This study aimed to confirm whether different levels of flooding/inundation and other damage caused by the 2011 Tohoku (northeast Japan) tsunami were associated with BP among resident victims in Higashi-Matsushima, Miyagi. Cross-sectional household screening was conducted 7-19 weeks after the disaster in administrative areas totally or partially flooded by the tsunami. Systolic and diastolic BP (SBP/DBP) were measured in 4,311 residents. There was a degree-dependent association between SBP/DBP and flooding height above sea level among victims not on antihypertensive medication (P tsunami or lifeline indicators and high BP (SBP ≥160mm Hg or DBP ≥100mm Hg). This study suggests that after a major tsunami, resident victims in areas highly inundated by flood waters and those with disrupted gas supply are more likely to have higher BP and thus might warrant getting BP screening earlier than other residents. Those with hypertension should be given assistance to resume or commence antihypertensive medication as soon as possible to reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  2. Psychological Effects of Urban Crime Gleaned from Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Valdes, José Manuel Delgado; Eisenstein, Jacob; De Choudhury, Munmun

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to frequent crime incidents has been found to have a negative bearing on the well-being of city residents, even if they are not themselves a direct victim. We pursue the research question of whether naturalistic data shared on Twitter may provide a “lens” to understand changes in psychological attributes of urban communities (1) immediately following crime incidents, as well as (2) due to long-term exposure to crime. We analyze half a million Twitter posts from the City of Atlanta in...

  3. The Experience of Crime in a Small Town: Lyttleton in 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradson, Vicki

    1996-01-01

    Presents the results of an undergraduate research project using geographic concepts and terminology to document the public perception of crime in a small New Zealand town. Original data were culled from a questionnaire which addressed such issues as direct victimization, fear of crime, and behavior restrictions and adaptation. (MJP)

  4. Responding to Hate Crimes and Bias-Motivated Incidents on College/University Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Community Relations Service.

    The Community Relations Service (CRS), an arm of the U.S. Department of Justice, brought together representatives from college campus law enforcement, college administrators, students, academicians, and civil rights organizations to discuss how different campuses are handling hate crimes in areas including crime investigation, victim assistance,…

  5. Responding to Hate Crimes: A Police Officer's Guide to Investigation and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Association of Chiefs of Police, Alexandria, VA.

    Hate crimes and hate incidents are major issues for all police because of their unique impact on victims as well as the community. This guidebook, designed to be used by police officers, explains the differences between hate crimes and hate incidents and discusses how to respond to both. Specifically, this guidebook examines the following…

  6. Crime on Campus: Institutional Tort Liability for the Criminal Acts of Third Parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddatz, Anita

    To aid colleges and universities in protecting students and other potential victims of crime, a general analysis of the pertinent case law concerning institutional tort liability for campus crime is provided. The analysis of case law explains that lawsuits are usually based on the theory of negligence. Negligence consists of four elements: duty;…

  7. Crime in South African education as reflected in the printed media ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to look at conventional crime in South African education through the eyes of the media. From the study it appeared that learners and educators are / were not only the victims, but also the perpetrators of violent crime such as murder, kidnapping, rape and assault. Learners and educators are often ...

  8. Crime Forecasting System (An exploratory web-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaseen Ahmed Meenai

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous rise in crimes in some big cities of the world like Karachi and the increasing complexity of these crimes, the difficulties the law enforcing agencies are facing in tracking down and taking out culprits have increased manifold. To help cut back the crime rate, a Crime Forecasting System (CFS can be used which uses historical information maintained by the local Police to help them predict crime patterns with the support of a huge and self-updating database. This system operates to prevent crime, helps in apprehending criminals, and to reduce disorder. This system is also vital in helping the law enforcers in forming a proactive approach by helping them in identifying early warning signs, take timely and necessary actions, and eventually help stop crime before it actually happens. It will also be beneficial in maintaining an up to date database of criminal suspects includes information on arrest records, communication with police department, associations with other known suspects, and membership in gangs/activist groups. After exploratory analysis of the online data acquired from the victims of these crimes, a broad picture of the scenario can be analyzed. The degree of vulnerability of an area at some particular moment can be highlighted by different colors aided by Google Maps. Some statistical diagrams have also been incorporated. The future of CFS can be seen as an information engine for the analysis, study and prediction of crimes.

  9. Effect of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED Measures on Active Living and Fear of Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Seung Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED has become a popular urban planning approach to preventing crime and mitigating fear of crime through the improvement of physical neighborhood environments. CPTED is widely used to improve deteriorated neighborhoods that suffer from crime. However, few studies have empirically examined the complex relationships among CPTED, fear of crime, and active living. Our study, therefore, investigated the effects of CPTED measures on walking frequency and fear of crime, analyzing behavioral data of residents living in participatory neighborhood regeneration areas and matched neighborhoods. We analyzed survey data from 12 neighborhoods that implemented CPTED approaches and 12 matched neighborhoods in Seoul, Korea, using structural equation modeling, which could consistently estimate complex direct and indirect relationships between a latent variable (fear of crime and observable variables (CPTED measures and walking frequency. We designed the survey instrument as a smartphone app. Participants were recruited from 102 locations within the 24 selected neighborhoods; in total, 623 individuals returned surveys. The results revealed that sufficient closed-circuit television, street lighting, and maintenance played a significant role in mitigating fear of crime. This study has implications for planning and policy issues related to CPTED, mental health, and active living.

  10. Media and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild; Waade, Anne Marit

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account......Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account...

  11. Education policy and crime

    OpenAIRE

    Lochner, Lance

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between education and crime from an economic perspective, developing a human capital-based model that sheds light on key ways in which early childhood programs and policies that encourage schooling may affect both juvenile and adult crime. The paper first discusses evidence on the effects of educational attainment, school quality, and school enrollment on crime. Next, the paper discusses evidence on the crime reduction effects of preschool programs like P...

  12. Victim support services in England, Wales and Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, authors tried to present activities of one of the oldest European Victim Support Services - Victim Support for England, Wales and Northern Ireland. During 1970s, through practice and research projects, the need for recognizing the physical and psychological status of victims after the crime was committed, as well as the need of providing them with the (informal assistance and support were noticed. That has resulted in establishing numerous of local victim support services (schemes, which united in the National Association of the Victim Support Services in 1979. Significant support was given to the Service in 1980s through the recommendations of the Council of Europe on the assistance for victims of crime and prevention of victimization through direct support given to the victim immediately after the incident, including protection and safety, medical, mental, social and financial support, as well as providing the victim with information on his/her rights, support during the criminal proceeding, assistance in getting compensation etc. Organization and structure of the service, referral system, code of practice and two main programs: Victim Service and Witness Service are reviewed in the paper.

  13. Offender Mobility During the Crime: Investigating the Variability of Crime Event Contexts and Associated Outcomes in Stranger Sexual Assaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Ashley; Beauregard, Eric

    2017-06-01

    Using data from qualitative interviews and police reports, latent class analysis is used on a sample of 54 repeat stranger sexual offenders who committed 204 sexual assaults to identify discrete contexts present at the time of victim encounter that influence these offenders' decision to use more than one location to commit their crimes. Five distinct classes are identified: residential outdoor common area, spontaneous/quiet outdoor site, residential home, active green space, and indoor/public gathering place. An investigation into the outcome(s) that most often result from the offender's decision to move the victim during the sexual assault indicates that those who move the victim from an active green space overwhelmingly engage in sexual penetration, as well as forcing their victims to commit sexual acts on them. Crimes where the victim is moved from a residential home show evidence of the offender physically harming the victim as well as using more force than necessary to complete the assault. Implications for situational crime prevention are discussed.

  14. Crime and Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael

    This paper tests whether being convicted of a crime affects marriage market outcomes. While it is relatively well documented that crime hurts in terms of reduced future income, there has been little systematic analysis on the association between crime and marriage market outcomes. This paper...... are convicted face a significantly higher dissolution risk than their law abiding counterparts....

  15. IMPACT Youth Crime Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, Georgina; Wright, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Four models of crime prevention are discussed that arise from differing views of the causes of crime: criminal justice, situational, developmental, and social development models. Two activity-based youth crime prevention projects in Queensland (Australia) use developmental and social development models and expand local youth service…

  16. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    no significantly increasing trend prior to displacement; and the crime rate of workers who will be displaced is not significantly higher than the crime rate of workers who will not be displaced. In contrast, displaced workers’ probability to commit any crime increases by 0.52 percentage points in the year of job...

  17. Recognising Victimhood: Lessons from the International Criminal Court and Mass Claim Programmes for the Compensation Procedure Parallel to the Trial of International Crimes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen., P.; Kool, R.S.B.

    In the Netherlands, the Dutch criminal court in The Hague (hereinafter: ‘Netherlands International Crimes Court’ or ‘NIC court’) is assigned to try international crimes, and to provide compensation to victims of such crimes. Whereas it has specific criminal laws at its disposal to try international

  18. Victimization, polyvictimization , and health in Swedish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aho N

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nikolas Aho, Marie Proczkowska Björklund, Carl Göran Svedin Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden Abstract: The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16–20 years, standard deviation =0.652, of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV] proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization. Keywords: victimization, childhood trauma, psychological symptoms, JVQ, TSCC

  19. Victimization, perception of insecurity, and changes in daily routines in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, María Elena; Martínez-Ferrer, Belén; Vera, Alejandro; Bahena, Alejandro; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2016-10-03

    To analyze the relationships between victimization, perception of insecurity, and changes in routines. The 8,170 subjects of both sexes (49.9% women and 50.1% men) aged between 12 and 60 years, selected from a proportional stratified sampling, participated in this study. The measuring instrument was an adaptation of the National Survey on Victimization and Perception of Public Security. Chi-square tests were performed. The results show significant differences on victimization and sex regarding perception of insecurity, restrictions on everyday activities, and protection measures. 13.1% of those interviewed claimed to have been victims of a crime in the past 12 months. 52.7% of women considered their municipality as unsafe or very unsafe. In the case of men, this percentage was 58.2%. Female victims reported significant restrictions in everyday activities when compared to non-victims. In relation to men, the percentage of victims with a high restriction of activities was higher in male victims than non-victims. In the group of victimized women, the segment of women who opted for increased measures of protection against crime was larger than expected, while those of non-victims who took less protective measures was lower than expected. These same results were observed in the group of men. The experience of victimization implies a greater perception of insecurity. However, the climate of insecurity is widespread in a large number of citizens. Gender differences in a high-crime environment show the importance of investigating in depth the roles of both genders in the perception of insecurity and changes in routines. Analizar las relaciones existentes entre victimización, percepción de inseguridad y cambios en las rutinas. Participaron en este estudio 8,170 sujetos de ambos sexos (49.9% mujeres y 50.1% hombres) de entre 12 y 60 años, seleccionados a partir de un muestro estratificado proporcional. El instrumento de medida fue una adaptación de la Encuesta Nacional

  20. Mediation by Peer Violence Victimization of Sexual Orientation Disparities in Cancer-Related Tobacco, Alcohol, and Sexual Risk Behaviors: Pooled Youth Risk Behavior Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, Heather L.; Everett, Bethany G.; Russell, Stephen T.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Birkett, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the role of adolescent peer violence victimization (PVV) in sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors. Methods. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex sexual attraction, partners, or identity as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We had 4 indicators of tobacco and alcohol use and 4 of sexual risk and 2 PVV factors: victimization at school and carrying weapons. We stratified associations by gender and race/ethnicity. Results. PVV was related to disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of substance use and sexual risk, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.6) to 11.3 (95% CI = 6.2, 20.8), and to being a sexual minority, with ORs of 1.4 (95% CI = 1.1, 1.9) to 5.6 (95% CI = 3.5, 8.9). PVV mediated sexual orientation disparities in substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Findings were pronounced for adolescent girls and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Conclusions. Interventions are needed to reduce PVV in schools as a way to reduce sexual orientation disparities in cancer risk across the life span. PMID:24825215

  1. Victim to abuser: mental health and behavioral sequels of child sexual abuse in a community survey of young adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, C; Wood, M; Young, L

    1994-08-01

    Respondents in a stratified random sample of 750 males aged 18 to 27 in Calgary, Canada were asked to recall unwanted sexual contacts occurring before their 17th birthday: 117 (15.6%) had experienced one or more unwanted sexual contacts. Those recalling multiple events of abuse (52 individuals, 6.9% of all respondents) were distinguished from other respondents at a statistically significant level on the following indicators: emotional abuse in childhood, higher rates of current or recent depression, anxiety, suicidal feelings and behavior, and current sexual interest in or actual behavior involving minors. The combination of emotional abuse in the respondent's childhood with multiple events of sexual abuse was a relatively good predictor of both poor mental health, and later sexual interest in or sexual contact with children. Eight apparently active pedophiles were identified, using a computer response system that assured anonymity. This study underscores the need for preventive measures, and the prompt identification and treatment of victims before they enter the victim-to-abuser cycle.

  2. Commentary (Victim Participation in the International Criminal Court)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchuk, Iryna

    2014-01-01

    Victim participation is one of the most innovative aspects introduced in the legal framework of the International Criminal Court (hereinafter – ICC), which has not featured in the practices of other international criminal courts and tribunals. The approach of the ad hoc tribunals to victims...... was very ‘consumer like’ because victims were solely used as witnesses to testify about the crimes attributed to the accused, but they were not granted broad participatory rights in the proceedings. The drafters of the Rome Statute acknowledged wide-ranging interests of victims who, apart from seeking...

  3. Direct and vicarious violent victimization and juvenile delinquency: an application of general strain theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Hsu; Cochran, John K; Mieczkowski, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Using a national probability sample of adolescents (12–17), this study applies general strain theory to how violent victimization, vicarious violent victimization, and dual violent victimization affect juvenile violent/property crime and drug use. In addition, the mediating effect and moderating effect of depression, low social control, and delinquent peer association on the victimization–delinquency relationship is also examined. Based on SEM analyses and contingency tables, the results indicate that all three types of violent victimization have significant and positive direct effects on violent/property crime and drug use. In addition, the expected mediating effects and moderating effects are also found. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  4. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing...... a substantial share of their workers, for workers with at least three years of tenure. Displaced workers are more likely to commit offenses leading to conviction (probation, prison terms) for property crimes and for alcohol-related traffic violations in the two years following displacement. We find no evidence...... that displaced workers' propensity to commit crime is higher than non-displaced workers before the displacement event; but it is significantly higher afterwards. Displacement impacts crime over and above what is explained by earnings losses and weeks of unemployment following displacement....

  5. Rape Myth Consistency and Gender Differences in Perceiving Rape Victims: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, Jericho M; Smith, Sara J; Klausing, Cathleen D; Saucier, Donald A

    2016-02-01

    An overview discusses feminist analyses of oppression, attitudes toward rape victims, and previously studied predictors of individuals' attitudes toward rape victims. To better understand such attitudes, this meta-analysis examines the moderating influences of various rape victim, perpetrator, and crime characteristics' rape myth consistency on gender differences in individuals' perceptions of rape victims (i.e., victim responsibility and blame attributions and rape minimizing attitudes). Consistent with feminist theoretical predictions, results indicated that, overall, men perceived rape victims more negatively than women did. However, this sex difference was moderated by the rape myth consistency within the rape vignettes. Implications for research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Child and Youth Victimization Known to Police, School, and Medical Authorities. National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard; Turner, Heather; Hamby, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been made during the last generation to encourage children and their families to report victimization to authorities. Nonetheless, concern persists that most childhood victimization remains hidden. The 2008 inventory of childhood victimization--the National Study of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV)--allowed an…

  7. Urban Poverty and Neighborhood Effects on Crime: Incorporating Spatial and Network Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graif, Corina; Gladfelter, Andrew S.; Matthews, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Research on neighborhoods and crime is on a remarkable growth trajectory. In this article, we survey important recent developments in the scholarship on neighborhood effects and the spatial stratification of poverty and urban crime. We advance the case that, in understanding the impact of neighborhoods and poverty on crime, sociological and criminological research would benefit from expanding the analytical focus from residential neighborhoods to the network of neighborhoods individuals are exposed to during their daily routine activities. This perspective is supported by reemerging scholarship on activity spaces and macro-level research on inter-neighborhood connections. We highlight work indicating that non-residential contexts add variation in criminogenic exposure, which in turn influence offending behavior and victimization risk. Also, we draw on recent insights from research on gang violence, social and institutional connections, and spatial mismatch, and call for advancements in the scholarship on urban poverty that investigates the salience of inter-neighborhood connections in evaluating the spatial stratification of criminogenic risk for individuals and communities. PMID:27375773

  8. The position of victims in Serbia: Criminal procedure and possibilities of restorative justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić-Ristanović Vesna

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the authors deal with the victim"s position in the criminal procedure, on the one hand side, and the possibilities of implementing restorative justice and its importance for the improvement of victim"s position in Serbia, on the other one. In the first part of the paper, the authors point out victim"s position within the criminal procedure and the noticed gaps, which are particularly reflected in insufficient paying attention to the victim and neglecting of his/her rights and needs. This is opposite to the strengthening of the rights of the accused party that characterizes societies, which are, as our society, on the way of democratization and improvement of human rights. In the second part of the paper, the authors analyze some solutions that introduce elements of restorative justice into our system of criminal response to crime, but from the victim"s point of view. Finally, the authors also point out some further steps that should be undertaken in order to improve the victim"s position, particularly emphasizing the place and role of victim support service, witness service and special facilities in the courts for victims/witnesses, possibilities of using victim-offender mediation before reporting the crime, or staring the prosecution, or as a part of the treatment in the prison etc.

  9. Toward establishing basic rights of victims in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morosawa Hidemichi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The author talks about improving victim rights in Japan and his important role in it. A period of Victims’ Renaissance in Japan began in the 1990s when the Japanese Association of Victimology and Mito Victim Assistance Cener, first non-governmental community-based integrated victim support center in Japan were established. Since May 1999 to May 2004, four laws such as “Crime Victim Protection Law”, “Child Abuse Prevention Law”, “Law for Proscribing Stalking Behavior” and so on were enacted and six laws were reformed. The word “rights of victim”, did not appear in any laws. After 2000, the National Association of Crime Victims and Surviving Families (NAVS played an important role. This Association achieved a great success in securing victims a position as the subject of rights. In June 2007, Japan changed the Criminal Procedure Law. This new law will be effective on six months after the day of promulgation. Japanese Government will promulgate it till the end of 2007. Under this new law, crime victims will be allowed to take part in criminal trials, and also make statements during trials.

  10. Psychological Effects of Urban Crime Gleaned from Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, José Manuel Delgado; Eisenstein, Jacob; De Choudhury, Munmun

    2015-05-01

    Exposure to frequent crime incidents has been found to have a negative bearing on the well-being of city residents, even if they are not themselves a direct victim. We pursue the research question of whether naturalistic data shared on Twitter may provide a "lens" to understand changes in psychological attributes of urban communities (1) immediately following crime incidents, as well as (2) due to long-term exposure to crime. We analyze half a million Twitter posts from the City of Atlanta in 2014, where the rate of violent crime is three times of the national average. In a first study, we develop a statistical method to detect changes in social media psychological attributes in the immediate aftermath of a crime event. Second, we develop a regression model that uses historical (yearlong) crime to predict Twitter negative emotion, anxiety, anger, and sadness. We do not find significant changes in social media affect immediately following crime in Atlanta. However we do observe significant ability of historical crime to account for heightened negative emotion and anger in the future. Our findings have implications in gauging the utility of social media to infer longitudinal and population-scale patterns of urban well-being.

  11. Combating transnational environmental crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisarić Milana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental crime is a serious and growing international problem, and one which takes many different forms. It is not limited to criminals polluting the air, water and land and pushing commercially valuable wildlife species closer to extinction; it can also include crimes which speed up climate change, destroy fish stocks, annihilate forests and exhaust essential natural resources. These crimes can have a harmful impact on the economies and security of multiple nations, in some cases they may even threaten the very existence of a country or people. Furthermore, a significant proportion of both wildlife crime and pollution crime cases point to the involvement of organized crime networks. This is evidenced by the detailed planning of operations, substantial financial support, the careful management of international shipments and massive profits. Still, to date, transnational environmental crime has been poorly attended to by the transnational organised crime and transnational policing discourse. National and international institutions have prioritised other forms of organised crime, giving little thought to the nuances of environmental crime and how they should be reflected in policing. Intention of this paper is to point out the importance of international cooperation and to point out the its good examples.

  12. Post-traumatic stress problems among poly-victimized Spanish youth: time effect of past vs. recent interpersonal victimizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Teresa; Forns, Maria; Soler, Laia; Planellas, Irina

    2014-08-01

    The cumulative effect of lifetime interpersonal victimization experiences (e.g., child maltreatment, sexual victimizations, conventional crime, witnessing indirect victimization, peer and sibling victimizations) on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms is an important topic in the scientific literature. The objectives of the present study were: (a) to analyze the relationship between lifetime interpersonal victimizations and PTS symptoms, (b) to determine the most prevalent specific PTS symptoms among poly-victimized adolescents, and (c) to establish the time-based effect of interpersonal victimization experiences that occurred in the last year versus those that occurred years before on current level of PTS symptoms. Gender differences were taken into account for each of these objectives. Participants were 823 Spanish adolescents (63% girls and 37% boys) between 14 and 18 years of age recruited from May 2010 to November 2011 from schools in Barcelona, Spain. The majority (87.6%) was of Spanish nationality. The results highlighted the cumulative effect of interpersonal victimizations on PTS symptoms. Among poly-victims adolescents, the most prevalent PTS symptom was intrusive thoughts, but some differences were observed according to gender. The time-based effect of interpersonal victimizations showed a different pattern for girls and boys. For girls, the victimizing events occurring in past years had more explanatory power of the current PTS symptoms than those that occurred more recently. In boys, the interpersonal victimizing events occurring in the last year had the greater explanatory power. These results may have clinical and therapeutic value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Current research knowledge about adolescent victimization via the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak, Janis; Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly; Finkelhor, David

    2007-08-01

    We review current knowledge about adolescent Internet-mediated victimization, including Internet-initiated sex crimes in which offenders use the Internet to meet victims, unwanted online sexual solicitations, Internet harassment, and unwanted and wanted exposure to online pornography. Internet-initiated sex crimes have received considerable publicity, but the media stories have contributed to stereotypes that do not accurately portray adolescent Internet experience. Adults' concerns are valid but need to be supported with information that illuminates the real safety issues and targets the specific population of youth impacted.

  14. Victims’ rights are human rights: The importance of recognizing victims as persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wemmers Jo-Anne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author argues that victims’ rights are human rights. Criminal law typically views victims as witnesses to a crime against the state, thus shutting them out of the criminal justice process and only allowing them in when they are needed to testify. This is a major source of dissatisfaction for victims who seek validation in the criminal justice system. Victims are persons with rights and privileges. Crimes constitute violations of their rights as well as acts against society or the state. While human rights instruments, such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, do not mention crime victims specifically, a number of rights are identified, which can be viewed from the victim’s perspective. As individuals with dignity, victims have the right to recognition as persons before the law. However, such rights are only meaningful if they can be enforced.

  15. [Determinants of information-seeking about crime and crime prevention: information-seeking on the Internet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takashi; Fuji, Kei; Yoshida, Fujio

    2013-06-01

    This study explores determinants of information-seeking about crime and crime prevention on the Internet, including how it was influenced by personal conversations with others. An analysis of a web survey of mothers (N = 1,040) of 3-12 years old children in Japan indicated that many mothers briefly saw basic information about crime on the Internet, while only a few mothers sought further details. Structural equation modeling indicated the following results. Overall, an increased frequency of conversations about children's safety with family and friends made mothers realize their own responsibility for crime prevention. It also encouraged mothers to seek more information about crime prevention by increasing their willingness to cooperate with neighbors. However, when individuals' realization of responsibility for crime prevention strengthened their attitudes toward the responsibility of the police and government for crime problems, then these attitudes decreased mothers' information-seeking. Finally, while a heightened frequency of conversations about news contents directly increased information-seeking about crime, such conversations could indirectly weaken mothers' information-seeking when mothers emphasized the responsibility of the police and government.

  16. Mortality, crime and access to basic needs before and after the Haiti earthquake: a random survey of Port-au-Prince households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe, Athena R; Hutson, Royce A; Shannon, Harry; Trzcinski, Eileen; Miles, Bart; Levitz, Naomi; Puccio, Marie; James, Leah; Noel, Jean Roger; Muggah, Robert

    2010-01-01

    On 12 January 2010 an earthquake measuring 7.0 on the Richter Scale struck Haiti, causing unprecedented death, injury and destruction for an event of this magnitude. Our aim was to generate a rapid assessment of the primary consequences for the population of the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince, the national capital. During the summer of 2009 we conducted a survey of 1,800 households in metropolitan Port-au-Prince. Six weeks after the earthquake, we attempted to trace these households in order to re-interview them. The questionnaire examined mortality and injuries generated by the natural disaster, as well as the character of victimization, food security and living arrangements following the quake. Data analysis incorporated sampling weights and adjusted for clustering within households. The original 2009 survey featured a 90 per cent response rate; in 2010 we re-interviewed 93 per cent of these households. We estimate that 158,679 people in Port-au-Prince (95 per cent CI 136,813-180,545) died during the quake or in the six-week period afterwards owing to injuries or illness. Children were at particular risk for death. In the six weeks after the earthquake, 10,813 people (95 per cent CI 6,726-14,900) were sexually assaulted, the vast majority of whom were female. In the same period 4,645 individuals (95 per cent CI 1,943-7,347) were physically assaulted. Of all households, 18.6 per cent (95 per cent CI 16.6-20.8) were experiencing severe food insecurity six weeks after the earthquake. 24.4 per cent (95 per cent CI 22.1-26.9) of respondents' homes were completely destroyed. Many residents of Port-au-Prince died during or as a result of the earthquake, albeit fewer than were widely reported. More than half of the capital's population experienced moderate to severe food insecurity, though remittances are a major protective factor in promoting food security. Survivors continue to experience high levels of sexual assault and limited access to durable shelter.

  17. Situational crime prevention and cross-border crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemans, Edward R.; Soudijn, Melvin R J; Weenink, Anton W.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the consequences of cross-border crime for situational crime prevention. Many types of organised crime involve international smuggling activities – such as drug trafficking, money laundering, smuggling illegal immigrants, and other transnational illegal activities. Based on

  18. Crime and Social Sanction

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Buonanno; Giacomo Pasini; Paolo Vanin

    2008-01-01

    Social sanctions may be a strong deterrent of crime. This paper presents a formal model that relates crime and social sanction to social interaction density. We empirically test the theoretical predictions using a provincial level panel dataset on di erent crimes in Italy between 1996 and 2003. We exploit detailed demographic and geo-morphological information to develop exogenous measures of social interaction density. We estimate a spatial panel model by means of a GMM procedure and we nd th...

  19. Crime and German Decadence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    In Crime Stories: Criminalistic Fantasy and the Culture of Crisis in Weimar Germany, Todd Herzog – explicitly or implicitly – deals with different established myths about crime fiction, criminality and its cultural presumptions. It is generally quite seldom – as Herzog does – that the three...... in general – both fact and fiction – and the cultural, philosophical and sociological components in the established presumptions of these stories, there seems to be a foundation of a general revision of the understanding and representation of crime and violence. Todd Herzog’s recent book Crime Stories...

  20. Cyberstalking victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilić Vida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Global social networks contributed to the creation of new, inconspicuous, technically perfect shape of criminality which is hard to suppress because of its intangible characteristics. The most common forms of virtual communications’ abuse are: cyberstalking and harassment, identity theft, online fraud, manipulation and misuse of personal information and personal photos, monitoring e-mail accounts and spamming, interception and recording of chat rooms. Cyberstalking is defined as persistent and targeted harassment of an individual by using electronic communication. The victim becomes insecure, frightened, intimidated and does not figure out the best reaction which will terminate the harassment. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance and necessity of studying cyberstalking and to point out its forms in order to find the best ways to prevent this negative social phenomenon. Basic topics that will be analyzed in this paper are the various definitions of cyberstalking, forms of cyberstalking, and the most important characteristics of victims and perpetators.

  1. Internet Governance amp Cyber Crimes In UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Al Neyadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most people in UAE dont feel safe while they are use the Internet because most internet users have been a victim for cyber crime. Cyber crime threat rate has increased which has targeted on citizen privacy property and governments also the reputation problems. There are many criminal activities such as indecent acts Copyright issues Terrorist Acts State security and Contempt of religion. Cyber crimes due to several reasons such as they have lack of social intelligence they are being greedy and not being content also some of them have financial troubles these reasons usually exploited by criminals. Thus the decree will be a punishment or criminalizes formally on any person who using any kind of information technology and any others private life to blackmail or to threaten others online. In addition at the present time with the most detailed new cybercrime law that can be used to prove found guilty. As well the author discusses that the new cyber-crime law provides protection of personal information including banking information credit cards and electronic payment information.

  2. Implicit Social Cognitive Processes Underlying Victim Self and Identity: Evidence With College-Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Nicole M; Veysey, Bonita M; Rivera, Luis M

    2017-11-01

    Past research on victimization has relied predominantly on individuals' awareness of and willingness to self-report a victimization experience and its effect on self and identity processes. The present research adopts theoretical and methodological innovations in implicit social cognition research to provide a new perspective on how a violent victimization experience might influence identity processes outside of conscious awareness. Our main goal was to test whether individuals who have victimization experience implicitly associate the self with victims (implicit victim identity) and their stereotypes (implicit victim self-stereotyping), and the relation of these associations to explicit victim identity and self-stereotyping. Two pretests with undergraduate student participants ( Ns = 122 and 72) identified victim-related word stimuli for two Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT) measures of implicit victim identity and self-stereotyping. In Pretest Study A, participants read crime vignettes and listed words that described a victim, then in Pretest Study B, participants rated these words on victim relatedness and valence. The Main Study recruited undergraduate student participants ( N = 101) who completed the SC-IATs, self-report measures of explicit victim identity and self-stereotyping, and victimization experiences. Three of our five hypotheses were supported. Individuals with past victimization experience exhibited strong explicit victim identity and self-stereotyping, but not implicit victim identity and self-stereotyping, relative to those with no victimization experience. Explicit and implicit victim identity and self-stereotyping were unrelated. Finally, among individuals with victimization experience, a strong implicit victim identity was associated with strong implicit victim self-stereotyping. This research has implications for understanding the processes underlying revictimization and for preventing further victimization.

  3. Latent classes of childhood poly-victimization and associations with suicidal behavior among adult trauma victims: Moderating role of anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charak, Ruby; Byllesby, Brianna M; Roley, Michelle E; Claycomb, Meredith A; Durham, Tory A; Ross, Jana; Armour, Cherie; Elhai, Jon D

    2016-12-01

    The aims of the present study were first to identify discrete patterns of childhood victimization experiences including crime, child maltreatment, peer/sibling victimization, sexual violence, and witnessing violence among adult trauma victims using latent class analysis; second, to examine the association between class-membership and suicidal behavior, and third to investigate the differential role of dispositional anger on the association between class-membership and suicidal behavior. We hypothesized that those classes with accumulating exposure to different types of childhood victimization (e.g., poly-victimization) would endorse higher suicidal behavior, than the other less severe classes, and those in the most severe class with higher anger trait would have stronger association with suicidal behavior. Respondents were 346 adults (N=346; Mage=35.0years; 55.9% female) who had experienced a lifetime traumatic event. Sixty four percent had experienced poly-victimization (four or more victimization experiences) and 38.8% met the cut-off score for suicidal behavior. Three distinct classes emerged namely, the Least victimization (Class 1), the Predominantly crime and sibling/peer victimization (Class 2), and the Poly-victimization (Class 3) classes. Regression analysis controlling for age and gender indicated that only the main effect of anger was significantly associated with suicidal behavior. The interaction term suggested that those in the Poly-victimization class were higher on suicidal behavior as a result of a stronger association between anger and suicidal behavior in contrast to the association found in Class 2. Clinical implications of findings entail imparting anger management skills to facilitate wellbeing among adult with childhood poly-victimization experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychosocial Motivations of Hate Crimes Perpetrators: Implications for Educational Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Karen

    This paper discusses three aspects of bias crimes against sexual minorities: (1) perpetration rates among young adults; (2) perpetrators' motivations; and (3) factors that prevent some people from committing hate crimes. In an anonymous survey of 484 students at 6 community colleges: one in 10 respondents admitted physical violence or threats…

  5. Study Sheds Light on Effects of Hate Crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Megan, N.; Harper, Shaun R.; Hildebrand, Emily S.; Burns, Shannon L.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of effects of hate crime on college campuses reports findings of a survey taken three months after a fatal hate crime. The study found that students in the targeted group, especially females and organizational leaders, had increased extracurricular involvement in campus organizations. Also provides statistics on racist acts on campus…

  6. Transnational organized crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spapens, A.C.M.; Wright, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Even in history, criminals crossed borders to commit crimes, traffic in illicit goods, and provide illegal services. More recently, however, opportunities for transnational (organized) crime have increased, in particular because of the growing level of mobility, the opening of borders and the advent

  7. Theorising Nigerian Crime Problems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aigbovo & Eidenoje

    1971-09-08

    Sep 8, 1971 ... this is the anomie theory propounded by Emile Durkheim, which states that crime is as a result of breakdown of social order due to loss of values. Expanding on this, Robert Merton22 traced crime to a lack of integration between what urban culture demands of individuals and what the existing social.

  8. Re-Victimization Patterns in a National Longitudinal Sample of Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To understand to the degree to which a broad variety of victimizations, including child maltreatment, conventional crime, peer, and sexual victimizations, persist for children from 1 year to the next. Design: A national sample of 1467 children aged 2-17 recruited through random digit dialing and assessed via telephone interviews (with…

  9. The Fear Factor: Exploring Predictors of Fear among Stalking Victims throughout the Stalking Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyns, Bradford W.; Englebrecht, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    The crime of stalking has received much research attention, yet there are still important questions to be explored surrounding this behavior. One such question relates to definitions of stalking, including the requirement that victims must express fear to qualify as victims of stalking. The current study addresses this issue by exploring the…

  10. Externalization and Victim-Blaming among a Sample of Incarcerated Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Arrick L.; Lucas, Schannae L.; Blackburn, Ashley G.

    2009-01-01

    The present study utilizes a pre- and post-test design to examine the effectiveness of an Impact of Crime on Victims Class (ICVC) on decreasing an offender's propensity to externalize responsibility for their behavior and its subsequent impact on an offender's level of victim- and society-blaming. The multiple analysis of covariance (MANCOVA)…

  11. Like two peas in a pod? Explaining friendship selection processes related to victimization and offending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rokven, Josja J.; Tolsma, Jochem; Ruiter, Stijn; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the similarity between friends with respect to experiences with crime among a sample of Dutch individuals. We investigate the extent to which offenders, victims and victim-offenders (de)select friends differently and, subsequently, who (de)selects whom and why. We use data

  12. Sensing the public's reaction to crime news using the 'Links Correspondence Method'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampoltshammer, Thomas J; Kounadi, Ourania; Sitko, Izabela; Hawelka, Bartosz

    2014-08-01

    Public media such as TV or newspapers, paired with crime statistics from the authority, raise awareness of crimes within society. However, in today's digital society, other sources rapidly gain importance as well. The Internet and social networks act heavily as information distribution platforms. Therefore, this paper aims at exploring the influence of the social Web service Twitter as an information distribution platform for crime news. In order to detect messages with crime-related contents, the Links Correspondence Method (LCM) is introduced, which gathers and investigates Twitter messages related to crime articles via associated Web links. Detected crime tweets are analysed in regard to the distance between the location of an incident and the location of associated tweets, as well as regards demographic aspects of the corresponding crime news. The results show that there exists a spatial dependency regarding the activity space of a user (and the crime-related tweets of this user) and the actual location of the crime incident. Furthermore, the demographic analysis indicates that the type of a crime as well as the gender of the victim has great influence on whether the crime incident is spread via Twitter or not.

  13. Journey "during" crime: predicting criminal mobility patterns in sexual assaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, Eric; Busina, Irina

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether there is a relationship between situational and modus operandi characteristics and criminal mobility during the sexual assault event. Data collected from both police files and semistructured interviews with 72 serial sex offenders who have committed 361 sexual assaults have been used. Negative binomial regression was used to identify the relationships between the situational and modus operandi characteristics and the criminal mobility exhibited during the sexual assault. Events that involved child or adolescent victims, those where the offender did not use pornography prior to crime, and those where victim resistance was observed exhibited more criminal mobility. Moreover, crimes in which the victim was selected, the victim was alone when approached by the offender, and the assault was characterized by sexual penetration and a lack of premeditation exhibited more criminal mobility. Results seem to suggest that criminal mobility is a goal-oriented action taken by serial sex offenders to successfully complete their crime and to avoid detection and apprehension.

  14. Possibilities for improvement of the position of victims of trafficking in people within criminal procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škulić Milan Z.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper main possibilities for improvement of the position of victims of trafficking in people within criminal procedure are discussed. The special focus of the analysis is on the issues regarding theoretical base for improvement of the position of victim in criminal procedure. Also, the analysis of international documents related to the protection of victims within criminal procedure, review of laws which allow for organized crime to be proved easier and of legal possibilities (within Yugoslav and comparative law for prevention of secondary victimization, i.e. for protection of victims, is done.

  15. Psychological characteristics of victims of trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larin A.N.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main causes of falling into slavery, forms of slave labour, as well as moral-psychological properties and characteristics of potential victims of trafficking. Noted risk factors leading to victimization of the person and increase the possibility of becoming an object for criminal groups specializing in this kind of crime. The number of victims of international trafficking ranges from 600 to 800 thousand people a year, and when you consider human trafficking within the individual countries, the total number of victims ranges from 2 to 4 million people. 80% of trafficked people are women and children, of which 70% are sold to other countries for sexual exploitation. According to the International organization for migration (International Organization of Migration annually only in the European markets of prostitution sold is not less than 500 thousand women. Among the personal factors that affect the increase in the number of such crimes, it is necessary to indicate family trouble, which manifests itself, primarily, to neglect, loss of relationships with family and parents, or in the absence of moral and material support from existing family and friends.

  16. Preventing Hate Crime and Profiling Hate Crime Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James F.; Dyson, Laronistine; Brooks, Willie, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Despite the Hate Crime Statistics Act, signed into law in 1990 to make hate crimes a federal offense, these types of crimes appear to be continuing in the new millennium. Provides hate crime statistics for 1996-98, presents theories on the cause and spread of hate, asserts that a general profile of those with a propensity to act on hate can be…

  17. Hate Crime: The Rise of Hate Crime on School Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodinger-deUriarte, Cristina

    1991-01-01

    The varying definitions, the primary characteristics, and the causes of hate crimes are reviewed. In addition, misconceptions about what constitutes a hate crime are discussed, as are the increasing upward trends in various form of hate crime. The important role schools can play in alleviating the hate crime phenomenon is the focus of the…

  18. Crime and Crime Management in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebanjo, Margaret Adewunmi

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines crime and its management in Nigerian tertiary institutions. Tertiary institutions today have become arenas for crime activities such as rape, cultism, murder, theft, internet fraud, drug abuse, and examination malpractices. This paper delves into what crime is, and its causes; and the positions of the law on crime management.…

  19. Prevalence and Correlates of Sibling Victimization Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne M.; Turner, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to document the prevalence and correlates of any past year sibling victimization, including physical, property, and psychological victimization, by a co-residing juvenile sibling across the spectrum of childhood from one month to 17 years of age. Methods: The National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence…

  20. Restorative justice for sexual violence: repairing victims, building community, and holding offenders accountable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Mary P; Bachar, Karen J; Hopkins, C Quince

    2003-06-01

    Problems in criminal justice system response to date and acquaintance rape, and the nonpenetration sexual offenses are identified: (1) these crimes are often markers of a career of sexual offense, yet they are widely viewed as minor; (2) perpetrators of these crimes are now held accountable in ways that reduce their future threat of sex offending; and (3) current criminal justice response to these crimes disappoints and traumatizes victims and families. In response to these identified problems, we are implementing and evaluating RESTORE, an innovative victim-driven, community-based restorative justice program. Restorative justice views crime as harm for which the person responsible must be held accountable in meaningful ways. RESTORE uses a community conference to involve the victim, offender, and both parties' family and friends in a face-to-face dialogue directed at identifying the harm, and developing a plan for repair, rehabilitation, and reintegration into the community.

  1. Are students with asthma at increased risk for being a victim of bullying in school or cyberspace? Findings from the 2011 Florida youth risk behavior survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Young, Linda; Martinasek, Mary P; Clutter, Michiko; Forrest, Jamie

    2014-07-01

    Adolescents with asthma are at risk for psychological and behavioral problems. The aim of this study was to determine whether high school students with asthma are at increased risk for bullying in school and cyberspace, and to explore the role of depressive symptoms in moderating this association. A secondary data analysis was completed with the 2011 Florida Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Participant included a random sample of adolescents in grades 9 through 12 who attended public high schools in Florida. Descriptive and inferential statistics were conducted using SPSS software. We examined data from 6212 high school adolescents and found a significant relationship between current asthma and cyberbullying in adolescents. Of the sample diagnosed with asthma, 15.6% reported bullying and 17% cyberbullying (versus 10.2% and 11% of nonasthmatics). We further examined data using depressive symptoms as a mediating and moderating variable and found significance on all accounts. Adolescents with asthma are at increased risk for being victims of bullying in school and cyberspace. Our findings suggest that adolescents with asthma who also report depressive symptoms are particularly at high risk for bullying than adolescents with asthma who did not report depressive symptoms. Efforts to increase education and decrease all types of bullying at the high school level for both students with and without asthma are warranted. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  2. Childhood victimization experiences of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogolyubova, Olga; Skochilov, Roman; Smykalo, Lyubov

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of childhood victimization experiences in a sample of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia. The study sample included 743 students aged 19 to 25 from 15 universities in St. Petersburg, Russia. All of the study participants completed a reliable questionnaire assessing the following types of childhood victimization: conventional crime, child maltreatment, peer victimization, sexual victimization, and witnessing violence. Participation in the study was anonymous. High rates of victimization and exposure to violence were reported by the study participants. The majority of the sample experienced at least one type of victimization during childhood or adolescence, and poly-victimization was reported frequently. The most common type of victimization reported was peer or sibling assault (66.94%), followed by witnessing an assault without weapon (63.91%), personal theft (56.19%), vandalism (56.06%), and emotional bullying (49.99%). Sexual assault by a known adult was reported by 1.45% males and 5.16% of females. This study provides new information on the scope of childhood victimization experiences in Russia. Further research is warranted, including epidemiological research with representative data across the country and studies of the impact of trauma and victimization on mental health and well-being of Russian adults and children. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Network exposure and homicide victimization in an African American community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristos, Andrew V; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    We estimated the association of an individual's exposure to homicide in a social network and the risk of individual homicide victimization across a high-crime African American community. Combining 5 years of homicide and police records, we analyzed a network of 3718 high-risk individuals that was created by instances of co-offending. We used logistic regression to model the odds of being a gunshot homicide victim by individual characteristics, network position, and indirect exposure to homicide. Forty-one percent of all gun homicides occurred within a network component containing less than 4% of the neighborhood's population. Network-level indicators reduced the association between individual risk factors and homicide victimization and improved the overall prediction of individual victimization. Network exposure to homicide was strongly associated with victimization: the closer one is to a homicide victim, the greater the risk of victimization. Regression models show that exposure diminished with social distance: each social tie removed from a homicide victim decreased one's odds of being a homicide victim by 57%. Risk of homicide in urban areas is even more highly concentrated than previously thought. We found that most of the risk of gun violence was concentrated in networks of identifiable individuals. Understanding these networks may improve prediction of individual homicide victimization within disadvantaged communities.

  4. Expressed Sexual Assault Legal Context and Victim Culpability Attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Audrey K.; Markman, Keith D.; Amacker, Amanda M.; Menaker, Tasha A.

    2012-01-01

    Legal scholars have argued that laws have an "expressive function", specifically that sexual assault laws may convey social-level messages that victims are culpable for crimes against them. In a university sample, we conducted the first experimental test of legal scholars' proposal, hypothesizing that legal messages--specifically their…

  5. A Historical Perspective on Crime in Twentieth-Century Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Piccato, Pablo

    2003-01-01

    This paper is an overview of perceptions of crime in Mexico City during the twentieth century. After a brief review of quantitative evidence and the main sources on crime, the paper surveys police and judicial corruption as the common denominator of public perceptions of crime, punishment, and the judiciary. The paper then discusses gender violence and juvenile delinquency as two criminal practices that have characterized the impact of crime in everyday life. Based on a review of evidence abo...

  6. Should Hate Be a Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, James B.

    1993-01-01

    Explores issues surrounding hate crime legislation and prosecution, with emphasis on motivation and first amendment issues. Hate crime legislation attempts to import the civil rights model into criminal law, but the very existence of the hate crime label raises social and political stakes in intergroup crimes. (SLD)

  7. The crime kuznets curve

    OpenAIRE

    Buonanno, Paolo; Fergusson, Leopoldo; Vargas, Juan Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We document the existence of a Crime Kuznets Curve in US states since the 1970s. As income levels have risen, crime has followed an inverted U-shaped pattern, first increasing and then dropping. The Crime Kuznets Curve is not explained by income inequality. In fact, we show that during the sample period inequality has risen monotonically with income, ruling out the traditional Kuznets Curve. Our finding is robust to adding a large set of controls that are used in the literature to explain the...

  8. Who cares if it is a hate crime? Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender hate crimes--mental health implications and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Laura C; Scharer, Kathleen M

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this paper was to discuss lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender-targeted hate crimes and their mental health consequences for the victim and community. Hate crimes are typically more violent than nonhate-motivated crimes and have more deleterious mental health consequences. Thorough assessment coupled with an understanding of the social milieu and the meaning of the experience to the survivor can help the psychiatric nurse partner with the client to select the most appropriate treatment. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Outside looking in: the community impacts of anti-lesbian, gay, and bisexual hate crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James G; Perry, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Hate crime scholars have long argued that the harms of hate crime extend beyond the immediate victim to negatively impact the victim's reference community. However, this assertion is speculative and in need of empirical support. Utilizing focus group data from 15 people who identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or pansexual, this pilot study explored the extent to which the harms of anti-LGB hate crime spread beyond the immediate victim to impact nonvictims in the LGB community. The findings suggest that anti-LGB hate violence can have profound and negative effects on the psychological and emotional well-being of nonvictims who are LGB and may result in dramatic behavioral change as well. The findings also indicate that hate violence negatively affected participants' decisions to disclose their sexual orientation to others. On a more positive note, however, awareness of such violence may also mobilize some people within the LGB community.

  10. Disclosure of past crimes: an analysis of mental health professionals' attitudes towards breaching confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangmo, Tenzin; Handtke, Violet; Elger, Bernice Simone

    2014-09-01

    Ensuring confidentiality is the cornerstone of trust within the doctor-patient relationship. However, health care providers have an obligation to serve not only their patient's interests but also those of potential victims and society, resulting in circumstances where confidentiality must be breached. This article describes the attitudes of mental health professionals (MHPs) when patients disclose past crimes unknown to the justice system. Twenty-four MHPs working in Swiss prisons were interviewed. They shared their experiences concerning confidentiality practices and attitudes towards breaching confidentiality in prison. Qualitative analysis revealed that MHPs study different factors before deciding whether a past crime should be disclosed, including: (1) the type of therapy the prisoner-patient was seeking (i.e., whether it was court-ordered or voluntary), (2) the type of crime that is revealed (e.g., a serious crime, a crime of a similar nature to the original crime, or a minor crime), and (3) the danger posed by the prisoner-patient. Based on this study's findings, risk assessment of dangerousness was one of the most important factors determining disclosures of past crimes, taking into consideration both the type of therapy and the crime involved. Attitudes of MHPs varied with regard to confidentiality rules and when to breach confidentiality, and there was thus a lack of consensus as to when and whether past crimes should be reported. Hence, legal and ethical requirements concerning confidentiality breaches must be made clear and known to physicians in order to guide them with difficult cases.

  11. Hate crime legislation reconsidered

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bill Dixon; David Gadd

    2012-01-01

    ....8 Finally they reserve judgement on how best to achieve the objective of punishing hate crimes more severely either by creating new substantive offences or providing for evidence of the presence...

  12. Psychopathy, Sociopathy, and Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykken, David T.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses psychopathology as portrayed in literature, followed by an examination of some theories of psychopathy and the association of sociopathy and crime. Also discusses using parental licensing as a preventive measure against the development of sociopathology in children. (GR)

  13. The SAPS crime statistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    under record violent crime, particularly the various forms of assault.6 In effect this has rendered the SAPS ..... against children has been provided in the successive .... Prevention and Security (JCPS) cluster media briefing,. 25 June 2012.

  14. Failure to report a crime and its problems in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besiana Muka (Petanaja

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Crime being a social and economic phenomenon constitutes a serious threat to democratic values, not just one country or region, but beyond. Its prevention and detection constitutes the most important challenge dealing with the criminal investigation organs, where the underlying investigative process at any time should remain the utmost respect for human rights, particularly care to crime victims. The process of crime prevention should be more efficient, first there must be a spirit of close cooperation between police officers, prosecution authorities and community in order to guarantee the rule of security for citizens. This is due to the fact that all citizens are concerned about the safety of their family and the environment where they live. Through their individual skills they react to the actions and behaviors that affect the interests, values and legal norms prescribed (Nasufi & Yzeiri, 2004, 162. Besides civic reaction, criminal legislation provides for the rights and duties to citizens to denounce criminal acts. Under the criminal code, every citizen is obliged to speak of a crime that is being committed or has been committed, the bodies of prosecution, court, law enforcement bodies, government or administration, otherwise the risk is connected with a sanction of a fine or imprisonment up to three years. 1 To better understand the problems of non testifying crime and discrepancy it is important to analyze the criminal Offense of non testifying crime and Characteristics of the Offense under the Albanian criminal code.

  15. Lifetime Prevalence and Characteristics of Child Sexual Victimization in a Community Sample of Spanish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Noemí; Abad, Judit; Guilera, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence and characteristics of self-reported child sexual victimization and associations between sexual victimization and sociodemographic characteristics and victimological profiles in community adolescents in Spain. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (Finkelhor, Hamby, Ormrod, & Turner, 2005) was applied to a sample of 1,105 community adolescents (M = 14.52 years, SD = 1.76). Experience of sexual victimization (with or without physical contact) was reported by 8.8% of the sample, at a mean age of 13 years old. Sexual victimization was more prevalent in girls (14.2%) and in older adolescents (10.6%). Offenders were mainly male (87.6%) and were mostly friends, neighbors, or schoolmates (52.6%). No injuries resulted from victimization (4.3%), although the percentage of penetration or attempted penetration was very high (30.6%). Only 9.3% of victims reported the incident to the police or the justice system. In regard to victimological profiles, sexual victims also experienced other forms of victimization (M = 7.16; SD = 3.39): boys reported more conventional crimes, peer and sibling victimization, and witnessing community violence than other victims, whereas sexually victimized girls reported more caregiver victimization and property crimes. Sexually victimized youth present a distinctive sociodemographic and victimological profile. Professionals need to be aware of these characteristics in order to conduct adequate prevention programs. We also need to assess a wide range of victimization experiences when treating sexual abuse victims in order to make adolescents less vulnerable to violence.

  16. A Training Tool for Internet Crimes Against Children Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Sudhir; Breeden, Bob; Henry, Peter; Mulholland, Judie

    The Internet has greatly increased the vulnerability of children to those who would commit crimes against them. In response to Internet Crimes Against Children (ICAC) legislation, law enforcement agencies have dedicated resources to educate the public of the threat, respond to ongoing attacks, and assist victims. A significant trend in the investigation of ICAC cases is the proactive masquerading of law enforcement agents as vulnerable prey in Internet forums. This approach has shown great promise, and agents who have mastered it possess valuable knowledge and skills that could assist others. The Predator and Prey Alert (PAPA) system, a hardware and software suite of tools, originally developed for proactive shadowing, assistance and direct manipulation of a cyberstalking victim's computer, shows potential as a proactive forensic tool for ICAC investigations. This paper discusses the use of PAPA as a networked application to train law enforcement agents to investigate online cases involving the exploitation of children and teenagers.

  17. Un periodico come strumento per il giusto riconoscimento e la necessaria visibilità alle vittime / Un périodique comme instrument de reconnaissance due et de visibilité nécessaire aux victimes / A periodical as an instrument for the right recognition and the appropriate visibility to crime victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sette Raffaella

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article retraces the history of Criminology, Victimology and Security Journal (Rivista di Criminologia, Vittimologia e Sicurezza, making an overview of the topics addressed in the publications.The author considers that this periodical could represent a piece of the big mosaic of the diffusion of the criminological culture where criminologists, victimologists, forensic doctors, psychiatrists, jurists, actors of the social control system, but also sociologists, psychologists, pedagogists and security experts find a space in order to think critically about crime and its various aspects taking different perspectives into consideration. It is clear that the only aim is to promote the development of this discipline.L’article retrace l’histoire de la Revue de Criminologie, Victimologie et Sécurité (Rivista di Criminologia, Vittimologia e Sicurezza, par un regard panoramique sur les sujets abordés dans les publications. L’auteur estime que cette revue peut représenter une tesselle de la grande mosaïque de la diffusion de la culture criminologique où des criminologues, des victimologues, des médecins légistes, des psychiatres, des juristes, des acteurs du système du contrôle social, mais aussi des sociologues, des psychologues, des pédagogues et des professionnels de la sécurité, trouvent un espace pour réfléchir de façon critique sur le phénomène criminel et ses diverses composantes en prenant en compte différentes perspectives, dans le seul but de promouvoir le développement de cette discipline.

  18. Is Spousal Violence Being "Vertically Transmitted" through Victims? Findings from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2012-13: e0129790

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syeda Kanwal Aslam; Sidra Zaheer; Kashif Shafique

    2015-01-01

      Introduction Violence against women is regarded as a major violation of human rights, and several socio-behavioral aspects among victims have been identified as important determinants of spousal violence experience...

  19. Relationships between suspects and victims of sex trafficking. Exploitation of prostitutes and domestic violence parallels in Dutch trafficking cases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, M.; van Gestel, B.; de Jong, D.; Kleemans, E.R.

    2014-01-01

    This article centres on the hypothesis that human trafficking for sexual exploitation is not only an organised crime activity, but a crime of relational nature as well. Therefore this study explores the relationships that exist between suspects and victims of sex trafficking, and examines to what

  20. Gender Differences in Stressful Life Events, Social Support, Perceived Stress, and Alcohol Use Among Older Adults: Results From a National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sacco, Paul; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Harrington, Donna

    2013-01-01

    Stressful life events, perceived stress, and social support relationships with consumption, at-risk drinking, and alcohol use disorder (AUD) were studied in a population-based sample of current drinkers age 60+ in the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (Wave 2; 2004–2005; n = 4,360). Stressful life events were associated with AUD among men and women, and crime victimization among men only. However, greater perceived stress was associated with lower consumption amo...

  1. Child rape: facets of a heinous crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangrade, K D; Sooryamoorthy, R; Renjini, D

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the extent of child rape in India, case studies of girl children in legal procedures, rape settings and perpetrators, public morality, and the nature of rape laws in India. It is concluded that there is no safe place for children. Currently, rapists are allowed to go free or are acquitted. Prevention and control of child rape must involve punishment of rapists. It is not appropriate that society ostracize the victim and her family. Victims should not remain silent. National Crime Records Bureau statistics reveal increases in rape during 1986-91. State figures are given for 1986-88. Madhya Pradesh had the highest reported incidence of rape in 1988. In 1993, Madhya Pradesh had a total of 2459 rapes. Nationally, 10,425 women were reported as raped in 1991. 51.7% were 16-30 years old. There were 1099 cases of pedophilia in 1991, which was an increase over 1990. Over 50% of the pedophilia cases were reported in Uttar Pradesh. The record of convictions shows very low figures. 1992 trial results of 276 rape cases indicated that only 46 persons were convicted. Victims suffer from psychological effects of embarrassment, disgust, depression, guilt, and even suicidal tendencies. There is police and prosecution indifference as well as social stigma and social ostracism of the victim and her family. Many cases go unreported. The case studies illustrate the difficulties for the victim of experiencing the rape and the social responses: police harassment, shame and fear, and occasionally public outrage. The case studies illustrate rape in familiar settings, such as schools, family homes, and neighbors and friends' homes; rape by policemen; and rape by political influentials. Most offenders are young, married, and socioeconomically poor. Mass media portrayals fuel the frustrations of poor and lonely men in cities. Rapists exhibit anti-social behavior or psychopathology. Sexual offenses are related to society's moral values.

  2. Criminal victimisation in people with severe mental illness: a multi-site prevalence and incidence survey in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid M Kamperman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although crime victimisation is as prevalent in psychiatric patients as crime perpetration (and possibly more so, few European figures for it are available. We therefore assessed its one-year prevalence and incident rates in Dutch severely mentally ill outpatients, and compared the results with victimisation rates in the general population. METHOD: This multisite epidemiological survey included a random sample of 956 adult severely mentally ill outpatients. Data on victimisation were obtained using the victimisation scale of the Dutch Crime and Victimisation Survey, which assesses crime victimisation over the preceding 12 months. Comparison data were derived from the nationwide survey on safety and victimisation in the Netherlands. Prevalence and incident rates were weighted for sex, age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status, and compared with a general population sample matched by region (N = 38,227. RESULTS: In the past year, almost half of the severely mentally ill outpatients (47% had been victim of a crime. After control for demographic differences, prevalence rates of overall and specific victimisation measures were significantly higher in severely mentally ill outpatients than in the general population. The relative rates were especially high for personal crimes such as violent threats (RR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.72-2.61, physical assaults (RR = 4.85, 95% CI: 3.69-6.39 and sexual harassment and assaults (RR = 3.94, 95% CI: 3.05-5.09. In concordance, severely mentally ill outpatients reported almost 14 times more personal crime incidents than persons from the general population (IRR = 13.68, 95% CI: 12.85-14.56. CONCLUSION: Crime victimisation is a serious problem in Dutch severely mentally ill outpatients. Mental-healthcare institutions and clinicians should become aware of their patients' victimisation risk, and should implement structural measures to detect and prevent (re-victimisation.

  3. Criminal victimisation in people with severe mental illness: a multi-site prevalence and incidence survey in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamperman, Astrid M; Henrichs, Jens; Bogaerts, Stefan; Lesaffre, Emmanuel M E H; Wierdsma, André I; Ghauharali, Razia R R; Swildens, Wilma; Nijssen, Yolanda; van der Gaag, Mark; Theunissen, Jan R; Delespaul, Philippe A; van Weeghel, Jaap; van Busschbach, Jooske T; Kroon, Hans; Teplin, Linda A; van de Mheen, Dike; Mulder, Cornelis L

    2014-01-01

    Although crime victimisation is as prevalent in psychiatric patients as crime perpetration (and possibly more so), few European figures for it are available. We therefore assessed its one-year prevalence and incident rates in Dutch severely mentally ill outpatients, and compared the results with victimisation rates in the general population. This multisite epidemiological survey included a random sample of 956 adult severely mentally ill outpatients. Data on victimisation were obtained using the victimisation scale of the Dutch Crime and Victimisation Survey, which assesses crime victimisation over the preceding 12 months. Comparison data were derived from the nationwide survey on safety and victimisation in the Netherlands. Prevalence and incident rates were weighted for sex, age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status, and compared with a general population sample matched by region (N = 38,227). In the past year, almost half of the severely mentally ill outpatients (47%) had been victim of a crime. After control for demographic differences, prevalence rates of overall and specific victimisation measures were significantly higher in severely mentally ill outpatients than in the general population. The relative rates were especially high for personal crimes such as violent threats (RR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.72-2.61), physical assaults (RR = 4.85, 95% CI: 3.69-6.39) and sexual harassment and assaults (RR = 3.94, 95% CI: 3.05-5.09). In concordance, severely mentally ill outpatients reported almost 14 times more personal crime incidents than persons from the general population (IRR = 13.68, 95% CI: 12.85-14.56). Crime victimisation is a serious problem in Dutch severely mentally ill outpatients. Mental-healthcare institutions and clinicians should become aware of their patients' victimisation risk, and should implement structural measures to detect and prevent (re-)victimisation.

  4. The anatomy of the crime scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    this reconstructed place the story itself is also reconstructed: the crime is being solved, the murderer revealed.                       An important element in this narrative and performative practise is the use of simulation as a storytelling device. Simulation is a well-known method in investigation of crime...... series Unit One (Rejseholdet). Using simulation as a narrative and peformative practise implies that the investigators play the roles of potential murderers, helpers, victims, witnesses in order to reconstruct the chain of events (the crime) in time and space.                       This paper analyses...

  5. Álcool, drogas e crime Alcohol, drugs and crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Chalub

    2006-10-01

    subject, using Medline and Lilacs as data bases, covering the period of 1986 the 2006. The keywords used had been: "Alcoholism", "drug dependence", "drug abuses" and "crime". Summaries of congresses, articles and excellent books on the subject, published for different authorities in the subject, in diverse phases of research, had been consulted and enclosed. CONCLUSION: The diverse research coincide in the affirmation of an association between psychoactive substances use disorders and crime. What it is possible to evidence is the high ratio of violent acts when the alcohol or the illicit drugs is used by aggressors, its victims or in both. When it carries through an expert examination in authors who allege some relation of the practiced act with alcohol consumption/drugs, this exam must take in consideration the substance in use, the clinical symptom for caused it, as well as verifying the presence of a diagnosis, the existence of causal nexus and possible alterations in the understanding capacity and/or determination of the agent.

  6. Approaches to Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2010-01-01

    The working paper discusses some of the major approaches to Scandinavian crime fiction in the light of the dominant features of crime culture, e.g. the broad exposure of crime fiction via different platforms and media. In this connection, the concept of mediatization is considered as well...... as the approach of genre typology and the concept of evil – seemingly disparate concepts and approaches, but all related to the complex processes in the borderlands between crime fiction and society. Using examples from Scandinavian crime fiction, I discuss whether the growing proximity to international genres......, ways of production and standards increasingly removes Scandinavian crime fiction from its original attractions or not....

  7. Income inequality and fear of crime across the European region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauclair, Christin-Melanie; Bratanova, Boyka

    2017-03-01

    This paper aims to take a holistic approach to studying fear of crime by testing predictors at multiple levels of analyses. Data from the European Social Survey ( N = 56,752 from 29 countries) were used to test and extend the Income Inequality and Sense of Vulnerability Hypotheses. The findings confirm that (1) individuals in societies with greater income inequalities are more fearful of crime, and (2) older or disabled people as well as women report greater fear of crime. Contrary to the hypotheses, ethnic majority and not ethnic minority members report greater fear of crime, if they reside in high income inequality countries. It is further demonstrated that fear of crime explains the inverse association between income inequality and subjective well-being in this particular subsample.

  8. The impact of parental attachment and feelings of isolation on adolescent fear of crime at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lisa Hutchinson; May, David C

    2005-01-01

    While scores of researchers have examined the antecedents of fear of criminal victimization among adults, research examining the correlates of such fear among adolescents, particularly in the school setting, is limited. Using data from 2136 public school students from a rural Southern state, we examine the association between fear of criminal victimization and race, gender, age, attachment to parents, feelings of isolation, and victimization. We determine that adolescents who have been victimized by crime are far more fearful than their counterparts who have not. Additionally, we determine that youth who have lower levels of attachment to parents and higher levels of isolation/alienation are also more fearful of criminal victimization than their counterparts. Interestingly, the impact of isolation on fear of criminal victimization is stronger for whites than nonwhites while the impact of parental attachment is stronger for males than females. Implications for policy and future research are also discussed.

  9. Comparison of Hate Crime Rates Across Protected and Unprotected Groups – An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Stotzer, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    New research based on FBI data show that gay men face higher rates of hate-motivated physical violence than lesbians, bisexuals or other federally protected groups with high rates of hate crimes. This revelation is especially troubling given prior research has shown that sexual orientation-motivated hate crimes tend to be more violent. Among the research findings, 26 in 100,000 gay men reported being victims of hate-motivated crimes against persons, compared to 10 in 100,000 lesbians...

  10. CSI Effect of Crime Clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Yakupoğlu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research is aimed to evaluate the impact of CSI series on Criminal Justice Professional’s attitudes and behaviour and how these programs effecting public. From this point of view criminal justice professionals are expected to respond questions about, how this kind of dramas and programs guided potential criminals, reflected the practice of forensic science and directed the public expectation regarding performing their professions. Material and Methods: A survey has been conducted to 266 participants, who are working as crime scene investigation specialists, criminal courts judges, public prosecutors, lawyers, law enforcement personnel and forensic specialists, to reveal their perceptions. Gained data has been analyzed statistically by using SPSS (Version 20.0. Findings: According to some results of the research; 1 out of every 2 participants are following CSI series. only 3 out of every 10 participants expressed that these kind of series have positive effects on their professional practices, more than half of the participants agreed that crime dramas are effecting criminal behaviour and creating trained perpetrators. Also 1 out of every 2 participants believe that the perpetrators are attentive to leave fewer evidence because of these programs. Results: CSI series are not reflecting forensic techniques and methods as what it’s supposed to be in real life. Due to the raise of public interest in forensic sciences because of these dramas people changed their expectation about criminal justice mechanism which can be cause misperceptions on citizens who face with investigation and prosecution processes for the first time Keywords: CSI Effect; Crime Scene Investigation; Forensic Techniques and Methods

  11. Gender Victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Oluwole Ayodele

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Badagry is the first community to receive the Christian religion in Nigeria. For this, every good reason exists to suppose that its coming into early contact with the missionaries should have caused the Ogu people to acquire a healthier understanding of fair play in the context of widowhood practices. Regrettably, they seem to respond more slowly to change in their attitudes to widows. Thus, despite the overwhelming presence of Christian relics in the ancient town of Badagry, traditional customs such as wife inheritance and widowhood rites have continued to appear significantly associated with violence against which women are not well-protected. “Gender Victimization: A Study of Widowhood Practices” among Ogu People of Lagos is the focus of this study. Quantitative and qualitative methods were adopted for the study. Thus, five in-depth interviews and three focus group discussion instruments were used to collect primary data, which were used to complement quantitative data. Although quantitative data were subjected to univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses, qualitative data were cleaned, reorganized into themes and analyzed. The study found that much as the Ogu people of Lagos acknowledge the position of the scriptures on society’s non-criminal relation with widows, they still believe that their culture comfortably drives the greater proportion of their widow-friendly interactions. This study suggests that the adoption of cultural best practices in handling women and their peculiar issues will tone down violence in customary widowhood practices and enable women who lost their husbands in circumstances beyond their controls access community-based support.

  12. Cyber-crime Science = Crime Science + Information Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Junger, Marianne; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2010-01-01

    Cyber-crime Science is an emerging area of study aiming to prevent cyber-crime by combining security protection techniques from Information Security with empirical research methods used in Crime Science. Information security research has developed techniques for protecting the confidentiality,

  13. Planning against crime: preventing crime with people not barriers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, K

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In SA Crime Quarterly No 8 2004, the argument was made for better use of bylaws by city governments in an effort to prevent crime. Another equally effective tool available to municipalities lies in the area of urban planning. Crime is closely tied...

  14. Visualising Property Crime in Gauteng: Applying GIS to crime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study explores the relationship between one of the most frequently reported property crimes (thefts out of motor vehicles) and the environment in which they occur, using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Utilising the framework of crime pattern theory, crime generators and attractors are visually examined ...

  15. Youht Crime and Its Relations With Schools

    OpenAIRE

    IŞIK, Halil

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to make a conceptual analysis relation with youth crime, crime - school relations. Under this general purpose, following topics will be presented; (a) theories about youth crime, (b) risk factors for youth crime, school crime relations, and (d) solutions for youth crime. To analyze the issue of youth crime, there are two basic theories. These theories are general strain theory and escape theory. Possible risk factorsmotivating youth crime are related to peer group...

  16. Crime prevention and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Lone

    Transnationally, nations are experiencing a growing fear of terrorism and extremism, which has led to discussion on how we can prevent children and young people from sympathizing with such attitudes and movements. A central part in these discussions is how education and schooling can be part...... on inclusive education and prevention of school drop outs. By examining the school through the lens of crime prevention and anti-radicalization my paper perceive the school as a management technology that is based on assumptions about the person who is the subject of control - here the crime-prone youth...... seminars, introductionary SSP courses whenever possible and have collected different forms of written information. Expected Outcomes This paper is a contribution to an understanding of the school, and education and pedagogy in general, as actors in crime preventive social work for young people who have...

  17. Using data to make a difference: Understanding crime through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Victimisation surveys have the potential to deepen our understanding of crime in South Africa. Using the example of a survey conducted in Galeshewe, this article considers the challenges facing analysts in analysing victimisation surveys and suggests ways to increase the information that can be mined from local and ...

  18. Measuring Attitudes About Hate: Development of the Hate Crime Beliefs Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeldue, Mollimichelle K; Cramer, Robert J; Kehn, Andre; Crosby, James W; Anastasi, Jeffrey S

    2016-03-06

    Employing the federal Hate Crimes Prevention Act (HCPA) of 2009 and other such legislation as a backdrop, the present study evaluated the nature of beliefs about hate-crime legislation, offenders, and victims. In addition, it investigated construct validity (i.e., political beliefs and prejudice) and predictive validity (i.e., blame attribution and sentencing recommendations). A total of 403 U.S. adults completed measures of prejudice and an initial pool of 50 items forming the proposed Hate Crime Beliefs Scale (HCBS). Participants were randomly assigned to read one of four hate-crime vignettes, which varied in regard to type of prejudice (racial-, sexual orientation-, transgender-, and religion-based prejudices) and then responded to blame and sentencing questions. Factor analyses of the HCBS resulted in four sub-scales: Negative Views (i.e., higher scores reflect negative views of legislation and minority group protection), Offender Punishment (i.e., higher scores suggest endorsement of greater punishment), Deterrence (i.e., greater scores denote support for hate-crime legislation as a deterrent of more violence), and Victim Harm (i.e., higher scores reflect pro-victim attitudes). Greater pro-legislation and pro-victim beliefs were related to liberal political beliefs and less prejudicial attitudes, with some exceptions. Controlling for a number of demographic, situational, and attitudinal covariates, the Negative Views sub-scale displayed predictive utility, such that more negative views of legislation/minority group protection were associated with elevated victim blame, as well as lower perpetrator blame and sentencing recommendations. Results are discussed in the context of hate-crime research and policy, with additional implications considered for trial strategy, modern prejudice, and blame attribution theory. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Sex-role identification and violent victimization: gender differences in the role of masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Leah E; Mummert, Sadie J

    2014-01-01

    Although sex-role identification has been found to be associated with crime and delinquency, the link between sex-role identification and violent victimization has remained largely unexplored. Using the Add Health data, this study examines sex-role identification and its relationship to violent victimization. The findings suggest that masculinity increases the risk of violent victimization for males, but does not for females. Other differences in risk factors across gender were also found. These findings indicate that masculinity is an important construct in understanding the complexity of why some persons are violently victimized and others are not.

  20. Economical Crime Control

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Philip J.; Jens Ludwig

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the introductory chapter for the forthcoming NBER volume Controlling Crime: Strategies and Tradeoffs. The Great Recession has led to cuts in criminal justice expenditures, and the trend towards ever-higher incarceration rates that has been underway since the 1970s in the U.S. appears to have turned the corner. That raises the question of whether the crime drop can be sustained. State and local revenue shortfalls have engendered intense interest in cost-cutting measures that do n...

  1. Less crime, more punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Mark; Burt, Callie Harbin

    2008-09-01

    Recasting Durkheim's "community of saints" thesis, the authors argue that the severity of punishment is predicted in part by the prevalence of the deviant behavior of which the deviant stands accused. Although there is some curvilinearity at low levels of prevalence, the relationship is generally negative. Thus, all else equal, where a particular crime is frequent, any punishment applied to it is likely to be mild; conversely, where a crime is infrequent, its punishment ought to be severe. Using hierarchical regression models, the authors support this hypothesis with 1988 homicide conviction and imprisonment decisions in 32 U.S. counties.

  2. Preventing Financial Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    This paper investigates the Swedish tax authority’s (Skatteverkets) compliance initiative called Preventing Financial Crime. In Sweden tax evasion related to organised moon-lighting is defined as a major risk to the revenue collection and to the legitimacy of Skatteverket. The traditional approach...... to abating such tax evasion has been reformed and a new mix-method approach adopted. This approach combines a proactive strategy—Preventing Financial Crime—with a reactive inspection strategy. During one a month of intensive fieldwork in Sweden, I studied the daily work in Preventing Financial Crime. Based...

  3. Hate Crime Monitoring and Victim Assistance in Poland and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Grell, Britta; Köhler, Timm; Pankowski, Rafal; Sineaeva, Natalia; Starnawski, Marcin

    2009-01-01

    The following report is the result of a Polish-German joint project, coordinated and carried out by the Potsdam-based association Opferperspektive (Victims’ Perspective) and the Warsaw-based organization Nigdy Więcej (Never Again) between January and July 2008. It was made possible by funding from the Foundation “Remembrance, Responsibility and Future” (Stiftung “Erinnerung, Verantwortung und Zukunft”), a German foundation dedicated to fostering projects that promote: a better understanding a...

  4. Crime prevention and active living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia; Eck, John E

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether crime is a barrier to active living and if it is, what can be done about it? The authors introduce a theoretical model that addresses how crime might influence physical activity behavior. The core components of the model are: situational characteristics, crime and disorder, fear of crime or disorder, and physical activity. These variables are thought to be moderated through psychological, demographic, environmental and other factors. Research questions that derive from the model are featured.

  5. Situational Prevention of Organised Crimes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bullock, KA; Clarke, R.(Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America); Tilley, N

    2010-01-01

    Situational crime prevention is the art and science of reducing opportunities for crime. Despite accumulating evidence of its value in reducing many different kinds of crime - such as burglary, fraud, robbery, car theft, child sexual abuse and even terrorism - little has previously been published about its role in reducing organised crimes. This collection of case studies, by a distinguished international group of researchers, fills this gap by documenting the application of a situational pre...

  6. Crime--Some Popular Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doleschal, Eugene

    1979-01-01

    A careful look at several pervasive notions about crime proves them to be without base. Our best evidence suggests that crime rates fluctuate somewhat, but remain essentially stable over time. The United States is the most punitive of all free nations. Furthermore, crime is evenly distributed among the socioeconomic groups. (Author)

  7. Is Crime News Coverage Excessive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Doris A.

    1979-01-01

    Reports on the frequency and manner in which various crime and noncrime news topics were presented in selected newspapers and television newscasts in 1976. Examines news flow data to determine whether news output was inflexible, and whether crime news coverage distorted the amount of real-life crime. (PD)

  8. CRIME MAPS AND COMPUTER TECNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal KARAKAŞ

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Crime maps show crime density values and locations where crime have accured. For this reason it had been easy to examine the spatial distribution of crime locations with crime maps. There for crime maps have long been part of the process to crime analysis. In this study, the crime of home burglary was mapped with respect to general areal distribution by GIS (Geographic Information System in the city of Elazig The distribution of the crime was handled considering the parameters such as month, day and hour, and related to the land use. As a result, it was determined that there were differences in the distribution and concentration in the crime of theft with respect to the land use inside the city. The methods and findings in this study will provide rapid and accurate analyses for such kinds of studies. In addition, Interrelating the type of the crime with the regions or areas will contribute to preventing crime, and security in urban areas.

  9. Beliefs and attitudes of final-year nursing students on honour crimes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, M; Edirne, T

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate perceptions of nursing students about honour crimes and examine their beliefs about inquiring information from the victims of honour crimes. A questionnaire including demographic data was administered to a sample of 225 male and female final-year students in a nursing school. Among them, we found that significantly more male students than female students justify honour crimes. Although the majority of both male and female nursing students believed that asking for honour crimes is useful, significantly more male than female nursing students were against screening for honour crimes. This study supports the belief that gender has an influence on nurses' perceptions, attitudes and tolerance of honour crimes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  10. Self-wise, Other-wise, Streetwise (SOS) training: a novel intervention to reduce victimization in dual diagnosis psychiatric patients with substance use disorders: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, M.M.; Kikkert, M.J.; Blankers, M.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Goudriaan, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychiatric patients are more likely to be victims of crime than others in the community. Dual diagnosis patients with comorbid psychiatric and substance use disorders are especially prone to victimization. Victimization is associated with substance abuse, more severe symptomatology and

  11. Predicting perceived risk of crime: a multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio

    2011-12-01

    With a sample of Italians selected from 71 Italian counties (N = 1,868), we performed two multilevel analyses aimed at predicting the perceived risk of crime at local (i.e., in the participants' county of residence) and at societal (i.e., in the context of Italian society) levels. A significant proportion of the variation in local risk perception was at the county level. The following individual variables predicted higher levels of this variable: indirect victimization, the perception of social and physical disorder, being a woman, being poorly educated, and being an older person. Among the ecological predictors, the crime rate and unemployment rate predicted higher levels of local crime risk perception, while the immigrant rate did not. Perceived risk of crime at the societal level did not show significant variation at the county level. Education, being a man, trusting people, and adhesion to post-materialistic values predicted lower levels of societal crime risk perception, while number of sons/daughters and exposure to television news increased it. The limitations and possible development of this study are discussed.

  12. The Problem of Universal Jurisdiction in Curbing International Crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanov RAHIM TASHAKKUL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There is generally no agreed doctrinal definition of universal jurisdiction in customary and conventional international law. However, this does not preclude any definition, which embodies the essence of the concept as the ability to exercise jurisdiction irrespective of territoriality or nationality. Therefore, the concept of universal jurisdiction applies to a situation where " entitles a State to exercise its jurisdictio territory, has been perpetrated by a non the acts." "Universal jurisdiction" refers to the competence of a national court to try a p suspected of a serious international crime torture-even if neither the suspect nor the victim are nationals of the country where the court is located ("the forum state", and the crime took pla legal principle which has evolved in order to overcome jurisdictional gaps in the international legal order. It is intended to ensure that those responsible for international crimes crimes against humanity, grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions, and torture justice. Universal jurisdiction is primarily enacted when States with a more traditional jurisdictional nexus to the crime (related, inter alia, to the pla prove unable or unwilling to genuinely investigate and prosecute: when their legal system is inadequate, or when it is used to shield the accused from justice.

  13. Crime, policing and justice: the experience of older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Home Office Statistical Bulletin 08/02 Free from the The Information and Publications Group, Research Development and Statistics Directorate, Communications Development Unit Tel: 020 7273 2084 http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk Based on information from the British Crime Survey, this report highlights that incidents of crime against older people have remained fairly constant over the last ten years and that their risk of experiencing personal orhousehold crime is generally lower than other age groups. The report discusses older people's concerns, views on the police and criminal justice system and the use of security precautions.

  14. Neighborhood Crime-Related Safety and Its Relation to Children's Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneeshaw-Price, Stephanie H; Saelens, Brian E; Sallis, James F; Frank, Lawrence D; Grembowski, David E; Hannon, Peggy A; Smith, Nicholas L; Chan, K C Gary

    2015-06-01

    Crime is both a societal safety and public health issue. Examining different measures and aspects of crime-related safety and their correlations may provide insight into the unclear relationship between crime and children's physical activity. We evaluated five neighborhood crime-related safety measures to determine how they were interrelated. We then explored which crime-related safety measures were associated with children's total moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and MVPA in their neighborhoods. Significant positive correlations between observed neighborhood incivilities and parents' perceptions of general crime and disorder were found (r = 0.30, p = 0.0002), as were associations between parents' perceptions of general crime and disorder and perceptions of stranger danger (r = 0.30, p = 0.0002). Parent report of prior crime victimization in their neighborhood was associated with observed neighborhood incivilities (r = 0.22, p = 0.007) and their perceptions of both stranger danger (r = 0.24, p = 0.003) and general crime and disorder (r = 0.37, p neighborhood (beta = -0.09, p = 0.005, beta = -0.01, p = 0.02, respectively). Neighborhood-active children living in the lowest crime-quartile neighborhoods based on police reports had 40 min more of total MVPA on average compared to neighborhood-active children living in the highest crime-quartile neighborhoods. Findings suggest that police reports of neighborhood crime may be contributing to lower children's physical activity.

  15. Traumatic victimization in the lives of lesbian and bisexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Kimberly F

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY This paper takes a contextual approach to understanding traumatic victimization experiences of lesbian and bisexual women over the life span. Expanding on feminist perspectives on violence against women, the concept of "cultural victimization" is used to explore the role of societal homophobia in shaping the experience of victimization for lesbian and bisexual women. An overview of the existing literature on the prevalence and impact of childhood abuse, domestic violence, sexual assault, and hate crimes among this population is provided. The relationship between sexual identity development and trauma is discussed. This article provides a framework for understanding lesbian and bisexual women's victimization, lends insight to clinicians working with lesbian/bisexual survivors, and provides direction for future research.

  16. Recognizing victims of human trafficking in the pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Heather J; Bechtel, Kirsten

    2015-02-01

    Human trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery that is rapidly expanding in the United States and throughout the world. It is a crime under both the United States and international law. The child and adult victims of human trafficking are denied their basic human rights and subjected to unspeakable physical and emotional harm. Traffickers exert complete control over their victims and are proficient at hiding their condition from authorities. Healthcare practitioners may be the only professionals who come into contact with victims if they present for medical care. This article will describe human trafficking and its potential victims, as well as guide medical management and access to services that will ensure their safety and restore their freedom.

  17. White collar crime

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos, Álvaro

    2016-01-01

    The White Collar Crime has particular characteristics that range from the profile of its author to the difficulties of the criminal process where it is investigated. El delito de Cuello Blanco cuenta con características particulares desde el perfil de su autor, hasta las dificultades del proceso penal en que se investiga.

  18. Crime Location Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    Most behavior of interest to social scientists is choice behavior: actions people commit while they could also have done something else. In geographical and environmental criminology, a new framework has emerged for analyzing individual crime location choice. It is based on the principle of random

  19. Crime and Punishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dostoevsky, Fyodor

    2005-01-01

    Crime and Punishment is the story of a brutal double murder and its aftermath. Raskolnikov, a poor student, kills a pawnbroker and her sister, and then has to face up to the moral consequences of his actions. The novel is compelling and rewarding, full of meaning and symbolism, and raises profound

  20. Violence, xenophobia and crime

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    criminals.'5 This attempt to distinguish between. 'xenophobia' and 'crime' is characteristic of multiple statements that the minister and others have made on the issue. These statements were made in the context of prominent domestic and international media coverage of threats of xenophobic violence, predicted to start soon ...

  1. Digging Up a Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witham, Shelly Anne; Krockover, Gerald H.; Burgess, Wilella; Bayley, Bill

    2004-01-01

    Forensics can serve as the perfect vehicle for science exploration and learning. As part of a professional development workshop, teachers participated in various forensic activities. This article describes an archaeological dig simulation that provides the catalyst for an inquiry-based activity. In this activity, teachers make crime scene…

  2. On the Crime Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutaev, Rasul M.; Magomedov, Guseyn B.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research of this problem is caused by the theoretical and practical needs of a specific concept of the crime object as one of the corpus delicti signs essentially the determining and defining its object and objective side, thereby--the nature of socially dangerous act. Besides, being a facultative sign of corpus delicti, the…

  3. Social Disadvantage and Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Per-Olof H.; Treiber, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the relationship between social disadvantage and crime, starting from the paradox that most persistent offenders come from disadvantaged backgrounds, but most people from disadvantaged backgrounds do not become persistent offenders. We argue that despite the fact that social disadvantage has been a key criminological topic for some time, the mechanisms which link it to offending remain poorly specified. Drawing on situational action theory, we suggest social disadvantage is linked to crime because more people from disadvantaged versus affluent backgrounds develop a high crime propensity and are exposed to criminogenic contexts, and the reason for this is that processes of social and self-selection place the former more frequently in (developmental and action) contexts conducive to the development and expression of high crime propensities. This article will explore this hypothesis through a series of analyses using data from the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+), a longitudinal study which uses a range of data collection methods to study the interaction between personal characteristics and social environments. It pays particular attention to the macro-to-micro processes behind the intersection of people with certain characteristics and environments with certain features – i.e., their exposure – which leads to their interaction. PMID:27524829

  4. Gender and Crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruttschnitt, C.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with the last review of gender and crime that appeared in the Annual Review of Sociology (1996), I examine the developments in the more traditional approaches to this subject (the gender ratio problem and the problem of theoretical generalization), life course research, and feminist

  5. Victims' routine activities and sex offenders' target selection scripts: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslauriers-Varin, Nadine; Beauregard, Eric

    2010-09-01

    This study investigates target selection scripts of 72 serial sex offenders who have committed a total of 361 sex crimes on stranger victims. Using latent class analysis, three target selection scripts were identified based on the victim's activities prior to the crime, each presenting two different tracks: (1) the Home script, which includes the (a) intrusion track and the (b) invited track, (2) the Outdoor script, which includes the (a) noncoercive track and the (b) coercive track, and (3) the Social script, which includes the (a) onsite track and the (b) off-site track. The scripts identified appeared to be used by both sexual aggressors of children and sexual aggressors of adults. In addition, a high proportion of crime switching was found among the identified scripts, with half of the 72 offenders switching scripts at least once. The theoretical relevance of these target selection scripts and their practical implications for situational crime prevention strategies are discussed.

  6. Perpetrator or victim?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    Paper 3: HAN091384 Victim, Perpetrator and Pupil - Teacher Perspectives on Peer Bullying Helle Rabøl Hansen, University of Aarhus This paper investigates the approaches and strategies taken up by two crucial actors in relation to bullying in schools: 1. documents indicating school policies...... on bullying, and 2. teacher strategies in relation to bullying practices among children. The paper analyses the relationship between policy documents and their implied discourses on the one hand and the discourses and understandings taken up by teaches in their everyday interaction with children...... and colleagues on the other hand. The paper is based on empirical data including surveys among 253 teachers from 10 schools, interview with 12 teachers, and observations among teachers in their respectively class and staff rooms. In the analyses punishment and sanctions appear to work as general strategies...

  7. The Voiceless Victim: A critical analysis of the impact of enhanced victim participation in the criminal justice process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Moynihan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to many European jurisdictions, the victim of an alleged crime in England, Wales and Northern Ireland is denied any form of meaningful participation at the trial stage of the criminal justice process. This is by reason of the unyielding structure of the Anglo-American adversarial system, which facilitates a dispute between two parties only - the prosecution, acting on behalf of the collective public interest and the defence. In recent years, however, the victims’ movement has gained momentum as advocates of victims’ rights have been engaged in an impassioned campaign to enhance the participatory rights of victims in the criminal justice process. Fervent arguments have been articulated pertaining to the value of various forms of victim input. This paper cogitates some of these arguments and critically evaluates how enhanced victim participation in the criminal justice process has the potential to undercut the integrity of the Anglo- American adversarial system; a system with objective adjudication at its core.

  8. Re-thinking hate crime: fresh challenges for policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Neil

    2015-06-01

    Hate crime has become an increasingly familiar term in recent times as the harms associated with acts of bigotry and prejudice continue to pose complex challenges for societies across the world. However, despite the greater recognition now afforded to hate crimes by scholars, policy makers and law enforcers, uncertainty continues to cloud the scope and legitimacy of existing policy frameworks. This article draws from an emerging body of inter-disciplinary scholarship and empirical research to highlight a series of important realities about hate crime victimization and perpetration that tend to remain peripheral to the process of policy formation. It suggests that the focus on particular strands of victims and particular sets of motivations has overshadowed a range of significant issues, including the experiences of "marginal" groups of victims, and the way in which identity characteristics intersect with one another--and with other situational factors and context--to leave some targets of hate crime especially vulnerable. The article calls for a more fluid and multi-layered approach to policy formation, which engages with these realities, and which maximizes the real-life value of hate crime discourse. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Ius Humanitatis and the Right to Reparation for Crimes in Foreign Domestic Courts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, Marcellinus

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the possibilities for victims of international crimes to obtain reparation in a foreign domestic court. The chances of success for such claims are small under traditional international law. The article questions whether the development of human rights and humanitarian ethics

  10. 3 CFR 8365 - Proclamation 8365 of April 24, 2009. National Crime Victims’ Rights Week, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of America A Proclamation From violence in our neighborhoods to credit card fraud on the Internet... pledging to fight crime wherever it exists. This commitment begins by supporting the men and women working... victims across the country access basic assistance and financial compensation. This year marks the 25th...

  11. Modelling urban crime through workforce size: a test of the activity support concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, L.

    2015-01-01

    Crime has not figured strongly in urban planning agendas, it has been more of an afterthought. The consequences of this are property losses, psychological impact, high insurance premiums, and large police forces. There has been a gradual shift from the study of the offender to that of the victimized

  12. Homicides of Children and Youth. Crimes against Children Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard

    This bulletin, part of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's "Crimes against Children Series," draws on FBI and other data to provide a statistical portrait of juvenile homicide victimization, asserting that homicide is the only major cause of childhood deaths that has increased over the past 3 decades. The bulletin…

  13. How to explain gender differences in fear of crime : Towards an evolutionary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fetchenhauer, D.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    2005-01-01

    Employing data from a sample of 610 Dutch high school students and their parents, this article argues in favour of an evolutionary explanation for the fact that women are more fearful of crime than men while they are less often victimized. With respect to a variety of events that involved physical

  14. Penitentiary crime as an object of legal research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Aleksandrovich Khokhrin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective basing on statistical data and generalized empirical material to study the structure and dynamic properties of the penitentiary crime which are necessary to elaborate measures to prevent crimes involving the penitentiary system. Methods comparativelegal logicaljuridical analysis of documents survey results statistics and litigation. Results basing on the analysis of more than 1400 convictions for committing crimes by convicts while being imprisoned as well as statistical indicators of crime in penitentiary institutions since 2005 it is proposed to divide all the recorded facts of crime into categories. This will allow to define some categories of crimes committed in penitentiary institutions. Comparing the results of the analysis of judicial practice the survey of the staff and the statistical reports suggests that convicts with two or three convictions are most likely to commit crimes in the penitentiary institution. In our view an effective incentive to forgo crimes and resocialize may be a legal norm regulating sentencing for offences committed during the period of serving the sentence Article 68 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation quotSentencing for the offence during the period of serving the sentence quot. Scientific novelty the conclusion is made about the need to extinguish the risk groups by committing crimes in penitentiary institutions. The proposals are formulated to supplement the criminal law. Practical significance the materials and conclusions of the article can be used in lawmaking activity for the development of draft laws on amendments and additions to the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation in scientific work in the preparation of the dissertation research monographs textbooks and articles teaching the courses quotCriminal lawquot and quotCriminologyquot as well as courses for qualificationnbsp promotion. nbsp

  15. Peer Victimization in British Columbia Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Van Blyderveen, Sherry Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Peer victimization is an issue which has recently received considerable attention from the media, the school system, and academic literature. The present study examines a number of expected correlates, both risk factors and outcomes, of peer victimization through the use of the Adolescent Health Survey - II conducted by the McCreary Centre Society in the province of British Columbia. Approximately 25,800 youth, from grades 7 through 12, from various regions of the province completed the quest...

  16. Are crimes by online predators different from crimes by sex offenders who know youth in-person?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David

    2013-12-01

    We examined cases in which sex offenders arrested for Internet-related crimes used the Internet for sexual communications with minors, comparing crimes by offenders who met victims online to those by offenders who knew victims in-person prior to the offense. We collected data from a national sample of law enforcement agencies (n = 2,653) about arrests in 2009 for Internet-related sex crimes against minors, conducting detailed telephone interviews with investigators about individual cases. This paper examines a subset of arrest cases that included the use of online sexual communications (online-meeting offenders, n = 143; know-in-person/online offenders, n = 139). Compared with know-in-person/online offenders, online-meeting offenders were less likely to have criminal backgrounds and more likely to use online communications to deceive victims. However, deception was a factor in a minority of cases and was also used by some know-in-person/online offenders. The majority of cases in both groups involved statutory rape (i.e., nonforcible illegal sexual activity with underage youth) or noncontact offenses such as child pornography production or sexual solicitation of a minor. We conclude that crimes by online-meeting offenders should not be treated as different or more dangerous than those by know-in-person/online offenders who use online sexual communications. Rather, prevention efforts should educate about the nature of statutory rape and related noncontact offenses. The primary message should be that it is criminal for adults to make sexual overtures to minors, online or offline, no matter what their relationship to the youth. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Polish Genetic Database of Victims of Totalitarianisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossowski, A; Kuś, M; Kupiec, T; Bykowska, M; Zielińska, G; Jasiński, M E; March, A L

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the creation of the Polish Genetic Database of Victims of Totalitarianism and the first research conducted under this project. On September 28th 2012, the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin and the Institute of National Remembrance-Commission for Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation agreed to support the creation of the Polish Genetic Database of Victims of Totalitarianism (PBGOT, www.pbgot.pl). The purpose was to employ state-of-the-art methods of forensic genetics to identify the remains of unidentified victims of Communist and Nazi totalitarian regimes. The database was designed to serve as a central repository of genetic information of the victim's DNA and that of the victim's nearest living relatives, with the goal of making a positive identification of the victim. Along the way, PGBOT encountered several challenges. First, extracting useable DNA samples from the remains of individuals who had been buried for over half a century required forensic geneticists to create special procedures and protocols. Second, obtaining genetic reference material and historical information from the victim's closest relatives was both problematic and urgent. The victim's nearest living relatives were part of a dying generation, and the opportunity to obtain the best genetic and historical information about the victims would soon die with them. For this undertaking, PGBOT assembled a team of historians, archaeologists, forensic anthropologists, and forensic geneticists from several European research institutions. The field work was divided into five broad categories: (1) exhumation of victim remains and storing their biological material for later genetic testing; (2) researching archives and historical data for a more complete profile of those killed or missing and the families that lost them; (3) locating the victim's nearest relatives to obtain genetic reference samples (swabs), (4) entering the genetic data from both victims and family

  18. La victime, acteur de la sécurité ? / The victim, a security actor ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieu François

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available What is the position of the victim in security policy? Only recently has the victim been the object, in France and elsewhere, of considerable attention by the social system, which has taken into account the different aspects of victimization. However, the victim is only partially associated to actions led in this domain, either as a source of data on the state of delinquency through public meetings and victimization surveys, or as an auxiliary to prevention with measure of community and situational prevention.Quelle est la place de la victime dans les politiques de sécurité ? Ce n’est que très récemment que la victime a fait l’objet, en France comma ailleurs, d’une attention plus soutenue de la part du système social, avec le développement d’une meilleure prise en charge des différents aspects de la victimisation. Pour autant, la victime n’est associée que très partiellement aux actions conduites en ce domaine, soit comme source de données sur l’état de la délinquance au moyen de réunions publiques et d’enquête de victimation, soit comme auxiliaire de la prévention avec les dispositifs de prévention communautaire et situationnelle.

  19. The impact of a natural disaster on altruistic behaviour and crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Frederic

    2014-07-01

    Institutional altruism in the form of a public-sector intervention and support for victims and social altruism generated by mutual aid and solidarity among citizens constitute a coming together in a crisis. This coming together and mutual support precipitate a decrease in crime rates during such an event. This paper presents an analysis of daily fluctuations in crime during the prolonged ice storms in Quebec, Canada, in January 1998 that provoked an electrical blackout. Of particular interest are the principal crisis-related influences on daily crime patterns. A first series of analyses examines the impact of altruistic public-sector mobilisation on crime. A significant decline in property crime rates was noticed when cheques were distributed to crisis victims in financial need in Montérégie, and hence they were attributable to public intervention (institutional altruism). Moreover, the rate of social altruism (financial donations), which was more substantial in adjoining rather than distant regions, was inversely proportional to crime rates. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  20. When Colour Matters: Policing and Hate Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Wigerfelt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the image of Sweden as a tolerant, colour-blind and non-racial country, which is based on the narrative of a country for instance associated with solidarity with the so-called Third World; in this article we argue that racial attributes, e.g. visible differences, account for people’s different life possibilities and circumstances in Swedish society. This article explores and discusses whether, and if so why, people who belong to the group that is categorised as “non-white”, with an emphasis on Afroswedes, and depicted as racially different, experience being targets of diverse variations of bias-based policing, harassment and hate crime. Theories relating to colonial stereotypes, racism, doing difference, the geography of hate, race/ethnicity profiling and intersectionality are used to analyse our material. Based on individual and focus group interviews with “non-whites”, this article discusses how visible differences are highlighted in different kinds of social contexts. The interview results show that people with dark skin are often targets of different kinds of private and public policing based on race- and ethnicity profiling that often occurs on or near borders/boundaries. When those who are targets of racial harassment and exclusion resist such treatment, e.g. by crossing borders/boundaries, they are at risk of becoming victims of hate crime.

  1. Crime seriousness and participation in restorative justice: The role of time elapsed since the offense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebel, Sven; Schreurs, Wendy; Ufkes, Elze G

    2017-08-01

    Restorative justice policies and programs aimed at facilitating victim-offender mediation (VOM) are part of many criminal justice systems around the world. Given its voluntary nature and potential for positive outcomes, the appropriateness and feasibility of VOM after serious offenses is subject to debate in the literature. In light of this discussion, this study first aimed to unravel the prevalence of serious offenses in cases registered for VOM and examined whether crime seriousness predicts whether mediated contact is reached between victims and offenders. Second, it tested the hypothesis that victims of increasingly serious, harmful crimes are more willing to participate when more time has elapsed since the offense-in contrast to victims of less serious, harmful crimes. We analyzed 199 cases registered for VOM in the Netherlands and coded the perceived wrongfulness, harmfulness, and average duration of incarceration of an offense as 3 distinct indicators of crime seriousness in these cases. The findings revealed that cases registered for VOM (a) are, in terms of the incarceration duration, on average more serious than all offenses in the population, and (b) resulted in mediated contact (or not) independently of the 3 seriousness indicators. In addition, empirical support was found for the hypothesis that victims' willingness to participate in VOM increased over time after more harmful offenses, whereas it decreased when offenses inflicted less harm. These findings suggest that when VOM programs operate irrespectively of the time elapsed after crime, mediated contact between parties may be as likely after minor and serious offenses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. More Guns, More Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Duggan

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between gun ownership and crime. Previous research has suffered from a lack of reliable data on gun ownership. I exploit a unique data set to reliably estimate annual gun ownership rates at both the state and the county level during the past two decades. My findings demonstrate that changes in gun ownership are significantly positively related to changes in the homicide rate, with this relationship driven entirely by the impact of gun ownership on murders ...

  3. Crime, Punishment, and Myopia

    OpenAIRE

    David S Lee; Justin McCrary

    2005-01-01

    Economic theory predicts that increasing the severity of punishments will deter criminal behavior by raising the expected price of committing crime. This implicit price can be substantially raised by making prison sentences longer, but only if offenders' discount rates are relatively low. We use a large sample of felony arrests to measure the deterrence effect of criminal sanctions. We exploit the fact that young offenders are legally treated as adults--and face longer lengths of incarceratio...

  4. Modelling Crime and Punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Matti Virén

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an extended supply of labour model which allows for different intensities of legal and illegal (criminal) activities and in which criminal activities may be considered both as work and leisure. Heterogeneity of individuals is also taken into account. The model is estimated from Finnish aggregate time-series data, pooled Finnish municipalities data and pooled international cross-country data. With the Finnish aggregate data, a volume index of crime is constructed and then u...

  5. reducing employee computer crime through Situational Crime Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Willison, Robert; Siponen, Mikko

    2006-01-01

    Employee computer crime represents a substantial threat for organisations. Yet information security researchers and practitioners currently lack a clear understanding of how these crimes are perpetrated, which, as a consequence, hinders security efforts. We argue that recent developments in criminology can assist in addressing the insider threat. More specifically, we demonstrate how an approach, entitled Situational Crime Prevention, can not only enhance an understanding of employee computer...

  6. Crime in Sao Paulo's metro system : sexual crimes against women

    OpenAIRE

    Ceccato, Vania; Paz, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    The article investigates personal safety conditions in the Sao Paulo metro, the largest rapid transit system in Brazil. The study looks at all types of crimes, but devotes special attention to the nature and spatio-temporal dynamics of sexual crimes against women while in transit. The methodology combines Geographical Information System and crime records with data collected using Google Street View and other secondary data into a set of regression models. Findings show that sexual violence is...

  7. Sexual disorders and crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborda, José G V; Michalski-Jaeger, Camila A

    2012-09-01

    Highlighting the relationship between sexual disorders and crime, reviewing and summarizing the articles published throughout 2011 which add to the current knowledge on this subject. Studies on specific populations confirm the association between sexual disorders and crime, particularly between paraphilias and sexual crimes regarding male offenders. Female offenders are less likely to be diagnosed with a sexual disorder. Some case reports focus on unusual paraphilias and lead us to question the vast possibilities of paraphilic contents and sexual arousal patterns. The variations of paraphilic-associated sexual arousal patterns, unconventional sex behaviors or paraphilic disorders are constantly changing. In this sense, the American Psychiatric Association's DSM-5 current proposals for a sexual dysfunction diagnostic category are under intense discussion because of their important clinical and forensic consequences. Sexual violence is a theme not well understood yet. Because of its nature, researching it can raise many ethical problems. There is no possibility of clinical trials and of case-control studies. Even cohort studies may be problematic in themselves. So, most of the research involves biased samples or case reports, or is merely theoretical. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of the subject, so that preventive and rehabilitative measures can be taken.

  8. Economics of Crime: Rational Offender and Moral Costs of Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Šilar, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Main weakness of economics of crime is that it focuses on rational offender who is isolated from society. This thesis gives overview of game theory models, which take into account possible reactions of other actors to offender`s actions. I show that some variables of crime are dependent on individual`s social environment and I analyze them using moral costs of crime, where some gains and losses from crime are interconnected between people. Two own models are presented. First model deals with ...

  9. Child sexual abuse and psychological impairment in victims: results of an online study initiated by victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Gerard A; Mundt, Ingrid A; Ahlers, Christoph J; Bahls, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of children has been a topic of scientific investigation for the past few decades. Research in this area, however, is rarely initiated, conceptualized, and conducted by victims themselves. Apart from possibly having painted a one-sided picture of sexual abuse, this presumed dominance of nonvictims might also have marginalized victims in a research area central to their lives. This study was conducted by a victims interest group as an effort to meet the need to add victims' perspectives to our current understanding of this topic. The online survey focused on investigating victims' psychosocial impairment, which was found to be extensive. Results indicated that an intact social support system facilitates better health, especially when offered early on.

  10. Crime Victims’ Experiences with Seeking Compensation: A Qualitative Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnix R. Hebly

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the results of a qualitative study regarding the experiences of victims of crime with damage recovery. What steps do they take to obtain compensation, what are their considerations in whether or not to follow different legal ‘pathways’ and what are their actual experiences in their attempts to obtain compensation for their losses? Thirty-six in-depth interviews offer a unique insight into Dutch ‘law in action’ with regard to the joinder in criminal proceedings, the submitting of applications to the Criminal Injuries Compensation Fund, attempts to reach a settlement with help from the police, and civil proceedings with a claim for damages. Predictable, but also notable experiences and considerations have been described by the victims with respect to these redress routes. Although the representativeness of the sample may raise some doubts, this data has raised some important questions and some recommendations can also be made: the question should be assessed whether insurance companies are able and willing to create a first-party insurance product for damage caused by crime, and communication towards victims should continue to (at least be improved.

  11. Associations between youth homelessness, sexual offenses, sexual victimization, and sexual risk behaviors: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A

    2015-01-01

    Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth.

  12. The Voiceless Victim: A critical analysis of the impact of enhanced victim participation in the criminal justice process

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Moynihan

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to many European jurisdictions, the victim of an alleged crime in England, Wales and Northern Ireland is denied any form of meaningful participation at the trial stage of the criminal justice process. This is by reason of the unyielding structure of the Anglo-American adversarial system, which facilitates a dispute between two parties only - the prosecution, acting on behalf of the collective public interest and the defence. In recent years, however, the victims’ movement has gain...

  13. A juridical-practical framework for the investigation of crimes against granting of public housing services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Alejandro Martínez-Sánchez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The public service enterprises are victims of crimes and felonies which may reduce their capacity to perform their functions. These enterprises expend much money and effort in order to prevent those criminal behaviors. For this reason they ask from the authorities more efficient measures against crime; however, such enterprises may feel that they are not being given sufficient importance and/or remedies in dealing with such crime. The aim paper of this is not to study the problem from de substantive criminal law point of view. Rather, this paper’s goal is to study the Colombia’s Rules of Criminal Procedure, which regulate the investigation of this kind of crime. The article will look particularly at the competency of the relevant authorities at the investigative stages. Finally, it will make some recommendations regarding a proper route towards the investigation of these criminal behaviors.

  14. Hate crimes on the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deirmenjian, J M

    2000-09-01

    The Internet serves as a channel for electronic communication on an international level. While communication on the Internet has grown exponentially, the proliferation of crimes in cyberspace has become rampant. Hate crimes, in particular, have become increasingly prevalent on the Internet. In this past decade, the United States government has taken significant measures to combat the proliferation of hate crimes. This paper reports six cases of "cyberhate" crimes and emphasizes pertinent legal issues surrounding them. Current modes of intervention are discussed, ranging from local to national levels. The forensic psychiatrist may undertake a challenging role in the interpretation of the hateful criminal mind at the interface of psychiatry and the law.

  15. Young adults, alcohol, crime and disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Anna; Budd, Tracey

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol-related crime is increasingly being recognized as a problem in cities and towns with popular entertainment districts. Crime and disorder linked to alcohol has been particularly connected with binge drinking or heavy sessional drinking. Research evidence indicates that it is the young adult age group who are most likely to be involved in crime and disorder and the most likely to binge drink. This paper examines the relationship between binge drinking and criminal and disorderly behaviour among 18- to 24-year-olds. Secondary analysis was undertaken of the 1998/1999 Youth Lifestyles Survey, a large-scale, representative, household survey of 12- to 30-year-olds living in England and Wales. Binge drinking, and especially male binge drinking, among 18- to 24-year-olds is statistically related to offending behaviour. In the 12 months prior to interview 39% of binge drinkers admitted to committing an offence and 60% admitted criminal and/or disorderly behaviour during or after drinking alcohol. Multivariate analysis found that binge drinking remains strongly associated with criminal and disorderly behaviour even after taking other relevant factors into account. Individuals who got drunk at least once a week had more than five times the odds of being involved in fighting or violent crime. For offences or disorderly behaviour that took place during or after drinking alcohol an individual had a seven times greater chance of breaking or damaging something and a five times greater chance of being involved in a fight if he/she got drunk at least once a week. These findings suggest that frequency of drunkenness is a better predictor of offending behaviour than frequency of drinking per se. Using frequency of drunkenness as the basis for defining binge drinking reveals that a large minority of young adults who binge drink also become involved in offending or disorderly behaviour. Binge drinking is particularly associated with crimes of violence. The relationship between

  16. Secondary victims of rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Bak, Rikke; Elklit, Ask

    2012-01-01

    Rape is often a very traumatic experience, which affects not only the primary victim (PV) but also his/her significant others. Studies on secondary victims of rape are few and have almost exclusively studied male partners of female rape victims. This study examined the impact of rape on 107...... secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels...... of social support for the respondent, and feeling let down by others. The respondents were generally interested in friend-, family-, and partner-focused interventions, particularly in receiving education about how best to support a rape victim...

  17. Evolutionary personality psychology and victimology : Sex differences in risk attitudes and short-term orientation and their relation to sex differences in victimizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fetchenhauer, Detlef; Rohde, Percy A.

    Men are more often victims of events like car accidents or (violent) crimes than women with the sole exception of sexual assault. Based on the theory of sexual selection, it has been argued that these sex differences in both perpetration and victimization rates can be attributed to sex differences

  18. Transnational Activities of Chinese Crime Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curtis, Glenn E; Elan, Seth L; Hudson, Rexford A; Kollars, Nina A

    2003-01-01

    .... The report notes the participation of such groups in all major types of crime, including trafficking of human beings and various commodities, financial crimes, extortion, gambling, prostitution, and violent crimes...

  19. Offenders' crime narratives as revealed by the Narrative Roles Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngs, Donna; Canter, David V

    2013-03-01

    The study of narrative processes as part of the immediate factors that shape criminal action is limited by the lack of a methodology for differentiating the narrative themes that characterise specific crime events. The current study explores how the roles offenders see themselves as playing during an offence encapsulate their underlying crime narratives and thus provide the basis for a quantitative methodology. To test this possibility, a 33-item Narrative Roles Questionnaire (NRQ) was developed from intensive interviews with offenders about their experience of committing a recent offence. A multidimensional analysis of the NRQ completed by 71 convicted offenders revealed life narrative themes similar to those identified in fiction by Frye and with noncriminals by McAdams, labelled The Professional, Victim, Hero, and Revenger offence roles. The NRQ thus is a first step in opening up the possibility of empirical studies of the narrative aetiological perspective in criminology.

  20. Complex sexual crime

    OpenAIRE

    Sal y Rosas, Federico; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    Here is the clinical and psychological observation made by us in the wake of a medical-legal expert. It is a trial for uxoricide, who has symptoms of mental alienation, and whose pre-morbid history highlights events have certainly had important role in the psychogenesis and psicoplastía of mental illness and crime. Publicamos la observación clínica y psicológica efectuada por nosotros a raiz de un peritaje médico-legal. Se trata de un enjuiciado por uxoricidio, que presenta síntomas de ali...

  1. The Association Between Familial Homelessness, Aggression, and Victimization Among Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetelina, Katelyn K; Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M; Cuccaro, Paula M; Peskin, Melissa F; Elliott, Marc N; Coker, Tumaini R; Mrug, Sylvie; Davies, Susan L; Schuster, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the number of periods children were exposed to familial homelessness and childhood aggression and victimization. Survey data were obtained from 4,297 fifth-grade children and their caregivers in three U.S. cities. Children and primary caregivers were surveyed longitudinally in 7th and 10th grades. Family homelessness, measured at each wave as unstable housing, was self-reported by the caregiver. Children were categorized into four mutually exclusive groups: victim only, aggressor only, victim-aggressor, and neither victim nor aggressor at each time point using validated measures. Multinomial, multilevel mixed models were used to evaluate the relationship among periods of homelessness and longitudinal victimization, aggression, and victim aggression compared to children who were nonvictims and nonaggressors. Results suggest that children who experienced family homelessness were more likely than domiciled children to report aggression and victim aggression but not victimization only. Multivariate analyses suggested that even brief periods of homelessness were positively associated with aggression and victim aggression (relative to neither) compared to children who were never homeless. Furthermore, childhood victimization and victim aggression significantly decreased from 5th grade to 10th grade while aggression significantly increased in 10th grade. Children who experienced family homelessness for brief periods of time were significantly more likely to be a victim-aggressor or aggressor compared to those who were never homeless. Prevention efforts should target housing security and other important factors that may reduce children's likelihood of aggression and associated victimization. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. AN EVALUATION OF TIMELINE VISUALIZATION AND TREE VIEWER IN CRIME NEWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAZLENA MOHAMAD ALI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Finding good and relevant information in crime news is one of the most challenging tasks faced by users. An increase in the amount of information from news media has caused difficulties for users in obtaining relevant information. Hence, visualization is one of the important aspects to enhance user’s understanding when browsing or searching for news. Crime news requires a proper approach to visualize a variety of important information such as suspect, victim, location, time and evidence. Visual navigation is more interactive than linear. This has motivated us to develop a prototype called Crime News Visualization (CNV, which mplements a timeline and tree viewer to assist users when browsing crime news chronologically. The prototype follows several phases of development starting with design concept, implementation and evaluation. News corpus used in this study is from the Bernama Library & Infolink Service (BLIS resource, with a sample of 247 crime news documents from year 1997 to 2012. A user experiment was conducted with 20 undergraduate students from the Faculty of Social Science and Humanities, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia in order to evaluate the acceptance and perception of interactive browsing of crime news using news portal (baseline and CNV (experimental. Findings revealed that more than 90% of the respondents indicated that the use of timeline visualization and tree viewer was helpful and had potential to improve the way users browse for crime news content.

  3. Sexual Violence in the Backlands: Toward a Macro-Level Understanding of Rural Sex Crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Jeremy

    2015-10-01

    This research focuses on structural covariates of sex crimes in rural communities (using urban and urbanizing communities as comparison groups), with particular analysis on exploring how the magnitude and direction of such covariates differ with respect to type of sex crime. Using 2000 sex crime data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) for the population of reporting U.S. cities, negative binomial and logistic regression procedures were used to explore the relationship between resource disadvantage, local investment, and economic inequality and sex crime subtypes. For sex crimes that occurred almost exclusively in the home, urban and urbanizing community rates were largely influenced by resource disadvantage and local investment, while these measures did not reach significance for explaining rural rates. Conversely, local investment was a significant predictor of sex crimes that occurred outside the home in rural communities. This research indicates that a structural analysis of sexual victimization (widely absent from the scientific literature) does yield significant findings and that disaggregation of crime into subtypes allows for a more detailed differentiation between urban and rural communities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Geography of Crime and Its Relation to Location: The City of Balıkesir (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Erman

    2017-10-01

    A person cannot continue his/her own life without security which is one of the basic needs of the human being, for not only personal security but also the security of the persons’ living environment is of extreme importance. We can talk about the habitability and sustainability of the urban environment so long as the people may, in time and in place, freely select all their activities, such as their residence, work, education, shopping and entertainment options. On the other hand, it is well known that crime in the cities that create insecurity is directly related to urban areas and urban utilization. In the realization of an act of crime, the fact that the victim and the concepts of place are as much impactful as the convict indicates that the place where the crime is committed is, at least, as responsible as the person who commits the crime. Based on this fact, in this article, we shall attempt at identifying the reasons related to place by examining the relation between the factors that bring the crime into being and the urban utilization in the City of Balıkesir. Thus, in the fight against crime, the prevention of crime and/or its avoidance, which is not the duty and under the authority of only the law enforcement agency, the attention and also that of other disciplines (Sociology and Criminology) is invited to be focused on the effectiveness of urban planning.

  5. Effect of childhood victimization on occupational prestige and income trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Cristina A; Christ, Sharon L; LeBlanc, William G; Arheart, Kristopher L; Dietz, Noella A; McCollister, Kathyrn E; Fleming, Lora E; Muntaner, Carles; Muennig, Peter; Lee, David J

    2015-01-01

    Violence toward children (childhood victimization) is a major public health problem, with long-term consequences on economic well-being. The purpose of this study was to determine whether childhood victimization affects occupational prestige and income in young adulthood. We hypothesized that young adults who experienced more childhood victimizations would have less prestigious jobs and lower incomes relative to those with no victimization history. We also explored the pathways in which childhood victimization mediates the relationships between background variables, such as parent's educational impact on the socioeconomic transition into adulthood. A nationally representative sample of 8,901 young adults aged 18-28 surveyed between 1999-2009 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY) were analyzed. Covariate-adjusted multivariate linear regression and path models were used to estimate the effects of victimization and covariates on income and prestige levels and on income and prestige trajectories. After each participant turned 18, their annual 2002 Census job code was assigned a yearly prestige score based on the 1989 General Social Survey, and their annual income was calculated via self-reports. Occupational prestige and annual income are time-varying variables measured from 1999-2009. Victimization effects were tested for moderation by sex, race, and ethnicity in the multivariate models. Approximately half of our sample reported at least one instance of childhood victimization before the age of 18. Major findings include 1) childhood victimization resulted in slower income and prestige growth over time, and 2) mediation analyses suggested that this slower prestige and earnings arose because victims did not get the same amount of education as non-victims. Results indicated that the consequences of victimization negatively affected economic success throughout young adulthood, primarily by slowing the growth in prosperity due to lower education

  6. The relationship between residential yard management and neighborhood crime: An analysis from Baltimore City and County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin Troy; Ashley Nunery; Morgan Grove

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the relationship between crime and indicators of residential yard management in Baltimore City and County. Data came from a survey we conducted of over one thousand front yards that included more than 40 indicators relating to lawns, trees, shrubs, beds and other features. These indicators were related to point counts of crime at the 150 m scale using a...

  7. Stating the Obvious about Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Herbert I.

    1984-01-01

    According to research that examined how U.S. cities responded to criminal activity, the growth of crime is the result of changes in American life-style. Not so, says the author. Crime is due to a lack of respect for laws and the belief that there is no penalty for breaking laws. (RM)

  8. Involvement mechanisms for organized crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koppen, M.V.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to illuminate the processes that make individuals engage in organized crime activities. Within the diversity of individual involvement processes, several distinctive mechanisms are discussed. Theoretical ideas are illustrated by empirical data on 15 crime groups, including over 300

  9. [Teaching about Crime and Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of a newsletter from the American Bar Association emphasizes teaching about crime and punishment. The first article offers an overview of the diversity and common assumptions that underpin the teaching of criminology. Student interest in crime and criminology creates an opportunity for instructors interested in challenging students'…

  10. Religion in Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, I develop a theoretical framework for the discussion of religion i Scandinavian crime fiction where I consider theories of transgression and religion. Secondly, I run through five relatively popular examples of Scandinavian crime fiction to show how this genre trend works. Lastly, I...

  11. Designing cities to minimise crime

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Saville, G

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Crime is, to a large degree, absent from the contemporary debate on sustainability. Yet it is difficult to think of sustainable cities without considering crime and safety in the design, planning and development process. Some argue that ecological...

  12. Hate crimes and normative regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is primarily devoted to issues related to the normative regulation of hate crimes, with special reference to the regulations of the Republic of Serbia, which are indirectly related to this matter. This kind of crimes are characterized by prejudices that perpetrators have towards injured parties, as members of certain, mostly, minority groups, due to which many hate crimes could be also called crimes of prejudice. In comparative law there are two different basic directions when it comes to regulating hate crimes: separation of hate crimes in a separate category on the one hand, and punishment of perpetrators of criminal acts with the detriment of minority groups through the usual charges of a given criminal justice system, on the other. The author finds that, regardless of the formal response forms, real life suggests that hate crimes can be essentially suppressed only by promoting values such as equality, respect for diversity and tolerance, and by continuous education of public about the danger of hate crimes.

  13. ORNL`s war on crime, technically speaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiques, P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes research being carried out by the Center for Applied Science and Technology for Law Enforcement (CASTLE), at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This program works on projects which are solvable, affordable, and outside the scope of the private sector. Examples are presented of work related to: the lifetime of childrens fingerprints compared to adults; the development of ways of providing cooler body armor; digital enhancement technology applied to security-camera images from crime scenes; victim identification by skeletal reconstruction for use by forensic anthropologists.

  14. Contemporary Hollywood Crime Film and the New Individualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. García-Mainar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on contemporary Hollywood films Silver City (2004, The Constant Gardener (2005 and The Departed (2006 in order to examine the intersection of the cultural discourse of the New Individualism, characterized by the helplessness and anxiety of the subject in the face of social change, with the generic conventions of the crime film. It explores the ways in which such conventions as crosscutting and suspense, the victim-hero of the thriller, or the trope of self-assertion through escape from the social space both articulate the New Individualism discourse and are transformed under its influence.

  15. Victim Confidentiality on Sexual Assault Response Teams (SART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how professionals and paraprofessionals involved with a Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) understand and navigate different professional statutory requirements for victim confidentiality. Telephone surveys are conducted with 78 professionals: medical (27.8%), criminal justice (44.3%), and victim advocacy…

  16. Acculturation and Dating Violence Victimization among Filipino and Samoan Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Do, Jane J.; Goebert, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    Dating violence victimization is an important public health issue. Recent studies on minority youths have found higher risks of dating violence victimization compared to White youths. This study examined the influence of acculturation components on youths' experiences of dating violence by utilizing data from a survey of 193 Samoan and Filipino…

  17. The Relation between Bullying, Victimization, and Adolescents' Level of Hopelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyahhan, Sinem; Aricak, O. Tolga; Cayirdag-Acar, Nur

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 419 Turkish middle school students (203 girls, 216 boys) were surveyed on their exposure to and engagement in bullying, and their level of hopelessness. Our findings suggest that girls were victims of indirect (e.g. gossiping) bullying more than boys. Boys reported being victims of physical (e.g. damaging property) and verbal (e.g.…

  18. Economic crime: does personality matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alalehto, Tage

    2003-06-01

    Since the publication of Edwin Sutherland's classical study, White Collar Crime, personality has been treated as completely irrelevant as a cause or as a correlating variable in studies of economic crime. This article questions that thesis. In an ongoing Swedish project studying economic crime in the areas of construction, engineering, and the music industry, 128 informants were interviewed regarding the personal character of the economic criminal compared to that of the law-abiding businessperson. Data were collected from five different regions in Sweden using the Big Five model, the personality model most often used within the field of personality research today. This article compares the results from the interviews with the few international studies that exist regarding economic crimes in these areas and common results are emphasized. It also presents nuanced analyses of the significance of personality in economic crime.

  19. Postsecularism in Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the postsecular turn in Scandinavian crime fiction. Postsecularism describes a renewed openness towards questions of spirituality, while maintaining the practice of critical scrutiny. Since 2000, we have seen an intensive increase in the number of titles treating religion and....../or spirituality in a way which differs from the genre’s usual approach. Firstly, I will frame the traditional attitude towards religion in crime fiction by Scandinavian welfare modernity, outlining the conspicuous absence of religion in the genre. Secondly, I propose a typology of the treatment of religion...... in crime fiction. My examples are all taken from the vast corpus of contemporary Scandinavian crime fiction, but it would be rather unproblematic to stretch the scope of the theory to an analysis of western crime fiction in general. Within this typology, I will introduce the phenomenon of a religious...

  20. The Influence of Gender Ideology, Victim Resistance, and Spiking a Drink on Acquaintance Rape Attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, D J; Mitchell, Damon; Smith, Danielle

    2016-02-24

    The current study examined observer's attributions about the victim and perpetrator of an alleged acquaintance rape. Participants included 504 college students from a public university in the northeastern United States who read a brief crime report and completed a series of questionnaires for course credit. While men tended to attribute more blame to the victim than women, gender ideology emerged as a stronger predictor of rape attributions, and some types of sexist beliefs were associated with greater victim blaming and others with less victim blaming. Endorsement of hostile sexism, rape myths, and heterosexual intimacy was generally associated with the attribution of greater victim culpability, as well as less perpetrator culpability, perpetrator criminality, and victim credibility. However, complementary gender differentiation was associated with greater perpetrator culpability and criminality, while protective paternalism was associated with greater victim credibility. Observers attributed lower victim culpability and greater perpetrator criminality when the victim's drink was spiked, and attributed greater perpetrator culpability when the victim verbally resisted the perpetrator's advances. Given the implications that observer attitudes can have on professional and personal support for survivors, as well as juror decision making, the ongoing examination of the complex interplay between the person and situational factors affecting attributions of rape is essential. Sexual assault prevention programs may also benefit from a psychoeducational component that targets reducing traditional gender ideology. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Sudden death victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceelen, Manon; van der Werf, Christian; Hendrix, Anneke; Naujocks, Tatjana; Woonink, Frits; de Vries, Philip; van der Wal, Allard; Das, Kees

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to ascertain accordance between cause of death established by the forensic physician and autopsy results in young sudden death victims in the Netherlands. Sudden death victims aged 1-45 years examined by forensic physicians operating in the participating regions which also

  2. Victimization of Obese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…

  3. Victims of Occupational Injuries: A Comparison between Migrants and Italians. Results of a survey conducted in Trentino in 2009 / Vittime di infortunio sul lavoro : una comparazione tra italiani e stranieri. Risultati di una ricerca condotta in Trentino nel 2009 / Victimes d’accidents du travail: une comparaison entre travailleurs immigrés et italiens. Résultats d’une enquête conduite en 2009 en Trentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinello Daniela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay deals with victims of occupational injuries and delves deeper into the differences between Italians and migrants. The study is based on the carrying out of a survey in Trentino: a questionnaire has been administered to two samples, one of Italian victims (300 respondents and one of immigrant victims (200 respondents of work injuries. The work on the field has allowed, then, to gain the following objectives: verifying whether migrants are more vulnerable to occupational injuries than Italians; depicting a profile of the injured migrant and of the injured Italian and finding out, though statistical analysis, the factors that help to explain migrants’ over-representation in the phenomenon. This essay gives the following answers: Who is the victim? How often is he/she victimized? What about the inclination not to report injuries? What are the personal characteristics (age, gender, etc. of the victim and his/her occupational history? What are the characteristics of companies where he/she works? What is the level of compliance with Health and Safety rules in these companies? How often has he/she been victimized? Then, some factors that may help to explain the higher victimization of migrants in the phenomenon are presented and some suggestions about possible actions to pursue are indicated.Questo saggio pone l’attenzione sulle vittime di infortunio sul lavoro e approfondisce le differenze tra italiani e stranieri. Lo studio è stato condotto tramite la realizzazione di una survey in Trentino: un questionario è stato somministrato a due campioni, uno di vittime italiane di infortuni sul lavoro (300 rispondenti e uno di vittime straniere (200 rispondenti. Il lavoro sul campo ha permesso di raggiungere i seguenti obiettivi: verificare se gli stranieri siano meno o più vulnerabili degli Italiani rispetto agli infortuni sul lavoro; stilare un profilo dell’infortunato straniero e di quello italiano e individuare, attraverso l

  4. Attitudes and Reality: The Impact of Perceptions of Police on Students' Victimization Reporting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jennifer Veronica

    2010-01-01

    The present study attempted to accurately measure crimes that occur on a college campus and whether students' perceptions of police influenced their decisions to report their victimization. A specific emphasis was placed on sexual assaults. Previous research has examined the reporting of sexual assault (Bachman, 1998; Sampson, 2002), sexual…

  5. Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: implementation of a fluid dynamic model for position determination of victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, N.; de Bruin, K.G.; Slenter, D.; Wilhelm, J.; Jermy, M.; Bonn, D.

    2015-01-01

    Bloodstain Pattern Analysis is a forensic discipline in which, among others, the position of victims can be determined at crime scenes on which blood has been shed. To determine where the blood source was investigators use a straight-line approximation for the trajectory, ignoring effects of gravity

  6. Individual and Family Predictors of the Perpetration of Dating Violence and Victimization in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin-Byrd, Kerry; Bierman, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Teen dating violence is a crime of national concern with approximately one-fourth of adolescents reporting victimization of physical, psychological, or sexual dating violence each year. The present study examined how aggressive family dynamics in both childhood and early adolescence predicted the perpetration of dating violence and victimization…

  7. Interrelated harms: Examining the associations between victimization, accidents, and criminal behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junger, Marianne; van der Heijden, Peter; Keane, Carl

    2001-01-01

    Problem. This study investigated the existence of positive associations between criminal behavior (‘offending’), traffic accidents, falls and tripping, and being the victim of a crime. The motivation for the study was that the finding of positive associations would support the thesis that there may

  8. Interrelated harms: Examining the associations among victimization, accidental injuries, and criminal offending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junger, M.; Keane, C.; Van der Heijden, P.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Problem. This study investigated the existence of positive associations between criminal behavior (‘offending’), traffic accidents, falls and tripping, and being the victim of a crime. The motivation for the study was that the finding of positive associations would support the thesis that there may

  9. Crime As Entertainment or Entertainment as A Crime?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Angeline

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Article presents one part of pop culture is crime portrayed as entertainment in television shows. Television has the means of information and entertainment, resulting in the shift of crime shows, initially crime was portrayed in the news but due to the high popularity, it becomes part of the entertainment as well. In terms of information, the most famous of crime drama show is Crime Scene Investigation (CSI, and this show gave effect known as the CSI effect, which is people have more appreciation to scientific evidences and DNA testing in trials. On the other hand, with so many shows involving crime resulting in cultivation impact, which is accumulation and the formation of perception of reality. People who are more exposed to this crime show will form the same perception as the one depicted by television and resulted to changes in their behavior. Several proposals to reduce this negative effects are audience learning, the use of rating system and electronic key in television set.  

  10. Victim Satisfaction With the Criminal Justice System and Emotional Recovery: A Systematic and Critical Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Maarten; Popelier, Lieke; Varekamp, Ellen

    2015-07-01

    The current study systematically and critically reviewed the empirical literature to evaluate the association between satisfaction with the criminal justice system and adult crime victims' emotional recovery. Despite the widely accepted notion that involvement in the criminal justice system may impact recovery from crime victimization--either beneficially or maliciously--a systematic review of empirical studies that addresses this topic has never been conducted. Electronic literature databases (ISI Web of Knowledge [including Web of Science and MEDLINE], EBSCO host [including PsychInfo, CINAHL, Criminal Justice Abstracts, ERIC, PsychARTICLES, and Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection], and ProQuest [including PILOTS, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts]) were searched to identify relevant quantitative studies. The Cambridge Quality Checklists were used to evaluate the quality of selected studies. These checklists can be used to assess the quality of risk and protective factors in criminal justice research. In this study they were used to explore the impact of victim satisfaction on crime victims' emotional and cognitive states post-victimization. The review process revealed mixed results, with some studies suggesting a healing impact of victim satisfaction and others not. More consistent were findings regarding the existence of an association between victim satisfaction and (alterations in) positive cognitions. However, since the majority of studies suffered from severe methodological shortcomings, definite conclusions cannot be drawn yet. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. The relation between bullying, victimization, and adolescents' level of hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyahhan, Sinem; Aricak, O Tolga; Cayirdag-Acar, Nur

    2012-08-01

    In this study, 419 Turkish middle school students (203 girls, 216 boys) were surveyed on their exposure to and engagement in bullying, and their level of hopelessness. Our findings suggest that girls were victims of indirect (e.g. gossiping) bullying more than boys. Boys reported being victims of physical (e.g. damaging property) and verbal (e.g. teasing) bullying more than girls. While the level of hopelessness among victims of physical and verbal bullying was higher than non-victims, no difference was found between the victims of indirect bullying and non-victims. Students who never talked to their teachers and parents about bullying reported higher levels of hopelessness than others. The implications of the study for intervention and prevention programs are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Mortes e crimes cometidos com armas de fogo na cidade autônoma de Buenos Aires, 2002 Firearm-related deaths and crime in the autonomous city of Buenos Aires, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Spinelli

    2006-06-01

    -related victimization were also used. An index of violent incidents was developed by police station. There were 1,304 deaths from violence, of which 23.7% were caused by a firearm. The police filed 171 proceedings on the charge of homicides with criminal intent, of which 60% had been committed with a firearm. Of the 2,108 interviewed individuals, 6.7% were victims of a crime committed with a firearm. In 9.6% of surveyed households there was a firearm. Seized firearms added up to 1,887. The index of violent incidents was higher in police stations in the southwestern area of the city that has worse living conditions. The impact of violence and its relation to firearms features as a major issue in the public agenda.

  13. Mortes e crimes cometidos com armas de fogo na Cidade Autônoma de Buenos Aires, 2002 Firearm-related deaths and crime in the autonomous city of Buenos Aires, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinelli Hugo

    2006-01-01

    firearmrelated victimization were also used. An index of violent incidents was developed by police station. There were 1,304 deaths from violence, of which 23.7% were caused by a firearm. The police filed 171 proceedings on the charge of homicides with criminal intent, of which 60% had been committed with a firearm. Of the 2,108 interviewed individuals, 6.7% were victims of a crime committed with a firearm. In 9.6% of surveyed households there was a firearm. Seized firearms added up to 1,887. The index of violent incidents was higher in police stations in the southwestern area of the city that has worse living conditions. The impact of violence and its relation to firearms features as a major issue in the public agenda.

  14. Une cartographie du crime : les images d’Alphonse Bertillon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Castro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available À en juger par la popularité de plusieurs séries policières récentes, le rôle des images et des techniques de visualisation dans le cadre de l’investigation criminelle est devenu familier au téléspectateur moyen. Les experts du CSI (Crime Scene Investigation arpentent soigneusement les lieux du crime, armés d’appareils photographiques et autres instruments, tandis que les protagonistes de Bones fixent les traits des victimes réduites à leurs ossements au moyen d’un sophistiqué imageur hologr...

  15. Sex Offender Mobility: An Application of Crime Pattern Theory Among Child Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogavero, Melanie C; Hsu, Ko-Hsin

    2017-06-01

    Sex offenders are a heterogeneous group and exhibit various offense patterns. Often the location where the offender committed the offense is different from where the offender encountered their victim. Applying crime pattern theory, this study sought to understand if the type of location, victim, and situational characteristics could predict whether an offender would commit the sexual offense in a different and more secluded location than where he first encountered the victim. Among a sample of 114 incarcerated sex offenders, the results showed that offenders who contacted their victims in locations where children are known to congregate were more than 4 times more likely to travel to a more secluded location to complete the sexual offense. Those who used noncoercive strategies (e.g., bribes, seduction) during the offense process were approximately 7 times more likely to travel to a more secluded location that those who did not. Policy implications of the findings are discussed.

  16. The European sourcebook of crime and criminal justice statistics: Importance of comparative statistics, Serbia and the data on crime and criminal justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper points out the importance of comparative statistics and their role in the enhancement of the national system of criminal justice statistics, and the national criminal justice system in general. The central part of the paper is about history, significance, methodology and content of the European Sourcebook of Crime and Criminal Justice Statistics. It indicates the key problems in the process of collection of comparable data on crime at the European level, and the problems which Serbia faced in the process of preparation of inputs for the fifth edition of the aforementioned Sourcebook. Given that the European Sourcebook of Crime and Criminal Justice Statistics contains information on six equally important areas of the criminal justice system (police, public prosecution, courts, penal institutions, probation service and victimization, the paper includes recommendations for the improvement of the data collection in some of these areas in Serbia.

  17. Gender Differences and Social Support: Mediators or Moderators between Peer Victimization and Depressive Feelings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouwelse, Mieneke; Bolman, Catherine; Lodewijkx, Hein; Spaa, Marguerite

    2011-01-01

    Using self-report questionnaires, a survey among 606 Dutch primary school children aged 10 to 12 years examined relationships among social support, gender, victimization, and depressive feelings. Hierarchical regression analyses confirmed that victims and bully/victims would report more depressive feelings than uninvolved children. There was no…

  18. Organized crime impact study highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porteous, S.D.

    1998-10-01

    A study was conducted to address the issue of how organized crime impacts on Canadians and their communities both socially and economically. As far as environmental crime is concerned, three main areas of concern have been identified: (1) illicit trade in ozone depleting substances, (2) illicit hazardous waste treatment, and (3) disposal of illicit trade in endangered species. To gauge the magnitude of organized crime activity, the market value of worldwide illegal trafficking in illicit drugs was estimated to be as high as $100 billion worldwide (between $1.4 to 4 billion in Canada). It is suspected that Canada supplies a substantial portion of the U.S. black market in chlorofluorocarbons with most of the rest being supplied from Mexico. Another area of concern involves the disposal of hazardous wastes. Canada produces approximately 5.9 million tonnes of hazardous waste annually. Of these, 3.2 million tonnes are sent to off-site disposal facilities for specialized treatment and recycling. The treatment of hazardous waste is a very profitable business, hence vulnerable to fraudulent practices engaged in by organized crime groups. Environmental implications of this and other environmental crimes, as well as their economic, commercial, health and safety impact were examined. Other areas of organized crime activity in Canada (drugs, economic crimes, migrant trafficking, counterfeit products, motor vehicle theft, money laundering) were also part of the study.

  19. Borderless Crime - Computer Fraud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Georgiana POPA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the consideration that fighting cybercrime is a continuous process, the more the types of old crimes are committed today through modern means (computer fraud at distances of thousands of kilometers, international cooperation is vital to combat this phenomenon.In EU countries, still under financial crisis "the phrase", cybercrime has found a "positive environment" taking advantage of poor security management systems of these countries.Factors that led criminal groups to switch "their activities" are related to so-called advantages of the "gains" obtained with relatively low risk.In Romania, more than any of the EU member states criminal activities set as target financial institutions or foreign citizens, weakening confidence in financial systems and the security of communication networks in our country, people's confidence in electronic payment instruments and those available on the Internet.

  20. The relationships of perpetrator and victim substance use to the sexual aggression of rapists and child molesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Nayla R; Knight, Raymond A

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated substance use in rape and child molestation. We hypothesized that perpetrator substance use would be associated with a greater increase in rapists' aggression in sexual crimes compared with that of child molesters. We also predicted that victim substance use would be negatively related to both rapists and child molesters' aggression in sexual crimes. The sample included 245 male rapists and 273 male child molesters who had been evaluated at the Massachusetts Treatment Center (MTC) between 1959 and 1991 for potential civil commitment. Data were obtained from offenders' archival records and were coded by trained research assistants on perpetrator and victim substance use and perpetrator aggression in sexual crimes. Analyses showed that the magnitude of the positive association between perpetrator alcohol use and aggression in sexual crimes did not differ between rapists and child molesters. In contrast, perpetrator drug use was associated with increased aggression among child molesters only. Victim substance use was related to increased aggression among rapists only. The results indicate that victim substance use and perpetrator drug use, but not perpetrator alcohol use, are differentially related to the aggression of rapists and child molesters in sexual crimes. Those findings imply that substance use may play different roles depending on offender type.