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Sample records for victimization predict subsequent

  1. Prioritizing Child Pornography Notifications: Predicting Direct Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Wineke; Schepers, Klaartje; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; van Linden, Sabine; Bartling, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    The growing number of notifications for child pornography (CP) possession constitutes a capacity problem for police forces entrusted with the investigation of these offenses. Notifications of CP offenses in which the investigation reveals concurrent direct victimization, in the form of contact offenses, grooming, online offending, or the production of CP material, form a potential target group for prioritization. The first of the twofold aims of this study was to validate the occurring distinction between mixed suspects (i.e., CP possession suspects who were also ever associated with direct victimization) and CP-only suspects (i.e., CP possession suspects who were never associated with direct victimization) to predict an outcome of the investigation including direct victimization. The second aim was to explore variables related to direct victimization among CP-only suspects. A total of 150 files of police investigations into notifications for CP offenses were studied. Findings confirmed significantly greater prevalence of direct victimization as an outcome of the investigation among mixed suspects than CP-only suspects (90% vs. 10%). Among CP-only suspects, direct victimization was predicted by (a) prior police contacts, charges, or convictions concerning noncontact sexual offending, (b) the confiscation of more than two computers during the house search, and (c) a more serious nature of the CP material that formed the basis for the notification in terms of younger victims and more extreme content. These variables may point to a small subgroup of heavily invested CP offenders who are at a higher risk to cross the line to direct victimization. Cross-validation of these preliminary findings is indicated. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Child and Adolescent Abuse and Subsequent Victimization: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Cindy L.; Gidycz, Christine A.; Warkentin, Jennifer B.; Loh, Catherine; Weiland, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the possible reciprocal relationship between victimization experiences and psychological functioning by assessing abuse experiences in childhood, adolescence, and during a 2-month follow-up period. Method: At the beginning of the study (Time 1), abuse histories, trauma and depressive symptoms, and interpersonal…

  3. Stalking Victimization among College Women and Subsequent Help-Seeking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhi, Eric R.; Clayton, Heather; Surrency, Heather Hepler

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the incidence of stalking victimization and subsequent help-seeking behaviors among college women. Participants and Methods: A stratified random sample of college women (N = 391) completed an anonymous Internet-based questionnaire in spring 2006. Results: One-fifth of women reported stalking victimization while…

  4. Impact of sexual harassment victimization by peers on subsequent adolescent victimization and adjustment: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, Debbie; Wolfe, David A; Crooks, Claire; Hughes, Ray; Jaffe, Peter

    2009-09-01

    To examine gender differences in prevalence and types of sexual harassment victimization experienced in grade 9 and how it contributes to relationship victimization and psychological adjustment 2.5 years later. A total of 1734 students from 23 schools completed self-report surveys at entry to grade 9 and end of grade 11. Self-report data were collected on victimization experiences (sexual harassment, physical dating violence, peer violence, and relational victimization) and adjustment (emotional distress, problem substance use, self-harm, suicidal thoughts, maladaptive dieting, feeling unsafe at school, and perpetration of violent delinquency). Separate analyses by sex were prespecified. Sexual harassment victimization was common among boys (42.4%) and girls (44.1%) in grade 9, with girls reporting more sexual jokes, comments, and unwanted touch than among boys, and with boys reporting more homosexual slurs or receiving unwanted sexual content. For girls, sexual harassment victimization in grade 9 was associated with elevated risk of self-harm, suicidal thoughts, maladaptive dieting, early dating, substance use, and feeling unsafe at school. A similar pattern of risk was found for boys, with the exception of dieting and self-harm behaviors. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) indicated these students were significantly more likely than nonharassed students to report victimization by peers and dating partners 2.5 years later (AOR for boys and girls, respectively; all p < .01), including sexual harassment (AOR: 2.45; 2.9), physical dating violence (AOR: 2.02; 3.73), and physical peer violence (AOR: 2.75; 2.79). Gr 9 sexual harassment also contributed significantly to emotional distress (AOR: 2.09; 2.24), problem substance use (AOR: 1.79; 2.04), and violent delinquency perpetration (AOR: 2.1; 3.34) 2.5 years later (boys and girls, respectively; all p < .01). Sexual harassment at the beginning of high school is a strong predictor of future victimization by peers and dating

  5. Peer victimization and subsequent disruptive behavior in school: The protective functions of anger regulation coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaynak, Ovgü; Lepore, Stephen J; Kliewer, Wendy; Jaggi, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Peer victimization is linked to adjustment problems in youth, including aggressive behavior, yet not all victimized youth are aggressive. The present study investigated whether youth's anger regulation coping might attenuate the positive association between peer victimization and subsequent aggressive behavior. Longitudinal data from 485 7th-grade students (55% female, mean age = 12.84 years) and their teachers were collected in the fall and six months later. Teacher ratings of youth aggressive behavior at follow-up were the primary outcome, with statistical adjustments for baseline aggressive behavior and demographics. Results from multilevel models showed significant interactive effects of baseline anger regulation and peer victimization on residualized teacher-rated aggressive behaviors that were consistent with the hypothesis that anger regulation played a protective role: under high levels of peer victimization, youth with higher levels of anger regulation displayed lower levels of aggressive behavior than their counterparts with lower levels of anger regulation. These findings suggest that targeting and improving students' ability to regulate their anger may be protective in the face of peer victimization and reduce subsequent aggressive behavior.

  6. Does School Connectedness Buffer the Impact of Peer Victimization on Early Adolescents' Subsequent Adjustment Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Alexandra; Pasch, Keryn E.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the role of school connectedness as a moderator of the associations between overt and relational forms of peer victimization and early adolescents' subsequent adjustment problems. Data were collected from 490 adolescents when they were initially in the sixth and seventh grades and again 1 year later. Regression analyses…

  7. Predicting Psychosocial Consequences of Homophobic Victimization in Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation examined the extent to which homophobic victimization predicted multiple indicators of psychological and social distress for middle school students (n = 143) during a 1-year assessment period. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that homophobic victimization significantly predicted increased anxiety and depression,…

  8. Histories of Childhood Victimization and Subsequent Mental Health Problems, Substance Use, and Sexual Victimization for a Sample of Incarcerated Women in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, Stephen J.; Pettus-Davis, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    Women are entering US prisons at nearly double the rate of men and are the fastest growing prison population. Current extant literature focuses on the prevalence of the incarceration of women, but few studies exist that emphasize the different trajectories to prison. For example, women prisoners have greater experiences of prior victimization, more reports of mental illness, and higher rates of illicit substance use. The purpose of this study was to understand the prevalence of childhood victimization and its association with adult mental health problems, substance abuse disorders, and further sexual victimization. The research team interviewed a random sample of 125 women prisoners soon to release from prison to gather information on their childhood physical and sexual victimization, mental health and substance abuse problems as an adult, and sexual victimization in the year preceding incarceration. Results indicate that women prisoners in this sample who were both physically and sexually victimized as a child were more likely to be hospitalized as an adult for a psychological or emotional problem. Women who were sexually victimized or both physically and sexually victimized were more likely to attempt suicide. Women who experienced physical victimization as children and women who were both physically and sexually victimized were more likely to have a substance use disorder and women who were sexually abused as children or both physically and sexually victimized were more likely to be sexually abused in the year preceding prison. This article ends with a discussion about prisons’ role in providing treatment for women prisoners and basing this treatment on women’s trajectories to prison, which disproportionately includes childhood victimization and subsequent mental health and substance use problems. PMID:23196054

  9. Peer victimization and social alienation: predicting deviant peer affiliation in middle school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Karen D; Lansford, Jennifer E; Agoston, Anna M; Sugimura, Niwako; Schwartz, David; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E

    2014-01-01

    Two prospective studies examined a theoretical model wherein exposure to victimization, resulting from early behavioral risk, heightens children's social alienation and subsequent deviant peer affiliation (DPA). Across Study 1 (298 girls, 287 boys; K-7th grade; 5-12 years) and Study 2 (338 girls, 298 boys; 2nd-6th grade; 8-12 years), children, parents, peers, and teachers reported on children's externalizing behavior and internalizing symptoms, peer victimization, social alienation, and DPA. Path analyses supported the proposed pathway: Peer victimization predicted social alienation, which then predicted DPA. Early externalizing behavior set this path in motion and made an independent contribution to DPA. This research identifies an important pathway through which externalizing behavior and consequent peer victimization launch children onto a risky social trajectory. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. Prioritizing Child Pornography Notifications: Predicting Direct Victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, W.; Schepers, K.; Kamphuis, J.H.; van Linden, S.; Bartling, S.

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of notifications for child pornography (CP) possession constitutes a capacity problem for police forces entrusted with the investigation of these offenses. Notifications of CP offenses in which the investigation reveals concurrent direct victimization, in the form of contact

  11. CHILDHOOD BULLYING VICTIMIZATION AND SUBSEQUENT OVERWEIGHT IN YOUNG ADULTHOOD: A COHORT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jessie R.; Arseneault, Louise; Odgers, Candice; Belsky, Daniel W.; Matthews, Timothy; Ambler, Antony; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Danese, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test whether bullied children have an elevated risk of being overweight in young adulthood, and whether this association is: (1) consistent with a dose-response relationship - namely its strength increases with the chronicity of victimization; (2) consistent across different measures of overweight; (3) specific to bullying and not explained by co-occurring maltreatment; (4) independent of key potential confounders; and (5) consistent with the temporal sequence of bullying preceding overweight. Method A representative birth cohort of 2,232 children was followed to age 18 years as part of the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study. Childhood bullying victimization was reported by mothers and children during primary school and early secondary school. At age 18, we assessed a categorical measure of overweight, body mass index (BMI), and waist-hip ratio. Indicators of overweight were also collected at ages 10 and 12. Co-twin body-mass and birth weight were used to index genetic and fetal liability to overweight, respectively. Results Bullied children were more likely to be overweight than non-bullied children at age 18, and this association was: (1) strongest in chronically bullied children (OR=1.69, 95% CI=1.21–2.35); (2) consistent across measures of overweight (BMI: b=1.12, 95% CI=0.37–1.87; waist-hip ratio: b=1.76, 95% CI=0.84–2.69); (3) specific to bullying and not explained by co-occurring maltreatment; (4) independent of socio-economic status, food insecurity, child mental health/cognition, and pubertal development; and (5) not present at the time of bullying victimization, and independent of childhood weight and genetic and fetal liability. Conclusion Childhood bullying victimization predicts overweight in young adulthood. PMID:27814340

  12. Violent Victimization in the Community and Children's Subsequent Peer Rejection: The Mediating Role of Emotion Dysregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brynn M.; Schwartz, David; Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer; Nakamoto, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a short-term longitudinal study of the relation between violent victimization in the community and peer rejection among 199 children (mean age = 9.02 years) attending two urban Los Angeles area elementary schools. We used a multi-informant approach to assess victimization by community violence, peer group victimization, peer…

  13. Theta and Gamma Oscillations during Encoding Predict Subsequent Recall

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sederberg, Per B; Kahana, Michael J; Howard, Marc W; Donner, Elizabeth J; Madsen, Joseph R

    2003-01-01

    ... to 64 Hz as participants studied lists of common nouns. Significant increases in oscillatory power during encoding predicted subsequent recall, with this effect predominantly in the 4-8 Hz (theta) and 28-64 Hz (gamma) frequency bands...

  14. Sexual Victimization and Subsequent Police Reporting by Gender Identity Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenderfer-Magruder, Lisa; Walls, N Eugene; Kattari, Shanna K; Whitfield, Darren L; Ramos, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Prevalence of sexual victimization among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) persons is frequently found to be higher than the prevalence reported by their heterosexual peers. Transgender individuals are often included solely as part of larger LGBTQ research samples, potentially obfuscating differences between sexual orientation and gender identity. In this study, the authors examined sexual assault/rape in a large convenience sample of LGBTQ adults (N = 1,124) by respondents' gender identity (cisgender, transgender) to determine whether differences exist in lifetime prevalence of sexual assault/rape and subsequent police reporting. Findings indicate transgender individuals report having experienced sexual assault/rape more than twice as frequently as cisgender LGBQ individuals. Authors found no statistically significant difference in reporting sexual violence to police. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  15. Lack of Control as a Predictive Factor for Stress-related Symptoms in Rape Victims

    OpenAIRE

    Sombke, Chad

    1993-01-01

    Researchers have agreed that most rape victims vii experience stress-related symptoms similar to post-traumatic stress disorder. There have also been numerous studies that have tried to predict the severity of those stress-related symptoms, but the literature is inconclusive. Lack of perceived control is consistently mentioned in the rape research literature as being present in rape victims, but no study has empirically examined the relationship between perceived control and a rape victim's s...

  16. Sexual victimization history predicts academic performance in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Majel R; Frazier, Patricia A; Greer, Christiaan; Paulsen, Jacob A; Howard, Kelli; Meredith, Liza N; Anders, Samantha L; Shallcross, Sandra L

    2016-11-01

    College women frequently report having experienced sexual victimization (SV) in their lifetime, including child sexual abuse and adolescent/adult sexual assault. Although the harmful mental health sequelae of SV have been extensively studied, recent research suggests that SV is also a risk factor for poorer college academic performance. The current studies examined whether exposure to SV uniquely predicted poorer college academic performance, even beyond contributions from three well-established predictors of academic performance: high school rank, composite standardized test scores (i.e., American College Testing [ACT]), and conscientiousness. Study 1 analyzed longitudinal data from a sample of female college students (N = 192) who were assessed at the beginning and end of one semester. SV predicted poorer cumulative end-of-semester grade point average (GPA) while controlling for well-established predictors of academic performance. Study 2 replicated these findings in a second longitudinal study of female college students (N = 390) and extended the analyses to include follow-up data on the freshmen and sophomore students (n = 206) 4 years later. SV predicted students' GPA in their final term at the university above the contributions of well-established academic predictors, and it was the only factor related to leaving college. These findings highlight the importance of expanding the scope of outcomes of SV to include academic performance, and they underscore the need to assess SV and other adverse experiences on college campuses to target students who may be at risk of poor performance or leaving college. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Predicting Presence of Offender's Criminal Record From Antisocial Lifestyle Indicators of Homicide Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santtila, Pekka; Runtti, Markus; Mokros, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore the possibility of predicting the presence of a criminal record in the background of a homicide offender on the basis of victim characteristics. Eight victim characteristics, as well as the presence or absence of offender criminal record and offender violent criminal record, were coded for 502 Finnish…

  18. Peer Victimization, Depressive Symptoms, and High Salivary Cortisol Predict Poorer Memory in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Duku, Eric; Becker, Suzanna; Schmidt, Louis A.; Nicol, Jeffrey; Muir, Cameron; MacMillan, Harriet

    2011-01-01

    The predictive relations of peer victimization, depressive symptoms, and salivary cortisol on memory in 168 children aged 12 at Time 1 (T1) were examined using a longitudinal design in which data were collected on four occasions over a 2-year period. Results indicated that: (1) peer victimization, depressive symptoms, and evening cortisol were…

  19. Predicting Psychosocial Maladjustment in Emerging Adulthood From High School Experiences of Peer Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Carie M; McDougall, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare recollections of sexual, physical, verbal, social, and cyber peer victimization experienced in high school in terms of depressed affect, self-esteem, and loneliness experienced in university. In all, 247 university students (70 males and 177 females; M = 20.62, SD = 2.54) completed online measures assessing retrospective accounts of their experiences of different forms of peer victimization during high school (i.e., sexual, physical, verbal, social, and cyber) and their current psychosocial adjustment (i.e., self-esteem, depressed affect, and loneliness). Three separate hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted to determine whether different indices of negative psychosocial adjustment are more strongly predicted by experiencing sexual or nonsexual forms of peer victimization. Although many university students recalled experiencing sexual peer victimization in high school at least once at an even higher percentage than verbal and social forms of peer victimization, the results of the present study suggest that social peer victimization in high school predicts higher levels of depressed affect and loneliness in university students than sexual peer victimization experienced in high school. Surprisingly, the young adults reporting higher levels of cyber peer victimization in high school were less lonely in university. Although the hypothesized relationships between each form of peer victimization and specific indices of psychosocial functioning were not consistently supported, these findings suggest that the form of peer victimization matters and may be differentially associated with well-being in emerging adulthood. It is important that future research explores how individual characteristics may further predict varied experiences of peer victimization and the long-term impact of those experiences.

  20. Predicting Online Harassment Victimization among a Juvenile Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossler, Adam M.; Holt, Thomas J.; May, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Online harassment can consist of threatening, worrisome, emotionally hurtful, or sexual messages delivered via an electronic medium that can lead victims to feel fear or distress much like real-world harassment and stalking. This activity is especially prevalent among middle and high school populations who frequently use technology as a means to…

  1. The role of trait anxiety in reducing the relationship between childhood exposure to violence/victimization and subsequent violent behavior among male delinquent youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jencks, Jennifer W; Burton, David L

    2013-08-01

    In this project, the authors examined the relationship trait anxiety has on incarcerated male adolescents' progression from childhood exposure to violence/victimization to violent behavior. Self-report survey data were analyzed to determine the youth's levels of trait anxiety, how the degree of childhood trauma was related to their level of anxiety, as well as whether their level of anxiety affected the relationship between trauma and subsequent frequency and severity of their delinquent acts using a moderation analysis. Anxiety significantly decreased the relationship between victimization and the commission of violence (F = 15.93, p < .001).

  2. Identity Centrality and In-Group Superiority Differentially Predict Reactions to Historical Victimization and Harm Doing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezarta Bilali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two U.S. studies report a differential effect of identity centrality and in-group superiority on reactions to in-group victimization and in-group harm-doing. Study 1 (N = 80 found that higher identity centrality predicted less justification for freely-recalled in-group victim events, whereas higher in-group superiority predicted more justification for freely-recalled in-group harm-doing events. Study 2 (N = 105 reexamined these findings in specific contexts of historical victimization (Pearl Harbor and harm-doing (Hiroshima and Nagasaki, finding that in-group superiority was a predictor of reactions to historical in-group harm-doing (justification, emotional reactions, importance of events, whereas centrality was a predictor of reactions to historical in-group victimization.

  3. Invited Address: Street Killings: Prediction of Homicide Offenders and Their Victims

    OpenAIRE

    Loeber, Rolf; Ahonen, Lia

    2013-01-01

    The article reports on childhood predictors (explanatory, behavioral and offenses) to predict homicide offenders in the longitudinal Pittsburgh Youth Study, and compares these predictors with predictors of homicide victims in the same study. This forms the basis for formulating antecedents that are shared between homicide offenders and homicide victims at a young age (ages 7–11) and antecedents that are not shared or are unique for each. Implications of the research are highlighted for early ...

  4. Moderators of the effect of peer victimization during fifth grade on subsequent symptoms of (anxious) depression: the roles of engagement in bullying and baseline symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Christopher C; Shahar, Golan

    2014-12-01

    Two hypothesized moderators of the effect of peer victimization during fifth grade on subsequent symptoms of (anxious) depression in sixth grade were examined: engagement in bullying and baseline fifth grade symptoms of (anxious) depression. Analyses were conducted on longitudinal data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Interview data from 1,081 fifth grade participants assessed peer victimization and engagement in bullying classmates during the school year. Self-reported symptoms of depression were measured in fifth and sixth grade with the Child Depression Inventory Short form. Additionally, maternal reports of child anxious depression were measured with the Child Behavior Checklist. Engagement in bullying and concurrent depression symptoms moderated the effect of peer victimization in fifth grade on child-reported symptoms of depression in sixth grade. The adverse effect of peer victimization was stronger for children with high levels of concurrent depression symptoms or engagement in bullying. Concurrent symptomatology also moderated the effects of peer victimization on mother-reported child anxious depression 1 year later.

  5. Peer Victimization and Harsh Parenting Predict Cognitive Diatheses for Depression in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David A; Sinclair-McBride, Keneisha R; Zelkowitz, Rachel; Bilsk, Sarah A; Roeder, Kathryn; Spinelli, Tawny

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined peer victimization and harsh parenting as longitudinal predictors of broadband and narrowband cognitions associated with the etiology of depression in children and adolescents. The sample consisted of 214 elementary and middle school students. At the start of the study, their average age was 12.2 years (SD = 1.0). The sex ratio was 112 girls to 102 boys. The sample was ethnically diverse (58.9% Caucasian, 34.1% African American, 10.7% Hispanic, 3.3% Asian, and 5.2% other). Children and their parents completed measures of peer victimization and harsh parenting. At two waves 1 year apart, children also completed questionnaire measures of negative and positive broadband cognitive style (e.g., personal failure, global self-worth) and narrowband self-perceptions (e.g., perceived social threat, social acceptance). Every Wave 2 cognitive variable was predicted by peer victimization or harsh parenting or both, even after controlling for a Wave 1 measure of the same cognitive variable. Peer victimization more consistently predicted narrowband social/interpersonal cognitions, whereas harsh parenting more consistently predicted broadband positive and negative cognitions. Furthermore, controlling for positive and negative self-cognitions eliminated a statistically significant effect of harsh parenting and peer victimization on depressive symptoms. Support emerged for the social learning of negative self-cognitions. Support also emerged for negative self-cognitions as a mediator of depressive symptoms. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  6. Peer Victimization and Harsh Parenting Predict Cognitive Diatheses for Depression in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David A.; Sinclair-McBride, Keneisha R.; Zelkowitz, Rachel; Bilsky, Sarah A.; Roeder, Kathryn; Spinelli, Tawny

    2015-01-01

    Objective The current study examined peer victimization and harsh parenting as longitudinal predictors of broadband and narrowband cognitions associated with the etiology of depression in children and adolescents. Method The sample consisted of 214 elementary and middle school students. At the start of the study, their average age was 12.2 years (SD = 1.0). The sex ratio was 112 girls to 102 boys. The sample was ethnically diverse (58.9% Caucasian, 34.1% African American, 10.7% Hispanic, 3.3% Asian, and 5.2% other). Children and their parents completed measures of peer victimization and harsh parenting. At two waves one year apart, children also completed questionnaire measures of negative and positive broadband cognitive style (e.g., personal failure, global self-worth) and narrowband self-perceptions (e.g., perceived social threat, social acceptance). Results Every wave 2 cognitive variable was predicted by peer victimization or harsh parenting or both, even after controlling for a wave 1 measure of the same cognitive variable. Peer victimization more consistently predicted narrowband social/interpersonal cognitions, whereas harsh parenting more consistently predicted broadband positive and negative cognitions. Furthermore, controlling for positive and negative self-cognitions eliminated a statistically significant effect of harsh parenting and peer victimization on depressive symptoms. Conclusions Support emerged for the social learning of negative self-cognitions. Support also emerged for negative self-cognitions as a mediator of depressive symptoms. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:25751612

  7. Internalizing symptoms and rumination: the prospective prediction of familial and peer emotional victimization experiences during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Benjamin G; Hamilton, Jessica L; Liu, Richard T; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2013-12-01

    Adolescence is marked by increases in stressful life events. Although research has demonstrated that depressed individuals generate stress, few studies investigate the generation of emotional victimization. The current study examined the effects of rumination and internalizing symptoms on experiences of peer victimization and familial emotional abuse. Participants were 216 adolescents (M = 14-years-old; 58% female; 47% African-American) who completed two assessments. Results showed that rumination predicted peer victimization and emotional abuse. The effect of rumination on emotional victimization is heightened for those who have higher levels of depression symptoms. That is, individuals who ruminate and who have depression symptoms experience increases in both peer emotional victimization and parental emotional abuse. This study builds upon prior research and indicates that rumination may be a stronger predictor of emotional victimization than symptoms of depression or anxiety. Identifying underlying mechanisms may yield targets for interventions aimed at addressing the chronic nature of depression. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Predicting Subsequent Task Performance From Goal Motivation and Goal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catherine Healy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated that the cognitive processes associated with goal pursuit can continue to interfere with unrelated tasks when a goal is unfulfilled. Drawing from the self-regulation and goal-striving literatures, the present study explored the impact of goal failure on subsequent cognitive and physical task performance. Furthermore, we examined if the autonomous or controlled motivation underpinning goal striving moderates the responses to goal failure. Athletes (75 male, 59 female, Mage = 19.90 years, SDage = 3.50 completed a cycling trial with the goal of covering a given distance in 8 minutes. Prior to the trial, their motivation was primed using a video. During the trial they were provided with manipulated performance feedback, thus creating conditions of goal success or failure. No differences emerged in the responses to goal failure between the primed motivation or performance feedback conditions. We make recommendations for future research into how individuals can deal with failure in goal striving.

  9. Predicting subsequent task performance from goal motivation and goal failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Laura C.; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Stewart, Brandon D.; Duda, Joan L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that the cognitive processes associated with goal pursuit can continue to interfere with unrelated tasks when a goal is unfulfilled. Drawing from the self-regulation and goal-striving literatures, the present study explored the impact of goal failure on subsequent cognitive and physical task performance. Furthermore, we examined if the autonomous or controlled motivation underpinning goal striving moderates the responses to goal failure. Athletes (75 male, 59 female, Mage = 19.90 years, SDage = 3.50) completed a cycling trial with the goal of covering a given distance in 8 min. Prior to the trial, their motivation was primed using a video. During the trial they were provided with manipulated performance feedback, thus creating conditions of goal success or failure. No differences emerged in the responses to goal failure between the primed motivation or performance feedback conditions. We make recommendations for future research into how individuals can deal with failure in goal striving. PMID:26191029

  10. LSD-induced entropic brain activity predicts subsequent personality change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, A V; Kaelen, M; Lövdén, M; Nilsson, J; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J; Carhart-Harris, R L

    2016-09-01

    Personality is known to be relatively stable throughout adulthood. Nevertheless, it has been shown that major life events with high personal significance, including experiences engendered by psychedelic drugs, can have an enduring impact on some core facets of personality. In the present, balanced-order, placebo-controlled study, we investigated biological predictors of post-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) changes in personality. Nineteen healthy adults underwent resting state functional MRI scans under LSD (75µg, I.V.) and placebo (saline I.V.). The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) was completed at screening and 2 weeks after LSD/placebo. Scanning sessions consisted of three 7.5-min eyes-closed resting-state scans, one of which involved music listening. A standardized preprocessing pipeline was used to extract measures of sample entropy, which characterizes the predictability of an fMRI time-series. Mixed-effects models were used to evaluate drug-induced shifts in brain entropy and their relationship with the observed increases in the personality trait openness at the 2-week follow-up. Overall, LSD had a pronounced global effect on brain entropy, increasing it in both sensory and hierarchically higher networks across multiple time scales. These shifts predicted enduring increases in trait openness. Moreover, the predictive power of the entropy increases was greatest for the music-listening scans and when "ego-dissolution" was reported during the acute experience. These results shed new light on how LSD-induced shifts in brain dynamics and concomitant subjective experience can be predictive of lasting changes in personality. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3203-3213, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Adolescent sexual victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P

    2012-01-01

    at baseline and first time APSV during a 6-month period. Data analysis was a binary logistic regression analysis. Number of sexual partners and displaying sexual risk behaviors significantly predicted subsequent first time peer-on-peer sexual victimization, whereas a history of child sexual abuse, early...

  12. Invited address: Street killings: prediction of homicide offenders and their victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Rolf; Ahonen, Lia

    2013-11-01

    The article reports on childhood predictors (explanatory, behavioral and offenses) to predict homicide offenders in the longitudinal Pittsburgh Youth Study, and compares these predictors with predictors of homicide victims in the same study. This forms the basis for formulating antecedents that are shared between homicide offenders and homicide victims at a young age (ages 7–11) and antecedents that are not shared or are unique for each. Implications of the research are highlighted for early intervention and for interventions with high-risk offenders.

  13. Invited Address: Street Killings: Prediction of Homicide Offenders and Their Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Rolf; Ahonen, Lia

    2016-01-01

    The article reports on childhood predictors (explanatory, behavioral and offenses) to predict homicide offenders in the longitudinal Pittsburgh Youth Study, and compares these predictors with predictors of homicide victims in the same study. This forms the basis for formulating antecedents that are shared between homicide offenders and homicide victims at a young age (ages 7–11) and antecedents that are not shared or are unique for each. Implications of the research are highlighted for early intervention and for interventions with high-risk offenders. PMID:24122366

  14. Peer Victimization and Social Alienation: Predicting Deviant Peer Affiliation in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Karen D.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Agoston, Anna M.; Sugimura, Niwako; Schwartz, David; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Two prospective studies examined a theoretical model wherein exposure to victimization, resulting from early behavioral risk, heightens children's social alienation and subsequent deviant peer affiliation (DPA). Across Study 1 (298 girls, 287 boys; K-7th grade; 5-12 years) and Study 2 (338 girls, 298 boys; 2nd-6th grade; 8-12 years),…

  15. Online gaming and risks predict cyberbullying perpetration and victimization in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Miao, Nae-Fang; Chen, Ping-Hung; Lee, Ching-Mei; Huang, Tzu-Fu; Pan, Yun-Chieh

    2015-02-01

    The present study examined factors associated with the emergence and cessation of youth cyberbullying and victimization in Taiwan. A total of 2,315 students from 26 high schools were assessed in the 10th grade, with follow-up performed in the 11th grade. Self-administered questionnaires were collected in 2010 and 2011. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to examine the factors. Multivariate analysis results indicated that higher levels of risk factors (online game use, exposure to violence in media, internet risk behaviors, cyber/school bullying experiences) in the 10th grade coupled with an increase in risk factors from grades 10 to 11 could be used to predict the emergence of cyberbullying perpetration/victimization. In contrast, lower levels of risk factors in the 10th grade and higher levels of protective factors coupled with a decrease in risk factors predicted the cessation of cyberbullying perpetration/victimization. Online game use, exposure to violence in media, Internet risk behaviors, and cyber/school bullying experiences can be used to predict the emergence and cessation of youth cyberbullying perpetration and victimization.

  16. Peer victimization predicts heightened inflammatory reactivity to social stress in cognitively vulnerable adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giletta, Matteo; Slavich, George M; Rudolph, Karen D; Hastings, Paul D; Nock, Matthew K; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2017-09-11

    During adolescence, peer victimization is a potent type of social stressor that can confer enduring risk for poor mental and physical health. Given recent research implicating inflammation in promoting a variety of serious mental and physical health problems, this study examined the role that peer victimization and cognitive vulnerability (i.e. negative cognitive styles and hopelessness) play in shaping adolescents' pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to an acute social stressor. Adolescent girls at risk for psychopathology (n = 157; Mage  = 14.73 years; SD = 1.38) were exposed to a laboratory-based social stressor before and after which we assessed salivary levels of three key pro-inflammatory cytokines - interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). As hypothesized, adolescents with greater peer victimization exposure exhibited greater increases in IL-6 and IL1-β in response to the laboratory-based social stressor. Moreover, for all three cytokines individually, as well as for a combined latent factor of inflammation, peer victimization predicted enhanced inflammatory responding most strongly for adolescents with high levels of hopelessness. The findings reveal a biological pathway by which peer victimization may interact with cognitive vulnerability to influence health in adolescence. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  17. Student Perceptions of Aggressive Behaviors and Predictive Patterns of Perpetration and Victimization: The Role of Age and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Brenda; Kraus, Shane W.; Ceccherini, Traci

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated a rural sample of boys' and girls' (N = 205) perceptions of what behaviors constitute bullying and examined whether being a victim of aggression was predictive of perpetrating physical and relational aggression. Results indicated that predictors of perpetrating relational aggression included victimization of relational…

  18. Childhood Victimization and Crime Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…

  19. Childhood trajectories of peer victimization and prediction of mental health outcomes in midadolescence: a longitudinal population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, Marie-Claude; Boivin, Michel; Arseneault, Louise; Renaud, Johanne; Perret, Léa C.; Turecki, Gustavo; Michel, Gregory; Salla, Julie; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E.; Côté, Sylvana M.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to peer victimization is relatively common. However, little is known about its developmental course and its effect on impairment associated with mental illnesses. We aimed to identify groups of children following differential trajectories of peer victimization from ages 6 to 13 years and to examine predictive associations of these trajectories with mental health in adolescence. METHODS: Participants were members of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, a prospective cohort of 2120 children born in 1997/98 who were followed until age 15 years. We included 1363 participants with self-reported victimization from ages 6 to 13 years and data available on their mental health status at 15 years. RESULTS: We identified 3 trajectories of peer victimization. The 2 prevailing groups were participants with little or moderate exposure to victimization (441/1685 [26.2%] and 1000/1685 [59.3%], respectively); the third group (244 [14.5%]) had been chronically exposed to the most severe and long-lasting levels of victimization. The most severely victimized individuals had greater odds of reporting debilitating depressive or dysthymic symptoms (odds ratio [OR] 2.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27–5.17), debilitating generalized anxiety problems (OR 3.27, CI 1.64–6.51) and suicidality (OR 3.46, CI 1.53–7.81) at 15 years than those exposed to the lowest levels of victimization, after adjustment for sex, childhood mental health, family hardship and victimization perpetration. The association with suicidality remained significant after controlling for concurrent symptoms of depression or dysthymia and generalized anxiety problems. INTERPRETATION: Adolescents who were most severely victimized by peers had an increased risk of experiencing severe symptoms consistent with mental health problems. Given that peer victimization trajectories are established early on, interventions to reduce the risk of being victimized should start before enrolment

  20. Longitudinal prediction and concurrent functioning of adolescent girls demonstrating various profiles of dating violence and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, Debbie; Crooks, Claire V; Wolfe, David A; McIsaac, Caroline; Hughes, Ray; Jaffe, Peter G

    2012-08-01

    Adolescent girls are involved in physical dating violence as both perpetrators and victims, and there are negative consequences associated with each of these behaviors. This article used a prospective design with 519 girls dating in grade 9 to predict profiles of dating violence in grade 11 based on relationships with families of origin (child maltreatment experiences, harsh parenting), and peers (harassment, delinquency, relational aggression). In addition, dating violence profiles were compared on numerous indices of adjustment (school connectedness, grades, self-efficacy and community connectedness) and maladjustment (suicide attempts, distress, delinquency, sexual behavior) for descriptive purposes. The most common profile was no dating violence (n = 367) followed by mutual violence (n = 81). Smaller numbers of girls reported victimization or perpetration only (ns = 39 and 32, respectively). Predicting grade 11 dating violence profile membership from grade 9 relationships was limited, although delinquency, parental rejection, and sexual harassment perpetration predicted membership to the mutually violent group, and delinquency predicted the perpetrator-only group. Compared to the non-violent group, the mutually violent girls in grade 11 had lower grades, poorer self-efficacy, and lower school connectedness and community involvement. Furthermore, they had higher rates of peer aggression and delinquency, were less likely to use condoms and were much more likely to have considered suicide. There were fewer differences among the profiles for girls involved with dating violence. In addition, the victims-only group reported higher rates of sexual intercourse, comparable to the mutually violent group and those involved in nonviolent relationships. Implications for prevention and intervention are highlighted.

  1. From crime scene actions in stranger rape to prediction of rapist type: single-victim or serial rapist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corovic, Jelena; Christianson, Sven Å; Bergman, Lars R

    2012-01-01

    The differences in crime scene actions in cases of stranger rape committed by convicted offenders were examined between 31 single-victim rapists and 35 serial rapists. Data were collected from police files, court verdicts, psychiatric evaluations, and criminal records. Findings indicate that the serial rapists were more criminally sophisticated than the single-victim rapists, during their first and second rapes. The single-victim rapists were significantly more likely to engage in the interpersonal involvement behavior of kissing the victim, and to engage in pre-assault alcohol use, than the serial rapists. There was, however, no significant difference in physically violent or sexual behaviors. To investigate the possibility of predicting rapist type, logistic regression analyses were performed. Results indicate that three behaviors in conjunction, kissed victim, controlled victim, and offender drank alcohol before the offense, predicted whether an unknown offender is a single-victim or serial rapist with a classification accuracy of 80.4%. The findings have implications for the classification of stranger rapists in offender profiling. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Being the victim of violence during a date predicts next-day cannabis use among female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; McNulty, James K; Moore, Todd M; Stuart, Gregory L

    2016-03-01

    To determine whether being the victim of violence during a date among female college students on any given day predicted cannabis and alcohol use the following day. Between August 2010 and January 2013, we conducted a 90-day daily diary study with 174 females who were in current dating relationships from a large university in the Southeastern United States. The mean age of the sample was 18.70 years [standard deviation (SD) = 1.27]; participants were primarily non-Hispanic Caucasian (86.2%). Participants answered questions about contact with their dating partner, being the victim of violence (physical and sexual) during a date, physical perpetration, alcohol use and cannabis use for up to 90 days. The mean number of diaries completed was 54.90 (SD = 27.66). The primary outcomes were self-reported daily cannabis and alcohol use. Being the victim of violence during a date was assessed each day using self-report items from the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales and Sexual Experiences Survey. Being the victim of violence during a date predicted cannabis use the following day (odds ratio = 2.25), and this effect held when controlling for contact with a partner, cannabis and alcohol use the previous day, physical perpetration the previous day, alcohol use the same day and the overall likelihood of being the victim of violence during a date, substance use and physical perpetration. Being the victim of violence during a date did not predict next-day alcohol use. Being the victim of sexual and physical violence during a date did not differentially predict next-day substance use. Among female college students in the United States, being the victim of violence during a date appears to increase the risk for cannabis use the following day.

  3. Discovery of serum biomarkers predicting development of a subsequent depressive episode in social anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottschalk, M.G.; Cooper, J.D.; Chan, M.K.; Bot, M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Bann, S.

    2015-01-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is strongly associated with the subsequent development of a depressive disorder (major depressive disorder or dysthymia), no underlying biological risk factors are known. We aimed to identify biomarkers which predict depressive episodes in SAD patients over a

  4. Image-guided virtual autopsy findings of gunshot victims performed with multi-slice computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging and subsequent correlation between radiology and autopsy findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thali, Michael J; Yen, Kathrin; Vock, Peter; Ozdoba, Christoph; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Sonnenschein, Martin; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2003-12-17

    Because the use of radiology in modern forensic medicine has been, until today, mostly restricted to conventional X-rays, which reduces a 3D body to a 2D projection, a detailed 3D documentation of a gunshot's wound ballistic effects was not possible. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether the progress in imaging techniques over the last years has made it possible to establish an observer-independent and reproducible forensic assessment using multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologies for the documentation and analysis of gunshot wounds. The bodies of eight gunshot victims were scanned by MSCT and by MRI; the data of these imaging techniques were post-processed on a workstation, interpreted and subsequently correlated with the findings of classical autopsy. With the spiral CT and MRI examinations and the subsequent 2D multi-planar reformation (MPR) and 3D shaded surface display (SSD) reconstruction, the entire gunshot-created complex skull fractures and brain injuries (such as wound channels and deeply-driven bone splinters) could be documented in complete and graphic detail. CT and MRI also documented vital reaction to the gunshot by demonstrating air emboli in the heart and blood vessels and the classic pattern of blood aspiration to the lung. Gunshot residues deposited within and under the skin were visible. In conclusion, we think that the radiological methods of MSCT and MRI have the potential to become a routine "virtual autopsy" tool in the future. Bullets and relevant histological samples from specific sites then might be won in image-guided minimally invasive fashion via percutaneous biopsy. The rapid application of developing radiological methods may lead to new horizons in forensic documentation and intravital as well as postmortem examination.

  5. Usefulness of a multiplying factor in predicting the final number of victims during a mass casualty incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurin, Olga; Bignand, Michel; Jost, Daniel; Travers, Stéphane; Raclot, Stéphane; Trichereau, Julie; Bon, Olivier; Frattini, Benoit; Loeb, Thomas; Lecarpentier, Eric; Noto, René; Poncelin de Raucourt, Gaëtan; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre

    2017-10-01

    Whenever a mass casualty incident (MCI) occurs, it is essential to anticipate the final number of victims to dispatch the adequate number of ambulances. In France, the custom is to multiply the initial number of prehospital victims by 2-4 to predict the final number. However, no one has yet validated this multiplying factor (MF) as a predictive tool. We aimed to build a statistical model to predict the final number of victims from their initial count. We observed retrospectively over 30 years of MCIs triggered in a large urban area. We considered three types of events: explosions, fires, and road traffic accidents. We collected the initial and final numbers of victims, with distinction between deaths, critical victims (T1), and delayed or minimal victims (T2-T3). The MF was calculated for each category of victims according to each type of event. Using a Poisson multivariate regression, we calculated the incidence risk ratio (IRR) of the final number of T1 as a function of the initial deaths and the initial T2-T3 counts, while controlling for potential confounding variables. Sixty-eight MCIs were included. The final number of T1 increased with the initial incidence of deaths [IRR: 1.8 (1.4-2.2)], the initial number of T2-T3 being greater than 12 [IRR: 1.6 (1.3-2.1)], and the presence of one or more explosion [IRR: 1.4 (1.1-1.8)]. The MF seems to be an appealing decision-making tool to anticipate the need for ambulance resources. In explosive MCIs, we recommend multiplying T1 by 1.4 to estimate final count and the need for supplementary advanced life support teams.

  6. Predicting School Bullying Victimization: Focusing on Individual and School Environmental/Security Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokjin Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bullying behavior continues to be a salient social and health-related issue of importance to educators, criminal justice practitioners, and academicians across the country. While discourse on school bullying is abundant, previous studies are limited in explaining the predictive effect of factors such as individual/demographic variables, school environmental variables, and school antibullying preventive measures. Using a nationally representative sample of 12,987 private and public school students in the United States, the current study examines school safety measures and students’ perceptions about school environments (or climate, especially school rules and punishment. Findings reveal that the variables of security guards, fairness and awareness of school rules, gangs and guns at school, students misbehaving, and teachers’ punishment of students were statistically significant predictors of bullying victimization. Implications of these findings for school anti-bullying programs as well as directions for future research are discussed.

  7. Neural correlates of encoding processes predicting subsequent cued recall and source memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Lucie; Isingrini, Michel; Bouazzaoui, Badiâa; Fay, Séverine

    2013-03-06

    In this experiment, event-related potentials were used to examine whether the neural correlates of encoding processes predicting subsequent successful recall differed from those predicting successful source memory retrieval. During encoding, participants studied lists of words and were instructed to memorize each word and the list in which it occurred. At test, they had to complete stems (the first four letters) with a studied word and then make a judgment of the initial temporal context (i.e. list). Event-related potentials recorded during encoding were segregated according to subsequent memory performance to examine subsequent memory effects (SMEs) reflecting successful cued recall (cued recall SME) and successful source retrieval (source memory SME). Data showed a cued recall SME on parietal electrode sites from 400 to 1200 ms and a late inversed cued recall SME on frontal sites in the 1200-1400 ms period. Moreover, a source memory SME was reported from 400 to 1400 ms on frontal areas. These findings indicate that patterns of encoding-related activity predicting successful recall and source memory are clearly dissociated.

  8. Neuroticism Predicts Subsequent Risk of Major Depression for Whites but Not Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultural and ethnic differences in psychosocial and medical correlates of negative affect are well documented. This study aimed to compare blacks and whites for the predictive role of baseline neuroticism (N on subsequent risk of major depressive episodes (MDD 25 years later. Data came from the Americans’ Changing Lives (ACL Study, 1986–2011. We used data on 1219 individuals (847 whites and 372 blacks who had data on baseline N in 1986 and future MDD in 2011. The main predictor of interest was baseline N, measured using three items in 1986. The main outcome was 12 months MDD measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI at 2011. Covariates included baseline demographics (age and gender, socioeconomics (education and income, depressive symptoms [Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D], stress, health behaviors (smoking and driking, and physical health [chronic medical conditions, obesity, and self-rated health (SRH] measured in 1986. Logistic regressions were used to test the predictive role of baseline N on subsequent risk of MDD 25 years later, net of covariates. The models were estimated in the pooled sample, as well as blacks and whites. In the pooled sample, baseline N predicted subsequent risk of MDD 25 years later (OR = 2.23, 95%CI = 1.14–4.34, net of covariates. We also found a marginally significant interaction between race and baseline N on subsequent risk of MDD (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.12–1.12, suggesting a stronger effect for whites compared to blacks. In race-specific models, among whites (OR = 2.55; 95% CI = 1.22–5.32 but not blacks (OR = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.24–3.39, baseline N predicted subsequent risk of MDD. Black-white differences in socioeconomics and physical health could not explain the racial differences in the link between N and MDD. Blacks and whites differ in the salience of baseline N as a psychological determinant of MDD risk over a long period of time. This finding

  9. Weight loss percentage prediction of subsequent neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in exclusively breastfed neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Rui-Jane; Chou, Hung-Chieh; Chang, Yu-Hsun; Chen, Mei-Huei; Chen, Chien-Yi; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Tsao, Po-Nien

    2012-02-01

    The incidence of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in our hospital has increased since the implementation of breastfeeding promotion. Inadequate breastfeeding results in reduced calorie intake, weight loss and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Supplementary feeding is required if breastfeeding proves inadequate. However, the optimal weight loss cut-off value for supplementary feeding is unknown. We collected records for all healthy neonates with a gestational age ≥35 weeks and birth body weight (BBW) above 2500 g, born between March 2002 and July 2005, from our nursery. A total of 1979 neonates were reviewed, 874 of whom were exclusively breastfed and subsequently enrolled in this study. Only infants who were breastfed exclusively were enrolled; 219 of these infants (25.1%) presented significant hyperbilirubinemia after 72 hours of age. Infants with early-onset (BBW after 48 hours and weight loss ≥11% of BBW after 72 hours as the cut-off values for the prediction of subsequent hyperbilirubinemia, negative predictive values were 77.7% and 76.8%, respectively. This study documented the relationship between weight loss percentage and subsequent hyperbilirubinemia incidence. Our data provide a basis for determination of an optimal weight loss percentage cut-off value that indicates supplementary feeding. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Peer victimization predicts psychological symptoms beyond the effects of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansen, Lisa Margareta; Iffland, Benjamin; Neuner, Frank

    2014-12-30

    Experiences of peer victimization have been repeatedly associated with psychological symptoms and disorders. However, as peer victimization is correlated with child maltreatment occurring within the family, it remains unclear whether the pathological effect of peer victimization is an artifact that can be attributed to previous aversive events. To separate the effects of peer victimization from child maltreatment, we studied both event types as well as psychological symptoms in a mixed clinical sample of ambulant and psychiatric patients (N=168), a self-selected community sample recruited through the internet (N=995), and a student sample (N=272). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that, after controlling for child maltreatment, peer victimization accounted for an incremental proportion of the variance of different symptom dimensions in each sample. These results indicate that peer victimization is an independent predictor of psychopathology.

  11. The Past Is Present: Representations of Parents, Friends, and Romantic Partners Predict Subsequent Romantic Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Wyndol; Collibee, Charlene

    2016-12-28

    This study examined how representations of parent-child relationships, friendships, and past romantic relationships are related to subsequent romantic representations. Two-hundred 10th graders (100 female; Mage  = 15.87 years) from diverse neighborhoods in a Western U.S. city were administered questionnaires and were interviewed to assess avoidant and anxious representations of their relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners. Participants then completed similar questionnaires and interviews about their romantic representations six more times over the next 7.5 years. Growth curve analyses revealed that representations of relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners each uniquely predicted subsequent romantic representations across development. Consistent with attachment and behavioral systems theory, representations of romantic relationships are revised by representations and experiences in other relationships. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. Mapping Developmental Precursors of Cyber-Aggression: Trajectories of Risk Predict Perpetration and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modecki, Kathryn L.; Barber, Bonnie L.; Vernon, Lynnette

    2013-01-01

    Technologically mediated contexts are social arenas in which adolescents can be both perpetrators and victims of aggression. Yet, there remains little understanding of the developmental etiology of cyber aggression, itself, as experienced by either perpetrators or victims. The current study examines 3-year latent within-person trajectories of…

  13. Bullying and Victimization: Predictive Role of Individual, Parental, and Academic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atik, Gökhan; Güneri, Oya Yerin

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the roles of individual factors (age, gender, locus of control, self-esteem, and loneliness), parenting style, and academic achievement in discriminating students involved in bullying (as bullies, victims, and bully/victims) from those not involved. Participants comprised 742 middle school students (393 females, 349 males). The…

  14. Prospective Prediction of Women's Sexual Victimization by Intimate and Nonintimate Male Perpetrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol; Livingston, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    Although behavioral risk factors such as substance use have been hypothesized to increase women's vulnerability to sexual victimization, prospective studies provide mixed empirical support. In the current prospective study, the authors considered substance use, sexual activity, and sexual assertiveness as predictors of sexual victimization from…

  15. Discovery of serum biomarkers predicting development of a subsequent depressive episode in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, M G; Cooper, J D; Chan, M K; Bot, M; Penninx, B W J H; Bahn, S

    2015-08-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is strongly associated with the subsequent development of a depressive disorder (major depressive disorder or dysthymia), no underlying biological risk factors are known. We aimed to identify biomarkers which predict depressive episodes in SAD patients over a 2-year follow-up period. One hundred sixty-five multiplexed immunoassay analytes were investigated in blood serum of 143 SAD patients without co-morbid depressive disorders, recruited within the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Predictive performance of identified biomarkers, clinical variables and self-report inventories was assessed using receiver operating characteristics curves (ROC) and represented by the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Stepwise logistic regression resulted in the selection of four serum analytes (AXL receptor tyrosine kinase, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, vitronectin, collagen IV) and four additional variables (Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Beck Anxiety Inventory somatic subscale, depressive disorder lifetime diagnosis, BMI) as optimal set of patient parameters. When combined, an AUC of 0.86 was achieved for the identification of SAD individuals who later developed a depressive disorder. Throughout our analyses, biomarkers yielded superior discriminative performance compared to clinical variables and self-report inventories alone. We report the discovery of a serum marker panel with good predictive performance to identify SAD individuals prone to develop subsequent depressive episodes in a naturalistic cohort design. Furthermore, we emphasise the importance to combine biological markers, clinical variables and self-report inventories for disease course predictions in psychiatry. Following replication in independent cohorts, validated biomarkers could help to identify SAD patients at risk of developing a depressive disorder, thus facilitating early intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Predictive validity of addiction treatment clinicians’ post-training contingency management skills for subsequent clinical outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzler, Bryan; Beadnell, Blair; Donovan, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    In the context of a contingency management (CM) implementation/effectiveness hybrid trial, the post-training implementation domains of direct-care clinicians (N=19) were examined in relation to a targeted clinical outcome of subsequently CM-exposed clients. Clinicians’ CM skillfulness, a behavioral measure of their capability to skillfully deliver the intended CM intervention, was found to be a robust and specific predictor of their subsequent client outcomes. Analyses also revealed CM skillfulness to: 1) fully mediate an association between a general therapeutic effectiveness and client outcome, 2) partially mediate an association of in-training exposure to CM and client outcome, and 3) be comprised of six component clinical practice behaviors that each contributed meaningfully to this behavior fidelity index. Study findings offer preliminary evidence of the predictive validity of post-training CM skillfulness for subsequent client outcomes, and inform suggestions for the design and delivery of skills-focused CM training curricula for the addiction treatment workforce. PMID:26733276

  17. Predictive Validity of Addiction Treatment Clinicians' Post-Training Contingency Management Skills for Subsequent Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzler, Bryan; Beadnell, Blair; Donovan, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    In the context of a contingency management (CM) implementation/effectiveness hybrid trial, the post-training implementation domains of direct-care clinicians (N=19) were examined in relation to a targeted clinical outcome of subsequently CM-exposed clients. Clinicians' CM skillfulness, a behavioral measure of their capability to skillfully deliver the intended CM intervention, was found to be a robust and specific predictor of their subsequent client outcomes. Analyses also revealed CM skillfulness to: (1) fully mediate an association between a general therapeutic effectiveness and client outcome, (2) partially mediate an association of in-training exposure to CM and client outcome, and (3) be composed of six component clinical practice behaviors that each contributed meaningfully to this behavior fidelity index. Study findings offer preliminary evidence of the predictive validity of post-training CM skillfulness for subsequent client outcomes, and inform suggestions for the design and delivery of skills-focused CM training curricula for the addiction treatment workforce. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Predicting date rape perceptions: the effects of gender, gender role attitudes, and victim resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Katherine A; McCloskey, Kathy A

    2013-08-01

    The effects of participant gender and victim resistance on date rape perceptions have been inconsistent. Participant gender role attitudes may contribute to these inconsistencies. We found women with traditional gender role attitudes were least likely to agree that the perpetrator was guilty of rape. Participants were less convinced of the perpetrator's guilt when the victim resisted verbally than when she resisted verbally and physically, and participants with traditional gender role attitudes were less convinced of the negative impact on the victim when she resisted verbally than when she resisted verbally and physically. Perhaps previous inconsistencies resulted from varying proportions of men and women with traditional versus liberal gender role attitudes in the samples.

  19. Objectively measured physical activity predicts subsequent energy intake in 300 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Larry A

    2017-01-01

    To determine if 7 d physical activity (PA) predicts energy intake over the same days and if PA on a given day predicts energy intake on the same day, the next day or subsequent days. A 7 d prospective investigation. PA was measured using accelerometers worn for seven consecutive days. During the same week, total energy intake (including alcohol) was assessed using weighed food records. Twenty cities in the USA. Three hundred middle-aged women. After controlling for the covariates, energy intake was 36 (se 8) kJ higher for each additional 100000 activity counts (F=19·0, Penergy intake of 8364 (sd 1235) kJ/d (1998 (sd 295) kcal/d), those with Moderate PA (n 150) consumed 8523 (sd 1264) kJ/d (2036 (sd 302) kcal/d) and those with High PA (n 75) consumed 9079 (sd 1473) kJ/d (2169 (sd 352) kcal/d; F=6·4, P=0·0019), a 5023 kJ/d (1200 kcal/d) difference between the High and Low PA groups. PA on a given day was predictive of energy consumption on the same day on four of the seven monitored days, and was predictive of energy intake the next day, with five of six associations significant. PA was not consistently predictive of energy intake on days beyond the next day. Over 7 d, PA and energy consumption tend to be positively related. Considered day to day, increased PA is weakly associated with increased energy intake the following day and, to a lesser extent, the same day. Therefore, managing weight by increasing PA may not result in the energy deficit expected.

  20. Repetition related changes in activation and functional connectivity in hippocampus predict subsequent memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manelis, Anna; Paynter, Christopher A; Wheeler, Mark E; Reder, Lynne M

    2013-01-01

    Using fMRI, this study examined the relationship between repetition-related changes in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) activation during encoding and subsequent memory for similarity of repetitions. During scanning, subjects classified pictures of objects as natural or man-made. Each object-type was judged twice with presentations of either identical pictures or pictures of different exemplars of the same object. After scanning, a surprise recognition test required subjects to decide whether a probe word corresponded to pictures judged previously. When a subject judged the word as "old," a second judgment was made concerning the physical similarity of the two pictures. Repetition related changes in MTL activation varied depending on whether or not subjects could correctly state that pictures were different. Moreover, psychophysiological interactions analyses showed that accuracy in recalling whether the two pictures were different was predicted by repetition-related changes in the functional connectivity of MTL with frontal regions. Specifically, correct recollection was predicted by increased connectivity between the left posterior hippocampus and the right inferior frontal gyrus, and also by decreased connectivity between the left posterior hippocampus and the left precentral gyrus on the second stimulus presentation. The opposite pattern was found for trials that were incorrectly judged on the nature of the repetition. These results suggest that successful encoding is predicted by a combination of increases and decreases in both the MTL activation and functional connectivity, and not merely by increases in activation and connectivity as suggested previously. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Do Personality and Organizational Politics Predict Workplace Victimization? A Study among Ghanaian Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwesi Amponsah-Tawiah

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The study demonstrates that compared with personal characteristics such as personality traits, work environment factors such as organizational politics have a stronger influence on the occurrence of workplace victimization.

  2. Interaction between hippocampal and striatal systems predicts subsequent consolidation of motor sequence memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Albouy

    Full Text Available The development of fast and reproducible motor behavior is a crucial human capacity. The aim of the present study was to address the relationship between the implementation of consistent behavior during initial training on a sequential motor task (the Finger Tapping Task and subsequent sleep-dependent motor sequence memory consolidation, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and total sleep deprivation protocol. Our behavioral results indicated significant offline gains in performance speed after sleep whereas performance was only stabilized, but not enhanced, after sleep deprivation. At the cerebral level, we previously showed that responses in the caudate nucleus increase, in parallel to a decrease in its functional connectivity with frontal areas, as performance became more consistent. Here, the strength of the competitive interaction, assessed through functional connectivity analyses, between the caudate nucleus and hippocampo-frontal areas during initial training, predicted delayed gains in performance at retest in sleepers but not in sleep-deprived subjects. Moreover, during retest, responses increased in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex in sleepers whereas in sleep-deprived subjects, responses increased in the putamen and cingulate cortex. Our results suggest that the strength of the competitive interplay between the striatum and the hippocampus, participating in the implementation of consistent motor behavior during initial training, conditions subsequent motor sequence memory consolidation. The latter process appears to be supported by a reorganisation of cerebral activity in hippocampo-neocortical networks after sleep.

  3. Early gross motor skills predict the subsequent development of language in children with autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Motor milestones such as the onset of walking are important developmental markers, not only for later motor skills but also for more widespread social‐cognitive development. The aim of the current study was to test whether gross motor abilities, specifically the onset of walking, predicted the subsequent rate of language development in a large cohort of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: We ran growth curve models for expressive and receptive language measured at 2, 3, 5 and 9 years in 209 autistic children. Measures of gross motor, visual reception and autism symptoms were collected at the 2 year visit. In Model 1, walking onset was included as a predictor of the slope of language development. Model 2 included a measure of non‐verbal IQ and autism symptom severity as covariates. The final model, Model 3, additionally covaried for gross motor ability. Results: In the first model, parent‐reported age of walking onset significantly predicted the subsequent rate of language development although the relationship became non‐significant when gross motor skill, non‐verbal ability and autism severity scores were included (Models 2 & 3). Gross motor score, however, did remain a significant predictor of both expressive and receptive language development. Conclusions: Taken together, the model results provide some evidence that early motor abilities in young children with ASD can have longitudinal cross‐domain influences, potentially contributing, in part, to the linguistic difficulties that characterise ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 993–1001. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research PMID:26692550

  4. fMRI Response to Alcohol Pictures Predicts Subsequent Transition to Heavy Drinking in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dager, Alecia D.; Anderson, Beth M.; Rosen, Rivkah; Khadka, Sabin; Sawyer, Broderick; Jiantonio-Kelly, Rachel E.; Austad, Carol S.; Raskin, Sarah A.; Tennen, Howard; Wood, Rebecca M.; Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Young adults show the highest rates of escalating drinking, yet the neural risk mechanisms remain unclear. Heavy drinkers show variant functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to alcohol cues, which may presage increasing drinking. In this longitudinal study, we ascertained whether BOLD response to alcohol pictures predicted subsequent heavy drinking among college students. Methods Participants were forty-three 18- to 21-year-olds in the United States who underwent BOLD scanning and completed monthly substance use surveys over the following year. Participants were categorized according to baseline and follow-up drinking into 13 continuously moderate drinkers, 16 continuously heavy drinkers, and 14 transitioners who drank moderately at baseline but heavily by follow-up. During fMRI scanning at baseline, participants viewed alcohol and matched non-alcohol beverage images. Results We observed group differences in alcohol cue-elicited BOLD response in bilateral caudate, orbitofrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex/anterior cingulate and left insula (clusters>2619ml, voxel-wise F(2,40)>3.23, palcoholism family history, impulsivity), BOLD response best predicted escalating drinking amount and alcohol-related problems. Conclusions Neural response to pictures of alcohol is substantially enhanced among United States college students who subsequently escalate drinking. Greater cue-reactivity is associated with larger increases in drinking and alcohol-related problems, regardless of other baseline factors. Thus, neural cue-reactivity could uniquely facilitate identifying individuals at greatest risk for future problematic drinking. PMID:24304235

  5. Early gross motor skills predict the subsequent development of language in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Rachael; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    Motor milestones such as the onset of walking are important developmental markers, not only for later motor skills but also for more widespread social-cognitive development. The aim of the current study was to test whether gross motor abilities, specifically the onset of walking, predicted the subsequent rate of language development in a large cohort of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We ran growth curve models for expressive and receptive language measured at 2, 3, 5 and 9 years in 209 autistic children. Measures of gross motor, visual reception and autism symptoms were collected at the 2 year visit. In Model 1, walking onset was included as a predictor of the slope of language development. Model 2 included a measure of non-verbal IQ and autism symptom severity as covariates. The final model, Model 3, additionally covaried for gross motor ability. In the first model, parent-reported age of walking onset significantly predicted the subsequent rate of language development although the relationship became non-significant when gross motor skill, non-verbal ability and autism severity scores were included (Models 2 & 3). Gross motor score, however, did remain a significant predictor of both expressive and receptive language development. Taken together, the model results provide some evidence that early motor abilities in young children with ASD can have longitudinal cross-domain influences, potentially contributing, in part, to the linguistic difficulties that characterise ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 993-1001. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research.

  6. The Impact of Asking Intention or Self-Prediction Questions on Subsequent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chantelle; Conner, Mark; Miles, Eleanor; Sandberg, Tracy; Taylor, Natalie; Godin, Gaston; Sheeran, Paschal

    2015-01-01

    The current meta-analysis estimated the magnitude of the impact of asking intention and self-prediction questions on rates of subsequent behavior, and examined mediators and moderators of this question–behavior effect (QBE). Random-effects meta-analysis on 116 published tests of the effect indicated that intention/prediction questions have a small positive effect on behavior (d+ = 0.24). Little support was observed for attitude accessibility, cognitive dissonance, behavioral simulation, or processing fluency explanations of the QBE. Multivariate analyses indicated significant effects of social desirability of behavior/behavior domain (larger effects for more desirable and less risky behaviors), difficulty of behavior (larger effects for easy-to-perform behaviors), and sample type (larger effects among student samples). Although this review controls for co-occurrence of moderators in multivariate analyses, future primary research should systematically vary moderators in fully factorial designs. Further primary research is also needed to unravel the mechanisms underlying different variants of the QBE. PMID:26162771

  7. Boasts are a boost: achievement prime self-reactivity predicts subsequent academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramzow, Richard H; Johnson, Camille S; Willard, Greg

    2014-03-01

    The present research tests the hypothesis that self-reactivity following an achievement prime reflects the strength of achievement goals and is a predictor of future goal-relevant performance. In Studies 1-3, undergraduates reported their grade-point averages (GPAs) following either an achievement goal prime or a control prime. Academic exaggeration (higher self-reported than official GPA) was the indicator of self-reactivity to the prime. Study 1 involved a direct achievement goal prime, whereas Studies 2 and 3 involved indirect priming techniques. In all 3 experiments, greater academic exaggeration following the achievement goal prime (but not the control prime) predicted better academic performance a semester later (based on official records). Study 4 demonstrated that the magnitude of students' GPA goals mediated the association between academic exaggeration and subsequent performance (1 year later). The fact that self-reactivity to a single achievement goal prime in the lab predicted later performance in "real life" suggests that individual differences in reactivity to a specific prime can signal much broader motivational orientations related to the primed goal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Violent relationships at the social-ecological level: A multi-mediation model to predict adolescent victimization by peers, bullying and depression in early and late adolescence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xavier Oriol; Rafael Miranda; Alberto Amutio; Hedy C Acosta; Michelle C Mendoza; Javier Torres-Vallejos

    2017-01-01

    ... environment on violence perceived within school and violence exercised by teachers. In addition, it was also intended to determine whether these violent relationships predict depression through loneliness, and bullying through peer victimization...

  9. Height Loss Predicts Subsequent Hip Fracture in Men and Women of the Framingham Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Marian T.; Broe, Kerry E.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Rockwell, Margo; Kiel, Douglas P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although height is a risk factor for osteoporotic fracture, current risk assessments do not consider height loss. Height loss may be a simple measurement that clinicians could use to predict fracture or need for further testing. Objective To examine height loss and subsequent hip fracture, evaluating both long-term adult height loss and recent height loss. Methods Prospective cohort of 3,081 adults from the Framingham Heart Study. Height was measured biennially since 1948, and cohort followed for hip fracture through 2005. Adult height loss from middle-age years across 24 years and recent height loss in elderly years were considered. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate association between height loss and risk of hip fracture. Results Of 1,297 men and 1,784 women, mean baseline age was 66y (SD7.8). Average height loss for men was 1.06 inches (0.76), and for women was 1.12 inches (0.84). 11% of men and 15% of women lost ≤ 2 inches of height. Mean follow-up was 17y during which 71 men and 278 women had incident hip fractures. For each 1-inch of height loss, HR=1.4 in men (95%CI: 1.00, 1.99), and 1.04 in women (95%CI: 0.88, 1.23). Men and women who lost ≤ 2 inches of height had increased fracture risk (compared to 0 to height loss in elders significantly increased the risk of hip fracture, 54% in men and 21% in women (95%CI: 1.14, 2.09; 1.03, 1.42, respectively). Conclusions Adult height loss predicted hip fracture risk in men in our study. Recent height loss in elderly men and women predicted risk of hip fracture. PMID:22072590

  10. The bidirectional relationships between online victimization and psychosocial problems in adolescents: a comparison with real-life victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Eijnden, Regina; Vermulst, Ad; van Rooij, Antonius J; Scholte, Ron; van de Mheen, Dike

    2014-05-01

    Although peer victimization is of major concern and adolescents spend increasing amounts of time on the Internet, relatively little is known about the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online victimization. The main aim of this study was to compare the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online versus real-life victimization. More specifically, the bidirectional relationship between online and real-life victimization on the one hand and psychosocial problems (i.e., loneliness and social anxiety) on the other was examined. In addition, the moderating role of online aggression in the relationship between online victimization and subsequent psychosocial problems was studied. This prospective study, consisting of three annual measurements, was conducted among a sample of 831 adolescents (50.3 % girls) aged 11-15, of which most (80.2 %) had a Dutch ethnic background. The results indicate a unidirectional relationship whereby loneliness and social anxiety predict an increase in latter online victimization rather than the reverse. A bidirectional relationship was found for real-life victimization: loneliness (but not social anxiety) predicted an increase in latter real-life victimization, which in turn predicted an increase in subsequent social anxiety (but not loneliness). No moderating effects of online aggression were found. The findings of the present study suggest that negative online and in real life peer interactions have a differential meaning for, and impact on adolescents' well-being.

  11. Anticipatory brain activity predicts the success or failure of subsequent emotion regulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denny, Bryan T; Ochsner, Kevin N; Weber, Jochen; Wager, Tor D

    2014-01-01

    ... and subsequent success in diminishing negative affect. We found that anticipatory activity in right rostrolateral prefrontal cortex was associated with greater subsequent left amygdala responses to aversive images and decreased regulation success...

  12. Female Sexual Victimization Predicts Psychosis: A Case-Control Study Based on the Danish Registry System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, A.; Shevlin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Objective: An increasing research literature has identified a statistical association between trauma exposure and psychosis. Methodological limitations, primarily relating to failures to establish the temporal ordering of events and relying on retrospective self-reports, have made the argument...... variable was a postindex year diagnosis of psychosis. The OR associated with sexual victimization (OR = 10.04; 95% CI 2.50-40.33) indicted an increased likelihood of psychosis while controlling for the other predictors in the model. Conclusions: This study found that sexual victimization significantly...

  13. Self-reported posttraumatic growth predicts greater subsequent posttraumatic stress amidst war and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalta, Alyson K; Gerhart, James; Hall, Brian J; Rajan, Kumar B; Vechiu, Catalina; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2017-03-01

    This study tested three alternative explanations for research indicating a positive, but heterogeneous relationship between self-reported posttraumatic growth (PTG) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS): (a) the third-variable hypothesis that the relationship between PTG and PSS is a spurious one driven by positive relationships with resource loss, (b) the growth over time hypothesis that the relationship between PTG and PSS is initially a positive one, but becomes negative over time, and (c) the moderator hypothesis that resource loss moderates the relationship between PTG and PSS such that PTG is associated with lower levels of PSS as loss increases. A nationally representative sample (N = 1622) of Israelis was assessed at three time points during a period of ongoing violence. PTG, resource loss, and the interaction between PTG and loss were examined as lagged predictors of PSS to test the proposed hypotheses. Results were inconsistent with all three hypotheses, showing that PTG positively predicted subsequent PSS when accounting for main and interactive effects of loss. Our results suggest that self-reported PTG is a meaningful but counterintuitive predictor of poorer mental health following trauma.

  14. Organized Physical Activity in Young School Children Predicts Subsequent 4-Year Change in Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve; McConnell, Rob; Jerrett, Michael; Wolch, Jennifer; Lam, Claudia; Gilliland, Frank; Berhane, Kiros

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether participation in organized outdoor team sports and structured indoor non-school activity programs in kindergarten and first grade predicted subsequent 4-year change in Body Mass Index (BMI) across the adiposity rebound period of childhood. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Forty-five schools in 13 communities across Southern California. Participants Largely Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children (N = 4,550; average age at study entry 6.60 years, standard deviation 0.65). Main Exposures Parents completed questionnaires assessing physical activity, demographic characteristics and other relevant covariates at baseline. Data on built and social environmental variables were linked to the neighborhood around children’s homes using geographical information systems (GIS). Main Outcome Measures Each child’s height and weight were measured annually during 4-years of follow-up. Results After adjusting for several confounders, BMI increased at a 0.05 unit per year slower rate for children who participated in outdoor organized team sports at least twice per week as compared to children who did not. For participation in each additional indoor non-school structured activity classes, lessons, and program, BMI increased at a 0.05 unit per year slower rate, and the attained BMI level at age 10 was 0.48 units lower. Conclusions Engagement in organized sports and activity programs as early as kindergarten and the first grade may result in smaller increases in BMI during the adiposity rebound period of childhood. PMID:22869403

  15. Externalizing Problems in Childhood and Adolescence Predict Subsequent Educational Achievement but for Different Genetic and Environmental Reasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gary J.; Asbury, Kathryn; Plomin, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background: Childhood behavior problems predict subsequent educational achievement; however, little research has examined the etiology of these links using a longitudinal twin design. Moreover, it is unknown whether genetic and environmental innovations provide incremental prediction for educational achievement from childhood to adolescence.…

  16. Predictive Relations between Peer Victimization and Academic Achievement in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junsheng; Bullock, Amanda; Coplan, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore longitudinal associations between peer victimization and academic achievement in Chinese children. Participants were N = 805 3rd-grade students (486 boys, 319 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.5 years, SD = 3 months) attending primary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. At Time 1 and Time 2 (2 years…

  17. COMPARISON OF TREND PROJECTION METHODS AND BACKPROPAGATION PROJECTIONS METHODS TREND IN PREDICTING THE NUMBER OF VICTIMS DIED IN TRAFFIC ACCIDENT IN TIMOR TENGAH REGENCY, NUSA TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksius Madu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to predict the number of traffic accident victims who died in Timor Tengah Regency with Trend Projection method and Backpropagation method, and compare the two methods based on the degree of guilt and predict the number traffic accident victims in the Timor Tengah Regency for the coming year. This research was conducted in Timor Tengah Regency where data used in this study was obtained from Police Unit in Timor Tengah Regency. The data is on the number of traffic accidents in Timor Tengah Regency from 2000 – 2013, which is obtained by a quantitative analysis with Trend Projection and Backpropagation method. The results of the data analysis predicting the number of traffic accidents victims using Trend Projection method obtained the best model which is the quadratic trend model with equation Yk = 39.786 + (3.297 X + (0.13 X2. Whereas by using back propagation method, it is obtained the optimum network that consists of 2 inputs, 3 hidden screens, and 1 output. Based on the error rates obtained, Back propagation method is better than the Trend Projection method which means that the predicting accuracy with Back propagation method is the best method to predict the number of traffic accidents victims in Timor Tengah Regency. Thus obtained predicting the numbers of traffic accident victims for the next 5 years (Years 2014-2018 respectively - are 106 person, 115 person, 115 person, 119 person and 120 person.   Keywords: Trend Projection, Back propagation, Predicting.

  18. Weight Loss Percentage Prediction of Subsequent Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in Exclusively Breastfed Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Jane Chang

    2012-02-01

    Conclusion: This study documented the relationship between weight loss percentage and subsequent hyperbilirubinemia incidence. Our data provide a basis for determination of an optimal weight loss percentage cut-off value that indicates supplementary feeding.

  19. Does Response on the PHQ-9 Depression Questionnaire Predict Subsequent Suicide Attempt or Suicide Death?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simon, Gregory E; Rutter, Carolyn M; Peterson, Do; Oliver, Malia; Whiteside, Ursula; Operskalski, Belinda; Ludman, Evette J

    2013-01-01

    .... Patients who reported thoughts of death or self-harm “more than half the days” or “nearly every day” experienced a markedly increased risk of subsequent suicide attempt and suicide death...

  20. Brain Activation during Associative Short-Term Memory Maintenance is Not Predictive for Subsequent Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko eBergmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Performance on working memory (WM tasks may partially be supported by long-term memory (LTM processing. Hence, brain activation recently being implicated in WM may actually have been driven by (incidental LTM formation. We examined which brain regions actually support successful WM processing, rather than being confounded by LTM processes, during the maintenance and probe phase of a WM task. We administered a four-pair (faces and houses associative delayed-match-to-sample (WM task using event-related fMRI and a subsequent associative recognition LTM task, using the same stimuli. This enabled us to analyze subsequent memory effects for both the WM and the LTM test by contrasting correctly recognized pairs with incorrect pairs for either task. Critically, with respect to the subsequent WM effect, we computed this analysis exclusively for trials that were forgotten in the subsequent LTM recognition task. Hence, brain activity associated with successful WM processing was less likely to be confounded by incidental LTM formation. The subsequent LTM effect, in contrast, was analyzed exclusively for pairs that previously had been correctly recognized in the WM task, disclosing brain regions involved in successful LTM formation after successful WM processing. Results for the subsequent WM effect showed no significantly activated brain areas for WM maintenance, possibly due to an insensitivity of fMRI to mechanisms underlying active WM maintenance. In contrast, a correct decision at WM probe was linked to activation in the retrieval success network (anterior and posterior midline brain structures. The subsequent LTM analyses revealed greater activation in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex in the early phase of the maintenance stage. No supra-threshold activation was found during the WM probe. Together, we obtained clearer insights in which brain regions support successful WM and LTM without the potential confound of the

  1. Brain activation during associative short-term memory maintenance is not predictive for subsequent retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Heiko C; Daselaar, Sander M; Beul, Sarah F; Rijpkema, Mark; Fernández, Guillén; Kessels, Roy P C

    2015-01-01

    Performance on working memory (WM) tasks may partially be supported by long-term memory (LTM) processing. Hence, brain activation recently being implicated in WM may actually have been driven by (incidental) LTM formation. We examined which brain regions actually support successful WM processing, rather than being confounded by LTM processes, during the maintenance and probe phase of a WM task. We administered a four-pair (faces and houses) associative delayed-match-to-sample (WM) task using event-related functional MRI (fMRI) and a subsequent associative recognition LTM task, using the same stimuli. This enabled us to analyze subsequent memory effects for both the WM and the LTM test by contrasting correctly recognized pairs with incorrect pairs for either task. Critically, with respect to the subsequent WM effect, we computed this analysis exclusively for trials that were forgotten in the subsequent LTM recognition task. Hence, brain activity associated with successful WM processing was less likely to be confounded by incidental LTM formation. The subsequent LTM effect, in contrast, was analyzed exclusively for pairs that previously had been correctly recognized in the WM task, disclosing brain regions involved in successful LTM formation after successful WM processing. Results for the subsequent WM effect showed no significantly activated brain areas for WM maintenance, possibly due to an insensitivity of fMRI to mechanisms underlying active WM maintenance. In contrast, a correct decision at WM probe was linked to activation in the "retrieval success network" (anterior and posterior midline brain structures). The subsequent LTM analyses revealed greater activation in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex in the early phase of the maintenance stage. No supra-threshold activation was found during the WM probe. Together, we obtained clearer insights in which brain regions support successful WM and LTM without the potential confound of

  2. Early perception of medication benefit predicts subsequent antipsychotic response in schizophrenia: "the consumer has a point" revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher-Svanum, Haya; Weiden, Peter; Nyhuis, Allen W; Faries, Douglas E; Stauffer, Virginia; Kollack-Walker, Sara; Kinon, Bruce J

    2014-07-01

    An easy-to-administer tool for predicting response to antipsychotic treatment could improve the acute management of patients with schizophrenia. We assessed whether a patient's perception of medication benefit early in treatment could predict subsequent response or nonresponse to continued use of the same treatment. This post hoc analysis used data from a randomized, open-label trial of antipsychotics for treatment of schizophrenia in which attitudes about medication adherence were assessed after two weeks of antipsychotic treatment using the Rating of Medication Influences (ROMI) scale. The analysis included 439 patients who had Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and ROMI scale data at Weeks 2 and 8. Scores on the ROMI subscale Perceived Medication Benefit factor were used to predict subsequent antipsychotic response at Week 8, defined as a .20% reduction from baseline on the PANSS. Logistic regression was used to identify a cut-off score for the Perceived Medication Benefit factor that could accurately identify antipsychotic responders vs. nonresponders at Week 8. A score of .2.75 (equal to a mean subscale score of .11.00) on the ROMI scale Perceived Medication Benefit factor at Week 2 predicted response at Week 8 with high specificity (72%) and negative predictive value (70%), moderate sensitivity (44%) and positive predictive value (47%), and with a 38% misclassification rate. A brief assessment of the patient's perception of medication benefit at two weeks into treatment appears to be a good predictor of subsequent response and nonresponse after eight weeks of treatment with the same antipsychotic.

  3. Within-person Changes in Individual Symptoms of Depression Predict Subsequent Depressive Episodes in Adolescents: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Morris, Matthew C.; Garber, Judy

    2015-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined which individual symptoms of depression uniquely predicted a subsequent Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in adolescents, and whether these relations differed by sex. Adolescents (N=240) were first interviewed in grade 6 (M=11.86 years old; SD = 0.56; 54% female; 81.5% Caucasian) and then annually through grade 12 regarding their individual symptoms of depression as well as the occurrence of MDEs. Individual symptoms of depression were assessed with the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and depressive episodes were assessed with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE). Results showed that within-person changes in sleep problems and low self-esteem/excessive guilt positively predicted an increased likelihood of an MDE for both boys and girls. Significant sex differences also were found. Within-person changes in anhedonia predicted an increased likelihood of a subsequent MDE among boys, whereas irritability predicted a decreased likelihood of a future MDE among boys, and concentration difficulties predicted a decreased likelihood of an MDE in girls. These results identified individual depressive symptoms that predicted subsequent depressive episodes in male and female adolescents, and may be used to guide the early detection, treatment, and prevention of depressive disorders in youth. PMID:26105209

  4. Anticipatory brain activity predicts the success or failure of subsequent emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Bryan T; Ochsner, Kevin N; Weber, Jochen; Wager, Tor D

    2014-04-01

    Expectations about an upcoming emotional event have the power to shape one's subsequent affective response for better or worse. Here, we used mediation analyses to examine the relationship between brain activity when anticipating the need to cognitively reappraise aversive images, amygdala responses to those images and subsequent success in diminishing negative affect. We found that anticipatory activity in right rostrolateral prefrontal cortex was associated with greater subsequent left amygdala responses to aversive images and decreased regulation success. In contrast, anticipatory ventral anterior insula activity was associated with reduced amygdala responses and greater reappraisal success. In both cases, left amygdala responses mediated the relationship between anticipatory activity and reappraisal success. These results suggest that anticipation facilitates successful reappraisal via reduced anticipatory prefrontal 'cognitive' elaboration and better integration of affective information in paralimbic and subcortical systems.

  5. Anticipatory brain activity predicts the success or failure of subsequent emotion regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, Kevin N.; Weber, Jochen; Wager, Tor D.

    2014-01-01

    Expectations about an upcoming emotional event have the power to shape one’s subsequent affective response for better or worse. Here, we used mediation analyses to examine the relationship between brain activity when anticipating the need to cognitively reappraise aversive images, amygdala responses to those images and subsequent success in diminishing negative affect. We found that anticipatory activity in right rostrolateral prefrontal cortex was associated with greater subsequent left amygdala responses to aversive images and decreased regulation success. In contrast, anticipatory ventral anterior insula activity was associated with reduced amygdala responses and greater reappraisal success. In both cases, left amygdala responses mediated the relationship between anticipatory activity and reappraisal success. These results suggest that anticipation facilitates successful reappraisal via reduced anticipatory prefrontal ‘cognitive’ elaboration and better integration of affective information in paralimbic and subcortical systems. PMID:23202664

  6. A Latent Growth Curve Analysis of Early and Increasing Peer Victimization as Predictors of Mental Health Across Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Hessel, Elenda T.; Schmidt, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    Peer victimization has been implicated as a traumatic stressor that compromises children’s long-term mental health, yet a dearth of prospective research specifically demonstrates lasting effects of early victimization. This research examined whether early (2nd grade) victimization and increasing (2nd – 5th grade) victimization independently predicted depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior (overt and relational) in 5th grade. Participants included 433 children (238 girls, 195 boys). Children reported on peer victimization and depressive symptoms; teachers reported on peer victimization and aggressive behavior. Latent growth curve analysis revealed that both early and increasing victimization made unique contributions to subsequent depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior. Relational aggression was particularly likely to follow victimization in girls. PMID:21229448

  7. Attendance Rates in a Workplace Predict Subsequent Outcome of Employment-Based Reinforcement of Cocaine Abstinence in Methadone Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlin, Wendy D.; Knealing, Todd W.; Needham, Mick; Wong, Conrad J.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed whether attendance rates in a workplace predicted subsequent outcome of employment-based reinforcement of cocaine abstinence. Unemployed adults in Baltimore methadone programs who used cocaine (N = 111) could work in a workplace for 4 hr every weekday and earn $10.00 per hour in vouchers for 26 weeks. During an induction…

  8. Is the First-Year Predictive for Study Success in Subsequent Years? Findings from an Academy of Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennen, Josien; van der Klink, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    In higher education, departments are under increasing pressure to improve study success. Research in this field focusing on higher music education is scarce. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the predictive capability of the first year for study success of students at an academy of music in subsequent years. Data on study progression…

  9. Preferential processing of visual trauma-film reminders predicts subsequent intrusive memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwoerd, J.R.L.; Wessel, I.; De Jong, P.J.; Nieuwenhuis, Maurice

    2009-01-01

    This study used an analogue design to test the hypothesis that preferential processing of visual trauma reminders in the aftermath of a stressful or traumatic event gives rise to subsequent intrusive memories. Shortly after the presentation of a stressful film fragment, participants (n=36) were

  10. How Childhood Maltreatment Profiles of Male Victims Predict Adult Perpetration and Psychosocial Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N. Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Kajumulo, Kelly F.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.

    2016-01-01

    This study used latent class analysis to empirically identify subgroups of men based on their exposure to childhood maltreatment (i.e., emotional neglect and abuse, physical neglect and abuse, and sexual abuse). It then examined subgroups’ differential perpetration of adult intimate partner violence (both psychological and physical), violence against peers, and sexual assault. Finally, we compared socio-demographic variables and psychosocial functioning across profiles to characterize the adult experiences of men in different maltreatment groups. The community sample consisted of 626 heterosexually active 21–30 year old men. We identified four subgroups: Low Maltreatment (80% of the sample), Emotional and Physical Maltreatment (12%), Emotional and Sexual Maltreatment (4%), and Poly-victimized (4%). The Low Maltreatment group had significantly lower IPV perpetration rates than the Emotional and Physical Maltreatment group, but groups did not significantly differ on peer violence or sexual assault perpetration rates. Overall, Poly-victimized men were significantly worse off than the Low Maltreatment group regarding income, education level, and incarceration history. Their rates of recent anxiety and depression symptoms were also higher than those of Low Maltreatment men. Findings support the use of person-oriented techniques for deriving patterns of childhood maltreatment and how these patterns relate to psychological, behavioral, and social factors in adulthood. PMID:26590221

  11. The development of simple survival prediction models for blunt trauma victims treated at Asian emergency centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Akio; Nakahara, Shinji; Chadbunchachai, Witaya

    2012-02-02

    For real-time assessment of the probability of survival (Ps) of blunt trauma victims at emergency centers, this study aimed to establish regression models for estimating Ps using simplified coefficients. The data of 10,210 blunt trauma patients not missing both the binary outcome data about survival and the data necessary for Ps calculation by The Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) method were extracted from the Japan Trauma Data Bank (2004-2007) and analyzed. Half (5,113) of the data was allocated to a derivation data set, with the other half (5,097) allocated to a validation data set. The data of 6,407 blunt trauma victims from the trauma registry of Khon Kaen Regional Hospital in Thailand were analyzed for validation. The logistic regression models included age, the Injury Severity Score (ISS), the Glasgow Coma Scale score (GCS), systolic blood pressure (SBP), respiratory rate (RR), and their coded values (cAGE, 0-1; cISS, 0-4; cSBP, 0-4; cGCS, 0-4; cRR, 0-4) as predictor variables. The coefficients were simplified by rounding off after the decimal point or choosing 0.5 if the coefficients varied across 0.5. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROCC) was calculated for each model to measure discriminant ability. A group of formulas (log (Ps/1-Ps) = logit (Ps) = -9 + cISS - cAGE + cSBP + cGCS + cRR/2, where -9 becomes -7 if the predictor variable of cRR or cISS is missing) was developed. Using these formulas, the AUROCCs were between 0.950 and 0.964. When these models were applied to the Khon Kean data, their AUROCCs were greater than 0.91. These equations allow physicians to perform real-time assessments of survival by easy mental calculations at Asian emergency centers, which are overcrowded with blunt injury victims of traffic accidents. © 2012 Kimura et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  12. The development of simple survival prediction models for blunt trauma victims treated at Asian emergency centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura Akio

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For real-time assessment of the probability of survival (Ps of blunt trauma victims at emergency centers, this study aimed to establish regression models for estimating Ps using simplified coefficients. Methods The data of 10,210 blunt trauma patients not missing both the binary outcome data about survival and the data necessary for Ps calculation by The Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS method were extracted from the Japan Trauma Data Bank (2004-2007 and analyzed. Half (5,113 of the data was allocated to a derivation data set, with the other half (5,097 allocated to a validation data set. The data of 6,407 blunt trauma victims from the trauma registry of Khon Kaen Regional Hospital in Thailand were analyzed for validation. The logistic regression models included age, the Injury Severity Score (ISS, the Glasgow Coma Scale score (GCS, systolic blood pressure (SBP, respiratory rate (RR, and their coded values (cAGE, 0-1; cISS, 0-4; cSBP, 0-4; cGCS, 0-4; cRR, 0-4 as predictor variables. The coefficients were simplified by rounding off after the decimal point or choosing 0.5 if the coefficients varied across 0.5. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROCC was calculated for each model to measure discriminant ability. Results A group of formulas (log (Ps/1-Ps = logit (Ps = -9 + cISS - cAGE + cSBP + cGCS + cRR/2, where -9 becomes -7 if the predictor variable of cRR or cISS is missing was developed. Using these formulas, the AUROCCs were between 0.950 and 0.964. When these models were applied to the Khon Kean data, their AUROCCs were greater than 0.91. Conclusion: These equations allow physicians to perform real-time assessments of survival by easy mental calculations at Asian emergency centers, which are overcrowded with blunt injury victims of traffic accidents.

  13. Blood test could predict risk of heart attack and subsequent death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-18

    A high-sensitivity blood test, known as a troponin test, could predict the risk of heart attack and death and patients' response to statins, say researchers from the Universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow.

  14. Declining newborn intramuscular vitamin K prophylaxis predicts subsequent immunisation refusal: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Helen; Barker, David; Reith, David M; Broadbent, Roland S; Jackson, Pamela M; Wheeler, Benjamin J

    2015-09-01

    Low rates of childhood immunisation are linked to outbreaks of infectious disease. Identifying and addressing barriers to immunisation may lead to improved immunisation rates. Immunisation and newborn vitamin K prophylaxis have many similarities. We aimed to investigate whether parents who decline newborn vitamin K are also more likely to decline subsequent childhood immunisations. We undertook a retrospective cohort study, examining the relationship between vitamin K administration and immunisation uptake by parents of babies born over a 2-year period (January 2010-December 2011) in Dunedin, New Zealand (NZ). Both written and electronic data from a single birthing unit and the NZ National Immunisation Register (NIR) were analysed to ascertain the relationship between declining newborn vitamin K prophylaxis and subsequent immunisation uptake. Records for 3575 babies were examined. Ninety-two per cent of infants received intramuscular, and 5% received oral vitamin K. An increased risk ratio for non-immunisation of 14.1 (95% confidence interval 7.8-25.9) for babies whose parents declined vitamin K was identified. Receiving oral vitamin K was also associated with subsequent non-immunisation, with a risk ratio of 3.5 (95% confidence interval 1.7-7.3). Parents who decline newborn vitamin K are more likely to decline immunisation for their child. These parents, as well as those that elect for oral vitamin K, are a small but easily identifiable group to whom additional education about the benefits of immunisation could be offered. This is especially pertinent at a time when there is a resurgence of immunisation preventable diseases. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. Daily energy balance in children and adolescents. Does energy expenditure predict subsequent energy intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivel, David; Aucouturier, Julien; Doucet, Éric; Saunders, Travis J; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Both physical and sedentary activities primarily impact energy balance through energy expenditure, but they also have important implications in term of ingestive behavior. The literature provides scarce evidence on the relationship between daily activities and subsequent nutritional adaptations in children and adolescents. Sedentary activities and physical exercise are generally considered distinctly despite the fact that they represent the whole continuum of daily activity-induced energy expenditure. This brief review paper examines the impact of daily activities (from vigorous physical activity to imposed sedentary behaviors) on acute energy intake control of lean and obese children and adolescents, and whether energy expenditure is the main predictor of subsequent energy intake in this population. After an overview of the available literature, we conclude that both acute physical activity and sedentary behaviors induce food consumption modifications in children and adolescents but also that the important discrepancy between the methodologies used does not allow any clear conclusion so far. When considering energy intake responses according to the level of energy expenditure generated by those activities, it is clear that energy expenditure is not the main predictor of food consumption in both lean and obese children and adolescents. This suggests that other characteristics of those activities may have a greater impact on calorie intake (such as intensity, duration or induced mental stress) and that energy intake may be mainly determined by non-homeostatic pathways that could override the energetic and hormonal signals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Does Premarital Cohabitation Predict Subsequent Marital Stability and Marital Quality? A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Anita; O'Leary, K. Daniel; Moyer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Cohabitation with a romantic partner has become common in recent decades. This meta-analysis examined the link between premarital cohabitation and marital stability (k = 16) and marital quality (k = 12). Cohabitation had a significant negative association with both marital stability and marital quality. The negative predictive effect on marital…

  17. Temperamental Differences in Children’s Reactions to Peer Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Niwako; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This research examined the hypothesis that temperament and sex moderate the contribution of peer victimization to children’s subsequent adjustment (aggression and depressive symptoms). Method Children (125 boys, 158 girls; M age = 7.95 years, SD = 0.32; 77.7% White, 22.3% minority) and teachers reported on overt and relational victimization. Parents rated children’s temperament (inhibitory control and negative emotionality) and depressive symptoms, and teachers reported on children’s overt and relational aggression. Results Across a one-year time period, (a) overt victimization predicted overt aggression in girls with poor inhibitory control; (b) overt and relational victimization predicted depressive symptoms in girls with high negative emotionality; and (c) relational victimization predicted depressive symptoms in boys with low negative emotionality. Conclusions This research helps to explain individual variation in children’s reactions to peer victimization, and has implications for person-by-environment models of development. Moreover, this research informs the development of targeted intervention programs for victimized youth that bolster specific resources depending on their temperament. PMID:22420650

  18. Implicit and Explicit Evaluations of Sexual Aggression Predict Subsequent Sexually Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Community Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Chantal A; Nunes, Kevin L

    2016-12-09

    The current longitudinal study explored the extent to which implicit and explicit evaluations of sexual aggression predict subsequent sexually aggressive behavior. Participants (248 community men recruited online) completed measures of implicit and explicit evaluations and self-reported sexually aggressive behavior at two time points, approximately 4 months apart. Implicit and explicit evaluations of sexual aggression at Wave 1 had small significant and independent predictive relationships with sexually aggressive behavior at Wave 2, while controlling for sexually aggressive behavior at Wave 1. This is the first study to test whether implicit and explicit evaluations predict subsequent sexually aggressive behavior. Our findings are consistent with the possibility that both implicit and explicit evaluations may be relevant for understanding and preventing subsequent sexually aggressive behavior. If these findings can be replicated, evaluations of sexual aggression should be studied with more rigorous methodology (e.g., experimental design) and correctional/forensic populations, and possibly addressed in risk assessment and interventions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Encoded exposure to tobacco use in social media predicts subsequent smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depue, Jacob B; Southwell, Brian G; Betzner, Anne E; Walsh, Barbara M

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the potential link between smoking behavior and exposure to mass media depictions of smoking on social networking Web sites. A representative longitudinal panel of 200 young adults in Connecticut. Telephone surveys were conducted by using computer assisted telephone interviewing technology and electronic dialing for random digit dialing and listed samples. Connecticut residents aged 18 to 24 years. To measure encoded exposure, respondents were asked whether or not they had smoked a cigarette in the past 30 days and about how often they had seen tobacco use on television, in movies, and in social media content. Respondents were also asked about cigarette use in the past 30 days, and a series of additional questions that have been shown to be predictive of tobacco use. Logistic regression was used to test for our main prediction that reported exposure to social media tobacco depictions at time 1 would influence time 2 smoking behavior. Encoded exposure to social media tobacco depictions (B = .47, p media depictions of tobacco use predict future smoking tendency, over and above the influence of TV and movie depictions of smoking. This is the first known study to specifically assess the role of social media in informing tobacco behavior.

  20. Response to intravenous fentanyl infusion predicts subsequent response to transdermal fentanyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Norihito; Kanai, Akifumi; Suzuki, Asaha; Nagahara, Yuki; Okamoto, Hirotsugu

    2016-04-01

    Prediction of the response to transdermal fentanyl (FENtd) before its use for chronic pain is desirable. We tested the hypothesis that the response to intravenous fentanyl infusion (FENiv) can predict the response to FENtd, including the analgesic and adverse effects. The study subjects were 70 consecutive patients with chronic pain. The response to fentanyl at 0.1 mg diluted in 50 ml of physiological saline and infused over 30 min was tested. This was followed by treatment with FENtd (Durotep MT patch 2.1 mg) at a dose of 12.5 µg/h for 2 weeks. Pain intensity before and after FENiv and 2 weeks after FENtd, and the response to treatment, were assessed by the numerical rating scale (NRS), clinical global impression-improvement scale (CGI-I), satisfaction scale (SS), and adverse effects. The NRS score decreased significantly from 7 (4-9) [median (range)] at baseline to 3 (0-8) after FENiv (p 0.04, each). The analgesic and side effects after intravenous fentanyl infusion can be used to predict the response to short-term transdermal treatment with fentanyl.

  1. The predictive value of trauma-related coping self-efficacy for posttraumatic stress symptoms : Differences between treatment seeking and non-treatment seeking victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, Mark; van der Knaap, Leontien; van der Velden, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the (independent) predictive value of trauma-related coping selfefficacy (CSE) for posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among a treatment sample and a comparison group of nontreatment seeking victims. Method: Both the treatment (N 54) and comparison group (N 144)

  2. Baseline Religion Involvement Predicts Subsequent Salivary Cortisol Levels Among Male But not Female Black Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Malekahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc

    2015-10-01

    Compared to Whites, Blacks are exposed to higher levels of chronic stress in the United States. As a result, major Black-White differences exist in the baseline and response of cortisol. Yet, the potential association between baseline religiosity and subsequent cortisol levels of Blacks are not known. In the current study we aimed to determine the association between baseline religious behaviors and daytime salivary cortisol level among male and female Black youth. With a longitudinal design, data came from wave 1 (1994) and wave 6 (2000) of a cohort from an urban area in the Midwest of the United States. The study followed 227 Black adolescents (109 males and 118 females) for six years. Socio-demographics and religious behaviors (frequency of participation in religious activities) were measured at baseline. Base morning cortisol level at wave 6 was the outcome. We fitted a linear regression model to test the association between baseline religiosity at wave 1 and cortisol level at wave 6, while baseline age, socio-economics, and psychological symptoms were controlled. In the pooled sample, frequency of participation in religious activities at baseline was negatively associated with mean cortisol level at follow up (r = -0.29, P > 0.01) among all, males (r = -0.38, P > 0.01), but not females (r = -.20, P > 0.05). Frequency of participation in religious activities remained a significant predictor of subsequent cortisol level (b = -0.283, 95% CI = -.107 - -0.022) while the effect of age, socioeconomics, and psychological symptoms were controlled. We could only find such an association among male Black youth (b = -0.368, 95% CI = -0.148 - -0.024) but not female Black youth (b = -0.229, 95% CI = -.113 - 0.011). Religiosity has been used as a coping mechanism among Blacks. Religiosity may also be related to stress regulation among Black youth. Future studies need to test complex associations between race, sex, religiosity, chronic stress, coping, and function of

  3. Predeliberation activity in prefrontal cortex and striatum and the prediction of subsequent value judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uri eMaoz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Rational, value-based decision-making mandates selecting the option with highest subjective expected value after appropriate deliberation. We examined activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and striatum of monkeys deciding between smaller, immediate rewards and larger, delayed ones. We previously found neurons that modulated their activity in this task according to the animal’s choice, while it deliberated (choice neurons. Here we found neurons whose spiking activities were predictive of the spatial location of the selected target (spatial-bias neurons or the size of the chosen reward (reward-bias neurons before the onset of the cue presenting the decision-alternatives, and thus before rational deliberation could begin. Their predictive power increased as the values the animals associated with the two decision alternatives became more similar. The ventral striatum (VS preferentially contained spatial-bias neurons; the caudate nucleus (CD preferentially contained choice neurons. In contrast, the DLPFC contained significant numbers of all three neuron types, but choice neurons were not preferentially also bias neurons of either kind there, nor were spatial-bias neurons preferentially also choice neurons, and vice versa. We suggest a simple winner-take-all circuit model to account for the dissociation of choice and bias neurons. The model reproduced our results and made additional predictions that were borne out empirically. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that the DLPFC and striatum harbor dissociated neural populations that represent choices and predeliberation biases that are combined after cue onset; the bias neurons have a weaker effect on the ultimate decision than the choice neurons, so their influence is progressively apparent for trials where the values associated with the decision alternatives are increasingly similar.

  4. Perceived support from a caregiver's social ties predicts subsequent care-recipient health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Dannielle E; Lewis, Megan A; Southwell, Brian G

    2017-12-01

    Most social support research has examined support from an individual patient perspective and does not model the broader social context of support felt by caregivers. Understanding how social support networks may complement healthcare services is critical, considering the aging population, as social support networks may be a valuable resource to offset some of the demands placed on the healthcare system. We sought to identify how caregivers' perceived organizational and interpersonal support from their social support network influences care-recipient health. We created a dyadic dataset of care-recipient and caregivers from the first two rounds of the National Health and Aging Trends survey (2011, 2012) and the first round of the associated National Study of Caregivers survey (2011). Using structural equation modeling, we explored how caregivers' perceived social support is associated with caregiver confidence to provide care, and is associated with care-recipient health outcomes at two time points. All data were analyzed in 2016. Social engagement with members from caregivers' social support networks was positively associated with caregiver confidence, and social engagement and confidence were positively associated with care-recipient health at time 1. Social engagement positively predicted patient health at time 2 controlling for time 1. Conversely, use of organizational support negatively predicted care-recipient health at time 2. Care-recipients experience better health outcomes when caregivers are able to be more engaged with members of their social support network.

  5. Expression changes in the stroma of prostate cancer predict subsequent relapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Jia

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are needed to address overtreatment that occurs for the majority of prostate cancer patients that would not die of the disease but receive radical treatment. A possible barrier to biomarker discovery may be the polyclonal/multifocal nature of prostate tumors as well as cell-type heterogeneity between patient samples. Tumor-adjacent stroma (tumor microenvironment is less affected by genetic alteration and might therefore yield more consistent biomarkers in response to tumor aggressiveness. To this end we compared Affymetrix gene expression profiles in stroma near tumor and identified a set of 115 probe sets for which the expression levels were significantly correlated with time-to-relapse. We also compared patients that chemically relapsed shortly after prostatectomy (<1 year, and patients that did not relapse in the first four years after prostatectomy. We identified 131 differentially expressed microarray probe sets between these two categories. 19 probe sets (15 genes overlapped between the two gene lists with p<0.0001. We developed a PAM-based classifier by training on samples containing stroma near tumor: 9 rapid relapse patient samples and 9 indolent patient samples. We then tested the classifier on 47 different samples, containing 90% or more stroma. The classifier predicted the risk status of patients with an average accuracy of 87%. This is the first general tumor microenvironment-based prognostic classifier. These results indicate that the prostate cancer microenvironment exhibits reproducible changes useful for predicting outcomes for patients.

  6. Recalling and forgetting dreams: theta and alpha oscillations during sleep predict subsequent dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Cristina; Ferrara, Michele; Mauro, Federica; Moroni, Fabio; Gorgoni, Maurizio; Tempesta, Daniela; Cipolli, Carlo; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2011-05-04

    Under the assumption that dream recall is a peculiar form of declarative memory, we have hypothesized that (1) the encoding of dream contents during sleep should share some electrophysiological mechanisms with the encoding of episodic memories of the awake brain and (2) recalling a dream(s) after awakening from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep should be associated with different brain oscillations. Here, we report that cortical brain oscillations of human sleep are predictive of successful dream recall. In particular, after morning awakening from REM sleep, a higher frontal 5-7 Hz (theta) activity was associated with successful dream recall. This finding mirrors the increase in frontal theta activity during successful encoding of episodic memories in wakefulness. Moreover, in keeping with the different EEG background, a different predictive relationship was found after awakening from stage 2 NREM sleep. Specifically, a lower 8-12 Hz (alpha) oscillatory activity of the right temporal area was associated with a successful dream recall. These findings provide the first evidence of univocal cortical electroencephalographic correlates of dream recall, suggesting that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the encoding and recall of episodic memories may remain the same across different states of consciousness.

  7. Persistent enhancement after treatment for cerebral toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS: predictive value for subsequent recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laissy, J P; Soyer, P; Parlier, C; Lariven, S; Benmelha, Z; Servois, V; Casalino, E; Bouvet, E; Sibert, A; Vachon, F

    1994-10-01

    To determine the predictive imaging (CT and/or MR) features of brain toxoplasmosis recurrences in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The imaging studies of patients with brain toxoplasmosis were retrospectively reviewed. Forty-three patients with significant decrease or disappearance of brain lesions under specific treatment on follow-up imaging examinations were included. MR examinations were performed using T2- and T1-weighted sequences, before and after intravenous administration of gadolinium-DOTA. A recurrence occurred in 11 (26%) of 43 cases. Ten (91%) of these 11 patients with recurrence showed focal persistent enhancement after the initial treatment of toxoplasmosis abscess. One of the 11 patients with recurrence showed no persistent enhancement; 3 patients showed persistent enhancement but had no recurrence. Recurrences of brain toxoplasmosis in our series correlated with persistent contrast enhancement. We hypothesize that demonstration of persistent areas of contrast enhancement after treatment for initial toxoplasmosis may be a valuable sign for identifying patients at risk for recurrence.

  8. Externalizing problems in childhood and adolescence predict subsequent educational achievement but for different genetic and environmental reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gary J; Asbury, Kathryn; Plomin, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Childhood behavior problems predict subsequent educational achievement; however, little research has examined the etiology of these links using a longitudinal twin design. Moreover, it is unknown whether genetic and environmental innovations provide incremental prediction for educational achievement from childhood to adolescence. We examined genetic and environmental influences on parental ratings of behavior problems across childhood (age 4) and adolescence (ages 12 and 16) as predictors of educational achievement at age 16 using a longitudinal classical twin design. Shared-environmental influences on anxiety, conduct problems, and peer problems at age 4 predicted educational achievement at age 16. Genetic influences on the externalizing behaviors of conduct problems and hyperactivity at age 4 predicted educational achievement at age 16. Moreover, novel genetic and (to a lesser extent) nonshared-environmental influences acting on conduct problems and hyperactivity emerged at ages 12 and 16, adding to the genetic prediction from age 4. These findings demonstrate that genetic and shared-environmental factors underpinning behavior problems in early childhood predict educational achievement in midadolescence. These findings are consistent with the notion that early-childhood behavior problems reflect the initiation of a life-course persistent trajectory with concomitant implications for social attainment. However, we also find evidence that genetic and nonshared-environment innovations acting on behavior problems have implications for subsequent educational achievement, consistent with recent work arguing that adolescence represents a sensitive period for socioaffective development. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  9. Violent relationships at the social-ecological level: A multi-mediation model to predict adolescent victimization by peers, bullying and depression in early and late adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriol, Xavier; Miranda, Rafael; Acosta, Hedy C.; Mendoza, Michelle C.; Torres-Vallejos, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Background From the social-ecological perspective, exposure to violence at the different developmental levels is fundamental to explain the dynamics of violence and victimization in educational centers. The following study aims at analyzing how these relationships are produced in the Peruvian context, where structural violence situations exist. Methods A multi-mediation structural model with 21,416 Peruvian adolescents (M = 13.69; SD = 0.71) was conducted to determine the influence of violence in the school environment on violence perceived within school and violence exercised by teachers. In addition, it was also intended to determine whether these violent relationships predict depression through loneliness, and bullying through peer victimization. The existence of differences between early and late adolescence was also verified. Results Results confirm that violence in the school setting has high influence on violence exercised by adolescents and teachers within the school. Teacher violence is the most important predictor of depression through loneliness, and encourages peer victimization and the emergence of aggressive behavior. Exposure to violence exercised by support sources—teachers and classmates—explains more than 90% of the total variance explained in bullying behavior. Differences were found between early and late adolescence models. Conclusion The high prevalence of structural violence in school settings facilitates the bullying/victimization dynamics within school. From a social-ecological perspective, this result suggests the importance of network cooperation at a mesosystem level, with teachers from educational centers playing a crucial role in the prevention of bullying/victimization. PMID:28358905

  10. Violent relationships at the social-ecological level: A multi-mediation model to predict adolescent victimization by peers, bullying and depression in early and late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriol, Xavier; Miranda, Rafael; Amutio, Alberto; Acosta, Hedy C; Mendoza, Michelle C; Torres-Vallejos, Javier

    2017-01-01

    From the social-ecological perspective, exposure to violence at the different developmental levels is fundamental to explain the dynamics of violence and victimization in educational centers. The following study aims at analyzing how these relationships are produced in the Peruvian context, where structural violence situations exist. A multi-mediation structural model with 21,416 Peruvian adolescents (M = 13.69; SD = 0.71) was conducted to determine the influence of violence in the school environment on violence perceived within school and violence exercised by teachers. In addition, it was also intended to determine whether these violent relationships predict depression through loneliness, and bullying through peer victimization. The existence of differences between early and late adolescence was also verified. Results confirm that violence in the school setting has high influence on violence exercised by adolescents and teachers within the school. Teacher violence is the most important predictor of depression through loneliness, and encourages peer victimization and the emergence of aggressive behavior. Exposure to violence exercised by support sources-teachers and classmates-explains more than 90% of the total variance explained in bullying behavior. Differences were found between early and late adolescence models. The high prevalence of structural violence in school settings facilitates the bullying/victimization dynamics within school. From a social-ecological perspective, this result suggests the importance of network cooperation at a mesosystem level, with teachers from educational centers playing a crucial role in the prevention of bullying/victimization.

  11. Violent relationships at the social-ecological level: A multi-mediation model to predict adolescent victimization by peers, bullying and depression in early and late adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Oriol

    Full Text Available From the social-ecological perspective, exposure to violence at the different developmental levels is fundamental to explain the dynamics of violence and victimization in educational centers. The following study aims at analyzing how these relationships are produced in the Peruvian context, where structural violence situations exist.A multi-mediation structural model with 21,416 Peruvian adolescents (M = 13.69; SD = 0.71 was conducted to determine the influence of violence in the school environment on violence perceived within school and violence exercised by teachers. In addition, it was also intended to determine whether these violent relationships predict depression through loneliness, and bullying through peer victimization. The existence of differences between early and late adolescence was also verified.Results confirm that violence in the school setting has high influence on violence exercised by adolescents and teachers within the school. Teacher violence is the most important predictor of depression through loneliness, and encourages peer victimization and the emergence of aggressive behavior. Exposure to violence exercised by support sources-teachers and classmates-explains more than 90% of the total variance explained in bullying behavior. Differences were found between early and late adolescence models.The high prevalence of structural violence in school settings facilitates the bullying/victimization dynamics within school. From a social-ecological perspective, this result suggests the importance of network cooperation at a mesosystem level, with teachers from educational centers playing a crucial role in the prevention of bullying/victimization.

  12. Leptin concentrations in response to acute stress predict subsequent intake of comfort foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, A Janet; Schamarek, Imke; Lustig, Robert H; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Puterman, Eli; Havel, Peter J; Epel, Elissa S

    2012-08-20

    Both animals and humans show a tendency toward eating more "comfort food" (high fat, sweet food) after acute stress. Such stress eating may be contributing to the obesity epidemic, and it is important to understand the underlying psychobiological mechanisms. Prior investigations have studied what makes individuals eat more after stress; this study investigates what might make individuals eat less. Leptin has been shown to increase following a laboratory stressor, and is known to regulate satiety. This study examined whether leptin reactivity accounts for individual differences in stress eating. To test this, we exposed forty women to standardized acute psychological laboratory stress (Trier Social Stress Test) while blood was sampled repeatedly for measurements of plasma leptin. We then measured food intake after the stressor. Increasing leptin during the stressor predicted lower intake of comfort food. These initial findings suggest that acute changes in leptin may be one of the factors modulating down the consumption of comfort food following stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Leptin concentrations in response to acute stress predict subsequent intake of comfort foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, A. Janet; Schamarek, Imke; Lustig, Robert H.; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Puterman, Eli; Havel, Peter J.; Epel, Elissa S.

    2012-01-01

    Both animals and humans show a tendency toward eating more “comfort food” (high fat, sweet food) after acute stress. Such stress eating may be contributing to the obesity epidemic, and it is important to understand the underlying psychobiological mechanisms. Prior investigations have studied what makes individuals eat more after stress; this study investigates what might make individuals eat less. Leptin has been shown to increase following a laboratory stressor, and is known to affect eating behavior. This study examined whether leptin reactivity accounts for individual differences in stress eating. To test this, we exposed forty women to standardized acute psychological laboratory stress (Trier Social Stress Test) while blood was sampled repeatedly for measurements of plasma leptin. We then measured food intake after the stressor in 29 of these women. Increasing leptin during the stressor predicted lower intake of comfort food. These initial findings suggest that acute changes in leptin may be one of the factors modulating down the consumption of comfort food following stress. PMID:22579988

  14. Evaluation of the Predictive Value of Umbilical Cord Serum Bilirubin Level for the Development of Subsequent Hyperbilirubinemia in Term and Late-Preterm Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Hemmati

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Based on the findings, UCS bilirubin level could not predict subsequent hyperbilirubinemia. Therefore, the best predictive marker for neonatal jaundice is the assessment of clinical risk factors and predischarge bilirubin level.

  15. Semen molecular and cellular features: these parameters can reliably predict subsequent ART outcome in a goat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mereu Paolo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Currently, the assessment of sperm function in a raw or processed semen sample is not able to reliably predict sperm ability to withstand freezing and thawing procedures and in vivo fertility and/or assisted reproductive biotechnologies (ART outcome. The aim of the present study was to investigate which parameters among a battery of analyses could predict subsequent spermatozoa in vitro fertilization ability and hence blastocyst output in a goat model. Ejaculates were obtained by artificial vagina from 3 adult goats (Capra hircus aged 2 years (A, B and C. In order to assess the predictive value of viability, computer assisted sperm analyzer (CASA motility parameters and ATP intracellular concentration before and after thawing and of DNA integrity after thawing on subsequent embryo output after an in vitro fertility test, a logistic regression analysis was used. Individual differences in semen parameters were evident for semen viability after thawing and DNA integrity. Results of IVF test showed that spermatozoa collected from A and B lead to higher cleavage rates (0

  16. Pubertal Timing, Peer Victimization, and Body Esteem Differentially Predict Depressive Symptoms in African American and Caucasian Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlat, Elissa J.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    This study prospectively examined pubertal timing and peer victimization as interactive predictors of depressive symptoms in a racially diverse community sample of adolescents. We also expanded on past research by assessing body esteem as a mechanism by which pubertal timing and peer victimization confer risk for depression. In all, 218…

  17. Successful emotion regulation skills application predicts subsequent reduction of symptom severity during treatment of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radkovsky, Anna; McArdle, John J; Bockting, Claudi L H; Berking, Matthias

    2014-04-01

    Deficits in emotion regulation (ER) skills are considered a putative maintaining factor for major depressive disorder (MDD) and hence a promising target in the treatment of MDD. However, to date, the association between the successful application of arguably adaptive ER skills and changes in depressive symptom severity (DSS) has yet to be investigated over the course of treatment. Thus, the primary aim of this study was to clarify reciprocal prospective associations between successful ER skills application and DSS over the course of inpatient cognitive behavioral therapy for MDD. Additionally, we explored whether such associations would differ across specific ER skills. We assessed successful ER skills application and DSS 4 times during the first 3 weeks of treatment in 152 inpatients (62.5% women, average age 45.6 years) meeting criteria for MDD. We first tested whether successful skills application and depression were cross-sectionally associated by computing Pearson's correlations. Then, we utilized latent curve modeling to test whether changes in successful skills application were negatively associated with changes in DSS during treatment. Finally, we used latent change score models to clarify whether successful skills application would predict subsequent reduction of DSS. Cross-sectionally, successful ER skills application was associated with lower levels of DSS at all assessment times, and an increase of successful skills application during treatment was associated with a decrease of DSS. Moreover, successful overall ER skills application predicted subsequent changes in DSS (but not vice versa). Finally, strength of associations between successful application and DSS differed across specific ER skills. Among a broad range of potentially adaptive skills, only the abilities to tolerate negative emotions and to actively modify undesired emotions were significantly associated with subsequent improvement in DSS. Systematically enhancing health-relevant ER skills

  18. Do Functional Movement Screen (FMS) composite scores predict subsequent injury? A systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert W; Schneiders, Anthony G; Mason, Jesse; Sullivan, S John

    2017-12-01

    This paper aims to systematically review studies investigating the strength of association between FMS composite scores and subsequent risk of injury, taking into account both methodological quality and clinical and methodological diversity. Systematic review with meta-analysis. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted for the period between their inception and 3 March 2016 using PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, Scopus, Academic Search Complete, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine Database), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Health Source and SPORTDiscus. Inclusion criteria: (1) English language, (2) observational prospective cohort design, (3) original and peer-reviewed data, (4) composite FMS score, used to define exposure and non-exposure groups and (5) musculoskeletal injury, reported as the outcome. (1) data reported in conference abstracts or non-peer-reviewed literature, including theses, and (2) studies employing cross-sectional or retrospective study designs. 24 studies were appraised using the Quality of Cohort Studies assessment tool. In male military personnel, there was 'strong' evidence that the strength of association between FMS composite score (cut-point ≤14/21) and subsequent injury was 'small' (pooled risk ratio=1.47, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.77, p<0.0001, I(2)=57%). There was 'moderate' evidence to recommend against the use of FMS composite score as an injury prediction test in football (soccer). For other populations (including American football, college athletes, basketball, ice hockey, running, police and firefighters), the evidence was 'limited' or 'conflicting'. The strength of association between FMS composite scores and subsequent injury does not support its use as an injury prediction tool. PROSPERO registration number CRD42015025575. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  19. Deficits in Emotional Clarity and Vulnerability to Peer Victimization and Internalizing Symptoms Among Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L; Kleiman, Evan M; Rubenstein, Liza M; Stange, Jonathan P; Flynn, Megan; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-01-01

    Peer victimization is a significant risk factor for a range of negative outcomes during adolescence, including depression and anxiety. Recent research has evaluated individual characteristics that heighten the risk of experiencing peer victimization. However, the role of emotional clarity, or the ability to understand one's emotions, in being the target of peer victimization remains unclear. Thus, the present study evaluated whether deficits in emotional clarity increased the risk of experiencing peer victimization, particularly among adolescent girls, which, in turn, contributed to prospective levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms. In the present study, 355 early adolescents (ages 12-13; 53% female; 51% African American) who were part of the Adolescent Cognition and Emotion project completed measures of emotional clarity, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms at baseline, and measures of peer victimization, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms at follow-up. Moderation analyses indicated that deficits in emotional clarity predicted greater peer victimization among adolescent girls, but not adolescent boys. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that deficits in emotional clarity contributed to relational peer victimization, which, in turn, predicted prospective levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms among adolescent girls, but not boys. These findings indicate that deficits in emotional clarity represent a significant risk factor for adolescent girls to experience relational peer victimization, which, in turn, contributed to prospective levels of internalizing symptoms. Thus, prevention programs should target deficits in emotional clarity to prevent peer victimization and subsequent internalizing symptoms among adolescent girls.

  20. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response to alcohol pictures predicts subsequent transition to heavy drinking in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dager, Alecia D; Anderson, Beth M; Rosen, Rivkah; Khadka, Sabin; Sawyer, Broderick; Jiantonio-Kelly, Rachel E; Austad, Carol S; Raskin, Sarah A; Tennen, Howard; Wood, Rebecca M; Fallahi, Carolyn R; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2014-04-01

    Young adults show the highest rates of escalating drinking, yet the neural risk mechanisms remain unclear. Heavy drinkers show variant functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to alcohol cues, which may presage increasing drinking. In this longitudinal study, we ascertained whether BOLD response to alcohol pictures predicted subsequent heavy drinking among college students. Participants were 43 18-21-year-olds in the United States who underwent BOLD scanning and completed monthly substance use surveys over the following year. Participants were categorized according to baseline and follow-up drinking into 13 continuously moderate drinkers, 16 continuously heavy drinkers and 14 transitioners who drank moderately at baseline but heavily by follow-up. During fMRI scanning at baseline, participants viewed alcohol and matched non-alcohol beverage images. We observed group differences in alcohol cue-elicited BOLD response in bilateral caudate, orbitofrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex/anterior cingulate and left insula (clusters > 2619 ml, voxelwise F(2,40)  > 3.23, P alcoholism family history, impulsivity), BOLD response best predicted escalating drinking amount and alcohol-related problems. Neural response to pictures of alcohol is substantially enhanced among United States college students who subsequently escalate drinking. Greater cue-reactivity is associated with larger increases in drinking and alcohol-related problems, regardless of other baseline factors. Thus, neural cue-reactivity could uniquely facilitate identifying individuals at greatest risk for future problematic drinking. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Methods of suicide predict the risks and method-switching of subsequent suicide attempts: a community cohort study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang YC

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Chi Huang,1 Ya-Wen Wu,2 Chih-Ken Chen,3 Liang-Jen Wang41Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan; 3Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung and Chang Gung University School of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, TaiwanObjective: Suicide is a major public health concern. This study aimed to determine the predictors of repeated suicide attempts, focusing on whether lethality level of the suicidal method predicts the risk of subsequent suicide attempts.Methods: All consecutive individuals (N=2,070 with an episode of nonfatal self-harm registered in a surveillance database provided by the Department of Health of Keelung City Government in Taiwan from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2010 were enrolled and followed up until the end of 2011. The earliest attempt recorded in the database was defined as the index attempt. Subjects were classified according to suicide method into low-lethal and high-lethal groups. Data on time of and methods chosen for subsequent suicide attempts during the follow-up period were analyzed.Results: Of the total people screened for the study, 18.1% made a repeated suicide attempt. Subjects in the high-lethal group were more likely to be male; aged 35–64 years; and single, divorced, or widowed. Compared to other time intervals, most subsequent suicide attempts occurred within 6 months from the index attempt. The independent predictors for repeated suicide attempts were the use of low-lethal methods in the index attempt and being 35–49 years old. Using high-lethal methods and being older than 50 years were associated with changing suicide method for the second attempt.Conclusion: Lethality level of

  2. The Impact of Asking Intention or Self-Prediction Questions on Subsequent Behavior: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chantelle; Conner, Mark; Miles, Eleanor; Sandberg, Tracy; Taylor, Natalie; Godin, Gaston; Sheeran, Paschal

    2016-08-01

    The current meta-analysis estimated the magnitude of the impact of asking intention and self-prediction questions on rates of subsequent behavior, and examined mediators and moderators of this question-behavior effect (QBE). Random-effects meta-analysis on 116 published tests of the effect indicated that intention/prediction questions have a small positive effect on behavior (d+ = 0.24). Little support was observed for attitude accessibility, cognitive dissonance, behavioral simulation, or processing fluency explanations of the QBE. Multivariate analyses indicated significant effects of social desirability of behavior/behavior domain (larger effects for more desirable and less risky behaviors), difficulty of behavior (larger effects for easy-to-perform behaviors), and sample type (larger effects among student samples). Although this review controls for co-occurrence of moderators in multivariate analyses, future primary research should systematically vary moderators in fully factorial designs. Further primary research is also needed to unravel the mechanisms underlying different variants of the QBE. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  3. Does early improvement in depressive symptoms predict subsequent remission in patients with depression who are treated with duloxetine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueki A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Akitsugu Sueki, Eriko Suzuki, Hitoshi Takahashi, Jun Ishigooka Department of Neuropsychiatry, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: In this prospective study, we examined whether early reduction in depressive symptoms predicts later remission to duloxetine in the treatment of depression, as monitored using the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS. Patients and methods: Among the 106 patients who were enrolled in this study, 67 were included in the statistical analysis. A clinical evaluation using the MADRS was performed at weeks 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 after commencing treatment. For each time point, the MADRS total score was separated into three components: dysphoria, retardation, and vegetative scores. Results: Remission was defined as an MADRS total score of ≤10 at end point. From our univariate logistic regression analysis, we found that improvements in both the MADRS total score and the dysphoria score at week 4 had a significant interaction with subsequent remission. Furthermore, age and sex were significant predictors of remission. There was an increase of approximately 4% in the odds of remission for each unit increase in age, and female sex had an odds of remission of 0.318 times that of male sex (remission rate for men was 73.1% [19/26] and for women 46.3% [19/41]. However, in the multivariate model using the change from baseline in the total MADRS, dysphoria, retardation, and vegetative scores at week 4, in which age and sex were included as covariates, only sex retained significance, except for an improvement in the dysphoria score. Conclusion: No significant interaction was found between early response to duloxetine and eventual remission in this study. Sex difference was found to be a predictor of subsequent remission in patients with depression who were treated with duloxetine, with the male sex having greater odds of remission. Keywords: antidepressant, early response, sex difference, serotonin

  4. Prediction of subsequent miscarriage risk in women who present with a viable pregnancy at the first early pregnancy scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatopoulos, Nicole; Lu, Chuan; Casikar, Ishwari; Reid, Shannon; Mongelli, Max; Hardy, Nigel; Condous, George

    2015-10-01

    To generate and evaluate a new prediction model for miscarriage in women who present with a viable intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) at the primary early pregnancy scan and to compare this new model to a previously published model. Data were collected prospectively from women presenting to the early pregnancy unit with a viable IUP between November 2006 and January 2013. More than 30 historical, clinical and ultrasonographic variables were recorded on a standardised datasheet at the first visit. Women were followed until the final outcome was known at the end of the first trimester: viable IUP or miscarriage. A new multinomial logistic regression model was developed retrospectively on training cases and tested prospectively on test cases. The performance of the new prediction model was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and compared to a previously published model. After removing cases with missing values for the model of Oates, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was also calculated for the new model and the Oates model. A total of 1115 consecutive first-trimester women presented to the early pregnancy unit. Eight hundred and sixty-two women with a viable IUP at the first scan whose outcome was known at the end of the first trimester were included in the final analysis. Five hundred and sixty-six women were included in the training set and 296 in the test set. 92.1% were viable and 7.9% had miscarried at the end of the first trimester. The most significant independent prognostic variables for the logistic regression model were as follows: maternal age, embryonic heart rate (EHR), logarithm [gestational sac (GS) volume/crown-rump length (CRL)], CRL and the presence or absence of clots per vagina (PV) at presentation. The performance of the new model compared with the Oates model gave an AUC of 0.870 vs 0.847 for the training set and 0.783 vs 0.744 for the test set. After removing cases with missing values for the model of Oates 2013, the

  5. Emotional disclosure and victim blaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, Kent D; Podolski, Peter; Williams, Christian H

    2015-10-01

    Victim blaming occurs when people are unfairly held responsible for their misfortunes. According to just world theory, witnessing another's victimization threatens just world beliefs, which arouses distress. Victim blaming redeems just world beliefs, thereby reducing distress. However, negative emotions can also be resolved through emotional disclosure, suggesting that disclosure can prevent victim blaming. Two experiments confirmed this prediction. In Study 1 participants viewed a woman being victimized or a woman in a nonvictimizing conflict. Participants then disclosed or suppressed the emotions aroused by these scenes and 1 week later evaluated the woman they had viewed. Disclosure reduced blaming of the victim but did not affect blaming of the nonvictim. Further, the more distress participants disclosed, the less they blamed the victim. Study 2 replicated the primary results of Study 1 and also showed that (a) disclosure exclusively reduces blaming of victims; it does not moderate judgments of victimizers, and (b) the effects of disclosure on blaming applies across genders. These 2 studies confirm that victim blaming is a form of emotion management (per just world theory), and that emotional disclosure prevents blaming by supplying an alternative mode of emotion management. This research also suggests that emotional disclosure moderates social perception, in general. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Severe Spastic Contractures and Diabetes Mellitus Independently Predict Subsequent Minimal Trauma Fractures Among Long-Term Care Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kuen; Leung, Man Fuk; Kwan, Chi Wai; Kwan, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    The study aimed to examine the epidemiology of hypertonic contractures and its relationship with minimal trauma fracture (MTF), and to determine the incidence and predictors of (MTF) in long-term care residents. This was a longitudinal cohort study of prospectively collected data. Participants were followed from March 2007 to March 2016 or until death. A 300-bed long-term care hospital in Hong Kong. All long-term care residents who were in need of continuous medical and nursing care for their activities of daily living. Information on patients' demographic data, severe contracture defined as a decrease of 50% or more of the normal passive range of joint movement of the joint, and severe limb spasticity defined by the Modified Ashworth Scale higher than grade 3, medical comorbidities, functional status, cognitive status, nutritional status including body mass index and serum albumin, past history of fractures, were evaluated as potential risk factors for subsequent MTF. Three hundred ninety-six residents [148 males, mean ± standard deviation (SD), age = 79 ± 16 years] were included for analysis. The presence of severe contracture was highly prevalent among the study population: 91% of residents had at least 1 severe contracture, and 41% of residents had severe contractures involving all 4 limbs. Moreover, there were a significant proportion of residents who had severe limb spasticity with the elbow flexors (32.4%) and knee flexors (33.9%) being the most commonly involved muscles. Twelve residents (3%) suffered from subsequent MTF over a median follow-up of 33 (SD = 30) months. Seven out of these 12 residents died during the follow-up period, with a mean survival of 17.8 months (SD = 12.6) after the fracture event. The following 2 factors were found to independently predict subsequent MTF in a multivariate Cox regression: bilateral severe spastic knee contractures (hazard ratio = 16.5, P diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio = 4.0. P = .018, confidence

  7. Predicting Change in Children's Aggression and Victimization Using Classroom-Level Descriptive Norms of aggression and Pro-Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Sterett H.; McMillen, Janey Sturtz; DeRosier, Melissa E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined aggressive and pro-social classroom descriptive norms as predictors of change in aggression and victimization during middle childhood. Participants included 948 children in third through fifth grade. Measures of teacher-reported aggressive and peer-reported pro-social descriptive norms were completed at the onset of the study.…

  8. Predictive Effects of Social Anxiety on Increases in Future Peer Victimization for a Community Sample of Middle-School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Saskia F.; Hutteman, Roos; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study focused on clarifying the direction of effects between social anxiety and victimization in a community-based sample. In addition, we studied the moderating effect of gender on this association. A total of 1,649 children (45% boys, approximately 12 years old) of 65 secondary-school classes participated in the study.…

  9. Victimization and the general theory of crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofziger, Stacey

    2009-01-01

    Theories of victimization developed independently of theories of offending, in spite of consistent findings of similarities between offenders and victims of crime. This study examines whether Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) general theory of crime, typically used to predict offending, also has relevance in understanding juvenile victimization. The data for this project are drawn from a sample of over 1,200 middle and high school students. Using structural equation models, the findings suggest that higher self-control does directly decrease victimization and that self-control also affects victimization indirectly though opportunities (peer deviance). Implications for the studies of victimization as well as the general theory of crime are discussed.

  10. Understanding victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show that the proba......This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show...... that the probability of being victimized is increasing in income, but at a diminishing rate. The effect of income is dependent on the type of crime, and poorer households are vulnerable. While less at risk of victimization, they suffer relatively greater losses when such shocks occur. Lower inequality and increased...

  11. Understanding Victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show that the proba......This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show...... that the probability of being victimized is increasing in income, but at a diminishing rate. The effect of income is dependent on the type of crime, and poorer households are vulnerable. While less at risk of victimization, they suffer relatively greater losses when such shocks occur. Lower inequality and increased...

  12. Further victimization of child sexual abuse victims: A latent class typology of re-victimization trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Nina L; Luebbers, Stefan; Ogloff, James R P; Cutajar, Margaret; Mullen, Paul E; Mann, Emily

    2017-04-01

    The association between child sexual abuse (CSA) and risk for re-victimization is well-documented; however, less is known about the temporal progression of re-victimization experiences over the early life-course among CSA survivors, and whether this differs from that of those without known sexual abuse histories. This study investigated whether there are distinct temporal pathways of interpersonal re-victimization between the ages of 10-25 years among medically confirmed CSA cases, and considered whether abuse variables, re-victimization variables, and the presence of other adverse outcomes, were associated with heterogeneity in re-victimization pathways. The data were collected as part of a large-scale data-linkage study in which the medical records of 2759 cases of contact-CSA between 1964 and 1995 were linked, between 13 and 44 years following abuse, to police and public psychiatric databases; cases were compared to a matched community sample (n=2677). Using a subsample of 510 (401 victims; 109 comparisons) individuals with an interpersonal (re)victimization history, we examined the aggregate 'age-(re)victimization' curves for CSA victims and comparisons, respectively. Further, we applied longitudinal latent class analysis to explore heterogeneity in re-victimization trajectories among abuse survivors across their early life-course. Four latent pathways were identified, labeled: Normative; Childhood-Limited; Emerging-Adulthood; and Chronic re-victimization trajectories. Older age at abuse, a criminal history, and mental health problems were uniquely predictive of membership to the more problematic and persistent re-victimization trajectories. Findings indicate that individuals exposed to CSA during adolescence may be particularly vulnerable to poorer re-victimization trajectories, characterized by multiple risk indices, and thus may warrant increased service provision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Longitudinal Change in Women's Sexual Victimization Experiences as a Function of Alcohol Consumption and Sexual Victimization History: A Latent Transition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Amanda E B; Norris, Jeanette; Abdallah, Devon Alisa; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Morrison, Diane M; Davis, Kelly C; George, William H; Danube, Cinnamon L; Zawacki, Tina

    2016-04-01

    Women's alcohol consumption and vulnerability to sexual victimization (SV) are linked, but findings regarding the nature and direction of the association are mixed. Some studies have found support for the self-medication hypothesis (i.e., victimized women drink more to alleviate SV-related distress); others have supported routine activity theory (i.e., drinking increases SV vulnerability). In this study, we aimed to clarify the interplay between women's prior SV, typical drinking, and SV experiences prospectively over one year. Participants (N = 530) completed a baseline survey and weekly follow-up surveys across Months 3, 6, 9, and 12. Latent class analysis (LCA) suggested that women could be classified as victimized or non-victimized at each assessment month; 28% of participants were classified as victimized at one or more assessment months. Latent transition analysis (LTA) revealed that childhood sexual abuse and adult SV history each predicted greater likelihood of being victimized during the year. Typical drinking during a given assessment month was associated with (1) greater likelihood of victimized status at that assessment month and (2) greater likelihood of having transitioned into (or remained in) the victimized status since the previous assessment month. Furthermore, victimized status at a given assessment month predicted a higher quantity of subsequent drinking. These findings indicate a reciprocal relationship between typical drinking and SV, supporting both the self-medication hypothesis and routine activity theory, and suggesting that hazardous drinking levels may be one important target for both SV vulnerability reduction and interventions for women who have been sexually victimized.

  14. Bidirectional Associations between Peer Victimization and Functions of Aggression in Middle Childhood: Further Evaluation across Informants and Academic Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, John L; Fite, Paula J; Pederson, Casey A

    2017-02-20

    The current 3-wave study examined bidirectional associations between peer victimization and functions of aggression across informants over a 1-year period in middle childhood, with attention to potential gender differences. Participants included 198 children (51% girls) in the third and fourth grades and their homeroom teachers. Peer victimization was assessed using both child- and teacher-reports, and teachers provided ratings of reactive and proactive aggression. Cross-classified multilevel cross-lagged models indicated that child-reports, but not teacher-reports, of peer victimization predicted higher levels of reactive aggression within and across academic years. Further, reactive aggression predicted subsequent increases in child- and teacher-reports of peer victimization across each wave of data. Several gender differences, particularly in the crossed paths between proactive aggression and peer victimization, also emerged. Whereas peer victimization was found to partially account for the stability of reactive aggression over time, reactive aggression did not account for the stability of peer victimization. Taken together with previous research, the current findings suggest that child-reports of peer victimization may help identify youth who are risk for exhibiting increased reactive aggression over time. Further, they highlight the need to target reactively aggressive behavior for the prevention of peer victimization in middle childhood.

  15. Social comparison, competition and teacher-student relationships in junior high school classrooms predicts bullying and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stasio, Maria Rosaria; Savage, Robert; Burgos, Giovani

    2016-12-01

    This cross-sectional research examines how social comparison, competition and teacher-student relationships as classroom characteristics are associated with bullying and victimization among junior high school students in grades 7 and 8 in Canada. The study tests a conceptual model of youth outcomes that highlights the importance of modeling the effects of teaching practices as proximal structural conditions at the classroom level (N = 38) that affect bullying outcomes at the individual level (N = 687). Results of Hierarchal linear modeling (HLM) revealed significant classroom-level effects in that increased social comparison, competition and teacher-student relationships were related to bullying and victimization. An interaction for teacher-student relationships and gender also emerged. These findings may guide future intervention programs for junior high schools that focus on enhancing cooperation and pro-social behavior in classrooms. The findings could also inform programs that focus on building strong relationships between students and teachers to help prevent bullying and victimization, particularly among boys. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  16. Encouraging prediction during production facilitates subsequent comprehension: Evidence from interleaved object naming in sentence context and sentence reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, Florian; Meyer, Antje S; Huettig, Falk

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown that a supportive context facilitates language comprehension. A currently influential view is that language production may support prediction in language comprehension. Experimental evidence for this, however, is relatively sparse. Here we explored whether encouraging prediction in a language production task encourages the use of predictive contexts in an interleaved comprehension task. In Experiment 1a, participants listened to the first part of a sentence and provided the final word by naming aloud a picture. The picture name was predictable or not predictable from the sentence context. Pictures were named faster when they could be predicted than when this was not the case. In Experiment 1b the same sentences, augmented by a final spill-over region, were presented in a self-paced reading task. No difference in reading times for predictive versus non-predictive sentences was found. In Experiment 2, reading and naming trials were intermixed. In the naming task, the advantage for predictable picture names was replicated. More importantly, now reading times for the spill-over region were considerable faster for predictive than for non-predictive sentences. We conjecture that these findings fit best with the notion that prediction in the service of language production encourages the use of predictive contexts in comprehension. Further research is required to identify the exact mechanisms by which production exerts its influence on comprehension.

  17. Bringing colour back after 70 years: Predicting eye and hair colour from skeletal remains of World War II victims using the HIrisPlex system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitanya, Lakshmi; Pajnič, Irena Zupanič; Walsh, Susan; Balažic, Jože; Zupanc, Tomaž; Kayser, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Retrieving information about externally visible characteristics from DNA can provide investigative leads to find unknown perpetrators, and can also help in disaster victim and other missing person identification cases. Aiming for the application to both types of forensic casework, we previously developed and forensically validated the HIrisPlex test system enabling parallel DNA prediction of eye and hair colour. Although a recent proof-of-principle study demonstrated the general suitability of the HIrisPlex system for successfully analysing DNA from bones and teeth of various storage times and conditions, practical case applications to human remains are scarce. In this study, we applied the HIrisPlex system to 49 DNA samples obtained from bones or teeth of World War II victims excavated at six sites, mostly mass graves, in Slovenia. PCR-based DNA quantification ranged from 4pg/μl to 313pg/μl and on an average was 41pg/μl across all samples. All 49 samples generated complete HIrisPlex profiles with the exception of one MC1R DNA marker (N29insA) missing in 83.7% of the samples. In 44 of the 49 samples (89.8%) complete 15-loci autosomal STR (plus amelogenin) profiles were obtained. Of 5 pairs of skeletal remains for which STR profiling suggested an origin in the same individuals, respectively, 4 showed the same HIrisPlex profiles and predicted eye and hair colours, respectively, while discrepancies in one pair (sample 26 and 43) are likely to be explained by DNA quantity and quality issues observed in sample 43. Sample 43 had the lowest DNA concentration of only 4pg/μl, producing least reliable STR results and could be misleading in concluding that samples 43 and 26 originate from the same individual. The HIrisPlex-predicted eye and hair colours from two skeletal samples, suggested to derive from two brothers via STR profiling together with a living sister, were confirmed by the living sister's report. Overall, we demonstrate that after more than 70 years, HIris

  18. Peer Victimization and Forms of Aggression During Middle Childhood: The Role of Emotion Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, John L; Fite, Paula J

    2016-04-01

    The current short-term longitudinal study evaluated whether anger and sadness regulation moderated the associations between peer victimization and physical and relational forms of aggression over a 6-month period. Participants included 278 predominantly Caucasian children (51.8% female) between 8 and 12 years of age (M = 9.33, SD = 0.99). Peer victimization was assessed at Time 1 using child- and teacher-reports, and teachers provided ratings of children's aggressive behavior at Time 1 and Time 2. Children also completed self-report measures of anger and sadness regulation at Time 1. Results from multilevel models provided support for the notion that children's ability to effectively regulate their feelings of anger and sadness influences the relations among peer victimization and forms of aggression over time. As anticipated, high levels of anger regulation attenuated the link between child-reported peer victimization and physical aggression. Further, when levels of anger regulation were high, teacher-reported peer victimization predicted subsequent decreases in physical aggression. Contrary to expectations, however, high levels of anger and sadness regulation exacerbated the association between child-reported peer victimization and relational aggression, and teacher-reported peer victimization predicted decreases in relational aggression over time when levels of anger regulation were low. Directions for future research and implications for practice are discussed.

  19. Forecasting risk of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE): using data from wildlife and climate to predict next year's number of human victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemig, Paul D; Sjöstedt de Luna, S; Grafström, A; Lithner, Stefan; Lundkvist, Åke; Waldenström, Jonas; Kindberg, Jonas; Stedt, Johan; Olsén, Björn

    2011-05-01

    Over the past quarter century, the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has increased in most European nations. However, the number of humans stricken by the disease varies from year to year. A method for predicting major increases and decreases is needed. We assembled a 25-y database (1984-2008) of the number of human TBE victims and wildlife and climate data for the Stockholm region of Sweden, and used it to create easy-to-use mathematical models that predict increases and decreases in the number of humans stricken by TBE. Our best model, which uses December precipitation and mink (Neovison vison, formerly Mustela vison) bagging figures, successfully predicted every major increase or decrease in TBE during the past quarter century, with a minimum of false alarms. However, this model was not efficient in predicting small increases and decreases. Predictions from our models can be used to determine when preventive and adaptive programmes should be implemented. For example, in years when the frequency of TBE in humans is predicted to be high, vector control could be intensified where infested ticks have a higher probability of encountering humans, such as at playgrounds, bathing lakes, barbecue areas and camping facilities. Because our models use only wildlife and climate data, they can be used even when the human population is vaccinated. Another advantage is that because our models employ data from previously-established databases, no additional funding for surveillance is required.

  20. The Moderating Effect of Physical Activity on the Association Between ADHD Symptoms and Peer Victimization in Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tarrah B; Cooley, John L; Evans, Spencer C; Fite, Paula J

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with higher levels of victimization, but little is known about protective factors. The purpose of the study was to examine whether physical activity attenuated the associations among ADHD symptoms and physical and relational victimization 1.5 years later. Participants included 168 s through fourth grade students (M age = 8.43; 52.4 % boys) who completed self-reports of physical activity and victimization; teachers provided ratings of ADHD symptoms. ADHD symptoms predicted subsequent increases in physical, but not relational, victimization among children who reported engaging in moderate/high levels of physical activity, especially out of the school context (moderate: β = .26, p = .03; high: β = .55, p victimization that they might experience.

  1. Increase in waist circumference over 6 years predicts subsequent cardiovascular disease and total mortality in nordic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingberg, Sofia; Mehlig, Kirsten; Lanfer, Anne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite solid evidence of an association between centralized body fatness and subsequent disease risk, little is known about the consequences of changes in body fat distribution. Recently it was shown that large hip circumference (HC), measured once, was protective against total and ca...... and ever-smokers. This implies the importance of developing strategies to prevent central fat deposition.......OBJECTIVE: Despite solid evidence of an association between centralized body fatness and subsequent disease risk, little is known about the consequences of changes in body fat distribution. Recently it was shown that large hip circumference (HC), measured once, was protective against total...

  2. Clinical and Genetic Risk Prediction of Subsequent CNS Tumors in Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Report From the COG ALTE03N1 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuexia; Sun, Can-Lan; Hageman, Lindsey; Smith, Kandice; Singh, Purnima; Desai, Sunil; Hawkins, Douglas S; Hudson, Melissa M; Mascarenhas, Leo; Neglia, Joseph P; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Ritchey, A Kim; Robison, Leslie L; Villaluna, Doojduen; Landier, Wendy; Bhatia, Smita

    2017-10-04

    Purpose Survivors of childhood cancer treated with cranial radiation therapy are at risk for subsequent CNS tumors. However, significant interindividual variability in risk suggests a role for genetic susceptibility and provides an opportunity to identify survivors of childhood cancer at increased risk for these tumors. Methods We curated candidate genetic variants from previously published studies in adult-onset primary CNS tumors and replicated these in survivors of childhood cancer with and without subsequent CNS tumors (82 participants and 228 matched controls). We developed prediction models to identify survivors at high or low risk for subsequent CNS tumors and validated these models in an independent matched case-control sample (25 participants and 54 controls). Results We demonstrated an association between six previously published single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs15869 [ BRCA2], rs1805389 [ LIG4], rs8079544 [ TP53], rs25489 [ XRCC1], rs1673041 [ POLD1], and rs11615 [ ERCC1]) and subsequent CNS tumors in survivors of childhood cancer. Including genetic variants in a Final Model containing age at primary cancer, sex, and cranial radiation therapy dose yielded an area under the curve of 0.81 (95% CI, 0.76 to 0.86), which was superior ( P = .002) to the Clinical Model (area under the curve, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.80). The prediction model was successfully validated. The sensitivity and specificity of predicting survivors of childhood cancer at highest or lowest risk of subsequent CNS tumors was 87.5% and 83.5%, respectively. Conclusion It is possible to identify survivors of childhood cancer at high or low risk for subsequent CNS tumors on the basis of genetic and clinical information. This information can be used to inform surveillance for early detection of subsequent CNS tumors.

  3. Combining Amplitude Spectrum Area with Previous Shock Information Using Neural Networks Improves Prediction Performance of Defibrillation Outcome for Subsequent Shocks in Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi He

    Full Text Available Quantitative ventricular fibrillation (VF waveform analysis is a potentially powerful tool to optimize defibrillation. However, whether combining VF features with additional attributes that related to the previous shock could enhance the prediction performance for subsequent shocks is still uncertain.A total of 528 defibrillation shocks from 199 patients experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were analyzed in this study. VF waveform was quantified using amplitude spectrum area (AMSA from defibrillator's ECG recordings prior to each shock. Combinations of AMSA with previous shock index (PSI or/and change of AMSA (ΔAMSA between successive shocks were exercised through a training dataset including 255shocks from 99patientswith neural networks. Performance of the combination methods were compared with AMSA based single feature prediction by area under receiver operating characteristic curve(AUC, sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and prediction accuracy (PA through a validation dataset that was consisted of 273 shocks from 100patients.A total of61 (61.0% patients required subsequent shocks (N = 173 in the validation dataset. Combining AMSA with PSI and ΔAMSA obtained highest AUC (0.904 vs. 0.819, p<0.001 among different combination approaches for subsequent shocks. Sensitivity (76.5% vs. 35.3%, p<0.001, NPV (90.2% vs. 76.9%, p = 0.007 and PA (86.1% vs. 74.0%, p = 0.005were greatly improved compared with AMSA based single feature prediction with a threshold of 90% specificity.In this retrospective study, combining AMSA with previous shock information using neural networks greatly improves prediction performance of defibrillation outcome for subsequent shocks.

  4. Presence of Eosinophils in Nasal Secretion during Acute Respiratory Tract Infection in Young Children Predicts Subsequent Wheezing within Two Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwa Shinohara

    2008-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings not only suggest that nasal eosinophil testing may serve as a convenient clinical marker for identifying young children at risk for subsequent wheezing, but also shed new light on the role of eosinophils in the onset of wheezing in young children.

  5. Combining Amplitude Spectrum Area with Previous Shock Information Using Neural Networks Improves Prediction Performance of Defibrillation Outcome for Subsequent Shocks in Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mi; Lu, Yubao; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Hehua; Gong, Yushun; Li, Yongqin

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative ventricular fibrillation (VF) waveform analysis is a potentially powerful tool to optimize defibrillation. However, whether combining VF features with additional attributes that related to the previous shock could enhance the prediction performance for subsequent shocks is still uncertain. A total of 528 defibrillation shocks from 199 patients experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were analyzed in this study. VF waveform was quantified using amplitude spectrum area (AMSA) from defibrillator's ECG recordings prior to each shock. Combinations of AMSA with previous shock index (PSI) or/and change of AMSA (ΔAMSA) between successive shocks were exercised through a training dataset including 255shocks from 99patientswith neural networks. Performance of the combination methods were compared with AMSA based single feature prediction by area under receiver operating characteristic curve(AUC), sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and prediction accuracy (PA) through a validation dataset that was consisted of 273 shocks from 100patients. A total of61 (61.0%) patients required subsequent shocks (N = 173) in the validation dataset. Combining AMSA with PSI and ΔAMSA obtained highest AUC (0.904 vs. 0.819, pdefibrillation outcome for subsequent shocks.

  6. Fasting Plasma Insulin at 5 Years of Age Predicted Subsequent Weight Increase in Early Childhood over a 5-Year Period-The Da Qing Children Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yan Chen

    Full Text Available The association between hyperinsulinemia and obesity is well known. However, it is uncertain especially in childhood obesity, if initial fasting hyperinsulinemia predicts obesity, or obesity leads to hyperinsulinemia through insulin resistance.To investigate the predictive effect of fasting plasma insulin on subsequent weight change after a 5-year interval in childhood.424 Children from Da Qing city, China, were recruited at 5 years of age and followed up for 5 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma insulin, glucose and triglycerides were measured at baseline and 5 years later.Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age was significantly correlated with change of weight from 5 to 10 years (ΔWeight. Children in the lowest insulin quartile had ΔWeight of 13.08±0.73 kg compare to 18.39±0.86 in the highest insulin quartile (P<0.0001 in boys, and similarly 12.03±0.71 vs 15.80±0.60 kg (P<0.0001 in girls. Multivariate analysis showed that the predictive effect of insulin at 5 years of age on subsequent weight gain over 5 years remained statistically significant even after the adjustment for age, sex, birth weight, TV-viewing time and weight (or body mass index at baseline. By contrast, the initial weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent changes in insulin level 5 years later. Children who had both higher fasting insulin and weight at 5 years of age showed much higher levels of systolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and triglycerides at 10 years of age.Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age predicts weight gain and cardiovascular risk factors 5 year later in Chinese children of early childhood, but the absolute weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent change in fasting insulin.

  7. Moderating Effects of Relational Interdependence on the Association Between Peer Victimization and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Onishi, Ayako

    2017-04-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined the association between relational and physical victimization and subsequent depressive symptoms together with the roles of social cognitive processes (i.e., relational interdependence) and gender in this association. A total of 580 Japanese adolescents in the seventh and eighth grades (52 % girls; age range 12-14) participated in this study across an academic year. Results of structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational and physical victimization, which was assessed via self- and teacher- reports, was concurrently associated with greater depressive symptoms, regardless of the gender of the youth and the level of relational interdependence. Furthermore, after controlling for the stability and co-occurrence between each construct, relational victimization (not physical victimization) was predictive of elevated depressive symptoms only for boys who exhibited relatively higher relational interdependence. The findings are discussed from developmental, gender, and cultural perspectives.

  8. Autonomic Arousal and Emotion in Victims of Interpersonal Violence: Shame Proneness But Not Anxiety Predicts Vagal Tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Steven; D'Andrea, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The redefinition of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, has highlighted a range of posttraumatic affects beyond fear and anxiety. For survivors of interpersonal violence, shame has been shown to be an important contributor of self-reported symptomatology. Although biological models of PTSD emphasize physiological arousal secondary to fear and anxiety, evidence suggests that shame might be related to increased arousal as well. This study tested the contributions of anxiety, fear, and shame to autonomic arousal in a sample of female victims (N = 27) of interpersonal violence with PTSD. Shame proneness was the only significant correlate of autonomic arousal during a trauma reminder paradigm. These findings indicate that shame corresponds to important indicators of changes to the autonomic nervous system that have previously been assumed to be fear related.

  9. Cyberstalking victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilić Vida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Global social networks contributed to the creation of new, inconspicuous, technically perfect shape of criminality which is hard to suppress because of its intangible characteristics. The most common forms of virtual communications’ abuse are: cyberstalking and harassment, identity theft, online fraud, manipulation and misuse of personal information and personal photos, monitoring e-mail accounts and spamming, interception and recording of chat rooms. Cyberstalking is defined as persistent and targeted harassment of an individual by using electronic communication. The victim becomes insecure, frightened, intimidated and does not figure out the best reaction which will terminate the harassment. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance and necessity of studying cyberstalking and to point out its forms in order to find the best ways to prevent this negative social phenomenon. Basic topics that will be analyzed in this paper are the various definitions of cyberstalking, forms of cyberstalking, and the most important characteristics of victims and perpetators.

  10. Mechanisms and processes of relational and physical victimization, depressive symptoms, and children's relational-interdependent self-construals: implications for peer relationships and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Crick, Nicki R

    2014-08-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined the associations between relational and physical victimization and depressive symptoms, and the moderating role of school-aged children's relational-interdependent self-construals in these associations. The participants were 387 children (51.8% boys) who were in the fifth grade (M = 10.48 years, SD = 0.55) in Taiwan and followed at two time points (a 6-month interval) during a calendar year. A multiple-informant approach was used where forms of peer victimization, depressive symptoms, and relational-interdependent self-construals were assessed via peer nominations, teacher reports, and child reports, respectively. All measures had favorable psychometric properties. The results of a multigroup cross-lagged model demonstrated that relational victimization (not physical victimization) was positively predictive of subsequent depressive symptoms, and the effect was evidenced for highly interdependent children only. The opposite link was also significant, such that depressive symptoms predicted subsequent relational victimization (not physical victimization) for children who exhibited low and high levels of relational-interdependent self-construals. In contrast, physical victimization predated a lower level of depressive symptoms for highly interdependent children. These effects were unaffected by the gender of the child. The findings, especially the interactive effects of relational victimization (as a contextual factor) and relational-interdependent self-construals (as an individual vulnerability) on depressive symptoms, are discussed from a developmental psychopathology perspective.

  11. Self-concept and self-efficacy: a test of the internal/external frame of reference model and predictions of subsequent motivation and achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaalvik, Einar M; Skaalvik, Sidsel

    2004-12-01

    We examined how final grades in mathematics and verbal arts in the first year of high school (Grade 11) were predicted in a Norwegian population by sex, previous grades in middle school (Grade 10), self-concept, self-efficacy at a domain-specific level, and intrinsic motivation. Direct and indirect relations were examined by means of a series of regression analyses. Participants were 483 students from six Norwegian high schools. End of term grades in high school correlated positively with grades in middle school in both mathematics (r = .62) and verbal arts (r = .55). The relation between grades at the two points of time was to a large extent mediated through mathematics, verbal self-concept, and self-efficacy. Intrinsic motivation also correlated positively with subsequent achievement (r = .63 and .42 in mathematics and verbal arts, respectively). However, intrinsic motivation had little predictive value for subsequent grades over and above the prediction made by self-concept and self-efficacy. Thus, self-concept and self-efficacy were the strongest predictors of subsequent grades. Predictions from the Internal/External frame of reference model were supported for self-concept but not for domain-specific self-efficacy.

  12. The association between school exclusion, delinquency and subtypes of cyber- and F2F-victimizations: identifying and predicting risk profiles and subtypes using latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Gia Elise

    2015-01-01

    This purpose of this paper is to identify risk profiles of youth who are victimized by on- and offline harassment and to explore the consequences of victimization on school outcomes. Latent class analysis is used to explore the overlap and co-occurrence of different clusters of victims and to examine the relationship between class membership and school exclusion and delinquency. Participants were a random sample of youth between the ages of 12 and 18 selected for inclusion to participate in the 2011 National Crime Victimization Survey: School Supplement. The latent class analysis resulted in four categories of victims: approximately 3.1% of students were highly victimized by both bullying and cyberbullying behaviors; 11.6% of youth were classified as being victims of relational bullying, verbal bullying and cyberbullying; a third class of students were victims of relational bullying, verbal bullying and physical bullying but were not cyberbullied (8%); the fourth and final class, characteristic of the majority of students (77.3%), was comprised of non-victims. The inclusion of covariates to the latent class model indicated that gender, grade and race were significant predictors of at least one of the four victim classes. School delinquency measures were included as distal outcomes to test for both overall and pairwise associations between classes. With one exception, the results were indicative of a significant relationship between school delinquency and the victim subtypes. Implications for these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD…

  14. Neural activity that predicts subsequent memory and forgetting: a meta-analysis of 74 fMRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongkeun

    2011-02-01

    The present study performed a quantitative meta-analysis of functional MRI studies that used a subsequent memory approach. The meta-analysis considered both subsequent memory (SM; remembered>forgotten) and subsequent forgetting (SF; forgotten>remembered) effects, restricting the data used to that concerning visual information encoding in healthy young adults. The meta-analysis of SM effects indicated that they most consistently associated with five neural regions: left inferior frontal cortex (IFC), bilateral fusiform cortex, bilateral hippocampal formation, bilateral premotor cortex (PMC), and bilateral posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Direct comparisons of the SM effects between the studies using verbal versus pictorial material and item-memory versus associative-memory tasks yielded three main sets of findings. First, the left IFC exhibited greater SM effects during verbal material than pictorial material encoding, whereas the fusiform cortex exhibited greater SM effects during pictorial material rather than verbal material encoding. Second, bilateral hippocampal regions showed greater SM effects during pictorial material encoding compared to verbal material encoding. Furthermore, the left hippocampal region showed greater SM effects during pictorial-associative versus pictorial-item encoding. Third, bilateral PMC and PPC regions, which may support attention during encoding, exhibited greater SM effects during item encoding than during associative encoding. The meta-analysis of SF effects indicated they associated mostly with default-mode network regions, including the anterior and posterior midline cortex, the bilateral temporoparietal junction, and the bilateral superior frontal cortex. Recurrent activity oscillations between the task-positive and task-negative/default-mode networks may account for trial-to-trial variability in participants' encoding performances, which is a fundamental source of both SM and SF effects. Taken together, these findings clarify

  15. Freshman year alcohol and marijuana use prospectively predict time to college graduation and subsequent adult roles and independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhite, Emily R; Ashenhurst, James R; Marino, Elise N; Fromme, Kim

    2017-06-15

    This study examined how freshman year substance use prospectively predicted time to college graduation, and whether delayed graduation predicted postponed adoption of adult roles and future substance use. Participants were part of a longitudinal study that began in 2004. The first analyses focused on freshman year (N = 2,050). The second analyses corresponded to a subset of participants at age 27 (N = 575). Measures included self-reported substance use, adult role adoption, and university reported graduation dates. Results indicated that frequent binge drinking and marijuana use during freshman year predicted delayed college graduation. Those who took longer to graduate were more likely to have lower incomes and were less likely to obtain a graduate degree. Taking 5-6 years to graduate was associated with greater likelihood of alcohol-related problems. Findings support the importance of interventions during freshman year of college to decrease substance use and promote timely graduation.

  16. Can First-Trimester Maternal Serum Level Of Pregnancy-associated Plasma Protein-A Predict Subsequent Fetal Growth Restriction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Leng Cheong

    2005-06-01

    Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that a low maternal serum PAPP-A level in the first trimester is associated with pregnancy complicated by LBW and FGR, but the sensitivity was low. As a single marker, PAPP-A is not sufficient to predict LBW and FGR.

  17. Doppler ultrasound screening predicts recurrence of poor pregnancy outcome in subsequent pregnancies, but not the recurrence of PIH or preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, MW; Lander, M; De Wolf, BTHM; Aarnoudse, JG; Oosterhof, H.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To assess the role of Doppler uterine artery screening in the prediction of recurring hypertensive disorders in a high-risk population. Methods: Ninety-four women with a history of hypertensive disorders in previous pregnancies underwent ultrasound color Doppler to analyze blood flow in

  18. The predictive value of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms for quality of life: a longitudinal study of physically injured victims of non-domestic violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Venke A; Wahl, Astrid K; Eilertsen, Dag Erik; Weisaeth, Lars; Hanestad, Berit R

    2007-01-01

    Background Little is known about longitudinal associations between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and quality of life (QoL) after exposure to violence. The aims of the current study were to examine quality of life (QoL) and the predictive value of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for QoL in victims of non-domestic violence over a period of 12 months. Methods A single-group (n = 70) longitudinal design with three repeated measures over a period of 12 months were used. Posttraumatic psychological symptoms were assessed by using the Impact of Event Scale, a 15-item self-rating questionnaire comprising two subscales (intrusion and avoidance) as a screening instrument for PTSD. The questionnaire WHOQOL-Bref was used to assess QoL. The WHOQOL-BREF instrument comprises 26 items, which measure the following broad domains: physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. Results of the analysis were summarized by fitting Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Results For each category of PTSD (probable cases, risk level cases and no cases), the mean levels of the WHOQOL-Bref subscales (the four domains and the two single items) were stable across time of assessment. Individuals who scored as probable PTSD or as risk level cases had significantly lower scores on the QoL domains such as physical health, psychological health, social relationships and environmental than those without PTSD symptoms. In addition, the two items examining perception of overall quality of life and perception of overall health in WHOQOL showed the same results according to PTSD symptoms such as QoL domains. PTSD symptoms predicted lower QoL at all three assessments. Similarly PTSD symptoms at T1 predicted lower QoL at T2 and PTSD symptoms at T2 predicted lower QoL at T3. Conclusion The presence of PTSD symptoms predicted lower QoL, both from an acute and prolonged perspective, in victims of non-domestic violence. Focusing on the individual's perception of his

  19. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasamoto, Yukuo

    2009-01-01

    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).

  20. Lying and the Subsequent Desire for Toothpaste: Activity in the Somatosensory Cortex Predicts Embodiment of the Moral-Purity Metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denke, Claudia; Rotte, Michael; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Schaefer, Michael

    2016-02-01

    It is well known from literature and religious ceremonies that there is a link between physical cleansing and moral transgressions. Only recently, psychological experiments explored this association and demonstrated that a threat to moral purity increases the demand of physical cleansing. Moreover, it has been shown that physical cleansing is actually efficacious to cope with threatened morality. This so-called Macbeth effect has been explained by an embodiment of the moral-purity metaphor. We tested this hypothesis by means of an functional magnetic resonsce imaging (fMRI) experiment. Participants were instructed to enact scenarios including either an immoral act (lying) or a moral deed (telling the truth). Subsequently, the participants were asked to rate the desirableness of various products. Results revealed that participants rated cleansing products (but not other goods) more desirable after performing an immoral than after a moral act. This Macbeth effect was accompanied by an active cortical network including sensorimotor brain areas during rating of cleansing products (but not while evaluating noncleansing goods). The results demonstrate neurobiological evidence for an embodiment of the moral-purity metaphor. Thus, abstract thoughts about morality can be grounded in sensory experiences. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Does academic performance in the premedical year predict the performance of the medical student in subsequent years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mazrou, Abdulrahman M

    2008-05-01

    Student admission into the College of Medicine at King Saud University (KSU) is dependent on the achievement of a grade point average (GPA) of ≥3.5 /5 by the end of the premedical year. This study was undertaken to ascertain whether pre-selected medical students who achieve a relatively low GPA (≤3.75/5) in the premedical year are at risk of having academic difficulties in subsequent years. A cross-sectional study of all students admitted to the College of Medicine at KSU during 5 academic years (1994 to 1998) was conducted in 2004. The likelihood of completing the program by 2004 and the dropout frequency were compared in the two groups based on their GPA in the premedical year: High GPA (>3.75) and Low GPA (≤3.75). During the study period, 739 students were admitted to the college. Of these, 619 (84%) were in High GPA group, and 120 (16%) in the Low GPA group. Of the students with High GPA, 545 (88%) out of 619 graduated compared with 79 (66%) of 120 in the Low GPA group (OR 3.822 [95% CI: 2.44, 5.99]: Pcolleges should help optimize the use of resources and reduce student wastage.

  2. Violent relationships at the social-ecological level: A multi-mediation model to predict adolescent victimization by peers, bullying and depression in early and late adolescence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xavier Oriol; Rafael Miranda; Alberto Amutio; Hedy C Acosta; Michelle C Mendoza; Javier Torres-Vallejos

    2017-01-01

    Background From the social-ecological perspective, exposure to violence at the different developmental levels is fundamental to explain the dynamics of violence and victimization in educational centers...

  3. Early preschool processing abilities predict subsequent reading outcomes in bilingual Spanish-Catalan children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Mediavilla, Eva; Buil-Legaz, Lucía; Pérez-Castelló, Josep A; Rigo-Carratalà, Eduard; Adrover-Roig, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) have severe language difficulties without showing hearing impairments, cognitive deficits, neurological damage or socio-emotional deprivation. However, previous studies have shown that children with SLI show some cognitive and literacy problems. Our study analyses the relationship between preschool cognitive and linguistic abilities and the later development of reading abilities in Spanish-Catalan bilingual children with SLI. The sample consisted of 17 bilingual Spanish-Catalan children with SLI and 17 age-matched controls. We tested eight distinct processes related to phonological, attention, and language processing at the age of 6 years and reading at 8 years of age. Results show that bilingual Spanish-Catalan children with SLI show significantly lower scores, as compared to typically developing peers, in phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid automatized naming (RAN), together with a lower outcome in tasks measuring sentence repetition and verbal fluency. Regarding attentional processes, bilingual Spanish-Catalan children with SLI obtained lower scores in auditory attention, but not in visual attention. At the age of 8 years Spanish-Catalan children with SLI had lower scores than their age-matched controls in total reading score, letter identification (decoding), and in semantic task (comprehension). Regression analyses identified both phonological awareness and verbal fluency at the age of 6 years to be the best predictors of subsequent reading performance at the age of 8 years. Our data suggest that language acquisition problems and difficulties in reading acquisition in bilingual children with SLI might be related to the close interdependence between a limitation in cognitive processing and a deficit at the linguistic level. After reading this article, readers will be able to: identify their understanding of the relation between language difficulties and reading outcomes; explain how processing

  4. Inability of positive phase II clinical trials of investigational treatments to subsequently predict positive phase III clinical trials in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jacob J; Yust-Katz, Shlomit; Patel, Akash J; Cachia, David; Liu, Diane; Park, Minjeong; Yuan, Ying; Kent, Thomas A; de Groot, John F

    2018-01-10

    Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults, but effective therapies are lacking. With the scarcity of positive phase III trials, which are increasing in cost, we examined the ability of positive phase II trials to predict statistically significant improvement in clinical outcomes of phase III trials. A PubMed search was conducted to identify phase III clinical trials performed in the past 25 years for patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent glioblastoma. Trials were excluded if they did not examine an investigational chemotherapy or agent, if they were stopped early owing to toxicity, if they lacked prior phase II studies, or if a prior phase II study was negative. Seven phase III clinical trials in newly diagnosed glioblastoma and 4 phase III clinical trials in recurrent glioblastoma met the inclusion criteria. Only 1 (9%) phase III study documented an improvement in overall survival and changed the standard of care. The high failure rate of phase III trials demonstrates the urgent need to increase the reliability of phase II trials of treatments for glioblastoma. Strategies such as the use of adaptive trial designs, Bayesian statistics, biomarkers, volumetric imaging, and mathematical modeling warrant testing. Additionally, it is critical to increase our expectations of phase II trials so that positive findings increase the probability that a phase III trial will be successful.

  5. Victimization experiences and the stabilization of victim sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollwitzer, Mario; Süssenbach, Philipp; Hannuschke, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    People reliably differ in the extent to which they are sensitive to being victimized by others. Importantly, "victim sensitivity" predicts how people behave in social dilemma situations: Victim-sensitive individuals are less likely to trust others and more likely to behave uncooperatively-especially in socially uncertain situations. This pattern can be explained with the sensitivity to mean intentions (SeMI) model, according to which victim sensitivity entails a specific and asymmetric sensitivity to contextual cues that are associated with untrustworthiness. Recent research is largely in line with the model's prediction, but some issues have remained conceptually unresolved so far. For instance, it is unclear why and how victim sensitivity becomes a stable trait and which developmental and cognitive processes are involved in such stabilization. In the present article, we will discuss the psychological processes that contribute to a stabilization of victim sensitivity within persons, both across the life span ("ontogenetic stabilization") and across social situations ("actual-genetic stabilization"). Our theoretical framework starts from the assumption that experiences of being exploited threaten a basic need, the need to trust. This need is so fundamental that experiences that threaten it receive a considerable amount of attention and trigger strong affective reactions. Associative learning processes can then explain (a) how certain contextual cues (e.g., facial expressions) become conditioned stimuli that elicit equally strong responses, (b) why these contextual untrustworthiness cues receive much more attention than, for instance, trustworthiness cues, and (c) how these cues shape spontaneous social expectations (regarding other people's intentions). Finally, avoidance learning can explain why these cognitive processes gradually stabilize and become a trait: the trait which is referred to as victim sensitivity.

  6. Victimization Experiences and the Stabilization of Victim Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eGollwitzer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available People reliably differ in the extent to which they are sensitive to being victimized by others. Importantly, victim sensitivity predicts how people behave in social dilemma situations: Victim-sensitive individuals are less likely to trust others and more likely to behave uncooperatively - especially in socially uncertain situations. This pattern can be explained with the Sensitivity to Mean Intentions (SeMI model, according to which victim sensitivity entails a specific and asymmetric sensitivity to contextual cues that are associated with untrustworthiness. Recent research is largely in line with the model’s prediction, but some issues have remained conceptually unresolved so far. For instance, it is unclear why and how victim sensitivity becomes a stable trait and which developmental and cognitive processes are involved in such stabilization. In the present article, we will discuss the psychological processes that contribute to a stabilization of victim sensitivity within persons, both across the life span (ontogenetic stabilization and across social situations (actual-genetic stabilization. Our theoretical framework starts from the assumption that experiences of being exploited threaten a basic need, the need to trust. This need is so fundamental that experiences that threaten it receive a considerable amount of attention and trigger strong affective reactions. Associative learning processes can then explain (a how certain contextual cues (e.g., facial expressions become conditioned stimuli that elicit equally strong responses, (b why these contextual untrustworthiness cues receive much more attention than, for instance, trustworthiness cues, and (c how these cues shape spontaneous social expectations (regarding other people’s intentions. Finally, avoidance learning can explain why these cognitive processes gradually stabilize and become a trait: the trait which is referred to as victim sensitivity.

  7. High levels of C-reactive protein in the peripheral blood during visceral leishmaniasis predict subsequent development of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasim, S; Theander, T G; ElHassan, A M

    2000-01-01

    Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a known sequel to visceral leishmaniasis in India and East Africa, and in Sudan about 50% of the kala-azar patients develop PKDL. In this study we followed kala-azar patients from diagnosis and up to 2 years after initiation of treatment. During...... and in keratinocytes during visceral leishmaniasis predict subsequent development of PKDL. The method however requires expensive equipment and reagents. The results of the present study indicate that kala-azar patients, who have a high risk of developing PKDL after treatment can be identified by measuring plasma CRP....

  8. Women’s Unprotected Sex Intentions: Roles of Sexual Victimization, Intoxication, and Partner Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, N. Tatiana; George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R.; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.; Otto, Jacqueline M.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.

    2013-01-01

    Sexually victimized women may make sexual decisions differently than non-victimized women. This study used an eroticized scenario and laboratory alcohol administration to investigate the roles of victimization history, intoxication, and relationship context in women’s perceptions of a male partner and their subsequent intentions for unprotected sex. A community sample of 436 women completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. After random assignment to an alcohol or control condition, participants read and projected themselves into a sexual scenario which depicted the male partner as having high or low potential for a lasting relationship. Participants rated their perceptions of his intoxication, STI risk level, and anticipated reactions to insistence on condom use. They then indicated their likelihood of allowing the partner to decide how far to go sexually (abdication) and engaging in unprotected sex. SEM analyses revealed that intoxication predicted greater unprotected sex likelihood indirectly via abdication. CSA and ASA predicted partner perceptions, which in turn predicted unprotected sex likelihood. These findings indicate that, compared to non-victimized counterparts, sexually victimized women may respond differently in sexual encounters partly as a function of their perceptions of partners’ STI risk and anticipated reactions to condom insistence. PMID:23718552

  9. Big Five Personality Traits of Cybercrime Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Weijer, Steve G A; Leukfeldt, E Rutger

    2017-07-01

    The prevalence of cybercrime has increased rapidly over the last decades and has become part of the everyday life of citizens. It is, therefore, of great importance to gain more knowledge on the factors related to an increased or decreased likelihood of becoming a cybercrime victim. The current study adds to the existing body of knowledge using a large representative sample of Dutch individuals (N = 3,648) to study the relationship between cybercrime victimization and the key traits from the Big Five model of personality (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience). First, multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between the personality traits and three victim groups, that is, cybercrime victims versus nonvictims, traditional crime victims versus nonvictims, and cybercrime victims versus traditional crime victims. Next, logistic regression analyses were performed to predict victimization of cyber-dependent crimes (i.e., hacking and virus infection) and cyber-enabled crimes (i.e., online intimidation, online consumer fraud, and theft from bank account). The analyses show that personality traits are not specifically associated with cybercrime victimization, but rather with victimization in general. Only those with higher scores on emotional stability were less likely to become a victim of cybercrime than traditional crime. Furthermore, the results indicate that there are little differences between personality traits related to victimization of cyber-enabled and cyber-dependent crimes. Only individuals with higher scores on openness to experience have higher odds of becoming a victim of cyber-enabled crimes.

  10. Victimization and its associations with peer rejection and fear of victimization: Moderating effects of individual-level and classroom-level characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollerová, Lenka; Smolík, Filip

    2016-12-01

    Past research has shown that peer victimization by bullying is associated with peer rejection and fear of victimization, but little is known about the interplay between victimization and other characteristics in the prediction of these experiences. We assume that the associations between victimization and peer rejection/fear of victimization are moderated by multiple characteristics, including aspects of peer ecology. The study tested whether the links between victimization and peer rejection/fear of victimization are moderated by gender, peer support, and two features of classroom peer ecology: classroom victimization rate and classroom hierarchy (the variability of popularity among students). The sample included 512 early adolescents attending sixth grade retrieved from 25 elementary school classrooms. Participants completed a set of self-report and peer nomination instruments in classroom settings. Multilevel linear modelling showed that higher levels of peer rejection were associated with higher victimization, male gender, and lower peer support. The association between victimization and peer rejection was attenuated for females and when the classroom victimization rate was higher. A higher fear of victimization was related to higher victimization, female gender, lower peer support, and a higher classroom victimization rate. The link between victimization and fear of victimization was strengthened by female gender and higher levels of classroom hierarchy. The results indicate the relevance of the interplay between victimization and gender and between victimization and classroom peer ecology in understanding peer rejection and fear of victimization. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Victim sensitivity and the accuracy of social judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollwitzer, Mario; Rothmund, Tobias; Alt, Bianca; Jekel, Marc

    2012-08-01

    Recent theorizing on the relation between victim sensitivity and unethical behavior predicts that victim sensitivity is related to an asymmetrical focus on cues associated with untrustworthiness compared to cues associated with trustworthiness. This hypothesis and its consequences for the accuracy of social predictions are investigated in this article. In Study 1, participants rated the trustworthiness of 35 computer-animated faces that differed in their emotional expression. People high in victim sensitivity rated neutral and hostile faces more untrustworthy than people low in victim sensitivity, whereas no such effect was found for friendly faces. In Study 2, participants predicted the cooperativeness of 56 targets on the basis of minimal information. The accuracy of predictions was negatively related to victim sensitivity, and people high in victim sensitivity systematically underestimated targets' cooperativeness. Thus, the asymmetrical focus on untrustworthiness cues among victim-sensitive individuals seems to impair rather than improve their social judgments.

  12. Victimization and Its Associations with Peer Rejection and Fear of Victimization: Moderating Effects of Individual-Level and Classroom-Level Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollerová, Lenka; Smolík, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Background: Past research has shown that peer victimization by bullying is associated with peer rejection and fear of victimization, but little is known about the interplay between victimization and other characteristics in the prediction of these experiences. We assume that the associations between victimization and peer rejection/fear of…

  13. Testing the Direction of Longitudinal Paths between Victimization, Peer Rejection, and Different Types of Internalizing Problems in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentse, Miranda; Prinzie, Peter; Salmivalli, Christina

    2017-07-01

    The transition to secondary school is accompanied by the fragmentation of peer groups, while adolescents are also confronted with heightened incidents of bullying and increased levels of internalizing problems. Victimization, peer rejection, and internalizing problems are known to be interrelated, but how they influence each other over time remains unclear. We tested the direction of these associations by applying a cross-lagged path model among a large sample of Finnish adolescents (N = 5645; 49.1 % boys; M age at T1 = 14.0 years) after they transitioned to secondary school (grades 7-9). Self-reported depression, anxiety, and victimization and peer-reported rejection were measured 3 times over the course of 1 year. Results showed that depression was predictive of subsequent victimization for both boys and girls, in line with a symptoms-driven model; for girls, anxiety was reciprocally related to victimization, in line with a transactional model; for boys, victimization was related to subsequent anxiety, in line with an interpersonal risk model. Peer rejection was not directly related to depression or anxiety, but among girls peer rejection was bi-directionally related to victimization. Overall, our results suggest that associations between internalizing problems and peer relations differ between depression and anxiety and between genders. Implications for practice and directions for future research are discussed.

  14. Reactive aggression and peer victimization from pre-kindergarten to first grade: accounting for hyperactivity and teacher-child conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runions, Kevin C

    2014-12-01

    The role of reactive aggression in the development of peer victimization remains unclear due in part to a failure to account for confounding problems of behavioural undercontrol (e.g., hyperactivity). As well, the school social context has rarely been examined to see whether these risks are mediated by relationships with teachers. This study tests the prospective relations between reactive aggression, hyperactivity, victimization, and teacher-child (T-C) relationship, to determine whether conflict mediates the relationships between externalizing problems and victimization. A sample of 1,114 Australian students were followed from pre-kindergarten through first grade. Cross-lagged path analyses were conducted, with comparison of gender-moderating models and autocorrelation models. Full-information maximum likelihood was deployed to account for missingness. Best fitting models found that the relationship of early externalizing problems to later victimization was mediated by T-C conflict. No evidence of victimization increasing externalizing problems nor gender differences were observed. T-C conflict in kindergarten predicted subsequent increases in victimization, reactive aggression, and hyperactivity. Understanding the processes whereby externalizing problems confer risk of victimization involves understanding the whole social context of classrooms, including relationships with teachers. Finer-grained research is needed to better understand how peer dynamics may be influenced by observation of T-C relationships. Pre-service teacher education needs to ensure a focus on the potential social impact of teacher's relationships with students. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Predicting risky sexual behavior in emerging adulthood: examination of a moderated mediation model among child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather L; Grills, Amie E; Drum, Katherine B

    2014-01-01

    Although having a sexual victimization history is associated with engaging in sexual risk behavior, the mechanisms whereby sexual victimization increases risk behavior are unclear. This study examined use of sex as an affect regulation strategy as a mediator of the relationship between depressive symptoms and sexual risk behavior among 1,616 sexually active college women as well as examined having a history of child sexual abuse (CSA), adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA), or both (CSA/ASA) as moderators. Results supported the mediated model as well as moderated mediation, where depressive symptoms were more strongly associated with use of sex as an affect regulation strategy among ASA victims, and sex as an affect regulation strategy was more strongly related to sexual risk behavior for CSA/ASA victims.

  16. Predicting Change in Children’s Aggression and Victimization Using Classroom-level Descriptive Norms of Aggression and Pro-social Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mercer, Sterett H; McMillen, Janey Sturtz; DeRosier, Melissa E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined aggressive and pro-social classroom descriptive norms as predictors of change in aggression and victimization during middle childhood. Participants included 948 children in third through fifth grade. Measures of teacher-reported aggressive and peer-reported pro-social descriptive norms were completed at the onset of the study. Children completed self-report measures of aggression and victimization on three occasions during one academic year. Multilevel growth models were a...

  17. Gender Victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Oluwole Ayodele

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Badagry is the first community to receive the Christian religion in Nigeria. For this, every good reason exists to suppose that its coming into early contact with the missionaries should have caused the Ogu people to acquire a healthier understanding of fair play in the context of widowhood practices. Regrettably, they seem to respond more slowly to change in their attitudes to widows. Thus, despite the overwhelming presence of Christian relics in the ancient town of Badagry, traditional customs such as wife inheritance and widowhood rites have continued to appear significantly associated with violence against which women are not well-protected. “Gender Victimization: A Study of Widowhood Practices” among Ogu People of Lagos is the focus of this study. Quantitative and qualitative methods were adopted for the study. Thus, five in-depth interviews and three focus group discussion instruments were used to collect primary data, which were used to complement quantitative data. Although quantitative data were subjected to univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses, qualitative data were cleaned, reorganized into themes and analyzed. The study found that much as the Ogu people of Lagos acknowledge the position of the scriptures on society’s non-criminal relation with widows, they still believe that their culture comfortably drives the greater proportion of their widow-friendly interactions. This study suggests that the adoption of cultural best practices in handling women and their peculiar issues will tone down violence in customary widowhood practices and enable women who lost their husbands in circumstances beyond their controls access community-based support.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging for accelerated assessment of drug effect and prediction of subsequent radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis: a study of patients receiving combined anakinra and methotrexate treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Duer, Anne; Nielsen, H

    2005-01-01

    : 100 mg anakinra subcutaneously/day was added to the treatment of 17 patients with clinically active RA despite methotrexate. MRI of the non-dominant wrist and 2nd-5th MCP joints (OMERACT evaluation) was performed at weeks 0, 12, and 36, and radiography of both hands and wrists (modified Sharp...... evaluation) at weeks 0 and 36. RESULTS: MRI synovitis scores were not significantly changed. Radiography of both hands and wrists after 36 weeks showed erosive progression in 11 patients, and MRI after 12 weeks in 10 patients. Nine of 10 patients with MRI progression at 12 weeks had radiographic progression....... Baseline MRI findings predicted subsequent radiographic erosive progression. Unilateral wrist and MCP joint MRI after 12 weeks had a similar sensitivity for detection of erosive progression as bilateral hand and wrist radiography after 36 weeks....

  19. 18F-FDG PET Response After Induction Chemotherapy Can Predict Who Will Benefit from Subsequent Esophagectomy After Chemoradiotherapy for Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Mian; Liao, Zhongxing; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Komaki, Ritsuko; Ho, Linus; Lin, Steven H

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to determine whether 18F-FDG PET response after induction chemotherapy before concurrent chemoradiotherapy can identify patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma who may benefit from subsequent esophagectomy. Methods: We identified and analyzed 220 patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma who had received induction chemotherapy before chemoradiotherapy, with or without surgery, with curative intent; all underwent 18F-FDG PET scanning before and after induction chemotherapy. 18F-FDG PET responders were defined as patients who achieved complete response (CR) after induction chemotherapy (maximum SUV ≤ 3.0). The predictive value of 18F-FDG PET response for patient outcomes was evaluated. Results: Overall, 86 patients had bimodality therapy (BMT; induction chemotherapy + chemoradiotherapy) and 134 had trimodality therapy (TMT; induction chemotherapy + chemoradiotherapy with surgery). Forty-eight patients (21.8%) achieved an 18F-FDG PET CR after induction chemotherapy. 18F-FDG PET CR was found to correlate with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in BMT patients. For TMT patients, 18F-FDG PET CR predicted pathologic response (P = 0.003) but not survival. Among 18F-FDG PET nonresponders, TMT patients had significantly better survival than did BMT patients (P induction chemotherapy could be a useful imaging biomarker to identify patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma who could benefit from subsequent esophagectomy after chemoradiotherapy. Compared with BMT, TMT can significantly improve survival in 18F-FDG PET nonresponders. However, outcomes for 18F-FDG PET responders were similar after either treatment (BMT or TMT). Prospective validation of these findings is warranted. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  20. Adverse trajectories of mental health problems predict subsequent burnout and work-family conflict - a longitudinal study of employed women with children followed over 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Wendy; Skipstein, Anni; Demerouti, Evangelia

    2016-11-08

    The long-term consequence of experiencing mental health problems may lead to several adverse outcomes. The current study aims to validate previous identified trajectories of mental health problems from 1993 to 2006 in women by examining their implications on subsequent work and family-related outcomes in 2011. Employed women (n = 439) with children were drawn from the Tracking Opportunities and Problems-Study (TOPP), a community-based longitudinal study following Norwegian families across 18 years. Previous identified latent profiles of mental health trajectories (i.e., High; Moderate; Low-rising and Low levels of mental health problems over time) measured at six time points between 1993 and 2006 were examined as predictors of burnout (e.g., exhaustion and disengagement from work) and work-family conflict in 2011 in univariate and multivariate analyses of variance adjusted for potential confounders (age, job demands, and negative emotionality). We found that having consistently High and Moderate symptoms as well as Low-Rising symptoms from 1993 to 2006 predicted higher levels of exhaustion, disengagement from work and work-family conflict in 2011. Findings remained unchanged when adjusting for several potential confounders, but when adjusting for current mental health problems only levels of exhaustion were predicted by the mental health trajectories. The study expands upon previous studies on the field by using a longer time span and by focusing on employed women with children who experience different patterns of mental health trajectories. The long-term effect of these trajectories highlight and validate the importance of early identification and prevention in women experiencing adverse patterns of mental health problems with regards to subsequent work and family-related outcomes.

  1. From Classroom to Dyad: Actor and Partner Effects of Aggression and Victim Reputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansu, T.A.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Sandstrom, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether early adolescents' classroom aggression predicted their aggression in a one-on-one dyadic setting, and whether early adolescents' classroom victimization predicted their victimization in the dyadic setting. After completing peer nominations for aggression and

  2. When and Why We See Victims as Responsible: The Impact of Ideology on Attitudes Toward Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Laura; Young, Liane

    2016-09-01

    Why do victims sometimes receive sympathy for their suffering and at other times scorn and blame? Here we show a powerful role for moral values in attitudes toward victims. We measured moral values associated with unconditionally prohibiting harm ("individualizing values") versus moral values associated with prohibiting behavior that destabilizes groups and relationships ("binding values": loyalty, obedience to authority, and purity). Increased endorsement of binding values predicted increased ratings of victims as contaminated (Studies 1-4); increased blame and responsibility attributed to victims, increased perceptions of victims' (versus perpetrators') behaviors as contributing to the outcome, and decreased focus on perpetrators (Studies 2-3). Patterns persisted controlling for politics, just world beliefs, and right-wing authoritarianism. Experimentally manipulating linguistic focus off of victims and onto perpetrators reduced victim blame. Both binding values and focus modulated victim blame through victim responsibility attributions. Findings indicate the important role of ideology in attitudes toward victims via effects on responsibility attribution. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  3. Peer Victimization in Extremely Low Birth Weight Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Kimberly L; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Schmidt, Louis A

    2015-12-01

    Extremely low birth weight (ELBW; peer victimization. We examined retrospectively reported peer victimization in ELBW and control children in the oldest known, prospectively followed, population-based birth cohort of ELBW survivors. We compared levels of verbal and physical peer victimization in ELBW and control children. We also predicted peer victimization in the ELBW sample from child characteristics. ELBW children, especially girls, were at an increased risk for verbal, but not physical victimization. In addition, ELBW children with a higher IQ reported higher levels of verbal victimization, although ELBW females who had a lower body mass index in childhood reported higher levels of physical victimization. Findings highlight the need for parents and clinicians to be aware that ELBW girls, especially those with a lower body mass index in childhood, may be at increased risk of peer victimization, as are ELBW children with a higher IQ. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Social Information Processing Mechanisms and Victimization: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Reemst, Lisa; Fischer, Tamar F C; Zwirs, Barbara W C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current literature review, which is based on 64 empirical studies, was to assess to what extent mechanisms of the Social Information Processing (SIP) model of Crick and Dodge (1994) are related to victimization. The reviewed studies have provided support for the relation between victimization and several social information processing mechanisms, especially the interpretation of cues and self-efficacy (as part of the response decision). The relationship between victimization and other mechanisms, such as the response generation, was only studied in a few articles. Until now research has often focused on just one step of the model, instead of attempting to measure the associations between multiple mechanisms and victimization in multivariate analyses. Such analyses would be interesting to gain more insight into the SIP model and its relationship with victimization. The few available longitudinal studies show that mechanisms both predict victimization (internal locus of control, negative self-evaluations and less assertive response selection) and are predicted by victimization (hostile attribution of intent and negative evaluations of others). Associations between victimization and SIP mechanisms vary across different types and severity of victimization (stronger in personal and severe victimization), and different populations (stronger among young victims). Practice could focus on these stronger associations and the interpretation of cues. More research is needed however, to investigate whether intervention programs that address SIP mechanisms are suitable for victimization and all relevant populations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Bullying Victimization, Social Network Usage, and Delinquent Coping in a Sample of Urban Youth: Examining the Predictions of General Strain Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Thomas; Pelfrey, William V

    2016-12-01

    Guided by the propositions of general strain theory, this study examines the impact of experienced and anticipated strains on the delinquent coping of adolescents while accounting for the usage of social networking sites. Specifically, this study uses self-report survey data collected from 3,195 middle and high school students in a single Midwest city in the United States to explore the effect of experiencing the strains of traditional bullying victimization and cyberbullying victimization on adolescents self-reported soft drug use, hard drug use, and weapon carrying behavior. These relationships are explored among both frequent and infrequent users of social networking sites. Results indicate that cyberbullying victimization and the anticipated strain of feeling unsafe at or on the way to or from school are significantly and positively associated with all three mechanisms of delinquent coping among both frequent and infrequent social network users.

  6. Victims of Crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karin Wittebrood

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Slachtoffers van criminaliteit. More than three million people in the Netherlands are victims of crime each year. Are all Dutch citizens equally at risk of becoming victims? And of those who become victims, which report the offence to the police, and what motivates them to do

  7. Trajectories of Peer Victimization: The Role of Multiple Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavis, Rachael D; Keane, Susan P; Calkins, Susan D

    2010-07-01

    This study examined early elementary school children's trajectories of peer victimization with a sample of 218 boys and girls. Peer victimization was assessed (via peer report) in kindergarten, 1(st), 2(nd), and 5(th) grades. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine multiple types of relationships (mother-child, student-teacher, friendship) as predictors of kindergarten levels of peer victimization and changes in peer victimization across time. Results indicated that the mother-child relationship predicted kindergarten levels of peer victimization, and that the student-teacher relationship did not provide additional information, once the mother-child relationship was accounted for in the analyses. Friendship predicted changes in peer victimization during the elementary school years. Results are discussed in a developmental psychopathology framework with special emphasis on the implication for understanding the etiology of peer victimization.

  8. Moving against and away from the world: The adolescent legacy of peer victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUDOLPH, KAREN D.; TROOP-GORDON, WENDY; MONTI, JENNIFER D.; MIERNICKI, MICHELLE E.

    2015-01-01

    Nicki Crick initiated a generative line of theory and research aimed at exploring the implications of exposure to overt and relational aggression for youth development. The present study aimed to continue and expand this research by examining whether early (second grade) and increasing (second–sixth grade) levels of victimization during elementary school contributed to youths’ tendencies to move against, away from, or toward the world of peers following the transition to middle school. Youth (M age in second grade = 7.96 years, SD = 0.35; 298 goals 338 girls, boys) reported on their exposure to victimization and their social (performance-approach, performance-avoidance, or mastery). Teachers reported on youths’ exposure to victimization and their engagement in antisocial, socially helpless, and prosocial behavior. Latent growth curve analyses revealed that early and increasing levels of both overt and relational victimization uniquely contributed to multifinality in adverse developmental outcomes, predicting all three social orientations (high conflictual engagement, high disengagement, and low positive engagement). The pattern of effects was robust across sex and after adjusting for youths’ early social motivation. These findings confirm that both forms of victimization leave an enduring legacy on youths’ social health in adolescence. Given that profiles of moving against and away from the world can contribute to subsequent psychopathology, understanding and preventing this legacy is pivotal for developing effective intervention programs aimed at minimizing the effects of peer adversity. PMID:25047294

  9. Intimate partner violence victimization and cigarette smoking: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Cory A; Hawes, Samuel W; Weinberger, Andrea H

    2013-10-01

    The current meta-analytic review represents the first comprehensive empirical evaluation of the strength of the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and cigarette smoking. Thirty-nine effect sizes, drawn from 31 peer-reviewed publications, determined the existence of a small to medium composite effect size for the victimization-smoking relationship (d = .41, 95% confidence interval = [.35, .47]). Results indicate that victims of IPV are at greater smoking risk than nonvictims. Subsequent moderator analyses indicated that the association between victimization and smoking is moderately stronger among pregnant compared to nonpregnant victims. The strength of the victimization-smoking relationship did not differ by relationship type or ethnicity. More research is needed on the smoking behavior of male victims, victims of psychological violence, and victims who identify as Latino/Latina. It would be useful for professionals working with IPV victims to assess for smoking and incorporate smoking prevention and cessation skills in intervention settings.

  10. Bringing colour back after 70 years: Predicting eye and hair colour from skeletal remains of World War II victims using the HIrisPlex system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C. Chaitanya (Lakshmi); I.Z. Pajnič (Irena Zupanič); S. Walsh (Susan); J. Balažic (Jože); Zupanc, T. (Tomaž); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractRetrieving information about externally visible characteristics from DNA can provide investigative leads to find unknown perpetrators, and can also help in disaster victim and other missing person identification cases. Aiming for the application to both types of forensic casework, we

  11. Interrelationship among School Characteristics, Parental Involvement, and Children's Characteristics in Predicting Children's Victimization by Peers: Comparison between the United States and Three Eastern Asia Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gang; Kim, Yanghee

    2016-01-01

    To identify ways that national culture, school characteristics, and individual attributes impact the victimization of students in Grade 8, data from the United States and three East Asian countries (i.e., Japan, S. Korea, and Taiwan) were compared using the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and Hierarchical Liner…

  12. Secondary victims of rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Bak, Rikke; Elklit, Ask

    2012-01-01

    Rape is often a very traumatic experience, which affects not only the primary victim (PV) but also his/her significant others. Studies on secondary victims of rape are few and have almost exclusively studied male partners of female rape victims. This study examined the impact of rape on 107...... secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels...... of social support for the respondent, and feeling let down by others. The respondents were generally interested in friend-, family-, and partner-focused interventions, particularly in receiving education about how best to support a rape victim...

  13. The Impact of Lifetime Victimization and Polyvictimization on Adolescents in Québec: Mental Health Symptoms and Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Katie; Chamberland, Claire; Clément, Marie-Ève; Wemmers, Jo-Anne; Collin-Vézina, Delphine; Lessard, Geneviève; Gagné, Marie-Hélène; Damant, Dominique

    2017-02-01

    This study documents lifetime experiences of victimizations, polyvictimization, and trauma symptoms among 1,400 adolescents from the province of Québec. The vast majority (81%) of adolescents were victimized during their lifetime, with most victims (82%) being the target of more than one form of victimization. Polyvictimization accounted for most variability in scores of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anger/ aggression compared to individual victimization categories. Sexual victimization and maltreatment still made an independent contribution in predicting all trauma scores once polyvictimization was considered. Gender differences were found in the victimization experiences contributing to the prediction of mental health symptoms. Sexual victimization was a significant predictor of PTSD and anger/aggression symptoms for girls, whereas witnessing violence predicted anger and PTSD symptoms for boys, and assault predicted their anger. This study outlines the importance of assessing various types of victimization among adolescents. Systematic data and observation of trends on child victimization are needed in Canada and elsewhere.

  14. Teachers' victimization-related beliefs and strategies: associations with students' aggressive behavior and peer victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Ladd, Gary W

    2015-01-01

    Although teachers are often called upon to reduce children's bullying and aggression, little is known regarding teachers' responses to students' harassment of peers or the beliefs which may inform their response strategies. To address this limitation, data were collected from 170 6th- and 7th-grade teachers (33 men; 137 women) and 2,938 (1,413 girls; 1,525 boys) of their students. Teachers beliefs regarding peer victimization were predictive of their efforts to advice victims how to cope with peer harassment. In particular, teachers who held more normative views of peer victimization were less likely to report reprimanding aggressive students and were more likely to utilize passive response strategies. Specific links emerged between teachers' beliefs and strategies and classroom-levels of aggression and peer victimization in the fall and in the spring, as well as changes in students' aggressive behavior and victimization over the course of the school year. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  15. How Victimization, Climate, and Safety around Sexual Orientation and Gender Expression Relate to Truancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Berger, Christian; Dantas, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Victimization based on actual or perceived sexual orientation or gender expression (SOGE) carries significant consequences. In this study, we examined how SOGE-based victimization and contextual factors predicted truancy among 886 Chilean students (M[subscript age] = 16.00, SD = 1.30) in four high schools. Victimization predicted truancy…

  16. Network exposure and homicide victimization in an African American community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristos, Andrew V; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    We estimated the association of an individual's exposure to homicide in a social network and the risk of individual homicide victimization across a high-crime African American community. Combining 5 years of homicide and police records, we analyzed a network of 3718 high-risk individuals that was created by instances of co-offending. We used logistic regression to model the odds of being a gunshot homicide victim by individual characteristics, network position, and indirect exposure to homicide. Forty-one percent of all gun homicides occurred within a network component containing less than 4% of the neighborhood's population. Network-level indicators reduced the association between individual risk factors and homicide victimization and improved the overall prediction of individual victimization. Network exposure to homicide was strongly associated with victimization: the closer one is to a homicide victim, the greater the risk of victimization. Regression models show that exposure diminished with social distance: each social tie removed from a homicide victim decreased one's odds of being a homicide victim by 57%. Risk of homicide in urban areas is even more highly concentrated than previously thought. We found that most of the risk of gun violence was concentrated in networks of identifiable individuals. Understanding these networks may improve prediction of individual homicide victimization within disadvantaged communities.

  17. Sudden death victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceelen, Manon; van der Werf, Christian; Hendrix, Anneke; Naujocks, Tatjana; Woonink, Frits; de Vries, Philip; van der Wal, Allard; Das, Kees

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to ascertain accordance between cause of death established by the forensic physician and autopsy results in young sudden death victims in the Netherlands. Sudden death victims aged 1-45 years examined by forensic physicians operating in the participating regions which also

  18. Yoga and victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić-Ristanović Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the findings of literature review and explorative empirical research of yoga application in the work with victims of various forms of sufferings is presented. The largest notion of victim is accepted, which encompasses victims of crime, victims of human rights violations (including convicted persons, as well as victims of war, natural disasters and other sufferings. After determination of the notion of victim and yoga, the review and analyses of research findings and direct experiences with the application of yoga in victim support and victimisation prevention worldwide and in Serbia, is done. The author’s research findings as well as personal experiences with the application of yoga in the work with prisoners in prison for women in Pozarevac (Serbia, within the workshops that Victimology Society of Serbia implemented during 2012/2013, are presented as well. In the conclusions, contribution of yoga to holistic approach to victim support as well as important role that yoga may have in prevention of victimisation and criminalisation, is stressed. The importance of yoga for support of prisoners as the part of preparation for re-entry and with the aim to prevent recidivism, as well as to enable their more successful reintegration into the society, is particularly emphasised. The paper is based on the research implemented by the author for the purpose of writing the final essey at the course for yoga instructors on International yoga academy, Yoga Allience of Serbia.

  19. Victimization of Obese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…

  20. Psychological processes in young bullies versus bully-victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Anouk; Poorthuis, Astrid M G; Malti, Tina

    2017-09-01

    Some children who bully others are also victimized themselves ("bully-victims") whereas others are not victimized themselves ("bullies"). These subgroups have been shown to differ in their social functioning as early as in kindergarten. What is less clear are the motives that underlie the bullying behavior of young bullies and bully-victims. The present study examined whether bullies have proactive motives for aggression and anticipate to feel happy after victimizing others, whereas bully-victims have reactive motives for aggression, poor theory of mind skills, and attribute hostile intent to others. This "distinct processes hypothesis" was contrasted with the "shared processes hypothesis," predicting that bullies and bully-victims do not differ on these psychological processes. Children (n = 283, age 4-9) were classified as bully, bully-victim, or noninvolved using peer-nominations. Theory of mind, hostile intent attributions, and happy victimizer emotions were assessed using standard vignettes and false-belief tasks; reactive and proactive motives were assessed using teacher-reports. We tested our hypotheses using Bayesian model selection, enabling us to directly compare the distinct processes model (predicting that bullies and bully-victims deviate from noninvolved children on different psychological processes) against the shared processes model (predicting that bullies and bully-victims deviate from noninvolved children on all psychological processes alike). Overall, the shared processes model received more support than the distinct processes model. These results suggest that in early childhood, bullies and bully-victims have shared, rather than distinct psychological processes underlying their bullying behavior. © 2016 The Authors. Aggressive Behavior Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Blaming the victim: the effects of extraversion and information disclosure on guilt attributions in cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Mathias; Ziegele, Marc; Schnauber, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Cyberbullying victims' success in coping with bullying largely depends on schoolmates and other bystanders' social support. However, factors influencing the degree of social support have as yet not been investigated. In this article, the concept of victim blaming is applied to cyberbullying incidents. It is assumed that a cyberbullying victim receives less social support when the victim's behavior is perceived as very overt. It is further assumed that this effect's underlying process is the partial attribution of responsibility for the incident to the victim and not to the bully. The hypotheses are tested with a 2×2 online experiment. In this experiment, varying online self-presentations of a fictitious female cyberbullying victim were presented to 586 Germans aged 16-22. The victim's public Facebook profile was manipulated in terms of the victim's extraversion and the amount of personal information disclosed. The results support the hypotheses. Participants attributed more responsibility for the bullying incident to the victim when the victim was presented as extraverted and very open in revealing personal information. This diminished social support for the victim. The effect was partially mediated by the victim's perceived attractiveness. The study implies that concepts from victimization research can enhance our understanding of cyberbullying incidents. Among other factors, the victim's specific personal characteristics deserve more consideration--not only with regard to the incident itself but also regarding subsequent social dynamics and coping mechanisms.

  2. Is the victim blameless?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, E A

    1990-01-01

    The study concerned 50 cases occurring throughout Austria between 1950 and 1962 where murder was committed for the purpose of robbing the victim. Fifty-nine convicted killers and 61 victims were involved and 1950 was chosen as the starting point of the research in order to avoid undue influence from the extraordinary factors affecting criminality during and immediately following the Second World War. Cases were consecutive and unselected apart from a very small number excluded through unavailability of their files for legal reasons at the time when the data were collected. Unsuccessful murder attempts were not excluded since there is no difference between crimes actually carried out and those merely attempted as regards criminogenic factors, the pre-criminal situation, the choice of victim, the relationship and interaction between criminal and victim, and the recourse to homicide. However, the inquiry was confined to cases where guilt had been proven because of the aim to study not only the crime and the victim, but also the relationship of the criminal and victim. The latter is obviously not possible where the murderer remains unknown. Accordingly, since the material comprises a large number of cases over a fairly long period (more than a decade) from all over Austria, it is fair to claim that it provides an overview of the criminality of murder with intent to rob, and of the killers and the victims, for an entire country and over a significant epoch.

  3. Negative peer status and relational victimization in children and adolescents: the role of stress physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafko, Nicole; Murray-Close, Dianna; Shoulberg, Erin K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to determine the unique associations between two subtypes of low peer status, peer rejection and unpopularity, and changes in relational victimization over time. This study also investigated if these associations were moderated by sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) reactivity to peer stress. Sixty-one girls attending (M(age) = 11.91 years, SD = 1.62; predominantly Caucasian) a residential summer camp were followed across 1 calendar year. Participants' skin conductance and respiratory sinus arrhythmia were assessed during a laboratory stress protocol. Peer rejection and unpopularity were measured using peer nomination techniques and counselors reported on relational victimization. Both unpopularity and rejection were associated with increased relational victimization over time among girls who exhibited reciprocal SNS activation (i.e., high SNS reactivity coupled with PNS withdrawal). Rejection was also associated with subsequent victimization among girls exhibiting reciprocal PNS activation (i.e., low SNS reactivity, PNS activation). Findings underscore the biosocial interactions between low peer status and physiological reactivity in the prediction of peer maltreatment over time.

  4. Neighborhood Crime and Perception of Safety as Predictors of Victimization and Offending Among Youth: A Call for Macro-Level Prevention and Intervention Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartinger-Saunders, Robin M; Rine, Christine M; Nochajski, Thomas; Wieczorek, William

    2012-09-01

    This paper is one of two in a series that reports detailed findings from a larger study that simultaneously explored individual, family and neighborhood level predictors of victimization and offending among youth. The current analysis aims to identify which neighborhood level factors have better predictive power with regard to type of victimization (direct and vicarious measures) and total offending overtime (Wave 1 and Wave 2). METHODS: Path analysis was conducted using data from a multi-wave, panel study (N=625) of youth ages 16-19 at Wave 1. A best fitting model was determined showing causal pathways from neighborhood level factors including crime and perception of safety, to direct and vicarious victimization through exposure to violence, and subsequent offending. FINDINGS: Neighborhood crime significantly predicted property victimization. Neighborhood crime and perception of safety significantly predicted vicarious victimization by exposure to violence in the neighborhood. Neighborhood crime and perception of safety were significantly associated with Wave 1 offending. Findings highlight the need for professionals who work with youth to be cognizant of how their environments influence their lives. Prevention and intervention models seeking to create sustainable change among youth should consider mezzo and macro level components that build and strengthen neighborhood capacity through community partnerships.

  5. Short-term prospective effects of homophobic victimization on the mental health of heterosexual adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V Paul; Scheer, Jillian R; DiGiovanni, Craig D; Mereish, Ethan H

    2014-08-01

    Many heterosexual youth report homophobic victimization but there is little longitudinal research to examine its mental health consequences for them. In a 7-month study across an academic school year among 572 heterosexual high school students (55% females), we tested the short-term effects of homophobic victimization on anxiety and depressive symptoms with attention to gender differences. Homophobic victimization at the beginning of the school year predicted higher levels of concurrent anxiety over and above levels attributable to general victimization. Further, when controlling for initial anxiety and general victimization, homophobic victimization at the beginning of the school year predicted increased anxiety at the end of the school year for males, but not for females. Homophobic victimization across time points was more strongly associated for males than females, and this accounted for why initial homophobic victimization predicted increased anxiety for males but not females (i.e., it was indicative of mediated moderation). In contrast, homophobic victimization at the beginning of the school year did not predict concurrent depressive symptoms over and above general victimization. Similarly, although it predicted increased depressive symptoms at the end of the school year for males but not for females, the effect was weaker than for anxiety. These findings underscore that the effects of homophobic victimization are not temporary, particularly as they pertain to anxiety, and underscore the need to consider the nature of the victimization that youth experience, including for heterosexual youth.

  6. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims...... shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD diagnosis based solely on the three core symptom clusters was best identified by a subclinical ASD diagnosis based on all ASD criteria except dissociation. However, a full PTSD diagnosis including the A2 and F criteria was best identified by classifying...... victims according to a full ASD diagnosis. Regardless of whether cases were classified according to full PTSD status or according to meeting the criteria for the three PTSD core symptom clusters, the classification was correct only in approximately two thirds of the cases. A regression analysis based...

  7. Brief report: Identifying defenders of peer victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meter, Diana J; Card, Noel A

    2016-06-01

    Betweenness centrality quantifies the amount of network flow that a network member controls as hypothetical traffic passes between network members. Those with high betweenness centrality within the peer social network based on nominations of liking may be especially important connectors between individuals who do not like each other. This study tested the hypothesis that individuals' betweenness centrality would predict their defending of victimized peers. After controlling for popularity, perception of being liked, and defenders' victimization, betweenness centrality predicted defending. Those found to be connectors within the peer group were more likely to be those who defend peer victims. This investigation showed that analysis of betweenness centrality is a viable way to identify potential defenders in research and also those who could potentially act as mediators. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rape Myth Consistency and Gender Differences in Perceiving Rape Victims: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, Jericho M; Smith, Sara J; Klausing, Cathleen D; Saucier, Donald A

    2016-02-01

    An overview discusses feminist analyses of oppression, attitudes toward rape victims, and previously studied predictors of individuals' attitudes toward rape victims. To better understand such attitudes, this meta-analysis examines the moderating influences of various rape victim, perpetrator, and crime characteristics' rape myth consistency on gender differences in individuals' perceptions of rape victims (i.e., victim responsibility and blame attributions and rape minimizing attitudes). Consistent with feminist theoretical predictions, results indicated that, overall, men perceived rape victims more negatively than women did. However, this sex difference was moderated by the rape myth consistency within the rape vignettes. Implications for research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Violent victimization among state prison inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldredge, John; Steiner, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Violent victimization in prison may enhance inmates' cynicism toward legal authority and the risk of subsequent criminality. Both micro- and macro-level effects on the prevalence and incidence of inmate-on-inmate physical assault during a 6-month period were examined for random samples of inmates (n1 = 5,640) from all state prisons in Ohio and Kentucky (n2 = 46). Findings revealed that nonprovoked assaults were more common among inmates with lifestyles that might have increased their vulnerability to victimization (less time spent in structured activities, committed violent acts themselves, etc.), and in prisons with larger populations and officers who practice lax rule enforcement. A supplementary analysis of violent offending also revealed that inmate offenders and victims may look less like each other compared to offenders and victims in the general population. Policies focused on increasing inmates' involvement in structured prison activities, enhancing professionalism among officers, and lowering prison populations may be most effective for minimizing the risk of violent victimization.

  10. Gene-environment processes linking peer victimization and physical health problems: a longitudinal twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E; Pérusse, Daniel; Boivin, Michel

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether (a) a genetic disposition for physical health problems increases the risk of peer victimization and (b) peer victimization interacts with genetic vulnerability in explaining physical health problems. Participants were 167 monozygotic and 119 dizyogtic twin pairs. Physical symptoms were assessed in early childhood and early adolescence. Peer victimization was assessed in middle childhood. Genetic vulnerability for physical health problems in early childhood was unrelated to later peer victimization, but genetic vulnerability for physical health problems during early adolescence increased the risk of victimization. Victimization did not interact with genetic factors in predicting physical symptoms. Environmental, not genetic, factors had the greatest influence on the development of physical symptoms in victims. Genetic vulnerability for physical health problems in early adolescence increases the risk of peer victimization. Whether victims suffer a further increase in physical symptoms depends on the presence of protective environmental factors.

  11. Cyber-Victimized Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn N. Ryan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is a common topic in the media and academic settings. Teachers are regularly expected to provide curriculum and intervene regarding all forms of bullying, including cyber-bullying. Altering the behaviors of those who bully is often the focus of interventions, with less attention being placed on victim impact. The purpose of this article was to provide educators with a review of evidence regarding the occurrence, impact, and interventions for victims of cyber-bullying. Evidence reveals that cyber-bullying can have emotional, social, and academic impacts but that there are very few documented, and even fewer evidence-based, programs for victims of cyber-bullying. We conclude by proposing that school-wide programs and support be developed and provided to victims.

  12. Parents' and Children's Beliefs about Peer Victimization: Attributions, Coping Responses, and Child Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Bridgette D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how parents' and children's beliefs about peer victimization are related to children's adjustment. A mediational model was proposed that addressed how adjustment is predicted by degree of victimization, as well as causal attributions of and coping responses to victimization. The participants were 100 fifth- or sixth-grade…

  13. Dysregulated negative emotional reactivity as a predictor of chronic peer victimization in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Paul J; Milich, Richard; Harris, Monica J

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations of dysregulated negative emotional reactivity, emotional distress, and chronic peer victimization in childhood. A model was proposed whereby dysregulated reactivity was directly and indirectly related to concurrent peer victimization through victimization-related emotional distress. The model further proposed that dysregulated reactivity directly incrementally predicted longitudinal peer victimization above and beyond the effect of concurrent victimization. Two hundred thirteen 9- to 13-year-old children and their parents completed measures of dysregulated reactivity and victimization experiences at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Children also related narratives of personal victimization experiences at baseline that were coded to assess victimization-related emotional distress. Model testing strongly supported the direct association of dysregulated reactivity with concurrent victimization and incremental predictive effects of dysregulated reactivity on peer victimization over time. Model testing also provided support for an indirect effect of dysregulated reactivity on concurrent peer victimization through victimization-related emotional distress. This study demonstrated the powerful role that dysregulated negative emotional reactivity plays in the development of chronic peer victimization over time. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Investigating the Victim Pseudomaturity Effect: How a Victim's Chronological Age and Dress Style Influences Attributions in a Depicted Case of Child Sexual Assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Paul; Lowe, Michelle; Reddington, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Three-hundred and seven members of the UK public read a hypothetical child sexual abuse case in which the victim's chronological age (12 versus 15 years old) and dress style (sexualized versus nonsexualized) were experimentally manipulated before completing 22 assault severity and blame attribution items. It was predicted that the 15-year-old and the sexually dressed victim would be blamed more for her own abuse. In addition, males were expected to be more blaming generally, but especially of the older and/or sexually dressed victim. Results were generally in line with predictions, highlighting the role seemingly controllable victim characteristics play in blaming child sexual abuse victims. Findings are discussed in relation to defensive attributions, gender stereotyping and the newly suggested victim pseudomaturity effect. Criminal justice, victim welfare, and rape myth implications together with methodological issues and ideas for future research work are also considered.

  15. Peer Victimization and Adolescent Adjustment: The Moderating Role of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined multiple indices of sleep as moderators of the association between peer victimization and adjustment among typically developing adolescents. Participants included 252 adolescents (M = 15.79 years; 66 % European American, 34 % African American) and their parents. A multi-method, multi-informant design was employed to address the research questions. Sleep was assessed objectively with actigraphy (sleep minutes and sleep efficiency) and subjectively with self-reports. Adolescents reported on peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. Externalizing behaviors were examined with mother and father reports. Subjective sleep/wake problems moderated the associations between peer victimization and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. A stronger relation emerged between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms among adolescents who reported higher versus lower levels of sleep/wake problems. Adolescents with elevated sleep/wake problems had higher levels of externalizing symptoms across the range of peer victimization. However, for those with fewer sleep/wake problems, a positive relation between peer victimization and externalizing symptoms was observed. Actigraphy-based sleep minutes and sleep efficiency also moderated the relations between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. Although peer victimization was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms for all youth, those who reported the lowest levels of such symptoms had longer and more efficient sleep in conjunction with low levels of peer victimization. Findings are novel and highlight the importance of considering both bioregulatory processes and peer relations in the prediction of adolescents' adjustment.

  16. Victims of peer violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents facts on peer violence victims, committed by minor perpetrators against other minors. The author analyses four main characteristics of peer violence: imbalance of power between perpetrators and victims, identified intention to cause injuries, permanent treats of repeated violence and afraidness of the victims. Otherness and weakness (physical and social of the victims are identified as the main motives of the perpetrators who decide to attack, and these characteristics form the basis of the victim typology. Due to the fact that the research is phenomenologically based mostly on media report on peer violence cases in the period between September 2011 and the end of 2012, the author illustrates all main statements with the real cases which took place in the focused period. Measures to combat peer violence are presented, like the already established such as the school without violence program, and those recently proposed, such as the so called Aleksa’s class. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: Društvene transformacije u procesu evropskih integracija - multidisciplinarni pristup

  17. Peer victimization and peer rejection during early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godleski, Stephanie A.; Kamper, Kimberly E.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Hart, Emily J.; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bi-directional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3- to 5- years-old) were investigated in an integrated model. Method The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the US. Using observations, research assistant report and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Results Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Conclusions Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress. PMID:25133659

  18. Peer victimization and peer rejection during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godleski, Stephanie A; Kamper, Kimberly E; Ostrov, Jamie M; Hart, Emily J; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bidirectional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3 to 5 years old) were investigated in an integrated model. The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the United States. Using observations, research assistant report, and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress.

  19. Older women: victims of rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyra, P A

    1993-05-01

    Older female rape victims usually live alone, are raped by strangers, experience physical force and injury, and also are robbed. Rape trauma syndrome, a nursing diagnosis, consists of an acute phase of disorganization, and a long-term phase of reorganization of the victim's lifestyle. Rape victims experience emotional, physical, and cognitive reactions to the trauma of rape. Nursing actions can include providing specific interventions to victims during the acute phase, identifying victims during routine exams, referring victims for ongoing counseling, conducting community education programs on primary prevention and available services, and participating in longitudinal rape studies.

  20. Victimization and pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata K. Szerla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pain has several causes. It can be caused not only by operative trauma or cancer. Some patients suffer from pain as a result of being victims of violence. The aim of the study was to introduce diagnosis and treatment of pain problems in patients who are victims of violence, from a physician’s and a psychologist’s common perspective. Physical pain-related primary effects experienced by the victims of domestic violence go far beyond the results which are noticeable directly and confirmed visually in a forensic examination. In the present paper we introduce an ‘invisible’ group of secondary effects of violence. They appear in time, often after several years, in the form of a variety of psychosomatic disorders. The body is devastated insidiously and the secondary effects are visible as vegetative symptoms, a variety of psychosomatic disorders and pain, difficult to diagnose and treat.

  1. High levels of plasma IL-10 and expression of IL-10 by keratinocytes during visceral leishmaniasis predict subsequent development of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasim, S; Elhassan, A M; Khalil, E A

    1998-01-01

    Some patients develop post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) after they have been treated for the systemic infection kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis). It has been an enigma why the parasites cause skin symptoms after the patients have been successfully treated for the systemic disease. We...... report here that PKDL development can be predicted before treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, and that IL-10 is involved in the pathogenesis. Before treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, Leishmania parasites were present in skin which appeared normal on all patients. However, IL-10 was detected...

  2. Is the spatial distribution of brain lesions associated with closed-head injury in children predictive of subsequent development of posttraumatic stress disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovits, Edward H.; Gerring, Joan P.; Davatzikos, Christos; Bryan, R. Nick

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether there is an association between the spatial distributions of lesions detected at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain in children, adolescents, and young adults after closed-head injury (CHI) and development of the reexperiencing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data obtained in 94 subjects without a history of PTSD as determined by parental interview were analyzed. MR images were obtained 3 months after CHI. Lesions were manually delineated and registered to the Talairach coordinate system. Mann-Whitney analysis of lesion distribution and PTSD status at 1 year (again, as determined by parental interview) was performed, consisting of an analysis of lesion distribution versus the major symptoms of PTSD: reexperiencing, hyperarousal, and avoidance. RESULTS: Of the 94 subjects, 41 met the PTSD reexperiencing criterion and nine met all three PTSD criteria. Subjects who met the reexperiencing criterion had fewer lesions in limbic system structures (eg, the cingulum) on the right than did subjects who did not meet this criterion (Mann-Whitney, P =.003). CONCLUSION: Lesions induced by CHI in the limbic system on the right may inhibit subsequent manifestation of PTSD reexperiencing symptoms in children, adolescents, and young adults. Copyright RSNA, 2002.

  3. Measuring Poly-Victimization Using the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.; Hamby, Sherry L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Children who experience multiple victimizations (referred to in this paper as poly-victims) need to be identified because they are at particularly high risk of additional victimization and traumatic psychological effects. This paper compares alternative ways of identifying such children using questions from the Juvenile Victimization…

  4. Poly-Victimization: A Neglected Component in Child Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the role of multiple victimization, or what is termed in this article "poly-victimization," in explaining trauma symptomatology. Method: In a nationally representative sample of 2,030 children ages 2-17, assessment was made of the past year's victimization experiences and recent trauma symptoms. Results: Children experiencing…

  5. Violent relationships at the social-ecological level: A multi-mediation model to predict adolescent victimization by peers, bullying and depression in early and late adolescence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xavier Oriol; Rafael Miranda; Alberto Amutio; Hedy C Acosta; Michelle C Mendoza; Javier Torres-Vallejos

    2017-01-01

    ... environment on violence perceived within school and violence exercised by teachers. In addition, it was also intended to determine whether these violent relationships predict depression through loneliness, and bullying through peer...

  6. Internet piracy and consequences for victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Miljan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After the evolution of technology made it possible to perform actions via the Internet that constitute copyright violations, the analysis of the effects of internet piracy on social welfare became the subject of academic polemics. The main and the biggest victims of Internet piracy are the holders of copyright and related rights, however, the damage that piracy causes them comes from multiple sources, is difficult to quantify and is only a part of the total social cost of piracy. However, there are other categories of victims, such as those whose honor was besmirched as a result of piracy, and who suffer the consequences in the form of negative emotional reactions, loss of job as well as those who subsequently commit suicide. The object of this paper is to describe the effects of internet piracy on the victims of this phenomenon, and the goal is the analysis of the various direct and indirect effects of piracy on victims and their motivation for future creation, as well as analysis of prevention measures, with special emphasis on the Republic of Serbia.

  7. Continued Bullying Victimization in Adolescents: Maladaptive Schemas as a Mediational Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Fernández-González, Liria; González-Cabrera, Joaquín M; Gámez-Guadix, Manuel

    2018-03-01

    Bullying victimization in adolescence is a significant social problem that can become persistent over time for some victims. However, there is an overall paucity of research examining the factors that contribute to continued bullying victimization. Schema therapy proposes a model that can help us understand why bullying victimization can be persistent for some victims. This study examines the role of maladaptive schemas, the key concept in schema therapy, as a mechanism of continued bullying victimization. The hypothesis was that maladaptive schemas of rejection mediate the predictive association between victimization in both the family and at school and future bullying victimization. Social anxiety was also considered, as previous research suggests that it can increase the risk of victimization. The participants were 1328 adolescents (45% female) with a mean age of 15.05 years (SD = 1.37), who completed questionnaires at three time points with a 6-month interval between them. Time 2 maladaptive schemas of rejection significantly mediated the predictive association from Time 1 bullying victimization, family abuse and social anxiety to Time 3 bullying victimization. The findings pertaining to potentially malleable factors, such as maladaptive schemas that maintain continued interpersonal victimization, have important implications for prevention and treatment strategies with adolescents.

  8. Is sexual victimization gender specific?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundaram, Vanita; Laursen, Bjarne; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the prevalence of sexual victimization and correlations between sexual victimization and indicators of poor health in two representative samples of men and women in Denmark. Specifically, the authors explore the prevalence of self-reported victimization among...

  9. Sexually Victimized Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Joann, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The documented incidence of sexual abuse of boys is reported. Though prevalence rates varied from different sources, all sources agreed that reported cases reflect only a fraction of the actual prevalence. The paper also discusses characteristics of the abusers, risk factors of victims, the effects of abuse, and the coping styles of the young male…

  10. Victims and Heroes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg, Christian K.

    2010-01-01

    Victimization, autochthony and citizenship, power and nation-building constitute recurrent, interrelated themes in post-war Manding historical memory in the border area between Liberia and Guinea. While the perceived history of the Manding diverges from academic, historical knowledge as well...

  11. Between "Victims" and "Criminals"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plambech, Sine

    2014-01-01

    This article is about the lives of Nigerian sex workers after deportation from Europe, as well as the institutions that intervene in their migration trajectories. In Europe, some of these women's situations fit the legal definitions of trafficking, and they were categorized as “victims of human...

  12. First Person Victim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Bruni, Luis Emilio; Khalil, Faysal Fuad

    2010-01-01

    of violent interactive shooter experiences by allowing the participants to experience the feeling of being a victim of war. An evaluation of the implementation indicated that participants experienced free spatial interaction, while still being able to acquire an understanding of the theme being mediated....

  13. Disaster victim identification: Tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Arveen

    2005-04-23

    In the aftermath of the devastating tsunami that hit South East Asia last December, a huge operation to try to identify thousands of victims got underway, with the help of many overseas medical and dental professionals. British dentist Gareth Pearson went to Thailand to try and help in this task and here recounts his experience.

  14. [The war victim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugeux, P; Barouti, H

    1994-10-01

    Just as the concept of war itself, the concept of the war victim is progressive, necessitating legal, economic, social, sanitary, ethical and political adaptations. In France, the laws of 1919, effective from 2nd August 1914, brought radical reform as laws of public solidarity, which guaranteed by the nation, the support of invalids of the most savage war in history. The collective nature of this new social risk obliged the state to replace a purely financial compensation by a solution of rehabilitation. The "Office National des Mutilés et Réformés", created in March 1916, was put in charge of the organisation of professional reeducation. The "war invalids" category was being transform a logic of assistance into one of social action. Later, the legislative structure made extensions, enlarging the beneficiaries in the "war victim" category. The "Service de Santé des Armées" in its basic mission of support to the armed forces covers many areas. The "Anciens Combattants et Victimes de Guerre" administration disposes of specific instruments, such as the "Institution Nationale des Invalides", the "Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur l'Appareillage des Handicapés", the "Office National des Anciens Combatants". These joint actions, added to the ones of very influential autonomous associations, contribute to give handicapped war victims an honourable citizenship.

  15. Childhood victimization, attachment, psychological distress, and substance use among women on probation and parole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winham, Katherine M; Engstrom, Malitta; Golder, Seana; Renn, Tanya; Higgins, George E; Logan, T K

    2015-03-01

    The present analysis was guided by a gendered pathways-based theoretical model and examined relationships between childhood victimization and current attachment, psychological distress, and substance use among 406 women with histories of victimization who were on probation and parole in an urban Kentucky county. Structural equation modeling examined relationships among childhood victimization, attachment, psychological distress, and substance use. Additionally, we examined the mediational role that attachment plays in relationships between childhood victimization and both psychological distress and substance use. The data fit the models properly. Psychological distress was significantly predicted by childhood victimization, and adult attachment partially mediated this relationship. Childhood victimization did not significantly predict substance use; however, attachment did. The findings suggest that attachment may be an important factor to further understand and address in relation to psychological distress and substance use among women with histories of victimization who are involved in the criminal justice system. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. The interrelation between victimization and bullying inside young offender institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häufle, Jenny; Wolter, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bullying and victimization are serious problems within prisons. Young Offender Institutions (YOIs), in particular, suffer from high rates of inmate-on-inmate violence. More recent theories about the development of bullying in closed custody institutions imply a relationship between the experience of victimization and the usage of bullying. In our study, we test this linkage using longitudinal survey data taken at two time-points from 473 inmates (aged 15-24) inside three YOIs in Germany. We first analyze the extent of bullying and victimization, and then used a longitudinal structural equation model to predict inmate bullying behavior at time 2 based on victimization that occurred at time 1. Age is used as a predictor variable to account for differences in the amount of victimization and bullying. Results suggest that bullying and victimization are high in the YOIs, which were subject to research. Most inmates reported being a bully and a victim at the same time. Younger inmates use more direct physical bullying but not psychological bullying. An increase in psychological bullying over time can significantly be explained by victimization at an earlier measurement time point. Our study therefore supports recent theoretical assumptions about the development of bullying behavior. Possible implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Antecedents of sexual victimization: factors discriminating victims from nonvictims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synovitz, L B; Byrne, T J

    1998-01-01

    A sexual victimization survey was used to assess the factors that would discriminate between victims and nonvictims of sexual assault. The sample consisted of 241 female college students at a large midwestern university. Victimization status was ascertained from the 13-question Sexual Experiences Survey developed by Koss and Gidycz and Koss and Oros. Data eliciting information about possible associated factors (demographics, dating history, sexual history, personality characteristics and traits) and victimization status were obtained by adapting several scales and instruments into a single Dating and Relationship Survey. Of the 241 women, 102 reported they had been victimized. Discriminant function analysis was used to develop a set of variables that significantly identified victimization status. The variables found to be related to women's being sexually victimized were (a) number of different lifetime sexual partners, (b) provocative dress, and (c) alcohol use.

  18. Victim Simulator for Victim Detection Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James P.; Haque, Salman

    2013-01-01

    Testing of victim detection radars has traditionally used human subjects who volunteer to be buried in, or climb into a space within, a rubble pile. This is not only uncomfortable, but can be hazardous or impractical when typical disaster scenarios are considered, including fire, mud, or liquid waste. Human subjects are also inconsistent from day to day (i.e., they do not have the same radar properties), so quantitative performance testing is difficult. Finally, testing a multiple-victim scenario is difficult and expensive because of the need for multiple human subjects who must all be coordinated. The solution is an anthropomorphic dummy with dielectric properties that replicate those of a human, and that has motions comparable to human motions for breathing and heartbeat. Two airfilled bladders filled and drained by solenoid valves provide the underlying motion for vinyl bags filled with a dielectric gel with realistic properties. The entire assembly is contained within a neoprene wetsuit serving as a "skin." The solenoids are controlled by a microcontroller, which can generate a variety of heart and breathing patterns, as well as being reprogrammable for more complex activities. Previous electromagnetic simulators or RF phantoms have been oriented towards assessing RF safety, e.g., the measurement of specific absorption rate (SAR) from a cell phone signal, or to provide a calibration target for diagnostic techniques (e.g., MRI). They are optimized for precise dielectric performance, and are typically rigid and immovable. This device is movable and "positionable," and has motion that replicates the small-scale motion of humans. It is soft (much as human tissue is) and has programmable motions.

  19. Self-perception but not peer reputation of bullying victimization is associated with non-clinical psychotic experiences in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromann, P M; Goossens, F A; Olthof, T; Pronk, J; Krabbendam, L

    2013-04-01

    Bullying victimization may be linked to psychosis but only self-report measures of victimization have been used so far. This study aimed (a) to investigate the differential associations of peer-nominated versus self-reported victim status with non-clinical psychotic experiences in a sample of young adolescents, and (b) to examine whether different types of self-reported victimization predict non-clinical psychotic experiences in these adolescents. Method A combination of standard self-report and peer nomination procedures was used to assess victimization. The sample (n = 724) was divided into four groups (exclusively self-reported victims, self- and peer-reported victims, exclusively peer-reported victims, and non-victims) to test for a group effect on non-clinical psychotic experiences. The relationship between types of victimization and non-clinical psychotic experiences was examined by a regression analysis. Self-reported victims, along with self- and peer-reported victims, scored higher than peer-reported victims and non-victims on non-clinical psychotic experiences. Self-reports of direct relational, indirect relational and physical victimization significantly improved the prediction of non-clinical psychotic experiences whereas verbal and possession-directed victimization had no significant predictive value. The relationship between victimization and non-clinical psychotic experiences is only present for self-reported victimization, possibly indicative of an interpretation bias. The observed discrepancy between self-report and peer-report highlights the importance of implementing a combination of both measures for future research.

  20. Demographic, Psychological, and School Environment Correlates of Bullying Victimization and School Hassles in Rural Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Smokowski, Paul R.; Cotter, Katie L.; Caroline Robertson; Shenyang Guo

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about bullying in rural areas. The participants in this study included 3,610 racially diverse youth (average age = 12.8) from 28 rural schools who completed the School Success Profile-Plus. Binary logistic regression models were created to predict bullying victimization in the past 12 months, and ordered logistic regression was used to predict school hassles in the past 12 months. Overall, 22.71% of the sample experienced bullying victimization and school victimization rates r...

  1. A signal-to-cutoff ratio in the Abbott architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay that predicts subsequent confirmation of HIV-1 infection in a low-prevalence setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tomas Ostergaard; Robertson, Peter; Whybin, Ross; Chambers, Ian; Lahra, Monica; Rawlinson, William; Post, Jeffrey John

    2015-05-01

    A rapid diagnosis is considered important in HIV care. In 138,911 testing episodes with the Abbott Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay (3,705 reactive samples), a signal-to-cutoff ratio of >151.17 had a positive predictive value of 100% and a sensitivity of 67.4% for the detection of subsequently confirmed HIV infection. We suggest that results higher than this signal-to-cutoff ratio threshold may be reported to clinicians before the completion of confirmatory testing. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. [Interviewing victims of sexual crimes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Teresa; Ribeiro, Catarina

    2007-01-01

    The approach to victims of sexual crimes is of special complexity due to the nature of this kind of crime, the impact of victimization and the specificity of judicial investigation procedures. The absence of physical evidence and the secrecy that characterizes the majority of sexual victimization cases frequently lead the victim's story to be used as one of few proof elements. Given the importance of the information supplied by the victim in the criminal inquiry, it is essential to create strategies to optimise the interview process, not only to preserve evidence, but also to prevent a secondary victimization process. This review discusses in a brief manner the extent to which information given by victims can be considered relevant forensic evidence, and then presents the methodological guidelines for interview that should be used in this type of expertise.

  3. Matching Subsequences in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2009-01-01

    Given two rooted, labeled trees P and T the tree path subsequence problem is to determine which paths in P are subsequences of which paths in T. Here a path begins at the root and ends at a leaf. In this paper we propose this problem as a useful query primitive for XML data, and provide new...

  4. The Effects of Sexual Victimization History, Acute Alcohol Intoxication, and Level of Consensual Sex on Responses to Sexual Assault in a Hypothetical Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhill, Michele R; Norris, Jeanette; Gilmore, Amanda K; Hessler, Danielle M; George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Zawacki, Tina

    Assertive resistance to sexual assault can decrease the likelihood of completed rape and its subsequent aftermath; however, this relationship may be influenced by situational characteristics. This study examined how 2 manipulated variables, level of consensual sex during an encounter and acute alcohol intoxication, along with sexual victimization history, affected women's responses to a hypothetical sexual assault scenario. Female participants were assigned to a drink condition (alcohol/control) and to a consent history condition (low/high). Path analysis found that women who were previously victimized, consumed alcohol, and who were in the high consent condition endorsed greater immobility intentions during the assault; only level of consent predicted likelihood of assertive resistance. Resistance strategies were related to subsequent responding. Results suggest that interventions should seek to decrease negative consequences by empowering women to assertively resist unwanted sexual advances.

  5. Sociodemographic and Incident Variables as Predictors of Victim Injury From Intimate Partner Violence: Findings From Police Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Marie E; Reid Quiñones, Kathryn; López, Cristina M; Andrews, Arthur R; Wallace, Megan M; Rheingold, Alyssa

    2017-11-01

    Predictors of victim injury from intimate partner violence (IPV) were investigated using 1,292 police reports collected in South Carolina in 2009/2010. All cases were opposite sex adults. Results from bivariate statistics showed that IPV cases with ( n = 649) and without visible injuries ( n = 643) differed on victim gender, victim race, type of relationship, and perpetrator's alcohol use. Results from a logistic regression analysis predicting victim injury showed higher odds ratios for males, Whites, and couples identified as cohabitants. Although most victims, including most injured victims, were Black women, males and Whites were overrepresented in the injured group.

  6. Victimization among female and male sexual minority status groups: evidence from the British Crime Survey 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Bere; Davies, Michelle; Scurlock-Evans, Laura

    2014-01-01

    International surveys of victims show crime rates in England and Wales, including hate crimes, are among the highest in Europe. Nevertheless, sexual minority status is a less considered risk factor in general victimization research. This study used sexual minority status and sex to predict victimization across British Crime Surveys from 2007-2010. Logistic regression analyses showed sexual minority status groups were more likely than heterosexuals to be victimized from any and some specific crimes. However, bisexuals rather than lesbians or gay men were more consistently victimized, notably by sexual attacks and within the household. Implications for understanding victimization among these groups are discussed.

  7. An Investigation of Short-Term Longitudinal Associations Between Social Anxiety and Victimization and Perpetration of Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabian, Sara; Vandebosch, Heidi

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has suggested that social anxiety is associated with victimization and perpetration of (cyber)bullying. The direction and causality of this relationship has not yet been empirically supported for both traditional and cyberbullying involvement. This study examined short-term longitudinal associations between feelings of social anxiety and involvement in traditional bullying and cyberbullying among 2128 adolescents aged 10-17 (56.6 % girls). A cross-lagged panel analysis provided evidence for the contribution of social anxiety to later victimization of bullying, both on- and off-line. The possibility of a reciprocal relationship was also examined, although it was not supported. Furthermore, longitudinal bidirectional relationships between social anxiety and the perpetration of bullying were investigated. Only one significant longitudinal association was found: the perpetration of traditional bullying predicted subsequent higher levels of social anxiety. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  8. The value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET before and after induction chemotherapy for the early prediction of a poor pathologic response to subsequent preoperative chemoradiotherapy in oesophageal adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossum, Peter S.N. van [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Houston, TX (United States); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiation Oncology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Fried, David V.; Zhang, Lifei; Court, Laurence E. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Physics, Houston, TX (United States); Hofstetter, Wayne L. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Houston, TX (United States); Ho, Linus [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, Houston, TX (United States); Meijer, Gert J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiation Oncology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Carter, Brett W. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Lin, Steven H. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of our study was to determine the value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET before and after induction chemotherapy in patients with oesophageal adenocarcinoma for the early prediction of a poor pathologic response to subsequent preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). In 70 consecutive patients receiving a three-step treatment strategy of induction chemotherapy and preoperative chemoradiotherapy for oesophageal adenocarcinoma, {sup 18}F-FDG PET scans were performed before and after induction chemotherapy (before preoperative CRT). SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub mean}, metabolic tumour volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were determined at these two time points. The predictive potential of (the change in) these parameters for a poor pathologic response, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was assessed. A poor pathologic response after induction chemotherapy and preoperative CRT was found in 27 patients (39 %). Patients with a poor pathologic response experienced less of a reduction in TLG after induction chemotherapy (p < 0.01). The change in TLG was predictive for a poor pathologic response at a threshold of -26 % (sensitivity 67 %, specificity 84 %, accuracy 77 %, PPV 72 %, NPV 80 %), yielding an area-under-the-curve of 0.74 in ROC analysis. Also, patients with a decrease in TLG lower than 26 % had a significantly worse PFS (p = 0.02), but not OS (p = 0.18). {sup 18}F-FDG PET appears useful to predict a poor pathologic response as well as PFS early after induction chemotherapy in patients with oesophageal adenocarcinoma undergoing a three-step treatment strategy. As such, the early {sup 18}F-FDG PET response after induction chemotherapy could aid in individualizing treatment by modification or withdrawal of subsequent preoperative CRT in poor responders. (orig.)

  9. Externalization and Victim-Blaming among a Sample of Incarcerated Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Arrick L.; Lucas, Schannae L.; Blackburn, Ashley G.

    2009-01-01

    The present study utilizes a pre- and post-test design to examine the effectiveness of an Impact of Crime on Victims Class (ICVC) on decreasing an offender's propensity to externalize responsibility for their behavior and its subsequent impact on an offender's level of victim- and society-blaming. The multiple analysis of covariance (MANCOVA)…

  10. Like two peas in a pod? Explaining friendship selection processes related to victimization and offending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rokven, Josja J.; Tolsma, Jochem; Ruiter, Stijn; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the similarity between friends with respect to experiences with crime among a sample of Dutch individuals. We investigate the extent to which offenders, victims and victim-offenders (de)select friends differently and, subsequently, who (de)selects whom and why. We use data

  11. Disaster victim identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Eleanor A M

    2006-09-01

    In the event of any mass fatality incident, despite the cause, disaster victim identification must be undertaken; the humanitarian and legal responsibility for this falls on the forensic community. Mass fatality incidents can be natural (e.g., tsunamis, earthquakes, hurricanes), accidental (e.g., building collapse, ship sinking) or can occur as a result of a terrorist attack. Terrorism alone has been responsible for thousands of deaths in recent years and can be encountered in many forms (e.g., suicide bombings, airplane hijackings). In mass fatality situations, the experitise of many specialities are called on to assist in the identification efforts and to allow for the speedy return of recovered human remains to the relatives of the deceased. Today, DNA plays a vital but never solitary role in disaster victim identification.

  12. Cyber-Victimized Students

    OpenAIRE

    Kaitlyn N. Ryan; Tracey Curwen

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a common topic in the media and academic settings. Teachers are regularly expected to provide curriculum and intervene regarding all forms of bullying, including cyber-bullying. Altering the behaviors of those who bully is often the focus of interventions, with less attention being placed on victim impact. The purpose of this article was to provide educators with a review of evidence regarding the occurrenc...

  13. Rape Crimes Reviewed: The Role of Observer Variables in Female Victim Blaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara Ferrão

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of empirical research on the role of observer variables in rape victim blaming (female attacked by a male perpetrator. The focus is on literature from the last 15 years. The variables observer gender, ambivalent sexism, rape myth acceptance, and rape empathy are discussed in relation to victim blaming. Most research on rape is conducted using diverse methods and approaches that result in a great disparity regarding the role of these variables in predicting blame assignments. Despite the inconsistencies, most studies show that men hold the victim more responsible for her own victimization than women. Findings further indicate that higher scores on sexist ideologies and rape myth acceptance predict higher victim blame, and that higher rape empathy scores predict lower victim blame. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  14. A Latent Growth Curve Analysis of Early and Increasing Peer Victimization as Predictors of Mental Health across Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Hessel, Elenda T.; Schmidt, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    Peer victimization has been implicated as a traumatic stressor that compromises children's long-term mental health, yet a dearth of prospective research documents lasting effects of early victimization. This study examined whether early (2nd grade) and increasing (2nd-5th grade) victimization predicted 5th grade depressive symptoms and aggressive…

  15. Testing Reciprocal Longitudinal Relations between Peer Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Cong V.; Cole, David A.; Weiss, Bahr

    2012-01-01

    A 2-wave longitudinal study of young adolescents was used to test whether peer victimization predicts depressive symptoms, depressive symptoms predict peer victimization, or the 2 constructs show reciprocal relations. Participants were 598 youths in Grades 3 through 6, ages 8 to 14 (M = 10.9, SD = 1.2) at Wave 1. The sample was 50.7% female and…

  16. It gets better or does it? Peer victimization and internalizing problems in the transition to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Thompson, Kara; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena

    2014-08-01

    Consistent research shows that peer victimization predicts internalizing symptoms in childhood and adolescence, but the extent to which peer victimization and its harmful effects on mental health persists into young adulthood is unclear. The current study describes patterns of physical and relational victimization during and after high school, and examines concurrent and prospective associations between internalizing symptoms (depressive and anxious symptoms) and peer victimization (physical and relational) from adolescence to young adulthood (ages 12-27). Data were collected from the Victoria Healthy Youth Survey, a five-wave multicohort study conducted biennially between 2003 and 2011 (N = 662). Physical victimization was consistently low and stable over time. Relational victimization increased for males after high school. Both types of victimization were associated concurrently with internalizing symptoms across young adulthood for males and for females. Although sex differences were important, victimization in high school also predicted increases in internalizing problems over time.

  17. The social and emotional skills of bullies, victims, and bully-victims of Egyptian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habashy Hussein, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether bullies, victims, bully-victims (who are both bullies and victims), and students who reported no or low levels of bullying and victimization differed in their levels of social and emotional skills. Data were collected from 623 children in fifth and sixth grades from four Egyptian elementary schools; their ages ranged from 10 to 12 years. K-means cluster analysis revealed four groups: bullies (n = 138), victims (n = 178), bully-victims (n = 59), and children who were not involved in bullying behaviour (n = 248). Data were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. The findings indicated that boys were more involved in bullying behaviour than girls, and both bullies and bully-victims were less likely to adhere to social rules and politeness than children who were not involved in bullying. Both bullies and victims were less aware of the physiological reactions of their emotions than uninvolved children, and were less able to apply social rules in social interaction. Both victims and bully-victims reported less likeability than children not involved in bullying. Verbal sharing, attending to others' emotions, and analysis of emotions did not have a statistically significant relationship with the probabilities of classifying children to any bullying group versus children not involved in bullying. Social skills were more important than emotional awareness in predicting the likelihood of classifying children in one of the three bullying groups versus children who not involved in bullying. The main conclusion is that social and emotional skills together may provide an effective means of intervention for bullying problems.

  18. Verbal versus physical victimization from other people's drinking: how do gender, age, and their interactions with drinking pattern affect vulnerability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn

    2007-07-01

    The main objectives of this study were to determine (1) the extent of differential association of gender and age with being the victim of aggression by someone who has been drinking (i.e., alcohol-related victimization) for both verbal and physical forms of victimization and (2) whether drinking status/pattern interacts with gender and age in predicting verbal and physical victimization. A general population survey of Canadian adults ages 18-76 was conducted using random digit dialing and computer-assisted telephone interviewing. Respondents who reported verbal victimization only, physical victimization only, and any combination of verbal and physical victimization were compared with those who reported no victimization. Verbal victimization was significantly more likely for women than for men, whereas physical victimization was more likely for men than for women. Younger age was more strongly associated with physical than with verbal victimization. In terms of significant interaction effects, the relationship between heavy episodic drinking (HED) and experiencing verbal victimization alone and combined verbal and physical victimization (but not for physical victimization alone) was significant for women but not for men. HED was significantly associated with experiencing combined verbal and physical victimization for younger people but not for older people. Future research on alcohol-related victimization needs to take into consideration the nature of alcohol-related victimization (e.g., verbal vs physical) and potential interactions involving gender and age. The significant relationship between HED and combined verbal and physical victimization for younger persons suggests that prevention efforts aimed at decreasing heavy drinking among young people may reduce their risk of victimization.

  19. [Relevant factors concerning phenomena related to the process of initiating dialysis in elderly patients with chronic renal failure: predicting the outcomes of subsequent phenomena at the stage of the initial phenomenon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, Hiroshi; Kasuya, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Sachiko; Hara, Shino; Koga, Shiro; Takahashi, Tadao; Mizuno, Shoichi

    2008-01-01

    We previously investigated the relevant factors concerning each individual phenomenon related to the process of initiating dialysis in elderly patients with chronic renal failure. Background factors that were identified as relevant factors were significant in terms of enabling us to predict the outcome of each phenomenon in new patients. However, the significance of these factors in predicting the outcomes of subsequent phenomena at the stage of the initial phenomenon was unclear. This was attributed to the fact that the subjects with phenomena decreased in number and because of changes in characteristics (hereafter, changes in subjects) with the progression of the process of initiating dialysis. In the present study, we aimed to identify relevant factors for predicting the outcomes of subsequent phenomena at the stage of the initial phenomenon. For this purpose, we assumed that "progression of the process of initiating dialysis does not result in significant reductions in the number of cases and causes only minor changes in characteristics". We studied a total of 152 patients with advanced chronic renal failure aged >or=60 years. Background factors were investigated in all patients. The following phenomena were analyzed: acceptance of dialysis, urgency of initiating dialysis, alleviation of disease, and returning home. In order to identify new relevant factors, we focused on the order and condition of the process by which each background factor was narrowed down during logistic regression analysis for each phenomenon. We determined which background factor to focus on for each phenomenon based on changes in background factors. Age and cognitive function were related to the urgency of initiating dialysis and alleviation of disease. Age, walking ability, and cognitive function were related to returning home. Age was eliminated at the final stage of logistic regression analysis for alleviation of disease and at the penultimate stage of logistic regression analysis for

  20. Progesterone at Encoding Predicts Subsequent Emotional Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertman, Nicole; Andreano, Joseph M.; Cahill, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Significant sex differences in the well-documented relationship between stress hormones and memory have emerged in recent studies. The potentiating effects of glucocorticoids on memory vary across the menstrual cycle, suggesting a potential interaction between these stress hormones and endogenously cycling sex hormones. Here, we show that memory…

  1. Looking for Blame: Rape Myth Acceptance and Attention to Victim and Perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süssenbach, Philipp; Eyssel, Friederike; Rees, Jonas; Bohner, Gerd

    2015-06-30

    In two studies, the authors examined the influence of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on participants' attention toward the potential victim versus perpetrator in a rape case. In Study 1 (N = 90), participants selected information that focused on either the male defendant or the female victim. With increasing RMA, participants preferred information that focused on the victim rather than the defendant. In Study 2 (N = 41), participants viewed photographs depicting both victim and defendant while their eye movements were recorded. With increasing RMA, participants spent less time inspecting the defendant relative to the victim. In both studies, higher RMA predicted stronger anti-victim and pro-defendant judgments, replicating previous research. Taken together, these results support the assumption that RMA guides participants' attention, leading to a focus on the alleged rape victim and away from the alleged perpetrator. Implications of the current research and future directions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Men's Perceptions of an Acquaintance Rape: The Role of Relationship Length, Victim Resistance, and Gender Role Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, D J; Mitchell, Damon; Grossi, Laura

    2015-08-01

    Sexual aggression is a persistent and prevalent issue in the United States, which often results in a number of psychological, emotional, and physical consequences for victims. The current study examined whether the length of relationship between the victim and perpetrator, level of victim resistance, and observers' gender role attitudes play a role in observers' perceptions of an alleged sexual assault. Participants included 297 male college students from a public university in the Northeastern United States. Contrary to hypotheses, there were no significant effects for length of relationship on participants' attributions. Relative to no resistance, verbal and physical strategies by the victim predicted higher levels of victim credibility, perpetrator culpability, and perpetrator guilt, as well as lower levels of victim culpability and perceived victim pleasure. Endorsement of traditional adversarial sex role beliefs and hostile sexist attitudes, as opposed to egalitarian attitudes, were associated with the attribution of less credibility to the victim, perceived victim trauma, perpetrator culpability, perpetrator guilt, and shorter recommended prison sentences, as well as greater victim culpability and perceived victim pleasure. Laypersons' perceptions of sexual assault merit further study, as they are relevant to juror decision making and third party responses to sexual victimization (e.g., peer support for victim) and can contribute to the secondary victimization and recovery of survivors of sexual assault. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. [Identifying victims of a disaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Hans H; Kloosterman, Ate D; de Bruijn, Arie G; Maat, George J R

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the victims of a disaster is important for the next of kin, to issue a death certificate and, if necessary, for forensic investigations. In the Netherlands victims are identified by the Dutch disaster victim identification team, which is part of the national forensic investigation team ('Landelijk Team Forensische Opsporing'). Ante-mortem data are collected during the identification process; these include the victim's specific medical characteristics and the DNA profile of the victim and their family members. The victim's own doctor can play an important role in the ante-mortem investigation because of his or her knowledge of their personal medical details, and of the possible availability of samples for establishing a DNA profile. The ante-mortem data are then compared with post-mortem data. For a definitive identification at least 1 primary identification characteristic has to be established from the physical remains - dermatoglyphics, the DNA profile or the dental status.

  4. Sibling and peer victimization in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather; Shattuck, Anne M

    2014-10-01

    This study examined how victimizations by either a sibling or peer are linked to each other and to mental health in childhood and adolescence. The data were from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence which includes a sample of children aged 3-9 (N=1,536) and adolescents aged 10-17 (N=1,523) gathered through telephone interviews. An adult caregiver (usually a parent) provided the information for children while self-reports were employed for adolescents. Fifteen percent of each age group reported victimization by both a sibling and peer. Victimization by a sibling alone was more common in childhood than adolescence. Victimization by a sibling was predictive of peer victimization. Children and adolescents victimized by both a sibling and peer reported the greatest mental distress. This work establishes that for some children and adolescents, victimization at the hands of other juveniles happens both at home and school. Programs should consider the role of siblings and target parents and siblings to encourage the development and maintenance of constructive sibling interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The impact of perceived childhood victimization and patriarchal gender ideology on intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among Korean immigrant women in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chunrye

    2017-08-01

    Childhood victimization experiences are common among intimate partner violence (IPV) victims. This study examines the link between childhood physical and sexual victimization experiences and adulthood IPV among Korean immigrant women in the USA. As Korean immigrants often use physical punishment to discipline their children, and reporting sexual abuse is discouraged due to stigmatization in this community, cultural factors (e.g. patriarchal values) related to childhood victimization and IPV were also examined. Survey data from Korean immigrant women in the USA were collected. Using a case-control design, we compared 64 Korean immigrant women who have experienced IPV in the past year with 63 Korean immigrant women who have never experienced IPV in their lifetime. The findings of this study reveal that IPV victims, compared with non-victims, experienced higher childhood victimization rates. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that childhood victimization and patriarchal gender ideology strongly predict IPV victimization among Korean immigrants. However, patriarchal values did not moderate the relationship between childhood victimization and IPV. To prevent IPV among Korean immigrant population, we need to make special efforts to prevent childhood abuse and change ingrained cultural attitudes about child physical and sexual abuse among immigrant communities through culturally sensitive programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Restorative justice and victims: Not a self-evident relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pemberton Antony

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The two most prominent developments in criminal justice in the last twenty to thirty years are the rise of restorative justice and the recognition and improvement of the position of the victim. The first part of the paper discusses a theoretical model for victims within restorative justice that the researchers at the InterVICT research institute authors of this paper are developing at this moment. This model incorporates current knowledge from social psychology and studies surrounding traumatic stress and provides a number of hypotheses that will be subsequently evaluated in practice with participants in restorative justice procedures. On the other hand, international legal protocols for restorative justice also lack a consistent victim-oriented perspective. To this end the European Forum for Victim Services has recently published a statement concerning the position of the victim within mediation. The second part of the paper addresses the central issues in this statement. Taken together the paper moves beyond criticism of restorative justice, as it hopes to redirect theory and implementation of restorative justice toward a stronger victim-orientation.

  7. Multifinality of peer victimization: maladjustment patterns and transitions from early to mid-adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Barker, Edward D; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Veenstra, René

    2015-10-01

    Peer victimization is a common and pervasive experience in childhood and adolescence and is associated with various maladjustment symptoms, including internalizing, externalizing, and somatic problems. This variety suggests that peer victimization is multifinal where exposure to the same risk leads to different outcomes. However, very little is known about the relative likelihood of each form of maladjustment. We used a latent profile approach to capture multiple possible outcomes and examined prediction by peer victimization. We also examined the role of peer victimization with regard to stability and change in maladjustment. Maladjustment symptoms and peer victimization were assessed from the participants of the large cohort study TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey in early and mid-adolescence. Latent profile and latent transition analyses were conducted to examine associations between victimization and maladjustment profile and to test the role of victimization in maladjustment profile transitions. Four maladjustment profiles were identified for early adolescence (Low, Internalizing, Externalizing, Comorbid) and three profiles (Low, Internalizing, Externalizing) were identified for mid-adolescence. Internalizing problems were more likely in victimized adolescents than low symptom levels or externalizing problems. Victimized adolescents were at greater risk to develop internalizing problems between early and mid-adolescence than non-victimized adolescents. Peer victimization is multifinal mostly when outcomes are examined separately. If multiple outcomes are tested simultaneously, internalizing problems seem to be the most likely outcome.

  8. The Role of Cognition, Personality, and Trust in Fraud Victimization in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judges, Rebecca A; Gallant, Sara N; Yang, Lixia; Lee, Kang

    2017-01-01

    Older adults are more at risk to become a victim of consumer fraud than any other type of crime (Carcach et al., 2001) but the research on the psychological profiles of senior fraud victims is lacking. To bridge this significant gap, we surveyed 151 (120 female, 111 Caucasian) community-dwelling older adults in Southern Ontario between 60 and 90 years of age about their experiences with fraud. Participants had not been diagnosed with cognitive impairment or a neurological disorder by their doctor and looked after their own finances. We assessed their self-reported cognitive abilities using the MASQ, personality on the 60-item HEXACO Personality Inventory, and trust tendencies using a scale from the World Values Survey. There were no demographic differences between victims and non-victims. We found that victims exhibit lower levels of cognitive ability, lower honesty-humility, and lower conscientiousness than non-victims. Victims and non-victims did not differ in reported levels of interpersonal trust. Subsequent regression analyses showed that cognition is an important component in victimization over and above other social factors. The present findings suggest that fraud prevention programs should focus on improving adults' overall cognitive functioning. Further investigation is needed to understand how age-related cognitive changes affect vulnerability to fraud and which cognitive processes are most important for preventing fraud victimization.

  9. Health care professionals as second victims after adverse events: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seys, Deborah; Wu, Albert W; Van Gerven, Eva; Vleugels, Arthur; Euwema, Martin; Panella, Massimiliano; Scott, Susan D; Conway, James; Sermeus, Walter; Vanhaecht, Kris

    2013-06-01

    Adverse events within health care settings can lead to two victims. The first victim is the patient and family and the second victim is the involved health care professional. The latter is the focus of this review. The objectives are to determine definitions of this concept, research the prevalence and the impact of the adverse event on the second victim, and the used coping strategies. Therefore a literature research was performed by using a three-step search procedure. A total of 32 research articles and 9 nonresearch articles were identified. The second victim phenomenon was first described by Wu in 2000. In 2009, Scott et al. introduced a detailed definition of second victims. The prevalence of second victims after an adverse event varied from 10.4% up to 43.3%. Common reactions can be emotional, cognitive, and behavioral. The coping strategies used by second victims have an impact on their patients, colleagues, and themselves. After the adverse event, defensive as well as constructive changes have been reported in practice. The second victim phenomenon has a significant impact on clinicians, colleagues, and subsequent patients. Because of this broad impact it is important to offer support for second victims. When an adverse event occurs, it is critical that support networks are in place to protect both the patient and involved health care providers.

  10. Victim Injury and Social Distance: A National Test of a General Principle of Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennison, Callie Marie; Jacques, Scott; Allen, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Our inquiry focuses on why some violent offenses but not others result in injury to the victim. Building on existing theory nested in the paradigm of pure sociology, we propose and test a general principle of conflict: Victim injury varies directly with social distance. This principle predicts that offenders are more likely to harm victims with whom they are less well acquainted and less similar culturally. We test three hypotheses derived from this principle with data from the National Crime Victimization Survey and find little support for the theory. Rather, findings suggest exactly the opposite of that predicted: As social distance between offender and victim increases, the odds of victim injury decreases. Recommendations of additional research are made.

  11. Mediators and Moderators of the Association Between Stalking Victimization and Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Connor R; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J; Goodnight, Jackson A

    2017-03-01

    The current study aims to understand mediators and moderators of the relationship between stalking victimization and depression. Based on the reformulated learned helplessness theory, which emphasizes the role of internal, global, and stable attributions for negative events in the development of depression, we predicted that the association between stalking victimization and depression would be mediated by attributions for the stalking and characterological self-blame. We predicted that the association between stalking victimization and helplessness attributions or characterological self-blame, in turn, would be moderated by gender, sex-role identity, and length of stalking. Specifically, we hypothesized that female victims, victims possessing a feminine sex-role identity, and victims experiencing longer stalking episodes would be more likely to experience depression in comparison with male victims, victims possessing a masculine sex-role identity, and victims experiencing shorter stalking episodes. The results indicated that global attributions for the cause of stalking significantly mediated the relationship between stalking victimization and depression. The results for stable attributions, internal attributions, and characterological self-blame were nonsignificant. Furthermore, gender, sex-role identity, and length of stalking did not moderate the association between stalking and attributional style or characterological self-blame. The implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  12. Mutual long-term effects of school bullying, victimization, and justice sensitivity in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondü, Rebecca; Rothmund, Tobias; Gollwitzer, Mario

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, we investigate long-term relations between experiences of aggression at school and the development of justice sensitivity as a personality disposition in adolescents. We assessed justice sensitivity (from the victim, observer, and perpetrator perspective), bullying, and victimization among 565 German 12- to 18-year-olds in a one-year longitudinal study with two measurement points. Latent path analyses revealed gender differences in long-term effects of bullying and victimization on observer sensitivity and victim sensitivity. Experiences of victimization at T1 predicted an increase in victim sensitivity among girls and a decrease in victim sensitivity among boys. Bullying behavior at T1 predicted an increase in victim sensitivity among boys and a decrease in observer sensitivity among girls. We did not find long-term effects of justice sensitivity on bullying and victimization. Our findings indicate that experiences of bullying and victimization have gender-specific influences on the development of moral personality dispositions in adolescents. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Successful application of adaptive emotion regulation skills predicts the subsequent reduction of depressive symptom severity but neither the reduction of anxiety nor the reduction of general distress during the treatment of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Carolin M; Radkovsky, Anna; Ebert, David D; Berking, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in general emotion regulation (ER) skills have been linked to symptoms of depression and are thus considered a promising target in the treatment of Major depressive disorder (MDD). However, at this point, the extent to which such skills are relevant for coping with depression and whether they should instead be considered a transdiagnostic factor remain unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether successful ER skills application is associated with changes in depressive symptom severity (DSS), anxiety symptom severity (ASS), and general distress severity (GDS) over the course of treatment for MDD. Successful ER skills application, DSS, ASS, and GDS were assessed four times during the first three weeks of treatment in 175 inpatients who met the criteria for MDD. We computed Pearson correlations to test whether successful ER skills application and the three indicators of psychopathology are cross-sectionally associated. We then performed latent growth curve modelling to test whether changes in successful ER skills application are negatively associated with a reduction of DSS, ASS, or GDS. Finally, we utilized latent change score models to examine whether successful ER skills application predicts subsequent reduction of DSS, ASS, or GDS. Successful ER skills application was cross-sectionally associated with lower levels of DSS, ASS, and GDS at all points of assessment. An increase in successful skills application during treatment was associated with a decrease in DSS and GDS but not ASS. Finally, successful ER skills application predicted changes in subsequent DSS but neither changes in ASS nor changes in GDS. Although general ER skills might be relevant for a broad range of psychopathological symptoms, they might be particularly important for the maintenance and treatment of depressive symptoms.

  14. Successful application of adaptive emotion regulation skills predicts the subsequent reduction of depressive symptom severity but neither the reduction of anxiety nor the reduction of general distress during the treatment of major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin M Wirtz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Deficits in general emotion regulation (ER skills have been linked to symptoms of depression and are thus considered a promising target in the treatment of Major depressive disorder (MDD. However, at this point, the extent to which such skills are relevant for coping with depression and whether they should instead be considered a transdiagnostic factor remain unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether successful ER skills application is associated with changes in depressive symptom severity (DSS, anxiety symptom severity (ASS, and general distress severity (GDS over the course of treatment for MDD. METHODS: Successful ER skills application, DSS, ASS, and GDS were assessed four times during the first three weeks of treatment in 175 inpatients who met the criteria for MDD. We computed Pearson correlations to test whether successful ER skills application and the three indicators of psychopathology are cross-sectionally associated. We then performed latent growth curve modelling to test whether changes in successful ER skills application are negatively associated with a reduction of DSS, ASS, or GDS. Finally, we utilized latent change score models to examine whether successful ER skills application predicts subsequent reduction of DSS, ASS, or GDS. RESULTS: Successful ER skills application was cross-sectionally associated with lower levels of DSS, ASS, and GDS at all points of assessment. An increase in successful skills application during treatment was associated with a decrease in DSS and GDS but not ASS. Finally, successful ER skills application predicted changes in subsequent DSS but neither changes in ASS nor changes in GDS. CONCLUSIONS: Although general ER skills might be relevant for a broad range of psychopathological symptoms, they might be particularly important for the maintenance and treatment of depressive symptoms.

  15. Victims of Bullying in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current research on bullying (peer victimization, peer harassment) in school, with a focus on victims of such bullying. The 1st section provides a working definition of bullying and its many forms. The 2nd section describes some of the known consequences of being bullied for mental health, physical health, and…

  16. The dilemmas of victim positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorte Marie Søndergaard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article centres on some of the dilemmas contained within victim positioning. Such dilemmas are often overlooked by the authorities involved with people subjected to relational aggression. 2 For example, when teachers rule out cases of bullying because the victim has 'participated in' or 'laughed at' some of the bullies' initiatives, or when a rape victim's status as a victim is questioned because, in the lead up to the assault, she was supposedly friendly to the rapist. In these cases, it could be useful to explore the reason for the bullying victim's apparent collusion or to better understand the premises for the rape victim's positioning options in relation to the perpetrator. In other words, it could be fruitful to explore the dynamics and dilemmas of the victim position. In this article, I aim to reflect on the motivational conditions of the victim phenomenon. These reflections are based on an analysis of qualitative data produced through interviews with school children as well as on relevant secondary literature.

  17. Cyberbullying victimization in adolescents’ population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of communication technology and its wide use by the adolescents, cyberspace became a new risky environment for bullying manifestation and victimization. The significance of the problem lies in the fact that, unlike the traditional bullying, the cyberbullying victimization occurs also out of the school surroundings, it’s characterized by the possible anonymity of the bully, it’s harder to discover it and it could have a much bigger audience. Results of numerous studies show that the prevalence of cyberbullying victimization is 10% to 40% during one school year and that it is related to different negative outcomes - from problems of lower self-esteem to severe psychological and behavioral problems. The aim of the paper is to present basic characteristics and negative outcomes of cyberbullying victimization and also to summarize possible factors which are associated with this form of bullying. Lastly, possible ways of preventive action and coping with cyberbullying victimization will be reviewed.

  18. Social Risk and Peer Victimization in Elementary School Children: The Protective Role of Teacher-Student Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, L Christian; Elledge, Allison R; Newgent, Rebecca A; Cavell, Timothy A

    2016-05-01

    Children not accepted or actively rejected by peers are at greater risk for peer victimization. We examined whether a positive teacher-student relationship can potentially buffer these children from the risk of peer victimization. Participants were 361 elementary school children in the 4th or 5th grade. Peer-report measures were used to assess teacher-student relationship quality (TSRQ), social preference, and rejected sociometric status; peer victimization was assessed via self-, peer-, and teacher-reports. As expected, social preference assessed in the fall semester was a significant negative predictor of self- and peer-reported victimization measured in the spring, controlling for prior levels of peer victimization. TSRQ in the fall was not a significant unique predictor of self-, peer-, or teacher-reported victimization the following spring, controlling for fall victimization and social preference scores. We found a significant interaction between social preference and TSRQ in predicting self-, peer-, and teacher-reported peer victimization: Social preference significantly predicted peer victimization, but only for those children with relatively poor student-teacher relationships. Subgroup analysis revealed that children actively rejected by peers in the fall reported significantly less peer victimization in the spring (controlling for fall victimization scores) when their fall TSRQ scores were at or above the sample mean compared to rejected children whose TSRQ scores were low (i.e., relationship quality can buffer children at social risk for continued peer victimization.

  19. Divergence in self- and peer-reported victimization and its association to concurrent and prospective adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte, Ron H J; Burk, William J; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies on victimization have either used self-reports of peer-reports, but correspondence between these measures is low, implying that types of victims may exist that differ in convergence between self- and peer-reported victimization. Importantly, the very few studies that do exist on such types were cross-sectional, and did not address the stability nor predictive validity in terms of adjustment of these types. Using a person-centered approach, the present study identified types of victims that were either convergent or divergent in self- and peer-reported victimization, and examined how these types differed in concurrent and prospective adjustment. Participants were 1,346 adolescents (50 % girls, mean age 14.2) who were followed for 1 year. Using Latent Profile Analysis, we identified two convergent types (self-peer identified victims and non-victims) and two divergent types (self-identified and peer-identified) of victims. The types were highly stable over time. Self-peer identified victims were not only concurrently but also prospectively the least well adjusted. Self-identified victims showed lower levels of emotional adjustment but did not show problems on social adjustment. On the other hand, peer-identified victims were at risk for social but not emotional maladjustment. The findings corroborate previous studies that suggest that self-reported victimization is related to emotional problems, while peer-reported victimization is more indicative of social problems. The findings also suggest that using self-reports or peer-reports only may lead to incomplete conclusions about victims' adjustment on different domains.

  20. Perpetrator or victim?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    Paper 3: HAN091384 Victim, Perpetrator and Pupil - Teacher Perspectives on Peer Bullying Helle Rabøl Hansen, University of Aarhus This paper investigates the approaches and strategies taken up by two crucial actors in relation to bullying in schools: 1. documents indicating school policies...... on bullying, and 2. teacher strategies in relation to bullying practices among children. The paper analyses the relationship between policy documents and their implied discourses on the one hand and the discourses and understandings taken up by teaches in their everyday interaction with children...... and colleagues on the other hand. The paper is based on empirical data including surveys among 253 teachers from 10 schools, interview with 12 teachers, and observations among teachers in their respectively class and staff rooms. In the analyses punishment and sanctions appear to work as general strategies...

  1. First Person Victim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Bruni, Luis Emilio; Khalil, Faysal Fuad

    2010-01-01

    in the “First Person Victim” experience to create awareness about the consequences of war for civilians. The paper will also explain how our “Interactive Dramatic Experience Model” organizes the various events of the experience and mediates an emergent narrative by the use of the first person shooter form......Scientific and psychological studies claim a variety of triggers in video games with violent content may promote aggression. To oppose the violent behavior of players in these games, this paper will describe how the sources of aggression and first person shooter conventions have been exploited....... The theme is communicated through the use of tragedy, and turns the roles around to let the participants encounter a realistic war-scenario while being confronted with ethical issues, by enacting the experience of being a victim of war. An evaluation of the implemented experience indicated...

  2. Race, gender, and sexual orientation in hate crime victimization: identity politics or identity risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Edward

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the impact of hate crimes upon gay and lesbian victims, reviewing 1538 hate crimes committed in Los Angeles County. Differences between sexual orientation and other hate crime categories were considered for offense severity, reportage to law enforcement, and victim impact. The type of offense varied between crimes classified for sexual orientation (n=551) and other bias-motivated crimes (n=987). Assault, sexual assault, sexual harassment, and stalking were predictive of sexual orientation hate crimes. Sexual orientation bias crimes evidenced greater severity of violence to the person and impact upon victim level of functioning. More violent forms of aggression were predictive of gay and lesbian victim's underreportage to law enforcement. For sexual orientation offenses, victim gender and race/ethnicity differences were predictive of the base rates of crime reportage as well. These findings are considered in terms of a group-risk hypothesis, encountered by multiple outgroup persons, that influences help-seeking behavior and ingroup identity.

  3. Victims of cyberstalking in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević-Lepojević Marina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present research findings on prevalence and characteristics of cyberstalking in Serbia. A web-based questionnaire was used to collect data from a group of respondents who were recruited by snowball sampling via e-mail. A total of 237 respondents completed the online questionnaire. The aim of the first part of this paper is to determine the notion of cyberstalking as well as, to review research about the prevalence and the nature of stalking. The main results are the following: 39,6 % of respondents reported stalking; every fourth stalking victim is a victims of cyberstalking; mostly, cyberstalking victims were female and perpetrators were male. Victims were stalked by: persistent sending of unwanted e-mails and telephone calls, spreading rumors, abusive and negative comments and threats, encouraged other users to harass, threaten or insult, manipulating with victim's personal data, sending malicious programs and files, etc. In Serbia, cyberstalking is not criminalized yet and there are no organizations to whom victims may appeal and ask for help. We are hoping that this research will raise the awareness on cyberstalking and serve as a base for further research and legal reforms regarding cyberstalking victimization in Serbia.

  4. An exploratory examination of student to professor disclosures of crime victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Tara N; Branch, Kathryn A; Hayes, Rebecca M

    2013-11-01

    Prior qualitative research has demonstrated that female college students may utilize their professors as support providers when they experience sexual assault and intimate partner violence victimization. To further explore this phenomenon, the present study used a random sampling design on two college campuses to examine the following questions: (a) Are student disclosures of crime victimization a common occurrence for college professors? (b) What is the nature of college professors' most recent disclosure of crime victimization? and (c) Do professor characteristics predict receiving a student disclosure of victimization? Implications of these findings as well as directions for future research will be discussed.

  5. Bully Victimization: Selection and Influence Within Adolescent Friendship Networks and Cliques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodder, Gerine M A; Scholte, Ron H J; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Giletta, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents tend to form friendships with similar peers and, in turn, their friends further influence adolescents' behaviors and attitudes. Emerging work has shown that these selection and influence processes also might extend to bully victimization. However, no prior work has examined selection and influence effects involved in bully victimization within cliques, despite theoretical account emphasizing the importance of cliques in this regard. This study examined selection and influence processes in adolescence regarding bully victimization both at the level of the entire friendship network and the level of cliques. We used a two-wave design (5-month interval). Participants were 543 adolescents (50.1% male, Mage = 15.8) in secondary education. Stochastic actor-based models indicated that at the level of the larger friendship network, adolescents tended to select friends with similar levels of bully victimization as they themselves. In addition, adolescent friends influenced each other in terms of bully victimization over time. Actor Parter Interdependence models showed that similarities in bully victimization between clique members were not due to selection of clique members. For boys, average clique bully victimization predicted individual bully victimization over time (influence), but not vice versa. No influence was found for girls, indicating that different mechanisms may underlie friend influence on bully victimization for girls and boys. The differences in results at the level of the larger friendship network versus the clique emphasize the importance of taking the type of friendship ties into account in research on selection and influence processes involved in bully victimization.

  6. Psychological Distress as a Risk Factor for Re-Victimization in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Carlos A.; Finkelhor, David; Clifford, Cynthia; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study is to examine the role of psychological distress in predicting child re-victimization across various forms including conventional crime, peer/sibling violence, maltreatment, sexual violence, and witnessed violence. Methods: Longitudinal data from the Developmental Victimization Survey, which surveyed children…

  7. Bullying and Victimization: The Role of Conduct Problems and Psychopathic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Kostas A.; Kimonis, Eva R.

    2012-01-01

    Bullying and victimization occurring in adolescence can have a long-lasting negative impact into adulthood. This study investigates whether conduct problems (CP) and dimensions of psychopathy predict the developmental course of bullying and victimization from ages 12 to 14 among 1,416 Greek-Cypriot adolescents. Results indicate that initial levels…

  8. Prevalence and Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Victims of Violence Applying for State Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Maarten; Winkel, Frans Willem; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have focused on the predictive value of victims' emotions experienced shortly after violence exposure to identify those vulnerable for development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, many victims remain unidentified during the initial recovery phase, yet may still be highly in need of psychological help after substantial…

  9. Is it better to be average? High and low performance as predictors of employee victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jaclyn M; Patel, Pankaj C; Raver, Jana L

    2014-03-01

    Given increased interest in whether targets' behaviors at work are related to their victimization, we investigated employees' job performance level as a precipitating factor for being victimized by peers in one's work group. Drawing on rational choice theory and the victim precipitation model, we argue that perpetrators take into consideration the risks of aggressing against particular targets, such that high performers tend to experience covert forms of victimization from peers, whereas low performers tend to experience overt forms of victimization. We further contend that the motivation to punish performance deviants will be higher when performance differentials are salient, such that the effects of job performance on covert and overt victimization will be exacerbated by group performance polarization, yet mitigated when the target has high equity sensitivity (benevolence). Finally, we investigate whether victimization is associated with future performance impairments. Results from data collected at 3 time points from 576 individuals in 62 work groups largely support the proposed model. The findings suggest that job performance is a precipitating factor to covert victimization for high performers and overt victimization for low performers in the workplace with implications for subsequent performance.

  10. How Do Discrepancies between Victimization and Rejection Expectations in Gay and Bisexual Men Relate to Mental Health Problems?

    OpenAIRE

    Sattler, Frank A.; Hanna Christiansen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Victimization and rejection expectations predict mental health problems in gay and bisexual men. Furthermore, it was shown that victimization predicts rejection expectations. Nevertheless, the levels of these two variables do not necessarily correspond as indicated by low inter-correlations, resulting in the question “How do discrepancies in the two variables relate to mental health problems?” This study tests if non-corresponding levels of victimization and rejection expectatio...

  11. Bullying victimization and the social and emotional maladjustment of bystanders: A propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Jilynn M; Nickerson, Amanda B; Aloe, Ariel M; Swearer, Susan M

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated how bystanders, who have and have not been bullied, perceive their social and emotional maladjustment depending on the form of bullying (physical or verbal) they witness. Using propensity score matching, equivalent groups of 270 victimized and 270 non-victimized bystander groups were created based on middle school students' responses on the Bully Survey-Student Version (BYS-S; Swearer, 2001). Victimized bystanders experienced higher social maladjustment than non-victimized bystanders. Path analysis results suggest that social and emotional maladjustment as a bystander is related not only to social-emotional maladjustment as victim, but to gender and the form of bullying witnessed. The way in which bystanders are influenced by their personal victimization may be a critical factor in predicting, understanding, and increasing active bystander intervention. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interpersonal and personal antecedents and consequences of peer victimization across middle childhood in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jennifer M; Duong, Mylien; Schwartz, David; Chang, Lei; Luo, Tana

    2014-11-01

    Although much is known about peer victimization, the majority of the longitudinal research in this area has been restricted to Western settings. The main objective of this study was to examine the interpersonal (rejection) and personal (withdrawal, aggression) antecedents and consequences of victimization for Chinese children living in Hong Kong. A sample of 1,058 children (501 boys; M age = 9.5 years) in Hong Kong was followed longitudinally from the 3rd and 4th grades to the 7th and 8th grades. Consistent with a transactional framework, rejection and withdrawal contributed to, as well as resulted from, victimization. Although victimization predicted later aggression, aggression was unrelated to later victimization. These findings closely replicate past research conducted in North America and European settings, and suggest considerable correspondence in the links between maladaptive child characteristics and victimization across Western and Hong Kong schools.

  13. Relational Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Moderating Effects of Mother, Father, and Peer Emotional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence heralds a unique period of vulnerability to depressive symptoms. This longitudinal study examined relational victimization in adolescents’ peer relationships as a unique predictor of depressive symptoms among a primarily (85%) Caucasian sample of 540 youth (294 females) concurrently and across a 6-year period. The moderating effects of emotional support received from mothers, fathers, and peers on the association between relational victimization and adolescents’ depressive symptoms were also investigated. Findings revealed that adolescents who were relationally victimized consistently had higher depressive symptoms than their non-victimized peers. However, high levels of emotional support from fathers buffered this relationship over time. Emotional support from mothers and peers also moderated the longitudinal relationship between relational victimization and depressive symptoms, with high levels of support predicting increases in adolescents’ symptoms. Relational victimization presents a clear risk for depressive symptoms in adolescence, and emotional support may serve either a protective or vulnerability-enhancing role depending on the source of support. PMID:20577897

  14. Supporting children: Victims of crime, within victim support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walle Vande Ilse

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available All too often, the victimization of children is automatically associated with child abuse and sexual abuse. However, children are also confronted, either directly or indirectly, with other kinds of criminality. In spite of that children usually do not get appropriate support and assistance. In this paper, the establishment and development of services for the support of children-victims of crime in Belgium, as well as European cooperation in this regard, are described.

  15. Of virtual victims and victimized virtues: differential effects of experienced aggression in video games on social cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmund, Tobias; Gollwitzer, Mario; Klimmt, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Two experimental studies were used to investigate how interacting with aggressive virtual characters in video games affects trust and cooperation of players. Study 1 demonstrates that experiencing virtual aggression from a victim's perspective can impair players' investments in a subsequent common goods dilemma situation. This effect is mediated by reduced expectations of trust in the cooperativeness of interaction partners. In Study 2 the same effect was replicated by using a different cooperation task and by investigating the moderating role of justice sensitivity from a victim's perspective as a dispositional factor. Participants transferred less money to an unknown partner in a trust game after exposure to aggressive nonplayer characters in a video game. This effect was stronger for people high in victim sensitivity. Results of both studies can be interpreted in line with the sensitivity to mean intentions model and add to the body of research on violent media effects.

  16. Victims and Their Defenders: A Dyadic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainio, Miia; Veenstra, Rene; Huitsing, Gijs; Salmivalli, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on the dyadic defending relationships of victimized children in grades 3, 4, and 5 (N = 7481 children from 356 school classes, mean ages 10-12 years). Most of the victims (72.3%) had at least one defender. Being defended was positively related to victims' adjustment and social status. Analyses on victim-defender dyads showed…

  17. Nazi Medical Research in Neuroscience: Medical Procedures, Victims, and Perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenau, Aleksandra; Weindling, Paul J

    Issues relating to the euthanasia killings of the mentally ill, the medical research conducted on collected body parts, and the clinical investigations on living victims under National Socialism are among the best-known abuses in medical history. But to date, there have been no statistics compiled regarding the extent and number of the victims and perpetrators, or regarding their identities in terms of age, nationality, and gender. "Victims of Unethical Human Experiments and Coerced Research under National Socialism," a research project based at Oxford Brookes University, has established an evidence-based documentation of the overall numbers of victims and perpetrators through specific record linkages of the evidence from the period of National Socialism, as well as from post-WWII trials and other records. This article examines the level and extent of these unethical medical procedures as they relate to the field of neuroscience. It presents statistical information regarding the victims, as well as detailing the involvement of the perpetrators and Nazi physicians with respect to their post-war activities and subsequent court trials.

  18. The Importance of Substance-Related Sexual Victimization: Impact on Substance Use and Risk Perception in Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshelman, Lee R; Messman-Moore, Terri L; Sheffer, Nicole

    2015-09-01

    Data on risk perception, sexual victimization, and substance use were obtained via surveys from 496 female college students to determine what factors influence risk perception using a written vignette in which participants make a hypothetical decision to leave a potentially risky situation. Experiences of substance-related (SR) victimization, rather than forcible victimization, were associated with significantly delayed risk perception. SR victimization victims reported feeling uncomfortable significantly later and leaving the scenario significantly later than non-victims. SR victimization victims also had significantly higher scores on heavy episodic drinking (HED), marijuana use, alcohol-related tolerance, and blackouts. Both substance use (HED and marijuana use) and alcohol-related problems (tolerance and blackouts) mediated the link between SR victimization and risk perception in the form of behavioral leave response. In contrast, only HED and tolerance mediated the link between SR victimization and risk recognition. Findings suggest the importance of differentiating types of victimization in predicting risk perception and of addressing substance use in sexual victimization risk reduction interventions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Punishment goals of crime victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Uli

    2003-04-01

    Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals.

  20. [Health consequence of stalking victimization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, R; Hintz, E; Blättner, B

    2012-05-01

    Life time prevalence of stalking is about 12-20%, while females are more often affected than male. Stalking is a statutory offense. However, it is not an assault of victims' law. For the purpose of health consequences for stalking victims, research in following database were conducted: EMBASE, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Social Science Index. English and German published studies of the years 2002-2010 were included. 17 primary studies and 2 meta-analyses were identified. Direct physiological consequences are relatively rare; however stalking victims report a poorer physiological health status. Almost every second stalking victim shows impairments on his/her psychical well-being. Impairments of social well-being are common, too. As a result, there is still a lot of research, especially in long-term studies, required. Socio-legal reassessment of stalking will probably benefit only a few of the affected people. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Effects of perpetrator identity on suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury in sexually victimized female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unlu G

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gulsen Unlu, Burcu Cakaloz Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey Purpose: Child sexual abuse and sexual dating violence victimization are common problems that are known to have long-term negative consequences. This study aimed to compare the sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features of female adolescents who were sexually abused by different perpetrators, and identify the factors associated with suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI in these cases. Patients and methods: Data of 254 sexually abused female adolescents between the ages of 12–18 years were evaluated. The cases were classified into three groups, namely “sexual dating violence”, “incest”, and “other child sexual abuse”, according to the identity of the perpetrator. The three groups were compared in terms of sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features. Results: Major depressive disorder was the most common psychiatric diagnosis, which was present in 44.9% of the cases. Among all victims, 25.6% had attempted suicide, 52.0% had suicidal ideation, and 23.6% had NSSI during the postabuse period. A logistic regression analysis revealed that attempted suicide was predicted by dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.053; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.473, 6.330 and depression (AOR =2.238; 95% CI =1.226, 4.086. Dating violence victimization was also the strongest predictor of subsequent suicidal ideation (AOR =3.500; 95% CI =1.817, 6.741. In addition, revictimization was determined to be an important risk factor for both suicidal ideation (AOR =2.897; 95% CI =1.276, 6.574 and NSSI (AOR =3.847; 95% CI =1.899, 7.794. Conclusion: Perpetrator identity and revictimization are associated with negative mental health outcomes in sexually victimized female adolescents. Increased risk of suicidality and NSSI should be borne in mind while assessing cases with dating

  2. Media coverage of women victimization

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinović-Vilić, Slobodanka; Žunić, Natalija

    2012-01-01

    Mass media seem to be playing the central role in our everyday life and the media impact is so overpowering nowadays that we live in a mediasaturated culture. Not only are mass media an inseparable part of our contemporary life but they also significantly define and shape our daily existence. In order to explain the cultural impact that the media coverage of crime and victimization has in our society, it is necessary to understand the relationship between crime, victimization and mass media. ...

  3. Bullying and Victimization Among Children

    OpenAIRE

    Shetgiri, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Bullying among children is a significant public health problem world-wide. Bullying is most commonly defined as repeated, intentional aggression, perpetrated by a more powerful individual or group against a less powerful victim. Trends in victimization and moderate to frequent bullying may be decreasing slightly in the United States, but over 20% of children continue to be involved in bullying. Direct bullying consists of physical and verbal aggression, whereas indirect bullying involves rela...

  4. How Victim Sensitivity leads to Uncooperative Behavior via Expectancies of Injustice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltese, Simona; Baumert, Anna; Schmitt, Manfred J; MacLeod, Colin

    2015-01-01

    According to the Sensitivity-to-mean-intentions model, dispositional victim sensitivity involves a suspicious mindset that is activated by situational cues and guides subsequent information processing and behavior like a schema. Study 1 tested whether victim-sensitive persons are more prone to form expectancies of injustice in ambiguous situations and whether these expectancies mediate the relationship between victim sensitivity and cooperation behavior in a trust game. Results show an indirect effect of victim sensitivity on cooperation after unfair treatment (vs. control condition), mediated by expectancies of injustice. In Study 2 we directly manipulated the tendency to form expectancies of injustice in ambiguous situations to test for causality. Results confirmed that the readiness to expect unjust outcomes led to lower cooperation, compared to a control condition. These findings provide direct evidence that expectancy tendencies are implicated in elevated victim sensitivity and are of theoretical and practical relevance.

  5. How victim sensitivity leads to uncooperative behavior via expectancies of injustice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona eMaltese

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the Sensitivity-to-mean-intentions (SeMI model, dispositional victim sensitivity involves a suspicious mindset that is activated by situational cues and guides subsequent information processing and behavior like a schema. Study 1 tested whether victim-sensitive persons are more prone to form expectancies of injustice in ambiguous situations and whether these expectancies mediate the relationship between victim sensitivity and cooperation behavior in a trust game. Results show an indirect effect of victim sensitivity on cooperation after unfair treatment (vs control condition, mediated by expectancies of injustice. In Study 2 we directly manipulated the tendency to form expectancies of injustice in ambiguous situations to test for causality. Results confirmed that the readiness to expect unjust outcomes led to lower cooperation, compared to a control condition. These findings provide direct evidence that expectancy tendencies are implicated in elevated victim sensitivity and are of theoretical and practical relevance.

  6. Coping with Peer Victimization: The Role of Children's Attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Kari Jeanne; Sechler, Casey M.; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky

    2013-01-01

    A social-cognitive framework was used to generate and test hypotheses regarding the role of children's causal attributions for peer victimization in predicting how they cope with such experiences. It was hypothesized that attributions would be differentially associated with coping as a function of the direction (i.e., upward, horizontal, or…

  7. Judgments toward male and transgendered victims in a depicted stranger rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Hudson, Jenefer

    2011-01-01

    There has been an increasing amount of research interest into perceptions of male rape in recent years. However, no research has assessed how people react when a transgendered person is raped. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of transgendered status and sexuality on victim blame and perceived severity in a depicted rape scenario. The sexuality of the victim was manipulated to include a heterosexual, homosexual, cross-dresser, female-to-male transsexual, and male-to-female transsexual. It was predicted that the heterosexual victims would be judged the most positively and that heterosexual male participants would make the most anti-victim judgments. One hundred thirty-three lesbian, gay male, and heterosexual members of the general population read a scenario depicting a rape and then completed a questionnaire measuring victim blame and perceived severity of the assault. Results conformed to the predictions. Results are discussed in relation to traditional gender roles and homophobia.

  8. Bullying victimization among college students: negative consequences for alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rospenda, Kathleen M; Richman, Judith A; Wolff, Jennifer M; Burke, Larisa A

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the prevalence of bullying victimization at school and work among college freshmen and the relationships between victimization and changes in alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. Web survey data at 2 time points from a sample of 2118 freshmen from 8 colleges and universities in the Midwestern United States indicated that 43% of students experienced bullying at school and that 33% of students experienced bullying at work. Bullying, particularly at school, consistently predicted alcohol consumption and problematic drinking, after controlling for baseline drinking and other school and work stressors.

  9. Bullying victimization among college students: Negative consequences for alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Richman, Judith A.; Wolff, Jennifer M.; Burke, Larisa A.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on the prevalence of bullying victimization at school and work among college freshmen, and the relationships between victimization and changes in alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. Web survey data at two points in time from a sample of 2118 freshmen from eight colleges and universities in the Midwestern United States indicated that 43% of students experienced bullying at school, and 33% of students experienced bullying at work. Bullying, particularly at school, consistently predicted alcohol consumption and problematic drinking, controlling for baseline drinking and other school and work stressors. PMID:24325767

  10. A better START for low-acuity victims: data-driven refinement of mass casualty triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Keith P; Petry, Michael J; Cicero, Mark X

    2015-01-01

    Methods currently used to triage patients from mass casualty events have a sparse evidence basis. The objective of this project was to assess gaps of the widely used Simple Triage and Rapid Transport (START) algorithm using a large database when it is used to triage low-acuity patients. Subsequently, we developed and tested evidenced-based improvements to START. Using the National Trauma Database (NTDB), a large set of trauma victims were assigned START triage levels, which were then compared to recorded patient mortality outcomes using area under the receiver-operator curve (AUC). Subjects assigned to the "Minor/Green" level who nevertheless died prior to hospital discharge were considered mistriaged. Recursive partitioning identified factors associated with of these mistriaged patients. These factors were then used to develop candidate START models of improved triage, whose overall performance was then re-evaluated using data from the NTDB. This process of evaluating performance, identifying errors, and further adjusting candidate models was repeated iteratively. The study included 322,162 subjects assigned to "Minor/Green" of which 2,046 died before hospital discharge. Age was the primary predictor of under-triage by START. Candidate models which re-assigned patients from the "Minor/Green" triage level to the "Delayed/Yellow" triage level based on age (either for patients >60 or >75), reduced mortality in the "Minor/Green" group from 0.6% to 0.1% and 0.3%, respectively. These candidate START models also showed net improvement in the AUC for predicting mortality overall and in select subgroups. In this research model using trauma registry data, most START under-triage errors occurred in elderly patients. Overall START accuracy was improved by placing elderly but otherwise minimally injured-mass casualty victims into a higher risk triage level. Alternatively, such patients would be candidates for closer monitoring at the scene or expedited transport ahead of other

  11. The Second Victim: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, B; Powell, D; Higgins, M F

    2017-06-01

    Amongst the lay and media population there is a perception that pregnancy, labour and delivery is always physiological, morbidity and mortality should be "never events" and that error is the only cause of adverse events. Those working in maternity care know that it is an imperfect art, where adverse outcomes and errors will occur. When errors do occur, there is a domino effect with three groups being involved - the patient (first victim), the staff (second victims) and the organization (third victims). If the perceived expectation of patients on all clinicians is that of perfection, then clinicians may suffer the consequences of adverse outcomes in isolation and silence. More recently identification and discussion on the phenomenon of the second victim has become a popular research topic. This review aimed to study not only the phenomenon of second victim in general medical care but to also concentrate on maternity care where the expectation of perfection may be argued to be greater. Risk factors, prevalence and effect of second victims were identified from a thorough search of the literature on the topic. The review focuses on the recent research of the effect on maternity staff of adverse outcomes and discusses topical issues of resilience, disclosure, support systems as well as Learning from Excellence. It is now well documented that when staff members are supported in their disclosure of errors this domino effect is less traumatic. It is the responsibility of everyone working in healthcare to support all the victims of an error, as an ethical duty and to have a supportive culture of disclosure. In addition, balance can be provided by developing a culture of learning from excellence as well as from errors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cyberbullying Victimization in Adolescents as Related to Body Esteem, Social Support, and Social Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit; Heiman, Tali

    2017-01-01

    The authors examined cyberbullying victimization in the context of issues of key importance to youth: body esteem, social support, and social self-efficacy. Research has found that traditional peer-bullying victimization is significantly correlated with low body esteem in Western societies, especially pertaining to weight (R. Puhl & J. Luedicke, 2012 ). Studies have also found a relationship among bullying victimization, appearance-related bullying, low body esteem, and psychosocial difficulties among youth (L. E. Park, R. M. Calogero, A.F. Young, & A. Diraddo, 2010 ). However, the emergence of cyberbullying, characterized by its own special features (P. K. Smith et al., 2008 ), has raised a salient need to explore the relationship between cyber victimization and body esteem, no less important with social framework, because both are key components in adolescents' lives that may be associated with cyberbullying victimization. The authors examined these relationships among 204 Israeli adolescents 14-16 years old. The results indicate a noteworthy prevalence (45%) of cyber victims. Cyber victimization is significantly correlated with low body esteem and low social support and social self-efficacy. Low body esteem and low social support predicted the probability of being a cyber victim. The results extend the knowledge about potential personal and social risk factors for cyber victimization during adolescence. Implications for specific intervention programs are discussed.

  13. Trajectories of Intimate Partner Violence Victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Swartout

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purposes of this study were to assess the extent to which latent trajectories of female intimate partner violence (IPV victimization exist; and, if so, use negative childhood experiences to predict trajectory membership.Methods: We collected data from 1,575 women at 5 time-points regarding experiences during adolescence and their 4 years of college. We used latent class growth analysis to fit a series of personcentered, longitudinal models ranging from 1 to 5 trajectories. Once the best-fitting model was selected, we used negative childhood experience variables—sexual abuse, physical abuse, and witnessing domestic violence—to predict most-likely trajectory membership via multinomial logistic regression.Results: A 5-trajectory model best fit the data both statistically and in terms of interpretability. The trajectories across time were interpreted as low or no IPV, low to moderate IPV, moderate to low IPV, high to moderate IPV, and high and increasing IPV, respectively. Negative childhood experiences differentiated trajectory membership, somewhat, with childhood sexual abuse as a consistent predictor of membership in elevated IPV trajectories.Conclusion: Our analyses show how IPV risk changes over time and in different ways. These differential patterns of IPV suggest the need for prevention strategies tailored for women that consider victimization experiences in childhood and early adulthood. [West J Emerg Med. 2012;13(3:272–277.

  14. Justice And Legal Certainty For Child Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Setiadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Focus of attention in the criminal justice system so far has always been to the perpetrator, whereas parties related to a process of criminal justice encompasses the perpetrator, the victim, and the community. A crime victim, in particular, would suffer more since he/she could experience secondary victimization in the criminal justice system. The law concerning victim and witness protection only states the limitation for the criminal victim to ask for compensation to criminal justice system, either as a victim of direct criminal or a victim of abuse power done by law enforcement officers. Child victims are treated the same way as to adult victims, whilst they have a greater dimension of the problem and effects to be dealt with Mechanism and procedures to be followed are ius constituendum (intended/desirable law, as they only share expectation of indemnity, compensation, and rehabilitation which have not been empirically tested in a real situation.

  15. Exploring the Characteristics of Personal Victims Using the National Crime Victimization Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jairam, Shashi

    1998-01-01

    .... Two statistical methods were used to investigate these hypotheses, logistical regression for victimization prevalence, and negative binomial regression for victimization incidence and concentration...

  16. Peer victimization during adolescence and risk for anxiety disorders in adulthood: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapinski, Lexine A; Bowes, Lucy; Wolke, Dieter; Pearson, Rebecca M; Mahedy, Liam; Button, Katherine S; Lewis, Glyn; Araya, Ricardo

    2014-07-01

    Peer victimization is ubiquitous across schools and cultures, and has been suggested as one developmental pathway to anxiety disorders. However, there is a dearth of prospective studies examining this relationship. The purpose of this cohort study was to examine the association between peer victimization during adolescence and subsequent anxiety diagnoses in adulthood. A secondary aim was to investigate whether victimization increases risk for severe anxiety presentations involving diagnostic comorbidity. The sample comprised 6,208 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children who were interviewed about experiences of peer victimization at age 13. Maternal report of her child's victimization was also assessed. Anxiety disorders at age 18 were assessed with the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between victimization and anxiety diagnoses adjusted for potentially confounding individual and family factors. Sensitivity analyses explored whether the association was independent of diagnostic comorbidity with depression. Frequently victimized adolescents were two to three times more likely to develop an anxiety disorder than nonvictimized adolescents (OR = 2.49, 95% CI: 1.62-3.85). The association remained after adjustment for potentially confounding individual and family factors, and was not attributable to diagnostic overlap with depression. Frequently victimized adolescents were also more likely to develop multiple internalizing diagnoses in adulthood. Victimized adolescents are at increased risk of anxiety disorders in later life. Interventions to reduce peer victimization and provide support for victims may be an effective strategy for reducing the burden associated with these disorders. © 2014 The Authors. Depression and Anxiety published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The Io syndrome: symptom formation in victims of sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, S; Price, J L

    1990-01-01

    The sexual abuse of women today is analyzed alongside the mythology of Ovid's Metamorphoses. Two thousand years ago, Ovid unfolded a world view of human beliefs and practices that make up today's symptom formation and psychodynamic in victims of sexual abuse. Herewith the mythology of Io. Her rape and subsequent symptom formation is understood as a clinical account of rape-trauma syndrome and post-traumatic stress disorder.

  18. Relational aggression and victimization in gay male relationships: the role of internalized homophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Thomas M; Robertson, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    This article presents two studies that are the first to examine relational aggression and relational victimization in gay male peer relationships. A qualitative pilot study provides a strong rationale for a subsequent empirical investigation of 100 young adult, self-identified gay males. Results of both studies demonstrate that relational aggression and relational victimization are common experiences in gay male relationships. They also reveal forms of relational aggression and victimization that appear to be unique to gay males (e.g., outing). Results of the empirical study found significant relations between engaging in relational aggression against gay males and experiencing relational victimization and between experiencing relational victimization and internalized homophobia. However, there was no significant correlation between internalized homophobia and engaging in relational aggression. A multiple regression analysis found that experiencing relational victimization was correlated more strongly with the combination of engaging in relational aggression and internalized homophobia together than with relational aggression alone. Results are discussed within the framework of Allport's "traits due to victimization" theory and Meyer's theory of "minority stress." Implications for the prevention of relational aggression/victimization in gay male relationships are offered. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Functions of Aggression and Peer Victimization in Elementary School Children: the Mediating Role of Social Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manring, Sam; Christian Elledge, L; Swails, Lisette W; Vernberg, Eric M

    2017-07-28

    This study examined whether social preference was a mechanism that explained the relation between proactive and reactive aggression and peer victimization. Participants were 494 children in grades 2-5. Proactive and reactive aggression was assessed via a self-report measure and indices of social preference and peer victimization were assessed via a peer nomination inventory. Data was collected during the fall and spring of two academic years. The relations among aggression, social preference, and peer victimization varied as a function of aggression and gender. For girls, reactive aggression was a significant negative predictor of social preference. Findings also revealed social preference mediated the relation between reactive aggression and peer victimization for girls. This pathway did not hold for boys. There was some evidence that proactive aggression was negatively associated with peer victimization, but only for girls. Findings from the current study suggest social preference may be a key mechanism through which reactive aggression is associated with future victimization for girls. Boys' aggression was not related to subsequent peer victimization. Future research and intervention efforts should consider gender differences and the function of aggression when investigating children's peer victimization experiences.

  20. Gender and victimization by intimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, L E; Browne, A

    1985-06-01

    Recent data demonstrate that, although gender has an impact upon the experience of being a victim of an intimate's violence, there is no particular personality pattern that leads one to become a victim. Rather, women--who are socialized to adapt and submit, and who are likely to become victims of men's sexual violence or physical abuse--may not develop adequate self-protection skills as children, especially if they come from childhood homes in which females are victimized, leading to a later vulnerability to physical and sexual abuse. Men, however, socialized to express anger and aggression in an outward manner, learn to model the abuse witnessed or experienced in childhood and often learn that women are the "appropriate" recipients of this violence. Social learning theories of modeling and aggression are used to explain how such personality patterns develop, and the theory of learned helplessness is used to explain battered women's coping responses to their partners' abusive behavior. The extreme situation, in which a battered woman kills her partner in self-defense, is analyzed in order to understand women victims' sense of desperation and entrapment in severely abusive relationships and the extent to which their behaviors are in reaction to the abuse perpetrated by the mate.

  1. Female stalkers and their victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J Reid; Boyd, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    Demographic, clinical, and forensic data were gathered in an archival study of 82 female stalkers from the United States, Canada, and Australia. Female stalkers were predominantly single, heterosexual, educated individuals in their mid 30s who had pursued their victims for more than a year. Major mental disorder and personality disorder were suggested, especially borderline personality disorder. They usually threatened violence, and if they did threaten, were more likely to be violent. Frequency of interpersonal violence was 25 percent, but there was limited use of weapons, and injuries were minor. Stalking victims were most likely to be slightly older male acquaintances; but if the victim was a prior sexual intimate of the female stalker, her risk of being violent toward him exceeded 50 percent. Unlike male stalkers who often pursue their victims to restore intimacy, these female stalkers often pursued their victims to establish intimacy. Common emotions and motivations included anger, obsessional thoughts, rage at abandonment, loneliness, dependency, jealousy, and perceived betrayal. Results are interpreted from a clinical and risk management perspective.

  2. Bullying and Victimization Among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetgiri, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Bullying among children is a significant public health problem world-wide. Bullying is most commonly defined as repeated, intentional aggression, perpetrated by a more powerful individual or group against a less powerful victim. Trends in victimization and moderate to frequent bullying may be decreasing slightly in the United States, but over 20% of children continue to be involved in bullying. Direct bullying consists of physical and verbal aggression, whereas indirect bullying involves relational aggression. Cyber bullying is an emerging problem which may be more difficult to identify and intervene with than traditional bullying. Bullies, victims, and bully-victims are at risk for negative short and long-term consequences such as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and delinquency. Various individual, parental, and peer factors increase the risk for involvement in bullying. Anti-bullying interventions are predominantly school-based and demonstrate variable results. Healthcare providers can intervene in bullying by identifying potential bullies or victims, screening them for co-morbidities, providing counseling and resources, and advocating for bullying prevention. PMID:24007839

  3. The battered woman: is she a silent victim?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, K A

    1986-06-01

    Although hardly a recent phenomenon, the battered woman has still not been a clearly recognizable presence to primary caregivers. Unawareness of actual victims stems from an incomplete understanding of the reality of the "battered wife syndrome," lack of knowledge about the various forms of abuse and the silence of the victims themselves. The victim rarely reports abuse to the primary care provider without being asked. She does, however, present with common psychosomatic complaints, such as choking, gastrointestinal disorders or nervousness. Her injuries may range from bruises to fractures, and the explanation of these injuries is usually inappropriate. Characteristically, the victim of abuse has low self-esteem and anger that has been internalized. These lead to self-destructive behaviors such as alcohol or drug abuse. Many of the victim's behaviors are predictable and best understood in the contexts of learned helplessness, a cycle of violence or anticipatory fear. Recognizing that child abuse and spouse abuse often occur within the same family, the nurse practitioner can play a vital role in halting the cycle of family violence. Early recognition, knowledge of the forms of legal recourse in the community and intervention by the nurse practitioner will have an impact on the morbidity and mortality of this social problem.

  4. The Violent Victimization of Children, Adolescents, Adults, and the Elderly: Situational Characteristics and Victim Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsay, James D; Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Tillyer, Rob; Ward, Jeffrey T

    2017-04-01

    This study explores the nature and outcome of violent incidents experienced by child, adolescent, adult, and elderly victims. Data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) are used to determine whether there are differences in the situational characteristics-including location, time of day, weapons, and the victim-offender relationship-of violent victimization experiences across the 4 age groups, including whether situational characteristics influence the likelihood of victim injury. Results indicate that victim injury is most prevalent among adult victims and that the situational characteristics of violent incidents vary by victim age, as do the correlates of victim injury. These findings suggest that of the nature of violent victimization should be examined within the context of victim age, and supports research by scholars who have proposed a model of developmental victimology to identify age-specific victimization patterns.

  5. A Longitudinal Study of IPV Victimization Among Sexual Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Sarah W; Newcomb, Michael E; Messinger, Adam M; Byck, Gayle; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-05-03

    Although intimate partner violence (IPV) is highly prevalent among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth, little is known regarding its developmental patterns, risk factors, or health-related consequences. We examined IPV victimization in an ethnically diverse community-based convenience sample of 248 LGBT youth (aged 16-20 at study outset) who provided six waves of data across a 5-year period. Results from multilevel models indicated high, stable rates of IPV victimization across this developmental period (ages 16-25 years) that differed between demographic groups. Overall, 45.2% of LGBT youth were physically abused and 16.9% were sexually victimized by a dating partner during the study. Odds of physical victimization were 76% higher for female than for male LGBT youth, 2.46 times higher for transgender than for cisgender youth, and 2 to 4 times higher for racial-ethnic minorities than for White youth. The prevalence of physical IPV declined with age for White youth but remained stable for racial-ethnic minorities. Odds of sexual victimization were 3.42 times higher for transgender than for cisgender youth, 75% higher for bisexual or questioning than for gay or lesbian youth, and increased more with age for male than female participants. Within-person analyses indicated that odds of physical IPV were higher at times when youth reported more sexual partners, more marijuana use, and lower social support; odds of sexual IPV were higher at times when youth reported more sexual partners and more LGBT-related victimization. In prospective analyses, sexual IPV predicted increased psychological distress; both IPV types marginally predicted increased marijuana use. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Men as Victims: "Victim" Identities, Gay Identities, and Masculinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The impact and meanings of homophobic violence on gay men's identities are explored with a particular focus on their identities as men and as gay men. Homosexuality can pose a challenge to conventional masculinities, and for some gay men, being victimized on account of sexual orientation reawakens conflicts about their masculinity that they…

  7. Suffering in Silence: The Male Incest Victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasjleti, Maria

    1980-01-01

    The reasons why boys who are victims of incest remain silent are explored in terms of the special meaning of victimization to males. Males' inability to express helplessness and vulnerability is identified as a major contributing factor. (CM)

  8. Forgiveness: The Victim's Prerogative | Govier | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores and offers a qualified defence of the claim that the entitlement to forgive a wrongdoer belongs to the victim of the wrong. A summary account of forgiveness is given, followed by arguments in favor of the victim's prerogative to forgive. Primary, or direct victims are then distinguished from secondary and ...

  9. Prevention of victimization following sexual assaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria; Sidenius, Katrine

    2004-01-01

    Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen is a centre for interdisciplinary research and practice. Goals of the centre are to contribute to the documentation of victimization and to prevent further victimization. Research at the centre aims at the examination of the diversity of conditions...

  10. Sexual victimization, partner aggression and alcohol consumption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the relationship sexual victimization (both childhood sexual victimization and adult sexual victimization), aggression and alcohol consumption. The data for this research is from the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: an International Study (GENACIS). A random sample of 2070 adults (53.8% males and ...

  11. Victims and their defenders : A dyadic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sainio, Miia; Veenstra, René; Huitsing, Gijs; Salmivalli, Christina

    This study focused on the dyadic defending relationships of victimized children in grades 3, 4, and 5 (N = 7481 children from 356 school classes, mean ages 10-12 years). Most of the victims (72.3%) had at least one defender. Being defended was positively related to victims' adjustment and social

  12. Systemic Patterns in Bullying and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, John H. F.

    2006-01-01

    Using a new non-anonymous questionnaire and a nomination method by which victims were asked to name their aggressors, Chan (2002) collated the responses from individual victims to produce name-clusters that were studied for systemic patterns of bullying and victimization within the whole-school community. Three such patterns emerged: serial…

  13. Adaptive, maladaptive, mediational, and bidirectional processes of relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, and peer liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Crick, Nicki R

    2014-01-01

    A three-wave longitudinal study among ethnically diverse preadolescents (N = 597 at Time 1, ages 9-11) was conducted to examine adaptive, maladaptive, mediational, and bidirectional processes of relational and physical aggression, victimization, and peer liking indexed by peer acceptance and friendships. A series of nested structural equation models tested the hypothesized links among these peer-domain factors. It was hypothesized that (1) relational aggression trails both adaptive and maladaptive processes, linking to more peer victimization and more peer liking, whereas physical aggression is maladaptive, resulting in more peer victimization and less peer liking; (2) physical and relational victimization is maladaptive, relating to more aggression and less peer liking; (3) peer liking may be the social context that promotes relational aggression (not physical aggression), whereas peer liking may protect against peer victimization, regardless of its type; and (4) peer liking mediates the link between forms of aggression and forms of peer victimization. Results showed that higher levels of peer liking predicted relative increases in relational aggression (not physical aggression), which in turn led to more peer liking. On the other hand, more peer liking was predictive of relative decreases in relational aggression and relational victimization in transition to the next grade (i.e., fifth grade). In addition, relational victimization predicted relative increases in relational aggression and relative decreases in peer liking. Similarly, physical aggression was consistently and concurrently associated more physical victimization and was marginally predictive of relative increases in physical victimization in transition to the next grade. More peer liking predicted relative decreases in physical victimization, which resulted in lower levels of peer liking. The directionality and magnitude of these paths did not differ between boys and girls. © 2013 Wiley

  14. How Do Discrepancies between Victimization and Rejection Expectations in Gay and Bisexual Men Relate to Mental Health Problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A. Sattler

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Victimization and rejection expectations predict mental health problems in gay and bisexual men. Furthermore, it was shown that victimization predicts rejection expectations. Nevertheless, the levels of these two variables do not necessarily correspond as indicated by low inter-correlations, resulting in the question “How do discrepancies in the two variables relate to mental health problems?” This study tests if non-corresponding levels of victimization and rejection expectations in gay and bisexual men relate to mental health problems differently than corresponding levels of victimization and rejection expectations. It furthermore tests for linear and curvilinear relationships between victimization, rejection expectations, and mental health problems.Methods: Data from N = 1423 gay and bisexual men were obtained online. Victimization and rejection expectations were tested for discrepant values (differing 0.5 SD or more and those that were in agreement (differing less than 0.5: 33.7% of participants were in agreement, 33.0% reported higher rejection expectations than victimization, and 33.3% v.v. Then, a polynomial regression and a surface analysis were conducted.Results: Discrepant values in victimization and rejection expectations or the direction of the discrepancy did not relevantly predict mental health problems. Findings indicate that victimization and rejection expectations predict mental health problems linearly as well as convexly (upward curving in gay and bisexual men.Discussion: This study replicates findings that gay and bisexual men with more experiences of victimization and rejection expectations demonstrated more mental health problems. Furthermore, this study is the first one to find a convex relationship between these predictors and mental health problems, implicating that disproportionally high mental health problems exist in those gay and bisexual men with high levels of victimization and rejection

  15. Hidden Forms of Victimization in Elementary Students Involved in Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Melissa K.; Finkelhor, David; Kantor, Glenda Kaufman

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the possibility that bullies, victims of bullying, and bully-victims (i.e., youth who both perpetrate and are victims of bullying) are at increased risk for victimization in four other domains: conventional crime, child maltreatment, sexual victimization, and witnessing or indirect victimization. It also evaluated the extent to…

  16. Longitudinal pathways of sexual victimization, sexual self-esteem, and depression in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Berger, Anja

    2017-03-01

    This article presents a longitudinal analysis of the links between sexual assault victimization, depression, and sexual self-esteem by examining their cross-lagged paths among both men and women. Male and female college students (N = 2,425) in Germany participated in the study that comprised 3 data waves in their first, second, and third year of university, separated by 12-month intervals. Sexual assault victimization was assessed at Time 1 (T1) since the age of 14 and at Time 2 (T2) and Time 3 (T3) for the last 12 months. Depression and sexual self-esteem were measured at each wave. Random-intercept cross-lagged panel analyses, controlling for individual differences in depression and sexual self-esteem, showed that sexual assault at T1 predicted depression and lower sexual self-esteem at T2, and depression and lower self-esteem at T2 predicted sexual assault victimization at T3. In addition, significant paths were found from T1 depression to T2 sexual assault victimization and from T2 sexual assault victimization to depression at T3. Sexual victimization at T1 was indirectly linked to sexual victimization at T3 via depression at T2. Both depression and sexual self-esteem at T1 were indirectly linked to sexual victimization at T3. The paths did not differ significantly between men and women. Sexual assault victimization was shown to be a risk factor for both depression as a general mental health indicator and lowered sexual self-esteem as a specific outcome in the domain of sexuality. Moreover, depression and sexual self-esteem increased the vulnerability for sexual assault victimization, which has implications for prevention and intervention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The Longitudinal Effects of Peer Victimization on Physical Health From Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Alanna D; Leadbeater, Bonnie J

    2016-03-01

    Extensive research with children and adolescents documents the deleterious mental health outcomes associated with peer victimization, and recent research suggests that peer victimization is also associated with physical health problems in these age groups. The present study examines the concurrent and prospective links between physical and relational victimization and physical health problems (physical symptoms and physical self-concept) from adolescence to young adulthood (age 12-29 years). Data were collected from the Victoria Healthy Youth Survey, a six-wave multicohort study conducted biennially between 2003 and 2014 (N = 662). As expected, both relational and physical victimization were associated with greater physical symptoms and poorer physical self-concept concurrently and with physical self-concept over time. Relational victimization, which occurred more frequently, also predicted physical symptoms across young adulthood. Peer victimization puts adolescents at risk for immediate and long-term physical health difficulties. This study highlights the unique effects of physical and relational victimization and shows that victimized youth continue to experience poorer physical health for years after high school. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. "Why me?": Characterological self-blame and continued victimization in the first year of middle school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, Hannah L; White, Samantha J; Chang, Vickie Y; Juvonen, Jaana

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the role of characterological self-blame as a unique risk factor associated with other known risk factors (depression and its behavioral and social correlates) for continued victimization across the 1st year of middle school. Relying on a large, ethnically diverse sample of 1,698 young adolescents (M(age) = 11.57, SD = .39; 55% female), self-report assessments in the fall and spring included perceptions of victim status, depressive symptoms, friendships, aggression, and responses to a hypothetical victimization vignette assessing both appraisals (characterological self-blame) and behavioral reactions (helpless responding). In addition to depression, characterological self-blame emerged as the most consistent unique risk factor for subsequent victimization. Mediation analysis suggested that the continuity of victimization between fall and spring could be partially explained by increases in characterological self-blame and depressive symptoms. In addition, cross-lagged panel analyses indicated reciprocal relations between peer victimization and characterological self-blame, suggesting cyclical processes. The study findings suggest that attribution retraining in the beginning of middle school might help prevent escalating risk for continued peer victimization.

  19. Cyberbullying: who are the victims? A comparison of victimization in internet chatrooms and victimization in school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katzer, C.; Fetchenhauer, D.; Belschak, F.

    2009-01-01

    Bullying is not a phenomenon exclusive to the school environment. Pupils also become victims of verbal aggression (teasing, threats, insults, or harassment) in the context of internet chatrooms. The present study addresses the following questions: (1) How often does bullying occur in internet

  20. Peer Victimization and Social Dominance as Intervening Variables of the Link between Peer Liking and Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bartlett, Nancy H.; Bukowski, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined social dominance and peer victimization as possible intervening and moderating variables of the association between peer liking and relational aggression because previous findings suggest that social dominance and peer victimization are important for predicting the acceptableness and success of aggression. A total of 367…

  1. Risk Assessments by Female Victims of Intimate Partner Violence: Predictors of Risk Perceptions and Comparison to an Actuarial Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor-Smith, Jennifer K.; Henning, Kris; Moore, Stephanie; Holdford, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies support the validity of both structured risk assessment tools and victim perceptions as predictors of risk for repeat intimate partner violence (IPV). Combining structured risk assessments and victim risk assessments leads to better predictions of repeat violence than either alone, suggesting that the two forms of assessment provide…

  2. The role of sleep problems in the relationship between peer victimization and antisocial behavior: A five-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ling-Yin; Wu, Wen-Chi; Wu, Chi-Chen; Lin, Linen Nymphas; Yen, Lee-Lan; Chang, Hsing-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Peer victimization in children and adolescents is a serious public health concern. Growing evidence exists for negative consequences of peer victimization, but research has mostly been short term and little is known about the mechanisms that moderate and mediate the impacts of peer victimization on subsequent antisocial behavior. The current study intended to examine the longitudinal relationship between peer victimization in adolescence and antisocial behavior in young adulthood and to determine whether sleep problems influence this relationship. In total, 2006 adolescents participated in a prospective study from 2009 to 2013. The moderating role of sleep problems was examined by testing the significance of the interaction between peer victimization and sleep problems. The mediating role of sleep problems was tested by using bootstrapping mediational analyses. All analyses were conducted using SAS 9.3 software. We found that peer victimization during adolescence was positively and significantly associated with antisocial behavior in young adulthood (β = 0.10, p peer victimization first increased levels of sleep problems, which in turn elevated the risk of antisocial behavior (indirect effect: 0.01, 95% bootstrap confidence interval: 0.004, 0.021). These findings imply that sleep problems may operate as a potential mechanism through which peer victimization during adolescence leads to increases in antisocial behavior in young adulthood. Prevention and intervention programs that target sleep problems may yield benefits for decreasing antisocial behavior in adolescents who have been victimized by peers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Explaining Differential Reporting of Victimization between Parents and Children: A Consideration of Social Biases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufna Gheyara John

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that children and parents provide different reports of children’s victimization, with children often reporting more victimization. However, the reason for this differential reporting is unclear. This study explored two types of social biases (emotion recognition and perceived impairment in parents and children as possible reasons underlying differential reporting. Six- to 10-year-old children and one of their parents were tested in a lab. Testing included subjective measures of parent alexithymic traits, child perceived impairment from victimization, and child- and parent-reported frequency of children’s peer victimization and internalizing and externalizing difficulties. Parents and children also completed an objective measure of emotion recognition. Both types of social bias significantly predicted reports of children’s peer victimization frequency as well as internalizing and externalizing difficulties, as rated by parents and children. Moreover, child perceived impairment bias, rather than parent emotion bias, best predicted differential reporting of peer victimization. Finally, a significant interaction demonstrated that the influence of child perceived impairment bias on differential reporting was most salient in the presence of parent emotion bias. This underscores the importance of expanding interventions for victimized youth to include the restructuring of social biases.

  4. Attachment to Parents and Peers as a Parameter of Bullying and Victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Militsa Nikiforou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was threefold. First, we tried to investigate whether the quality of attachment with parents and peers predicts bullying and victimization. Second, we also attempted a moderation analysis in order to examine whether the relationship between quality of attachments and bullying is moderated by the child’s gender. Finally, we explored whether there are significant differences in the quality of attachment between children identified as bullies, victims, bully/victims, and uninvolved. The participants were 303 fifth and sixth grade children with a mean age of 11.06 years that completed the Revised Bullying and Victimization Questionnaire and the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment. The results showed that poor quality of attachment with parents and peers predicts bullying and victimization. Moderation analysis revealed that the link between quality of attachment and bullying and victimization is significantly stronger for girls. Also, as hypothesized, bullies and bully/victims manifest the worst quality of attachment with parents and peers. The results are discussed with the framework of attachment and aggression theory, exploring the pathways that explain the association between poor attachment and externalizing problems during late childhood.

  5. Stalking Victimization in LGBTQ Adults: A Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenderfer-Magruder, Lisa; Walls, N Eugene; Whitfield, Darren L; Kattari, Shanna K; Ramos, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Stalking is often considered to be a form of interpersonal violence; yet, despite an increase in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ)-specific research on other forms of interpersonal violence, such as intimate partner violence and sexual assault, there is a relative lack of literature on stalking victimization of LGBTQ individuals, particularly as it relates to gender identity. This is problematic given the results of numerous studies indicating LGBTQ individuals, and transgender individuals in particular, experience victimization in various forms and contexts at alarming rates. In the current study, we examined secondary data to determine the prevalence of lifetime stalking victimization and subsequent police reporting in a large community-based sample of LGBTQ individuals living in Colorado ( N = 1,116). In addition, using chi-square analyses, we examined independence of stalking experiences and police reporting by both gender identity ( transgender, cisgender male, cisgender female) and sexual orientation ( gay, lesbian, bisexual, heterosexual, queer, other). Approximately 15% of the total sample reported ever experiencing stalking; yet, only about one quarter of those who were stalked reported it to police. Although no statistically significant differences emerged by gender identity or sexual orientation, transgender, bisexual, and queer participants had the highest prevalence of lifetime stalking victimization. Moreover, these groups reported the lowest prevalence of reporting their victimization to the police. We provide suggestions to improve the development of research on this topic including a need for an inclusive definition of stalking and studies using larger, representative samples to better discern potential significant differences in stalking experiences of LGBTQ persons.

  6. A Collection of Brain Sections of "Euthanasia" Victims: The Series H of Julius Hallervorden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wässle, Heinz

    2017-12-01

    Julius Hallervorden, a distinguished German neuropathologist, admitted on several occasions that he had received some five hundred brains of "euthanasia" victims from the Nazi killing centres for the insane. He investigated the brains in the summer of 1942; however, their traces were subsequently lost. The present study shows, that the Series H, which was part of the Hallervorden collection of brain sections in the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research, comprises the brain sections of the above mentioned five hundred euthanasia victims. The provenance of 105 patients could be reconstructed and 84 are for sure euthanasia victims. Most of them were killed in Bernburg or in Sonnenstein-Pirna. Hallervorden used the brain sections of Series H until 1956 for his studies and never publicly regretted this abuse of the brains of euthanasia victims. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of exposure to violence and victimization across life domains on adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Emily M; Fagan, Abigail A; Pinchevsky, Gillian M

    2013-11-01

    This study uses longitudinal data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to examine the effects of exposure to school violence, community violence, child abuse, and parental intimate partner violence (IPV) on youths' subsequent alcohol and marijuana use. We also examine the cumulative effects of being exposed to violence across these domains. Longitudinal data were obtained from 1,655 adolescents and their primary caregivers participating in the PHDCN. The effects of adolescents' exposure to various forms of violence across different life domains were examined relative to adolescents' frequency of alcohol and marijuana use three years later. Multivariate statistical models were employed to control for a range of child, parent, and family risk factors. Exposure to violence in a one-year period increased the frequency of substance use three years later, though the specific relationships between victimization and use varied for alcohol and marijuana use. Community violence and child abuse, but not school violence or exposure to IPV, were predictive of future marijuana use. None of the independent measures of exposure to violence significantly predicted future alcohol use. Finally, the accumulation of exposure to violence across life domains was detrimental to both future alcohol and marijuana use. The findings support prior research indicating that exposure to multiple forms of violence, across multiple domains of life, negatively impacts adolescent outcomes, including substance use. The findings also suggest that the context in which exposure to violence occurs should be considered in future research, since the more domains in which youth are exposed to violence, the fewer "safe havens" they have available. Finally, a better understanding of the types of violence youth encounter and the contexts in which these experiences occur can help inform intervention efforts aimed at reducing victimization and its negative consequences. Copyright

  8. The Effects of Exposure to Violence and Victimization across Life Domains on Adolescent Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Emily M.; Fagan, Abigail A.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study uses longitudinal data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to examine the effects of exposure to school violence, community violence, child abuse, and parental intimate partner violence (IPV) on youths’ subsequent alcohol and marijuana use. We also examine the cumulative effects of being exposed to violence across these domains. Methods Longitudinal data were obtained from 1,655 adolescents and their primary caregivers participating in the PHDCN. The effects of adolescents’ exposure to various forms of violence across different life domains were examined relative to adolescents’ frequency of alcohol and marijuana use three years later. Multivariate statistical models were employed to control for a range of child, parent, and family risk factors. Results Exposure to violence in a one-year period increased the frequency of substance use three years later, though the specific relationships between victimization and use varied for alcohol and marijuana use. Community violence and child abuse, but not school violence or exposure to IPV, were predictive of future marijuana use. None of the independent measures of exposure to violence significantly predicted future alcohol use. Finally, the accumulation of exposure to violence across life domains was detrimental to both future alcohol and marijuana use. Conclusion The findings support prior research indicating that exposure to multiple forms of violence, across multiple domains of life, negatively impacts adolescent outcomes, including substance use. The findings also suggest that the context in which exposure to violence occurs should be considered in future research, since the more domains in which youth are exposed to violence, the fewer “safe havens” they have available. Finally, a better understanding of the types of violence youth encounter and the contexts in which these experiences occur can help inform intervention efforts aimed at reducing

  9. The dilemmas of victim positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2015-01-01

    Based on a conceptualization of bullying and relational aggression in groups as an effect of social dynamics rather than individual deficits – this article reflects upon some of the intricate mechanisms and dilemmas involved in victim positioning. Victims of bullying and relational aggression often....... The hopes of (eventual) social belonging may in that sense work paradoxically as a strong agent in the denial of oppression and marginalization. The article is theoretically informed by poststructuralist conceptualizations and grounded in cases of bullying and marginalization (one of them involving rape......). One case is taken from the empirical data produced by the author and a research project on bullying among children (eXbus: Exploring Bullying in School). Two other cases are borrowed from publications of respectively B. Davies from Australia and A. Evaldsson from Shweden. The article opens insights...

  10. Models of resistance: "victims" lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Theresa M

    2006-01-01

    This author has found through professional and personal experience that throughout the world, women directly affected by injustice have led demands for accountability. The purpose of this article is to challenge mainstream human rights groups to create a different type of partnership between themselves and the people for whom they advocate by seeking the involvement of "victims", including leaders of successful "victim-led" initiatives. This approach will result in more appropriate policy recommendations and will enhance both entities' capacity for outreach. Moreover, it will bring mainstream human rights organizations into greater compliance with their own stated values, as well as exemplifying the same respect, flexibility, and accommodation that these groups often recommend to governmental, political, and institutional entities.

  11. Imaging findings of avalanche victims

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Alexandra B.; Grosse, Claudia A.; Anderson, Suzanne [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Diagnostic, Pediatric and Interventional Radiology, Berne (Switzerland); Steinbach, Lynne S. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Zimmermann, Heinz [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Trauma and Emergency Medicine, Berne (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    Skiing and hiking outside the boundaries remains an attractive wilderness activity despite the danger of avalanches. Avalanches occur on a relatively frequent basis and may be devastating. Musculoskeletal radiologists should be acquainted with these injuries. Fourteen avalanche victims (11 men and 3 women; age range 17-59 years, mean age 37.4 years) were air transported to a high-grade trauma centre over a period of 2 years. Radiographs, CT and MR images were prospectively evaluated by two observers in consensus. Musculoskeletal findings (61%) were more frequent than extraskeletal findings (39%). Fractures were most commonly seen (36.6%), involving the spine (14.6%) more frequently than the extremities (9.8%). Blunt abdominal and thoracic trauma were the most frequent extraskeletal findings. A wide spectrum of injuries can be found in avalanche victims, ranging from extremity fractures to massive polytrauma. Asphyxia remains the main cause of death along with hypoxic brain injury and hypothermia. (orig.)

  12. Intrafamilial Child Sexual Abuse, Links to Subsequent Sexual Exploitation and Prevention/Treatment Programmes: a Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2008-01-01

    Evidence that the sexual abuse of children is universally widespread, and is most frequently perpetrated by family members, neighbours and others known to the child or adolescent is indisputable. Studies have consistently found that victims are vulnerable to subsequent sexual revictimization in adolescence and adulthood. They are also more likely than non-victims to engage in potentially harmful and damaging high-risk sexual behaviours, such as early age at first intercourse, multiple partn...

  13. The complexity of victim-questioning attitudes by rape victim advocates: exploring some gray areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Shana L

    2012-12-01

    Despite efforts to educate and create community awareness, rape myths and victim-blaming attitudes persist in society. This research explores whether advocates express victim-questioning attitudes or questions, negative judgment, or frustration regarding victims' behavior or choices. Data from interviews with 58 advocates reveal that the majority (76%) of advocates never expressed any victim-questioning attitudes during the interview. However, responses from 14 advocates (24%) show that victim-questioning has evolved into a much more complex, subtle form than historical victim blaming or acceptance of rape myths.

  14. The Association between Cyber Victimization and Subsequent Cyber Aggression: The Moderating Effect of Peer Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michelle F.; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents experience various forms of strain in their lives that may contribute jointly to their engagement in cyber aggression. However, little attention has been given to this idea. To address this gap in the literature, the present longitudinal study examined the moderating influence of peer rejection on the relationship between cyber…

  15. Predictors of Sexual Aggression Victimization and Perpetration Among Polish University Students: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Paulina; Krahé, Barbara

    2016-08-19

    This two-wave study investigated predictors of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration in a convenience sample of 318 Polish university students (214 women), considering males and females from the perspective of both victims and perpetrators. At T1, we assessed participants' risky sexual scripts (defined as cognitive representations of consensual sexual interactions containing elements related to sexual aggression), risky sexual behavior, pornography use, religiosity, sexual self-esteem, and attitudes toward sexual coercion. These variables were used to predict sexual aggression perpetration and victimization reports obtained 12 months later (T2) for two time windows: (a) since the age of 15 until a year ago and (b) in the past year. As expected, risky sexual scripts were linked to risky sexual behavior and indirectly increased the likelihood of victimization in both time windows. Lower sexual self-esteem predicted sexual victimization since age 15, but not in the past 12 months. Pornography use and religiosity indirectly predicted victimization via risky scripts and behavior. Attitudes toward sexual coercion were a prospective predictor of sexual aggression perpetration. The results extend the international literature on sexual aggression and have implications for sexual education and sexual aggression prevention programs.

  16. I see so I feel: Coping with workplace violence among victims and witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Biru; Marchand, Alain; Guay, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Workplace violence is a serious concern for workers' mental health and well-being in high risk work sectors. This study examined victims' and witnesses' experiences after exposure to workplace violence, and the types of help they used to cope with the violent event. Workers (n = 211) from five different work sectors participated in our study. Multiple mediation analysis was used to investigate the indirect effects through psychological and work consequences on victims' versus witnesses' differential likelihood of using formal, paraformal and informal helping. Results showed that workplace violence has detrimental effects on both victims and witnesses. Direct victims were more negatively affected psychologically and at work than witnesses. The indirect effect through psychological difficulty after experiencing workplace violence was significant in predicting formal helping. The indirect effect through reduced work functioning in predicting paraformal helping was also significant. No significant indirect effect was found in predicting informal helping. Both victims and witnesses used multiple types of helping to cope with the violent event. This study has practical implications on management and clinical practices for better organizations of resources in helping victims and witnesses to cope with workplace violence.

  17. Mean ages of homicide victims and victims of homicide-suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, F Stephen; Tankersley, William B

    2010-02-01

    Using Riedel and Zahn's 1994 reformatted version of an FBI database, the mean age of homicide victims in 2,175 homicide-suicides (4,350 deaths) was compared with that of all other victims of homicides reported for the USA from 1968 to 1975. The overall mean age of homicide victims in homicide-suicides was 1 yr. greater than for victims of homicides not followed by suicides, whereas the mean age for both male and female homicide-suicide victims was, respectively, 3 yr. less and greater than the other homicide victims. The mean age of Black homicide victims of homicide-suicides was 2.4 yr. less than that for Black victims of other homicides, whereas the means for Black and White male homicide victims in homicide-suicides were, respectively, about 4 and 5 yr. less than for victims of other homicides. Also, the mean age of White female homicide victims in homicide-suicides was more than two years greater than for female victims of homicides not followed by suicides. When both sex and race were considered, the mean age for those killed in homicide-suicides relative to those killed in homicides not followed by suicides may represent subpopulations with different mean ages of victims.

  18. Subsequence Automata with Default Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye

    2016-01-01

    of states and transitions) of the subsequence automaton is O(nσ) and that this bound is asymptotically optimal. In this paper, we consider subsequence automata with default transitions, that is, special transitions to be taken only if none of the regular transitions match the current character, and which do...... not consume the current character. We show that with default transitions, much smaller subsequence automata are possible, and provide a full trade-off between the size of the automaton and the delay, i.e., the maximum number of consecutive default transitions followed before consuming a character......(nσ) and delay O(1), thus matching the bound for the standard subsequence automaton construction. The key component of our result is a novel hierarchical automata construction of independent interest....

  19. Subsequence automata with default transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye

    2017-01-01

    of states and transitions) of the subsequence automaton is O(nσ) and that this bound is asymptotically optimal. In this paper, we consider subsequence automata with default transitions, that is, special transitions to be taken only if none of the regular transitions match the current character, and which do...... not consume the current character. We show that with default transitions, much smaller subsequence automata are possible, and provide a full trade-off between the size of the automaton and the delay, i.e., the maximum number of consecutive default transitions followed before consuming a character......(1), thus matching the bound for the standard subsequence automaton construction. Finally, we generalize the result to multiple strings. The key component of our result is a novel hierarchical automata construction of independent interest....

  20. Victim's Rights - Comparative Approach within EU Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pocora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Usually is talking about offender rights and rarely about victim's rights. This study aims to analyse victim's rights especially in Romanian legislation from all points of view. Having involuntary fallen victim to crime, the person is often unaware of what information is available. It is therefore important that the onus is not put on the victim to request a certain piece of information. Victims of crimes need to have their important role in the criminal proceedings and he or she has to know about the extension of them rights. Not least, the study is focus on the right of the victim to receive information, not to be made responsible for the practicalities surrounding its delivery.

  1. Risk Factors for Social Networking Site Scam Victimization Among Malaysian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Gráinne H; Fullwood, Chris; Rooney, Brendan

    2018-02-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) can provide cybercriminals with various opportunities, including gathering of user data and login credentials to enable fraud, and directing of users toward online locations that may install malware onto their devices. The techniques employed by such cybercriminals can include clickbait (text or video), advertisement of nonexistent but potentially desirable products, and hoax competitions/giveaways. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with falling victim to these malicious techniques. An online survey was completed by 295 Malaysian undergraduate students, finding that more than one-third had fallen victim to SNS scams. Logistic regression analysis identified several victimization risk factors including having higher scores in impulsivity (specifically cognitive complexity), using fewer devices for SNSs, and having been on an SNS for a longer duration. No reliable model was found for vulnerability to hoax valuable gift giveaways and "friend view application" advertising specifically, but vulnerability to video clickbait was predicted by lower extraversion scores, higher levels of openness to experience, using fewer devices, and being on an SNS for a longer duration. Other personality traits were not associated with either overall victimization susceptibility or increased risk of falling victim to the specific techniques. However, age approached significance within both the video clickbait and overall victimization models. These findings suggest that routine activity theory may be particularly beneficial in understanding and preventing SNSs scam victimization.

  2. Relationship violence victimization and binge drinking trajectories among a nationally representative sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Moreland, Angela M; Hanson, Rochelle F; Resnick, Heidi S; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2017-07-01

    The present study evaluated the impact of relationship violence (RV) victimization on the longitudinal trajectory of binge drinking (BD) among 3614 US adolescents (51.2% male) who participated in an initial telephone interview regarding physical and sexual RV victimization and binge drinking. Two follow-up phone interviews were completed over approximately three years. Multilevel modeling revealed small, but significant, increases in BD over time; older adolescents and those who had ever experienced RV victimization were more likely to report BD at Wave 1 compared to younger adolescents and non-victims. Although new RV victimization reported during the study predicted an increase in the likelihood of BD at that occasion, those who had ever experienced RV victimization were less likely to report BD over time compared to non-victims. Contrary to expectations, no sex differences emerged. Findings indicate that BD may precede RV. Interventions to reduce alcohol-related RV may be especially useful in this population. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Predicting the Effect of Counselling on the Psychological Adjustment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to predict the effect of counselling on the psychological adjustment of the victims of Boko Haram. A study of some selected victims in Suleja, Niger State and Jos in Plateau State, Nigeria. One hundred and twenty victims were purposely randomly selected. Three research questions and three ...

  4. Effects of perpetrator gender and victim sexuality on blame toward male victims of sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Pollard, Paul; Archer, John

    2006-06-01

    Most researchers who have investigated attributions of blame toward victims in sexual-assault depictions have considered only female victims of male perpetrators. Few researchers have investigated the effects of perpetrator gender or victim sexual orientation on blame attributions toward male victims. The present authors investigated those two variables. Participants were 161 undergraduates at a British university in social science courses, each of whom read one scenario of a set in which perpetrator gender and victim sexual orientation were varied between subjects, and who completed a questionnaire measuring their blame toward the victim and the perpetrator. The present results showed that male participants blamed the victim more if a person of the gender that he was normally attracted to assaulted him. Male participants also regarded the female perpetrator in more favorable terms than they did the male perpetrator regardless of the victim's sexual orientation. The authors discussed the present results in relation to gender role stereotypes.

  5. A shared genetic propensity underlies experiences of bullying victimization in late childhood and self-rated paranoid thinking in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, Sania; McGuire, Phillip; Cardno, Alastair G; Freeman, Daniel; Plomin, Robert; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-05-01

    Bullying is a risk factor for developing psychotic experiences (PEs). Whether bullying is associated with particular PEs, and the extent to which genes and environments influence the association, are unknown. This study investigated which specific PEs in adolescence are associated with earlier bullying victimization and the genetic and environmental contributions underlying their association. Participants were 4826 twin pairs from a longitudinal community-based twin study in England and Wales who reported on their bullying victimization at the age of 12 years. Measures of specific PEs (self-rated Paranoia, Hallucinations, Cognitive disorganization, Grandiosity, Anhedonia, and parent-rated Negative Symptoms) were recorded at age of 16 years. Childhood bullying victimization was most strongly associated with Paranoia in adolescence (r = .26; P bullying victimization and Paranoia were both heritable (35% and 52%, respectively) with unique environmental influences (39% and 48%, respectively), and bullying victimization showed common environmental influences (26%). The association between bullying victimization and Paranoia operated almost entirely via genetic influences (bivariate heritability = 93%), with considerable genetic overlap (genetic correlation = .55). In contrast to the assumed role of bullying victimization as an environmental trigger, these data suggest that bullying victimization in late childhood is particularly linked to self-rated Paranoia in adolescence via a shared genetic propensity. Clinically, individuals with a history of bullying victimization are predicted to be particularly susceptible to paranoid symptoms. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  6. A Shared Genetic Propensity Underlies Experiences of Bullying Victimization in Late Childhood and Self-Rated Paranoid Thinking in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, Sania; McGuire, Phillip; Cardno, Alastair G.; Freeman, Daniel; Plomin, Robert; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bullying is a risk factor for developing psychotic experiences (PEs). Whether bullying is associated with particular PEs, and the extent to which genes and environments influence the association, are unknown. This study investigated which specific PEs in adolescence are associated with earlier bullying victimization and the genetic and environmental contributions underlying their association. Method: Participants were 4826 twin pairs from a longitudinal community-based twin study in England and Wales who reported on their bullying victimization at the age of 12 years. Measures of specific PEs (self-rated Paranoia, Hallucinations, Cognitive disorganization, Grandiosity, Anhedonia, and parent-rated Negative Symptoms) were recorded at age of 16 years. Results: Childhood bullying victimization was most strongly associated with Paranoia in adolescence (r = .26; P bullying victimization and Paranoia were both heritable (35% and 52%, respectively) with unique environmental influences (39% and 48%, respectively), and bullying victimization showed common environmental influences (26%). The association between bullying victimization and Paranoia operated almost entirely via genetic influences (bivariate heritability = 93%), with considerable genetic overlap (genetic correlation = .55). Conclusion: In contrast to the assumed role of bullying victimization as an environmental trigger, these data suggest that bullying victimization in late childhood is particularly linked to self-rated Paranoia in adolescence via a shared genetic propensity. Clinically, individuals with a history of bullying victimization are predicted to be particularly susceptible to paranoid symptoms. PMID:25323579

  7. Victimization, polyvictimization , and health in Swedish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aho N

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nikolas Aho, Marie Proczkowska Björklund, Carl Göran Svedin Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden Abstract: The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16–20 years, standard deviation =0.652, of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV] proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization. Keywords: victimization, childhood trauma, psychological symptoms, JVQ, TSCC

  8. Peer and self-reported victimization: Do non-victimized students give victimization nominations to classmates who are self-reported victims?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Beau; Barrera, Davide; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits; van der Meulen, Matty; Vermande, Marjolijn; Aleva, Elisabeth; Sentse, Miranda; Veenstra, René

    2015-08-01

    Using data from 2413 Dutch first-year secondary school students (M age=13.27, SD age=0.51, 49.0% boys), this study investigated as to what extent students who according to their self-reports had not been victimized (referred to as reporters) gave victimization nominations to classmates who according to their self-reports had been victimized (referred to as receivers). Using a dyadic approach, characteristics of the reporter-receiver dyad (i.e., gender similarity) and of the reporter (i.e., reporters' behavior during bullying episodes) that were possibly associated with reporter-receiver agreement were investigated. Descriptive analyses suggested that numerous students who were self-reported victims were not perceived as victimized by their non-victimized classmates. Three-level logistic regression models (reporter-receiver dyads nested in reporters within classrooms) demonstrated greater reporter-receiver agreement in same-gender dyads, especially when the reporter and the receiver were boys. Furthermore, reporters who behaved as outsiders during bullying episodes (i.e., reporters who actively shied away from the bullying) were less likely to agree on the receiver's self-reported victimization, and in contrast, reporters who behaved as defenders (i.e., reporters who helped and supported victims) were more likely to agree on the victimization. Moreover, the results demonstrated that reporters gave fewer victimization nominations to receivers who reported they had been victimized sometimes than to receivers who reported they had been victimized often/very often. Finally, this study suggested that reporter-receiver agreement may not only depend on characteristics of the reporter-receiver dyad and of the reporter, but on classroom characteristics as well (e.g., the number of students in the classroom). Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Acting on Observed Social Exclusion: Developmental Perspectives on Punishment of Excluders and Compensation of Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Geert-Jan; Crone, Eveline A.; van den Bos, Wouter; Güroglu, Berna

    2013-01-01

    This study examined punishment of excluders and compensation of victims after observing an instance of social exclusion at various phases of adolescent development. Participants (n = 183; age 9 to 22 years) were first included in a virtual ball-tossing game, Cyberball, and then "observed" the exclusion of a peer. Subsequently, they…

  10. Complex Personhood as the Context for Intimate Partner Victimization: One American Indian Woman's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sharon; Lemire, Lynne; Wisman, Mindi

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative case study explores one American Indian (AI) woman's experience of intimate partner violence and the subsequent murder of her abusive partner. The lens of complex personhood (Gordon, 1997) has been applied as a method for understanding "Annie's" multiple identities of AI woman, victim of intimate partner violence, mother, and…

  11. Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…

  12. Moral Reasoning and Emotion Attributions of Adolescent Bullies, Victims, and Bully-Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perren, Sonja; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline; Malti, Tina; Hymel, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated different facets of moral development in bullies, victims, and bully-victims among Swiss adolescents. Extending previous research, we focused on both bullying and victimization in relation to adolescents' morally disengaged and morally responsible reasoning as well as moral emotion attributions. A total of 516 adolescents…

  13. Adolescent Peer Victimization and Physical Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herge, Whitney M; La Greca, Annette M; Chan, Sherilynn F

    2016-01-01

    Peer victimization (PV) is a key interpersonal stressor that can be traumatizing for youth. This study evaluated the relationships between overt, relational, reputational, and cyber PV and adolescents' somatic complaints and sleep problems. Symptoms of depression and social anxiety were examined as potential mediators. Adolescents (N = 1,162; M age = 15.80 years; 57% female; 80% Hispanic) were assessed at three time points, 6 weeks apart, using standardized measures of PV, depression, social anxiety, sleep problems, and somatic complaints. Structural equation modeling evaluated key study aims. Relational, reputational, and cyber PV, but not overt PV, were directly or indirectly associated with subsequent somatic complaints and/or sleep problems. Depression and social anxiety mediated relationships between relational PV and health outcomes, whereas reputational PV was indirectly associated with somatic complaints via depression only. The stress of PV may contribute to adolescents' sleep problems and somatic complaints and has implications for pediatric psychologists. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Peer Victimization in Childhood and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  15. Victimization, Urbanicity, and the Relevance of Context: School Routines, Race and Ethnicity, and Adolescent Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony A. Peguero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The United States is undergoing a historical racial and ethnic demographic shift. There is limited criminological research exploring if and how these changes influence variation in the relationship between routine activity theory and adolescent violence. Although the link between routine activities and victimization has been tested and well established, criminologists have questioned if routine activities can explain adolescent violence across different social contexts. Prior research demonstrates that there are potential nuances in the theoretical connections between routine activities and victimization, particularly when considering race and ethnicity. This study builds on previous research by questioning if the elements of routine activities predict victimization across predominately urban, rural, and suburban schools. The implications of the relevance of school context in the relationships between routine activities and adolescent victimization will also be discussed more generally.

  16. Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, Didier

    2010-01-01

    This chapter first presents a rather personal view of some different aspects of predictability, going in crescendo from simple linear systems to high-dimensional nonlinear systems with stochastic forcing, which exhibit emergent properties such as phase transitions and regime shifts. Then, a detailed correspondence between the phenomenology of earthquakes, financial crashes and epileptic seizures is offered. The presented statistical evidence provides the substance of a general phase diagram for understanding the many facets of the spatio-temporal organization of these systems. A key insight is to organize the evidence and mechanisms in terms of two summarizing measures: (i) amplitude of disorder or heterogeneity in the system and (ii) level of coupling or interaction strength among the system's components. On the basis of the recently identified remarkable correspondence between earthquakes and seizures, we present detailed information on a class of stochastic point processes that has been found to be particu...

  17. Initial medical management of criticality accident victim; Conduite a tenir aux victimes d'un accident de criticite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miele, A.; Bebaron-Jacobs, L

    2005-07-01

    The extremely severe criticality accidents known to this day, and the subsequent deaths recorded (Sarov 1997 and Tokai Mura 1999), demonstrate the need for sustained surveillance and constant adapted training for the teams in charge of irradiated and/or contaminated victims. The aim of this work group, composed of occupational health services and associated medical biology laboratories, is to present, in leaflet format, the essential data on the documentation and the conduct to be held when facing the victims of a criticality accident. The studies of this work group confirm the difficulties involved in managing this type of accident, both from the dosimetric evaluation point of view and from the therapeutic management point of view. That is why several research themes and perspectives are developed. During the different phases of victim triage, the recommendations given on these leaflets describe the operational conducts to be held. This work will have to be updated according to the evolution in knowledge and means: short and long term effects of exposure to neutrons, multi-competence hospital cooperation, expertise networks related to dosimetric reconstitution. (authors)

  18. Reporting Crime Victimizations to the Police and the Incidence of Future Victimizations: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranapurwala, Shabbar I; Berg, Mark T; Casteel, Carri

    2016-01-01

    Law enforcement depends on cooperation from the public and crime victims to protect citizens and maintain public safety; however, many crimes are not reported to police because of fear of repercussions or because the crime is considered trivial. It is unclear how police reporting affects the incidence of future victimization. To evaluate the association between reporting victimization to police and incident future victimization. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using National Crime Victimization Survey 2008-2012 data. Participants were 12+ years old household members who may or may not be victimized, were followed biannually for 3 years, and who completed at least one follow-up survey after their first reported victimization between 2008 and 2012. Crude and adjusted generalized linear mixed regression for survey data with Poisson link were used to compare rates of future victimization. Out of 18,657 eligible participants, 41% participants reported to their initial victimization to police and had a future victimization rate of 42.8/100 person-years (PY) (95% CI: 40.7, 44.8). The future victimization rate of those who did not report to the police (59%) was 55.0/100 PY (95% CI: 53.0, 57.0). The adjusted rate ratio comparing police reporting to not reporting was 0.78 (95%CI: 0.72, 0.84) for all future victimizations, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.90) for interpersonal violence, 0.73 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.78) for thefts, and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.07) for burglaries. Reporting victimization to police is associated with fewer future victimization, underscoring the importance of police reporting in crime prevention. This association may be attributed to police action and victim services provisions resulting from reporting.

  19. Is the spatial distribution of brain lesions associated with closed-head injury predictive of subsequent development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Analysis with brain-image database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovits, E. H.; Megalooikonomou, V.; Davatzikos, C.; Chen, A.; Bryan, R. N.; Gerring, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether there is an association between the spatial distribution of lesions detected at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain in children after closed-head injury and the development of secondary attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data obtained from 76 children without prior history of ADHD were analyzed. MR images were obtained 3 months after closed-head injury. After manual delineation of lesions, images were registered to the Talairach coordinate system. For each subject, registered images and secondary ADHD status were integrated into a brain-image database, which contains depiction (visualization) and statistical analysis software. Using this database, we assessed visually the spatial distributions of lesions and performed statistical analysis of image and clinical variables. RESULTS: Of the 76 children, 15 developed secondary ADHD. Depiction of the data suggested that children who developed secondary ADHD had more lesions in the right putamen than children who did not develop secondary ADHD; this impression was confirmed statistically. After Bonferroni correction, we could not demonstrate significant differences between secondary ADHD status and lesion burdens for the right caudate nucleus or the right globus pallidus. CONCLUSION: Closed-head injury-induced lesions in the right putamen in children are associated with subsequent development of secondary ADHD. Depiction software is useful in guiding statistical analysis of image data.

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Sibling Victimization Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne M.; Turner, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to document the prevalence and correlates of any past year sibling victimization, including physical, property, and psychological victimization, by a co-residing juvenile sibling across the spectrum of childhood from one month to 17 years of age. Methods: The National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence…

  1. A Transactional Model of Bullying and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Stelios N.; Fanti, Kostas A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and test a transactional model, based on longitudinal data, capable to describe the existing interrelation between maternal behavior and child bullying and victimization experiences over time. The results confirmed the existence of such a model for bullying, but not for victimization in terms of…

  2. Disasters, Victimization, and Children's Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Blease, Kathryn A.; Turner, Heather A.; Finkelhor, David

    2010-01-01

    In a representative sample of 2,030 U.S. children aged 2-17, 13.9% report lifetime exposure to disaster, and 4.1% report experiencing a disaster in the past year. Disaster exposure was associated with some forms of victimization and adversity. Victimization was associated with depression among 2- to 9-year-old disaster survivors, and with…

  3. Rape victim assessment: Findings by psychiatrists and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    valid at the lower end of the IQ range. The assessment of rape victims is a sensitive matter and poses a number of challenges to the clinician. Rape victims are often traumatised by their experience, and this can make them reluctant to talk about the incident. In a study done by Elklit et al.,[2] it was found that ~70% of sexual ...

  4. Incest Victims: Inadequate Help by Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenken, Jos; Van Stolk, Bram

    1990-01-01

    Interviews with 130 Dutch professionals helping incest victims and 50 adult women who were incest victims as children found that assistance was hampered by institutional distrust, inability of professionals to stop ongoing incest, frequent breaking off of contact by the young girls, professionals' shortcomings in knowledge and skills, and…

  5. Associations between Peer Victimization and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Hong, Jun Sung; Rao, Mrinalini A.; Low, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the extant literature on the links between peer victimization and academic performance and engagement among children and adolescents. Although most of the research on this association is based on cross-sectional investigations, research using longitudinal designs is starting to point to the fact that peer victimization does…

  6. [The victim within the framework of criminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaro, P

    1978-01-01

    The Author makes a 'tour d'horizon', albeit summarized, of the problems brought about by the victim "from crime" in the exclusive picture of criminology. After defining the dogmatic relations between criminology and victimology, stating that such a (new) discipline highlights the entirety of the criminal event centering upon the dyad criminal-victim, the latest classifications of the victim viewed individually and also in his manifold relationships with the acting subject, are reviewed, in the attempt of identifying, on the basis of the various situations of victimization as they occur, if not some causal laws proper, at least some constants and some emerging lines susceptible of an in-depth analysis. After hinting to the problems brought about by the victim in the supranational prospect, and by the crimes so-called without a victim, the importance of the victim from the criminalistics and criminal execution angle, is outlined, and the Author closes up, by way of conclusion, and at the operational level, broadly hinting to the most suitable methods for the prevention and repairing in regard of the victims of crime.

  7. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  8. Relational Aggression and Victimization in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy

    2013-01-01

    For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…

  9. Sleep Loss and Partner Violence Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert; Shannon, Lisa; Logan, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    Intimate partner violence victimization has been associated with serious health problems among women, including many disorders that involve sleep disturbances. However, there has been only limited examination of sleep duration among women with victimization experiences. A total of 756 women with a domestic violence order (DVO) against a male…

  10. 78 FR 52877 - VOCA Victim Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... child abuse. In addition, the definition clarifies that child pornography related offenses are a form of... used terms, including ``crime victim'', ``State administering agency'', ``victim of child abuse'', and... Guidelines. OVC proposes a new definition of the undefined statutory term ``child abuse'' that is intended to...

  11. Emergency Care of the Snakebite Victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Carol N.

    1994-01-01

    Describes emergency care of snakebite victims, including noting signs and symptoms of venomous snakebites, keeping the victim calm, and seeking immediate medical attention. Provides information on variables that affect the amount of injected venom and how to distinguish nonpoisonous from poisonous snakes. (LP)

  12. Peer and self-reported victimization : Do non-victimized students give victimization nominations to classmates who are self-reported victims?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Beau; Barrera, Davide; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits; van der Meulen, Matty; Vermande, Marjolijn; Aleva, Elisabeth; Sentse, Miranda; Veenstra, Rene

    Using data from 2413 Dutch first-year secondary school students (M age = 13.27, SD age = 0.51, 49.0% boys), this study investigated as to what extent students who according to their self-reports had not been victimized (referred to as reporters) gave victimization nominations to classmates who

  13. Peer and self-reported victimization : Do non-victimized students give victimization nominations to classmates who are self-reported victims?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Beau; Barrera, Davide; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits; van der Meulen, Matty; Vermande, Marjolijn; Aleva, Liesbeth; Sentse, Miranda; Veenstra, René

    2015-01-01

    Using data from 2413 Dutch first-year secondary school students (M age. = 13.27, SD age. = 0.51, 49.0% boys), this study investigated as to what extent students who according to their self-reports had not been victimized (referred to as reporters) gave victimization nominations to classmates who

  14. Self-Stigma and Its Relationship with Victimization, Psychotic Symptoms and Self-Esteem among People with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M A Horsselenberg

    Full Text Available Self-stigma is highly prevalent in schizophrenia and can be seen as an important factor leading to low self-esteem. It is however unclear how psychological factors and actual adverse events contribute to self-stigma. This study empirically examines how symptom severity and the experience of being victimized affect both self-stigma and self-esteem.Persons with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (N = 102 were assessed with a battery of self-rating questionnaires and interviews. Structural equation modelling (SEM was subsequently applied to test the fit of three models: a model with symptoms and victimization as direct predictors of self-stigma and negative self-esteem, a model with an indirect effect for symptoms mediated by victimization and a third model with a direct effect for negative symptoms and an indirect effect for positive symptoms mediated by victimization.Results showed good model fit for the direct effects of both symptoms and victimization: both lead to an increase of self-stigma and subsequent negative self-esteem. Negative symptoms had a direct association with self-stigma, while the relationship between positive symptoms and self-stigma was mediated by victimization.Our findings suggest that symptoms and victimization may contribute to self-stigma, leading to negative self-esteem in individuals with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Especially for patients with positive symptoms victimization seems to be an important factor in developing self-stigma. Given the burden of self-stigma on patients and the constraining effects on societal participation and service use, interventions targeting victimization as well as self-stigma are needed.

  15. Self-Stigma and Its Relationship with Victimization, Psychotic Symptoms and Self-Esteem among People with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsselenberg, Ellen M A; van Busschbach, Jooske T; Aleman, Andre; Pijnenborg, Gerdine H M

    2016-01-01

    Self-stigma is highly prevalent in schizophrenia and can be seen as an important factor leading to low self-esteem. It is however unclear how psychological factors and actual adverse events contribute to self-stigma. This study empirically examines how symptom severity and the experience of being victimized affect both self-stigma and self-esteem. Persons with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (N = 102) were assessed with a battery of self-rating questionnaires and interviews. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was subsequently applied to test the fit of three models: a model with symptoms and victimization as direct predictors of self-stigma and negative self-esteem, a model with an indirect effect for symptoms mediated by victimization and a third model with a direct effect for negative symptoms and an indirect effect for positive symptoms mediated by victimization. Results showed good model fit for the direct effects of both symptoms and victimization: both lead to an increase of self-stigma and subsequent negative self-esteem. Negative symptoms had a direct association with self-stigma, while the relationship between positive symptoms and self-stigma was mediated by victimization. Our findings suggest that symptoms and victimization may contribute to self-stigma, leading to negative self-esteem in individuals with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Especially for patients with positive symptoms victimization seems to be an important factor in developing self-stigma. Given the burden of self-stigma on patients and the constraining effects on societal participation and service use, interventions targeting victimization as well as self-stigma are needed.

  16. Revealing Victimization: The Impact of Methodological Features in the National Crime Victimization Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jennifer Gatewood

    2017-08-01

    This study examines the impact of methodological features of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) on respondent willingness to report violent, serious violent, and property victimizations to the NCVS. Bounded and unbounded data from the 1999-2005 NCVS are used to create a longitudinal file of respondents, and survey-weighted logistic regression models are used to assess the factors associated with the reporting of victimization. Net of sociodemographic control variables, unbounded interviews produced higher estimates of serious violence (72%), violence (66%), and property victimization (67%). Mobile respondents reported higher estimates than nonmobile respondents of serious violence (48%), violence (35%), and property victimization (15%). Compared with in-person interviews, interviewing by telephone increased reporting for serious violence (7%), violence (12%), and property victimization (17%). This study highlights the importance of controlling for these factors in both longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses to estimate victimization risk.

  17. Sexual minority youth victimization and social support: the intersection of sexuality, gender, race, and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Deeanna M; O'Connell, Daniel J; Gealt, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    In comparison to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth are more likely to experience victimization. Multiple studies have connected anti-gay prejudice and anti-gay victimization to negative outcomes. Research shows that social support may protect sexual minorities from the harmful effects of anti-gay victimization. However, rates of victimization and the negative outcomes linked to sexual identity within the sexual minority community have been relatively unexplored. Using data from three years of statewide data from heterosexual and sexual minority adolescents in grades 9-12, this study examines victimization, substance use, suicidality, and access to social support by sexuality. Results indicate that sexual minority youth are at increased risk for victimization, substance use, suicidality, and social isolation compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Results also indicate that there is very little bivariate difference within the sexual minority community. Multivariate results indicate differences among sexual minorities' experiences with victimization and substance use.

  18. Stalking Victimization, Labeling, and Reporting: Findings From the NCVS Stalking Victimization Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Kim S; Cox, Amanda K

    2016-05-01

    Using the National Crime Victimization Survey 2006 Stalking Victimization Supplement (NCVS-SVS) and guided by Greenberg and Ruback's social influence model, this study examines the effects of individual (e.g., severity, sex, victim-offender relationship) and contextual (e.g., location) factors on stalking victimization risk, victim labeling and help seeking, and victim and third-party police contacts. Logistic regression results suggest individual and contextual characteristics matter. Consistent with prior research and the theoretical model, the positive effects of severity and sex (female) were significant across all dependent variables, whereas the interaction effect of victim-offender relationship and location held only for third-party police contacts. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Assessing the Risk Factors of Cyber and Mobile Phone Bullying Victimization in a Nationally Representative Sample of Singapore Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Thomas J; Fitzgerald, Sarah; Bossler, Adam M; Chee, Grace; Ng, Esther

    2016-04-01

    This study utilized routine activity theory to examine the relationships between online behaviors, target suitability, and cyber and mobile phone-based bullying victimization in a nationally representative sample of youth from nine schools across Singapore. Key measures in all three categories-access to technology, online routine behaviors, and target suitability-were significant predictors of both forms of bullying victimization. In particular, females and victims of physical bullying were more likely to experience both forms of victimization. Access to technology and online routine behaviors predicted cyber and mobile phone-based bullying victimization differently. These findings demonstrate that routine activity theory is a viable framework to understand online bullying in non-Western nations, consistent with the existing literature on Western nations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. The Sexual Stratification Hypothesis: Is the Decision to Arrest Influenced by the Victim/Suspect Racial/Ethnic Dyad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Eryn Nicole; Beckman, Laura O; Spohn, Cassia

    2016-05-24

    The sexual stratification hypothesis suggests that criminal justice responses to sexual victimization will differ depending on the victim/suspect racial/ethnic dyad. Previous research examining the sexual stratification hypothesis has primarily focused on court processes, and the small body of literature examining arrest decisions is dated. There remains substantial opportunity for testing the sexual stratification hypothesis at response stages apart from the court level (i.e., arrest). Using quantitative data on 655 sexual assault complaints that were reported to the Los Angeles County Sherriff's Department (LASD) and the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) in 2008, this study examines the effect of the victim/suspect racial/ethnic dyad on the decision to arrest. Findings suggest that police consider the victim/suspect racial/ethnic dyad when making arrest decisions. In addition, victim characteristics, strength of evidence indicators, and measures of case factors predict the police decision to make an arrest. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. The unique and interactive contributions of peer victimization and teacher-child relationships to children's school adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Kuntz, Kayla J

    2013-11-01

    The present study tested whether a close relationship with the teacher would reduce, or a conflictual relationship would amplify, links between peer victimization and school maladjustment. Data on 352 3rd- and 4th-grade children (166 boys; 186 girls) were collected over a two-year period. Teachers provided data on their relationships with students and students' academic performance. Children completed measures assessing peer victimization and school liking. Latent growth curve analyses revealed that at high levels of peer victimization declines in school liking were reduced when student shared a close, low conflict, relationship with their teacher. Furthermore, a combination of peer victimization and poor teacher-child relationship quality predicted trajectories of sustained, low academic performance. These findings highlight the benefits of a close relationship with the teacher for victimized children and the cumulative impact stress within peer- and teacher-relationships can have on students.

  2. Alcohol and Other Drug Use in Middle School: The Interplay of Gender, Peer Victimization, and Supportive Social Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormington, Stephanie V; Anderson, Kristen G; Tomlinson, Kristin L; Brown, Sandra A

    2013-06-01

    The current study examined the impact of supportive social relationships (i.e., teacher support, adult support, school relatedness) and peer victimization on middle school students' substance use. Over 3,000 middle school students reported on alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use, supportive social relationships, and instances in which they were the victim of aggressive behavior. Mixed-effects logit regression analyses revealed complementary patterns of results across types of substances. Students who perceived high levels of social support were less likely to report alcohol and drug use initiation, particularly at low levels of peer victimization. Gender moderated the negative effect of peer victimization, with highly victimized boys most likely to report alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Results indicated a complex interplay of social influences and moderating variables in predicting early onset alcohol and other drug use, one that researchers should consider when studying adolescents' decisions to use alcohol and other drugs.

  3. Examining Explanations for the Link Between Bullying Perpetration and Physical Dating Violence Perpetration: Do They Vary by Bullying Victimization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A.; Benefield, Thad S.; Reyes, Heath Luz McNaughton; Eastman, Meridith; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M.; Basile, Kathleen C.; Ennett, Susan T.; Faris, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined whether the association between bullying perpetration and later physical dating violence perpetration and mediators of that association (via anger, depression, anxiety, and social status), varied depending on level of bullying victimization. Differences have been noted between those who bully but are not victims of bullying, and those who are both bullies and victims. These differences may influence dating violence risk and the explanations for why bullying leads to dating violence. Data were from dating adolescents in three rural counties who completed self-administered questionnaires in the fall semester of grades 8–10 and again in the spring semester. The sample (N =2,414) was 44.08% male and 61.31% white. Bullying perpetration in the fall semester predicted physical dating violence perpetration in the spring semester when there was no bullying victimization, but not when there was any bullying victimization. Bullying perpetration was positively associated with anger at all levels of bullying victimization and with social status when there was no or low amounts of victimization; it was negatively associated with social status at high levels of victimization. Bullying victimization was positively associated with anger, depression, and anxiety at all levels of bullying perpetration. Anger mediated the association between bullying perpetration and dating violence, regardless of level of victimization; depression, anxiety, and social status did not mediate the association at any level of bullying victimization. The findings have implications for dating violence prevention efforts and for future research on the link between bullying and dating violence. PMID:26299840

  4. Examining explanations for the link between bullying perpetration and physical dating violence perpetration: Do they vary by bullying victimization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad S; McNaughton Reyes, Heath Luz; Eastman, Meridith; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Basile, Kathleen C; Ennett, Susan T; Faris, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined whether the association between bullying perpetration and later physical dating violence perpetration and mediators of that association (via anger, depression, anxiety, and social status), varied depending on level of bullying victimization. Differences have been noted between those who bully but are not victims of bullying, and those who are both bullies and victims. These differences may influence dating violence risk and the explanations for why bullying leads to dating violence. Data were from dating adolescents in three rural counties who completed self-administered questionnaires in the fall semester of grades 8-10 and again in the spring semester. The sample (N = 2,414) was 44.08% male and 61.31% white. Bullying perpetration in the fall semester predicted physical dating violence perpetration in the spring semester when there was no bullying victimization, but not when there was any bullying victimization. Bullying perpetration was positively associated with anger at all levels of bullying victimization and with social status when there was no or low amounts of victimization; it was negatively associated with social status at high levels of victimization. Bullying victimization was positively associated with anger, depression, and anxiety at all levels of bullying perpetration. Anger mediated the association between bullying perpetration and dating violence, regardless of level of victimization; depression, anxiety, and social status did not mediate the association at any level of bullying victimization. The findings have implications for dating violence prevention efforts and for future research on the link between bullying and dating violence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Vocalizations during post-conflict affiliations from victims toward aggressors based on uncertainty in Japanese macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Katsu

    Full Text Available We investigated the use of vocalizations called "grunts," "girneys," and "coos" accompanied by post-conflict affiliative interaction between former opponents (reconciliation in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata. Although reconciliation functions to repair bonds, such interactions sometimes entail risks of receiving further aggression. Vocalizations can be used at a distance from the former opponent; thus, we predict that vocalizations are used particularly by victims of a conflict, and are frequently used in situations of uncertainty when it is difficult for them to estimate whether the former opponent will resume aggression. In addition, we predict that vocalizations are effective in preventing further aggression. To test these hypotheses, we conducted observations of post-conflict and matched-control situations in female Japanese macaques living in a free-ranging group. We found that former opponents tended to be attracted to each other within the first minute following a conflict, thus demonstrating reconciliation behavior. Vocalizations were more frequently used by the victims in post-conflict interactions than under control situations; however, this tendency was not found in aggressors. When affiliation with the former opponent occurred, victims were more likely to use vocalizations towards less familiar opponents. These findings suggest that Japanese macaques used vocalizations more often when interacting with less predictable former opponents. Victims were more likely to receive aggression from former aggressors when engaged in affiliations with them than under no such affiliations. No significant differences were found in the probability of the victims receiving aggression, regardless of whether they used vocalizations; thus, whether the victim benefits from using vocalizations in these contexts remains unclear. Japanese macaques form despotic societies and therefore, further aggression was inevitable, to some degree, after a conflict

  6. To Not Only Being Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Fantauzzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hannah Arendt is against the idea that Jews were only the victims of history. Starting from the idea that the Age of Enlightenment and the Jewish emancipation put the Jewish tradition and history in crisis, she is adamant that this same history is not only full of suffering, but includes  a hidden tradition of activism that is important to uncover and to claim. The aim of these pages is to analyse the Arendtian thinking of the 30s and 40s in order to show some elements that can help us to understand what the loss of humanity means today and to indicate the possibilities of claiming and recovering it.

  7. RELIGION AND DISASTER VICTIM IDENTIFICATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Jay; Domb, Abraham J

    2014-12-01

    Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) is a triangle, the components of which are secular law, religious law and custom and professional methods. In cases of single non-criminal deaths, identification often rests with a hospital or a medical authority. When dealing with criminal or mass death incidents, the law, in many jurisdictions, assigns identification to the coroner/medical examiner, who typically uses professional methods and only answers the religious requirements of the deceased's next-of-kin according to his personal judgment. This article discusses religious considerations regarding scientific methods and their limitations, as well as the ethical issues involved in the government coroner/medical examiner's becoming involved in clarifying and answering the next-of-kin's religious requirements.

  8. Examining the roles of victim-perpetrator relationship and emotional closeness in judgments toward a depicted child sexual abuse case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Patel, Fehmida; Rogers, Paul

    2013-03-01

    The current study investigated the impact that respondent gender, victim-perpetrator relationship, and the level of emotional closeness had on attributions in a hypothetical child sexual abuse case. A total of 160 university students read a hypothetical scenario depicting a female child sexually abused by an adult male. The perpetrator was either the victim's biological father or her stepfather, with this relationship described as being either emotionally close or emotionally distant. Respondents read one of four (2 victim-perpetrator relationship × 2 emotional closeness) scenarios before completing 26 attribution items pertaining to credibility, blame, and severity. Principle components analysis yielded five factors, namely victim credibility, mother culpability, perpetrator culpability, assault severity, and victim culpability. Multivariate analysis of covariance--controlling for respondent (Caucasian vs. non-Caucasian) ethnicity--revealed, as predicted, significant main effects for respondent gender, victim-perpetrator relationship, and emotional closeness. In general, females assigned more provictim/ antiperpetrator/antimother attributions than males. Results were also suggested that both victim-perpetrator relationship and emotional closeness influence attributions made toward the victim, perpetrator, and nonoffending mother. Methodological issues and suggestions for future work are also discussed.

  9. Transitions in sleep problems from late adolescence to young adulthood: A longitudinal analysis of the effects of peer victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ling-Yin; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Lin, Linen Nymphas; Wu, Chi-Chen; Yen, Lee-Lan

    2018-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period with high vulnerability to sleep problems. However, research identifying distinct patterns and underlying determinants of sleep problems is scarce. This study investigated discrete subgroups of, changes in, and stability of sleep problems. We also examined whether peer victimization influenced sleep problem subgroups and transitions in patterns of sleep problems from late adolescence to young adulthood. Sex differences in the effects of peer victimization were also explored. In total, 1,455 male and 1,399 female adolescents from northern Taiwan participated in this longitudinal study. Latent transition analysis was used to examine changes in patterns of sleep problems and the effects of peer victimization on these changes. We identified three subgroups of sleep problems in males and two in females, and found that there was a certain level of instability in patterns of sleep problems during the study period. For both sexes, those with greater increases in peer victimization over time were more likely to change from being a good sleeper to a poor sleeper. The effects of peer victimization on baseline status of sleep problems, however, was only significant for males, with those exposed to higher levels of peer victimization more likely to be poor sleepers at baseline. Our findings reveal an important role of peer victimization in predicting transitions in patterns of sleep problems. Intervention programs aimed at decreasing peer victimization may help reduce the development and escalation of sleep problems among adolescents, especially in males. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Social, Behavioral, and Emotional Correlates of Bullying and Victimization in a School-Based Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmaryami, Farrah N; Frick, Paul J; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Kahn, Rachel E; Crapanzano, Annie M; Terranova, Andrew M

    2016-02-01

    Bullying is a prevalent problem in schools that is associated with a number of negative outcomes for both the child who bullies and his or her victims. In a community sample of 284 ethnically diverse school-children (54.2 % girls) between the ages of 9 and 14 years (M = 11.28, SD = 1.82), the current study examined whether the level of victimization moderated the association between bullying and several behavioral, social, and emotional characteristics. These characteristics were specifically chosen to integrate research on distinct developmental pathways to conduct problems with research on the characteristics shown by children who bully others. Results indicated that both bullying and victimization were independently associated with conduct problems. However, there was an interaction between bullying and victimization in the prediction of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, such that the association between bullying and CU traits was stronger for those lower on victimization. Further, bullying was positively associated with positive attitudes towards bullying and anger expression and neither of these associations were moderated by the level of victimization. In contrast, bullying was not associated with the child's perceived problems regulating anger, suggesting that children with higher levels of bullying admit to expressing anger but consider this emotional expression as being under their control.

  11. How Competent are Adolescent Bullying Perpetrators and Victims in Mastering Normative Developmental Tasks in Early Adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Veenstra, René; Branje, Susan; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Meeus, Wim H J; Deković, Maja; Koot, Hans M; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2018-01-01

    A substantive body of literature suggests that those involved in bullying as perpetrators but particularly victims are at greater risk for psychological maladjustment. In comparison, relatively little is known about associations between bullying-victimization and perpetration and mastery of early adult tasks in domains including romantic relationships, education, work, financial competence, and conduct. These links were tested using data from two Dutch cohorts (RADAR-young, n = 497, 43% girls; TRAILS, n = 2230, 51% girls) who reported on victimization and perpetration at age 11 (TRAILS) and 13 (RADAR-young) and mastery of developmental tasks in early adulthood. Unadjusted regression analyses suggested for both cohorts that perpetrators were less likely to abide the law and more likely to smoke. Victims in TRAILS were less competent in the domains of education, work, and finances, and more likely to smoke in RADAR-young. Adjusting for childhood demographics and child intelligence and including psychopathology in the prediction models substantially reduced the strength of associations between bullying involvement and later outcomes in both cohorts; although association were retained between victimization and welfare dependence and perpetration and crime involvement in TRAILS. Parental support did not buffer associations in either sample and neither were gender differences detected. Overall, findings underline that negative outcomes of bullying are not only a concern for victims but also for their perpetrators although involvement in bullying is not a stable predictor of mastery of developmental tasks when childhood demographics, child intelligence, and psychopathology are taken into account.

  12. Crime victims in the criminal justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative social reaction and inadequate reaction of the agencies of the formal control on the primary victimization is leading to the so called secondary victimization that can be a source of trauma and frustration as much as the primary victimization. Due to that, relation of the police and the judiciary towards the crime victims is of a great importance regarding victims’ willingness to report the victimization, their confidence in these agencies, and cooperation during clearing up the crime. In order to realize the victim’s position in the criminal justice system, this paper contains an overview of how the police, prosecutor’s office and courts are functioning. The paper is based on the interviews made with the representatives of these state agencies, as well as on the previous knowledge and realized surveys concerning this topic. The aim of the paper is to emphasize the position and the role of the victim support service in the system of the state intervention, based upon the obtained data, as well as to give some basic information on how victims could report the crime, what are their rights and duties, what can they expect from the competent agencies.

  13. Gender Differences in the Path From Sexual Victimization to HIV Risk Behavior Among Homeless Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Taylor; Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Wenzel, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Experiencing sexual victimization prior to becoming homeless is common among homeless youth and is associated with increased HIV risk behavior. This study examined mediating variables that underlie this association, adding to the understanding of gender differences in these paths. Participants were homeless youth in Los Angeles recruited through service access centers who completed a computerized self-administered interview in English or Spanish using an iPad. Findings indicate a high presence of sexual victimization across both genders. Female participants experienced posttraumatic stress disorder and subsequent engagement with exchange sex, whereas male participants were primarily involved in substance use risk pathways. Results indicate paths in the association between sexual victimization and HIV risk behavior differ between male and female homeless youth. Gender-specific, mental-health-informed interventions targeting sexual risk reduction are warranted.

  14. Resilience to bullying victimization: the role of individual, family and peer characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapouna, Maria; Wolke, Dieter

    2013-11-01

    Little research attention has been paid to bullied students who function better than expected and are therefore defined as "resilient". The present longitudinal study aimed to identify individual, family and peer factors that predict fewer than expected levels of depression and delinquency following experiences of bullying victimization. The sample consisted 3,136 adolescents. Self-report data were used to measure bullying victimization at age 13 and 14 and depression and delinquency at age 14. We examined the effects of gender, self-esteem, social alienation, parental conflict, sibling victimization and number of close friends on levels of emotional and behavioral resilience following bullying victimization. The resilience measures were derived by regressing depression and delinquency scores at age 14 on levels of bullying victimization at age 13 and 14, respectively. The adolescents who reported low depression despite frequently experiencing bullying tended to be male, had higher self-esteem, were feeling less socially alienated, were experiencing low levels of conflict with parents and were not victimized by siblings. On the other hand, the adolescents who reported low delinquency despite frequently experiencing bullying tended to be female, had higher self-esteem, were experiencing low levels of conflict with parents, were not victimized by siblings and had less close friends. Relationships with parents and siblings continue to play some role in promoting emotional and behavioral adjustment among victims of bullying and, therefore, interventions are more likely to be successful if they target both the psychosocial skills of adolescents and their relationships with their family. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Violence Victimization, Social Support, and Papanicolaou Smear Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study from Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Heinze, Justin E; Lang, Ian; Mistry, Ritesh; Buu, Anne; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2017-12-01

    African American youth are among those at greatest risk for experiencing violence victimization. Notably, the mortality rate of cervical cancer for African American women is also twice that of white women. To date, we know of no literature using longitudinal data to examine how violence victimization relates to Papanicolaou (Pap) smear results or cervical cancer in this population. Our study examines how violence victimization during adolescence (age 15 to 18) influences psychological distress, perceived social support, heavy substance abuse, and sexual risk behaviors during emerging adulthood (age 20 to 23), and subsequent Pap smear outcomes during young adulthood (age 29 to 32). This study is based on 12 waves of data collected in a longitudinal study of 360 African American women from mid-adolescence (ninth grade, mean age = 14.8 years) to young adulthood (mean age = 32.0 years). We used structural equation modeling analysis to examine the hypothesized model. Violence victimization during adolescence had a direct effect on decreased social support, increased psychological distress, and increased heavy cigarette use during emerging adulthood. Better social support was also associated with fewer sexual partners during emerging adulthood and lower odds of abnormal Pap smear results during young adulthood. The effect of violence victimization on abnormal Pap smear was mediated by social support. Our results show that violence victimization during adolescence has long-term negative effects through multiple pathways that persist into adulthood. Our findings also suggest that social support may help to compensate against other risk factors. Interventions designed to address the perceived support may help victims cope with their experience.

  16. Associations between Cyberbullying and School Bullying Victimization and Suicidal Ideation, Plans and Attempts among Canadian Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Roumeliotis, Paul; Xu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The negative effects of peer aggression on mental health are key issues for public health. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students, and to test whether these relationships were mediated by reports of depression. Methods Data for this study are from the 2011 Eastern Ontario Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, which is a cross-sectional regional school-based survey that was conducted among students in selected Grade 7 to 12 classes (1658 girls, 1341 boys; mean±SD age: 14.3±1.8 years). Results Victims of cyberbullying and school bullying incurred a significantly higher risk of suicidal ideation (cyberbullying: crude odds ratio, 95% confidence interval  = 3.31, 2.16–5.07; school bullying: 3.48, 2.48–4.89), plans (cyberbullying: 2.79, 1.63–4.77; school bullying: 2.76, 2.20–3.45) and attempts (cyberbullying: 1.73, 1.26–2.38; school bullying: 1.64, 1.18–2.27) compared to those who had not encountered such threats. Results were similar when adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, and sedentary activities. Mediation analyses indicated that depression fully mediated the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and each of the outcomes of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. Depression also fully mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and suicide attempts, but partially mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and both suicidal ideation and plans. Conclusion These findings support an association between both cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and risk of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. The mediating role of depression on these links justifies the need for addressing depression among victims of both forms of bullying to prevent the risk of subsequent suicidal behaviours. PMID:25076490

  17. Associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among Canadian schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Sampasa-Kanyinga

    Full Text Available The negative effects of peer aggression on mental health are key issues for public health. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students, and to test whether these relationships were mediated by reports of depression.Data for this study are from the 2011 Eastern Ontario Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, which is a cross-sectional regional school-based survey that was conducted among students in selected Grade 7 to 12 classes (1658 girls, 1341 boys; mean ± SD age: 14.3 ± 1.8 years.Victims of cyberbullying and school bullying incurred a significantly higher risk of suicidal ideation (cyberbullying: crude odds ratio, 95% confidence interval  = 3.31, 2.16-5.07; school bullying: 3.48, 2.48-4.89, plans (cyberbullying: 2.79, 1.63-4.77; school bullying: 2.76, 2.20-3.45 and attempts (cyberbullying: 1.73, 1.26-2.38; school bullying: 1.64, 1.18-2.27 compared to those who had not encountered such threats. Results were similar when adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, and sedentary activities. Mediation analyses indicated that depression fully mediated the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and each of the outcomes of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. Depression also fully mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and suicide attempts, but partially mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and both suicidal ideation and plans.These findings support an association between both cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and risk of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. The mediating role of depression on these links justifies the need for addressing depression among victims of both forms of bullying to prevent the risk of subsequent suicidal behaviours.

  18. Associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among Canadian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Roumeliotis, Paul; Xu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    The negative effects of peer aggression on mental health are key issues for public health. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students, and to test whether these relationships were mediated by reports of depression. Data for this study are from the 2011 Eastern Ontario Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, which is a cross-sectional regional school-based survey that was conducted among students in selected Grade 7 to 12 classes (1658 girls, 1341 boys; mean ± SD age: 14.3 ± 1.8 years). Victims of cyberbullying and school bullying incurred a significantly higher risk of suicidal ideation (cyberbullying: crude odds ratio, 95% confidence interval  = 3.31, 2.16-5.07; school bullying: 3.48, 2.48-4.89), plans (cyberbullying: 2.79, 1.63-4.77; school bullying: 2.76, 2.20-3.45) and attempts (cyberbullying: 1.73, 1.26-2.38; school bullying: 1.64, 1.18-2.27) compared to those who had not encountered such threats. Results were similar when adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, and sedentary activities. Mediation analyses indicated that depression fully mediated the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and each of the outcomes of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. Depression also fully mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and suicide attempts, but partially mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and both suicidal ideation and plans. These findings support an association between both cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and risk of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. The mediating role of depression on these links justifies the need for addressing depression among victims of both forms of bullying to prevent the risk of subsequent suicidal behaviours.

  19. A victim-centered approach to justice? Victim satisfaction effects on third-party punishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromet, Dena M; Okimoto, Tyler G; Wenzel, Michael; Darley, John M

    2012-10-01

    Three studies investigated whether victims' satisfaction with a restorative justice process influenced third-party assignments of punishment. Participants evaluated criminal offenses and victims' reactions to an initial restorative justice conference, and were later asked to indicate their support for additional punishment of the offender. Across the three studies, we found that victim satisfaction (relative to dissatisfaction) attenuates people's desire to seek offender punishment, regardless of offense severity (Study 2) or conflicting reports from a third-party observer (Study 3). This relationship was explained by the informational value of victim satisfaction: Participants inferred that victims felt closure and that offenders experienced value reform, both of which elevated participants' satisfaction with the restorative justice outcome. The informational value communicated by victim satisfaction, and its criminal justice implications, are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Reduction of misclassification rates of obesity by body mass index using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans to improve subsequent prediction of per cent fat mass in a Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, S D; Astrup, A V; Skovgaard, I M

    2011-04-01

    •  Body mass index (BMI) is not accurate in the classification of excess body fat, failing to identify as many as half of individuals with excess per cent fat mass. •  Normal-weight obesity, which goes undiagnosed when BMI is the only measure of adiposity utilized, has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular comorbidities and mortality. •  Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an accurate and relatively inexpensive method for indirect assessment of body composition. •  The formulae developed allow the clinician to utilize information from one baseline DXA scan to calculate a patient's per cent fat mass with a future change in weight, thus allowing the clinician to more accurately determine whether and when an individual patient should be classified as obese and thus be managed appropriately. •  The formulae developed enable the clinician to calculate a patient-specific BMI treatment goal, below which the patient would no longer meet the per cent fat mass criteria for obesity. Recognition is increasing for the errors of body mass index (BMI) in classification of excess body fat. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is accurate to assess body fat mass per cent (%FM), but is underutilized clinically. We examined the prevalence of obesity misclassification by BMI in comparison to body %FM by DXA scanning, and whether there is a time-stable individual relation between the %FM and the BMI in patients scanned several times. We aimed to develop a formula where, based on a single DXA scan, %FM could be predicted following a change in weight, and a patient-specific BMI threshold could be calculated (BMIT ), above which the patient would be obese by %FM criteria. Data were collected from individuals who had a DXA scan as part of a nutritional research study at the University of Copenhagen. BMI incorrectly classified 48/329 (14.6%) of men and 52/589 (8.8%) of women. The majority of men with BMI 25-27 kg m(-2) and women

  1. Cyber Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Sexual Minority College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…

  2. Mental health in violent crime victims: Does sexual orientation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J; McNiel, Dale E; Holley, Sarah R; Shumway, Martha; Boccellari, Alicia

    2012-04-01

    The present study investigates victim sexual orientation in a sample of 641 violent crime victims seeking emergency medical treatment at a public-sector hospital. Victim sexual orientation was examined as it: (a) varies by type of violent crime and demographic characteristics, (b) directly relates to psychological symptoms, and (c) moderates the relationship between victim and crime characteristics (i.e., victim gender, victim trauma history, and type of crime) and psychological symptoms (i.e., symptoms of acute stress, depression, panic, and general anxiety). Results showed that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) victims were more likely to be victims of sexual assault. Heterosexual victims were more likely to be victims of general assault and shootings. LGBT victims demonstrated significantly higher levels of acute stress and general anxiety. Moreover, victim sexual orientation moderated the association of type of crime with experience of panic symptoms. Also, victim sexual orientation moderated the relation of victim trauma history and general anxiety symptoms. Results are discussed in relation to victimization prevalence rates, sexual prejudice theory, and assessment and treatment of violent crime victims.

  3. Predictors and protective factors for adolescent Internet victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Schütt, Nina; Larsen, Helmer Bøving

    2012-01-01

    To examine the rate of Internet victimization in a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 14-17 and to analyze predictors and protective factors for victimization.......To examine the rate of Internet victimization in a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 14-17 and to analyze predictors and protective factors for victimization....

  4. The Dimensionality of Social Victimization: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Jamilia J.; Kim, Eun Sook; Sohn McCormick, Anita L.; Hayes, DeMarquis

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the dimensionality of social victimization and to assess the relation between social victimization and classmate social support in a sample of 260 students. Confirmatory factor analyses yielded four dimensions of peer victimization: overt, verbal social, and nonverbal social victimization and peer…

  5. Anxious solitude and the middle school transition: a diathesis × stress model of peer exclusion and victimization trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Madelynn D; Gazelle, Heidi; Faldowski, Richard A

    2014-05-01

    Consistent with a Diathesis × Stress model, it was hypothesized that anxious solitude (individual vulnerability) and the middle school transition (environmental stress) would jointly predict peer exclusion and victimization trajectories. Youth (N = 688) were followed from 3rd through 7th grade, with the middle school transition in 6th grade. Peer-reported peer exclusion and physical victimization trajectories across the middle school transition were modeled with piecewise growth curves. As expected, anxious solitude predicted elevated exclusion and victimization in both elementary and middle school. Nonetheless, exclusion and victimization declined after the transition on average, and anxious solitary youth versus average youth experienced greater relative declines. The pattern of results suggests that the collective renegotiation of peer relations after the transition, rather than posttransition decline in classroom emotional support, contributed to the posttransition decline in peer mistreatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Persistent versus periodic experiences of social victimization: predictors of adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Lisa H; Underwood, Marion K; Beron, Kurt J; Gentsch, Joanna K; Wharton, Michelle E; Rahdar, Ahrareh

    2009-07-01

    This study examined self-reports of social victimization and parent reports of adjustment for a sample followed from fourth through seventh grades. Different patterns of social victimization experiences were identified; of the 153 students (79 girls) with complete data, 24% reported chronic social victimization, 23% reported transient experiences of social victimization, and 53% reported being socially victimized at no more than one time point. We examined whether students who experienced persistent and periodic social victimization were at greater risk for internalizing problems than nonvictims. Persistently victimized children demonstrated continuously elevated levels of internalizing problems. Children who were not originally victimized by social aggression but became victimized with time did not demonstrate higher levels of internalizing problems than did nonvictims. Findings were mixed for those who escaped social victimization during this period.

  7. Fear of property crime: examining the effects of victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Carrie L; Fox, Kathleen A

    2011-01-01

    Fear of crime research has primarily focused on fear of crime in general or on fear of specific types of violent crimes. This study builds from this line of research by focusing exclusively on the night fear of six types of property crimes, including fear of burglary while away from home, vehicle theft, bicycle theft, property theft, vandalism, and vehicle burglary. This study examines the effects of victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk on fear of property crime. Survey data from college students reveal that victimization and vicarious victimization were not significant predictors of fear of property crime, whereas perceived risk was a consistent and significant predictor of fear of all property crimes.

  8. La victime, acteur de la sécurité ? / The victim, a security actor ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieu François

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available What is the position of the victim in security policy? Only recently has the victim been the object, in France and elsewhere, of considerable attention by the social system, which has taken into account the different aspects of victimization. However, the victim is only partially associated to actions led in this domain, either as a source of data on the state of delinquency through public meetings and victimization surveys, or as an auxiliary to prevention with measure of community and situational prevention.Quelle est la place de la victime dans les politiques de sécurité ? Ce n’est que très récemment que la victime a fait l’objet, en France comma ailleurs, d’une attention plus soutenue de la part du système social, avec le développement d’une meilleure prise en charge des différents aspects de la victimisation. Pour autant, la victime n’est associée que très partiellement aux actions conduites en ce domaine, soit comme source de données sur l’état de la délinquance au moyen de réunions publiques et d’enquête de victimation, soit comme auxiliaire de la prévention avec les dispositifs de prévention communautaire et situationnelle.

  9. Drawings by Child Victims of Incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Alayne; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Child victims of incest were judged to have more poorly developed impulse controls, a defensive structure which emphasizes repression, and were significantly more variable in the degree to which they expressed sexual features in the drawings. (Author/CL)

  10. Treatment of Child Victims of Incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatman, Bonny; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Reviews three treatment methods (individual, group, and family therapy) used over a five-year period for child incest victims. Presents common themes, issues, and pitfalls that arose during therapy. Stresses potential benefits of psychotherapy to this population. (Author)

  11. Physical and relational bullying and victimization: Differential relations with adolescent dating and sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Andrew V; Marini, Zopito A; Volk, Anthony A; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2017-04-01

    Taking an evolutionary psychological perspective, we investigated whether involvement in bullying as a perpetrator or victim was more likely if adolescents reported having more dating and sexual partners than their peers, an indication of greater engagement in competition for mates. A total of 334 adolescents (173 boys, 160 girls) between the ages of 12 and 16 years (M = 13.6, SD = 1.3), recruited from community youth organizations, completed self-report measures of physical and relational bullying and victimization, as well as dating and sexual behavior. As predicted, pure physical bullying was positively associated with the number of dating and sexual partners, primarily for adolescent boys. Adolescent girls with more dating partners had greater odds of being relational bully-victims, in line with predictions. Finally, adolescent girls with more sexual partners were at greater risk of being physically victimized by peers, and greater involvement with dating and sexual partners was associated with higher odds of being a physical bully-victim. Results are discussed with respect to evolutionary theory and research in which adolescent boys may display strength and athleticism through physical bullying to facilitate intersexual selection, whereas relational bullying may be employed as a strategy to engage in intrasexual competition with rivals for mates. Aggr. Behav. 43:111-122, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Peer socialization of masculinity and femininity: differential effects of overt and relational forms of peer victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing Lee, Elizabeth A; Troop-Gordon, Wendy

    2011-06-01

    Although peer influence has been implicated in recent theories of gender socialization, few investigations have tested whether children's gendered behaviours change over time as a function of peer experiences and whether some peer experiences may exacerbate, rather than dampen, gender non-conformity. Accordingly, the current study examined prospective links between specific forms of peer victimization and children's adherence to traditional gender roles. Peer reports of victimization and self-reports of engagement in stereotypically masculine and feminine activities were collected from 199 children (104 girls; 95 boys) in the Fall and Spring of their fifth-grade year. Multi-group path analysis was used to explore the relations between forms of victimization and masculinity and femininity for girls and boys. For girls, peer victimization predicted withdrawal from both feminine and masculine behaviours. For boys, physical, verbal, and general victimization predicted lower levels of feminine behaviours, but social exclusion forecast heightened engagement in traditionally feminine activities. These findings underscore how social experiences can amplify, as well as reduce, gender non-conformity.

  13. Longitudinal associations between submissive/nonassertive social behavior and different types of peer victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Claire L; Boulton, Michael J

    2006-06-01

    Previous research, primarily in North America, has found that submissive and nonassertive behaviors are associated with peer victimization during childhood. A limitation of this work has been the failure to examine the relationships between such behaviors and different types of peer victimization. To overcome this weakness, we developed an inventory to assess the bidirectional longitudinal associations between three different types of victimization and submissive/nonassertive social behavior. The inventory was completed by 449 children aged 9 to 11 years at two time points over the course of an academic year. The inventory generated self-report scores and peer nominations. A robust finding was that submissive/nonassertive social behavior predicted an increase in social exclusion only. In examining the other direction of the relationship, we found that only social exclusion predicted changes in submissive/nonassertive social behavior over time. The findings advance our understanding of the social skills deficits that put children at risk for peer victimization, and of the implications of victimization for the development of submissive/nonassertive social skills problems.

  14. Latent Class Analysis of Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration and Victimization among Latino Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grest, Carolina Villamil; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Gilreath, Tamika; Unger, Jennifer B

    2018-03-01

    While there are known developmental consequences and correlates of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization, research focused on bidirectional and multiple forms of partner violence among Latino emerging adults is needed. This longitudinal study identified latent classes of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization patterns among emerging adult Latinos (N = 1060; 60.6% female). A second aim examined acculturation and cumulative substance use correlates in high school, as predictors of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization classes in emerging adulthood. Average age of participants was 15.5 years in 10th grade and 22.7 years in emerging adulthood. We identified four distinct subgroups of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization, with 22% of individuals identified in a violence perpetration and victimization subgroup. Cumulative heavy episodic drinking and marijuana use in high school predicted belonging to the psychological bidirectional intimate partner violence group rather than the group with no violence. Cumulative marijuana use in high school, predicted belonging to the sexual bidirectional partner violence group compared to the no violence group. Our study extends the literature across developmental periods among Latino youth. The findings have implications for early adolescent prevention strategies and promotion of healthy intimate relationships.

  15. Demographic, Psychological, and School Environment Correlates of Bullying Victimization and School Hassles in Rural Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R. Smokowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about bullying in rural areas. The participants in this study included 3,610 racially diverse youth (average age = 12.8 from 28 rural schools who completed the School Success Profile-Plus. Binary logistic regression models were created to predict bullying victimization in the past 12 months, and ordered logistic regression was used to predict school hassles in the past 12 months. Overall, 22.71% of the sample experienced bullying victimization and school victimization rates ranged from 11% to 38%. Risk factors for bullying victimization included younger students and students experiencing depression and anxiety. Being female, Hispanic/Latino or African American, was associated with lower bullying victimization. Thirty-nine percent of the sample reported a high level of school hassles. Younger students and students with higher levels of anxiety and depression were at increased risk for school hassles. Students from larger schools reported high levels of school hassles, while students from schools with more teachers with advanced degrees reported fewer school hassles.

  16. Decreases in the Proportion of Bullying Victims in the Classroom: Effects on the Adjustment of Remaining Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garandeau, Claire F.; Lee, Ihno A.; Salmivalli, Christina

    2018-01-01

    Sharing a classroom environment with other victimized peers has been shown to mitigate the adverse effects of peer victimization on children's social and psychological adjustment. By extension, this study hypothesized that classroom reductions in the proportion of victims would be harmful for children who remain victimized. Data were collected at…

  17. Simulating Peer Support for Victims of Cyberbullying

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Zwaan, J.M.; Dignum, M.V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a design for an Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) that empowers victims of cyberbullying by simulating peer support. The anti-cyberbullying buddy helps a child to cope with negative emotions due to a cyberbullying incident and it shows the child how to deal with future incidents of cyberbullying. The buddy interacts with the victim in three stages: first the child communicates her emotional state, next the buddy gathers information about the situation at hand, then the b...

  18. Psychodynamics and treatment of sexual assualt victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuker, E

    1979-10-01

    This paper discusses (1) how my own interest in the treatment of sexual assualt victims developed and how I view the scope of this problem; (2) myths and facts about sexual assault; (3) common reactions of those who work with rape victims; (4) the rape trauma syndrome; (5) an approach to immediate and short-term treatment; and (6) the long-term effects of sexual assault and related treatment issues.

  19. Peer Victimization in British Columbia Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Van Blyderveen, Sherry Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Peer victimization is an issue which has recently received considerable attention from the media, the school system, and academic literature. The present study examines a number of expected correlates, both risk factors and outcomes, of peer victimization through the use of the Adolescent Health Survey - II conducted by the McCreary Centre Society in the province of British Columbia. Approximately 25,800 youth, from grades 7 through 12, from various regions of the province completed the quest...

  20. What is past is prologue: A population-based case-control study of repeat victimization, premature mortality, and homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridemore, William Alex; Berg, Mark T

    2017-04-01

    We examined risk of male premature mortality associated with recent criminal victimization. Prior victimization is among the most consistent predictors of future risk but the explanation of repeat victimization remains elusive. Two general perspectives frame this debate. According to the state-dependence perspective, repeat victimization is forged through intervening processes connecting an initial with a subsequent violent victimization. According to the risk-heterogeneity perspective, this association is spurious because all victimization events for a person result from underlying individual traits. Research on health outcomes and premature mortality provides related, but often overlooked, conceptual assumptions about the co-occurring health burden of preventable injuries and disease. We extend and apply each of these perspectives in the current study to assess the nature and sources of repeat violent victimization. Data were from the Izhevsk (Russia) Family Study, a large-scale population-based case-control study. Cases (n = 1750) were all male deaths aged 25-54 living in Izhevsk between October 2003 and October 2005. Controls (n = 1750) were randomly selected from a city population register. Key independent variables were prior year prevalence of violent, property, and residential victimization. We used logistic regression to estimate mortality odds ratios. Results provided evidence for state dependence. We found that (i) after controlling for indicators of risk heterogeneity men who had been victims of violence (but not property or residential crime) within the past year were 2.6 times more likely than those who had not to die prematurely; and (ii) the only type of death for which risk was higher was homicide. Aggr. Behav. 43:176-189, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Types of aggressive victims in bullying situations at secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Del Moral, Gonzalo; Suárez, Cristian; Villareal, Mª Elena; Musitu Ochoa, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    El artículo está en inglés y en castellano The distinction between subtypes of passive and aggressive victims in studies of bullying has been a cornerstone of research in recent decades. However, some aspects of victimization still need further elaboration, such as the differentiation of subtypes of aggressive victims of bullying, the dynamics of the process of victimization, and the perceptions that participants have of their victimized classmates. The objective of this qualitative resear...

  2. Predicting in-hospital mortality of traffic victims: A comparison between AIS-and ICD-9-CM-related injury severity scales when only ICD-9-CM is reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Belleghem, Griet; Devos, Stefanie; De Wit, Liesbet; Hubloue, Ives; Lauwaert, Door; Pien, Karen; Putman, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Injury severity scores are important in the context of developing European and national goals on traffic safety, health-care benchmarking and improving patient communication. Various severity scores are available and are mostly based on Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) or International Classification of Diseases (ICD). The aim of this paper is to compare the predictive value for in-hospital mortality between the various severity scores if only International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification ICD-9-CM is reported. To estimate severity scores based on the AIS lexicon, ICD-9-CM codes were converted with ICD Programmes for Injury Categorization (ICDPIC) and four AIS-based severity scores were derived: Maximum AIS (MaxAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), New Injury Severity Score (NISS) and Exponential Injury Severity Score (EISS). Based on ICD-9-CM, six severity scores were calculated. Determined by the number of injuries taken into account and the means by which survival risk ratios (SRRs) were calculated, four different approaches were used to calculate the ICD-9-based Injury Severity Scores (ICISS). The Trauma Mortality Prediction Model (TMPM) was calculated with the ICD-9-CM-based model averaged regression coefficients (MARC) for both the single worst injury and multiple injuries. Severity scores were compared via model discrimination and calibration. Model comparisons were performed separately for the severity scores based on the single worst injury and multiple injuries. For ICD-9-based scales, estimation of area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) ranges between 0.94 and 0.96, while AIS-based scales range between 0.72 and 0.76, respectively. The intercept in the calibration plots is not significantly different from 0 for MaxAIS, ICISS and TMPM. When only ICD-9-CM codes are reported, ICD-9-CM-based severity scores perform better than severity scores based on the conversion to AIS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  3. Victims and contemporary tendencies in crime control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soković Snežana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Victimological dimension of new criminality forms is a specific challenge for contemporary criminal law systems; new time brings new forms of criminality, new victims, but also new ways and opportunities for more efficient protection of victims. At the same time with review and improvement of existing standards of victims` protection, contemporary criminality control systems show strong tendency toward compromising the general position of the victim. Victim’s interests are being instrumentalized because of the justification of changes in criminality control in the direction of significant strengthening of criminal law repression. The crime which is emotionalized with the affective media presentation of the victim justifies stricter penal policy and provides the populist support for repressive criminality control strategies and criminal law expansionism. The aim of the paper is the analysis of the mechanisms of victim “use“ in contemporary criminality control and the examination of its consequences, with special review on domestic circumstances through analysis of the Code on special measures for prevention of crimes against sexual freedom towards juveniles (Marija`s Code.

  4. [The elderly as victims of violent crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlf, E H

    1994-01-01

    Up to now, victimology has only dealt with partial aspects of the situation of the elderly as victims of violent crime. Nevertheless, the Police Crime Statistics enable us to make the following three basic statements: In general, old people are less likely to become victims of violent crime (than young people). The acts of violence committed against the elderly are mainly ones in which there was a relationship between offender and victim before the offense. Elderly women are disproportionately more often victims of purse snatching. The increasing social isolation of old people constitutes not only a specific form of victimization, it probably also increases their susceptibility to become victims. The theory that old people have "a particularly pronounced fear of crime" cannot be generally proven. This question must be considered from differing points of view and depends largely on the individual vulnerability of the old people. In Germany, there has hardly been any empirical study of violence towards the elderly in institutions and in family households (so-called domestic violence). It is believed that more violence takes place in both than in generally assumed.

  5. Schizophrenia—A Victim's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpa, K.

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on my own personal experience of having undergone “coma treatment” and being given approximately 37 coma injections between the period 1983–1993 despite the fact that I was not psychotic and was normal in every way. The experiences I had following the injections and the forcible administration of innumerable antipsychotics and drugs have shaped my perspective of what it is to be a victim of “iatrogenic” psychiatric treatment—iatrogenic because it induced symptoms of schizophrenia or at the least schizoidism in a normal person like me—an inability to think, feel, and reason, over time. I have also with my own eyes seen at least 7 or 8 women who look me (my clones) that has reinforced my belief that the injections split me. The British psychiatrist, Richard David Laing (Encyclopedia Britannica 2004 DVD [DVD]) also theorized that it is the division of the self that leads to the symptoms of schizophrenia such as splitting and fragmentation of the mind. PMID:18775845

  6. Schizophrenia--a victim's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpa, K

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on my own personal experience of having undergone "coma treatment" and being given approximately 37 coma injections between the period 1983-1993 despite the fact that I was not psychotic and was normal in every way. The experiences I had following the injections and the forcible administration of innumerable antipsychotics and drugs have shaped my perspective of what it is to be a victim of "iatrogenic" psychiatric treatment-iatrogenic because it induced symptoms of schizophrenia or at the least schizoidism in a normal person like me-an inability to think, feel, and reason, over time. I have also with my own eyes seen at least 7 or 8 women who look me (my clones) that has reinforced my belief that the injections split me. The British psychiatrist, Richard David Laing (Encyclopedia Britannica 2004 DVD [DVD]) also theorized that it is the division of the self that leads to the symptoms of schizophrenia such as splitting and fragmentation of the mind.

  7. Incendiari e vittime / Arsonists and Victims / Incendiaires et victimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Bisi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Human beings need fire !Contrary to other living beings, mankind could not live without fire so it is quite astonishing to observe that most of the fires which burn on the earth are caused by man.Many fires spread all over the North Mediterranean area, from Portugal to Turkey, during the summer 2007.Human beings and fire: associated to the sacrifice of Titan Prometheus which was meant to be a sort of pattern to be followed by men to honour the gods.Fire is alive like water and air but it is difficult to capture it with the eyes: we can look at it for a long time before we discover that it never looks like itself.Fire has brought about important changes to human life, giving it much more security and comfort.However, the destructive power of fire is a real threat which not only takes many victims and results in wounded, intoxicated and homeless people but its force also wipes out and destroys places recognized as the heritage of mankind.Les hommes ont besoin du feu! Contrairement à tous les autres êtres vivants, les hommes ne pourraient pas vivre comme ils le font sans le feu; d'autre part, le fait que la plupart des feux qui brûlent sur la planète sont causés par l’homme, représente un aspect inquiétant.Pendant l’été 2007, beaucoup d’incendies ont frappé toute la zone du Nord de la Méditerranée, du Portugal à la Turquie. Hommes et feu : un binôme lié à la création du sacrifice du Titan Prométhée et qui aurait ainsi établi le modèle suivi par les hommes afin d'honorer les dieux.Le feu est vivant, comme l’eau et l'air, mais il est insaisissable au regard, c’est à dire que nous pouvons passer beaucoup de temps à le regarder mais il ne sera jamais égal à lui même. L’usage du feu a rendu la vie de l’homme plus sûre et plus confortable et il a modifié, au cours du temps, la face de la terre.Toutefois, la force déstructrice du feu représente une menace réelle qui fait des victimes, des blessés, des intoxiqu

  8. An Examination of the Relationship between Self-Control and Cyber Victimization in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Adem

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Cyber bullying is a new phenomenon which adversely affects young people. Exposure to the cyber bullying can negatively affect the mental health. The aim of this study is to examine the predictive effect of self-control on cyber victimization in adolescents. Research Methods: The study group was composed of 353 Turkish secondary school…

  9. A Meta-Analysis of the Predictors of Cyberbullying Perpetration and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Siying

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies so far have investigated various aspects of cyberbullying. Using meta-analytic approaches, the study was primarily to determine the target factors predicting individuals' perpetration and victimization in cyberbullying. A meta-analysis of 77 studies containing 418 primary effect sizes was conducted to exam the relative magnitude…

  10. Individual and Family Predictors of the Perpetration of Dating Violence and Victimization in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin-Byrd, Kerry; Bierman, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Teen dating violence is a crime of national concern with approximately one-fourth of adolescents reporting victimization of physical, psychological, or sexual dating violence each year. The present study examined how aggressive family dynamics in both childhood and early adolescence predicted the perpetration of dating violence and victimization…

  11. Describing Intimate Partner Stalking over Time: An Effort to Inform Victim-Centered Service Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Lauren Bennett; Cho, Sarah; Botuck, Shelly

    2011-01-01

    Stalking has increasingly been the subject of legislation and research in the past 20 years. Within intimate partner violence, the context where it is most likely to occur, stalking predicts both greater danger and greater distress for the victim. However, research shows that practitioners are often unsure how to address stalking, and that the…

  12. Activity recognition from minimal distinguishing subsequence mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammad; Pao, Hsing-Kuo

    2017-08-01

    Human activity recognition is one of the most important research topics in the era of Internet of Things. To separate different activities given sensory data, we utilize a Minimal Distinguishing Subsequence (MDS) mining approach to efficiently find distinguishing patterns among different activities. We first transform the sensory data into a series of sensor triggering events and operate the MDS mining procedure afterwards. The gap constraints are also considered in the MDS mining. Given the multi-class nature of most activity recognition tasks, we modify the MDS mining approach from a binary case to a multi-class one to fit the need for multiple activity recognition. We also study how to select the best parameter set including the minimal and the maximal support thresholds in finding the MDSs for effective activity recognition. Overall, the prediction accuracy is 86.59% on the van Kasteren dataset which consists of four different activities for recognition.

  13. Predicting Subsequent Myopia in Initially Pilot-Qualified USAFA Cadets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-27

    cadets, 16 wore glasses; ten of the 16 wore glasses for distance and six wore them for reading. Two * cadets wore contact lenses . 3.2 Apparatus The...exist along with the myopia .. " limits. Among other reasons, this is to ensure that as presbyopia develops at a later age, - there is a delayed onset of...and through direct contact as they passed by the experimental room. Detailed descriptive data on the selected cadets is contained in a a

  14. Language experience changes subsequent learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik

    2013-02-01

    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual non-linguistic (nonsense shapes), and auditory non-linguistic (pure tones). The forward and backward probabilities between adjacent elements generated two equally probable and orthogonal perceptual parses of the elements, such that any significant preference at test must be due to either general cognitive biases, or prior language-induced biases. We found that language modulated parsing preferences with the linguistic stimuli only. Intriguingly, these preferences are congruent with the dominant word order patterns of each language, as corroborated by corpus analyses, and are driven by probabilistic preferences. Furthermore, although the Korean individuals had received extensive formal explicit training in English and lived in an English-speaking environment, they exhibited statistical learning biases congruent with their native language. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of statistical sequential learning are implicated in language across the lifespan, and experience with language may affect cognitive processes and later learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Language experience changes subsequent learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual non-linguistic (nonsense shapes), and auditory non-linguistic (pure tones). The forward and backward probabilities between adjacent elements generated two equally probable and orthogonal perceptual parses of the elements, such that any significant preference at test must be due to either general cognitive biases, or prior language-induced biases. We found that language modulated parsing preferences with the linguistic stimuli only. Intriguingly, these preferences are congruent with the dominant word order patterns of each language, as corroborated by corpus analyses, and are driven by probabilistic preferences. Furthermore, although the Korean individuals had received extensive formal explicit training in English and lived in an English-speaking environment, they exhibited statistical learning biases congruent with their native language. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of statistical sequential learning are implicated in language across the lifespan, and experience with language may affect cognitive processes and later learning. PMID:23200510

  16. Blame Attributions of Victims and Perpetrators: Effects of Victim Gender, Perpetrator Gender, and Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Erin E; Kotary, Brandy; Hetz, Maria

    2015-08-11

    Although research has been conducted on rape myth acceptance (RMA) and other factors associated with attribution formation, researchers have not yet determined how the combination of such factors simultaneously affects levels of victim blame and perpetrator blame. The current investigation recruited 221 students from an all-women's college to examine differences in blame attributions across RMA, victim gender, and perpetrator gender, and the relationship between the two parties (i.e., stranger vs. acquaintance). Results suggested that RMA, victim gender, and perpetrator gender account for a significant amount of variance in blame attributions for both victims and perpetrators. In sum, victim blame with female perpetrators was relatively consistent across levels of RMA, but increased substantially for male perpetrators as individuals endorsed higher levels of RMA. Perpetrator blame, however, was highest with male perpetrators when individuals endorsed low levels of RMA and lowest for male perpetrators when individuals endorsed relatively higher levels of RMA. Findings demonstrate the continued influence of RMA on blame attributions for both victims and perpetrators, and the stigma faced by male victims. More research is needed on the differing attributions of male and female victims and perpetrators, as well as differing attributions based on type of relationship. Such research will lead to a better and more thorough understanding of sexual assault and rape. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Determining Police Response to Domestic Violence Victims. The Role of Victim Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzawa, Eve S.; Austin, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study of 110 Detroit (Michigan) domestic assault cases to determine whether victim preference about arrest of the assailant had an impact on police behavior and the recurrence of violence. Finds that mandatory arrest policies reduces police discretion and ignores victim preference. (CFR)

  18. Bystander Involvement in Peer Victimization: The Value of Looking beyond Aggressors and Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Brenda A.; Dempsey, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Peer victimization has been a focus of both research and prevention program development. This construct is typically measured from the victim and aggressor perspectives. However, prevention programming often includes an additional bystander perspective. The present study evaluated whether questions regarding witnessing peer victimization…

  19. Help-Seeking in a National Sample of Victimized Latino Women: The Influence of Victimization Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Schally, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine formal and informal help-seeking responses to interpersonal victimization among a national sample of Latino women. In addition, an examination of help-seeking by victimization type was undertaken. Data came from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas (SALAS) study that obtained help-seeking rates among a victimized…

  20. The impact of peer victimization and psychological symptoms on quality of life in children and adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzuner, Selcuk; Sahin, Sezgin; Durcan, Gizem; Adrovic, Amra; Barut, Kenan; Kilicoglu, Ali Guven; Bilgic, Ayhan; Bahali, Kayhan; Kasapcopur, Ozgur

    2017-06-01

    There is no documentation about the association between peer victimization, psychological status, and quality of life (QOL) in children and adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between peer victimization, psychological symptoms, and QOL in a cohort of children and adolescents with SLE. Forty-one patients (aged 9-18 years) participated in this study. The control group (n = 49) was composed of healthy children and adolescents from local community. Questionnaires were used to evaluate the peer victimization, psychological status, and QOL of children and adolescents with and without SLE. No significant difference was found between the study and control groups for peer victimization, depression, state and trait anxiety, and QOL scores. The peer victimization, depression, anxiety, and self-esteem scores were negatively correlated with psychosocial and total subscale scores of QOL in the study group. According to regression analyses, trait anxiety had a negative predictive effect on the physical health domain scores of QOL, whereas trait anxiety and peer victimization had a negative effect on the psychosocial domain and total scores of QOL in the SLE patients. This study suggests that trait anxiety and peer victimization are risk factors for poor QOL in adolescents with SLE.

  1. Victimization experiences of adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Wan-Yuen; Dunne, Michael P; Marret, Mary J; Fleming, Marylou; Wong, Yut-Lin

    2011-12-01

    There has been little community-based research regarding multiple-type victimization experiences of young people in Asia, and none in Malaysia. This study aimed to estimate prevalence, explore gender differences, as well as describe typical perpetrators and family and social risk factors among Malaysian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey of 1,870 students was conducted in 20 randomly selected secondary schools in Selangor state (mean age: 16 years; 58.8% female). The questionnaire included items on individual, family, and social background and different types of victimization experiences in childhood. Emotional and physical types of victimization were most common. A significant proportion of adolescents (22.1%) were exposed to more than one type, with 3% reporting all four types. Compared with females, males reported more physical, emotional, and sexual victimization. The excess of sexual victimization among boys was due to higher exposure to noncontact events, whereas prevalence of forced intercourse was equal for both genders (3.0%). Although adult male perpetrators predominate, female adults and peers of both genders also contribute substantially. Low quality of parent-child relationships and poor school and neighborhood environments had the strongest associations with victimization. Family structure (parental divorce, presence of step-parent or single parent, or household size), parental drug use, and rural/urban location were not influential in this sample. This study extends the analysis of multiple-type victimization to a Malaysian population. Although some personal, familial, and social factors correlate with those found in western nations, there are cross-cultural differences, especially with regard to the nature of sexual violence based on gender and the influence of family structure. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychotic-like experiences in help-seeking adolescents: Dimensional exploration and association with different forms of bullying victimization - A developmental social psychiatry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catone, Gennaro; Marotta, Roberta; Pisano, Simone; Lennox, Belinda; Carotenuto, Marco; Gritti, Antonella; Pascotto, Antonio; Broome, Matthew R

    2017-12-01

    Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) are common in the general population and increase the risk of psychotic disorders. Adolescents are a high-risk group of this condition. Stressful events, such as bullying, have a role in the onset of PLEs. This study has several aims: (1) to assess PLEs in adolescents seeking help from a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service, (2) to assess the association of PLEs with specific bullying victimization and (3) to assess difference in PLEs and victimizations by sex and age. Participants were help-seeking (HS) adolescents initially screened for PLEs. They completed an assessment including characteristics of PLEs and bullying victimization. We paid particular attention to different kinds of PLEs and victimization. In total, 50 PLE-positive adolescents screened from 324 HS adolescents (15.4%) constituted the sample. Paranoia and verbal bullying were the PLEs and form of victimization most represented, respectively. Verbal bullying was strongly associated with paranoia (odds ratio (OR): 4.40, confidence interval (CI): 2.8-5.9, p bullying with grandiosity. Verbal bullying was also associated with psychotic negative symptoms, but controlling for emotional symptoms and other victimization led to a reduction in the effect. Men were more involved in physical victimization and experienced grandiosity; on the contrary, late adolescents were most involved in social victimization and negative psychotic symptoms Conclusion: PLEs are relevant in HS adolescents. Bullying victimization interacts with the onset of these phenomena. In particular, verbal bullying predicted paranoia onset significantly.

  3. A longitudinal examination of psychological, behavioral, academic, and relationship consequences of dating abuse victimization among a primarily rural sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie Ann; Reyes, Heath Luz McNaughton; Gottfredson, Nisha C; Chang, Ling-Yin; Ennett, Susan T

    2013-12-01

    It is widely held that being victimized by a dating partner during adolescence has negative consequences, yet few longitudinal studies have examined those consequences. This longitudinal study examined the effects of psychological and physical (including sexual) dating abuse victimization on internalizing symptoms, substance use, academic aspirations and grades, and relationships with friends and family. This four-wave longitudinal study (N = 3,328), conducted in two rural North Carolina counties, spanned grades 8 to 12. Random coefficient analyses were used to examine prospective lagged effects of each type of dating abuse on each outcome and to examine sex and grade as moderators of lagged effects. Consequences varied by type of dating abuse experienced and sex. For both boys and girls, psychological victimization predicted increased alcohol use and physical victimization predicted increased cigarette use. For girls, physical victimization predicted increased marijuana use, and psychological victimization predicted increased internalizing symptoms; the latter effect was only marginally significant for boys. Physical victimization marginally predicted decreases in the number of close friends for boys. Neither type of victimization predicted increased family conflict or decreased academic aspirations or grades, nor was there evidence that consequences varied by grade. Although causation cannot be concluded with longitudinal designs, our findings suggest that being victimized by a dating partner may result in detrimental consequences for adolescents. The findings demonstrate the importance of identifying and implementing evidence-based interventions for preventing dating abuse, including efforts to prevent psychological abuse specifically. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Alcohol Policies and Alcohol-Involved Homicide Victimization in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Timothy S; Xuan, Ziming; Coleman, Sharon M; Lira, Marlene C; Hadland, Scott E; Cooper, Susanna E; Heeren, Timothy C; Swahn, Monica H

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between the alcohol policy environment and alcohol involvement in homicide victims in the United States, overall and by sociodemographic groups. To characterize the alcohol policy environment, the presence, efficacy, and degree of implementation of 29 alcohol policies were used to determine Alcohol Policy Scale (APS) scores by state and year. Data about homicide victims from 17 states from 2003 to 2012 were obtained from the National Violent Death Reporting System. APS scores were used as lagged exposure variables in generalized estimating equation logistic regression models to predict the individual-level odds of alcohol involvement (i.e., blood alcohol concentration [BAC] > 0.00% vs. = 0.00% and BAC ≥ 0.08% vs. ≤ 0.079%) among homicide victims. A 10 percentage point increase in APS score (representing a more restrictive policy environment) was associated with reduced odds of alcohol-involved homicide with BAC greater than 0.00% (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.89, 95% CI [0.82, 0.99]) and BAC of 0.08% or more (AOR = 0.91, 95% CI [0.82, 1.02]). In stratified analyses of homicide victims, more restrictive policy environments were significantly protective of alcohol involvement at both BAC levels among those who were female, ages 21-29 years, Hispanic, unmarried, victims of firearm homicides, and victims of homicides related to intimate partner violence. More restrictive alcohol policy environments were associated with reduced odds of alcohol-involved homicide victimization overall and among groups at high risk of homicide. Strengthening alcohol policies is a promising homicide prevention strategy.

  5. Stability, correlates, and time-covarying associations of peer victimization from grade 4 to 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cillessen, Antonius H N; Lansu, Tessa A M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine stability, correlates, and time-covarying associations of peer victimization. The total sample size was 1,206 adolescents (M(age) at initial time point = 9.74 years, SD = .60; 59.5% White, 21.6% African American, 12.9% Hispanic American, 6% Other/Unknown) followed across 9 yearly waves of data collection from elementary school through middle and high school (Grades 4-12). In each year, peer victimization was assessed with peer nominations; externalizing behavior, peer sociability, and school competence were assessed with teacher ratings; and internalizing behavior was assessed with self-reports. High stability of peer victimization was found across the 9 years of the study. Victimization correlated positively with externalizing and internalizing behaviors and negatively with peer sociability and school competence in the elementary school years, whereas only the association with peer sociability remained significant throughout the middle and high school years. Growth curve modeling showed that victimization, as a time-varying predictor across Grades 4 to 12, significantly predicted the level of each outcome measure at the end of the trajectory, and the rate of change leading up to this end point. Gender differences were found for each of the main results. The results of the current study highlight the importance of developing a long-term dynamic view and understanding of the emergence of peer victimization and its related consequences across childhood and adolescence. Although peer victimization is strongly linked to a variety of adjustment problems in elementary school, these associations seem to become weaker in middle and high school.

  6. Victims’ relation towards the offence and victim-offender mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrnčić Jasna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyse relation of victims toward the offence and their readiness for victim-offender mediation (VOM. Aims were analysis of feelings, behaviours and needs of victims regarding the offence, as well as and analysis of readiness of victims for VOM. 17 mediators assessed 41 victims and 42 offenders, participants of 41 VOM by Assessment Visit Check List (Quill, Wynne, 1993. Victims showed strong feelings of bitterness, anger and grievance more frequently than offenders, while offenders showed feeling of guilt more frequently than victims. Victims had higher defensive attitude and self-confidence then offenders. Almost all victims and offenders needed reparation and agreement with the other party. Most of them wanted to know more about the other party in conflict and were opened to contacts with him. The results were discussed in relation to current knowledge. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47011: Kriminal u Srbiji: fenomenologija, rizici i mogućnosti socijalne intervencije

  7. Childhood Victimization, Attachment, Coping, and Substance Use Among Victimized Women on Probation and Parole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishon-Brown, Amanda; Golder, Seana; Renn, Tanya; Winham, Katherine; Higgins, George E; Logan, T K

    2017-06-01

    Justice-involved women report high rates of victimization across their life span, and these experiences contribute to their involvement in the criminal justice (CJ) system. Within this population, research has identified an overlap among victimization and substance use, a high-risk coping mechanism. Furthermore, research indicates attachment style is related to coping and high-risk behaviors. Research is needed to understand the relationship among these mechanisms as they relate to intimate partner violence (IPV). To address this gap, this study investigated the relationship between attachment, coping, childhood victimization, substance use, and IPV among 406 victimized women on probation/parole. Results of 6 multivariate regression analyses were statistically significant, accounting for 8%-13% of the variance in IPV. Particularly, childhood sexual victimization and negative coping were significant in all analyses. Findings provide practitioners, administrators, and policymakers information about the specific needs of justice-involved women.

  8. Child sexual abuse and psychological impairment in victims: results of an online study initiated by victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Gerard A; Mundt, Ingrid A; Ahlers, Christoph J; Bahls, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of children has been a topic of scientific investigation for the past few decades. Research in this area, however, is rarely initiated, conceptualized, and conducted by victims themselves. Apart from possibly having painted a one-sided picture of sexual abuse, this presumed dominance of nonvictims might also have marginalized victims in a research area central to their lives. This study was conducted by a victims interest group as an effort to meet the need to add victims' perspectives to our current understanding of this topic. The online survey focused on investigating victims' psychosocial impairment, which was found to be extensive. Results indicated that an intact social support system facilitates better health, especially when offered early on.

  9. Maternal Psychological Control and Peer Victimization in Early Adolescence: An Application of the Family Relational Schema Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batanova, Milena D.; Loukas, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Guided by the family relational schema model, the current study examined the direct and indirect contributions of maternal psychological control to subsequent relational and overt peer victimization, via early adolescents' conduct problems, fear of negative evaluation, and depressive symptoms. Participants were 499 10- to 14-year-olds (53% female;…

  10. The Fears and Futures of Boy Victims of Sexual Abuse: An Analysis of Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jennifer M

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative analysis of boys' narratives about child sexual abuse revealed several themes, including memories of the abuse, the disclosure and subsequent events, the healing journey, and a meta-theme titled "fear and safety." In this article, boys' (N = 19) experiences related to fear and safety and the healing journey are explored. The narratives provided a unique look at boys' road to recovery, perceptions of counseling, and hopes for their futures. Recommendations for counseling boy victims are discussed.

  11. Bilateral upper limb amputations in victims of high tension electrical injuries: Three case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cajetan Nwadinigwe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral upper limb amputations result in severe disability. High voltage electrical injury is a rare cause of such an outcome and injuries often occur as occupational hazards. We present three case reports of accidental high voltage injuries that occurred in a non-occupational setting. Victims were all initially managed at other centres before referral to our hospital and all subsequently had bilateral upper limb amputations. The high cost of treatment, importance of prevention, and need for rehabilitation are highlighted.

  12. Psychosocial profile of bullies, victims, and bully-victims: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie eLeiner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While adverse conditions in a child’s life do not excuse inappropriate behavior, they may cause emotional and behavioral problems that require treatment as a preventive measure to reduce the likelihood of bullying. We aimed to identify differences in the psychosocial profiles of adolescents who classified themselves as bullies, victims, or bully-victims. We performed a cross-sectional study in which data were collected between January 2009 and January 2010 from seven university-based clinics in a large metropolitan area with a predominantly Mexican-American population. We collected data on physical aggression among adolescents who self-categorized into the following groups: uninvolved, bullies, victims, and bully-victims. We determined the psychosocial profiles of the adolescents based on responses to the Youth Self Report (YSR and parent’s responses to the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. A one-way analysis of variance and multivariate regression analyses were performed to compare the various components of the psychosocial profiles among the groups. Our analysis of the CBCL and the YSR assessments identified differences between the uninvolved group and one or more of the other groups. No significant differences were observed among the bully, victim, and bully-victim groups based on the CBCL. We did find significant differences among those groups based on the YSR, however. Our results suggest that emotional and behavioral problems exist among bullies, victims, and bully-victims. Therefore, treatment should not focus only on the victims of bullying; treatment is equally important for the other groups (bullies and bully-victims. Failure to adequately treat the underlying problems experienced by all three groups of individuals could allow the problems of bullying to continue.

  13. Coping with grief responses among African American family members of homicide victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Tanya L; Osteen, Philip; Frey, Jodi Jacobson; Michalopoulos, Lynn Murphy

    2014-01-01

    Research relevant to coping with grief for African American family members of homicide victims is limited. This retrospective study was conducted to determine the effects of gender, length of time since death, the traumatic impact of experiencing the homicide of a loved one, and the use of coping strategies to current grief reactions of African American family members of homicide victims (N = 44). Multiple regression analysis results suggest that gender and level of traumatic stress, related to posttraumatic stress symptomatology, predict current symptoms of grief. Women reported higher levels of current grief symptoms than men. Family members of homicide victims who reported higher levels of posttraumatic stress symptomology reported higher levels of current grief. Implications for research and recommendations for practitioners are discussed.

  14. Relations between harsh discipline from teachers, perceived teacher support, and bullying victimization among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzon-Librojo, Lorelie Ann; Garabiles, Melissa R; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2017-06-01

    This study examined how the experience of harsh discipline from teachers is related to students' experience of bullying victimization in a Philippine high school. Respondents were 401 first- to fourth-year high school students of an urban public school in the Philippines. Using structural equation modeling, a hypothesized model with direct associations between harsh discipline and bullying victimization, and an indirect path via students' perception of teacher support, was tested. The data adequately fit the model and showed that experiences of harsh teacher discipline predicted higher bullying victimization and students' negative perception of teacher support. There were no significant indirect effects. The findings suggest that school discipline strategies may have repercussions on students' behaviors and relationships, highlighting the teacher's role in modeling and setting norms for acceptable behaviors. Future studies can examine further how teachers' harsh or positive discipline behaviors relate to bullying. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Parental punishment and peer victimization as developmental precursors to physical dating violence involvement among girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Xiong, Shuangyan; Keenan, Kate; Blokland, Arjan; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined harsh punishment and peer victimization as developmental precursors to girls’ involvement in physical dating violence (PDV), and the putative mediating effect of rejection sensitivity. The sample comprised 475 African American and European American participants of the longitudinal Pittsburgh Girls Study who were dating at age 17. About 10% of girls reported significant perpetration and/or victimization of physical aggression in the relationship. Results showed that initial level and escalation in harsh punishment (between 10–13 years) and escalation in peer victimization (10–15 years) predicted PDV involvement, but this relationship was not mediated by rejection sensitivity. The results highlight the need to consider the impact of early experience of different forms of aggression on girls’ risk for PDV involvement. PMID:24591807

  16. Defining and evaluating perceptions of victim blame in antigay hate crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J; Nobles, Matt R; Amacker, Amanda M; Dovoedo, Lisa

    2013-09-01

    Victimology research often hinges on attribution of blame toward victims despite a lack of conceptual agreement on the definition and measure of the construct. Drawing on established blame attribution and intent literature, the present study evaluates psychometric properties of the Perceptions of Victim Blame Scale (PVBS) using mock jury samples in a vignette-based capital murder antigay hate crime context. Factor analyses show support for a three-factor structure with the following perceptions of victim blame subscales: Malice, Recklessness, and Unreliability. All factors displayed expected positive associations with homonegativity and authoritarianism. Likewise, all factors displayed null relations with trait aggression and social desirability. Only the Malice factor predicted sentencing decisions after controlling for crime condition and support for the death penalty. Results are reviewed with respect to blame attribution theory and practical application of a revised PVBS.

  17. Victimization from workplace bullying after a traumatic event: time-lagged relationships with symptoms of posttraumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Hansen, Marianne Bang; Knardahl, Stein; Heir, Trond

    2017-07-01

    This study examined relationships between victimization from bullying and symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTSS) after exposure to a terror attack at the workplace. It was hypothesized that (1) victims of bullying report higher and more stable levels of PTSS over time compared to their non-bullied colleagues and (2) that PTSS provides an increased risk of subsequent victimization from bullying. The hypotheses were tested in a two-wave prospective sample comprising 2337 employees from Norwegian governmental ministries who were exposed to the 2011 Oslo terror attack. The two waves of data collection were conducted 10 and 22 months after the terror attack. Hypothesis 1 was partially supported: victims of bullying reported significantly higher levels of PTSS than non-bullied employees at both measurement points, but bullying was not related to the stability in PTSS over time. In support of hypothesis 2, PTSS at 10 months was significantly associated with an increased risk of feeling victimized by bullying 1 year later. The results indicate that victimization from bullying is associated with elevated levels of PTSS in the aftermath of a workplace terror attack, but that bullying does not have any impact on the long-term development of PTSS. PTSS may be a potential antecedent of bullying. These findings suggest that organizations must give high priority to the psychosocial work environment of traumatized employees to prevent further detrimental health consequences.

  18. Understanding Gender Differences in Rape Victim Blaming: The Power of Social Influence and Just World Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinciotti, Caitlin M; Orcutt, Holly K

    2017-08-01

    Victims of sexual violence are frequently blamed by friends, family, or legal personnel in the aftermath of an attack, with men attributing greater blame on average than women. Victims' experiences of being blamed may generate a vicious cycle in which they are more likely to be blamed in the future. Moreover, just world beliefs (JWB) have been studied extensively as an underlying cognitive mechanism that predicts greater blame. Studies examining the influence of social support on blame have yet to examine the unique role of JWB on these attributions. The current study examined blame attribution of a fictional rape victim who received either positive, negative, or neutral support from friends and family in a sample of 383 undergraduate men and women. Individually, social support and JWB were both significant predictors of blame, and women were more influenced by social support than men; specifically, gender was a more salient predictor of blame toward the positively supported victim, suggesting that positive support received by friends and family may evoke a domino effect of support from other women. Conditional effects revealed that JWB were most influential on blame when responding to the positively supported victim. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  19. Peer victimization in middle childhood impedes adaptive responses to stress: a pathway to depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Rudolph, Karen D; Sugimura, Niwako; Little, Todd D

    2015-01-01

    Although associations between peer victimization in childhood and later psychopathology are well documented, surprisingly little research directly examines pathways accounting for these enduring effects. The present study addresses this issue by examining whether maladaptive responses to peer aggression (less effortful engagement coping and more involuntary responses) mediate associations between peer victimization and later depressive symptoms. Data were collected on 636 children (338 girls, 298 boys; M = 8.94 years, SD = .37) for three consecutive years beginning in 3rd grade. Findings supported the proposition that peer victimization predicts lower levels of effortful engagement coping and higher levels of involuntary engagement and disengagement responses to stress. Moreover, these responses to stress helped to explain the link between 3rd-grade peer victimization and 5th-grade depressive symptoms. No sex differences in these linkages emerged. These findings build on prior theory and research by providing a more nuanced understanding of how and why peer victimization serves as an early risk factor for depressive symptoms.

  20. Nonlinear relationship between income, age and criminal victimization in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sant’Anna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was mainly intended to investigate the effects of the income and age of individuals on their risk of becoming victims of physical assault, theft, robbery and attempted theft or robbery. Specifically, we were looking for evidence for a nonlinear relationship between these variables and victimization risk. Data from a national victimization survey were used to estimate victimization probability models. We found that, except for robbery and physical assault, the relationship between personal income and victimization risk has an inverted-U shape. We also found an inverted U-shape relationship between the age of individuals and victimization risk for the four types of crimes analyzed.

  1. Developing support service for victims of hate crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunn Peter

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the nature and development of Victim Support’s services to victims of hate crime in England and Wales. It provides definitions of hate crime, information about its extent, and considers why services for victims of some forms of hate crime have developed faster than others. It concludes with a summary of points made during a discussion at the 2004 European Forum for Victim Services conference about whether or not services to victims of hate crime should be provided by mainstream victim services or specialist agencies.

  2. The Short-Term Longitudinal and Reciprocal Relations Between Peer Victimization on Facebook and Adolescents' Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frison, Eline; Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Eggermont, Steven

    2016-09-01

    Although studies have shown that depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, and adolescents' online peer victimization are associated, there remain critical gaps in our understanding of these relationships. To address these gaps, the present two-wave panel study (N Time1 = 1840) (1) examines the short-term longitudinal and reciprocal relationships between peer victimization on Facebook, depressive symptoms and life satisfaction during adolescence, and (2) explores the moderating role of adolescents' gender, age, and perceived friend support. Self-report data from 1621 adolescent Facebook users (48 % girls; M Age  = 14.76; SD = 1.41) were used to test our hypotheses. The majority of the sample (92 %) was born in Belgium. Cross-lagged analyses indicated that peer victimization on Facebook marginally predicted decreases in life satisfaction, and life satisfaction predicted decreases in peer victimization on Facebook. However, depressive symptoms were a risk factor for peer victimization on Facebook, rather than an outcome. In addition, support from friends protected adolescents from the harmful outcomes of peer victimization on Facebook. Both theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  3. Are we all in this together?: co-victimization,inclusive social identity and collective action in solidarity with the disadvantaged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subašić, Emina; Schmitt, Michael T; Reynolds, Katherine J

    2011-12-01

    Common experience of injustice can be a potent motivator of collective action and efforts to achieve social change - and of such efforts becoming more widespread. In this research, we propose that the effects of co-victimization on collective action are a function of inclusive social identity. Experiment 1 (N= 61) demonstrated that while presence (compared to absence) of co-victimization positively predicted consumer (i.e., participants) willingness to act collectively in solidarity with sweatshop workers, this effect was mediated by inclusive social identity. In Experiment 2 (N= 120), the salience of inclusive social identity was experimentally manipulated and interacted with co-victimization to predict collective action. When inclusive social identity was salient, co-victimization enhanced collective action, including willingness to pay extra for products made ethically and in support of fair wages for workers. In contrast, collective action was attenuated when co-victimization took place in the absence of inclusive social identity. Implications for understanding when co-victimization is transformed into common fate and political solidarity with the disadvantaged are discussed. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Long-term Psychiatric Impact of Peer Victimization in Adults Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Kimberly L; Schmidt, Louis A; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Van Lieshout, Ryan J

    2016-03-01

    While children born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; peer victimization, no research has examined its effects on mental health in adulthood. ELBW survivors and matched normal birth weight (NBW; >2500 g) controls were part of a prospective, population-based study in Ontario, Canada. Peer victimization before age 16 was self-reported at age 22 to 26 years by using a 10-point measure. Presence of psychiatric disorders was examined at age 22 to 26 years (ELBW n = 142, NBW n = 133) and age 29 to 36 years (ELBW n = 84, NBW n = 90). After adjustment for confounding variables, for each 1-point increase in the peer victimization score, ELBW survivors had increased odds of current depressive (odds ratio [OR] = 1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-2.28), anxiety (OR = 1.36, 95% CI, 1.05-1.76), avoidant (OR = 1.39, 95% CI, 1.08-1.79), antisocial (OR = 1.92, 95% CI, 1.06-2.87), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity (OR = 1.39, 95% CI, 1.06-1.83) problems at age 22 to 26 years. At age 29 to 36 years, peer victimization score predicted increased odds of current panic disorder (OR = 1.69, 95% CI, 1.01-2.83) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OR = 3.56, 95% CI, 1.25-10.09). For NBW controls, peer victimization predicted increased odds of antisocial problems at age 22 to 26 years. ELBW survivorsand NBW participants are vulnerable to the adverse psychiatric effects of childhood peer victimization in adulthood. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Dating violence victimization, dispositional aggression, and nonsuicidal self-injury among psychiatrically hospitalized male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Christie J; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Swenson, Lance; Hower, Heather M; Wolff, Jennifer; Spirito, Anthony

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to characterize the association between dating violence victimization and dispositional aggression in predicting nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among psychiatrically hospitalized male and female adolescents. One hundred fifty-five adolescents (ages 13-17) and their parents completed the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children clinical interview to assess NSSI and child abuse; adolescents completed self-report measures of aggression and dating violence victimization (verbal, physical, and sexual). Dating violence victimization and NSSI were found to be highly prevalent among both males and females in this psychiatric inpatient sample. Two moderational models were supported, wherein dating violence was associated with NSSI in the context of elevated trait anger in males and indirect aggression in females. Findings suggest that helping victims of dating violence acquire skills to address certain forms of dispositional aggression may attenuate NSSI. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  6. Adolescents Transitioning to High School: Sex Differences in Bullying Victimization Associated With Depressive Symptoms, Suicide Ideation, and Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan G; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Wornell, Cory; Finnegan, Heather

    2017-12-01

    Adolescents transitioning to high school may be at greater risk of depression and suicide if they are victims of bullying behavior. This study explored sex differences in bullying victimization (physical, verbal/social, and cyberbullying) and the impact on depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors in ninth-grade students ( N = 233). Females reported significantly more verbal/social and cyberbullying than male students. There were no significant sex differences in physical bullying; male students who reported physical bullying victimization were more likely to experience depressive symptoms. Verbal/social bullying predicted depressive symptoms in males and females. Females who reported being victims of cyberbullying were more likely to report depressive symptoms, suicide ideation, and suicide attempts. Eighteen students reported suicide attempts, and each also experienced verbal/social bullying. School nurses are positioned to reach out to transitioning students, screen for mental health issues, provide a safe place to talk about bullying experiences, and promote positive mental health.

  7. Childhood sexual victimization, pedophilic interest, and sexual recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Kevin L; Hermann, Chantal A; Renee Malcom, J; Lavoie, Kayla

    2013-09-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine the extent to which child sexual abuse (CSA) and particular characteristics of CSA are associated with pedophilic interest and sexual recidivism. Subjects were 462 adult male sexual offenders who had been incarcerated in Canadian federal prisons. Compared to sexual offenders who had not been sexually abused, those who had been sexually abused before age 16 sexually offended against significantly younger victims and had significantly more indicators of pedophilic interest. This was the case whether we examined self-reported or officially documented CSA. Offenders who had been sexually abused exclusively by a male had significantly more indicators of pedophilic interest than those who had been sexually abused exclusively by a female. These findings are consistent with past research and theory suggesting that CSA may play a role in pedophilia and sexual offending against children. CSA exclusively by a female abuser predicted higher rates of sexual recidivism than abuse by a male or both a male and female abuser. Among offenders with victims 15 years old or younger, a closer relationship between offender and abuser predicted higher rates of sexual recidivism. The relationship between CSA and sexual recidivism was significantly moderated by actuarial risk. More specifically, CSA predicted higher rates of sexual recidivism among higher risk offenders, but CSA did not predict sexual recidivism among lower risk offenders. This novel finding raises the possibility that CSA may play a role in sexual recidivism for some offenders. If future research replicates this CSA by risk interaction and identifies the constructs and processes involved, CSA may be worth considering in risk assessment and treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Transforming Care for Victims of Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatright, Anne C

    2017-06-01

    In this month's Magnet® Perspectives column, Anne Boatright, MSN, RN, SANE, describes her efforts to develop a comprehensive forensic nursing program at Methodist Hospital in Omaha. Ms Boatright transformed a sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) program into one that provides 24/7 coverage at Methodist's 2 SANE locations and cares not only for victims of sexual assault but also for the victims domestic violence, sex trafficking, strangulation, elder abuse, and neglect. Her work extends beyond the walls of Methodist to the community, where she serves as a core member of the Nebraska Human Trafficking Task Force. She works collaboratively with the Federal Bureau of Investigation and helped Nebraska state senators draft legislation to create a sexual assault payment program. In recognition of her determination to make a difference for victims of violence, she received the 2016 National Magnet Nurse of the Year Award for Transformational Leadership.

  9. Patterns of Dating Violence Victimization and Perpetration among Latino Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T

    2017-08-01

    Theory and research suggest that there may be significant heterogeneity in the development, manifestation, and consequences of adolescent dating violence that is not yet well understood. The current study contributed to our understanding of this heterogeneity by identifying distinct patterns of involvement in psychological, physical, and sexual dating violence victimization and perpetration in a sample of Latino youth (n = 201; M = 13.87 years; 42% male), a group that is understudied, growing, and at high risk for involvement in dating violence. Among both boys and girls, latent class analyses identified a three-class solution wherein the largest class demonstrated a low probability of involvement in dating violence across all indices ("uninvolved"; 56% of boys, 64% of girls) and the smallest class demonstrated high probability of involvement in all forms of dating violence except for sexual perpetration among girls and physical perpetration among boys ("multiform aggressive victims"; 10% of boys, 11% of girls). A third class of "psychologically aggressive victims" was identified for which there was a high probability of engaging and experiencing psychological dating violence, but low likelihood of involvement in physical or sexual dating violence (34% of boys, 24% of girls). Cultural (parent acculturation, acculturation conflict), family (conflict and cohesion) and individual (normative beliefs, conflict resolution skills, self-control) risk and protective factors were associated with class membership. Membership in the multiform vs. the uninvolved class was concurrently associated with emotional distress among girls and predicted emotional distress longitudinally among boys. The results contribute to understanding heterogeneity in patterns of involvement in dating violence among Latino youth that may reflect distinct etiological processes.

  10. Evaluation of a Victim-Centered, Trauma-Informed Victim Notification Protocol for Untested Sexual Assault Kits (SAKs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca; Shaw, Jessica; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina

    2018-03-01

    Throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing, which raises complex issues regarding how victims ought to be notified about what happened to their kits. In this project, we evaluated a victim-centered, trauma-informed victim notification protocol that was implemented in Detroit, Michigan. Most victims (84%) did not have a strong negative emotional reaction to notification, and most (57%) decided to reengage with the criminal justice system. Victims of nonstranger sexual assaults were less likely to reengage postnotification compared with victims of stranger rape.

  11. Sexually assaulted victims are getting younger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherer, Susanne; Hansen, Steen Holger; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: From the clinical forensic examination reports produced by the Department of Forensic Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in 2007 concerning rape, attempted rape and sexual assault (RAS), circumstances were.......5% were under 30 years of age. 53% knew the perpetrator. More than one perpetrator was reported in 11%. 46% of the assaulted victims had a total number of 1-5 observed lesions and these were observed in all types of perpetrator relationship. Eight victims with more than 20 lesions were assaulted...

  12. Identification of victims in extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talipova, Yu.; Polukhina, O.

    2009-04-01

    Catastrophic natural disasters including tsunami events are increased the frequency in last years. One of very important problems here is the identification of personality of the victims. Due to difficult identification of the dead bodies lied into water for a long time the analysis of tooth-jaw system is proposed to apply because teeth are extremely stable to the destructive actions of environment. The method of identification of the age, sex and race of victims based on the mathematic model of pattern recognition and collected database is described. Some examples from extreme sea wave events are analyzed.

  13. DNA analysis in Disaster Victim Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelius, Kerstin; Lindblom, Bertil

    2012-06-01

    DNA profiling and matching is one of the primary methods to identify missing persons in a disaster, as defined by the Interpol Disaster Victim Identification Guide. The process to identify a victim by DNA includes: the collection of the best possible ante-mortem (AM) samples, the choice of post-mortem (PM) samples, DNA-analysis, matching and statistical weighting of the genetic relationship or match. Each disaster has its own scenario, and each scenario defines its own methods for identification of the deceased.

  14. Sexual Assault Victimization and Mental Health Treatment, Suicide Attempts, and Career Outcomes Among Women in the US Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosellini, Anthony J; Street, Amy E; Ursano, Robert J; Chiu, Wai Tat; Heeringa, Steven G; Monahan, John; Naifeh, James A; Petukhova, Maria V; Reis, Ben Y; Sampson, Nancy A; Bliese, Paul D; Stein, Murray B; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2017-05-01

    To examine associations of administratively recorded sexual assault victimization during military service with subsequent mental health and negative career outcomes among US Army women controlling for nonrandom victimization exposure. We used data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers to apply propensity score methods to match all 4238 female Regular Army soldiers with administratively recorded sexual assault victimization during 2004 to 2009 to 5 controls per case with similar composite victimization risk. We examined associations of this victimization measure with administratively recorded mental health treatment, suicide attempt, and Army career outcomes over the subsequent 12 months by using survival analysis for dichotomous outcomes and conditional generalized linear models for continuous outcomes. Women with administratively recorded sexual assault had significantly elevated odds ratios (ORs) of subsequent mental health treatment (any, OR = 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4, 2.6; specialty, OR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.9, 3.3; inpatient, OR = 2.8; 95% CI = 2.5, 3.1), posttraumatic stress disorder treatment (any, OR = 6.3; 95% CI = 5.7, 6.9; specialty, OR = 7.7; 95% CI = 6.8, 8.6; inpatient, OR = 6.8; 95% CI = 5.4, 8.6), suicide attempt (OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 2.5, 3.6), demotion (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.9, 2.3), and attrition (OR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.1, 1.2). Sexual assault victimization is associated with considerable suffering and likely decreased force readiness.

  15. Bullying and victimization in elementary schools : A comparison of bullies, victims, bully/victims, and uninvolved preadolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, René; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Winter, Andrea F. de; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    Research on bullying and victimization largely rests on univariate analyses and on reports from a single informant. Researchers may thus know too little about the simultaneous effects of various independent and dependent variables, and their research may be biased by shared method variance. The

  16. Identifying victims of violence using register-based data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Sørensen, Jan; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    nationwide registers to identify victims of violence: The National Patient Register, the Victim Statistics, and the Causes of Death Register. We merged these data and assessed the degree of overlap between data sources. We identified a reference population by selecting all individuals in Denmark over 15....... RESULTS: In 2006, 22,000 individuals were registered as having been exposed to violence. About 70% of these victims were men. Most victims were identified from emergency room contacts and police records, and few from the Causes of Death Register. There was some overlap between the two large data sources....... We found significant differences between victims and non-victims according to socio-economic status, education, marital status, and ethnic origin, and also between victims by source of identification. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a study population consisting of individual victims of violence...

  17. Categorization of crime victims: comparing theory and legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifi Besa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the categorization of victims by several victimological schools and to compare that to the categorization in the Criminal Procedure Code of Macedonia (CPC. The first part of this article analyzes different theoretical categories of victims, taking into consideration approaches of representatives of positivist, conservative, radical and critical victimology. A parallel is drawn between theoretical and legislative categorization of victims. Many countries have reformed their criminal legislation providing certain rights to the victim of crime. The second part of the article discusses the categorization of the victims within the CPC of Macedonia. Categorization of the victims is linked to their separate rights guaranteed by law. The article draws certain conclusions and recommendations regarding the categorization of victims and their specific rights. The importance of effective implementation of the guaranteed rights for the victim is especially emphasized.

  18. Peer victimization among children and adolescents with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jeremy S; Kendall, Philip C

    2015-06-01

    This study examined peer victimization among a sample of youth who were seeking treatment at an outpatient anxiety disorders clinic. The study examined the association between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms and looked at whether frequent victimization was more common among youth with Social Phobia (SoP) as compared to youth with other anxiety disorders The study also examined the relation between SoP and peer victimization dimensionally. Participants were 90 youth (47 boys; M age = 11.06 years) and their parents. Results showed that peer victimization was associated with social anxiety symptoms, and relational victimization, in particular, was associated with internalizing problems among youth with anxiety disorders. Negative beliefs about the peer group accounted for some of this relation. Victimization was associated with symptomatology rather than diagnosis. Peer victimization is important to assess and consider in the treatment of anxiety disorders in youth.

  19. A latent class analysis of bullies, victims and aggressive victims in Chinese adolescence: relations with social and school adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Aihui; Liang, Lichan; Yuan, Chunyong; Bian, Yufang

    2014-01-01

    This study used the latent class analysis (LCA) to identify and classify Chinese adolescent children's aggressive behaviors. It was found that (1) Adolescent children could be divided into four categories: general children, aggressive children, victimized children and aggressive victimized children. (2) There were significant gender differences among the aggressive victimized children, the aggressive children and the general children. Specifically, aggressive victimized children and aggressive children had greater probabilities of being boys; victimized children had equal probabilities of being boys or girls. (3) Significant differences in loneliness, depression, anxiety and academic achievement existed among the aggressive victims, the aggressor, the victims and the general children, in which the aggressive victims scored the worst in all questionnaires. (4) As protective factors, peer and teacher supports had important influences on children's aggressive and victimized behaviors. Relative to general children, aggressive victims, aggressive children and victimized children had lower probabilities of receiving peer supports. On the other hand, compared to general children, aggressive victims had lower probabilities of receiving teacher supports; while significant differences in the probability of receiving teacher supports did not exist between aggressive children and victimized children.

  20. A latent class analysis of bullies, victims and aggressive victims in Chinese adolescence: relations with social and school adjustments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihui Shao

    Full Text Available This study used the latent class analysis (LCA to identify and classify Chinese adolescent children's aggressive behaviors. It was found that (1 Adolescent children could be divided into four categories: general children, aggressive children, victimized children and aggressive victimized children. (2 There were significant gender differences among the aggressive victimized children, the aggressive children and the general children. Specifically, aggressive victimized children and aggressive children had greater probabilities of being boys; victimized children had equal probabilities of being boys or girls. (3 Significant differences in loneliness, depression, anxiety and academic achievement existed among the aggressive victims, the aggressor, the victims and the general children, in which the aggressive victims scored the worst in all questionnaires. (4 As protective factors, peer and teacher supports had important influences on children's aggressive and victimized behaviors. Relative to general children, aggressive victims, aggressive children and victimized children had lower probabilities of receiving peer supports. On the other hand, compared to general children, aggressive victims had lower probabilities of receiving teacher supports; while significant differences in the probability of receiving teacher supports did not exist between aggressive children and victimized children.